This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PAGES MISSING WITHIN THE BOOK ONLY
15to68
xiiitoxx
,
DO
LLJ
OU1 60811 >m
Osmania University Library
Call No.
5/
Accession No.
5 (>& ^ X.
Author
Title
&4 3
This book should
last
be returned on or before the date
marked below.
.
AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE ON COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF THREE DIMENSIONS .
.
N.. M. DUNEDIN. Sc. EMERITUS PROFESSOR OP MATHEMATICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OTAOO. T.D.Z.. D.Sc.A.D.AN ELEMENTARY TREATISE on COORDINATE GEOMETRY OF THREE DIMENSIONS BY ROBERT J. LL. FORMERLY LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OK GLASGOW THIKD EDITION LONDON MACMILLAN & CO LTD HEW YORK ST MARTIN'S PRESS 1963 . BELL..
1937 Third Edition 1944 Reprinted 1949. 1918. 1954 t 1956. 1960 1963 MACMILLAN AND COMPANY LIMITED St Martin's Street London also WC2 Bombay Calcutta Madras Melbourne THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 0* CANADA LIMITED Toronto ST MARTIN'S PRESS INC New York .This book is copyright in all countries which are signatories to the Berne Convention First Edition 1910 Second Edition 1912 Reprinted 1914. 1920. 1923. 1926. 1928 1931. 1950. 1969.
At the same time it is hoped that the student of Pure Mathematics may find here a suitable introduction to the larger treatises on the subject and to works on Differential Geometry and the Theory of Surfaces. and the method of Reciprocal Polars.or distanceformulae for oblique axes have been marked with an asterisk. Chapter XL has been devoted to the discussion of the This order of General Equation of the Second Degree.PREFACE THE present elementary textbook embodies the course in Solid Coordinate Geometry which. Tangential Equations. The matter has been arranged chapters contain a first so that the first ten course which includes the properties of conicoids as far as confocals. but it has compensatarrangement ing advantages. the book aims at providing a fairly complete exposition of the properties of the plane. For the student whose interests lie in the direction of Applied Mathematics. the straight line. and may be omitted. It is also intended to furnish him with a book of reference which he may consult when his reading on Applied Mathematics demands a knowledge. . and the conicoids. entails some repetition. for several years. say. The student who has studied the special forms of the equation finds less difficulty and vagueness in dealing with the general. involve the angle. it has been part of my duties as Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Glasgow to give to two classes of students. I have omitted all account of Homogeneous Coordinates. Certain sections of a less and all sections and examples that elementary character. of the properties of curves or of geodesies.
are I am specially indebted to Resal. and have his Thdorie des Surfaces. de Longchamps and Niewenglowski have been obligations to these authors. occasionally consulted. September. GLASGOW.vi PREFACE and have included sections on Ruled Surfaces. has read all the proofs and colleague. 1910. Many of these have been constructed to illustrate particular theorems and others have been selected from university examination papers. J. gratefully acknowledged. My I Arthur. interest have to thank Profs. In teaching the subject constant recourse has been had to the treatises of Smith. It seemed to be more advantageous to make the student acquainted with the new ideas which these sections involve than to exercise him in the application of principles with which his reading in the geometry of two dimensions must have made him to some extent familiar. My whose methods. Some have been taken from the collections of de Longchamps. Frost and Salmon. I tender my cordial thanks to these two gentlemen for their most efficient I desire also to thank Messrs. part of that tedious task M 1 was performed by Mr. to whom the author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness. Jack and Gibson for their kindly and encouragement. Neil verified nearly all the examples . Prof. excellence of their printing work. and Mosnat. MacRobert. Curvilinear Coordinates. given in followed in the have found very suitable for an elementary course. Gibson has read part of the work in manuscript and all the proofs. I work of the last two chapters. Mr. MacLehose for the help. . Thomas M. EOBT. which are probably much greater than I am aware of. Koehler. Asymptotic Lines and Geodesies. and it owes much to his shrewd criticisms and valuable suggestions. The examples are very numerous. and the works of Carnoy. BELL. Those attached to the sections are for the most part easy applications of the theory or results of the section. T.
R. B. It also includes a discussion of the reduction of the general equation of the second degree. which depends only on the formulae for change of axes. June. December. 1912 R PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION IN this edition some corrections have been made and a second Examples and an Appendix have been The Appendix contains notes on several paragraphs. J. One or two sections have been rewritten and additional figures and illustrative examples have been inserted. and which can accordingly be read by the student as a sequel to Chap.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION IN this edition a few alterations have been made. J. procedure. T. VII. 1937. methods of set of Miscellaneous added. T. R. . and generally shorter. chiefly in the earlier part of the book. which indicate alternative.
.
<.  4 4 g 7 8 is U. Point dividing line in given ratio The equation to a surface 10... 1 l 3 5. DIRECTIONCOSINES. 15. Surfaces of revolution   ~  . 2. The angles between two directed The projection of a segment Relation between a segment and lines  15 15 14.. 13. Polar coordinates 7.. 1. 8. . 17.. Relation between areas of a polygon and .. . .CONTENTS CHAPTER I SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES THE EQUATION TO A SURFACE ART.._. Sign of direction of rotation Cylindrical coordinates .... 16.. DIRECTION RATIOS 12. Segments  1 Relations between collinear segments Cartesian coordinates 4.. 13 CHAPTER k II PROJECTIONS.. its projection 15 The projection of a broken line 16 17 its its The angle between two planes Relation between areas of a triangle and projection projection 17 18 18.. . Change of origin 9. The equations to a curve ....... 6.. . 3....... .
.. The equations The line Symmetrical form of equations 42.. .. 36.... .. 26.. 64 . Direction ratios Relation between direction cosines arul directionratios 30 The angle between two lines with given directionratios 30 CHAPTER 1?HE PLANE... 43. 47.* ART.. 49. 46. 40. Distance of a point from a line Directioncosines (axes oblique) 25. 22. The general equation to a plane The plane through three points The distance of a point from a plane bisecting .. 23.. 35. Directioncosines (axes rectangular) lines 19 The angle between two cosines with given direction 22 24 25 24. The angle cosines between two lines with given '"27 28  direction 28. Forms III THE STRAIGHT LINE. 19 definition Direction cosines 19 21.. 41.. THE VOLUME OF A TETRAHEDRON 33. 44.. 50.  38 38 40 40 42 43 47 45. 27. through two given points The direction ratios found from the equations Constants in the equations to a line . The condition that two given lines should be coplanar The shortest distance between two given lines Problems relating to two given nonintersecting The volume of a tetrahedron lines  66 57 61 61.. 29.  63 64 Lines intersecting three given lines 48.. two given 35 The planes planes the angles between 37 to a straight line 39. Relation between areas of a closed curve and its projection 20. 32. 32 33 34 . 38. 37. CONTENTS PAOH 19. The plane and the straight line The intersection of threp planes Lines intersecting two given lines  . of the equation to a plane 34.. 31... . 30.
52. The equation to a cone with a given base EXAMPLES III. PAG* 53. 62.. 76 CHAPTER V yTHE SPHERE CHAPTER / 69. CHAPTER VIT THE CENTRAL CONICOIDS. Formulae of transformation (oblique axes) EXAMPLES I. . Tangents and tangent planes . 99 101 67. which a plane cuts a cone The condition of tangency of a plane and cone The condition that a cone has three mutually perpendicular generators 90 92 92 93 96 63. Formulae of transformation (rectangular axes) Relations between the directioncosines of three mutually perpendicular lines Transformation to examine the section of a given surface by a given plane 68 69 72 75 54 55. 102 102 ..  .CONTENTS xi CHAPTER IV CHANGE 0V AXES ART.. The equation to a central conicoid Diametral planes and conjugate diameters Points of intersection of a line and a conicoid . THK PARABOLOIDS 64.. 65.. VI THE CONE 88 in The equation to a cone The angle between the lines 61. 60. 66.. THE CONE.. .
.........  124 124 125 126 187 CHAPTER THE AXES OF PLANE 85. CONTENTS PA01 68. Circular sections of the hyperboloids 93.. Locus of the midpoints of a system of parallel chordsThe enveloping cone . 74. .  139 140 142 143 144  Umbilics EXAMPLES V. 71. Circular sections of the general central conicoid Circular sections of the paraboloids . 75. Condition that a plane should touch a conicoid 103 104 The polar plane Polar lines Section with a given centre 72. any section of a central conicoid   134 137 of a section of a paraboloid The determination of circular sections   138 138 90. 78. VIII SECTIONS.rii ART.. 81.. 82. Circular sections of the ellipsoid 91.. 88.. . 70... 95. Conjugate diametral planes Diameters Tangent planes Diametral planes 84... The normals EXAMPLES IV. 79. .. 86.. .  105 107 108 108 110 Ill The enveloping The normals cylinder The normals from a given point Conjugate diameters and diametral planes 112 114 119 122 123 Properties of the cone The equation to a paraboloid 80.. CIRCULAR 131 131 * SECTIONS The determination Axes Axes Axes of of axes of a central section of a central conicoid 87. BS. . 76. 73.. Any two circular sections from opposite systems lie on 139 a sphere 92. 94. 89..... 77... . 69.
102. Locus of points of intersection of perpendicular genera 104. 108.... of distribution * 166 167 The central point and parameter 169 172 EXAMPLES VI. 109.. Buled surfaces 148 97. Line meeting conicoid in three points is a generator Conditions that a line should be a generator  iOa 101. 121. The straight lines which meet four given lines  112. The The confocal touching a given plane confocals touching a given line . 120.. 99. The section of a surface by a tangent plane   160 152 152 98. 179 179 180 The parameters of the confocals through a point on a central conicoid 181 . Confocals cut at right angles 119.. 106. The projections of generators  166 ~ is constant <t> Along a generator The systems of generators of the hyperbolic paraboloid 168  161 107. 114. CHAPTER X CONFOCAL CONICOIDS 115. 116. 105. The equation to the conicoid through three given lines 111.CONTENTS CHAPTER IX GENERATING LINES *BT. The equations of confocal conicoids The three confocals through a point Elliptic coordinates 176  176 178 117. System of generators of a hyperboloid   154 155 Generators of same system do not intersect Generators of opposite systems intersect tors  155 166 103.. Properties of a given generator . 118. The equation to a hyperboloid when generators are co ordinate axes 113. Conicoids through three given lines    163 163 163 165 General equation to conicoid through two given lines 110. 96.
124. The normals The to the three confocals through a point 182 183 183 self polar tetrahedron The axes of an enveloping cone 127. 145. The equation The equation The The to an enveloping cone to the conicojd  184 184 186 187 Corresponding points foci of a conicoid foci of 130. 136.A (. 125. 126. 133.  212 212 212 214 149. when there are repeated roots The transformation The centres of (abcfgh)(xyz)* 215 . Conditions for repeated roots 210 The The The principal directions principal directions at right angles principal directions . 134... 193 ^CHAPTER Xl^s THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE 131. 141. 202 203  The locus of the chords with a given midpoint 203 204 139. 201 137. Locus of the poles of a given plane with respect to confocals  181  123. 138. 129. 140. CONTENTS PAQB 122.i +/+* ) 209 146.  144.. The The roots are all real factors of 208 2 (abcfyh)(xyf. Introductory Constants in the equation  196 196 197 198 Points of intersection of line and general conicoid The tangent plane The polar piano The enveloping cone The enveloping cylinder 135.. 147.. The diametral planes The principal planes Condition that discriminating cubic has two zero roots Principal planes Principal planes 204 142.. 151.. 128. 2  206 206 207 when two roots are zero .xiv ART.. an ellipsoid and the paraboloids 189 EXAMPLES VI 1. 150. 132. 148. 143. when one root is zero .
257 257 177.. 249 251 251 252 EXAMPLES IX. The determination The central planes of the centres    216 216 153. Different cases of reduction of general equation 228 231 Invariants EXAMPLES VIII. 162...CONTENTS ART.. Circumscribing conicoids Conicoids through eight given points 173. Equation to a conoid . .. 180. 165.. Constants in the general equation 259 260 261 261 178. . 163. xv PACK 152. The equation when the Conicoids of revolution origin is at a centre   217 219 155161... Conicoids through seven given points ... 1 The cones through the Conicoids with two two conicoids 245 246 248 Conicoids with double contact common plane sections 70.. 172... 169.. The polar planes of a given point with respect to the system 174. XIII SURFACES IN GENERAL Definition of a conoid 176. .. The degree The of a surface Tangents and tangent planes inflexional tangents ... two conicoids SYSTEMS  OF CONICOIDS The quartic curve of intersection of Conicoids with a Conicoids common generator with common generators intersection of .. 154.. Equation to conicoid having double contact with a given conicoid 248 171. XII CONICOIDS. 166.. 168. 238 239 241 167. 253 CHAPTER CONOIDS. 233 CHAPTER THE INTERSECTION OF TWO 164. 175.. 179.
xvi ART.. the principal normal and 289 289 binomial 201. 278 191. The The spherical indicatrices Frenet's formulae signs of the curvature and torsion    288 288 The The radius of curvature directioncosines of 200... 188.... ?. . 291 292 292 298 301 Geometrical investigation of Coordinates in terms of the arc EXAMPLES XI. The radius of torsion Curves in which the tangent makes a constant angle with a given line . 303 .. 197. curvature and torsion  . . 198. Curvature Torsion 284 284 285 285 196. 204. 199. 192. 193. CONTENTS PAGE 181. The equations The tangent The to a curve 275 directioncosines of the tangent ..  275 277 277 The normal plane Contact of a curve and surface 190. 206. surface The indicatrix 185. *  270 * * 271 273 CHAPTER XIV CURVES IN SPACE 186... The equation Singular points =/(..) 262 263 265 266 267 Singular tangent planes The anchorring The wave 184.. 189. 182. 187. The osculating plane 279 282 The principal normal and binorraai 194 195.. 205.. 202. The circle of i curvature The osculating sphere ... 183...  203. Parametric equations EXAMPLES X.
CONTENTS
xvii
CHAPTER XV
ENVELOPES. RULED SURFACES
ART.
PAOK
207. 208.
209.
Envelopes
one parameter
307
Envelope touches each surface of system along a curve
308 309
The edge
Envelopes
of regression
210. 211.
Characteristics touch the edge of regression
...

309
311
two parameters
212.
213.
Envelope touches each surface of system
Developable and skew surfaces The tangent plane to a ruled surface
312
214.
215.
....

313
316
The generators
of a developable are tangents to a curve
316
316 318 320
216.
Envelope of a plane whose equation involves one parameter
Condition for a developable surface
Properties of a skew surface
217.
218.

EXAMPLES XII.
322
CHAPTER XVI
CURVATURE OF SURFACES
219. 220.
221.
222.
Introductory Curvature of normal sections through an elliptic point Curvature of normal sections through a hyperbolic point Curvature of normal sections through a parabolic point 
326
326
327
329
223. 224.
Umbilics
330

225.
226. 227.
The radius
The
Curvature of an oblique section Meunier's theorem of curvature of a given section
principal radii at a point of an ellipsoid

330
331

332
Lines of curvature Lines of curvature on an ellipsoid

333
333

228.
229.
Lines of curvature on a developable surface

33?
230.
The normals
curvature
to
a surface at points of
a
line
of
334

231.
Lines of curvature on a surface of revolution

335
xviii
ART.
CONTENTS
PAGB
232.
Determination
curvature
of
the
principal
radii
and
lines
of
337
233. 234.
235.
Determination of umbilics
Triplyorthogonal systems,
342
Dupin's theorem

344
346 346
347
Curvature at points of a generator of a skew surface
236.
237. 238. 239.
The measure The measure
of curvature
01
curvature
is
l//>j/>2
....

Curvilinear coordinates
Direct ion cosines of the normal to the surface

348
349
24D.
The The
linear element
360
241.
principal radii

and
lines of curvature



350
EXAMPLES XIII.
364
CHAPTER XVII
ASYMPTOTIC LINESGEODESICS
242. 243.
244.
Asymptotic
lines
358
asymptotic
lines
The
differential equation of
Osculating plane of an asymptotic line
...


368 359
245.
Torsion of an asymptotic line
Geodesies
359
246.
247.
Geodesies on a developable surface
248. 249. 250. 251.
The
differential equations of geodesies
Geodesies on a surface of revolution Geodesies on conicoids
.... ....

362 363
363
365
367
The curvature and
Geodesic curvature Geodesic torsion
torsion of a gcouesic
...
369
252.
253.
370 373
EXAMPLES XIV
376
APPENDIX MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES INDEX
i
I
II.
xiii
xxxi
xlv
CHAPTER
I.
SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES. THE EQUATION TO A SURFACE.
Two segments AB and CD are said to 1. Segments. have the same direction when they are col linear or parallel, and when B is on the same side of A as D is of C. If AB and CD have the same direction, BA and CD have opposite If AB and CD are of the same length and in directions. the same direction they are said to be equivalent segments.
2.
If A, B,
line X'OX,
C, ... N, P are any points on a straight and the convention is made that a segment of
the straight line is positive or negative according as its direction is that of OX or OX', then we have the following
relations
:
AB=BA; OAfAB = OB, or AB = OBOA, or OAf AB + BO = 0; OA + ABf BCf... NP = OP.
If
xlt x2 are the measures of OA and OB,
to
ie.
the ratios of
L,
OA and OB
and
any
positive segment of unit length, OA = o? 1 L, OB = #2 L,
then
or the measure of
3.
AB = (tf2 cc^L, AB is #2 x.
Let
Coordinates.
X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ
be
any three
fixed intersecting lines which are not coplanar, and whose positive directions are chosen to be X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ ; and let
planes through any point in space, P, parallel respectively to the planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY, cut X'x, Z 'Z i n Aj Bj (fig. 1), then the position of P is known when the segments
XX
Q
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
OA, OB,
ICH.
OC
struction for
P would be
A,
are given in magnitude and sign. concut off from OX the segment OA,
:
A
draw AN, through draw NP, through
OB,
N, equivalent to the
equivalent to the segment OB, and segment OC. OA.
their measures are
OC
are
known when
these measures are called the Cartesian coordinates of
known, and P
with reference to the coordinate axes X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ. is called the origin and the planes YOZ, ZOX, the coordinate planes. The measure of OA. the XOY, segment cut off from OX or OX' by the plane through P
The point O
V
Fio.
1.
parallel to YOZ, is called the ascoordinate of of OB and OC are the y and ^coordinates,
"
P,
P
;
the measures
and the symbol
(xt y, z) is used to denote, the point P whose coordinates are x, y, z" The coordinate planes divide space into eight parts called octants, and the signs of the coordinates of a
point determine the octant in which it lies. table shews the signs for the eight octants
The following
:
3,4]
SIGN OF DIEECTION OF ROTATION
3
It is generally
"
most convenient to choose mutually
perpendicular lines as coordinate axes.
rectangular," otherwise they are
"
The axes are then
oblique."
:
Ex.
1.
Sketch in a figure the positions of the points (8, 0, 3), (2, 1, 5), (4, 2, 0), (0, 0, 6).
is 3,
(ii)
Ex. 2. What is the locus of the point, (i) whose ^coordinate whose ^coordinate is 2 and whose ycoordinate is 4 ?
Ex.
3.
(i)
and ?/=&?
#=0 and y0
What
is
;
the locus of a point whose coordinates satisfy
(ii)
x~a andy
;
(in)
x=a andy = 6
;
(iv)
zc
= c, (fig. 1), what are the equations to Ex. 4. If OA=a, =6, the planes PNBM, PMCL, PNAL? What equations are satisfied by the coordinates of any point on the line PN ?
OB
OC
Sign of direction of rotation. By assigning positive directions to a system of rectangular axes X'X, Y'Y, Z'Z, we have fixed the positive directions of the normals to the coordinate planes YOZ, ZOX, XOY. Retaining the usual
4.
convention
is
made
of rotation for a ray revolving about
in plane geometry, the positive direction O in the plane XOY
that given by XYX'Y', that is, is counterclockwise, if the clock dial be supposed to coincide with the plane and front in the positive direction of the normal. Hence to fix the
positive direction of rotation for a ray in any plane, we have the rule: if a dock dial is considered to coincide
with the plane and front in
normal
for
to
the
plane,
the
positive direction of the positive direction of rotation
the
a ray revolving in
this
the
plane
is counterclockwise.
the other coordinate planes the Applying positive directions of rotation for the planes YOZ, ZOX
rule
to
i
are seen! to be YZY'Z', ZXZ'X'.
The positive direction of rotation for a plane can also be found by considering that it is the direction in whicn a righthanded gimlet or corkscrew nas to be turned so that it may move forward in the positive direction of the normal to the plane.
A/ plane ABC meets the axes OX, OY, OZ in A, B. C, and the normal from O. If ON is chosen as the positive direction of the normal, and a point P moves round the perimeter of the triangle ABC in the direction ABC, what is the sign of the direction are (i) all positive, (ii) one of rotation of NP when OA, OB,
Ex.
ON
is
OC
negative,
(iii)
two negative,
(iv) all negative
?
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
5.
[CH. t
If x'ox, Y'OY, z'oz, are the perpendicular from any rectangular axes, point P to the plane XOY, the position of P is determined The measures if ON, the angle XON, and NP are known.
Cylindrical coordinates.
and PN
is
of
of these quantities, u, 0, z, are the cylindrical coordinates The positive direction of rotation for the plane XOY P.
has been defined, and the direction of a ray originally coincident with OX, and then turned through the given angle 0, is the positive direction of ON. In the figure,
u, 0, z are all positive. If the Cartesian coordinates of
P are x
t
y, z y those of
N
consider only points in the plane XOY, the Cartesian coordinates of N are x, y, and the polar, u, <f> Therefore
are
x, y, 0.
If
we
6.
Polar coordinates.
Suppose that the position of the
plane OZPN, (fig. 2), has been determined by a given value of 0, then we may define the positive direction of the
normal through O to the plane to be that which makes an angle 0+7T/2 with X'OX. Our convention, ( 4), then fixes the positive direction of rotation for a ray revolving in the plane OZPN. The position of P is evidently determined when, in addition to $, we are given r and 0, the measures
5,6]
CYLINDEICAL AND POLAR COORDINATES
L.ZOP.
P.
5
of
OP and
coordinates of
ray originally plane OZPN through the given angle 0. In the figure, OM is the positive direction of the normal to the plane OZPN,
The quantities r, 0, $ are the polar The positive direction of OP is that of a coincident with OZ and then turned in the
and
If
r, 6,
<f>
are
all positive.
we
and ON
consider P as belonging to the plane OZPN and OZ as rectangular axes in that plane, P has Cartesian
z,
coordinates
u,
and polar coordinates
r, 0.
Therefore
ni
But if P is (x, y, z) x u cos y = u sin Whence # = rsiii0cos0, y = rsin 0siii0,
t
<j>,
<j>.
= rcos0;
x
Cor.
If the axes are rectangular the distance of (x, y, z)
is
from the origin
Ex.
1.
given by *Jx* + y* + z*.
shewing the positions of the points
Draw
figures
(*n>
What
Ex.
2.
3 (
>i>
(
i
i>
V
(**?>
4, 5), (
are the Cartesian coordinates of the points
Find the polar coordinates of the points (3,

2, 1,
2)>
so that r
may
be positive. tan
'),
1
A*.
5V2,
where tan" 1 , tan" 3
Ex.
3.
, >
tan" 1 2 are acute angles.
js
Shew
that the distanc
\/5.
of the point (1, 2, 3)
from the
coordinate axes are Vl3, >/l6,
Ex. 4. Find (i) the Cartesian, (ii) the cylindrical, (iii) the polar equation of the sphere whose centre is the origin and radius 4. 2 2 Ans. M2 = 16, (iii) r=4. (i) ^4/+2 =16, (ii)
Ex. 5. Find (i) the polar, (ii) the cylindrical, (iii) the Cartesian equation of the right circular cone whose vertex is O, axis OZ, and semivertical angle a. 2 2 2 Ana. (iii) a^?/ =e tan a. (i) 0=a, (ii) w=2tana,
Ex. 6. Find (i) the cylindrical, (ii) the Cartesian, (iii) the polar equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is OZ and radius a. 2 2 2 Ana. (iii) r sin 0= a. (ii) a? +y =a (i)
ua,
,
4. (15. Y'OY. . be two sets of parallel axes. OLco/3 in GH and XOY OX. ) referred to the c. 4. 12). second Let o> the first and ( have coordinates q. . 2. Find (i) the polar. b. NM is Y' Fro. and the coordinates of y<Ly\i ZT>Z\\ and the distance is given by Q Ex. y whence Ex. 5). (#2 . #2* *X the axes being rectangular. become x^x^ Change the origin to P. 5). Change of origin. Then therefore OM+o>H. 3. 1. 2 . P A. (x^ ylt z^ and Q. A variable by . Ans. z'oz 7.2. XOY. (tig. B are the points (3. if PA = PB. OY.e COORDINATE GEOMETRY [on. (ii) ?/=. The axes are rectangular and 7). referred . 2. yVy. (ii) PAH PB 2 =2#. axes through The coordinates of (3. (i) < = a.7). a.3. 7. and let any point P . (ii) the Cartesian equation to the plane through OZ which makes an angle a with the plane ZOX.2. z) referred to set. are (5. Find the distance between P. 3). #= Similarly. Find the (i) equations satisfied (hi) PAa PB 2 =2 (i) (ii) (iii) x. y. 3. OZ. 7). referred to the line of intersection of the planes and the plane through P parallel to ficoy cuts /8o>y. Let x'ox. 1. has coordinates a?. ( (1. ( 3.0).rtan a. 7. point z. .*. be (x t y. in KL. y. to parallel Ex. Ex.
and radius A m. 1. R lies Car. R is between P and on the same side of both P and Q.i/ 2 +z*4x+2y + 62+ 12 = right circular cone whose vertex is the point (2. 2. (1. since three parallel planes divide any two straight lines proportionally. and whose semi vertical angle is 45. if negative. 4). the coordinates of the join of \:l. 0. z\ (fig. 0). sphere whose centre is at (1. (0. 0. be the point. (x. 1. 1) Ex. 0). (# 2 . (J. X is positive. Let P. 1. 5. Prove that x2 . point which divides the z2 ) in a given ratio. Find the equation 2. and let planes through in P'. Q. P'R' P'Q' PR PQ X X 1. 4). 8. R. Ex. parallel to the plane YOZ. (x v y lt z^) and Q. If all real values of X Q . (0. y. t/ 2 . These give the coordinates of R for positive or negative. 0). (0. R. Find the centre of the sphere through the four points Ans.8] CHANGE OF ORIGIN 4. 3) and radius 4. represents a To find P. meet OX Q'. 6. R'. 0. Then. Therefore : = : = : + X Similarly. to the sphere whose centre is (0.7. is parallel to / represents a whose axis OY Ex. The midpoint of PQ is . 3). Prove that #2 +/+$ 2 2#t4y6z2==0 2. Ex. 7. 2).
8). 8. Ex.2. Ex. CD A prove Ex. c). a fourth given point being takeri of gravity of the tetrahedra as origin.<0i (a. 13). and that if they be taken for coordinate axes. 5. *4 ) Prove that A'. Q Why can . (27. 3). 2.5. B. 4). 8).6. 1. BB'.a. and verify that this sphere divides AB internally and externally *   in the ratio 2 : 3.2. (3. Ex. The equation to a surface. y 4 . ( ~ . Given that P. Prove that the locus of P is is A by j. Ex. 4. (. 28je 12. Ex. 2:3. Ex. ft. Ex.&i . A point P the sphere given the point (2. Am. . c). . 2. B* (5. A'.AQ:QB1 10. .z =4. ft . uuilinear./ 4. 3) lines are drawn to meet the 8 2 sphere d^+y 4. A'B'C'D'.10) are the ratio be found by considering the ^'coordinates only? . 4. join of 5 Ex. which the sphere #2 4?/2 fj32 = 504 divides the line joining the points (12. 7. R. DAB. . . The sphere #2 + y* + z*2x + 6y+ 14z + 3 =0 meets the line Prove joining A. 3) and B the point (13.2 s + y + z 4. Find the coordinates of the points that divide the 1)./ 3 . . D' jre the centroids of the triangles A. 4. Prove that the points of section lie on the sphere . . (0.4. (a?a # 2 . 2:3. z 2 ) . 4:5. 2:3. triangle BCD.) . 5) in the points P and Q. i. has coordinates that If 6'. A. 11. 6. *3 ) D.c \ ( . ABC. The centres ABCD. find the ratio in which . C'.18*422=0.3. 7:8. 9. 4) Q. the coordinates of the vertices can be written (i & ( '\ (". 2. (Ex. (9. Shew form 6. (2. that the coordinates of any three points can be put 0). 6) divides PR. Find the ratios in that AP:PB. (3.lOe 247 = 0. [CH. Ex. 3 : . coincide. Find the ratios in which the coordinate planes divide the ( line joining the points 8. DD' divide one another in the ratio 3:1. : 2. 2. . 7). 9. COOKDINATE GEOMETRY . Shew that the lines joining the midpoints of opposite edges of a tetrahedron bisect one another. 3. moves so that 3PA = 2PB. the centroid of the are the vertices of a tetrahedron. CC'. 0. (x^. Am.r n y n *. (3. 1 : 2. (. 1. 3. (5. 9.8 Ex.' Ans. . 18). c). and they are divided in the ratio 2:3. (2. 4.5) in the ratios 1 : 3. . in the 5. fe. Arty equation involving one or more of the current coordinates of a variable point represents a surface or system of surfaces which is the locus of the variable point. 1 : 3. C. From the point (1.
Let ^o* P. ?/) = 0. parallel to the plane YOZ. /(0) = 0. /(y) 0.. any point of the curve. . thus the coordinates = 0. if polar coordinates to ZOX. o^. and the equation # = a represents that plane.. This equation is satisfied by the coordinates of all points of the curve in the plane XOY whose twodimensional equation is f(x. a system of planes. /(^) = represents a system of spheres with a common centre at the origin. . a system of planes passing through OZ. .. Therefore the coy) j/ ) P is any point is of the curve. 2/) = Fro. a plane parallel to the plane YOZ. a system of coaxal = right circular cones whose axis is OZ.9] THE EQUATION TO A SURFACE locus of all points is 9 The whose ^coordinates are equal to a constant a. have coordinates 2/o 0 Draw through P any point on it. parallel be taken. (fig.. 5). curve. . and since P is on the of a parallel to OZ. If the equation = has root oc1 oc2 oc3 . But y = 0. XOY. . = an and therefore represents = equations 03 0^. 5. real or imaginary. therefore the locus of the equation the cylinder generated by straight lines drawn ./($) 0. = represent systems of planes = Similarly. . /(^) In the same way. it is equivalent to the ^(#) = a2 . Q j&atisfy the equation f(x ordinates of every point on PQ satisfy the equation and every point on PQ lies on the locus of the equation. and let Q be Then the coordinates of Q are xot y z . Consider now the equation f(x. f(x .
the equation /(#. = (i) ^+^ s=0 . y. OZ through f(z. y) = " and hence " the equations to the curve are f(x. to The equation y y ifc) = XOY. z) = 0. 6. f(y t 2) = 0. The curve is on the cylinder whose equa Two and on the plane whose equation is 2=0. (i) by parallels to OX and OY Ex. 0=0. y) = 0. (ii)# =4ow?. 2 (iii) z Z' Fio. (The surface shewn is represented by the equation Consider now zk represents a plane parallel f(x.10 parallel COORDINATE GEOMETRY to [CH. Ex. points of the curve. Similarly. i. (ii) ^+y = 2 2 . and the equation proved. tion is/(#. *=& . What surfaces are represented by the axes being rectangular ? ^f #2 =a2 . #) = represent cylinders generated respectively. a cylinder represents. as we have just . 2 equations are necessary to determine the curve in the plane XOY. What 2 curves are represented by 2 .
9]
THE EQUATION TO A SUBFACE
11
The equation f(x, y, k) = and z k are at all points where f(x, y z) = simultaneously satisfied, i.e. at all points common to the = plane and the locus of the equation /(, y 2) 0, and hence
generated by lines parallel to OZ.
is satisfied
t t
f(x, y,
/c)
=
OZ
parallel to
represents the cylinder generated by lines which pass through the common points, (fig. 6).
= 0, 2 = /c represent the curve f(x, y, 7c) of section of the cylinder by the plane z = k, which is the curve of section of the locus by the plane z = k. If, now,
The two equations
all real
values from
oo
to
+00 be given
to k, the curve
f(x, y, &)
= 0,
The
surface.
varies continuously and generates a coordinates of every point on this surface
/c,
}
=
= 0, for they satisfy, for some satisfy the equation f(x, y z) value of k, f(x, y, k) = Q, z k\ and any point (x lt y lt zj whose coordinates satisfy f(x, y, z) = lies on the surface,
zly and therefor the coordinates satisfy f(x t y, ^) 0, z fore the point is on one of the curves which generate the
surface.
=
surface,
Hence the equation f(x, y, z) = Q represents a and the surface is the locus of a variable point
satisfy the equation.
whose coordinates
Ex.
1.
Discuss the form of the surface represented
by
The
section
by the
^/a +y /Z> +*Vc =l. plane z= k has equations
2
2
2
2
The
and reduces to a point if &2 =c2 The surface is therefore generated by a variable ellipse whose plane is parallel to XOY and whose centre is on OZ. The ellipse increases from a point in the plane 2= c to the ellipse in the plane XOY which is given by #2 /a 2 f#2/&2 =l, and
.
section is therefore a real ellipse if &2
<c2
,
is
imaginary
if
then decreases to a point in the plane
ellipsoid, (fig. 29).
zc.
The
surface
is
the
Ex. 2. What surfaces are represented to rectangular axes,
(i)
2 2 x*+y*+z = a
,
by the equations,
2
referred
(ii)
^t#
Ex.
3.
Discuss the forms of the surfaces
...
x*
u*
z*
.
....
'
a*
W^+Sf"?"
(i)
v
2
1
("^fcr"
(fig. 30). (fig. 31).
(ii)
The hyperboloid The hyperboloid
of one sheet
of
two sheets
12
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Ex.
4.
[CH.
I.
What
(i)
loci
are represented by
(ii)
(iv)
^1/w. (i)
a system of planes ; (iii) the surface of revolution generated by rotating parallel to the curve in the plane ZOX whose polar equation is/(r, 0)=0 about the zaxis (iv) a cone whose vertex is at (v) a surface generated by circles whose planes pass through OZ and whose dimensions vary aa the planes rotate about OZ (vi) a cylinder whose generators are parallel to OZ, and whose section by the plane 2=0 is the curve
M A
XOY
/(tOp,
/W=0,
$)0,
(iii)
f(r,
0)=0,
*)~0,
(v) /(r,
(vi) f(u,
;
<)=0 ?
system of coaxial right cylinders
(ii)
;
O
;
;
10.
The equations to a
fi(%, y> 3)
= 0, /2
(cc,
y, z)
=
curve. The two equations represent the curve of intervariables, z
section of the
/sC^* y>
two surfaces given by fi(x,y,z) = Q and
If
= 0. %)
we
eliminate one of the
t
Fio.
7.
Fig. 7 shows part of the curve of intersection of the sphere z 2 a and the a a a The o? f y f z =a right circular cylinder x + y' =ax. which projects the curve on the piano #=0 is also shewn. cylinder 2 2 4 2 The projection of the curve Its equation is a (y z Hz =0. on the plane ZOX is the parabola whose equations are y 0,
between the two equations, we obtain an equation. = 0, which represents a cylinder whose generators are If any values of x, y, z satisfy f^x, y,z) = parallel to OZ. and fz (x, y, z) = 0, they satisfy <f>(x, y) = 0, and hence the cylinder passes through the curve of intersection of the
say,
0(#,
7/)
io,n]
surfaces.
SURFACES OF REVOLUTION
If the axes are rectangular
t
13
the
= Q represents <f>(x y) which projects orthogonally the curve of cylinder intersection on the plane XOY, and the equations to the
<f>(x, 2/)
projection are
Ex.
(i)
,r
= 0, = 0.
what
,
1.
2
r
2
=6
H/
,
2
= a2
If the axes are rectangular, 22 6 2 ; (ii) .v2 +?/ 2 2 2 ,
loci
=
+ = a2
2
(
2
>6 )?
2
y*=4az',
are represented by 2 2 2 (in) j? 4y =a ,
Find the equations to the cylinders with generators parallel pass through the curve of intersection of the surfaces represented by a?2 + y2 4 2s 2 = 1 2, x y + z 1  2* 11=0, 2.r2 + 2.rcf 322 2,r22 11 =0,
Ex.
2.
to
OX, OY, OZ, which
.
f
 10 = 0.
Surfaces of revolution. Let P, (0, y zj, (fig. 8), any point on the curve in the plane YOZ whose Cartesian equation is f(y, z) = 0. Then
11.
l ,
be
*i)=o ............................ (i)
The
rotation of the curve about
OZ
of revolution.
As P moves round the
produces a surface surface, zl9 the
0coordinate of P remains unaltered, and u, the distance of P from the zaxis, is always equal to yr Therefore,
by
(1),
f(u> 0)=0.
the cylindrical coordinates of P satisfy the equation But P is any point on the curve, or surface,
and therefore the cylindrical equation to the surface is = Hence the Cartesian equation to the surface /(u, z) 0.
[OH. iv.
CHAPTER
IV.
CHANGE OF AXES.
52 OX, OY, OZ o Oi/, Of are two sets of rectangular axes through a common origin O, and the directioncosines of o Oy, Of, referred to OX, OY, OZ, are 1 19 v n^ 12> 2 7i2 ; ls P, any point, has coordinates x y, z referred to 3 ns
;
m
y
w
,
,
m
,
.
OX, OY,
O2 and
^, 9,
f referred to Of, Oq, Of.
We have
to
.Fio
26.
express
and
cc, y, z in terms of viceversa,
17,
f and the directioncosines,
In the accompanying figure, ON, NM, MP represent f, and OK, KL, LP represent x, y, z. Projecting OP and ON, NM, MP on OX, OY, OZ in turn, we obtain
i;,
=
52, 53]
THREE PERPENDICULAR LINES
KL, LP on
O{f, Otj,
69
And projecting OP and OK, wo obtain
<*
Of
in turn,
(2)
X
n
The equations (1) and (2) can be derived from the above scheme, which may be constructed as follows Affix and to the columns and rows the numbers x, y, z */, in the square common to the column headed x and the row headed place the cosine of the angle between OX and o i.e. l lt and so on. To obtain the value of x, multiply the numbers in the o>colunm by the numbers at the left of their respective rows and add the products; to obtain the value of multiply the numbers in the row by the numbers at the heads of their respective columns, and add
:
;
;
,
the products. Similarly, any other of the equations (1) and (2) may be derived.
Cor.
Since
x,
y, z
are linear functions of
is
>/,
f,
the
degree of
unaltered by transformation from one set of rectangular axes to any other. For it is any evident that the degree cannot be raised. Neither can it
an equation
be lowered, since in changing again to the original axes, it would require to be raised.
53.
Relations between the directioncosines of three
lines.
3
mutually perpendicular
We
2
have
3 2
=
U
y +m m +n n
...... (A)
B
= =o
...... (B)
COO&DlNATE GEOMETRY
From
the second and third equations of
(B),
[cH. t*.
we
derive
m,
each=
w1,
SS
_>/*?+m +
i
tt
g
1 
_
__
j

__,
3
(23,
Therefore,
if
Cor.
1.)
=
1,
m
Similarly,
z,
Multiplying the
respectively,
first
column of equations
"
(E)
by
1
19 1%,
la
and adding, we obtain
'
'
,
TTlj,
7
and
similarly,
m
2
1
+7n 22 +'^ 32 = l,
7i
2
1
+7i 22 +7i32 = l
(c)
Multiplying the second column in the same way,
WljTlj
by n v n 2>
TI
S,
we
obtain
+
7?l 7i 2 2
+ 77l37i3 = 0,
= 0, = ^3^3
^3^3
,
and
similarly,
w^t
^2^+
^1^1 "I" ^2^2 "t"
(D)
and (D) can be derived at once from the consideration that lv I2t ls m v m2 7?i 3 nlt n 2 7i3 are the directioncosines of OX, OY, OZ referred to OJf, O*/, Of. The method adopted shews that the four sets (A), (B), (c), (D) are not independent, and it can be shewn as above, that if either of the two dissimilar sets (A), (B) (c), (D) be given, the other two can be deduced.
(c)
;
The equations
;
,
;
Suppose that a plane LMN (fig. 27) cuts segments of unit length from the axes o
off three positive
Orj,
Of.
Then
if
53]
THEBE PERPENDICULAR LINES
71
the direction of rotation given by LMN is the positive direction of rotation for the plane LMN, the system of axes
o
Oi;,
Of can be brought by
rotation about
O
into coin
cidence with the system OX, OY, OZ. If the direction of rotation is negative, and o Qq are brought to coincide with OX, OY respectively, then Of coincides with OZ'.
FIG. 27.
Now
6. Vol.
OLMN =
Z
2,
m
2,
positive or negative according as the direction of rotation determined by LMN is positive or negative for the plane LMN. Hence if LMN the positive direction of rotation, from equations (E)L gives
D, is
The volume, and
therefore
^=
+ (m2ti3  m37i2), etc.,
the positive sign being taken throughout. the negative direction of rotation,
l
t
If
LMN
gives
=  (mzn3  m37i2
),
etc.,
the negative sign being taken throughout. t? Z 2 2 3 Conversely, if 1 19 lt n^ L,
m
m
,
;
,
m
3,
ns
are the
directioncosines of three mutually perpendicular directed lines O O^, Of, and
then o Oq, Of can be brought coincide with OX, OY, OZ.
say,
by
rotation about
O
to
Ex. Verify the above results by considering O, Orj Of to coincide, with OX', OY', OZ. Here ^=1, 7^=^=0; J2 =rc 2 =0, 7W 2 1; ?3 =7w 3 =0, ?i 3 l. and if O^ be rotated to coincide with OX, Oij ?1 =wi2n3 ~7 3w 2 coincides with OY.
9
,
the line in y/m == z /n the plane ZOf which is at right angles to Of and makes an acute angle with OZ. Take as OZ. xfl Of. it is is fO>. at right angles to O>/ and Of. and therefore is the line plane The of intersection of the given plane and the plane XOY. Then choose Of. OY. are the directioncosines of O*. 28. the new i/axis. at right angles to OZ which lies in the plane fO^.COOKDINATE GEOMETKY 54. are Take as 0*7. to the plane f0*7 is x/l = y/m therefore if X. The given FiO. whence = I 1 m n p. and so that the system Of Otj. ii.. OZ. OZ. the new ccaxis.  See Appendix. Of can be brought to coincidence with OX. Hence Of lies in the plane XOY. The followmethod of transformation can be applied with advantage ing of a given surface by a given plane the origin is to be considered. which passes through * O and makes an the normal to the plane acute angle with Then the equations to Of. IV. p. and n is positive. 1 Section of [CH. v equation . a surface by a given plane. OY. the new axis of z. passing through Let the equation to the plane be lx + my + nz = where section t when the 2 l +m +n 2 2 1. referred to OX. and since Of is at right angles to Of and 09.. .
the ambiguity. by 53 tt . . makes an acute angle with OZ.c represents a cylinder whose generators are parallel to OZ and pass through the = 0.. y) ax + 2/^// 4.fy/ + 2/7. and therefore v is and therefore the negative sign must be taken in . species. f(x> y)=Q.#.y)=0 conic tne curve in which the plane lx+my+ 710 =0 cuts the represent cylinder.b) . at right angles to O>/ the directioncosines of o are since And Hence \\r e have the scheme : X V m In 771 71 Ex.^4.aft) . and the projection of this curve on the plane 3 = is the conic. .2/^ 4. X= o is In mn and Of. /(j?. 1.54] A USEFUL TRANSFORMATION QJ. Change the axes as above.w2)  Whence and > . 73 But positive. and therefore the curve is the conic given by i wnere ^.An( 2 . Shew that the projection of a conic is a conic of the same The equation /(. The equations lx+my+nz=Q. == h __ g . and the equations to the curve become 2 2 = */ 0.
this section 3. ax2 + Wixy + by 2 + 2. (iii) a hyperbola. All plane sections of a surface represented by an equation of the second degree are conies. is given by Ex. iv Ex. (Since rectangular hyperbolas do not. it will. a circular section of 2 n =0.ry + by2 + Zx(gk + u) + Zy(fk + v) + ck 2 + 2wk + rf= 0. and the projection is a z0 The equation to the projection of conic of the same species. 2. The equations parallel to a system of parallel to the sections by the planes =. > which. 5. xyz by fa+my+nz=Q. = '. (a + b)ri* + am 2 + 6^=0.r (git f. section of 2 2 z a3?+by +cz I by or m 2 (ca)=*n to+my=0 is 2 (ab). I 2 (bc)=m2 (ca). after transformation. sections are similar Hence the Ex. ax* f 2/i. in general. Prove that the eccentricity of the section of 2 2 2 (Z + m + w =l). n (ab)=l (bc). Take the coordinate plane z=0 z=K z plane sections.t'2 4% 2 = 22 by Ix+my+nzp should be a rectangular hyperbola. be necessary to examine Ex. etc. in this case. Explain the result when n=0. 8. and similarly situated conies. project into rectangular hyperbolas. 4. z =. Ans.2 f 6y2 hc2 =l by the plane lx+my+nz~p should be (i) a parabola.74 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Find the conditions that the section of the surface 2 ao. Ex. J=0. For a parabola /a+m 2/b + n2/cQ. (ii) an ellipse. of the form The section by the plane XOY is the conic whose equations are by equations of the second degree are the The Ex. (It is sufficient to examine the section by the plane /^4m y4w?=0. method Ex. . are then. or wi=0.) 6. is a similar conic. is obtained by eliminating z between on the plane the equations lx+my + nz=Q> ax 2 + bi/'2 +cz 2 =l. surfaces represented conicoids. prove that (BC)^2D^m+(AC)m2 =0. 54. the equation to the surface is. Find the condition that the section of a. Take coordinate axes so that a plane section is z=0 . by Ex.u) + 2y(ft' + v) + ck'2 + 2wk' + d= 0. the actual section of the surface by the plane lx+my+nz=Q by the of An*. If 7.) l 2 Ans. All parallel plane sections of a conicoid are similar and similarly situated conies.k. Find the conditions that the Ix+my + nz^p should be a circle. 3.
fo can also be deduced from (A) by multiplying in turn by n lt etc. prove that the substitutions give a transformation to another set of rectangular axes in which the =0. 1 2> m 2 . . The equations. 10.(A) (B) where the angles (B) l ls m The equations 0*7 are X. referred to rectangular axes. Shew that if ax*+by* + cz* + 2fyz+2gzx+ Zhxy 4. are pr IrX m ry 7^=0. Prove that if (. 12. m y t z T? r 1 19 in l9 Tij .. OY. Ex. Q. jecting OX. r=l. etc. etc. the expressions a+6fc. R P'. a. as in 52. and o O>/. 3 . are l lt m^ n^ on OX.. 2. Again. and adding. remain unaltered in value. OPQR'= Vol. Ex. v. 3. .(c) 2. are OX. . R'.2 be transformed by change of coordinates from one set of rectangular axes to another with the same origin. Q'. OP'Q'R.Of. z are rectangular. OY. l9 >. . OZ O^. referred to If .. If the axes of #. *55. of three mutually perpendicular planes. Orj. 7i 3. 77i 3.55] EXAMPLES OF PLANE SECTIONS 9. and hence prove that plane #Hy + =0 becomes the plane the section of the surface yz+zx+xy + a*~Q by the plane x+y+z = is a circle of radius \/2 .. y. ?j. Two sets of rectangular axes through a common origin O meet a sphere whose centre is O in P. o oblique axes whose directioncosines. 75 Ex. . Ex. OZ. we then proobtain . nz . from (A). ) is at a distance d from each of them. Of. OY. Prove that Vol. 11. jj. /A. OZ are rectangular axes.
(Use 55 (B) cf. Dz n r r=l. . 61. line of The gnomon of a sundial the dial.78 COOBDINATE GEOMETBY [CH. f and the degree of any equation is unaltered by transformation from rectangular to oblique axes or from of (A) and (c) we can transform to oblique axes and vice versa. 1. ft. and having direction cosines proportional to 2. OC' bisect the angles BOO. 1. OC have directionratios lr m r and OA'. OP PM. AOB. If OA. OPQR = 2* *?2 2 j 1. cos cos v. cos/z cos A 1 . If P. The equation u?2 +4(y2 f z2) 2 is transformed by change from rectangular axes. and hence in this most general case the degree of the jblique to rectangular axes. OB. tj. cc. . BOB'. angular Since x. in the above two steps. the planes AOA'. that the 4. 3. Q. 2. cosv. with the second line is \zo ^ ~. COC' pass through the line . PN makes angles . the new axes being oblique. The transformation from one another can be performed. Shew Bx. Find the equations to the line through (1. /A. set of oblique axes to equation is unaltered by the transformation. x 4.) * 1. r=l.1. through an origin O. COA. 1. I* cos A. 1. in the meridian at an elevation A (equal to the latitude). N/31. 9. N/31.1. 1) which meets its inter both the lines ^ section g"^ 3~ = ^4"' &=*%*/ ( fy a "d shew that zb/ ). Ex. Prove that cosec 2 & = cosec2 o. 4. 3. Examples is I. prove that 3. XOY. By means from rect vice versa. iv. by introducing a set of rectangular axes. and S. Ex.r2 f y'2 +z2 =I. . and the sun is due east at an elevation a. P is a given point and to the planes planes OMN are the perpendiculars from P 6. 2. z are linear functions of Cor. referred to a set of 6. ( R are ( r 7/r . y with the and the (rectangular) coordinate planes. \/3l. . OB'. s/3new equation is . Vol. 2. + cosec 2 /? + cosec 2 v. y. ZOX. Find the angle 6 that the shadow makes with the N. 2.).
Compare the lengths of OP and RQ. 3. m3 OO . 6. OR are edges. or=5. Find the equations to the straight line through the origin which meets at right angles the line whose equations are and find the coordinates of the point of section. 11.os. O ABO and PQ 2 =OR 2 9. iv. EXAMPLES I. W. Find the locus of a straight line which meets and the circle x*+y*==c 2. OB. l 3. OV. then the shortest distances between the lines 4. and the plane is given by lx + my + nz~p. shew that coincides with OS and that OU. Find the coordinates edges. and OV and is the diagonal of the parallelepiped of which of U. 6. 77 Shew that the locus of lines which meet the lines xa_ y___ sin "~ . 7. then if new axes also if is the angle through which the system is rotated. of which OQ. and the lines are the lengths of the edges are if x CLr / CT =ff & r made the edges == L^T r=l. OR. OA. Find the locus of a point which moves so that the ratio of its distances from two given lines is constant. V. 2. If three rectangular axes be rotated about the line A ?=^=v \L referred into new positions. etc. 3. and if are edges. OQ. 9. 2. and the directioncosines of the to the old are l ly m^ n lt etc. OP and RQ are perpendiculars to the plane ABO. 0_l~ 8. . OS are the diagonal of the parallelepiped are formed similarly. OS OU is OW OT OW OT 12.] 5. j of a 2. 5. a. z ^ cos a.OP2 w . is the diagonal of the cube of which OP. If the shortest distances between lines 1. If the figure is rectangular and is taken as origin. 6 are parallel to the lines 1. * lf 7273 "2 n\ n3 is zero. .. 3 are parallel to lines 4. Consider the case where the denominator are edges of a parallelepiped and R is the corner 10. Any three nonintersecting lines can be parallelepiped. 13. opposite to O. so that the distance between the points of y section is *J& + A 2 zk OX . 5.) = 0. PQ has directioncosines proportional to ^~ 1 3^.en. at the same angle is (xy cos OL az sin OL)(XZ sin ay cos a. m"" 1 3m.
iv. y2 f22 =rS' y=0.m. n\ 17.=0 X X 1 1 II ~ Z Z ~~ ~~~ II represents a pair of planes whose 21.3$y . Prove that . feet of the perpendiculars from any lines and the directions of locus of the line joining the point on L 3 to Lj and L 2 . ( . Shew that the lengths intercepted on the axes are given by A and that the coordinates of the vertices are (l. c. 23. circles +% +^ = by the Prove that 2 2 l plane lx+ my+nz=p is + m 2/b* + w 2 2 /<. sides a. A is =a2 2=0 x2 + z 15. L n L 2 L3 are three given straight L t and L2 are at right angles. n). and find the equations to the generating curve. line of intersection is equally 'inclined to the axes. is intersect the line a +^c s =ra . 18..78 14. (length 2c). . . and radius c. parallel to the plane.Zzx . and intersects the ellipse 16. C lie on a given line AB and on given planes shew .m. L(P/<t? 19. and that all such : lines PQ. Lines are drawn to meet two given lines and touch the right circular cylinder whose axis is the s. 24. . Find the equation to diameters of the ellipse the surface generated by the joining lines. COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. z=0. is placed so that the midpoints of the sides are on the axes (rectangular).3^2 = 1 represents a surface of revolution about the line $~y=z. znx. lies AC . t y=0 Find the equation to the surface generated by a straight line parallel to the line which y~mx. 2 2 2 are and B are two points on a given plane and AP. lines lie on a conicoid. plane triangle. . The ends of diameters of the ellipse 2=c. Find the surface generated. A line moves so as to x =0. line at a constant distance which revolves from it and makes 2 2 22. 26. m. 6. A BQ two AP BQ The vertex A of a triangle ABC pass through given points B and that the locus of BC is a conicoid. 2 )* =p(P + w 2 + n?)/abc. Find the surface generated by a straight line about a given straight a given angle with it. The section of aj72 a parabola of latus rectum 2L. Shew that x +y + & . o7 /a f^ /^2=s l are joined to the corresponding ends of the conjugates of parallel #2/a2 +#2/& 2:== l z=c. Find the . =a?. . line is parallel to the plane y 4^=0 and intersects the circles 2 find the surface it generates. Shew that for all lines in given directions at right angles to AB..1. is constant. the locus 20. n\ (I. 25. x=y and the Prove that the equation to .n.
. The axes are rectangular and a point P moves on the fixed plane x/a+y/b+z/c l. B. angles and whose Given two nonintersecting lines whose directions are at right S. y stance. through locus of 36. Through M and a fixed point A. If the axes are rectangular the locus of the centre of a circle of radius a which always intersects them is xJaff^+y Jd* . Find the PQ. Find the equation to a plane which touches each of the circles 2 2 2 How many such #=0. pass through the origin. which 33. planes are drawn. x* +y* = a 2. XOY intersect in Q. Prove that the equation to the two planes inclined at an angle to the aryplane and containing the line #=0. two given . of the midpoint of AB is a curve of the third degree. . Deduce the equation to the line parallel to the plane z=0 the curve x 2y = 4z.] EXAMPLES I. The planes through A. Find the equation to the surface generated by a straight is and intersects the line + x=y=z y and Through a fixed line L. another point of AB. planes are there ? 37. is ) a tan 2 /? + z* . Find the locus of their 34.J* + zja*jc' i/* = a 2 2 .D. is a parameter. Shew that the locus of Q is ^ + ^ + ? = ^"% + ^' 35. it is its equa xJcain. on constant. is which lies in the #ypiane but does not drawn a plane which intersects the planes #=0 and y=0 in lines M and N respectively. iv. 28. AB and CD are AB cuts CD in given P. Shew that the locus of a variable line whicn intersects the given lines and circle is a surface whose sections by planes parallel to the lines are ellipses whose centres lie on AB. 29. ZOX. zcos )8=^sin /3. A line is drawn to meet so that the length intercepted tions may be written in the form yx tana. 6 cota ___ ~~ t ?/ . two of whose asymptotes are parallel to the given lines. and B and pass through the curve Prove that the locus ?/2= . y*+z*=a? #=0. 2= c. Shew that z c . A line moves so as to meet the lines 2 cos a ^_  sin a. zt+xPb* 0=0.k cos B tana z _ /rsini? kcosQ a constant and locus of the line. line of intersection. and through N and another fixed point B. if C. 31. and that the section by the plane through C'. 30. The plane through P perpendicular to OP meets the axes in A. . C' are harmonic conjugates with respect to A and B. and Any plane nonintersecting lines. is a circle. #=0. c where k 32.z* .%zx tan /3 2 2 =*y tan a. ana a circle whose centre C is on AB and plane parallel to the lines. 79 27. C.CH. B. # +# =c . C parallel to YOZ. PQ is normal to it at P. Find the locus of the position of the eye at which nonintersecting lines appear to cut at right angles. is AB.
the lines of intersection of the planes r=l. If the axes are rectangular. cos v) sin A sin ft sin v 2A/z). A A'. ABC of a tetraProve that the midpoints of a^ + bry + crzQ ft.cos'V . Four given points of a /ariable line lie on the faces of a Shew that any other point of the line describes quadrilateral prism. when an infinite number of lines pass through it. DAB. and find the equations to the curve. ?/=(A 3 u).2+//(A 2 42. BB'. locus of the harmonic conjugates of P with respect to the in which any secant through P cuts a pair of planes is the polar of P with respect to the planes. v are the angles between 9 41. v = 0. Find the locus of those which intersect the 2axis. determine a system of lines. 2a 22 2a32)*(l .f  =0. hedron ABCD BCD. Prove that two lines of the system pass through any given point unless the given point lies on a certain curve. 40.y9 z in u. prove that a3 . i also that the polars of P with respect to the pairs of planes that form a trihedral angle cut those planes in three coplanar lines. CC'. 3.80 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. and A. The two points to the polar of (# y l9 z^ with respect to w=0. The equations x=\z + n. DD' are coplanar. etc. CD A. B'. 38. 2.z\ for x. iv. Any line meets the faces in A'. where A and are parameters. is .cosV + 2 cos A cos p. Prove that the equation 39. C'. D'. 63 . . p. a line which is parallel to the edges of the prism. .cos2 A . where Shew is the result of substituting x\ty\.
1.0. 5.0). Ex. 3). is .3. (#2 > y<& &*) ^ s diameter. Find the equation to the sphere through the points (0.Q. 2. to the sphere and radius Ex. 1. 2. 4) A ns. . .2ux + 2vy f 2wz + d = can be written and therefore represents a sphere whose centre / \ u a v w\ a/ a ] i jand radius Ex.66] CHAPTER V. Ans. the square of the distance between the points P. (x2 y 2 z. z^ t and Q. 2.3). (1. + 63^ . (1.2 ) is given by ( 2 ~^ 1 )2 +(?y 2 ~2/ 1 )2 +(^2 ~^)2 and therefore the equation to the sphere whose centre is P and whose radius is of length r. Ex. 3. Equation to a sphere.Sz + 4 = is Ju +v +w 2 z 2 ad a Find the centre and radius of the sphere given by ^+y2 +22_2o?f 4y62=ll. Any equation of the form ax2 +ay 2 4. Am. 4. If the axes are rectangular 56. whose centre is (2. Find the equation 5. Shew that the equation represents the sphere on the join of (x^ y^ ^). . (0.az 2 4. D.0). x l +y* + z* . THE SPHERE. .1X (1. (x v y.4/.2.
Find the equation to the sphere which passes y) and the circle 2=0. 57. (i) (ii) (ii) (1. cosv. the directioncosines of OM are proportional to a^+ojg. (xv y v ^) and 2= 2 2 a2 then (^2> 2/2 ^2) are P oints n the sphere a. a cos a cos i/. cos cos /t A.Xi + 2) ) = 0. /?. a cos a cos /A. 8. 1. 3). a cos v. are f 7 a = &=c=~iLr == COS q ^ COS fJL A = COS V h Prove that the radius is / A\ /t. B. Find the equations to the spheres through the the point Ex. 6. If the axes are oblique. cos/*. find the equation to the sphere r.# )(i + 2 2> + (2/i 2> 2/ 2 )(?/i + y + (^i . w v and A~ 1. * where o_ a. meets Find equations to determine the circumcircle of the axes in A. tt.36* = Ex. 7. Ans. # *Ex. w. 2. . and obtain the coordinates of its centre. C. circle and (i) the origin. Prove that the necessary and sufficient conditions that the equation referred to oblique axes. whose equation is #/a+#/&f2:/c==l. and therefore K . +2/ +^ . whose centre is (jtl9 y n ^). Now #1 the directioncosines of i~" PQ s the #2> 2/i"~2/2> is an d ^ M ^ are proportional to midpoint of PQ and the origin. The plane ABC. a. : A ) / . Q Tangents and tangent planes.27y . a cos A. A 1 w d cos A. point (a. v.I8x . cosv. the triangle ABC. Ans.82 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY 5. CH throvig a i Ex. Ans. If p. 5 (x* +f + z*) . 2(j?9. 2/!+2A>. should represent a sphere. and radius Ans. a. #i+ 2 Therefore PQ is at right angles O ' .
Find the equation to the tangent plane at (xf. B. circle 4. sphere Ans. whose I.120. Ex. a cos <) to the sphere ^2 +y2 +22 = 2 . The equations directioncosines are _ I to the line through O. ^7+2^ + 32 = 3. PQ is a tangent to the sphere at A. Then when M is at A. ra. a sin sin </>. and the to locus of the tangents at A is the plane through A at right angles to OA. </> = .. /3. This plane is the tangent plane at A. Find the equation to the tangent plane at (a cos sin <. y). and touch the plane Ans.58] THE KADICAL PLANE 83 OM. #2 +y2 +. tfcosflsin^f^sin 6 sin <j>+z cos 2. ?/9 sf) to the Ex. on OA. is constant. Ans. n are y m n . OP OQ . Ex. (a.s2 =5. 2 Find the equations to the spheres which pass through the 4#8. 1.13=0. M. y). and hence a tangent at A is at right angles to OA. The equation to the tangent plane at A. (a. is or Ex. // any secant meets a given sphere in P and Q. ^2 +y2 +22 + 2a7 + 4^ + 62ll=0.57. 2 2 Ex. 5. Find the condition that the plane lx + my + nz=p should touch the sphere #2 +# 2 + z2 + lux + 2vy f 2wz + d 0. 3. Radical plane of through a given point O two spheres. Prove that the tangent planes to the spheres o? 2 +3/ +22 +2?^+2^+2w3 if # +y + 22 +2tt1#+2vjy + 2 2 at any common point are at right angles *58. Suppose that OM meets the sphere in A and that PQ moves parallel to itself with its midpoint.
v. with respect to the sphere.) The radical planes of four spheres taken two by two pass through one point. The point on this line. has coordinates oc+ir. ft. (The equations to the line are S 1 = S2 = S3 . represents a system of spheres any two of which have the same radical plane. y+nr.84 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. which the same for secants through O. whose distance from O is r. evidently at right angles centres.w2)z + d^ .ujx + 2(^ . The measure of Definition. to the line joining the The radical planes of three spheres taken two by two pass through one line. 2 l This plane It is called the radical plane of the two spheres.rf2 = 0. The spheres are said to be (Take the line joining the centres radical plane as coaxal. where X is a parameter. .v )y + 2(w . and is hence all OP OQ . the locus of points is whose powers with respect to the spheres are equal given by B! the plane = S2 is . and lies on the sphere F(xyz) if = a(x2 + y*+ z*) + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz +d=0 This equation gives the lengths of OP and OQ. or 2(t^ . If OP. /3+mr. (The point is given by S 1 = S2 = S3 = S4 .) The equation x2 +y 2 +z* + 2\x+d~Q.OQ is the power of O are the equations to two spheres.) Tfte equations to any two spheres can be put in the form as ajaxis and the # = 0. y)/&. is given by F(oc.
 c  x y H h = 2. z 4. B. 2. If the three diagonals of an octahedron intersect at right angles. Shew that the centres of the two spheres of the system which have zeroradius are at the points ( <Jd> 0. Prove that the locus of the to the plane is given by foot of the perpendicular from A O ABC 2. OABC and A. C. B. a sphere coaxal with the Ex. Shew fjL and v are parameters. 7. The locus of points whose powers with respect to two is given spheres are in a constant ratio two given spheres. P is a variable point on a given line Shew that the sphere projections on the axes. /) c. Prove that the locus of the centres of spheres which pass through a given point and touch a given plane is a conicoid. to the faces of the octahedron lie on a sphere. 1. . Shew passes through a fixed point (a. sphere of constant radius r passes through the origin. or do not intersect one another. 5. (These are the Limiting points of the system. .58] EXAMPLES II. where system of spheres passing through the limiting points of the system aP+y*+z*+%Xj:+d=tQ. 5. Shew all great circles that the which cut two given spheres along spheres pass through two fixed points. Ex. 3.b . according Ex. c) and cuts the axes that the locus of the centre of the sphere is OABC a . C are its passes through A plane in A. 4. 85 Ex. Prove that the points where the perpendiculars meet the opposite faces also lie on the sphere. the centre (. C. * Examples II. and cutting every member of that system at right angles. Find the locus of the centres of spheres of constant radius which pass through a given point and touch a given line. 1. a fixed circle.) that the equation a^f^f 2 2 +2uy42i#e?=0. the feet of the perpendiculars from the point of intersection If a. are the measures of the segments of the diagonals.. 7. Prove that the members of the coaxal system intersect one another. Find the locus of the centres of spheres that pass through a given point and intercept a fixed length on a given straight line. touch one another. and cuts the axes (rectangular) in A. 5. of the sphere is given by . " the diagonals being taken as coordinate axes. 0). O. a. B. represents a Ex. 6. 3. 6.
POP' is a variable diameter of the ellipse s=0. (1. 4). (ii) coincident. v. If r is the radius of the circle prove that 15. Prove that the equations to the spheres that pass through the (4. 12. 1. and a circle is described in the plane PP'ZZ' on PP' as diameter. OX OY 2 18. lie upon the conicoid mxy + cz( 1 + m*) = 0. y = . 9 9. 16. 0. Prove that as PP' varies. which lies in the octant and touches the coordinate planes.). 14. and touch the plane 2#+2#z=ll. If the opposite edges of a tetrahedron are at right angles the midpoints of the edges and the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices to the edges lie upon a sphere whose centre is the centre of gravity of the tetrahedron. is of the form Prove that in general two spheres can be drawn through a given and find for what positions of point to touch the coordinate planes.c. (2. #2/a + y /& = l.mx Prove that the centres of spheres which touch the lines y = mx z = . the plane and surface given by intersect in a circle of radius a. 0). 0). A is a point on constant (=. 10. If A=/x=v = 7r/3. COORDINATE GEOMETRY 9 [OH. With any point P of a given plane as centre a sphere is described whose radius is equal u> the tangent liom P to a given Prove that all such spheres pass through two fixed points. sphere. z=c. the point the spheres are (i) real . The sum of the squares of the intercepts made by a given sphere on any three mutually perpendicular lines through a fixed point is constant. the circle generates the surface 2 2 t . OXYZ Prove that the equation to a sphere. On AB as diameter a circle is described whose plane is Prove that as AB varies the circle generates tne cone parallel to OZ. so that the angle OAB ia and B on 17.86 8. 11. If the opposite edges of a tetrahedron are at right angles the centre of gravity is the midpoint of the line joining the point of concurrence of the perpendiculars and the centre of the circumscribing sphere. points are 3. 13.
C. 2. and find its equation. B.OH. Find the conditions that the ehould lie on the same sphere. so that the volume of the tetrahedron OABC is constant. Prove that the circles =0. B. and meets the axes ne Prove that the circle ABC lies on the 21. OA. A variable plane is parallel to the given plane j. Prove that the equation to the sphere tetrahedron whose sides are 20. 24. circles 25. C. ABC lies on the sphere 9(jtr of constant radius / passes through the origin and Prove that the centroid of the triangle a point P to a sphere are all equal to 23. Find the locus of the centre of a variable sphere which passes through the origin O and meets the axes in A. in A. B. OC=c. prove that the equation to the sphere OC OB = m w . The tangents drawn from the distance of P from a fixed tangent plane to the sphere. v. Prove that the locus of P is a paraboloid of revolution. ?i >v origin. iie on the same sphere. are mutually perpendicular lines through the 26. and their directioncosines are ^. 87 circumscribing the 19. C. ft. 2. i9 n^ . 22. OB. If OA==a./a+y/b+z/c=Q.1 EXAMPLES II. w2 I3y #i3 . A sphere meets the axes in A. OABC is .
Ex. is a generator of the cone rethe homogeneous equation /(#. ratios satisfy ce^f Lines drawn through the point (a. Equation to a cone. ky'. by . The line generator of the cone Ex. then presented by = 0. and has coordinates (kx' by kx'. j8. 2. the equation to the cone is homogeneous.0. z) = 0. The general equation to the cone of the second degree is and this is to be satisfied by the 1. z') is any point on the cone. x' y'. 4. the line is a generator of a cone whose vertex is at the point. t the equation. 1. kz'\ the equation is also ky'. The general equation to the cone of the second degree which passes through the axes i&fyz+gzx+hxy=zQ. y. y) whose direction6m2 fc?i2 generate the cone Ex. 7i) Cor. directionratios of the axes. z' satisfy intersects a given curve.0. 1.0. If the given point O. kz' for all values of k. say. satisfied And since any point on OP 9 is on the cone. is Shew O. i. vertex 3. x/l^y/m^z/n. 1. and semivertical angle a. if the directionratios of a f(l. is a Ex. 0.0. and therefore must be homogeneous. be chosen as origin. that the equation to the right circular cone whose 2 is # f y2 =2 2 tan 2a. where 2#2 +3y2 522 =0. axis OZ. m. A cone is a surface generated by a straight line which passes through a fixed point and 59. (x\ y'.e. 0. vi.. If xjl = yl m^zjn f straight line which always passes through a fixed point satisfy a homogeneous equation. 2Z2 +3w2 5w2 =0. For if P. CHAPTER VI THE CONE.. Conversely.
. Ix f my + nz= (iii) Ans.v2 +bi/ +cz =l is is the origin of the plane y+nz\ ^ _(l./(#. any five cone of the second degree can be found to pass through concurrent lines. (i) (ii) (iii) (ax* + by )p 2 = 2z(lx +my+ nz). l /Wgttg +gn 3 3 + /il3m 3 = . = 0. x=a. 7. . . 9. Shew is the . Find the equation to the cone whose vertex is the origin and base the circle. 10. y)=0 is/( ~. Ex. 6.v+my+nz\ 2 ) Ex. 11. Therefore. y 2 +z2 =b\ and shew that the section of the cone by a plane parallel to the plane XOY is a hyperbola. B. . 8.59] EQUATION TO A CONE 5. T"/ Ex. The plane x/a+y/b+zjc=l meets the coordinate axes in lines Ex. . that the equation to the cone whose vertex Iask yk\ 8*^* origin and base the curve 2 *&. . since m 1 7t 1 f?/i2 w 2 +m 3?i3=0. Find the equations to the cones with vertex at the origin which pass through the curves given by (i) (ii) ax 2 f by 2 = 20. A Ex. Prove that the equation to the cone generated by drawn from O to meet the circle ABC is A. C. The equation to the cone whose vertex and which passes through the curve of intersection 2 2 Ix \my\nzp and the surface a. 89 Ex. Ans. Take one set as coordinate axes. etc.. =0. A cone of the second degree can be found to pass through any two sets of rectangular axes through the same origin. Ex. and let the directioncosines of the / n 2 13 m 3 n3 The equation to a cone others be I l9 m^ n^ 2 m2t containing the coordinate axes isfyz+gzx + hxy^Q. so that the cone contains the remaining axis. If this cone also contains the first two axes of the second set.
9> notation. w u. g. /(J. if it lies on the cone.m. > u v j. g / c f> 13D The student can easily verify that GHAF=/D. 6. z) s ax* + by2 + cz* + 2fyz + fyzx + Zhxy = 0.20 wu) + 2lm (hw2 + cuv fuw 2 gvw) (3) +m\cv*+bw*2fvw) = Q Now the directioncosines of the two lines of section (2). We find lines in which a plane cuts a cone. /. y.90 60. h. (1) ul+vm+wn = Q. VI. or lines The axes being rectangular to find the angle between the in which the plane ux+vy+wz~Q cuts the cone f(x. If the line x/l y/m = zfn lies in the plane. w. use P to denote a. 2 F we h. and we obtain 2 (cu 2 + aw . h. v. 6. to which we throughout the book.n)=0 Eliminate J (2) n between (1) and (2). D= A. convenient to introduce here the following shall adhere a. satisfy the equations (1) and and therefore they satisfy . In what follows HFBG = <7D. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Angle between it [CH. g.
Ex. n^[ cv ~fuw From the symmetry. 2 10807220/. s=0 Find the equations to the cuts the cone 4a?2 ~ in which the plane Ex. 7^.60] LINES OF SECTION OF CONE (3). l& m%.v. Find the angles between the lines of section of the following planes and cones : (i) 6#iqy73=0. each of the expressions in (4) is seen to be equal to 2 . (i) cosig. 3.w) lines Ex. 2. 2vP But if Q is the angle between the cos0 sinO " cos 9 sin 2 (a+b+c)(u +v 2 2 +w )f(u. 1. (ii) (iii) 2^(ii)cosil. Prove that the plane ax+by+czQ if cuts the cone in perpendicular lines . AND PLANE 91 equation Therefore if they are lv m x.2huv 2uP lines.7* =0. (iii) Am.
V.lOar .. v.2w Izx . that each is the locus of the normals drawn through the origin to the tangent planes to the other...Zmnyz .+ =0 a b c Ex.2bcyz .. (2) we have BC F 2 = aD.92 61.. Prove that the cones ax2 + by 2 +cz2 =Q and are reciprocal. Condition that the cone has three mutually perpendicular generators. Similarly... Prove that perpendiculars planes to the cone lie drawn from the origin to tangent on the cone I9x2 + 1 ly2 + 3z2 f Gyz . and therefore .e. lies w) . (1) on the cone. Ex. > is a generator of the cone Ax2 +By*+Cz 2 +2Fyz+2Gzx+2Hxy = 0. Ex.. 2.Scazx . we have v. line _=^= u v w the normal through e O to the r plane.. of the given cone. or then sin Au +Bv +Cw*+2Fvw+2Gwu+2Huv = 0. .. VL If P=0. (a+b+c)(u*+v*+w*)==f(u... (1) = 0. 1. Ex. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Condition of tangency of plane and cone.abxy .... and therefore the lines of section coincide...e.0. the plane touches the cone. The two cones are therefore such i.Vlmxy = 0. 2 z CH.... and the corre sponding equations at the head of paragraph 60.. ~+^. w) = 0. 3.. Prove that tangent planes to the cone lyz+ mzx+nxyQ are at right angles to generators of the cone n2z2 . Shew that the general equation to a cone which touches the coordinate planes is a 2&*+ b2y2 + c2z2 . 4. or Equation (1) shews that the i.. .26^y = 0. since . If also the normal to the plane f(u. it follows that a normal through the origin to a tangent plane to the cone (2) is a generator of the cone ax2 + by* + cz2 + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy = 0.. and they are on that account said to be reciprocal. The condition that the plane should cut the cone in perpendicular generators is 62.
since Hence.c)x*+ (c  a)y* + (a . Ex. 1. w) = 0. . w) t the plane cuts the cone in perpendicular origin which is generators. viz. If a+6+c = 0. has three mutually perpendicular generators. Ans. Ex. the cone has an infinite number of sets of mutually perpendicular generators.. y 4#= . y) and base the conic 1 Equation to cone with given conic for base. Ex. 1 find the equation to the cone (a. the normal to the plane and the two perpendicular lines in which the plane cuts the cone. the cone in perpennormal to a generator of the cone cuts dicular lines. Prove that the cone has three mutually perpendicular tangent planes be + ca f ab =/2 f <7 2 + k2 . Prove that the plane (b lx+my+nz=Q cuts the cone . If ?=^=^ 1 2i fj represent one of a set of three mutually per pendicular generators of the cone to the other two. Ex.) ^. by (1). that the cone whose vertex is at the origin and passes through the curve of intersection of the sphere #2 fy2 + 22 = 3a 2 and any plane at a distance a from the origin. For if ux + vy + wz = be any plane whose normal lies on the cone. To whose vertex is the point See Appendix. v. 5yz~ 8zx 3^y=0. which 2. or there are two generators of the cone at Thus any plane through the right angles to one another. if Ex. 4. and at right angles to any given generator. v. then f(u. a + 6 + c = 0. the semivertical angle is tan" 59. j9. and therefore (a+b + c)(u*+v*+ w*)=f(u. generators.5y = 2Qz. Shew . find the equations x y= z 5.b)z* + 2fyz + fyro + Zhxy = perpendicular lines if 63. 3. If a right circular cone has three mutually perpendicular 1 (Cf. Ex. ii. 3.6163] TANGENCY OF PLANE AND CONE 93 In this case the cone has three mutually perpendicular generators. p.
... This point 1.Zm_y Y m oc I and the line meets the plane = in the point 0). ly t my)=0. y) be made homogeneous by means is variable t which of an auxiliary to unity after differentiation. i...y z+ +y m) = o . /3. (aZy.e.0..= yr.. y) = ax2 +2hxy+by*. y) and intersect the conic. if /(a. the equation to the cone. /3my. y) are 3 * .. vi. any aj line through (a. Therefore the coefficient of zy becomes .. by Euler's theorem. we obtain the equation to the locus of lines which pass through (a. If we eliminate I and between the equations to the line and (1).. /3. The result is m This equation The coefficient of may be transformed 2 y is as follows : /(a. and the coefficient of 2 is If /(a. is on the given conic if 2 /(a (j..94 COORDINATE GEOMETRY The equations to [CH. (1) where <f>(x. /3). equated we have.
Assume. iii. of zy. Ex. "Examples III. a Ex. therefore. 2. Ex. ax2 +by*=l. A cone has as base the circle 3 = 0.  t [Five concurrent lines are necessary to determine a cone of the second degree.) Ex. and passes through the fixed point (0. y) Am.. and base (i) Find the equation ax*+by* =1. 5. (The above method is given by de Longchamps.) Am. Ex. whose vertex z0. 1. . (i) 2 2 (ii) * (j3 . prove that the vertex lies on a fixed circle. 0. the cone. z0 to the cone . and the form of the given result shews that the required cone is to pass through the coordinate axes and the two bisectors. 3.b) __ A _ \j x z y 1. Probl&mes de Ge'om&rie Analytique. is (a. vol. (ii) 2 y = 4o#.  t _f. we 0) with respect to the given conic.)  2zy { fry  Ex. j8. has three mutually perpendicular generators. coefficient j8. is the sphere # {# + e =a f 6 . #2 + ?/2 + 2a#+ 2&v=0. y) is on the locus. (i) the plane .a) w(a . 1 (i). (If (a. Shew that the bisectors of the angles between the lines in which the plane ux+vy+wz==Q cuts the cone ax*+by 2 +cz*=Q lie on the cone u(b c) v(c . 4.4aa. that the required equation is fyz+gzx+hxy=Q The given cone is The necessary and contain the bisectors cw^f (1) % 2 +cz2 =0. If the section of the cone by the plane ZOX is a rectangular hyperbola. (2) sufficient conditions that the cone (1) should may be stated. Shew perpendicular lines that the locus of points from which three mutually can be drawn to intersect a given circle is a 3urface of revolution.g63] CONE WITH GIVEN BASE is 85 Hence the equation to the cone It is to be noted that by equating to zero the obtain the equation to the polar of (a. c) on the 2axis. ft. Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn to intersect the conic 2=0. Prove that the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular planes can be drawn to touch the 2 2 2 2 2 =0.
Conic Sections.. and the equations to the projections on 2=0 are obtained by eliminating z between the equations to the plane and cones. we obtain _ u(bc) 2. Shew that the plane ax+by+czQ cuts in two lines inclined at 2 1 an angle 2 " f^ + g2 )( tan. afvw + bgivu + cJiuvO ' From (3) and (4).. p. ayz f + cxy the cone a + b + c=0. (3) Again. 7. vi. and OY include an angle a.. 2 =4##...... b)w 2 }~(). four lines are harmonically conjugate if their projections on any plane are harmonically conjugate.96 COOED JNATE GEOMETRY .. but Tr/3 if l/a+l/6 + l/c=0. Shew that the bisectors in Ex. 1 also { lie on the cone (b c)u 2 + (c a)v 2 + (a . Two cones 4....n(^ L +^fc2 2& bc + ca + ab and by considering the value of this expression when shew that the cone is of revolution. Therefore the condition (ii) gives fv(aw 2 h cu 2) +gu(bw2 + cv2) cuv(fu+gv .. 2 pass through the curves y=0. Smith.. .. x=*yz and .. vertex lies on the surface z 2 (x 3. z = . of the must cut the cone (1) in perpendicular lines (ii) the lines of section plane and the cones (1) and (2) must be harmonically conjugate. + c)x2 f (c + a)y 2 + (a + b)z2 = 2 ax +by 2 + cz*=l in a rectangular hyperbola lines Find the angle between the ( given by bc ca bz.. and that its axis is vertical angle ta =.. and they have a common vertex Shew that the in two conies that intersect in four coney clic points. Shew that the angle between the lines given by x +y + z is 7T/2 if 0.wh) (cf..... 65. #=0. From i ' =0.) (4) i.. 8.. Shew that on the cone 2 2 (#2 f y 2 + s a)=ay taitfcu lies Any plane whose normal (b on the cone cuts the surface 6.. the plane 2 = meets them z2 = 46y. (CH.v ab .. and hence they are CM 2 ) + Zcuvxy +y\bw2 + cv 2) =0.... Planes through OX their line of intersection lies 5...e.
Find the conditions that the lines of section of the plane the cones fyz+gzjc+hxy~Q. c) and the ^plane cuts it in the curve F(y.y.CH. 97 The axes being rectangular. if Prove that ow? 8 +6y2 + w 8 + 2Ma?+2^*2^c + rif=0 represents a u 2Ja + v 2Jb + w*/c = cL Prove that if 2 F(. and that the other common generators of the two cones lie in the plane \\x+ly + 7s~0. */#)=(). cone 14. OP and move so that the plane If OQ are OP OPQ describes the cone F(y/. a line is drawn to meet three fixed 10.2* f 5 =0. 1/3. prove that the cone contains an infinite number of sets of three generators mutually inclined at an angle ?r/3. Shew that the z.^) = 0^ + fy + c^ + 2/^^ represents a cone. (2. . should be coincident. )==0.Syz . Prove that the equation to the cone through the coordinate axes and the lines of section of the cone UaP6y*+z9 =0 and the = plane 7# 5?/fs=0 is 14 y2 30&T+3. R. 5/6). o BO. 17* Find the equations to the planes lines of section of the plane uut prove that the plane touches oblique. 15. Fy 0.) + vy+wz=Q and cone /*(#. i ( . a^ + byt+aPQ.Wzx + 2x+ 2^ + 26^17 = 0. #=0. and the cone if P = 0.8.r .l 9. prove that the intersecting planes in P. The vertex of a cone is (0. 2.r. 1). F<=0.plane cuts it in the curv* ' ' Vr a arid x a) two straight 12. Q. Through a fixed point If PQ PR is constant. lines that remain at right angles always passes through the 2axis.IQyz. 6. Fz =0.4*u? . vi. 2^ +2y*+7z2 . the coordinates of the vertex satisfy the equations Fz =0. where t is used to make F(x. lx+my+nz=Q and /foa 2 \ + cm2 _ cP + art 2 ~~ aw 2 + 6f2 \ __ him '/ fmn gnl through the zaxis and the ?/. : O 11. 16.j)=0.r ?/ 0.z) homogeneous and is equated to unity after differentiation. represent cones whose vertices are (7/6.ff. Prove that the equations 2/ . locus of the line is a cone whose vertex is O.4y . (the axes may be 18.*y + 6. EXAMPLES III. prove that OQ describes the 13.
tefaucy If a line 23. 22. drawn through the vertex O of the cone is such that the two planes through OP. OP.Zbnlzjc .Zamnyz . Prove that the equation to the cone through the coordinate axes and the lines in which the plane lx\my+nz cuts the cone is 2  21. a2 cab 2 ax by . are at right angles. and that the equation to the reciprocal cone is fyz+yzx \hxy^=0.98 19. prove that the locus of OP is the cone . Vi. Prove that the equation *Jfa+\fgy + *fJiz~Q represents a cone that touches the coordinate planes. 20. <& cz <?__ Q ~~ * lie in the planes (be a 2 )x+(ca b*)y +(a6 c2)=0. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Prove that the common generators of the cones be [OH. each of which cuts the cone in a pair of perpendicular lines. Prove that the equation to the planes through the origin perpendicular to the lines of section of the plane lx+my + nz~Q and the cone ao?2 + 6y2 + cz2 is st?(bn z + cm2) +y* (cl2 + an2) + s2 (am* + bl2) .
61 The locus of the equation We have shewn in the surface generated by the 9 that the equation (1) represents variable ellipse .64] CHAPTER VII. THE CENTKAL CONICOID8.
every point between (0. 0. 30. The surface is the hyperboloid of one The section by any sheet. we might shew that the surface represented by equation (2) is generated by a variable ellipse whose centre moves on Z'OZ. The section by any plane parallel to a coordinate plane is an ellipse. The is surface given variable ellipse by equation (3) is also generated by a whose centre moves on Z'OZ. +c). and passes in turn through The surface c) and (0. plane parallel to one of the coordinate planes is YOZ or ZOX a hyperbola. and is represented in fig. passing in turn through every point on it. 29. is the ellipsoid. 0. The ellipse given by x* . and is represented in fig. whose centre moves along Z'OZ. VII.100 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Similarly.
XOY Hence intersection of principal planes are principal axes. are such that the plane through any two bisects chords They are called conjugate diameters. Z = M and it meets the surface in parallel to OX are <y the points (^IT=&?=& X '4 a . The three diametral planes YOZ. the other two. The equations to any line = A. or shortly. Z'OZ conjugate diametral planes. z') is also on it. XOY are such that each line of intersection of The diameters X'OX. are at right angles to the chords which they bisect. the diametral planes ZOX. and is represented in tig. Diametral planes and conjugate diameters. The section to one of the coordinate planes YOZ. If (x' t is by any plane parallel ZOX a hyperbola. and the plane which bisects a system of Thus YOZ is the parallel chords is a diametral plane. y\ z) any point on one of these surfaces.64. The lines of ZOX. XOY N ' bisects all chords parallel to OX. hence the origin bisects all ( y\ chords of the surface which pass through it. the diametral planes YOZ. The origin is the only point which possesses this property. is the diametral plane of OX. The surfaces are called the central conicoids. chord of the conicoid which passes through the centre Any is a diameter. parallel to the third. and hence the plane YOZ diametral plane which bisects chords parallel to OX. equation of the form An represents a central conicoid. bisects chords parallel to the They are called ZOX. surface lies The surface the hyperboloid of two is sheets. bisect chords parallel to OY and OZ respectively. Similarly.65] DIAMETERS AND DIAMETRAL PLANES c c k imaginary if between the planes z=> is 101 and is < < . Y'OY. 31. #'. and is called the centre. z 2 z if the axes are rectangular the equation ax +by +cz =*] . If the axes are rectangular. Diametral planes which are at right angles to the chords which they bisect are principal planes. 65. hence no part of the c.
constant. AQ :OD 2 is constant. 87.*=* m n is . say P.. /3... If this point is on the conicoid. APQ y) is is a tangent to the conicoid at A.. . and the line A. If.. aal + b/3m + cyn = 0. 1. and A coinof r given by the equation (1) of cides with one of the points P or Q. or aaux+bfiy+cyz l.. if a point on the surface. the condition that t/he line ! I = =. ( 2' ^ ) should be a tangent at A. viz.102 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY its [CH. If OD is the diameter parallel to is APQ. n are the directionratios of a line through A. we obtain t the equation to the locus of (a. Hence.. (a. the two values of r given by the equation are zero.. are the diameters parallel to AD and AD'. .. (a.. +~_ in Ex... AP. r*(atf + 6m2 + cri*) + 2r(aod + bfan + cyn) + aa +fy3 +cy l = 2 2 2 .. ~= +& AE AE 2 2 Tangents and tangent planes. m.. y) 66 is zero. a given point A. 2. AD' meet the conicoid again E and E'. any diameter of the conicoid and OR and OR' is constant... the coordinates of the point on it whose distance from A is r are a+lr. .. y) on the surface.. . i. /?. also. n between (2) and (3).. If ao + b(& + cy = 1. Ex.. j8. P and Q coincide at the point (a.. fi+mr.. (3) l m.. If AD.. _ 5 Ex. 66. y+nr.. (1) This equation gives two values of r which are the measures of AP and AQ. (a.. to find the line through A lengths of If I..e... all the tangent lines through y).. If we eliminate aad+bfim+cyn^O.. If DOD' . AP and AQ.VU principal axes represents a central conicoid referred to as coordinate axes. y) meets a central conicoid ax*+by*+cz2 = l in P and Q. cs 3. /3. is on the conicoid one of the values the point A. /8..
. y). ap is l z p = y. Find the locus of the point of intersection of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes to a central conicoid. since (a. we obtain with the conicoid. the given plane represented by the two equations aoix+b/3y+cyz=l Ix+my + nz p. If the point of contact is (a. . e oc= y) I . conicoid. /3. y) lie in the plane aaux is + bfiy + cyz = 1. /8.6568] THE TANGENT PLANE lines at (a. the tangent plane at (a. plane Ix + my +nz=p is To find the condition that the should touch the conicoid ax2 +&2/ 2 + c 2 = l. m 2 ' The two tangent planes which are lx+my+nz=zQ are given by parallel to Ex.) . If the axes are rectangular and represent three mutually perpendicular tangent planes. a+T+T^ Cor. /3. 103 Hence the tangent which 68. cp n* on the . bp n m 2 y= * 11 . squaring and adding. 2. 1. Hence the common point of the planes lies on a sphere concentric (It is called the director sphere. t mr Therefore and. & y). Prove that the equation to the two tangent planes to the conicoid dw^+ft^f < 2 =1 which pass through the line s (Use the condition that u+Xu'*=Q should be a tangent plane.) Ex.
( 17. through a given point A Definition. n. Q. f). is the polar FIG. Ex. y). and to find its polar 69. Prove that the perpendiculars to them vi nil ~2 and hence shew that the tangent planes envelope the cone The polar plane* We now proceed to define the of a point with respect to a conicoid. meets a conicoid in P and Q. Then the equations to APQ are  . 32 Let A. If any secant. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Find the equations to the tangent planes to line [OH. the liar* monic conjugate of A with respect to P and of A with respect to the conicoid. shew that it lies on the cone 2 from the origin generate the cone (aa?+/?^+y*) = ~+'i+ Prove that the reciprocal of this cone is the cone t Ex. Tangent planes are drawn to the conicoid cufl+bifi+cz***! through the point (a. then the locus of R. APQ. m. If the line of intersection of two perpendicular tangent planes to the ellipsoid whose equation. and let APQ have directionratios I. 7). vn. is passes through the fixed point (0. /?. 3. 32) be the points (a. which pass through the Ans.3z = = 3# . referred to rectangular axes.5.104 Ex. R (fig. 5. 2x x + 9t/ . 4. equation. /Q.3# + 62 . 0. k).
The polar plane theline of (cc+Zr. AQ are = And from therefore the equations to the line . There is a close analogy between the equations to the line and the plane. if the polar plane of then the polar plane ). in Let p be the measure of AR. Hence if the polar y). since AP. y+nr). the circle and the sphere. harmonic progression. then the polar plane of any point on PQ passes through that point on AB. /3. the tangent or polar and the tangent plane or polar plane. the ellipse and the ellipsoid. 106 and. A is on tlie surface. which Cor. Examples of this analogy will constantly recur. y) passes through tf f ( f) passes through (oc. It is evident that ((. and therefore passes through AB. /3. jy. . y). is called the polar plane of (a. plane of any point on a line AB passes through a line PQ. are the r\al + bm2 + en 2 ) + 2r(aoLl + bfim + cyn) Then. /3+mr.701 THE POLAR PLANE 66. f) is the plane given by 1 .69. If /}. any point on m is n . and it is well to note these and make use or the analogy as an aid to remember useful results. as in roots of 2 rp r2 the measures of AP and AQ. AR. the polar plane of A is the tangent plane at A The student cannot nave failed to notice the similarity between the equations to corresponding loci in the plane and in space. 70.# + bfiy + cyz . Hence the locus of (. The lines AB and PQ are then said to be polar lines with respect to the conicoid. 77. Polar lines. (ct.
Find the condition that the line intersect the polar of the line 2= conicoid  22 x~ l f f^^Ir. 8. of the Prove that the polar of a given line 2. are on the conicoid the polar of (Hence intersection of the tangent planes at P and Q. ^OLOL^I. Ex. If P. 1. then PQ interpolar of AB. Q An*. x vL\b cj . Ex. the polar of with respect to ax'2 + bi/* + cz*~l is given by . (#!. is the chord of contact Ex. evidently. z\ Q.) P and Q PQ is the line of Ex. for values of r. Find the locus of straight lines drawn through a fixed point (a. vn. passes through the line This is therefore the polar of the line . (1). (acd' + b/3m' + cyn')(aoi l + 6/yw. 6. y) at right angles to their polars with respect to cw?2 + by 2 H cz* = 1 (rectangular axes)./ 2 z2) are any points. sects the = (all' + bmm' + cnri)(aouoL + bf}/3' + cyy' .106 COORDINATE GEOMETRY all [CH. and verify that the tangent planes at P and pass through the given line. is the peculiarity of the case when a=b1 lines Find the conditions that the x . Prove that lines fiL through nj'Z (a. ?=*i=ii. PQ Ex.~ f f I B = m n r z . v 2 TJ=0..' = y .7=0. Prove that it meets the conicoid in two real points P and Q.2s 2 =l. two tangent planes through the line. 2ao/=0. ^00.1).= y ~ = y CL /3 z } 6 m n ~9 #. /J. Find the equations to the polar of the line 2^=25^1=22 with respect to the conicoid 2#2 ./?^!^ I n m z should *** = ^1/^ s= ~7 >? m n with respect to the Ans. Prove that if AB intersects the polar of PQ. and. 7. 5. (AB and PQ are then said to be conjugate with f respect to the conicoid. yi.25^ 4. 2^'=0. *2 y) at right angles to their polars with respect to r+~f ^==1 generate the cone What Ex. ft.> should be polar with respect to the conicoid ax*+ fy/ Ans. /I 1\ Ans.) . 4. 3. Ex. + cy'n) Ex. axxl + byy l + czz l = 1. if axx^ + byy2 + czz2 = 1. (#2 . y' f. .
is This plane meets the surface in a conic of which the centre. Ex.. Ans. 4). /3. The centres of sections that pass through a given point on a conicoid.. lie lie . (3.. The line joining a point P to the centre of a conicoid passes through the centre of the section of the conicoid by the polar plane of P. The centres of sections that pass through a given line on a conic.. in Find the equation to the plane which cuts d^f 4y 2 1.... Compare the equation midpoint is to the chord of the conic ax2 +bi/ 2 =I whose 522 =1 (a. If (a.71] SECTION WITH A GIVEN CENTRE (3..102+20=0.. conicoid that are Ex. (2) Hence the plane F all . is Ex. and therefore ooZ + fySm + cyrasO . 5... (ex. 107 Section with a given centre. 3.70... 6. Ex. y) lie in xOLa >.. 33.. Ex. Ex.. #+6y. The centres of sections of a central parallel to a given line lie on a fixed plane. /?). 3..... 4. a conic whose centre is at the point (2.. 2. y) is the the equation (1) of 66 is of the form r2 ^ 2 .. midpoint of the chord whose equations are 71. chords which are bisected at (a. y) Fio. The locus of the centres of parallel plane sections of a conicoid a diameter.
This is therefore the diametral plane which bisects the parallel chords Fio. R coincide at the point of contact. Find the locus of centres of sections of which touch Am.VIL Ex.108 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Compare the equation to the Jocus of the midpoints of parallel chords of the ellipse o 8 Ex. 7. and hence the points of contact of all the tangents from A lie on the polar plane point. surface. 2.cr2) = 0. The locus of the tangents drawn from a given the secant APQ. ax(. (fig. ~ Locus of midpoints of a system of parallel chords. . 72. 73.brz) + cz\cx^ + fy2 + cz* . When and therefore on the conic in which that plane cuts the The locus of the tangents from A is therefore the cone generated by lines which pass through A and intersect of A. P. 1. A). </. 34. 32). Ans. cwHf by*+cz Find the locus of the midpoints of chords of the conicoid 2 =l which pass through the point (/. 34). from equations (1) and (2) of 71 that the midpoints of chords which are parallel to a fixed line It follows lie in the plane alx+bmy+cnz = (fig. Q. becomes a tangent. Ex. (). Prove that the midpoints of chords of ax* + by*+ cz 2 ~l which are parallel to #=0 and touch afl+y*+z*=i* lie on the surface * .
2 2 Ans. /c 2 Find the locus of a luminous point if the ellipsoid 2 =l casts a circular shadow on the plane *=0. 53^3+5=1 . We find its equation as follows : may line If A is (oc. The plane =a a? in a conic 5. a 2 2 /a fy /6 +2. Lines drawn from the centre of a central conicoid parallel to the generators of the enveloping cone whose vertex is generate a cone which intersects the conicoid in two conies whose planes are parallel to the polar plane of A. 1. SS^P 2 . or Compare the equation to the pair of tangents from the point to the ellipse axP + by 2 !. (a. Ex. Z' 4. 0) pairs of perpendicular Jangent lines are drawn to the surface cutP+bip+c&^l.73} THE ENVELOPING CONE 109 This cone the conic in which the polar plane of A cuts the conicoid is the enveloping cone whose vertex is A. 3. & y). A Ex. 0. Find the locus of points from which three mutually per2 2 2 pendicular tangent lines can be drawn to the surface cuc +by tcz =I.e.^p+J . *=o. .. )8) Ex.. 5J meets any enveloping cone of the sphere which has a focus at the point (0. a(b+c)x*+b(c+a)y +c(a + 6)s =af b+c. Through a fixed point (&. 0. Shew that the plane through any pair touches the cone Ex. and the APQ. yo. a).72. i. the equation (1) of 36 has equal roots. Ex. whose equations are x r~ a=y m /3 z = y n *> meets the surface in coincident points. and therefore (1) The locus of APQ is therefore the cone whose equation is If S P= and this equation may be written 1 = (PS 2 1) . 2.
polar plane of A. and interpret the equation Sf Aw a =0. Find the locus of P. 35. (The equation (1). A Ex. 74. The section of the enveloping cone of the ellipsoid 2 2 2 2 2 = is (i) a o^/a 4y /6 +2 /c =l whose vertex is P by the plane 2 parabola. [CH. given conicoid S at all points of the conic in wnich it is met by the Prove that all the tangents from A to S lie on it. If S=0. it becomes a tangent and M coincide? with the point of contact. locus of the tangents which are parallel to Suppose that PQ is any chord and that M is midpoint. and the locus of the tangents parallel to the given line is therefore the cylinder generated by the parallels to the given line which pass through the conic. is an identity. conicoid passes through a given point A and touches a Ex. it Then if the line PQ moves parallel to itself meets the surface in coincident points. v=0 are the equations to a conicoid S + Xuv=Q and two represents a conicoid which passes through the conies in which the given planes cut the given conicoid. Ex. prove that it lies Prove that if a straight line has three points on a conicoid. Therefore the point of contact of a tangent which is parallel FlO. wholly on the conicoid. Hence find the equation to the enveloping cone of S whose vertex is A. 66. . 9. 8. to a given line lies on the diametral plane which bisects all chords parallel to the line. This plane cuts the surface in a conic. (ii) a rectangular hyperbola. planes.110 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 6.) Ex. The a given its till line.VII. u0. 7.
m 2j J. a tangent plane whose 68. .74. cylinder. the line X touches the surface if OL ss _. 75. (Ir. /3. nr) on the line x/l=y/mz/n 9 as r tends to infinity. as in px' ^* Q py' cos/8=V2~> . Ex. Then since. Consider the ellipsoid whose equation. Normals. y($ . y\ sf\ we have.. By 73. 35) be any point on a tangent parallel to a given line x/l = y/m z/n. point of contact is (a/. the most familiar of the central conicoids. 2. Wa*T? ? AB y __ = * is the line of interEx. we In discussing the properties of the normals shall confine our attention to the normals to the ellipsoid.1 ) = (alx + bmy + 2 This equation therefore represents the enveloping which is the locus of the tangents. referred to rect2 2 angular axes. & y) is given by 2 2 2 (al + 6m + c^ )(aa3 + by + cz . The enveloping cylinder may be considered to be a limiting case or the enveloping cono whose vertex is the point P. zy n the locus of 2 2 (a.75] THE ENVELOPING CYLINDER 111 Let (a. +y2/&*+z2/(P=sI Prove that the enveloping cylinders of the ellipsoid whose generators are parallel to the lines t v= meet the plane z=0 in circles. Prove that the polar of a line section of the planes of contact of the enveloping cone whose vertex is A and the enveloping cylinder whose generators are parallel to AB. ia (p > 0). by 73 (1). *P/a 2 1. the equation to the cone is (aa?+bf+cz*l)(al*+bm*+cn 2 ~} = (a^ whence tne equation to the cylinder can be at once deduced. If the plane p =x cos rx+ y cos @+z cos y. y) (fig. is x /a? + y /b* + z*/c* =1.^ * (. wr.
fcH. Ex.= i . f equations to the normal at (x y'. . 1. normal then at (x' y\ passes through a given point (a. ++ . z') p r>  where r> is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at the point. we obtain r=PG./+ PG 32 F. and prove equal to 4PG 3 P lies on the cone Ans. P and 76. py P?L ~d* ~W P meets .va that at the directioncosines of the outwarddrawn normal are (#'. _ /> I ^ 1 m px a? fix.112 COORDINATE GEOMETRY is. z') are therefore . If PG 2 + PG. x in the equations to the normal. intersect. 4. t find the locus of P.z z' I . If the normals at PQ is at right angles to its Q. anew that Putting for Q v G 2 G3 . .0 a2 . t The normals from a given z') point. a2 and if & is c* each of these fractions equal to X. polar with respect to the ellipsoid. The normal A. given ellipsoid and the that if it is Find the length of the normal chord through P. pQi pQ2 p Ga ^ a2 62 c2 . Ex. and locus of AQ is drawn parallel Q is given by if at a variable point P meets the plane in to and equal to A P._^_M ^ . 3. dns. 5. Ex. OR is drawn from the centre equal and Ans. The x x' _^^^M MMMWM y __. y).y' _ ^^^^^_ . points on the ellipsoid. If the /?. If the normal at the principal planes in . Prove that the XOY OZ parallel to Find the locus of R AP. etc. y'. aV+&y+6'V=c4 . . 2. The curve of intersection of the alHpsoid x.
y'. y) and has directioncosines Z. . y).375. and equations (2) express the coordinates of any point on The points where the curve it in terms of a parameter X. Ex. Prove that four normals to the ellipsoid pass through any point of the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the conicoid It follows from (rx. areglvenby and as this determines three values of X. . 2. z'} passes through (a. 7=1 This equation gives six values of X. n. y) to the ellipsoid are therefore the six points of intersection of the ellipsoid and a certain cubic curve. and the curve is therefore a cubic curve. /3. (3) gives at least Prove that equation . the normals at which pass through (a. (1) that the feet of the normals to the ellipsoid lie on the three cylinders y) from equations a a = Compare the equation feet of the normals to the rectangular hyperbola (a. THE NORMALS y\ z') is 113 on the ellipsoid. If the normal at (#'.76] Therefore. . meets a given plane . FCAJsCA+aWA + ^CA+c^lVa^A + ^^A+c8 )8 2 c2 and is positive when A= &2 negative when A= . F(A) <x>. two real values of A. the plane meets the curve in three points. since (x'. /3) through the from the point to the ellipse ^ + j3 = I* These cylinders have a common curve of intersection.) is Ex.. /?. (If 1. to each of which corresponds a point (#'. /?. m. The feet of the normals from 'a. y\ z\ and therefore there are six points on the ellipsoid /3.
9. Conjugate diameters and conjugate diametral planes of the ellipsoid. c*yri \ ^. ). P'. Q. A' are the poles of the planes PQR. Ex. Ex. AA/2 OA2 OA/2 =2(a2 +&2 +c2 77. Prove that the feet of the six normals from the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the cone y) lie on z x y Ex. If P. Ex.H4 and therefore COORDINATE GEOMETEY fcH. The generators of the cone which contains the normals from a given point to an ellipsoid are at right angles to their polars with respect to the ellipsoid. (OL.vn This shews that the normal whose equations are ~" ~"7 is m . 7. P'Q'R'. 8.l' . and the plane then the plane P'Q'R' is given by from PQR (If P'Q'R' is given by l'x+m'y+rizp\ equation (3) of 76 is the same as c^ c*yn \( a?a. 4. a generator of the cone a? a y / z /?. on a cone of the second degree. prove that the line parallels through P to the axes. If the equation to the ellipsoid . Ex. R' are the feet of the six normals is given a point to the ellipsoid. the P to its Shew that the cubic curve lies on the cone. If P is the point (<x. lie on the cone. 7). R .. 3. If A. Q'. A is a fixed point and P a variable point such that its polar plane is at right angles to AP. Shew that tne locus of P is the cubic curve through the feet of the normals from A. Ex. 5. Wfim' . 6. /?. Bx. j8. y y) lie Hence the six normals from (. PO. and the perpendicular from polar plane.
OQ.76. P diametral plane of OQ.\ \ rf / il 7 >/f ' we have These correspond exactly and shew that  to equations (A) and (B) of 53. Thus the planes QOR. and they are therefore conjugate Fio. then . POQ are the diametral planes of OP. 1/0. if Q is on the diametral plane of OP. 62 c2 Let Q. a* Hence. (x v ylt afx ) is any point on the ellipsoid. OQ. (x2 2/2 z2 ) be any point on this plane and on the ellipsoid.. 36). diametral planes. a J ~> b c a ?r  o c a r> c b are the directioncosines of three mutually perpendicular . ( 72). and OP. If P. OR respectively. (tig. on the diametral planes of OP and OQ. that is. If OR are conjugate diameters. the diametral plane of OR is the plane OPQ.77] is CONJUGATE DIAMETERS t 115 are conjugate diameters and the coordinate planes are conjugate diametral planes. and therefore P and Q are on the diametral plane of OR. R is (x. ROP. If the diametral planes of intersect in is on the OP and OQ R is the diameter OR. . (65). z. the x2/az +y2/b2 +zz/c2 =l the axes diametral plane of OP has a for its equation. 36.
2 O p2 + QQ2 + OR 2 = a + 62 + c2 Hence the sum of the squares on any three conjugate From the last equation we is constant. OR for coterminous edges is constant and equal semidiameters to abc. cay. we obtain by(E'}: i i similarly. OQ. etc. POQ. on adding. Therefore. if A u A2 A3 are the areas QOR. by ((/^ HA 2 8 = . squaring and adding. are the directioncosines of the normals to the planes QOR. as in 53. 3). ROP. ROP. = i etc. and lr .116 COOEDINATE GEOMETRY Therefore.. 2. r. equations (c') give. projecting Ax on the plane o? = 0. lines referred to rectangular axes. If the axes to which the ellipsoid is referred ara rectangular. (E') abc. POQ . m Again. nr> (?*=!. bcx. abz. we have. deduce that the volume of the parallelepiped which has OP. we deduce. = ..
. If A. etc. that any two sets of conjugate diameters 59. OR. generator of the cone Therefore the diameter a OF (2a Ex. find the locus of the equal 2 2 2 2 2 l. a 4. ax 2 Ex.) (Cf. . conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid 3?/a +y /b +z lc If r is the length of one of the equal conjugate diameters. 11. and where I. ellipsoid . Prove that the pole of the plane PQR lies on the Ex. Shew diameters touches the cone that the plane through a pair of equal conjugate x^ 888 ^* 2 /o a'M.v l + *i* 2 f The required equation is therefore Ex. 117 Ex. Shew that any two sets of conjugate diametral planes touch a cone of the second degree. 8. (Apply 61. 10. If the axes are rectangular. Ex. 6. ft. then Multiply by # #2 #3 t. Ex.77] CONJUGATE DIAMETERSEXAMPLES 1. Shew that the plane at the centroid of the triangle PQR touches the PQR. p+m+n_ P + in J5 2 Si F+ c*' is m. Ex. OQ. 5. If OP. lie on a Ex. If the equation is lx+my+m=p. respectively.) Ex. OR are equal conjugate diameters. then by (c') and (D')> Ia 2 ~p(. 3. 4.. (i) Prove that the sum of the squares of the projections of OP. 4. n are the direction cosines. and add #3 ). The locus of the foot of the perpendicular from the centre to the plane through the extremities of three conjugate semidiameters is a* Ex. (ii) on a given plane. .^+! = 6 c 1 ellipsoid Ex. is constant. on a given line. Ex. 6. and S is the pole of the plane PQR. Find the equation to the plane PQR. 7. v are the angles between a set of equal conjugate diameters. the tetrahedron SPQR has any pair of apposite edges at right angles. Shew cone of the second degree. 9. 2. OQ.
a . OP and any pair of conjugate diameters of the ellipse in which the diametral plane of OP cuts the ellipsoid are . planes to planes of through a given point. 1*3 [CH. whore p is the perpendicular from to the tangent plane at P.VU P"i> n"2 is If OP. theorem become when oL=/J=y Ex./J and that a. OP. prove that x. ellipsoid If 2oL and 2/2 are the principal axes by the plane Ix+my + nz^Q. y. Ex. (#!. 18. Ex. (fig. are conjugate diameters and p 19 p^ p3 .p+2=l x* which are parallel z2 to conjugate diametral b2 c2 . 13.. Ex. and therefore OR and OQ are conjugate diameters of the But Q is any point on the ellipse therefore ellipse ROQ. chords are drawn parallel to of the squares of the ratios of the respective is constant. z t ) is a point on the ellipsoid and ( u . P is any point on the ellipsoid ft +'13 +5= 1 an d ^ O C #2 ?/ 2 "2 2a and 2/} are the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid by the diametral 2 2 2 2 2 2 plane of OP. OQ. 14. . the line OQ bisects all chords of the conic ROQ which are parallel to OR. 15. Since the plane POQ./3p = abc.118 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 12. 17. OR Ex. Cg) ^ . 8. are tne ^ r projections on any two given lines. OR Ex. ^2* If P. the sum chorda to OP. M x2 2 v2 ? a2 2 +^+__2== ^+jp+~ What does this that conjugate diameters satisfy the condition of 70. Prove that OP = a + b + c . If. OR. provo that of the section of the (2. OQ. OQ. for conjugate lines. 16. Similarly OR bisects all chords of the conic which are parallel to OQ .). 36). O Ex. bisects all chords of the conicoid which are parallel to OR. & The v2 v* locus of the point of intersection of three tangent z2 z2 ~2+. are extremities of the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid oy the diametral plane of OP. S + Js + ^ = Shew l. / 1 7r 1 +jp 27r a +/? 37ra constant. conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid.
is however. Hence it appears that the x. 0. 5 the axes are rectangular. Hence are the extremities. /3. z. and therefore we represents a cone. We easily find.$=1. we have and Aj 2 . ?/3 23 ) are the extremities of a set of conjugate semidiameters of the hyperboloid of one sheet.c 2 + A 2 . (0.^ . a2 6 2 c 2 intersects the surface. interg A/2 two sheets whose equation s~~ /Ja + ^^l . A homogeneous equation of the form If (#'. but they intersect the hyperboloid of one sheet. (x.g2 are taken as the extremities at the points (0. The equation of a hyperboloid of one sheet referred to three conjugate diameters as yfi coordinate axes points yaxes meet the zaxis does not intersect the surface. and the axes are rectangular. 78. sects the hyperboloid of y the surface in real 3 ex. (a. (x^ y^ zj. OPH OQ . Q. (#3 . and these points of the third of the three conjugate diameters./ 2 . 0. R of intersection are taken as their extremities.A3 =(6V+ cWaW). the following results : . if A! one of a set of three conjugate diameters of the hypery& sheets. Hence. the vertex being are conjugate diametral planes and the coordinate axes are conjugate diameters. and the points if P. as in the case of the other centra] conicoids.2 ).a2 62). if P. and that The 2axis.and 0). . also on the cone. R. y\ z) is any point on the cone. the othel ' two do not.77.c2 a2 . 0). that if etc. ( x'9 y'. 1 jj2 2 + &2 . is ^ + '4^ fj ?/ 2 2 = !.78] PROPERTIES OF THE CONE 119 Conjugate diameters of the hyperboloids.Aa2 . "~5 2 T Ti b* ?/ ZL cl 9 == * J as for the ellipsoid. z') lies may consider the centre. Q. y). #2 a* it follows. THE CONE. The coordinate planes the cone as a central surface. xf+xfx=a\ y?+y?y2^>\ and therefore.A32 = i (62c2 .OR 2 and Similarly. 2 = 2 2 2 boloid of two g2 ' 9^5. that 2 *i*+*f%*= c .
& y) is given by section aoLx+b(3y+cyz=Q.e. R. .120 COORDINATE GEOMETRY at (#'. in . Q. and therefore the triangle PQR is selfpolar with Conversely. They are given by (ax 2 + by* + cz*) (aa? + + cy = (aax + bfiy 2 ) f cyzf. RP and PQ polar of P with respect to the conic. meet any plane in P. touches the cone if The plane The The lx+my+nz polar plane of P. QR is the Similarly. /?. (a. y) has the equation of the line x/l = y/m The diametral plane The z/n is alx + bmy + cnz = 0. /?. whose centre is at (a. which any secant through P cuts the conic i. are the polars of Q and R. fca VIL The tangent plane y'9 z) has for its equation axx' + byy' + czz' = 0. OQ. any three diameters of the cone. (fig. (. conjugate The plane meets the cone in a conic. if PQR respect to the conic. 37. 37). OR. and QR is the locus of the harmonic conjugates of P with respect to the points Coitfugate diameters. The diametral plane of OP is also the polar plane of P. Let OP. y) is the pair of tangent planes whose 2 ft/3 line of intersection is OP. Fio. locus of the tangents drawn from P..
Ex. R. 10. Find the equation to the normal plane (i. 8. Ex. ORP. 9.. Draw a figure shewing the cone and The section of a hyperboloid by a plane which JEx. 1. passes =l. the two hyperboloids.r f by + C2 =0. in generators of the cone a(b + c)x*+b(c+a)y*+c(a 46)^=0. a.ry0 Aa2 +B62 +Cc2 =0.78) is PKOPERTIES OF THE CONE 121 triangle self polar with respect to the conic in which the plane PQR cuts the cone. 7. The hyperboloids have the same asymptotic cone. is parallel If a plane through the origin cuts the cones itt lines which form a harmonic I pencil. the generator xjl =y/m = z/n. 5. The locus of the asymptotic lines drawn from O to the 2 2 2 2 2 aaP+by + cz ~I is the asymptotic cone a. and therefore . the vertex. Ex. +a a+ b 2 z r j 2x. Ex. For the polar plane of P passes any through the line QR and through P. OP. Planes which cut ax2 + by2 + cz 2 ~Q in perpendicular generators touch = ^  j 0fc c z . the plane PQR touches the ellipsoid. Ex. and OR. Ex.e. 3. at right anglea to the tangent plane) of the cone aa?+by2 +cz2 Q which passes through . to a tangent plane of the asymptotic cone is a parabola. If three conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid meet the director sphere in P. it touches the cone 9/ y 2 I For the following examples the axes are rectangular.= 0. OQ. 4. Q. then Ex. OR are conjugate diameters of the cone. OPQ or the diametral plane of OP are the diametral planes of OQ conicoid 2.r2 6. The lines of intersection 2 +by +cz*=Q which of pairs of tangent planes to touch along perpendicular generators lie on the cone a2 (b+c)x2 +b2 (c+a)y2 +c2 (a+b)z2 =0. . OQR is the polar plane of and similarly. 2 2 2 Perpendicular tangent planes to o# 46# +c3 =C intersect Ex. If the cone A^4B/f Cs2 through a set of conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid 2 +2F^+2G^+2H.
2 7/ ^+^ = 2k This ellipse is imaginary unless k and c have the same sign. 38 shews the form and of the surface for a positive value of c. / THE PARABOLOIDS. If the two cones flw^+6?/2 + 2 =0. Fig. [CH. any_ two planes which pass through their four common generators are at right angles. 38. The sections of the surface by planes parallel to the coordinate planes are parabolas.122 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 11.8y2 +y28 =0 have each sets of three mutually perpendicular generators. The locus of the equation The equation variable ellipse (1) represents the surface generated by the = x2 fc. 12. hence the centre of the FIG. ellipse lies on OZ if c>0 and on OZ 7 if c<0. YOZ. Vll Ex. oLrz H. planes of the cone Lines drawn through the origin at right angles to normal ax2 + by2 + cz*=Q generate the cone Ex. ZOX . The position surface is the elliptic paraboloid. 79.
Conjugate diametral planes.79. o a The sections by planes YOZ. shews the form arid position of the surface for fig. z = 0. Each therefore Such pairs of parallel to the chords bisected by the other. parallel to The planes YOZ. and 2*2 z=L its The hyperbola real for all real values of k.80] PROPERTIES OF THE PARABOLOIDS (2) represents the surface generated 123 The equation by the is variable hyperbola x ~ ^=. XOY into conjugate hyperbolas whose asymptotes are parallel to XZ yZ = 277 0. plane 2 = 0. When y2 fg U centre passes in turn 7c = the hyperbola degenerates into the two lines CL % of the surface = 0. An equation of the form represents a paraboloid. through every point on Z'Z. The surface is the hyperbolic paraboloid. and hence the plane XOY is the tangent bisect chords is plane at the origin. are parabolas. ZOX OX and OY respectively. project on tho Pio. 39 value of c. Any line in the plane XOY which passes through the origin meets the surface in two coincident points. The sections z= fc by the planes z = k. are called conjugate diametral planes of the paraboloid planes . 39. a negative ZOX and 80.
equations to a line through A are I and the m A n the distances from line to the points of intersection of the and the paraboloid are given by 2 ^<jd +bm*)+2r(aod+b/3mn)+aa?+b(p~2y=0.(1) = m = 0. One of the coordinate axes is the diameter through the point of contact. principal planes.VIL y). and P 2n is Such a line is called the extremity of the diameter. Diameters. m  . and therefore a parallel to the 0axis meets the paraboloid in one point at an infinite distance. so that the tangent at O is at right angles to the diameter through O.l + bftm n)~" a diameter. as in 67. COORDINATE GEOMETRY ft. If the axes are rectangular. bn . y= Y n <& . 2OX are then is the axis. and in a point P whose distance from ~~ A is given by . and therefore .. If line i . as coordinate planes. y) on the paraboloid. and two conjugate diametral planes through the point of contact. Ex. [CH. ]8. an I 72 ^>==. the equation to the tangent plane at the point (a. If A is the point (a. ~ . and the diameter through O The coordinate planes YOZ. We find. What surface is represented by the equation xy Tangent planes.124 81. one value of r is infinite..2(aa. plane O is the vertex of the paraboloid. Hence ax* + by 2 ~2z represents a paraboloid. 82. referred to a tangent plane. y) is the point of contact. If lx+my+nz=p a== is a tangent plane and (a. /3.
9. the locus of the midpoints of chords parallel to OP. x/l alx + bmy n 0. and conversely any plane If OQ. plane of OP.e. Diametral planes. three z)++^ = Cb O f (r=l. 2.8183] TANGENT AND DIAMETRAL PLANES 125 Hence 2n(Lx+my+nz){hr. 3. whose parallel to the axis is a diametral plane.2 + bfi2  2y) = (aouc 4. Two perpendicular tangent planes to the paraboloid . (8. 1. Shew to the paraboloid that the locus of the tangents from a point ax2 4.2z)(ao. Shew that the plane &#6y 2=5 touches the paraboloid " 2 3 ~* and find the coordinates of the point of contact. Ex.y 2 ) . 5).2.bfy/ z. = ylm~z/n.by 1 = 2* is given by 2 (GL. y) (ax* f fy/ . Ex. Am. 4. / / / is parallel to the diametral are #/ i//m ==2/ir equations = . . Find the locus of points from which three mutually perpendicular tangents can be drawn to the paraboloid.+r 2z intersect in a straight line lying in the plane #=0. is given by 83. If a line OP has equations the diametral plane of OP. i. and therefore the locus of the point of intersection of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes is a plane at right angles to the axis of the paraboloid. Ex. If the axes are rectangular and m 2 is the equation to is parallel the tangent plane to the paraboloid which to the 2n r (l^+m ry+n r represent we have. Shew that the line touches the parabola Ex. Ans. /?. mutually perpendicular tangent planes. Hence all diametral planes are parallel to the axis of the paraboloid.= a o plane lx+my+nz=0. by addition. 3).
Any parallel diametral planes cut diametral plane cuts the paraboloid in a parabola.4 z . 3. paraboloid Prove that the feet of the normals from any point to the lie on a cubic curve. 2 of parallel plane y it bisects. al'x the plane z = k. x. z') referred to rectangular axes. Equation (1) is the condition that the lines alx + bmy = Q.r ZT 2 y' __ normal passes through a given point (a. . 4. $.VII Henco OP is parallel to the diametral plane of OQ.  T=~ =_. (#'. should be conjugate diameters of the conic axz +by 2 = 2L Hence any plane + bm'y^Q. The locus of the centres of a system sections of a paraboloid is a diameter. Ex. in lines Ex. y). and it in equal parabolas. Ex. The normals. and the diametral planes of OP and OQ are conjugate. + (5 = 2& The plane 3. J and This equation gives five values of X. 6j? 8 2. 1. Ex. If ~^ + ^2z qj2 represents an elliptic paraboloid.  1 Therefore ~ = . y '. 2j2 84. in meets a pair of conjugate diametral planes of a paraboloid which are parallel to conjugate diameters of the conic in which the plane meets the surface. say.5 A Am . and hence there are five points on the paraboloid the normals at which pass through a given point.126 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH.#f4y=l is a diametral plane of the paraboloid Find the equations to the chord through (3. 5) which #3 ?/ . 1. the normal at has for equations x~x' _y ~7 a2 If this z^z>_ t ~~.
Ex. 127 y) to the paraboloid ' Ex. Ex. 1. Shew to the paraboloid that the feet of the normals from the point x2 +y2 = 2az He on the sphere (OL. on an ellipsoid.83. (a. lies 5. Two 2 ao^f bi/ asymptotic lines can be drawn from a point P to a conicoid +cz2 ~l. 6. . Plane sections of an ellipsoid which have their centres on a fixed straight line and touch given straight line are parallel to a a parabolic cylinder. P and tangent plane at P in S. cuts the surface of is the conic in which the polar plane of PQ A 5. (OL. . two of the three normals coincide. ft. and they are at right angles if P lies on the cone a2 (b + c)x2 + b2 (c + (% 2 + c 2 (a + b)z 2 = 0. passes through a fixed point A. drawn from a given point = Ex. ft.r2 h^ 2 )8(a2!) 3 0. Shew that the centre of the circle through the feet of the three normals from the point (OL. ft. y) to the paraboloid /OL ft 4' U' y+a\ TV * Examples IV. ft. plane 3. y) Ex. at P and 4. and is Shew that the locus of the mid point parallel to the plane XOY. 6. (a. 7. y). Prove that the perpendicular from on the cone. 2.84] EXAMPLES IV. In general three normals can be y) to its polar to the paraboloid of revolution z*+y 2 = 2az. The in auc2 + fti/ 2 + ys2 =0 cuts the cone which the plane lx + my + are conjugate diameters of the ellipse in which it ! m=Q line cuts the ellipsoid r +fy+~5 a2 b* c* Prove that the 7=m=n I ~ lies on the cone 3. ^___^ lie ^_^ ~~z^y~ lies Prove that the cubic curve on this cone. ft. but if the point lies on the surface 27(. Q are p p2 prove that PR QS=p2 : 'Pi The line of intersection of the tangent planes at P and Q. 4. lines 2. points on ax2 + 6y 2 +C22 =l. Shew the axis of that the greatest value of the shortest distance between x and a normal to the ellipsoid x2/a?+y2/b 2 +z2/c 2 =l is bc. Prove that the normals from on the cone XCL yft Ex.. The normal at P meets the the normal at Q meets the tangent plane at If the perpendiculars from the centre to the tangent planes Q are points Q in R lf .
[CH. . Deduce that the lines through a given point P. Chords of a conicoid which are parallel to a given diameter and are such that the normals at their extremities intersect. The ellipsoid which has as conjugate diameters the three straight lines that bisect pairs of opposite edges of a tetrahedron touches the edges. Q. and />. a* 2 /a 2 f where p at P.128 7. Shew that the projections of the normals to an ellipsoid at P. c^l meet Shew that the plane PQR touches the conicoid where 1 1 =<s C{ 1 tl C\ 9. the plane through the feet of the perpendiculars passes through the fixed point * n / i a \ r n z oL cz \ b z /3 f y If perpendiculars be drawn from any point P on the ellipsoid 2 = 2 2 2 l to any three conjugate diametral planes. lie in a fixed plane through the given diameter. 14. the iy /6 fz /c through the feet of the perpendiculars meets the normal at P at plane a fixed point whose distance from P is 12. /?. plane at right angles to OP drawn parallel to OP. 11. the extremities of conjugate diameters on the plane PQR. p 2 are The perpendicular from O to the tangent is p. OQ. which are per2 pendicular to their polars with respect to aP/a?+y*/b + aP/cP=l lie upon a right circular cone if P lies on one of the lines 9 15. OR are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid At Q and R tangent lines are their distances from O. R. is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane 13. 10. Prove that 8. COORDINATE GEOMETRY OP. Shew that the equations to the right circular cones that pass through the axes (which are rectangular) &vsyzzxxy=*Q. vn. are concurrent. If through any given point (a. Q. Find the locus of centres of sections of a conicoid that are at a constant distance from the centre. y) perpendiculars are drawn 2 to any three conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid # /a 2 f # 2 /6 2 + z2 /c 2 1. Conjugate diameters of a l jc2 + b l y 2 + in P.. R.
b) W . The normals to x /a +y /b +z /c =l at all points of its intersection with lyz + mzx + nxy = V intersect the line cpjc _ #ty c2z 20. P. If the feet of the six normals from (a.+1=0. *)} The normals at P and P'.. lie on the cone a(b . is 24. a.6). a 2a2 ^1) + 5/J2 >f ^1 ^ + C2 y2 () = 0. 7) are (*r. r a b c and P lies on the . 2. the sum of the squares of whose normal distances from the ellipsoid ^2/a 2 +.os2 =0. 129 16. . Q' R' are the feet of the six normals from a point Prove that the poles of the to the ellipsoid jfl/a*+y*lP+g*/c* = l. 2 2 2 2 2 2 19. The perpendiculars from the origin to the faces of the tetrahedron whose vertices are the feet of the four normals from a point to the cone o^+fi*/2 !.cW + b(c . (= 2).] EXAMPLES IV. & with PP'. The locus of a point.r2 f 2 fe?/ + c22 =l if lie in and that they are at right angles the plane 23. P'Q'R' lie on the surface v^y ilPz*<&u* \ (j*. . Prove that two normals to =*p. PQR. P to the ellipsoid If the feet of three l ie "* the normals from ^+r5H^5 =1 a* b* <P lie n the plane +?+==!. P'.CH. prove that 25. planes 18. the r a o c feet of the other three line in the plane f'rf r.y 2/& 2 + * 2/c2 = l is constant.a)V + c(a . points of the ellipsoid meet the plane XOY in A and A' and make angles Prove that PA cos 6+ P'A'cos 6' =0.yr v). Shew that the points on an ellipsoid the normals at which intersect a given straight line lie on the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and a conicoicl. Q.. 17.0.VII.a = . ft. 0.r=l. its The normals to x2/a 2 +i/2/b 2 +z2/c2 = 1 at points of 21. R . with x/a+y/b + z/c^l lie on the surface intersection 22.
1 . Q. 27. 26. l04 f 6ft/?2 + cyjy. OQ = r2 OR=r3 OPQR can be written . the pair of tangent planes at the points where AD cuts the conicoid S^oa^f by 2 +cz2 1=0 is given by ^ 1 _ 2Pl p2 p12+ S. 1 +6/J 1 2 +cy 1  1. vn.yX+bptf + cytf1) etc. and OP =5^.P/=0. by and the pair where of tangent planes that intersect in S saa. . .). P^aa. If A. If P. (02. (xlt y lf 2.. B are (a lt fl n yO. AB. etc. P 12 ~ aa. /82 y*). prove that the equation to the sphere and prove that the locus of the centres of spheres through the origin and the extremities of three equal conjugate semidiameters is . ^ 2 ^) R > (^3 V^ *s) are y>2 e extremities ti? 2 2 2 of three conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid ^f j*\ = 1. .130 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY . (ur2 . [CH.
we first form the equation to a cone whose vertex is the centre. 3).86. 85. We General method for determining the axes. the generator of contact being the The condition of tangency gives an equation which axis. and they are equally If r = a or /3. 86. rectangular axes. the two diameters of inclined to the axes. C.85. or the plane touches the cone. of the conicoid lx+my+nz 0. We have proved. that and similarly situated conies. and that parallel plane 54. are the semidiameters of length r of the conic. Exs. 2. determines r the comparison of the equations of the given to the directionplane and a tangent plane to the cone leads . If the lengths of the axes of a conic are 2oc and r /3. cosines of the generator of contact. Axes of the section of a central conicoid by a Let the equations. is ( section of a conicoid sections are similar every plane a conic. THE AXES OF A PLANE SECTION OF A CONICOID. referred to and plane be plane through the centre. the conic 2/3. 2r coincide with an axis. l. these are coincident.) CHAPTER VIII. . of the conic and which has as generators the lines of length r which can be drawn in the plane from C The lines of section of this cone and the to the conicoid. Hence to find the axes length a> > which a given plane cuts a conicoid. given plane of the conic in If 2r is the length of an axis. now to find equations to determine the magnitudes and proceed directions of the axes of a given plane section of a given conicoid. and has two diameters of length 2r.
(1) The lines of section of the cone and plane are the semidiameters of the conic of length r. fir. if r is the length of either semi ax is of the conic in which the plane lx+my + nz cone.... The * If 2r is the length of an axis and X...= = ) ) I m n ...1/r2 = 0. M> v are the direction cosines. Thus the cone is . the given plane touches the cone (1) along the line oj/X == ///* == 0/V...1/r2) + vz(c... and therefore is represented by the equation \x(a ...132 COORDINATE GEOMETRY of the conicoid //. the plane touches the and therefore or roots of this quadratic in r 2 give the squares of the semiaxes of the section. is also the centre of the If X. diameter of the conicoid of length Therefore is on the conicoid. vin. The centre section. Since the extremities of the semidiameters of length r of the a lie upon the sphere aP+y2 + 2 =r 8 the equation of the cone them may be obtained by making the equation to the conicoid through homogeneous by means of the equation to the sphere. vr) Hence the semidiameters generators of the cone of the conicoid of length r are x\al/r*)+y*(bl/r*)+z\cl/i*) = Q . v are the directioncosines of a semir. the point (Xr. Hence.. [CH...1/r Therefore 2 + py(b. cuts the conicoid.. ^ ' These determine the directioncosines of the axis of length conicoid 2r. ... \vhich is another form of equation (1). ..
What is the corresponding section of the hyperboloid of two sheets which has the same asymptotic cone 1 Ex. Find the lengths of the semiaxes of the conies given by 2 2 (i) 3* + 2/ + 62 =l. 6. (i) 64. Ex. (ii) 3'08. Prove that the axes of the section of the conicoid ! by the plane Lx+my+w^Q lie on the cone (From equations (3) we deduce that Ex.86] AXES OF CENTEAL SECTIONS 1. Prove that the lengths of the semiaxes of the section of the ellipsoid of revolution a. x+y+z=0. is constant . '76. '45 . Prove that the equation of the conic + 2?/2 ~222 =:l. parallel to the given plane. Prove that the cone of Ex. 4. Central sections of an ellipsoid whose area envelope a cone of the second degree. The section of the conicoid plane to the cone 222 a#2 +&y2 + cs2 =l by a tangent is a rectangular hyperbola. where p is is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane which 7. 1 passes through the normal to the plane of section and the diameter to which the plane of section is diametral plane. 3. 6. Ans. 5. 77. 8. 133 Ex. (/ 2 f m2 )' Prove that the area of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane lx+my+m=:0 is 2L?. 2. 9. Ex. are and that the equations to the axes are w"~i""* 75~~m~" Ex. (Cf. (ii) 2o?2 +#2 *2 =l. Ex. ^ referred to its principal axes. The section of a hyperboloid of one sheet by a tangent plane to the asymptotic cone is two parallel straight lines.2yz=0. 3^+4^ + 52=0. ~^2^+^ =1 ty > the plane rfwyHw=0. Ex. Prove also that the cone passes through two sets of conjugate diameters of the conicoid.) Ex.2? . is l7(te 8 approximately 177^ = 1. 3.
Let the equations. /3. are the areas of three mutually perpendicular 2 + A 2 . . 2 If the line lies in the given plane and therefore. 10. if is conicoid. y are the directioncosines of a line of length drawn from C to the conicoid. \ a a. Ex. Axes of any section of a central ax* + by* +cz2 = l. A 2 . of the conicoid and plane be Ix+my + nz =p. the C. . .(nx .F == 0. Ar . by (1). /x. 11.134 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. is the plane 12. central sections of an ellipsoid. ^ .c . Prove that the axes of sections of the conicoid which pass through the & r line ^ b ^=T=m n I lie on the cone bsj (ly ' x (mz ny) c. 2 to the plane is now 0. If X. y) also represented by the equation mu Therefore j? OJCL I bB _ = : = cy m n ' a p Hence a The equation through C or is to the conicoid referred to parallel axes where 2 ax*+by*+cz*+ 2(aouc+b/3y+cyz). A. =0. _ 87. via Ex.A.2 f A3 ~ 2 is constant. If AJ. 2 p 2 & sl ^o ^. Then plane is the centre of the section. (a. One of the axes of each section to the cone of the ellipsoid lies d ^ +c =1 5 by a tangent plane y*+z=x* on the cone What Ex. XOY the nature of the section of this cone by a plane parallel to ? Sketch the form of the cone. The equation lx+my+nz = r 7' 2 (aX 2 + bp? + cv ) + 2r (aaX + bfin + cyv) . y lz) \ z mx) = 0. . referred to rectangular axes.
as in 86. Therefore . A A (l x ~). the plane touches the cone. We thus have another proof for central surfaces of the proposition that parallel plane sections are similar and similarly situated conies. the semiaxes of the section by the plane /cot Ix+my+nzp are and /c/3. and therefore the semidiameters of the section of length r on the cone If r is the length of either semiaxis of the section. by a given plane and the Po = through the centre. or / Jp I ^ and that the corresponding axes are parallel. section of the ellipsoid ih^+i^ c u a ^^ e P' anfc * + n*)* .&2 (\2 + //2 + 2 1> ) = 0.+ ar 2 . From equations (4) it follows that if A.87] AXES OF NONCENTRAL SECTIONS r (a\ 2 2 136 Hence lie + 6/x + 2 ci/ 2 ) . 6?2 __ And. where ' PQ are the perpendiculars from the centre to the given Thus the area of the plane and the parallel tangent plane. the directioncosines of the axis of length 2r are given by I m n (3) Comparing these equations with equations (2) and (3) of we see that if ot and /3 are the lengths of the semiaxes of the section by the plane lx+my+ nz = Q. A are the areas of the sections of a conicoid parallel plane p.
while for OB ( = /?). 87. OB.z = 0. x* ft  3>/3 5. Ana. Ex. 2. 2. 4. OA. "The cone chosen passes through the lines of length r which lie in the given plane. . y. 8. Find the area of the section by the plane x/a +y/b + z/c = 1. are the principal semiaxes of the section of the diametral Prove that in C.136 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. via The student should note that the equation to the cone through all to the conicoid would be obtained the lines of length r drawn from by making the equation C It would be our purpose we require a cone of the second degree. z)=o . (Take OP. Prove that the axes of the section whose centre is P are the straight lines in which the plane of section cuts the cone containing the normals from P. Vffi'TOP OQ. (ii) 2x + y . and these lines alone need be considered. AOB OP oVl ^OCVOP 3 /J>/1OC 2/OP 2 and . the principal axes of tne section of the conicoid by this plane are Ex. 1. Ex. 2. 9. =l whose area is constant.'TV z* 2 i X' 7/ 7 + Z 1=0 which #2 ?/ 2 cut . 6. Ex. . Find the locus of the centres of sections of the z2 jr ellipsoid 2 ?/ ~2+To + O A An*. (i) Vg. deduce equations (4). 3. Am. OR are conjugate semidiameters of an ellipsoid the area of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane PQR is of the ellipsoid a Ex.). If prove that twothirds the area of the parallel central section. = 7r#2 ( ). 2 have their points a 4 on th surface z* +' 4 T= * Ex. OP A .) Ex. meets plane parallel to plane of OP.z = 0.Hjjf a of contact 1 =0 . 7. Find the coordinates of the centre and the lengths of the semiaxes of the section of the ellipsoid 3# 2 + 3y 2 + 6z 2 = 10 by the plane /2 2 1\ A /44 N/44 . in ellipses of constant area irk 2 J? * a* ?. Prove that the axes of the section of f(x. is a given semidiameter of a conicoid and OA( = . V5'5'5J Ex. as coordinate axes. Prove that tangent planes to ^4. (ii) 2. surface 4yz Find the lengths of the semiaxes of the sections of the + 5zx &xy = 8 by the planes (i) x + y . Ex. 2 2= 2 2 r homogeneous by means of the equation # +y +z of the fourth degree.
^^. Prove that the axes of the section ax2 + by2 + C22 =0 of the cone by the plane to+my+mp are given by . Changing the origin 87. and the paraboloid are ax2 + by2 = 20. v. ft. is given by Whence aa. where 88. Axes of a given section of a paraboloid.z2^2 = 0. satisfy the equation The semidiameters are therefore the plane cuts the cone lines in which the #2 (<mV2 2V2 ) f t/ 2 (&nV2 p I 2 . T . we find that X.88] AXES OF SECTION OF PAKABOLOID Ix+my+nzQ are given by 137 by the plane where A == be / 2 etc. (a. 10. y). say. n ^+ m +. Ix + my + nz =p. y) the directioncosines of a semi diameter of length r of the section. and proceeding as in /3. *"" *""" i ^^ 7n~ "" /*. lines in which the plane cuts the cone Ex. If the equations to the plane the centre of the section. 2 ) . Prove also that the axes are the . to (a. Hence the lengths of the axes are given by m 2 or and the direction cosines by m n .
plane section through the vertex of the paraboloid of revolution x*+y*=2az makes an angle with the axis of the surface. Given that the radius of curvature at a point P of a conic whose centre is C is equal to CD 3 /o. a cot 0. vm. 3. If into the form F = 0. the equation to a conicoid. 1. Planes are drawn through a fixed point (a. CIRCULAR SECTIONS.4a 4 Z 2 m 2 (J 2 + m 2 + rc 2 ) =0. 89. Prove that the semiaxes of the section of the paraboloid y = az by the plane to + my + nz=Q are given by n'r* . v of the conicoid and planes lie on the sphere. can be thrown S + \uv = Q. Ex. /?./?. A Find the locus of the centres of sections of the paraboloid are of constant area x2 . Ex. (P+m*)*(*w* + WV(P+w2 + Ex. Ix + my + nz = 0. y) so that their sections of the paraboloid oA + 6y 2 = 2s are rectangular hyperProve that they touch the cone bolas. and therefore the sections of the conicoid by the planes are circles. Prove that its principal semiaxes are a cot 6 cosec 0. 528.4a a r 2 Z 2 m 2 w 2 . 6. the common points = sphere and u 0. 90. Ex. referred to rectangular axes. Ex. find the radius of curvature at the origin of the conic ax 2 + by 2 2z.138 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [OH. The equa tion. t!4 *)~*. where S = is the equation to a = represent planes. 5. The circular sections of an ellipsoid. of the ellipsoid.=2z which a A) v2 rf. 4. can be written in the forms . Am. Find the lengths of the semiaxes of the section of the paraboloid 2s a + y* = z by the plane x + 2y + z = 4. Ex.* + f. where and ft are the semiaxes and CD is the semidiameter conjugate to CP. 2. 1 68. 4rw. .
the equations a c give circular sections for all values of 91. Since parallel plane sections are similar and similarly situated conies.8992] CIRCULAR SECTIONS 139 Hence the planes cut the ellipsoid in circles of radii a. 92. Any not parallel two circular sections of an ellipsoid which are lie on a sphere. X and /*. 6. (I which represents a sphere. by of the ellipsoid pass through the mean axis. c respectively. The equation \a c \)(2j^^ /\a o / and represents a conicoid which passes through the section^ 2 if k = fe the equation becomes . sections of the method we deduce hyperboloids. and are given the equations =& = 0. Circular of 90. and therefore the only real central circular sections a>6>f. By the that the real central circular sections of the hyperboloids . If only the second of these equations gives real planes.
p"^^ 1 b7 the plane ~N/a 2 +62 +~>/^c2 =X is real if X2 >a 2 rc Ex. 4. (Use 91. VIIL are given a of the central circular sections of the hyperThe planes given by boloid of one sheet is a. 2=0. Chords of the ellipse o? 2 /a 2 2 2 to make equal angles with its axes. 6. Find the locus of the centres of spheres of constant radius 2 k which cut the V2 Z* ellipsoid $+]&+ 5= 1 in a pair of circles.) +# /& =l.140 COORDINATE GEOMETRY by [CH. are drawn so as and on them as diameters circles are described whose planes are parallel to OZ. Ex. real central circular sections of the ellipsoid Ans. Circular sections of any central comcoid. Prove that the section of the hyperboloid 2 ~ 2 . The radius a do not meet the hyperboloid of two sheets in any real They are the planes through the centre parallel to systems of planes which cut the surface in real circles. points. 5.110=0. x*4z*=0. 2. Prove that the radius of the circle in which the plane cuts the ellipsoid *++i tf is Ex. circles generate the ellipsoid 2222 93. 2o?f 325 Ex. 2. Prove that these 2 2 Ex. 3. Find the 8. Prove that the planes 2 2 a?+3y +I2z =75 = 0. 1. An equation of the form . Ex.r3zf7 = lie the hyperboloid in circles which meet on the sphere s.
IQyz +4zx. 145. may be written z)f(x. (i) (ii) (iii) *ya real central Ex.A. that these are always real.IQxy Ans. Find the real central circular sections of the conicoid 3^ + 5^+ 3s2 +2. X^+yt+z ) =0 represents 2 or A. = 2 4.03= 4. It can be shown This equation gives three values of X. g 0.92. 2^ + 5#2 +222 #*4#. 2. (i) (ii) (iii) Cr~2y Ex. .14*4? 10ry+ 27=0. 6^ + 13. and that only the mean value 1 gives real planes. Find the equations to the 2 2 5y 82 + 18# circular sections of the conicoids. 1. 144. For these values a pair of planea. y. y. Hence if s)X( represents a pair of planes. 1. f(x. Ex. h. these planes cut the conicoid in For a pair of planes circles. =4 and have equations =0.y2 f 6 2 . of \ the equation to the planes becomes The real circular sections correspond therefore to A.ryf 40. 3. The equation may be written If ar2 45?/ 2 4322 f 2xz A3 lU2 f 38X40=0. or 5. . a.93] SECTIONS OF CENTKAL CONICOIDS It 141 represents a central conicoid. Find the equations to the circular sections of the conicoid X 1 ?/ Z +5+=^ See the author's Coordinate Geometry of Three Dimensions.
) . (c a)m 2 2/wm+(6 a)w2 =0. r2 = Ex. we obtain (We assume here that tii.e. Find the conditions that the equations circle. ^. cuts the surface. one of which is y. the only real planes are those given 2 2 by a# f &?/ ==0. x\a which meet the paraboloid circular sections are given b) = bz2 in circles. .142 COOEDINATE GEOMETRY 4. They 1. Ex. Ans. Ex. straight are the straight lines in which the plane z = ( i. represents real planes and the systems of by x\la b z*/b x\/ab+z*Jb = \. in the forms. axz +by 2 = 2z may be written Circular sections of the paraboloids. Therefore Whence. and therefore the sphere containing is in this case of infinite radius.. The equation 0z2 0a. = ]m. joy. however. circular sections of the paraboloid #2 4. The equation a Hence if a> 6>0. If. TI are all different from zero. Find the A. Find the radius of the circle in which the plane 7^+225 cuts the paraboloid 5&F2 + 4y* Sz. 79). and the circular sections are circles of infinite radius. + 02/ + 2 + 2z = is the limiting form of as to the circular sections lines. via. the conditions become (A=a). a or b 2 is negative. If =0. 94. *) A(A 2 + ?/ the given plane. comparing A coefficients of yz9 zx.10s2 =2y. Atis. 2 +22)==0 is to represent two planes. #3*= 2. <7 = A=0. tends to zero. should determine a The equation /(a. [CH.
These give the coordinates of the four umbilics. sections of a conicoid lie centres of a series of parallel plane upon a diameter of the conicoid at an extremity of the diameter is and the tangent plane If. and P and P' may be regarded as circular sections of zero radius. the diametral plane of OP Therefore the equations a central circular section. . A circular section of zero Fio. UMBILICS The 143 Umbilics. o" c z* f) is an umbilic. It is evident from the form of the hyperboloid of one sheet that the smallest closed section is the principal elliptic section and that the surface has therefore no real umbilics.95l 95. therefore. a* b& c* a Hence ~*~c represent the same plane. the tangent planes at P and P' are the limiting positions of the cutting planes. P and P' (fig. radius is called an umbilic. 40) parallel to the plane sections. 40. are the extremities of the diameter which passes through the centres of a system of circular sections of an ellipsoid. To find If P> is ( cc 2 1/ 2 the uinbilics of the ellipsoid 2 a n> + f? + 2 = l.894.
via The umbilics two sheets a?~~^~ l are real and given .b) x% + ay 1 f (a + b)z* = 1 by are given Prove that the central circular sections of the conicoid are at right angles and that the umbilics a~ x= J^!L^ i2a(ab) y=0. V of the umbilics of the ellipsoid Ex. Ex. . 4. 8. . A2) A 3 are the areas of the sections of the ellipsoid . (a 3. S lf 52 ^ 83 are the areas of the sections of the ift XT' II Z^ Z^ == l> ellipsoids j^tpf a^l* 2+g2+*~2 by three conjugate diametral planes of the former. +^4^ i. 4. 2. 2.. /ig. ' 2 n. f a2 +c2 ellipsoid lie on the sphere Prove that the umbilics of the Ex. If A.62 A2\ O .144 COORDINATE GEOMETEY of the hyperboloid of 2 [en. .b Ex. are (o. Prove that if An fiit vl A2 . *= J V2a(a ^r a. 5. .+?* =2*. CL a>b.A. . 6. af 2/ s 2 . J 92. v2 are the directioncosines of the axes of any plane section of the ellipsoid A. by g= 1. * 1. If Ai. from the Deduce the coordinates result of Ex. Prove that the perpendicular distance from the centre to the tangent plane at an umbilic of the ellipsoid is ac/b. Examples V. Prove that the umbilics of the conicoid 1 yf^H a+b a =l are the extremities of the equal conjugate diameters of the ellipse 6~ A Ex. A 9 A 3 .2 Prove that the umbilics of the paraboloid / 2 . b*Ja* .
/?. + ^. 145 mutually perpendicular semi ^ + ^ + J7 A.. . The normals ttC to the ellipsoid x coa"" 1 . 9. The plane +?+.2 =0 cuts the cyclic planes x*Ja bz*Jb c=Q in lines which lie upon a right circular cone whose axis is at right angles to the plane of contact. Through a given point (. with the section. 8. OR are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid. their common tangent planes touch them along per pendicular generators. . y) planes are rt drawn Z 2 parallel to three conjugate diametral planes of the ellipsoid that the sum of the ratios of the areas of the sections is by these planes to the areas of the parallel diametral planes 5. a y by c. 10. m n rj 6. Shew that the cone whose vertex is S and base is the section of the ellipsoid by the diametral plane parallel to the plane PQR has constant volume 7rafo/3\/3.* V aa 4. a o c Prove that the systems of circular sections of the cone 2 0. and that these also give circulai sections of the cone (aH/x)^f(6H/u. .2 y'l least area 02 1 of the ellipsoid a+'jb"*"^ which pass through the fixed line * I 3U*are^. . .= ! cuts a series of central coniooida whose principal planes are the coordinate planes in rectangular hyperbolas. 11.. by x*Ja bz\lb c X. If two cones with the same vertex have the same systems of circular sections. 5^ r 2 where rn r2 are the axes of the section by the plane '*+'^+^=0. Any tangent plane to a cone cuts the cyclic planes in lines equally inclined to the generator of contact. are given 7. Shew that the pole of the plane with respect to the conicoids lies on a cone whose section by the given plane is a circle. axes and S is the foot of the perpendicular from O to the plane PQR. OQ.)^ 2 +(c/jt)02 ==0. + = 1 at all points of a a* o* c a central circular section are parallel to a plane that makes an angle 12.EXAMPLES by the diametral planes of three diameters of lengths r^r^r^ AI V. OP. 3 ^2 ~ QZ ~~ yZ g p 02" Prove that the areas of the sections of greatest and 4. Any pair of tangent planes to the cone a#2 4&y2 +as.
which are of given eccentricity e. (=F). Shew that the axes of the section lie on the cone where p is the distance from the centre of a tangent plane any of the planes of section. 2 2 2 15. z'\ ellipsoid ^^"'p^"^ shew that the length of the axis is ^ (7/2 i where at P. If rlf r2 are the axes of a central section of an ellipsoid. Prove that the tangents at the vertices to the parabolic sections of the conicoid ajt?+by 2 +cz 2 ~l are parallel to generators of the cone 18. Shew that the centres of these hyperbolas on a fixed circle whose plane is parallel to one system of circular sections. The area a? of a central section of the ellipsoid 7/2 a+^ constant.146 13. parallel to 17. lie on the cone Find the locus of the centres of sections of eccentricity 19. such that the sum of the squares of their axes is constant. y. and tne angles between the section and the circular sections. COOEDINATE GEOMETRY 2 CH. the hyperboloid %+jy lie Through a fixed point which is the pole of a circular section of xz v* z* 2=1 are drawn planes cutting the surface in rectangular hyperbolas. is the conicoid 16. where a and 14. If the ellipsoid is is an axis 555 of some plane section is and P the point (a/. are the greatest and least axes of the ellipsoid. Prove that the normals to central sections of the a2+J2+ ?2 ellipsoid = l. vm. tfj. p is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane . The locus of the centres of sections of the cone oj? + 6# f C3 =0. e. Prove that the normal at any point P of an of the ellipsoid.
conic y=0. (The locus is the Wave Surface. If through the centre of the ellipsoid 'gf pfg is 1 a per to any central section and lengths equal to the pendicular axes of the section are marked off along the perpendicular. it meets the conicoid in a circle whose plane moves parallel to itself as the radius of the sphere varies. 147 20. If the section of the cone cM72 ffyy2 =l.CH. y) and base by the plane #=0 is a circle.6) yx . V* 2 ?/ 2 23.VIII. .) Prove that the asymptotes of sections of the conicoid line which pass through the #=A. y=0 lie on the surface 25. cV __ A where i^^jp+yt+z2 24. The normal section of an enveloping cylinder of the ellipsoid xP/aZ+i/t/b't+zt/c*^} has a given area irk*. Prove that the locus of the foci of parabolic sections of the 2= 2 2s is paraboloid a r +6y 1 ab(2z 22.Zaous also a circle. (a. ana the section of the cone by the plane 2 (a Is . j8.J EXAMPLES V. &=0. Prove that the equation to a conicoid referred to the tangent plane and normal at an umbilic as Ayplane and 2axis is If a variable sphere be described to touch a given conicoid at an umbilic. ax 2 whose vertex is P.ax*  2 ly^ax* + fy ) = a V + by. . . the locus of their extremities is given by drawn fry . then P lies on the fe 1. Prove that the plane of contact of the cylinder and ellipsoid touches the cone X*  if 21.
It is obviously impossible to assign values to X and /a so that the equations Hence the (1) become identical with the equations (2). In cones and cylinders we have examples of surfaces which are generated by a moving straight line. iv. o> I+BK) where X and /tx . equations give two distinct systems of lines... hyperboloid of one sheet is therefore a ruled surface and /JL 1 See Appendix.. CHAPTER GENERATING 96.. so as to generate the hyperboloid. p.. Ruled surfaces.. Similarly.. / 2 The equation 2 + ^2 may t/ 2 2 2 =1 which represents a hyper boloid of one sheet. LINES. < 2> are variable parameters.. be written.... .. As X assumes in turn all real values the line given by the equations (1) moves so as to completely generate the hyperboloid. no member of one coinciding with any member of the other. the line given by the equations (2) as The moves. We shall now prove that the hyperboloid of one sheet and the hyperbolic paraboloid are ruled surfaces.(OH. varies.. Whence it straight lines appears that the hyperboloid whose equations are is the locus of the SHOfr ... 1 IX.. Such surfaces are called ruled surfaces.
_*)&. \a b/ \a b/ Fio.96] GENERATING LINES 149 can be generated in two ways by the motion of a straight line. (?+*)(:. p 2s may be written which represents a hyperbolic paraboloid. (See fig. Whence it is evident that the paraboloid is the locus of either of the variable lines given by y T x y_z x o \ a rr^x' a = o x a y_z r^""' b ji x . 41.y_ b a rr is The hyperbolic paraboloid therefore a ruled surface .) In like manner the equation *2 2/2 2 = 2s. 41.
and can be generated in two ways by the motion of a The generating lines are (See fig. c Section of a ruled surface by the tangent plane at a point. " Ex. Since a hyperboloid of one sheet or a hyperbolic paraboloid is generated completely by each of two systems 97. (fig. 2cw 2 ). ix.150 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. 2cw2). m" on the parabola y = 0. one from each system. two generating lines. ^= o4 s . ex2 = 2a 2z. Each of these meets the surface at P coincident points. 0. Find tne locus of the lines joining the points for which. a* Ans. and therefore the lines in. FIG. CP.) straight line. lie at least. (i) in =TZ. 2= 2& 22. there pass through any point P. of the surface. CQ are any conjugate diameters of the ellipse C'P'. 26n. C'Q' are the conjugate diameters of the ellipse fc= c. and a "?*." on the parabola . is (0. 42. CP x2/a?+y2/b2 =l> Prove that the hyperboloid \4 p \ 1 is generated by either PQ' or P'Q. 43). 2. parallel to one of the fixed planes ct ~r = o Y nt 0. A point. (ii) m = .r=0. 1. 42 Ex.n. of straight lines. is (2aw. two in the tangent . cy point. drawn in the same directions as and CQ.
and the generating line is obviously part of the locus. The ruled conicoids can therefore be divided into two classes according . and therefore the section of the surface by the tangent plane at P is the conic composed of the two generating lines through P. For AB meets any generating line PQ in some point and AB and PQ both lie in the tangent plane at P. 161 plane at The tangent plane at P is therefore the plane the generators which pass through P. or the plane must pass through the given generating line and a second generating line which meets it. P.96. For the locus of points common to the surface and plane is a conic. It follows that if a straight line AB lies wholly on the conicoid it must belong to one of the systems of generating lines. But any through plane section of the surface is a conic. and therefore AB must be one of the generators. But Fio. the section of the surface sists of Again any plane through a generating line is the tangent plane at some point of the generating line. It is therefore the tangent plane at the point of intersection. 48. by the tangent plane at P conthe two generators through P.97] SECTION OF CONICOID BY TANGENT PLANE P. The locus must therefore consist of two straight lines. The intersection of a cone or cylinder with a tangent plane consists of two coincident generators.
/3+mr...... If this equation is lies wholly on the conicoid........ 43).. y+nr). The required conditions are therefore . y..... If the generators are coincident. r. and therefore If A = B = C = 0... 2)=() may be written... n. (see fig.+lr. the line a generator of the z +cy =1.... To find the conditions that a given straight line should be a generator of a given conicoid.. The equation is therefore satisfied by all and every point of the line lies on the 99. (cn+lr.. on + 6m2 + en ) + 2r(aai + 6/8m + cyn) and an identity. ft. z) second degree. whose directionratios are I. (3) . all points of a given three points of a straight line lie the straight line lies wholly on the conicoid... in the form is of the three points of the line lie on the conicoid. lies line... values of conicoid.. // on a conicoid The coordinates of any point on the line through (oc. is conicoid. . If the generators are distinct the tangent planes at different points of a given generator are different. y+nr...152 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH.. The condition that this point should lie on the conicoid F(x. any tangent plane meets them the same plane touches the surface at generator.... this equation is satisfied by three values of r....... as the generators in which are distinct or coincident.... 98.. (1) Q.. Let the equations to the conicoid and line be m The point on the the conicoid if 2 2 n /3+mr..... y)...... are a. m.. (2) atf + bm 2 +cri* =0 .. ix.. since F(x> y..
.. /3... Lagrange's identity... By ...... (3) Equation (3) is satisfied real values of I : m only if a and 6 have opposite signs.. The only ruled paraboloid ...... y) on it and from (3) it follows that the parallels through the .. by C7i2 = a6(am/302 ............ be drawn to lie (1)...... (2) ... the quantities a....... The : is therefore the hyperboloid of equations (2) and (4) we deduce the directionratios of the generators through (a. (al* we have + 6m2 )(oa2 + &/32 ) . the directionratios of these lines being given by equations and (3).... ..... (2). /3... (3)... )8... the conditions that the line I ^^ m by n should be a generator of the paraboloid axz + by 2 =20 are...(aod + bfim)* = afc(am . centre to the generating lines generate the asymptotic cone The three equations point (GL... y) should lie on the surface equation (2) shews that a generating line must lie in the tangent plane at any point (oc. . 2y. (3) y) of a central conicoid shew that through any two straight lines can (2) wholly on the conicoid.... whence.. c only ruled central conicoid n are therefore real only if ab and c which can only be the case if two of are positive and one is negative. /3. From I m n Similarly.. y)..... (4) The values have opposite of I : m signs... (2)... (1) ..9799] THE GENERATORS THROUGH A POINT 163 Equation (1) is the condition that (a..../$)2 (1)...... one sheet... 6...
b sin a. . T + l> "fG^ Ama An*. _ 3 = ___==_ Ex. We shall call the systems of generating lines of the hyperboloid of one sheet which are given by the equations o a a the Xsystem c \ a / c ^ ' (1) c a c fi and yasystem. (2. m n The following examples should be solved factorising the equation to the surface as in conditions in 99. x\ = y\ z\ ^_=__. lf i3. 0). Ex. a sin a. 4. 1.C =1 2 which pass through the point (a cos a. ~1 y~* z1 __ __*___. The directionratios y) are given by of the generating lines I through (oc. 2. respectively. LINES. in 96. 1). . (ii) two ways. Find the equations to the generating lines of the hyperboloid 1 which paSS tlirou l1 tlie S Points (2. 3). 1._=_. yz+ Ste Find the equations to the generating lines of the hyperboloid +&#</+ 6=0 which pass through the point ( . THE SYSTEMS OF GENERATING 100. u therefore the hyperbolic paraboloid. . 3. Find the equations to the generators of the hyperboloid Tj+'rg. 0. c )(2x+i/ Find the equations to the generating lines of the paraboloid z)=6z which pass through the point (1. 8. 1. ix. ). (i) by by means of the Ex.1. 4).154 is COORDINATE GEOMETRY /* v/ [CH. Ans Ex. __ b cos a. CL 3.
99102] THE SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS two generators of the same system intersect (1) 155 101. Xx z c \jj a 9 1+Xfi. __ __ 6 ~~ ~~ \fi 1 Whence.) If. (Cf. Hence the plane through two intersecting generators is the tangent plane at their common point. b l+\fj. Otherwise. No For the equations and . since no plane section of a conicoid is of higher degree than the second. plane at the point of intersection of the generators.* '+!= >! which are obviously inconsistent. (3) v ' a c fji\ / .. then the plane of a triangle. 1 . in equation (3).. the equations (1) and From a X c ~" <* c f/. any gene of the fisystem.. The equations a c \ / . if P and Q are any points on any generator of the psystem and the generators of the Asystem through P and Q meets the hyperboloid in the sides intersect at R.. the equation represents . adding &nd subtracting numerators and denominators.... rator* Any generator of the \system intersects (2). This is impossible. (4) v/ both reduce to (5) if But equation (5) represents the tangent k~lfk'=z\ffjL. k is given..+'=<> I...' These determine the point of intersection. PQR 102. 97.
Perpendicular generators. (42). I/a __ m/b __ n/c ~"~~""" I/a ~~" __m/b__ w/c at right The condition that the generators should be angles is which 2 may 2 be written a (X+/*) +fc 2 (lX/02 and shews that their point +cHX^ of intersection lies on the director sphere locus The is therefore the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid and the director sphere. directioncosines of To find the locus of the points of intersection of The perpendicular generators. 103. PR are perpendicular generators and PN by is 102 the planes PQR. The projections of the X.156 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. PNR are mutually perpendicular tangent planes. The projections of the generators of a hyperboloid of the on a principal plane are tangents to the section hyperboloid by the principal plane. ix. Or if PQ. Discuss the intersection of the Agenerator through P with the ^generator through P' when P and P' are the extremities of a diameter of the principal elliptic section. the X. 104. normal at P. PNQ. through a generating line is a tangent plane. But the equation Hence any plane reduces to equation (5) if /x = X//c. a given plane through the generator. Ex.and /^generators on the plane XOY are given by .and /^generators are given by. and therefore P lies on the director sphere.
2 a2 62 Similarly. P.e. 103. ~ = 1^. the projections on the planes YOZ. The point of intersection.1 ft and that they meet the principal elliptic section in the extremities of a diameter. /y'2 /V. since X = tan~ ^ a sin a. ZOX touch the corresponding principal sections. iv. the directioncosines of the Xgenerator are proportional to 1 2X \2 c> From or. 6 sin a. . O (fig. is a 2* 1* 2 *!+?' 7 n\ > f r (a cos a. 6 cos a ~"V Ex Prove that the generators given by A=. xzfa? + y*/b2 =l. the eccentric angle is principal elliptic section whose and the generators project into the tangent = 0. /i= . ( l+T*> i. p.102104] THE SYSTEMS OF GENERATORS be written 157 which may Whence the envelope of the projections is the ellipse s = 0. ellipse 3 of the generators given by X = /x = is. / X = ju. 0). 1 See Appendix. 44). by 102. ^ CL ~cosa+fsina=l. Therefore the equations to the Xgenerator through P are "" a sin a b cos a ~" c Similarly. x frcosa. P is there fore the point on oc. the equations to the yugenerator are ~~ a since. where t = tan ^ J. The above equations to the projections are identical if Hence equal values of the parameters give two generators which project into the same tangent to the = 0. c.
105. 44). ^ =*~~. sin R are /8+a FIG. (. Then the Xgenerator through P intersects the //generator elliptic section through Q at the point. it may be shewn that the //generator through P intersects the Xgenerator through Q at the point "0. ix. R. 0. c tan can be expressed in the form a cos 6 sec 0. be the points on the principal whose eccentric angles are oc and ft. 0. Now the coordinates of any point on the hyperboloid sec 0. R is the point " 0. tntfS* Whence the coordinates of cos /3+a." and or . so that DC is constant and ft variable.158 COORDINATE GEOMETRY Let P and Q. b sin therefore if . N /7T ^) 2/ and . (fig. i*V* OC\ *M JJL\ X = tan( T \4 . R then moves along a fixed . TCH. a Similarly.* + where ." Suppose now that P remains fixed while Q varies. 44.
7 cut either of the generators whose vertices are " ft.. are cos0t?sin0=cos<j!>. A'P' Ex. and A' are the extremities of the major axis of the and any generator meets two generators of the same system through A and A' respectively in P and P'. whence </>= . 6 sin sec <. is P *>f to vary." (fig. 6+<t> Ex. and Similarly. 6. Prove that the equations determine a hyperboloid of one sheet. A'PP real central circular sections in perpendicular lines.:t^. Ex. and deduce that 2. 5. by supposing Q we can prove that for points on a given generator is the /zsystem 6 + 1. prove that AP. Ex. prove that . z=0.es <f>=a. and R lies in one c. 8. Prove also that R P 2 + RQ 2 = a 2 + b2 + 2c2 If . lateral 9." r=l. A principal elliptic section. <. If four of the hyperboloid form a < skew quadri r . ) oc & / Ex. Ex. The equations to the generating lines through x ttcos#sec<__y 6sin 9 sec _z c tan ~ ~ <j> <ft " 0. to remain fixed = a. 4. Ex.105] EXAMPLES ON THE HYPERBOLOID 159 generator of the \system. 44). 2. shew that the equations to PQ ft. 3. and that on a given generator of the other system. is < is constant for points on constant for points (The equation \ to the surface is ~j^=rl. Ex. t z= #+</>=a. ctan<) is a point on the generating line /I _ 2 i prove that tan ^= 1 __ \ 1 H~ y. that a given generator of one system.  If R is " 0. 4. We have of the plan. Prove also that the planes APP'. A an d hence shew that for points of a given (/> generator of the Asy stem 6 is constant. <f> n are Ex. constant. Find the locus of R if P and Q are the extremities of conjugate diameters of the principal elliptic section. and in any position Hence for points on a generator of the Asystem constant. 3. 7. If (acos0sec<. 0<=a.
If PQRS is one face of the parallelepiped and P. and are parallel. Q' R. RP'. .160 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY 10. a ft 6 A/r A a a But and. Ex. 12. The tangent planes at S and S' are therefore PSR. and S on the tangent ' 2^3=1. (O is the centre). S a2 are on the tangent plane at P. 2') is a point on the hyperboloid. R'P along generators of the other system. All parallelepipeds which have six of their edges along generators of a given hyperboloid have the same volume. S' are opposite corners. . S'R' along generators of one system and the edges SR. [The equation represents the pair of planes through the origin and the generators that intersect at (x\ y\ z'). we have V=2  1 . R' S.. t . P' Q. PP' and RR' are diameters. S. y. Let P. Denoting it by V. and therefore SS' is a diameter. since R' and plane at R. TX Ex. Prove that the angle between the generators through P at where p is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane P and r is the distance of P from the centre. Prove that the generators through any point P on a hyperboloid are parallel to the asymptotes of the section of the hyperboloid by any plane which is parallel to the tangent plane at P. 2 ' Therefore . P'S'R'.] where Ex. 13. (#'. [CH. R be (a?j. we may have the edges PS. Interpret the equation P. y. z^ Similarly. Then the volume of the parallelepiped is (#2* #2 ^aX fe* #3> zs)twelve times the volume of the tetrahedron OPSR. P'S'. Ex. 11.
We shall hyperbolic paraboloid 2 CJL> 29 = 22 I/ now state the results for the 7:2 corresponding to those is left which we have proved for the hyperboloid..106] THE GENERATORS OF THE PARABOLOID Q 161 and Q' which are not on Ex........... 3 .. The projections of the generators on the planes YOZ. + The plane ? a .. 14. The systems of generators of the hyperbolic paraboloid...... Find the locus of the corners the given hyperboloid........ . is the point Since QS and PR bisect one another. envelope the principal sections whose equations are ZOX ... vJJ m a is + b = 2)U 'a _r b .. Q and hence lies on the hyperboloid 106... as an exercise for the student. (2) ^ ' p...... given by The directioncosines of the generators are given by and hence the locus of the points of intersection of perpendicular generators is the curve of intersection of the surface and the plane 2z a? ...62 = 0.2X &i\) a b j x +y. Their proof The point of intersection of the generators x y ..z ~T"T ST a b \ .. y b 2x+4lb (a passes through the generator (i) and is tangent plane at the point of intersection of that generator and the generator of the //system given by jm=\/k.
/6fc
COORDINATE GEOMETKY
FCH.
ix
2 point on the second parabola is (2am, 0, 2m ), and if A = /z = m, the generators of the X and /zsystems corresponding to these values project into the tangent to the
Any
parabola at
*'
771."
Any
point on the surface
is
given by
,
20 = r2 cos 20,
"
r,
and the equations
to the generators through
"
are
xareon9
a
Ex.
1.
A
/ or sin
a
r2
z
7T cos 20 2
6
r (cos 6 + sin 0)
Shew
that the angle between the generating lines through
fe* Misgiven by
Ex.
2.
Prove that the equations
fees 20),
?/
4#=a(l
= 6 cosh
<
cos 0,
2
= osinh c/>cos
determine a hyperbolic paraboloid, and that the angle between the " is given by generators through "0
, <
iX.
3.
Prove that the equations
2or
= ae 2 *, y = 6e* cosh 0, z= ce* sinh
is
is
determine a hyperbolic paraboloid, and that 6 + <f> points of a given generator of one system, and &<f> given generator ot the other.
constant for constant for a
Ex. 4. Planes are drawn through the origin, O, and the generators through any point P of the paraboloid given by x*y*az. Prove
that the angle between
them
is
tan" 1
,
where r
is
the length ot OP.
Ex.
5.
Find the locus
of the perpendiculars
from the vertex of
the paraboloid
Ans.
^^=2zio
the generators of one system.
Ex. 6. The points of intersection of generators of xy=az which are inclined at a constant angle a. lie on the curve of intersection of the 2  2 z tan 2o. + a 2 = 0. paraboloid and the hy perboloid x* fy
106109]
CONICOID
THROUGH THREE GIVEN LINES
163
Conicoids through three given lines. equation to a conicoid,
107.
The general
contains nine constants,
viz.,
the ratios of
any nine
of the
ten coefficients a, 6, c, ... to the tenth. Hence, since these are determined by nine equations involving them, a conicoid can be found to pass through nine given points. But we have proved that if three points of a straight line lie
on a given conicoid, the line is a generator of the conicoid. Therefore a conicoid can be found to pass through any three given non intersecting lines.
108.
The general equation
to a conicoid through the
is
two
given lines
^ = = ?\
u'=*Q**v',
\uu' + puv' + wu' + pvv' = 0,
since this equation is satisfied
when u =
contains
v to p.
and v = 0, or
disposable
when u'=0 and t/=0, and
constants, viz. the ratios of \,
/x,
three
109.
To find
the
equation
Lines.
to the
conicoid through three
given nonintersecting
planes
If the three lines are not parallel to the same plane, drawn through each line parallel to the other two
(fig.
form a parallelepiped,
45).
If
the centre of
the
164
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
[CH. ix.
parallelepiped is taken as origin, and the axes are parallel to the edges, the equations to the given lines are of the
form,
y = 6, 2 = c; (2) z = c, x= &; (3) x = a, y= 6, where 2a, 26, 2c are the edges. The general equation to a conicoid through the lines (1) and (2) is
(1)
Where x = a, y =
and
if
6 meets the surface
we have
must be
x = a,
y=
jx
6 is a generator, this equation
z.
satisfied for all values of
Therefore
,
= A v b 0,
a
/ X = c(av+b) = , ^a6 a
fc>
c
,
and the equation to the surface
is
ayz + bzx + cxy + abc = 0.
Fm.
46.
The
origin evidently bisects all chords of the surface
which pass through it, and therefore the surface is a central surface, and is therefore a hyperboloid of one sheet.
(Of.
47, Ex.l.)
If the three lines are parallel to the same plane, let any line which meets them be taken as zaxis. If the lines are
AI BI> A2 B2> As B 3>
(%
46 )> and the zaxis meets them in
109111]
LINES
,
WHICH MEET FOUR GIVEN LINES
165
C1> C2 C 3 through C x
,
take
A^
(2)
as yaxis.
as a;axis and the parallel to A 2 B 2 Then the equations may be written
<e
(1)
7/
= 0, z=0;
= 0,
Z = QL;
(3)
lx+my = Q,
lines (2)
z = fi.
(3) is
The equation to a conicoid through the \x (Ix + my) + fix (z  /3)
If
2/
and
= 0,
2;
=
is a generator, the equation l\x 2 x(p.p + vlaC) + P CL$ =
must be
satisfied for all values of x,
and therefore
arid
hence the equation to the surface
z{lx(oi
ft)
is
/3my }
+ a./3my = 0.
Since the terms of second degree are the product of linear factors, the equation represents a hyperooiic paraboloid.
110.
If A, B,
The straight
lines
which meet four given
lines
C
number
are three given nonintersecting lines, an infinite of straight lines can be drawn to meet A, B, and C.
For a conicoid can be drawn through A, B, C, and A, B, C are generators of one system, say the Xsystem, and hence all the generators of the //system will intersect A, B, and C. A fourth line, D, which does not meet A, B, and C, meets the conicoid in general in two points P and Q, and the generators of the //system through P and Q are the only
which however, D
lines
is
intersect the four given lines A, B, C, D. If, a generator of the conicoid through A, B,
C, it belongs to the Xsystem, and therefore all the generators of the //system meet all the four lines.
and
three straight lines can be drawn to meet four given nonintersecting lines A, B, C, D, then A, B, C, D are generators of a conicoid.
111.
//
through
If the three lines are P, Q, R, each meets the conicoid A, B, C in three points, and is therefore a generator.
in three points, viz. the points
of intersection of
generator.
Hence D meets the conicoid D and P,
Q,
R; and therefore
D
is
a
166
COOEDINATE GEOMETRY
;
CH.
ix
Ex. 1. A, A'; B, B' C, C' are points on X'OX, Y'OY, Z'OZ. Prove that BC', CA', AB' are generators of one system, and that B'C, C'A, A'B are generators of the other system, of a hyperboloid.
Ex. 2. A, A' B, B' C, C' are pairs of opposite vertices of a skew hexagon drawn on a hyperboloid. Prove that A A', BB', CC' are
;
;
concurrent.
Ex. 3. The altitudes of a tetrahedron are generators of a hyperboloid of one sheet. Let A, B, C, D be the vertices. Then the planes through DA, perpendicular to the plane DBC, through DB, perpendicular to tha plane DC A, and through DC, perpendicular to the plane DAB, pass through one line, ( 45, Ex. 6, or 44, Ex. 22). That line is therefore coplanar with the altitudes from A, B, C, and it meets the altitude from D in D, and therefore it meets all the four altitudes. The correalso meet all the four altitudes, sponding lines through A, B, which are therefore generators of a hyperboloid.
C
Ex. 4. Prove that the perpendiculars to the faces of the tetrahedron through their orthocentres are generators of the opposite system. Ex. 5. Prove that the lines joining A, B, C, D to the centres of
the circles inscribed in the triangles generators of a hyperboloid.
BCD,
CD A,
DAB,
ABC
are
112.
The equation to a hyperboloid when two
inter
secting generators are coordinate axes. If two intersecting generators are taken as a? axis and i/axis, the
equation to the surface must be satisfied by all values of x when 2/ = ^ = 0, and by all values of y when z= # = 0.
Suppose that
it is
ax
2
+ by + cz + 2fyz + 2gzx + Zhxy + 2ux + 2vy + 2wz = 0.
2 2
Then we must have
a = u = 0, and b = v = Q,
and therefore the equation takes the form cz*+2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2wz = 0.
Suppose now that the
line joining the point of intersection
of the generators to the centre is taken as 0axis. Then, since the generators through opposite ends of a diameter
are
parallel,
the
lines
j/
= 0,
= 2y;
oj
= 0,
= 2y
are
generators, the centre being
(0, 0, y).
Whence
and the equation reduces to
112,113]
PROPERTIES OF
A GENERATOR
167
Ex. 1. Prove that (y + mz)(z + nx) + kz = Q represents a paraboloid which passes through OX and OY. Ex. 2. The generators through a variable point P of a hyperboloid meet the generators through fixed point O in Q and R. If OQ OR
,
:
constant, find the locus of P. as x and yaxes, and the line joining and Take centre as 2axis. The equation to the hyperboloid is
is
OQ
OR
O
to the
It
may be
written
z(cz
+ 2w) + %hxy
0,
and hence the systems
of generating lines are given
by
belongs to the Asystem and corresponds to A=0; OY belongs to the /xsystem and corresponds to /x=0. If P is (. 17, (), the generators through P correspond to
OX
Where a
therefore
generator of the /^system meets
?/
OX,
Similarly,
= 0, 2=0, OQ = OR = 
and P therefore
[OQ and
plane
OR may
is
PQR
3. 4.
on the plane x^ky. be found more easily by considering that the at P whose equation (see the 134) is tangent plane
lies
Ex.
Ex.
Find the locus
If
of
2
P
is
if (i)
OQ OR = k\

(ii)
OQ 3 +OR* =
*.
on a cone whose vertex is O and whose section by a plane parallel to OXY is an ellipse whose equal conjugate diameters are parallel to OX and OY.
constant,
lies
OQ~ +OR~
2
P
that the projections of the generators of one system on the tangent plane at any point envelope a conic. Take the generators in the given tangent plane as OX and OY, and the normal at O as OZ. The plane z = X.y is a tangent plane, (97), and the projection on OXY of tne second generator in which it meets the surface has equations
Ex.
5.
Shew
of a hyperboloid
Whence
2 0, eAty + 2A(^+jfy + the envelope of the projections
=
i0)
+ 2&Pa
the conic
is
Properties of a given generating line. If we have a system of rectangular axes in which the #axis is a generator and the 0axis is the normal at the origin,
*113.
the equation to the hyperboloid
is
of the form,
or
+ cz* + 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2wz = 0, y (by + 2hx) +z(cz + 2gx + Zfy + 2w) = 0.
by
2
168
COOKDINATE GEOMETKY
of generating lines are given by
[CH. ix.
The systems
The
axis belongs to the /zsystem
and corresponds to
= /*
().
(a, 0,
The generator 0) is given by
of the Xsystem through the point
feq
~ga.+w
The tangent plane at (a, 0, 0) is the plane through generator and OX. Its equation is therefore Ay = 0,
or
hoiy
this
+ z(goi + w)
Q.
P, (a, 0, 0), P', (a', 0, 0) be points on the #axis. Then the tangent planes at P and P' are at right angles if
Let
(k
/
2
+#
,
2
)aa' + wg(a. + a') + w
wgr
2
= 0,
i.e. if
/
(a+T2f 2 )(a + 0^5 / =7 72 + 2 2 ....... 2 2 2 .^s /i \ ) (/i H^V\ h*+g
1
\/
/ ,
,
wa
\
w
2
/*,
2
W
/1X
is
r/
Therefore
if
C
is
the point
(r^~~^
0,
oY CPCP'
constant for all pairs of perpendicular tangent planes through OX. C is called the central point of the generator OX. If the origin is taken at the central point, the equation (1) must take the form oca' = constant, and therefore = 0, and <xa'= w2 //62 The equation to the conicoid (7 when OX is a generator and O is the central point, OZ is
.
the normal at O, and the axes are rectangular,
is
therefore
by
2
+
cz 2
+ Zfyz + 2hxy + 2wz = 0.
Ex. 1. Find the locus of the normals to a conicoid at points of a given generator. Taking axes as above, the equations to the normal at (a, 0, 0) are
'"^ ==:.
hcL
paraboloid whose equation is hxz = wy.
w
The
locus of the normals
is
therefore the hyperholic r
It has
OX and OZ as generators,
and
its
vertex at the origin.
Ex. 2. The anharmonic ratio of four tangent planes through the same generator is the anharmonic ratio of their points of contact. The tangent plane at (a,., 0, 0) is hcn^y +wz=Q, whence, by 38, Ex. 4, the anharmonic ratio of the planes is
(0.302X040.4)'
The equation to the hyperboloid is by 2 f cz 2 + 2fyz + Igzx + Zhxy + 2wz = 0. directioncosines of a generator of this system are proportional to + 1. and a generator through O as OX. then XOY is the tangent plane at O.2cAX 2/iX(2/X . if (c~b)\ and higher powers of X being squares rejected.113. 113 the equation to the the axes indicated in Taking conicoid is o ? ns OL o = /\ *114. Again.D. 3. Four fixed generators of the same system meet any generator of the opposite system in a range of constant anharmonic ratio. i.e. this generator and therefore the shortest distance between and OX has directioncosines proportional to 0.2/X The s . 2wz 0.. as origin. . the point. fa. Hence the limiting position of the shortest distance.114] CENTRAL POINT AND PARAMETER 169 Ex. any plane through the generator is given by This plane meets S. 2/Xl.1). as X tends to zero. Take O. by The systems of generators are given The locus of the perpendiculars to the generators of the Xsystem the cubic cone is central point and parameter of distribution. .1 .WfcX) + cX(cX  0. . Ex. 14/X &=. . is parallel to OY. The equations to the system of generators to which OX OX belongs are being given by X = 0. . Find the locus of the perpendiculars from a point on a hyperboloid to the generators of one system. 4.1)(2/X . 6cX 2 . It contains the ) /X . Take the normal at O as OZ. . if (2 OX where x=w/hk.> . The . c\.
. ^ (a 2 /> 2 jj^ 2 462c2 sin 2 <f+c a 2 oos2 <f>)^ ^' g2L . the OY. whence. 6 cos p^. and the angle between the generators "<" and "fa.D. If is . S.2 A M )2~+ 4c% 2X* + 4/i 2X 2 rejected. ." prove that i ^ j that and deduce . The equation y = \(2fy + cz + 2w) represents the plane shortest distance. if X 2 and higher powers be The it limit of the ratio S/6. OA OA' = p z Cor. as X tends to zero. cos if the angle between the generator and OX.1)2 . is X. 1. Therefore the meets OX where b)\ ~ w(c Since x tends to zero with S. If the generator " <j> " of the hyperboloid is given by is  j a sin 9 . is given by Therefore the rejecting X 2 .170 COORDINATE GEOMETEY s.D. 9 c . * .u . [CH. we have 2 w\ w A the central point and the tangent planes at and A' are at right angles. O Ex. Denoting by p. is Again. etc. through the Xgenerator parallel to OX. is called the parameter of distribution of the generator OX. ( 2/\ . Hence the central point limiting position of the of a given generator is the point of intersection of the generator and the shortest distance between it and a consecutive generator of the same system.
Find the coordinates of the central point of the generator The equation to the plane through the generator " " tbo generator fa" is " < parallel to Whence and a consecutive generator 1 . 1 . between the generator "<* of the same system are oroportional to . *= . The equation by eliminating < . 171 Ex. ETC. If D is the distance of any generator of the hyperboloid from the centre. and p Ex. given by 8. <f>" and Prove that the shortest distance. O. 6. 4. is its parameter of distribution. Prove that the parameter of distribution for the generator Ex. 3. Find the locus of the central points of the generators of to a surface containing the central points is obtained between the equations for the coordinates.a2)sin _ <^> by </> cos 1 Ex. If S.D. O is the central point the normal at O is perpendicular to the between the generator and a consecutive generator of the same Hence we find system.114] EXAMPLES ON THE CENTRAL 2. &(sin<h&cos(). the directioncosines of the S. "</>!" is POINT. a(cos<sin<).1 . It is the hyperboloid. c2 ( b 2 f)si and the coordinates as (&2 + c2)cos <^> ~6 3 (c2 4 __ _ __ $T _ 2 of the central point are given )sin <?(}>* . on the generator are ck. u <t> 5. between the general V & abc TT and deduce that Ex. D 2 p=abc.D. The coordinates of any point.
For the generator of the paraboloid a? 2 ^=28 given by is ?. and find the equations to generators of the other system. 10. pt&n 0=OP. 9n that tan 2 0= prove X'R* . is point O. prove that the tangent plane at the central point of G is perpendicular to the tangent plane to the asymptotic cone whose generator of contact is parallel toG. [CH. A . 2. i x2 y2 z2 Tangent planes to 2+fg2=l> which are .T=2A. l'x\~m'y+n'z+p'=Q is a 2 2 2 2 2 2 generator of the hyperboloid # /a+y /&+2 /c=l if dl +bm +cn?=p . ~+f=T> ). at points A' and B' of the generator. 4. 2 ?/ Ex. If G is a given generator of a hyperboloid. AB A'B' A. Prove that the line lx+my+nz+p=0. Ex. planes to doc 2 parallel to tangent * 2 2 ~~ ' cut the surface in perpendicular generators. central with the tangent plane at O. prove that the parameter of distribution is and that the central point /2a A 3 U +6 2 ~ the r planes 3 a 2' 26 A a*+62 3 2(a ' 2 ~62 )A2 \ /' lie a2 +6* Prove also that the central points of the systems of generatois 6J on ii=0. ix. Shew that the equations represent for different values of A generators of one system of the hyperboloid yz+zx+xy + lQ. */ . Ex. pair of planes through a given generator of a hyperboloid touch the surface at points A and B. Ex. 9. and contain the normals If B is the angle between them. 3. 1. ' f "*p >2 9 and all' + bmm'+cnn'pp'. makes an angle where p P of a generator. S. the parameter of distribution If the tangent plane at a point "Examples VI. The drawn shortest distances between generators of the same system at the ends of diameters of the principal elliptic section of the ^2 9*2 >2 hyperboloid '^f p^* ^ e on ' ^ e sur aces whose equations are ^ "~ cxy dhz  ' .172 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 7.
13. and for different the plane 2 = generators of the same system this line touches a fixed conic. lies in the plane a2? = 6 Prove that any point on the lines lies on the surface yz + zx + xy + y + z 0. _ Xu \iJM ( . I'M' f m'v' Show that. Through a variable generator ^y = A. these lines are coplanar. and find equations to determine the other system of lines on the surface. 173 5. each of lines. 7. two generators of the hyperboT^J if can be drawn to cut a given generator at right angles. which passes through three of four have two common generators. 11. #f. If from a fixed point on a hyperboloid lines are drawn to intersect the diagonals of the quadrilaterals formed by two fixed and two variable generators.OH. ix. is perpendicular to theyaxis. Shew that the shortest distance of any two perpendicular members of that system of generators of the paraboloid y(a which 6. Find the locus of the point at which it touches the paraboloid. The normals to 2+ i22 == ^ a ^ Pi n ^s < of a generator meet at points lying on a straight line. Prove that if r2 ?/ 2 z 2 the generators of ^^~'j^~~^^ ^ e drawn through the points where it is met by a tangent to + they form a skew quadrilateral with two opposite angles right angles. which lies The four conicoids.J EXAMPLES VI. . 12. __ __ _ _ . in general. + AV + p'v = 0=lu+mv + I'u' + m'v' AV f /JtV 9.y = 22/A of the 2= 2 2z a plane is drawn making a constant angle OL paraboloid x i/ with the plane x=y. and that meet the plane z=*Q in P and Q PQ touches the ellipse they 10. to the conicoid t Prove that the equation through the lines Aw + [Jiv u0 = v u'=V=v'. Prove that the locus of the line of intersection of two perpendicular planes which pass through two fixed nonintersecting lines is a hyperboloid whose central circular sections are perpendicular to the lines and have their diameters equal to their shortest distance. given nonintersecting 8. and the other diagonal of which is a generator of the cylinder 14.
G. touch a cone of the second degree. The planes ot triangles which have a fixed centre of gravity and have their vertices on three given straight lines which are parallel to the same plane. G G2 G ca . OZ.. ix 4.by 2 + cz = I 2 through fo . prove the triangle PAB lies on the cone and B are the extremities of conjugate diameters of the that the median through P of are the extremities of the axes of the principal elliptic x2 v2 s 2 1 * and T is any line in the plane section of the hyperboloid 2+ 23.. The generators through P on the hyperboloid fL+2. ! a 6 o* c* meet the plane z=0 in A and B. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Prove that the generators of our zt) I* 6 i n tne planes 2 fen. If the median of the triangle parallel to the fixed plane our +/3y +72=0. yl zj . A and B p^^ are generators of the same system. through A and Shew that the 2 . The cubic curve 1 1 1 meets the conicoid a#2 +&?/ 2 +cs2 1 in six points. G. OZ. G } passing Two hyperboloids are drawn. 18.a(l 3**) ' ?/== 17. and their sides are generators of three paraboloids. If A principal elliptic section. : * locus of P. If PA PB is constant. and that the projections of the lines on the tangent plane at the point where it meets the shortest distance form a harmonic pencil with the generators through the point. intersect on the curves given by *. PAB shew that P in the last example is lies on the 8urface 22. other common generators of these hyperboloids lie on the surface of the section. the other through T. one a through B.174 15. and the normals at these points are generators of the hyperboloid 19. Prove that the locus of a point whose distances from two given lines are in a constant ratio is a hyperboloid of one sheet. M} of ^+^a~^ The generators through points on the principal elliptic section 4/2 5SB ^ 8UCh that the eccentric angle of the one is double the v'A sccentric angle of the other. 21. find the 20. ' (XH y*i 2 IX 16. through T.
and the volume of constant and equal to afcc/6. a point on che hyperboloid whose centre is O. ttoc a c . 175 Prove that the shortest distances between the generator and the other generators points lying in the plane 25. ix. meet the plane the tetrahedron of the planes z~ OAPB & is 2=0 in A and 3. EXAMPLES snou VI. be s of the same system.1 24.OH. meet the generators in If the generators through P. P lies on one .
Again. 115. if XOY are confocal conies. 2 . we obtain the equations to a system of confocal conicoids.i. for any value of A. CHAPTER X. a conicoid confocal with since the sections of the conicoids by the planes YOZ. arbitrary values are assigned to in the equation a' 2 . CONFOCAL CONICOIDS. The three confocals through a any point ellipsoid. hyperboloid of two sheets. and a point. . Through with a given a hyperboloid of one sheet. 116. consist of confocal parabolas. ZOX. ZOX. Confocal conicoids are conicoids whose principal Thus the equation sections have the same foci. a. represents. y ** _. there pass three conicoids confocal an ellipsoid. If this form of equation be chosen to represent a confocal a is called the primary semiaxis. and hence the paraboloids are confocal. ' rf^afP^afc*" b and c being constants. The sections of the paraboloids by the planes YOZ. X.
(3. +. a >6> When X= /(A) is oo.116] THE CONFOCALS THROUGH A POINT 2 ?77 The equation +p^+. . is sheet. b\ c\ oo. The above ellipse and hyperbola are called the focal conies. Therefore the confocal hyperboloid of one X = X 1? X 2 or X 3 .= 2 f. a2 . Three paraboloids confocal with a given paraboloid pass through a given point. according as to c 2 the confocal ellipsoid tends to coincide with that part of the plane XOY enclosed within the ellipse As X tends x2 CJb "*"* i/ \J 2 ~" C confocal hyperboloid of one sheet tends to coincide with that part of the plane which lies without the ellipse. Hence the equation /(X) = such that has three real roots X : X 2 X. .^y==l 2 represents 2 2 any conicoid confocal with the ellipse nicoid ellipsoid confocal passes through (a. X V Z 2+ 72 +. As X tends to b2 the confocal hyperboloid of one sheet tends to coincide with that part of the plane of the hyperbola ZOX which y = 0. y). . /3. a hyperboloid of two sheets. is imaginary. . .115. two elliptic and one hyperbolic. Ex. . y).onfocals This cubic equation in X gives the parameters of three which pass through (a. If X = a2 the confocal . a or an ellipsoid. x2 3 Cl" 1 lies between the two branches z2 T2+~2 "T2 C =1 5 and th e confocal hyperboloid of two sheets tends to coincide with the two portions of the plane which are enclosed by the two branches of the hyperbola. a 2 > Xi > 6 > X > > X 2 2 c 2 3 . 1. Suppose that c. . +.
b'2) cos% ~ (a 2 . by the rule for partial fractions.&*) sin'a. l are the primary semiaxes of the confocals to which pass through a point (a. Therefore 2 . the octant in which P lies is uniquely determined. . the position of P is Hence X lf X2 X 3 are called the .I?8 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 2. 3. Prove that the equation to the confocal which has a system is of circular sections parallel to the plane xy 117. and . 1. elliptic coordinates of P with reference to the fundamental 1.a2 sin^a.fr'cos'b.* c* . x. /3. + */& + z*/c* = If an ag. /3. known. . in terms of the parameters of the confocals of a given conicoid that pass through P and if the parameters are given.a ^~ 2 j8 y 2 _ s " /(X) Hence. conicoid # 2/a 2 Ex. x [CH. * Ex. Ex. of the focal ellipse 2 Prove that the eo ration to the confocal through the point whose eccentric angle is a. Since X 3 X2 X 3 are the roots . y of a point P. These express the coordinates ex. Elliptic coordinates. is (a . of the equation /(\) = 0. a. y\ .
= 2s which pass through the point (a.. z determines one value of . p*=(a*\)l*+(b*\)m +(c*\)n*. prove that 7 __A 1 4A 2 f A3 q6 g / 118. X. A3 are the parameters y& focal to h4. yl y). What are represented by the equations in elliptic A! coordinates. touching given plane. Oonfocals cut at right angles. subtracting. The tangent planes to two confocals at any common point are at right angles. A2 A3 f A 3 A! + A! A 2 = constant. focal with a given conicoid touches For the condition that the plane lx+my+nz=*p should touch the conicoid 119. A! A 2 A 3 (iii) Ex. Confocal viz. Let (xv yv zt ) be a point common to the confocals to 2 a +^+2 = 1. If AA . focals The tangent planes which pass through it at a point to the three conare mutually perpendicular. A^. 2. Then and r a2 s x X2 62 i~> A2 \ Therefore. and (x v this yv is the condition that the tangent planes at z v ) to the confocals should be at right angles. (i) (ii) + A2 IA3 = constant. = constant? of the paraboloids con/?.117119] PKOPERTTES OF CONFOCALS loci 179 Ex. c o /jy2 02 whose parameters are \ and X 2 . Cor. 3. One conicoid cona given plane.
subtracting.2 y 2 z2 i _i V1Z " a2 or m  gives two values of X.~= m n ^ should . . second at Q. Prove that the parameter of the confocal conicoid which touches the plane is Ex. aX. 2. Confocals The . given plane and the parallel tangent plane to a conicoid are at distances p and p from the centre. 2.. x. Prove that the perpendiculars from the origin to the tangent planes to the ellipsoid which touch it along its curve of intersection with the confocal whose parameter is A lie on the cone A "alA + ^ 2 "A + zA^ 120.. (xz y 2< zz )... which is the condition that the tangent planes should be at right angles.) and the Then. touch the condition that the line conicoid ~2 x i I r  =. 1. aV 6V c2^2 ' Two conicoids touching given line... since PQ lies in the tangent first planes to the confocals at P and Q. Let the equations to the two confocals be and let the line touch the .180 COOEDINATE GEOMETRY [CH... (x lt i/. 6Xi __?__l c'Xj and Therefore. Ex. at P.. with a given conicoid touch a given line and the confocal tangent planes at the points of contact are at right angles.
_?1 __ ___ ^ 2 L c 2 ^"" __ _ A . 121. The locus of the poles of a given plane with respect to the conicoids confocal with a given conicoid is the normal to the plane at the point of contact with which touches it Let a confocal be represented by " . 2 Therefore the values of \ are the values of r2 Again. the directioncosines of the semiaxis of length r are given by I m n z to the confocal and therefore the axis is parallel whose parameter to the is normal at (x l9 y l9 zj 2 equal to r . (86). and the normals to the confocals at P are parallel to the axes. the parameters of the two confocals of the conicoid which pass through P are equal to the squares of the semiaxes of the central section of the conicoid which is parallel to the tangent plane at P. (x l . . Locus of poles of plane with respect to confocals. z^) lie on the conicoid a 5 + r^ + c = 1.Then 3 u the parameters of the confocals through P are given by the equation rp 2 x ni 2 i \ y\ i '9'* z\ _i /v 2 i /i /> 2 _**! y\ 1*1 x But the squares conicoid of the semiaxes of the section of the OCOC by the plane a% + oy H 7 I/I/ 2r2r ^ c =  are given by. Let P. 122. conicoid. 2/1 .120122] PROPERTIES OF CONFOCALS 181 Parameters of confocals through a point on a If P is a point on a central conicoid. tfiat confocal t _i f and the given plane by Ix + my + nz = 1.
[CH. . PR. the pole of the plane angles with respect to that confocal which touches it is the point of contact. 47. ( to the given plane. Again. Whence 771 U ) is a straight line at right v\. S. and X p X 2 X3 are the parameters of the confocals. PS. R. Therefore the locus of which is therefore the normal to the plane at the point of contact. Three conicoids confocal with a given conicoid Pio. and PQ. Then. meet the polar plane of P with respect to the given conicoid in Q. Normals to the three confocals through a point. . 123. X. To prove that where p v p2 p3 are the perpendiculars from the centre to the tangent planes at P to the confocals. the normals at P to the confocals. Hence the point of contact is on the locus. . f) is the pole of the plane with respect to the confocal. pass through a given point P.182 COORDINATE GEOMETRY if ( 9.
the equations fcoPQare x_a Pi" _ = y _p ^ z y ~ Q are Hence. The normals to the three confocals through P are the axes of the enveloping cone whose vertex is Since the tetrahedron the conicoid. are (a.122125] AXES OF ENVELOPING CONE (fig. 183 If the coordinates of P. ft. Axes of enveloping P. the triangle PQRS is self polar with respect to QRS is selfpolar with respect . the coordinates of But Q is on the polar plane of P. cone. the . Similarly. Similarly. the coordinates of Q become Q with a a^ > ^ 72 o > ~ AJ AJ i~^"' c AI Whence the polar plane of respect to the conicoid i_ is gxven by and therefore is the tangent plane at P to the confocal whose parameter is \ 19 or is the plane PRS. Substituting \ for p } r. and therefore Rearranging. pR = \Jp 2 and PS = X 3/p8 selfpolar . the polar plane of P 125. and. The tetrahedron PQRS w with respect to given conicoid. PQR. by hypothesis. 47). is the plane QRS. if PQ = r. y). this becomes Therefore r = X 1 /p 1 124. the polar planes of R and S are the planes PQS.
Therefore. and therefore its coordinates are of the form 71). To find the equation to the 127. The equation will be of the form ^ Al Al A 2 A3 A2 A3 The centre C ( p v p^ ft) bisects all chords through The equations to the chord parallel to OX are it. tion to its Equation to enveloping cone. and enveloping cone by the plane QRS. and being mutually perto the pendicular. To find the equathe enveloping cone whose vertex is P referred to will principal axes. 126. PS are conjugate diameters of the cone. are the principal axes. Since the tangent planes at P to the confocals are the coordinate planes. (78). PQ. PR. C.184 COORDINATE GEOMETKY common section of the conicoid [CH. Equation to conicoid. given conicoid referred to the normals to the confocals through P as coordinate axes. the centre of the given conicoid. x. ( By 1 23. the plane QRS makes its X8/p3 on the axes. to the cone Al A2 = A3 . Jjpp kp# kpp and the equation to the plane QRS is. is ( ~~Pv ~"J2 ""ft)* an(^ the equations to PC are But the centre of the section of the cone or conicoid by the plane QRS lies on PC. . The equation be of the form Ax* + By*+Cz* = 0. and therefore \ Al intercepts \ l fp v equation is also ~~ * TU t Therefore 1/xTlATW is ABC \ A2 r \ A3 and the equation.
3. If A and p. 1 M/*. referred to the normals at P to the confocals. P2 2 2 a2 a2 Ex. are the parameters of the confocal hyperboloids through a point P on the ellipsoid prove that the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at Prove also that the perpendiculars to vA/x the tangent planes to the hyperboloids are to the ellipsoid is ^JL. 1. a3 . P > Ex. prove that 2 Pi 2 ttl a2 ^ . show that the equations. 4. 2. and pl9 p^ p9 are the perpen diculars from the centre to the tangent planes to the confocals at the point. /(a' ' A(X/) . &i. y.125127] EQUATION TO ENVELOPING CONE 185 and hence the equation obtained by substituting r p*> ft for pv ^ y> z > in (*)' viz  X3 X2 2 takes the form Lr + M = 0. k I AI X2 Therefore ^Pf+Pl+Pl+l. A 2 A 3 are the parameters that pass through P. X X \ 2 8 and the equation to the conicoid is Ex. Cj . 63 . If i. of the cones with P as vertex and the focal conies as bases. c2 . a 2 .A) of the three confocals to If A!. c3 are the axes of the confocals to a given conicoid through P. prove that the perpendiculars from the centre to the tangent plane at P are Ex. are . 62 . If confocals to alf 6 n Cjj o2 > &2> C2? 2 as 2 ^s> cs are ^e axes of the 2 which pass through a point (or. 0).
f ) be the corresponding points on the confocal . If the plane through the centre parallel to the tangent plane at P meets one of the bifocal chords through P in F. y. y. 8. z) and 2 3/ Q. vAXj Ex. ellipsoid CORRESPONDING POINTS. z\ ( j. 5. 6. P. tf. If p is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane to the ellipsoid at P.. P is any point on the curve of intersection of an ellipsoid and a given confocal and r is the length of the central radius of the which is parallel to the tangent to the curve at P. Let P and Q. then 1 PFa. 7.. x Ex.) Ex. f). f) lie on the ellipsoid // P and x* and let P' and x Q'. y\ z'\ (f. A 2 are the parameters of the confocals through P. Prove that the directioncosines of the generators of the cones satisfy the equations common bifocal chords of the ellipsoid (The intercepts on these generators by the ellipsoid are called the through the point P. (x. prove that pr is constant. (x'. Two points.186 COOKDINATE GEOMETKY four [CH.vertical angle is cos** ^^. where Aj. Ex. situated respectively on the conicoids y* ^ + 52+ c2= 1 x* z* > + 572 x* + 2 Z2 J82 are said to correspond when Q are any points on an ellipsoid and P' and are the corresponding points on a confocal ellipsoid. 128. (x. ( >. Q' PQ' = P'Q. Prove that the bifocal chords of the ellipsoid axis through a point P on the surface lie on a right circular cone whose is the normal at P and who sesemi.
Prove that P' and Q' lie on a generator. 5. OP ~OP' =A. OR" are conjugate diameters. R' are the points of a concentric sphere corresponding to OR P. OQ. Ex. 4. Ex. Q'. The method (II) is due to MacCullagh. OQ'. any confocal ellipsoid. first . which represents a conicoid. The equation to the locus is of the form = k*(lx + my + nz+p)(l'x + m'y + n'z+p*). x That a conicoid could be generated by tho method (I) was pointed out by Salmon. Prove that OP'. Q. Ex. P and Q are any points on a generator of a hyperboloid and P' and Q' are the corresponding points on a second hvperboloid. 3. and that PQ = P'Q . are conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid. R" are the corresponding points OP". OR' are mutually perpendicular. R. Q". on a coaxal If P". 1. The locus of a point such that the square on its distance from a given point is in a constant ratio to the rectangle contained by its distances from two fixed *129. ellipsoid. Ex. 1 (II) The locus of a point whose distance from a fixed point is in a constant ratio to its distance. OQ". measured parallel to a given plane. from a given line. An umbilic on an ellipsoid corresponds to an umbilic on THE FOCI OF CONICOIDS. and OP. 2. Ex. 0/ 2 ~2 2 _2 which proves the proposition. where O is the centre. If P is a point on an ellipsoid and P is the corresponding 2 2 point on a confocal whose parameter is A. P'. is a conicoid.128.129] CORRESPONDING POINTS v v f 18V Then Therefore and hence (/y. 1 (I) planes is a conicoid.2 l444p .
j=^= . is real in both cases. y) is a focus. of the planes is the corresponding If the planes are real we shall call (a. In either case.188 COORDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. if they are imaginary. y^ )=0 represents a pair of planes^ equations *ri cf"^ "^"^^ 1 represent three planes passing through their line of intersection/ . the equation SX<=0 represents a pair of planes In (I) the planes are real in = 0. v = represent planes. y) a focus of the first species. Lemma. (a. oc. 16 v = 0. fi. if S the equation to the locus. ^. but the line of intersection. y can equation be found so that the equation S X0 = represents two planes. /8. O. a focus of the second species. These suggest the following definition of the foci and directrices of a conicoid to : a conicoid and X. (II) they are imaginary. = (). and (I) the equation to the locus is of the form in (II) of the form X# (u2 +t>2 ) = 0. real or imaginary. and the is the If s = line of intersection directrix. the If the equation F(#. ($. where A0 uv and is = i(. j8.X. Choose rectangular axes so that the given plane is the xy plane and the point of intersection of the given line and given plane is the origin. point f) M. and therefore the measured parallel to from the line the given plane is given by Hence the equation to the locus is which represents a In conicoid. y) and the fixed line have equations ( 17. The plane through ) parallel to the ayplane meets the given line distance of in ( the 17. Let the fixed point be (a.
or (ii)X = p. is. line if a = 0. = 0.130] If F(. then ^=av+a'w... evident. FOCI z)~uv. Therefore. given by equation and therefore the coordinates of any point on the line satisfy equation (1). (>*><> The equation 2 ^+f!+f2 ~l^oc)2X(y^/3) ~X(^y)2==0 is to represent a pair of planes.r. represent three planes through the line of intersection. whence the proposition * 130. The line a2ct a a 2 But the line is the line of intersection of the planes (1). Poci of ellipsoid and paraboloids. ^^bv+b'u is ^=cv+c'u. and hence. y 2 #2 3+6+311. or (iii)X=~. substituting from the equations to the line in equation (1). . we obtain i* an(i * n ^is case. y. where AND DIKECTBICES u~ax+by+cz+ d y 189 and vzza'x+b'y+dz+d'.(1) by our lemma. To find the foci of the ellipsoid r2 /. y = 0.129. The three planes pass through one (i)X = ^r 2 . oc = 0. the equations 2 .
y) on the focal hyperbola has equations afa. The directrix corresponding to a point 0. 2 2 =1 . and therefore. bola the directrices corresponding to points on the focal hyper* lie on the hyperbolic cylinder Similarly.U a0 > V*2 22 1 * and the corresponding (ii) directrices are imaginary. a = TV62 c 2 r> v2 1. (i) there is an infinite number of imaginary in the yz plane lying on the imaginary ellipse foci *. foci in the zaplane There is an infinite number of real lying on the hyperbola Z . and the corresponding (iii) directrices are real. and the corresponding directrices are real (ex.. (the focal hyperbola). since 2 1 a2 62 rr. the directrices corresponding to foci on the focal ellipse lie on the elliptic cylinder which lie 5* .190 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. real foci in the xypl&ne There is an infinite number of on the ellipse lying 2= > r^i+ 62 cz = a2 c 2 IT*z L ( the focal ellipse). x. Hence.
sections. /3. If (oc. z') parallel to a real circular section is . (x'. are Therefore any point on the focal hjr perbola is a focus of first species. 0. and the ellipsoid is the locus of a point the square on whose distance from a focus of the first species the is proportional to the rectangle under its distances from the two planes through the corresponding directrix parallel to the real circular sections. y) is a2 6V a2a \2 62 ^ Z <*? y 2 _ where the equations to the directrix corresponding to = z= But the equations to the planes (a. y'. where the equations to the directrix corresponding to = Now the equation to a plane (a. through P. f$ t 0) is a point on the focal ellipse. 0.1301 FOCI OF ELLIPSOID a point on the focal hyperbola. 0) are # = 2/ iy. y) are # 2= the line # = parallel to the real circular through . 191 If (a.
whose coordinates are c in the a The distance PP' is the distance of P from the directrix. x. The corresponding generate the cylinders (0 p2/ =2z+a. from the corresponding directrix. and the ellipsoid is the locus of a point whose distance from a focus of the second species is proportional to its distance. we find that the points on the parabolas (i) a = 0. If (a. y) is zsplane.v (n) Cv y) is any point on the focal parabola in the i/zplane. If (0. given by or Hence any point on the focal ellipse is a focus of the second species. /3. = directrices are foci of the paraboloid called 1^ = 20. x. 5=2s + a. measured parallel to a real circular section. any point on the focal parabola in the . It is measured parallel to the plane. (ii) y = 0. By the same methods. /.. 0.x 6 a o 2 n . and hence this plane meets the directrix # = point P'. These parabolas are the focal parabolas.192 COORDINATE GEOMETRY y rj CH.
If the normal and tangent plane at any point P of a is conicoid meet a principal plane in the point N and the line QR. and the focal lines are the generators of the confocal hyperboloid of one sheet that passes through P. QR lines Ex. Ex. The locus of the polars of a given line with respect to a system of confocals is a hyperbolic paraboloid. Ex. the corresponding directrix normal at P to the conic. 10. Ex. 1. focal is Ex. P is a point on a focal conic. If P is a point by the plane through P at right angles to the tangent at P to the conic has a focus at P. 3. Ex. 9. 2. Prove that the focal lines of a cone are normal to the cyclic planes of the reciprocal cone. 3. If intersects the to the focal conies of the hyperboloid a* 8 + 3^ = 12. If the enveloping cone of an ellipsoid has three mutually perpendicular generators the plane of contact envelopes a confocal. y2 +4^+z2 =6. Through a straight line in one of the principal planes. 6. The enveloping cones with vertex P of a system of confocal conicoids have the same focal lines. y*=0. conies 1. If P is any point on the directrix of a conicoid which to a focus S. on a focal conic the section of the conicoid Ex. . Prove that the points of contact lie in a plane and that the normals at these points pass through a fixed point in the principal plane. ) i(* Whence the signs and Cor. Prove that the product of the eccentricities of the unity. 2. Ex. the polar of N with respect to the focal conic that lies in the principal plane. 4. Prove that AS is at right angles to SP. All confocal conicoids have the same focal conies. 7. Find the equations Am. #=0. The polar plane of any point A cuts the directrix corresponding to a focus S at the point P. Prove that the real foci of a cone lie upon two straight through the vertex (the focal lines). Ex. 5. tangent planes are drawn to a system of confocals. * Examples VII. species of the foci can be determined if the relative magnitudes of a and b are given.130] FOCI OF PARABOLOIDS 193 \ 2 1. the polar plane of P passes through S and corresponds is at right angles to SP. Ex. 8.
If PQ is perpendicular to its polar with respect to an ellipsoid. two segments whose ratio is constant. . a: . COORDINATE GEOMETRY Shew by a given plane [CH. Any tangent plane to a cone makes equal angles with the planes through the generator of contact and the focal lines. 12. Prove that the enveloping cones to the confocals along the curves of section have a common section which lies on the conicoid A 15. it is that the locus of the centres of the sections of a system of is a straight line. and OQ of a cone whose axis is the line of intersection of the tangent planes which touch the cone along OP 11. tangent plane to the ellipsoid xt/at+yt/tf + zt/c the two confocals whose parameters are A and /x. 9. The four planes through two generators focal lines touch a right circular cone OP and the and OQ. The three principal planes intercept on any normal to a confocal of the ellipsoid rf/aP+yt/bP + zt/c 2 }.) P3 (X. enveloping cone whose vertex is P are PS and PS'. is constant.194 4. Through any tangent to a conicoid two planes are drawn to touch a confocal. 6. conicoid of revolution is formed by the revolution of an Prove that the focal lines of the foci are S and S'. perpendicular to its polars with respect to all confocal ellipsoids.Xs) * y ' . x.) P2 (X3 . The feet of the normals to a system of confocals which are parallel to a fixed line lie on a rectangular hyperbola one of whose asymptotes is parallel to the line. Also the normals to the confocals which lie in a given are parallel to the line plane lx+my + m~Q Ix my 16. The cone that contains the normals from P to a conicoid contains the normals from P to all the confocals. 2 ! intersects 14. 7.X. 8. and its equation referred to the normals to the confocals through P as coordinate axesis Pl (X. confocals 5. Prove that they are equally inclined to the tangent plane to the conicoid that contains the tangent. A ellipse whose 13. The locus of the intersection of three mutually perpendicular planes each of which touches a confocal is a sphere. The sum of the angles that any generator of a cone makes with the focal lines 10. The planes which bisect the angles between two tangent planes to a cone also bisect the angles between the planes containing their line of intersection and the focal lines.X.
Prove that the perpendiculars intersect and that the locus of their intersection as the confocal varies is a cubic curve whose projection on any principal plane is a rectangular hyperbola. Hence shew that if a conicoid touches each of three given confocals at two points it has a fixed director sphere. the form where 22. If A. is c. its If A. Find the parabola which is confocals CL x2 the envelope of the normals to the r.v) }"*. the perpendicular from P to a polar plane of length . 20. From any two fixed points on the same normal to an ellipsoid perpendiculars are drawn to their respective polar planes with regard to any confocal ellipsoid.a*)y/m + (a 2 . Shew that the paraboloid degenerates into a plane when the given line is a normal to one of the surfaces of the system. B' respectively. the plane through the centre planes at P and and the line of intersection of the tangent planes bisects PQ. 6. v are the directioncosines of the normal to a system of parallel tangent planes to a system of confocal conicoids. c system. are points on two confocals such that the tangent 24.j EXAMPLES VII. Shew that the lines AB. 18. and that the those in the principal plane tangent planes at the feet of the others pass through a straight line lying in the principal plane. axes v are the parameters of the confocals of an /A. 19. ellipsoid. /z. 6. Through a given line tangent planes are drawn to two confocals and touch them in A. express the coordinates of any point of the locus of their points of contact in 21. that the tangent planes at the feet of touch a parabolic cylinder. 23. If tangent planes are drawn through a fixed line to a system of confocals the normals at the points of contact generate a hyperbolic paraboloid. a.CH. If P and are at right angles. A' B. Deduce that the locus are the principal axes of a particular confocal of the is a rectangular hyperbola. AB' are equally inclined to the normal at A and are coplanar . rr~r * r T* A r ?/ r 2 z2 and prove that its directrix lies in the plane (6 2 .b*)z/n =0. + O p A + C A = 1 which lie in the plane Ix + my + nz =p. through a point P. with it. x. #. Q Q . 195 17. Normals are drawn from a point in one of the principal planes Prove that they lie in the principal plane or to a system of confocals. in a plane at right angles to it.<*)x/l + (c* .
when the conicoid represented by an equation referred to conjugate diametral planes as We shall in this chapter first find the coordinate planes. 1. y. disposable constants will its equation contain? Is the same when the conicoid is to pass through a given circle ? A How many number the . we have found the equations to loci. or to pass through six given points and touch the plane XOY at the origin. polar planes. to these loci when the conicoid is represented equations by the general equation of the second degree. Constants in equation of second degree.g. Ex. (tangent planes. or to pass through of three given nonintersecting lines. XL CHAPTER XI. conicoid is to pass through a given conic. certain In Chapter VII. z) + 2ux + %vy + 2wz + d = 0. z) The = or /(a?. and the transformation of the equation when the principal planes are taken as coordinate planes. It contains nine disposable constants. THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE. a conicoid can be found to pass through nine given points no four which are coplanar. and then discuss the determination of the centre and principal planes. y. general equation of the second degree may be written 132. and therefore a conicoid can be found to satisfy nine conditions which each involve one relation between the constants . 131.[CH. etc. F(a.) connected is with the conicoid. e.
is. where A. The conditions (ii) and (iii) n. directionratios are I. The equation to a conicoid that touches the plane 2=0 at an umbilic at the origin and touches the plane lx+my+nz=sp is z(lx + my + nz p) + ( \x + /xz)2 + ( Ay f vzf = 0. y. is where a. 6. Ex. and the points (6. (ii) j equation (2) is satisfied by all values of r.+lr. 4. 2=0. The whose whose distance from A is r has coordinates a. (0. (3. and therefore through give two sets of values for I any point on a conicoid two straight lines can be drawn to lie wholly on the conicoid. The equation c. Points of intersection of line and conicoid. m. o? z=0. and the measures of AP and AQ are the roots of i the equation If (2). /A. if z)=0. <=0. 3. 133. c). (oc. 6. are disposable constants. 0. )= Hence the straight line meets the conicoid in two points P and Q.131133] CONSTANTS IN EQUATION to a conicoid through the conic 197 Ex. v are disposable constants. fi+mr. 2. ft y) = 0. if ft. Ex. are y). y+nr. They are parallel to the lines in which the plane 3F 3F 3F : m : . equations to the straight line through A. n. c). y) +r l+ m ++*/(l. or every point on the line lies on the conicoid. Ans. m. (i) F(oc. It lies on the conicoid and the point on this line F(#. and has the zaxis as a generator. that F(a. Find the equation to the conicoid which passes through the circle o^+y2 =2a#.
/3. which lies on the conicoid. tangent line to the surface at A. m. The BF . (i) t /3. The bisectors of the angles zz tangent plane to between the lines in which any 4xy meets the planes #=0. . or coincident. y. 3F . we obtain the equation to the locus of the tangent lines in all possible directions. equation (4) is equivalent to . n between the equations to the through A line and equation (3). Q coincide The If line is therefore a we eliminate I. Ex. 3F 3 now. cone. 2. z') on 9 (ii) (i) xl*f+yly zlz'=\ (ii) Ex.3F 3F . y. z) be made homogeneous by the introduction of an auxiliary variable t. y. 3F 3F . y)=0. with P or with Q. 1. xi. (cf . The tangent A A is on the coincides both roots of equation (2) are zero. respectively.16& COORDINATE GEOMETRY /(a?. the tangent plane at above equation may be written A. conicoid. which is equated to unity If. and P and at A. plane. Find the equations to the tangent planes at xy = c* J (a/. #=0. after differentiation. cuts the cone = 0. F(x. 60). lie in the planes . . 3F . 3F . z) [CR.3F = 2F(<x. the ellipsoid. and one root of equation (2) is zero. and the. If F(OL. = 0. y. If also 134. t). They may be real. as in the cases of the hyperboloid of one sheet. (Euler's Theorem). drawn The equation is and hence the locus is a plane. imaginary.
J acL+h/3+gy +u+ v~ ^A=0. then should represent the same plane. 2. _ x p say. Find the equation to the tangent plane at (1. 1. Therefore 3F 3F 3F BF T = ^= n m Hence 3j8 Sy A. A= .) (Of. 4. Prove that the locus of the point of intersection of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes to/(#. A. y). lx+my+nz=p ^ and touches/^. #2y+3=0. 5.= ^ = 2A. )8. Prove that r + my + wj = p touches xy Prove that c? if c?wi + np = 0. z)l is the sphere 68. Ex. u. . z) = If the point of contact is (a. If the axes are rectangular. to the Ex. /?. y. ka. : a. /*. Ex. we must lie in the given plane. ly /.133. c. 71. w w. I =0. g. 3) on the hyperboloid and the equations Ans. Ex. viz. w. Find the condition that the plane Ix + my + nz +p = touch the conicoid F(#. 771.+b/3+fy+ And since the point of contact eliminating OL. Bo. 134] THE TANGENT PLANE 199 Ex. (ii) the equation (i) and 4#3yf2=0. (i) two generators through the point. 3. v. Ex. p = JO. u. 7. y. ?/. d. . Therefore obtain the required condition. #. . y. 6. z) \ if where . 8. prove that the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin to tangent planes to 3 " 1 is Ex.
2# 20+1=0 lie on the surface.A^t + 2X2^2 + A 3?>2 a conicoid touching the planes Wj=0. 14. Ex. COORDINATE GEOMETBY Prove that the plane 2y2s=l is [CH. common generator. r (cue + fiy f yz) = C(CLX  Ex. 0) are if hcL+v h'cL+v' This equation gives two values of oc. xi. If Ur^arX+bry+CrZ+dr. 3. 11. 3 M3w 3 ' =1 / . and the generator has the same central point and parameter of distribution for both Ex. they touch at all points of the generator. 16. Tangent planes parallel to the given plane are drawn x=c.2. the equation to the surface is ax2 + by 2 f cz 2 + Zfyz + 2gzx + Zhxy 4. normal at O O Ex.sf+dr. R.3=0. Ex. that the points of contact lie on the paraboloid t y=0 . two conicoids touch at three points of a common generator. at 10. 13. (#'. If a set of rectangular axes through a fixed point conicoid meet the conicoid in F*. prove that the tangent planes at (i) (ii) y'9 z') to the conicoids are given by (i) AjWjW/ + X zu 2u 2 1 r + A. r=l. a tangent plane to the surface Prove also that the lines of intersection of the given plane and the planes 2#4. Q. the equations to the conicoids are + cz*+ 2fyz + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2vy + 2wz =0. b'y* + c'z + 2fyz + Zg'zx + ZKxy + Zv'y + 2u/z 2 % The tangent planes They are coincident at (a. they touch If the generator is taken as . 2=0. Prove that 2 UiU2 4.2wz 0. where Ex. 0. If surfaces. 2 = 0.raxis. the plane PQR meets the in a fixed point. (ii) A w1<+A 2w2<=X3(i( 3 +w3 ). w/ == a^ f bri/ + c. 15. 12.200 Ex. of a Ex. two points If two conicoids have a of the generator. 2. 2 = . 9. w 2 =0 at their points represents of intersection with the line Vj=0 = i. and the tangent plane at the origin is taken as 2=0. If a conicoid passes through the origin. Shew to conicoids that pass through the lines #=0.
^ +m ^7 3F 3F fw .) ^ lli Ex. f). 3F ^F 3F 3F n '*gE + y^g +f Sy +< sr. and Therefore = 2F(a and the equation to the locus of becomes ( i/.135] THE POLAK PLANE The polar 201 plane. Prove that the lines m . BF ^ n 2. . */. Ex. (Cf. )=0. fl y) is p. ( /3. are the roots of the equation . . . If A is (a. . = 0. R is Hence if (. AP and AQ. ) and the measure of AR 2F(q. the conicoid in P polar of A. m. the locus of R is the 135. the polar plane. y. If any secant through A meets and Q and if R is the harmonic conjugate of A with respect to P and Q. 70. /3. 1. y) and the equations to the secant are xOL_y f)_z'y ~ y i VYl 71 then rv r2 the measures of . Find the equations to the polar of ^'T / with respect to the conicoid F(#. y).
c). section 6. /(a. y) . j/j8. (Take O as origin. /3. 4. 7 [CH. yft *y) But F(a.M). Any set of rectangular axes through a fixed point O meets a given conicoid in six points. (0. y)/(Z. and Prove that use 54. u 2 =Q. 0. Ex. w3 = 0. XL are polar with respect to the conicoid . 9. The enveloping cone. Prove that the sum of the squares of the ratios of the distances of the points from the polar plane of O to their distances from O is constant. y> .a. 3. (0.0. 136. n 133 has equal roots. y) (aa. 3F rt .3F .202 COOEDINATE GEOMETEY F(. W All conicoids which touch a given cone at by a given plane have a common its points of selfconjugate tetrahedron. 0).r. The equations m represent a tangent if equation (2) of The condition for equal roots is 4F(<x.3F A =o and '' +m '* +7i=a Ex. 5. Find the equation to the conicoid with respect to which the tetrahedron formed by the coordinate planes and the plane ?+! + c =1 a b is selfcon jugate. m. Ex. y. represents a conicoid with respect to which the tetrahedron whose faces are ^=0. ft. if . Ans 4 (*5 + g 62 Ex.) Ex.'dF z)~Q . . w 4 =0 is selfconjugate. and which passes through the points ( a. ")=(*J+mg is + ^~)  Therefore the equation to the locus of the tangents drawn from a given point (a.3F .+a.
3F 3F 3F Ex. 2 = 2tr. equal any point on a tangent drawn parallel to the fixed line 137.= . envelopes the sphere its section by the 2=0 is sin ex. 3. From the condition for roots used in the last paragraph we see that (a. y).136138] ENVELOPING CONE AND CYLINDER 803 Therefore the equation to the locus becomes 4F(a. y)F(a>. y). Ex. /3. the given point. y. ?=. If a cone envelope a sphere. n ) = Ex. The enveloping cylinder. Ex. /3. The tangent plane to a conicoid at an umbilic meets any enveloping cone in a conic of which the umbilic is a focus. # _ 2^ = o casts a parabolic shadow on the plane z=0. plane A ^+y 138. /3. A Y +r ) l+m+n+^f(l m. m. takes the form r 2 = A2 and therefore 3F . I m iC lies on the cylinder given by 4f(x. the section of the cone by any tangent plane to the sphere is a conic which has a focus at the point of contact. z)f(l. The locus of the chords which are bisected at is If (oc. z) ft. t . with the saxis 2 2 Prove that the eccentricity of f 2 =2ae. Ans.. cylinder whose generators make an angle a.. 2. of the chord whose equations are point ~~ L _ a given the mid ~~~ 7/i in the equation F(a. point. y. 1. Find the locus of a luminous point which moves so that the sphere #2 +yz _j.
cL\bz+(y)*+/^<w + az)*+y\ay+bx)*=4(ay^ 139. section of the conicoid (a. by this plane is a conic of y) is the centre. a+y*=a . Ex. Find the central circular sections and umbilics of the following surfaces : 2 (i) o? (ii) +^+2=0. diametral plane which is at right angles to the chords which it bisects is a principal A . 2 Ans. ^ 15' ^+0=0. ^+2^20=0. 3' 1 2 2 ~2"" 2a?+y*=0. x y (iii) _ 2\/3 l""6""5"" ^ = y_j!___ 16~5~5~ 15* . /3. y) lie in the plane given by The which Ex.r5. 1 (ii) 2 * _. Find the locus of centres of sections of ayz + bzx + cxy + abc = which touch Ans. all that the midpoints of line Equation (1) of 138 shews chords drawn parallel to a fixed lie on the diametral plane whose equation 3F is Ex. 1. (iii) # #*22Xtfy4==0.ry. 4y?h5z.8=0. 2 2 2 ^/a2 +y2//J +* /y == I. The principal planes. circles lie 2. *=0. xi. 140.204 COORDINATE GEOMETRY all [CH. The diametral plane. y on two equal hyperbolas in the #~plane. Hence chords which are bisected at (a. x+y+z=0 the umbilics are imaginary. x. Prove that the umbilics of conicoids that pass through the 2 *=0. (i) x+yz=Q. j3.
etc... . the diametral plane whose equation 3F ... we the conicoid. by means of the relations (1). 9. al+hm+gn_hl+bm+fn_gl+fm+cn ~~ ~~ I m n If each of these ratios is equal to X. If the axes are rectangular... then (a \)l + hm +gn = 0. Therefore X is a root of the equation h a X.. *> 6. obtain the equations to the three principal planes of .3F l~ + mVx . (2) which... f c\ or a. This equation is called the Discriminating Cubic.138140] THE PKINCIPAL PLANES is 205 plane.. It gives three values of X. to each of which corresponds a set of and by substituting these sets in the values for I: mm. g =0. 3F 3y htt^dz = 0. equation 3F ^ 9F reduces to . the equation may / c 9> f> be written X3 X2(a+6+c)+X(A+B+C)D = 0. ' or x(al+hm+gn)+y(hl+bm+fn)+z(gl+fm+cn) + ul+vm+wn~Q... b\.." (1) gl +fm + (c X)n = 0. f. \(lx+my+nz)+ut+vm+wn==Q. is at right angles to the line n . where D = Or if A = = . y h..
C. # 4. and z) is a perfect square. 3. For if A = 0. = =. zeroroots. * B. B. D = 0. Therefore if therefore we have F=G = H = 0. B. C have Hence if D= also and A+B + C = 0. G. the equations / (1). /o 1yii\ These determine a fixed direction. ^2). in the second. xi. I N/A N/B N/C (141). the same sign. y. Case of one zeroroot. (i) (ii) A=6. Condition for two zeroroots. 18.r 6. *il C are not 140. The corresponding principal plane has. Find the principal planes of the conieoids (i) (ii) : Ans. then therefore A.y 42 + 4=0. give m n or n ?ri ==. A = 2. an elliptic or hyper In the first bolic cylinder or pair of intersecting planes line of intersection is in the fixed direction. the corresponding principal plane either is at an infinite distance or may be any plane at right angles to a fixed line. cwo the discriminating cubic has the six quantities A. whose axis or . are zero and 142. #If 141.206 COORDINATE GEOMETRY / [CH. F. Ex. A = B = C = 0. H. since A.=0. all /(a?. the equation by and is at an infinite distance if \/Au+N/Bv+N/Ctc. zero. . 140. 12. If the discriminating cubic has one zeroroot. or may be any plane at right angles to the fixed line case the conicoid is a paraboloid whose axis is in the fixed direction. #*2=0.
Ex 143. 1. must be at right angles to the plane \/aa?+\/5y+\/c0 = 0.3. The determinate principal plane is jcy+z==0. 142 are Verify that the principal planes in Exs. mutually at right angles. the plane 2^^ + 3. 0. however. (i) at infinity (ii) A = 14. (if ul+vm + wn=/=Q\ or at any distance from the first origin. 27. : 26. a parabolic cylinder and the axes of normal sections are parallel to the plane In the case the surface is Jax+Jby+Jcz = \/ax Ex. 0. Case of two zeroroots. These planes. any plane at A = 14.2\/3 3 = 0. 2. 0. is Ex. If are taken as coordinate planes the equations transform into 3 2 = 2^677 . 140. #+ 4^3*4. and therefore the directions of the normals to two of the principal planes are indeterminate. (if ul + vm+wn = Q). #+5#+s=2. (i) (ii) : in the second the surface is a pair of planes parallel to + Jby + *Jcz = 0. 1. For the surfaces A. 2=0 the locus of If one of the principal planes of the cone whose vertex is parallel to the fixed plane P P is the straight line n _!=? m ar I m I m\l /_ l\ nJ . 2.1411 43J INDETERMINATE PRINCIPAL PLANES 207 Ex.1=0. #+ 2^+32. If the discriminating (1). right angles to ~==~. and they may be at an infinite distance. + 1=0. when + V5m + v/eJVi = 0.2 = 1. 3 2 . cubic has two zeroroots the equations X = 0. 0.=3. all reduce to \/al 140. (i) (ii) Find the principal planes of the surfaces Ans. and base the parabola y2 =4oo?.
We may assume a>fe>e. + 00. y2 / \\ T* ' FIG. c. 48. Consider Corresponding values of X and y are oo. . THE DISCRIMINATING 144. 48). Hence from the graph. b. The equation may be . loo. . such that Consider now y = <f>(\). XI. equation ^(X) = (fig. + 00. When X=oo.208 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. CUBIC.{(X%2 (\f =0. it has real roots a and appears that the ft. real. All the roots of the discriminating cubic are written.2/=too.
For *+^)Www( b x>9w*]> and therefore is of the form where u and v are linear functions of x. In that case. however. y.X (x* + f + z*) is the product of two factors of the form oux + f$y + yz. fails if a and /3. with real if A=0 and therefore Qf =AC. X p X 2 X 3 suc h . + by 2 + cz* + 2fyz + fyzx + Zhxy . . \/c /3 are real. . and therefore the cubic becomes we the roots of which are easily seen to be 145. 145] THE DISCRIMINATING CUBIC 209 when where \/a fe. %/a c are real . z)\(x*+y*+z If X is a root of the discriminating cubic. all real. y. The above proof equation have 6 = 0. Only aoj one of the three roots leads to real values of a. y. i/r(A) are equal. z ). when where \/6/3. Hence from the graph we see that the equation has three real roots. the roots of the = 0.144. z. j8. The 2 factors of f(x. and/=0.
2 2 (aX)(6X) = /i (cA)(aX)=0 (a\)f=gh. n% (ft _\V/>_. . 6X. ...\\ A > ^tt )\y **) 7)2 ft have the same (i) If X is a repeated root. = The factors with according as X X P X 2 or X 3 Hence /(#. f> / cX. X X2 X = X3 . (6_AXcX)=A (cX)(aX) = 2 (c\)h=fg. (ii) three roots equal. 9> h. XL of 6X Reference to the graphs shews that the signs and ^(X) for X = X 1? X 2 X 3 are as follows: .M V. (n~\\(fi 'X'l A^ytc /\) a root of the cubic. if \Y X is " \V/ "\ "\ i\) /^ j y sign. (corresponding to F = G = H = 0). . (Of.L%2 .. ci . 2 (a\)(b\) = h*. . (b\)g=kf.. +. . +. L2u2 .. (c') .M V. 91) 146. . (6X)(cX)=/ (b\)g=hf. L2u2 + M V. h. Conditions for equal roots. roots equal. g = 0. To find the condi(i) tions that the discriminating cubic should have. real coefficients correspond therefore to the mean root.. Therefore. we have also (a\)f=gh. as in /^ \y i\)\^ 141. z)\(xz + y 2 +z 2 ) takes the forms . two The cubic is aX. (B) (A') (B') Any one of the three sets of conditions.210 coefficients. y . . y. X2 . . 0(X) = and and therefore and hence. COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CM. (c\)h=fg.
h. and (ae)(&c) = tf. then. g. H\ h H f 9 from If /. and we have X = a.....=^d . then gf = 0.. But.... If the three roots are equal to X. by (A).. substituting for a X from the third equation in the first two. h is zero. or (aX)+(&X)+(cX)=0. . X = = = If X = c.. = = 0. X... is zero. (&a)(ca)=/2 n 2 A=/=0.. (ac)(6c) = A2 J /=flr (7 /i. For if (A') is given.. (2) of equal roots (ii) The equations (1) and (2) give the conditions for a and the value of the roots in each case. b or c...l = 0. If X 6. none of the three quantities /... . b or c. is not equal to a. pair X also satisfies the equation j=0. we obtain (b if whence Therefore.. The conicoid in must be a sphere. and we have S*_ A. Therefore X = a = b = c. . and (A). then h 0.145. g.. X)(c X) =/ 2 .. and this case fg = h = 0. the repeated root. is zero....146] is THE PKINCIPAL DIRECTIONS 211 both necessary and sufficient. or or X = &.. Therefore if one of the three quantities another must be zero. one of the three quantities /..= 6 *_ hf...r C fff r / F or 9 h G ^ (l) x= 7 == T .. X = c.. (c6)(a6)=^ ....
m. 149. by the equations 1 [CH. (i) which proves the proposition. and l ly mv %. m 2. then etc. and A 2 = A 3 there is a definite but the equations principal direction corresponding to . . m. But i 1 ^ +mi ^+n ^Z ^+m 3 ^m 3n 1 2 3tj 2 2 3ix 2 and therefore (A! .  For 148. reduce to a single equation which directioncosines of is satisfied by the any direction at right angles to the direction corresponding to A r principal . n). If X is a root of the discriminating cubic giving values I. n2 are the corresponding directioncosines. XL We shall call the direc tions determined al+hm+gn_hl+bm+fn_gl+fm+cn_ A ~~~~ ~ ~ I m n # oL or 2L _ 3m _ 3?t & ^ ' 2E~~2m~27i the principal directions. of the discriminating cubic.212 147. COOEDINATE GEOMETRY The principal directions.A 2)(^2 + ^1^2 + tt^) = 0. If Ap A 2 are the roots. n of the directioncosines of a principal direction. \ . X=?n = 2m = 2ri 26 ^ U 3m y 3n a= 3^ / 3m 'dn 2( principal directions corresponding to two distinct roots of the discriminating cubic are at right 2Vte angles. A=/(Z. If A x A 2 A3 are the roots . 1 2. = . Cases of equal roots.
ca = g2 and the equations corresponding to X 2 and iO. & = 0. : :m2 n2 should be at right have X 2 = X 3 = a. # = 0. ab = A2 . and (&a)(c are the equations corresponding to X 2 and a^/ 2 . \ v _ ~ m l If X 2 =A 3 =0. *. . a^XA.X^ + Ivnii +0% = may be written The three equations corresponding to \ therefore give The which determine a directions given angles. and A2 = a^ 6^=c^. If we definite principal direction. h 9 1 and hence the equation (a . And sum of the roots of the cubic is a+b+c. D = 0. is I 2 single equation corresponding to X 2 the condition that the : by gh hfifg.147149] INDETERMINATE PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS 213 Suppose that we have X 2 = A 3 =fO. \ are =m a l 7= = 7i. be sa/ 8 then . = Then the equations all become since the g hl2 + hfmz +fgn% = 0.
etc. if the discriminating cubic has distinct there are three mutually perpendicular principal roots. etc. is a root of the discriminating cubic. 3. 7i 2 . xi If the discriminating cubic has three equal roots. Transformation of f(x. and the equations for principal directions /=(jr I reduce to _m_n is The reason to it. 1 2. and any plane through the centre bisects chords at right angles up. = /i = 0. J X^ + Xg^+Xgf mv ^ have directioncosines Of l lt . taking as new rectangular axes three lines through the origin whose directioncosines satisfy the equations where X 150. raa . 7i 3. y. is obvious. . If it has two or three repeated roots. which determine the principal directions. w 2. Ojy. We have also And similarly. .214 (ii) COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. any and For X = a = 6 = c. f = l^x + m^y + n^. y. corresponding to the roots \ 19 X 2 X 3 of the cubic. three directions. Therefore in all cases we can transform the equation. z) transforms into Let Of. Then x = l^g + I2 *j + 1 3 . 2 . direction is a principal direction. To sum mutually perpendicular directions can be chosen whose directioncosines satisfy the equations of 147. l~~m~~n The surface a sphere. f(x. z).
140. 142.. 2 . y. ux'+vy'+wz' = Q . z) =\ In Ex. Let the equation be f(x y. or Ex. (i) f(x... 215 Hence. ^2 +y2 + Ex.'. (ii) In Ex. 1.. O is a centre of the conicoid.... (1) Therefore number Hence.. P' is also on the conicoid... z in the equation to the conicoid wre zero. 2. If the origin is at a centre. 151. 2 +o. y.. (i).i? 2 2 2 20y +l& 12y. Then if P is (x'y y'. such that when P is any point on a conicoid and PO is produced its own length to P'. y' y /(#'.. z'\ y'.... multiplying by i/. t z)+2ux+2vy + 2wz+d=Q. since equation (1) is satisfied by an infinite of values of x'. respectively and adding. (iii) In Ex... (i). z'\ and f(x'. . P' is (0. 14#2 +14# 2 + 822 4y*4&rary transforms into 6*+12q*+18(*... 2 . z')+2ux'+2vy'+2wz'+d = Q. 1.. z') Zux' 2ry' 2wz' + d = 0.3+ 12o7y transforms into 14 143.. y\ %' other than the coordinates of points lying in the plane we must have u=t. /.149151] DETEKMINATION OF THE CENTRES . f 2 +26r. If there is a point O./?y if U THE CENTRE. 2. (i). the coefficients of x. 2 2y<?+22a?~2jty transforms into 3 Prove that the conicoids can be placed so as to be confocal .=tc.
3= Gu+Fv + Cw ^ .. (2) 1 3F Any represent planes which we may call the central planes... 153.. The central 1 jj planes. 45) : D=0. Multiply equations (1).. Cor. origin to (a. . since the coefficients of x. The equations .. since = D and JiAffeH+/G = 0. (3) by A. H.. point common to the central planes is a centre.. .. single centre a (ellipsoid. *+x Therefore... 0.. y= Hu+Bv+Fw ^ . /8. (1) cxp = ax+hy+gz+u=0. at (cf... G respectively and add .. boloid. [CH. (2)... D c. M T Similarly.. y... The equation to any diametral plane 3F is of the form and therefore any diametral plane passes through the centre or centres.S16 152..... following cases.. z are zero. y.... etc.... XL y.. We have to consider the I. then. Let (<x... Change the $ y) and the equation becomes or a.. s) = 0.. hyper finite distance. y) be a centre.. or cone). COORDINATE GEOMETRY To determine the centres of the conicoid F(OJ.
152154] II. line of centres at infinite an (parabolic cylinder). Equation when the origin is at a centre. B. F. y ^ + O_ + y _ = A 3F . G. 2/. D = 0. A. on substituting the coordinates of the centre found in = J(x. Cor. all zero. g. a f(x. y) at a finite distance.) ing planes). y. v t w. tt 3F .y) or. j8. (central planes parallel but not coincident. H. distance. Au+ Hv+ Gw=f=Q. an (paraboloid). plane of centres. B. F./3. pair of intersect (central planes pass through one line and are not parallel. 153. C. c) = represents a cone. . THE CENTRES single centre at infinite distance.0)+F(a. y. 9> h. h. f> w d S= and u. A. C.) If 154.+Gw = A=/=0. fu=/=gv. u v /. the conicoid has a centre (a. 217 D = 0. H. IV. .+v/3+wy+d = 0. ill. (central fu~gv = wh. the equation becomes f(x. line of centres at a (elliptic or hy finite distance. z) *. (pairof parallel planes). If F(x.) V. perbolic cylinder. ^ s = zr> where S= a. planes coincident. since = 0. 6. This becomes. all zero. c. Au+Ht. G. y z)+ua. and the origin is changed to it.
2 2 2 ^/a +2 /c =l. Shew that the locus of the centres of conicoids which touch the plane 2=0 at an urnbilic at the origin. (0. 2 + 5y + 32 2^2+22#2o# + 2.r18y. 0. 7. (v) (vi) +26/+102 + 4y2+142# + 6a#8. or to any point on 4. If the origin is changed to (5.3y+ 18r.r. that its centre lies on the line Shew "~ through x a3(62 + c 2) __ V*y+ a 6 __ 2 ~ z ) c3(a2 + 62) ' Ex. . 10.J.ry2. 14#2 +14# 2 +82 2 4y242.ry+22. If F(. 2.18^+5=0. Prove that tneir vertices lie on a conic.2. (iv) 1 (ii) Ex.3). (v) the central planes are plane of centres. 6. (iii) 2 (iv) 5u. the equations (i) and Ex. If the origin become is changed to the centre.2=0. 2. rf)=0 represents a cone.102 + 4 = 0.2.2^2 + 220?.22+3=0. Ex. o). 2 2 2 o7 +# +2 . Through the sections of a system of confocals by one of the principal planes and by a given plane.218 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 1. b c locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through given straight lines and two given points is a straight line.r4y. these points 0). the line of centres. XL Ex. 0. Prove that the centres of conicoids that pass through the 2 ellipses aP/aP+yt/b ^. ?/. (ii)(l.^) f (iii) the central planes are parallel to the line *=#* 9 3 1 centres.r+6 y22. +# +2 . 9. 3. the coordinates of the vertex satisfy the equations Ex.r+2#.r 2 +?/ =2o#. Ex. A points (a.r+ 12^ + 102 + 20=0. circle 8. (0. *=0 . 2 2 2 i An*. 2=0. and its section by the plane is a circle. (ii) 3o. 5. Find the centres of the conicoids. xa .Zz 3=0. 0). Prove that the centres of conicoids that the pass through 2 and have OZ as a generator.12^2 + 12.2^2+2207. #=0 lie on the lines *JL=JL. 0. the equation (iv) becomes Ex. c). z = f=?3 is the line of 11 lo (vi) x y+2=l is the parallel. he on the cylinder conicoid touches the axes (rectangular) at the fixed Ex. cones are described. touch the plane and pass through a fixed point on the saxis. (i)(i. 1. 2^2 + 20y2 + 1822 . (i) [CH. The two 6.ry2. 2 2 2 o.r8. is a conicoid which touches the plane 2=0 at an umbilic. . Ex.
EEDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.1 155. They are the lines of intersection Take these lines as coordinate and the equation transforms into The surface sheet. is The reduced equation presents a hyperboloid of 1 therefore sheets.*)+!= 0 The discriminating cubic has three nonzero . #. X 2 X 3 and there are three determinate principal directions.3y +31=0. if S=0 Ex 1. M Xi> . iv. Case A: D=0. y= I. : roots.155] REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION 11. Find the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through two conies which have two common points. . . There is a single centre at a finite distance.). is thus an ellipsoid. /?'. For the centre These give o #=1. or a sphere. 4. Appendix. . or X 1 = X 2 = X 3 ). z= 1. a2 . (XgXj. and p. two a hyperboloid of one sheets. z+ d=l. "^ v . 219 Ex. Variable conicoids pass through the given conies of their centres is a conic in the plane shew that the locus Ex. (X 1 ^=X 2 =f X 3 ). the surface a hyperboloid of is a cone. 4#a ofy2 f j82s2 =l. Change the origin to it. The lines through the centre in these directions are the principal axes of the surface. 12. and the equation becomes I. The discriminating cubic is " Whence A=4. of the principal planes. or three directions that can be taken as principal directions. y =0. If S = 0. re two Cf. axes. ( 153.
and there are two changes of : sign. Where the line . we have which. : roots. /(A) = A3 f 3X 2 8A + 16.^=r ^c 3p\ be written meets the surface. (iii) & f y* . 2 ( .)=0 are ail real. 7i 3 are the directioncosines . A 3 = 0. 156.r2 + 2y* . to X3 is at infinity. (i) a? + 2y + 42#h2#4yf63f 5=0. \=Q.*2 = 0. Denote The principal plane corresponding (142). their signs may be determined by a corollary of Descartes Rule of Signs "If the roots of /(A. If the line Therefore = .220 COORDINATE GEOMETKY [CH. If ^3 are ^ ie roots of the discriminating cubic. of the principal direction corresponding to X 3 and and therefore hl& + 6m3 +fn% = 0. is ( There A 2 =0. If the roots of the discriminating cubic cannot be found by Note. = = . ?n 3 . may or any line in the principal direction correto X 8 meets the surface in one point at a finite sponding and one point at an infinite distance. by k. ( 153. xi. II. \ ^2> 141). the number of In positive roots is equal to the number of changes of sign in /(A). by means X of the equations of 147.4*2 = 4. + 4z2 = 1 (ii) 3. 3= = 3= A H G it ^ Hence ul^+vm3 +wnH =f=0. 7 inspection. If 3. (i) (ii) (iii) 2y 2 Am.= ^ .). Ex and therefore two positive Reduce 2. OaseB: D=0. a single centre at infinity." the above case.
y. z) + 2k(l<p + m3y + n3z) = 0. = ^ (1). z x y parallel to ^r = ra = 7i 6 3 3 . To reduce the given equation. w3 and .. (2)... 3 Therefore there the normal is is is only one point on the surface at which parallel to the line r k ^r=m = s Of 1J Z ... . i/'.. (2)..... (1).. therefore the three planes pass through a line which .... 3F 3 3 3F 8 3F = 2 (u 3 4Hence such points as (x't y'. (1) Q.... But .. . Its coordinates are given by the equations (which are equivalent to two independent equations.156] is REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION (x'f y'... ... cosines m 3. change the origin to the vertex. 3F 3F 3F . (#'.. 0) = 0. 221 normal to the tangent plane at z'\ a point of the surface. (3). The equation becomes or f(x.. sf).. is .. y.. so that Of has directionlines Take the three 3....... (3) But l^ +m3 p2 + n3 p3 == 0.. (2) ..... That point s the vertex of the surface...) and the equation F(#. the equation transforms into through the vertex in the principal directions as coordinate axes... (3) Hence any two of the equations equation and the determine the vertex. z') lie on the three planes O...
2. Whence X= . XL The therefore a paraboloid. (2).1/2.5/2). Ex. Therefore h =**=%= 1 1 ^ V T=. H since GH^AF. and the axis is Ex. 0.2 +2^~8^~4y+82. The discriminating cubic is A3 5A2 +2A. finite distance.222 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY surface is [CH. . 2#2 +2# 2 +32 + 2y32z#4^+. (1. therefore v vertex give for the #=^=3=0. For the principal direction corresponding to Ag. III. (i)^^*. and the equations to the axis. say. (as in 156).r+y==0. 3! ?$  0. X8 giving . the principal planes corresponding to and A 2 pass through The new coordinate planes are therefore the two principal planes at a finite distance and the tangent the vertex. 0. (ii) ^ 4y + 432+4^_2*14y22* + 33==0. Case 0: D=0. ff. from (1). 2 An*. 1. A or. *. 4^~y2 . Find the reduced equations. 3/4).2=0. (1. The following equations represent paraboloids. (3).=0. and ^ is The reduced equation The equations #=#. There is a line of centres at a 157. ( 153. 2=0.) The discriminating cubic has one zeroroot. \ plane at the vertex. *z! . Since. 9/4. the coordinates of the vertex.
it is a pair of intersecting planes. m 3. n3 are the directioncosines of the line of Any point on the line of centres has coordinates uf+r vg+r wh+r If we change the origin to it.156. we have . where If d > F + G H if d'^Q. y. z) = becomes or. further reduces to 2 i d' = Transform now to axes through the centre chosen whose and the equation + Q. Ex. cZ' = 0. directions are the principal directions. and the principal plane corresponding to X 3 is indeterminate. ( The discriminating cubic is Whence A=3 Vir z ' 2 J  /3 2 > 7 Corresponding to A3 =0. ( 142). The line of centres has equations which may be written f 1/F uf vq y^r 1/G * wh 1/H Hence centres. It may be any plane at right angles to Fx = Gy = H0. since ul3 + vm3 + wn% = 0. the surface is an elliptic or hyperbolic cylinder. 1. 1 3. F(x.157] KEDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION 223 In this case ulz +vmz +wrc 3 =0.
u>Jb v*Ja=f=Q. 9?i . given by 2#f 5yj2=0. h2 = ab we have t / m + c^ whence = = ^va V6 vc ^ . or Let o O^.A D is "?. 3. 0. 3. Prove that the equation represents a pair of planes which pass through the line and are inclined at an angle 2 tan~ l \/2. n2 i . point on this line is (1. The equation to the surface referred to o Ojy. y42z=0. l lt m mv 7i t . IV. 158. Ex.224 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. g = ca. And since ufvg=fcQ. (i) (ii) 14#2 +42y2 =l. OaseD: is A=B=C = F=G = H = O. given equation becomes A a line of centres. are ^ ae r ts of the discriminating cubic.). Change the origin to it. 0). ( 153. (i) (ii) What 2y 2. 1 2t ul3 + i>wi 3 + wn3 = 0. 1 2 .f&y2 = 1. 2 surfaces are represented by 4/w. and If l lt m l> TI X . 7i . There j. axis Ex. Of satisfy the is therefore . ra 2 . equations for principal directions. a line of centres at infinity. X2 . 7i 2 . Of be a set of rectangular axes whose directioncosines are Z ( 3. m 2. 7i 3 149). s 3 3 Then i 2. XL and therefore and Hence there ^. AS / If are the directioncosines of the principal 2 = 2 direction corresponding to X t since ic. and the which reduces to oA?2 .
8 158, 159]
REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION
IJz
1 , 2
225
Now
and we can choose
w
+ m^m^ + n^ = 0,
2,
n2
to satisfy also
ul2 + vmz + wn 2 = 0.
Then n2(ul3 + vms + wnB ) = u(n2lB
Therefore,
if
7i Z ) 3 2
v(m2ns
m
37i2 ),
ul^
+ vmB + wn3
2
is
denoted by
w
l9
"~ (v\fc
_
w\/b)
Writing u^ for
surface becomes
+ (w>Ja u*Jcf + (u\/5 i?\/a)2 a + b+c ul +vm +wn v the equation to
l
l
the
^ + d = 0,
or
which
may
be reduced, by change of origin, to
The surface is therefore a parabolic cylinder. The latus rectum of a normal section
159. Case E: A=B=C=F=G = H=O, uf=vg=wh. There is a plane of centres, ( 15.3, V.). As in Case D, a+b+c, A 2 = A 3 = 0, and
\
ij
_^H_^i
\/B
\/c
\/a
But
since
uf=vg~wh,
u
\/a
__
v
\/&
__w
>/c'
and therefore
ulz + vm<i + wn2 = ulz + vm& + wn3 = 0.
The equation
and the surface
to the surface therefore reduces to
is
a pair of parallel planes.
226
160.
COORDINATE GEOMETEY
[CH. xi.
Reduction when terms of second degree are a perfect square. The following method of reduction is applicable to Cases D and E, and is the most suitable
method when the
numerical.
coefficients in the
given equation are
Since
A == B = C = 0,
s (J
f(x, y, z)
is
a perfect square.
Hence
F(#, y, z)
If,
(Case E), 7= =
U IV = = j= = k, v& v0 \/c
1)
the equation becomes
(Jax + Jby + v/cz)
AI
2
+ 2k(Jax + Jby + Jcz) + d = 0,
parallel planes.
n\
and represents a pair of
But
if,
(Case D),
=_=,
the equation
may
be written
Now
choose X so that the planes
V s 2x(\Ja u) + 2y(\Jb v)+ 2z(\Jc  w) + X2  d =
are at right angles.
This requires that
~
a+b+c
Then take rectangular axes with coordinate planes =0, 17 = 0, so that U = 0, V =
as
new
^=
i
=
and
and the equation reduces to
g%(a
+ b + c) =
identity,
But,
by Lagrange's
160, 161]
REDUCTION OF GENERAL EQUATION
therefore the reduced equation
may
be written
17.
(a+b+cfi
Ex.
Reduce the equations
Ans.
2 (i) 6.r
2N/6#3=0,
(ii)
x*=&y.
161.
Summary
of the various cases.
In the reduction
of the general equation of the second degree with numerical coefficients the following order of procedure is generally
the most convenient
If the
:
terms of second degree form a perfect square,
proceed as in 160. If the terms of second degree do not form a perfect square, solve the discriminating cubic.
If the three roots are different
from
zero, find the centre
(a,
j8,
y) from the equations
is
=
OOL
3 ^M
=
c/y
= 0, and
the
reduced equation
If one root,
ft/
X3
,
is zero,
find
Z
3,
w
3,
ns from two
,
of the
equations
J[o68
= ~^ = =^~ = 0.
o77i3
ftf
fif
on 3
Evaluate
uL + vm* + wn & k.
If 7c^=0, the reduced equation is
If &
= 0,
there
is
a line of centres, given by any two of
/8,
= = = 0. Choose (a, the equations oz ex uy on it as centre, and the reduced equation is
;
y) any point
228
COORDINATE GEOMETRY
Reduce the following equations
:
[CH.
XL
Ex.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
3x*+5y*+W+2yz+Zzx+ 2xy4x8z 45=0,
2 (iv) 36.r
2 2 +4y +* 4^ 12^4 24ry+4#+16y 26^3=0,
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
.
(i)
3^+2y2 +6e2 = l,
2 27# =l,
(ii)
2 (iii) 14a?
(iv)
(v)
(vii)
(ix)
3^4y2 1222 =l, 14^ + 27#2 = 1, 3^+4^18^=1,
(vi)
2 (viii) 49,*
 35,r +6=0,
(x)
162. Conicoids of revolution.
If
two
of the roots of the
discriminating cubic are equal and not zero, the equation F(OJ, y, z)() reduces to
= 0, .................... (i)
or
or
\(x*+y*) + 2kz =
X 1 (a?+y 2 )+cf =
t
................... (ii)
.................... (iii)
The
surface
is therefore, (i),
(ii),
an
ellipsoid, hyperboloid, or
(iii),
cone of revolution,
a paraboloid of revolution, or
a
right circular cylinder. These are, if we exclude the sphere, the only conicoids of revolution, and therefore the con
should represent a surface of ditions that F(x, y, 0) = revolution are the conditions that the cubic should have a
repeated root different from zero,
viz., (
146),
or
or
or
2 X^a, (6a)(ca)=/ 0=0,
,
/t
= 0;
......... (2)
......... (3)
Xi6. (c6)(a6)=sr
2
,
h=0, /=0; /=0, 0=0.
\=c, (ac)(6c)=A
2
,
......... (4)
CONICOIDS OF KEVOLUTION
If equations (1) are satisfied,
#, y> z)
229
=
And
line
therefore
any plane
parallel to the plane
/
^,+~+v = 9 h
is
cuts the surface in a circle.
The
axis of the surface
the
is,
through the centres of the circular sections, that the perpendicular from the centre of the sphere
to the planes of the sections.
Its equations are therefore
Similarly,
if
equations (2) are satisfied, the equations to
the axis are
Jb~a
Ex.
1.
elli P soid
'
\fca
Find the right circular cylinders that circumscribe the
a*
parallel to the line
The enveloping cylinder whose generators are
z/n has equation
Conditions (1) give
which can only be satisfied if =&=<?, or =?n=7i=0. (If a=ft=c, the ellipsoid becomes a sphere, and any enveloping cylinder is a right cylinder.) Using conditions (2), (3), (4), we obtain
or
or
If
w=0,
n=0,
a > b > c, the second only of these equations gives real values for the directioncosines of a generator, viz.,
I
......
:
=m
'
Va 62
2
If
A
is
the repeated root of the discriminating cubic,
230
COORDINATE GEOMETBY
to the cylinder is
[CH.
XL
The reduced equation
or
Ex.
2.
Find the right circular cylinders that can be inscribed
#* + 2/  &2 = 1.
in
the hyperboloid
Ana.
4(^ + 2/3^
3.
Ex.
Prove that
represents a paraboloid of revolution, and find the coordinates of the Ans. (1, 2, 3). focus.
Ex. 4. Find the locus of the vertices of the cones of revolution that pass through the ellipse
^/a +#
Ani
.
a
2
2
/& ==l,
3^0.
a?
Ex. 5. The locus of the vertices of the right circular cones that circumscribe an ellipsoid consists of the focal conies.
Ex.
6.
If /(#, y,
z)=0 represents a
hf
right cone of serui vertical
angle a,
*h
/
Ex.
7.
is
9
h
_ c=
h /v'
,
\/ \f
9
If /(#, ,y, z) = l represents an ellipsoid formed by the revolution of an ellipse about its major axis, the eccentricity of the
generating ellipse
given by
&{b}c
~~~
gh
f j
*\
(&
Ex. 8. If the axes are oblique, F(#, #, of revolution if
a perfect square.
2)=0 represents a conicoid
v)
is
Hence shew that the four cones of revolution that pass through the coordinate axes are given by ayz+bzx+cxy~Q) where
a
b
c
a
b
c
5 A
or
a
~^
2
c
*
g
cos 2 
o
cos 2 rr
oM
cos^^
v sln o
<>
Ex. 9. Find the equations to the right circular cones that touch the (rectangular) coordinate planes. Ans. ^2 f ?y 2 + 2 (one or three of the negative signs being taken).
t
fc2^2^2^=0,
1631
INVARIANTS
231
INVARIANTS.
163.
If the equation
to
a conicoid
formed by any change of rectangular
Q is transF(&, y, z) axes, the expressions
D,
a+b+c,
remain unaltered in
If the origin only therefore a+b c, A
A+B + C,
S
value.
is
+
+ B + C,
changed, f(x y, z) is unaffected, and and D are unaltered.
t
If
now
the coordinate axes be turned about the origin
is
so that f(x, y, z)
f[(x, y, z)
transformed into
= ap2 + bjj2 + c^2 + fyyz + Zg^x + 2/^ay,
f(x, y, z)
then
\(x
2
+y 2 + z )
2
becomes
If
f(x, y,
represents
two
planes,
And X is the Trill also represent the planes. in both equations, therefore the equations
aX,
h,
g> h,
same quantity
g =o,
&X,
f>
/ cx
In each the
"
h l9 ^
gl
fi
=
have the same and therefore
roots.
coefficient of
Xs
is
unity,
i
Again becomes
if
the origin
is
changed to (a,
)8,
y), F(#, y,
++
p (^
8 y)=>
ff> [CH. w 1 3F 1 c)F 1 3F 23a a. Multiply the numbers in the three columns by a. 23/3' 23y y y u v /. y respectively. rows. becomes then transforms into F(a. h. and subtract the sum from the numbers in the fourth column then apply the same process to the . y 0)f If F(x.)2 COORDINATE GEOMETRY of S. u. Hence the new value 3F 2doL /*. h. z)\(x*+y*+z +l)=Q 2 represents a cone . v. b. g. f. h. y. b. . w. XI. c> f. Therefore S If the axes is unaltered be i now turned about t the origin so that V = Tint* t/ Ft sf 41 z)j\Xi y \x. 6. c> v f. h. w d by change of origin.. /8. g. and S' = a. /' f 9 2 ^/3 1 l^f o & 1 /> 3F 1 3F 1 3F 23* 23J8' 2^' F ( a>Ar) first .. 1 a. y.
l Ex. and whose generators are parallel the ellipsoid to the line x/l=y/mz/n. Shew by means of invariant expressions that the squares 5. of the = 0. is . Ex.. 2 If /(#. prove that RR' 2 PP /2 . If the origin is unaltered. i. y. OL. /. in And X being the same quantity both equations.A. Examples VIII. h lt feiX. /. R'. /?.e. (ii) + OlTOP^OQ. 1.163] INVARIANTS 233 will also represent the cone. axes of a normal section of the cylinder which principal2 2 envelopes # /a +yV&2 +s2/c2 1. If any set of rectangular axes through a fixed origin meets a given conicoid in P. Hence S is invariant for any change of rectangular axes.^ QQ /2 . h. = 0. 1. Ex. is 2. remains unaltered. X uv w have the same roots. g. are given by Ex. In each equation the coefficient of X4 is unity. and find the equations to the axis. S = S'. prove that are the roots of the discriminating cubic. cX.OQ' OFrOF are constant. P' Q. 4. Q' R. and therefore the constant terms are equal. y Ex. z) transforms into ou?2 +/3 v 2 +y2 . 3. ffi> =0 flt fi>Ci*> vv lt X. . If are simultaneously transformed. the equations . invariant. Prove that an ellipse of eccentricity represents a cylinder whose crosssection l/N/2.
y. Shew that the conicoids are equal in 8.234 2. Prove also that axis is parallel to the line "*= fc m ?=*?. all respects. )=0 represents a cylinder. vertices form a rightangled triangle. are given 2 2 y + bz = 2cx by 5. Prove that flt (72 W 2 2\ +^+)=(k+my+n*l)* C/ its its a paraboloid touching the surface ax* + by*+cz2 l at represents points of section by the plane fa+my+nz=*l. a^=5^=cf=0? real cone Prove that the cylinder and through the curve of intersection of the conicoids #2 f az2 = 2cy. XL by a plane through the 3. and that their 6. line x =y = z. 9. prove that ?)S 3S 38 3a and that the area c>F "ScT of a normal section is TT 3D 3D 3D\* . COORDINATE GEOMETRY Find the eccentricity of a section of the surface [CH. What is the nature of the surface given by if /foy. 2 2 2 y +dz +2ax+b =0.*)=l 4. Prove that three cones can be drawn through the curve of intersection of the conicoids a2 ==0. If F(#. . 7i 7. if 3 Prove that + 63 +c3 =3a6c and represents either a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic paraboloid.
2 2 2 ^/a +y /6 =l. c) lie in the coordinate planes or on the cone 18. ~~ h ' The principal planes of /(^. we have and that if it represents a right circular cylinder we have also 7 9 11. #=0. that the equations to the axis are a 15. 0. 0. 17. Prove that the centres of conicoids that touch yz inx at its vertex and at all points of its generator y~kx. . 0). The axes of the conicoids of revolution that pass through the six points ( a. y. and whose base is any plane section of the ellipsoid is of revolution. ^=A. $)=0 is the cone reciprocal to/(#. 0). y=6. & Q V* *dz 5" where F(#. 2L. c) is . 16. lie on the line 13. z)~l are given by =0. 6. 0).OH. touching the line u?=a. y. 12.a)(z h Kf = 0. c ' z= h and Paraboloids are drawn through the lines y=0. )=0. XL] Prove that EXAMPLES if F(or. b. (0. b +. 0). (0. (0. circle Prove that the equation to the right circular cylinder on the through the three points (a. 0. y. Prove that z(ajc+by+cz)+cLX+/3y=0 represents a paraboloid and that the equations to the axis are 14. h=m. (0. VIII. z)=*Q represents a paraboloid of revolution. y. A hyperbolic paraboloid passes through the lines anc^ nas one system ~ =='{=^ J ~= ?=o> Shew of generators parallel to the plane z=0. Given the ellipsoid of revolution Shew that the cone whose vertex is one of the foci of the ellipse =0. 235 10. 0. Shew tnat their diameters of contact lie on the conoid through the point a (y _ i)(z hyb(x.
0). 26. (0. pass through O. and is yQ. y=0 Shew in two circles of variable centres but constant radii a and that the locus of the centre is A conicoid touches the plane 2=0 and is cut by the planes #=0. 24. 22. B and C.*2 + ^2= sl upon a concentric conicoid of revolution.2fyy f 2cz = 0. A. and that the locus of the centres of the sphere 2 where A and such conicoids /x is 4. 0. are rectangular hyperbolas which sections by the planes #=0. x/a+y/b+z/c=l.cz = 0. 2c).by . which has as generators and the other system parallel to the plane #fyf=0.z 2  o? . the locus of P is the cone . Prove that the equation to the conicoid is A A y0 tf 8 +#2 . 2=0. are parameters. 0./. xi. 21. b. Shew vertices of the tetrahedron that the equation to the conicoid that passes through the whose faces are #=0. If the feet of the six normals from P i to the ellipsoid ^+P lie *2 .r . Shew that the equation to the ellipsoid inscribed in the tetrahedron whose faces are #=0. O.2ax . 23. 20. so as to touch each face at its centre of gravity. B. is Shew and that that its its centre is at the centre of gravity of the tetrahedron equation referred to parallel axes through the centre is 25. (0.2 2 + 2 \yz + 2/xz. 0). x is such that the tangent plane at each vertex is parallel to the opposite face. C are the points (2a. conicoid passes through this circle and is such that its OAB. Find also the coordinates of the vertex and the equations to the axis. 2=0. y=0.236 19 COORDINATE GEOMETEY Find the equation to the paraboloid [CH. C and A respectively. and the circle is circumscribed about the triangle axes are rectangular. The axes of cylinders that circumscribe an ellipsoid and have a crosssection of constant area lie on a cone concyclic with the ellipsoid.
prove that the planes bisecting the angles between them are given by =0. hx+ by +fz.yo.cn/3 <xy) .cz Prove that . 237 and the axes symmetry of the conicoids lie on the cone 26. ax + hy +gz. If axP + byt+czt+Zfys+tyzx+ZhjcyQ represents a pair ot planes.y/3) 2^(2ex.) represents a cylinder whose axis is ?/ f .1 EXAMPLES of VIII.en.)8 y. x OL = (3 =2 . gx +fy 4. . 27.fly /fcc. xi.
In that case the conies will inter sect in three points at a finite distance. y t\ z=t3 where t is a parameter. . #. and therefore the locus is a cubic curve.xy(a b) affa + bay = 0. Thus the quartic curve of intersection of may consist of a straight line . xii. zxfac . have seen that three cylinders Ex. any plane which does not pass through it meets it in one point and meets the locus of the other common points of the conicoids in three points. and the locus of the common points of the two conicoids which are at a finite distance will be a cubic curve. or curve. two conicoids and a cubic curve. THE INTERSECTION OF TWO CONICOIDS. is a quartic If the conicoids have a common generator. Again. plane meets a conicoid in a conic. CHAPTER XII. the feet of pass through the normals from a point (OL.r=y2 Their other common points lie on a cubic curve whose equations may be written #=. The conicoids z. have OX as a common generator. in which a given plane cuts two conicoids. Any intersection is therefore of the fourth degree. an asymptote of one of the two conies. may be parallel to an asymptote of the other. y) to the conicoid We Their equations are ^ or ~ ax t  by cz yz(bc)~byy+c/3z=Q. and therefore any plane meets the curve of intersection of two conicoids in the four points common to two conies.ICH. xyz . The curve of 164. Ex.
for then PQ would meet the surface S2 in three points. But points of the curve lie upon S x and the plane intersects S t in the lines AB and PQ. Let P. lies meets S2 in two points.164. Suppose common points of two conicoids S t and S2 consists of a common generator AB and a cubic curve. PQ. or one upon AB and one upon PQ. and would therefore be a generator all . therefore the other two points must lie upon AB or PQ. one of which is Q. The plane containing AB and PQ meets the curve in three points. be the first of these points and Q the second. and the conies therefore intersect in three points at a finite distance. Any generator. bc ' and one asymptote of any plane section of the second lies in the plane ca an asymptote of one in two conies such that parallel to an asymptote of the other. 49. 165] CONICOIDS WITH is COMMON GENERATORS *y the plane 239 Their curve of intersection written a cubic curve whose equations may be One asymptote of any plane section of the first lies in **3L=0. fig. 49. 165. is Hence any plane meets the two cylinders that the locus of the The cubic curve common to two conicoids. of sv of the opposite system to AB. Neither can lie upon PQ. one of which upon AB and the Fzo. other upon the curve.
.v2 2 yz.r... 0... Hence the locus of the common points of two conicoids which have a common generator consists of the generator and a cubic curve. that if two conicoids have a common ( proved... have is 1. (1) 2.... They are the points (0. let along AB. COORDINATE GEOMETRY Therefore the cubic curve intersects the [CH... = 0... =1. coordinates x=t(t + l).. x+y=Q. xn... To generator.... But we have Similarly... and y = fa=*fl(t+l).. generator Let AB meet the curve in R and AB at two S.. limit As P tends to R.2zx + 2xy + 2# + 2# = 0. common P move points......y = 0. common We The points The remaining point of intersection from (3) and (4).... (2) OZ given common obtain by# = Ar..... (5) t is a variable parameter....... Q tends to so that in the PQ is a tangent at R to the surface S 2 and the plane AB and PQ is then the tangent plane at R to the But the plane of AB and PQ is tangent plane surface S 2 of . generator... ... ..... Prove that the conicoids have x~y=z as a common generator.. And therefore the surfaces Sj^ and S 2 have the same tangent plane at R.. 10).. which passes through the two points of the generator at which the surfaces touch...... at P to the surface Ex. z=(2t + l)(t + 1). Prove that the plane #y=*(y*) meets the cubic curve which contains the other common points in the P int ..MO of S 2 .. 0)...i7+. (4) + *tl #=0.. The points where the curve meets the common generator OZ are given by * = 0. The as a conicoids b. But to Ex...(5 + 20*(f+2)+2(* + l) z 2^ =0. 134. corresponding to #=0 lie upon the common generator. (0.. (3) j... 0. Ex. the surfaces also touch at S.. 1)....r z. they touch at two points of the generator... 2. S x for any position of P.... and P... Any plane through the generator find where this plane meets the cubic curve to the conicoids. of the ^^ plane and cubic has....... It is easy to verify that the common tangent planes at these points are #=0. substitute in equations (1) and (2). so that we may take the equations (5) represent the curve. ..
Let OX and PG be the other generators of the conicoid S x which pass through O and P.. Take OX as #axis. And to S2 since the tangent planes at the origin and (0. Then.. 166. the equation to S 2 is 2 a^ + btf + 2yz + 2g^x + 2^xy .$. (fig. y) are y = 0..166] CONICOIDS WITH COMMON GENEKATOES 241 shew that the cubic meets the common generator at the origin and the . and the parallel generator at of OP be y.165. and verify that the surfaces have the same tangent point #=#=3= planes at these points. through O to PG as 7/axis. z') to S l and S2 are given by all gg^ the surfaces touch at points of the . = 0. be the points of the common which the surfaces touch and let the measure Take OP as zaxis and O as origin. = 0. a = be written are generators of S 1? may Q (1) Fio.. Let arid 50).. 2/ its = 0. Conicoids with curve may O common generators. (2) The tangent planes and hence if at (0. # = respectively. 50.. into three straight lines.2 7 y = . 0. The cubic degenerate into a straight line and a conic or P. since z = 0. 0. 2/ equation = y.
. 04 .g~g lt and equation (3) becomes which represents a pair of planes through OZ. whose equations are x = 0... OX is generator of S 2 The plane of the then passes through OX. and hence x . We shall consider meantime the case where g=f=g r From (1) and (2). . cubic will degenerate. The conic therefore becomes two also. = 0. the locus of the common points of Sj and S 2 is a cubic curve which lies upon the cone. But if equation (3) represents two intersecting planes. z = y is a generator g) = 0. b 1 (g 1 2 The condition for a pair of planes fc is If fe x = 0. OZ and PG.. common generator OZ. = 0. of S2 and equation (3) then becomes equivalent to .. having OZ as points of S t and S 2 a generator. and is therefore a tangent conic plane to both conicoids. we obtain h)^ ) . But OX and PG are of the same system.242 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. one of which is OX. (3) clearly represents a surface through the common It is in general a cone.. If these planes are distinct. in the plane = 0. If. by subtracting. locus of the common points of S L and S 2 is The complete then a skew quadrilateral formed by four common generators... o.. they meet the conicoids in two other common generators of the opposite system to OZ. If they are coincident the conicoids touch at all points of a second common generator. PG. the which . and in general. and the other a generator of the opposite system. xn. If the conicoids touch at all points of the common generator O2. and the conic consists therefore of OX and a generator which intersects OX and PG. Hence the common points of S x and S 2 in the plane lie upon a conic and the two common generators. straight lines.
have OX for a common generator. 5.z 422 2 3y2. Prove that the conicoids . 3^22=1 . Ex. (2#+32) 42^+62=0. written 2=A1. y+2=l y=0. (y=0. Find the locus of their other common Ex.rfl= The conicoids 2. y=0. (82. Ex.IQzx + Lry + 22 = have four common generators.52#. 5^?22=l. 5. Ex.122=0. . 2. 243 Ex. 4) . they touch at all points of the generator. coincident at (17. #=0 . Two 7. 24#=l. points.) The conicoids . (2. Find the points of intersection of the plane #9y42 and the quartic curve which is common to the parabolic cylinders Ex. 3. 2=0 2=0. . lie If two cones have a common generator.) . 6.6. 2 2#=4z. .ry + 2=0. The conicoids  #42=0.6>/2 . (The generators are #=0. have two common generators and touch at all points of these generators. If two paraboloids have each a system of generators parallel 9. Prove that the intersection of the conicoids is a quartic curve whose equations may be l. to . Ex. Ans.166] EXAMPLES OF INTERSECTION 1. The conicoids have two common generators and a common conic section. 7) . points 8. their other common on a cubic curve which passes through both vertices. 2. and #+. 2X Ex.ILrytouch one another at all points of the common generator that their other common generators lie in the planes ^=^=2./+ 241 = 0.r=0. 3. 4. and Ex. ATM. a given plane and touch at two points of a common generator of the system. 10.
2 3 and hence that the general equation to a conicoid through it is Prove that the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through the curve is and that this surface is also the locus of the midpoints of chords of the curve.2z 4.2^ == 0. Ex. iv2 = Av. the cubic curve *?Z3* 222 9tt z =Tc meets a conicoid in seven points. and that the locus of the centres passes through them and through the curve. is also the locus of the midpoints of chords Ex. Ex. it lies wholly on the conicoid. [CH. i . wu = v2 vw = Aw. Shew that the lines 2 2 2 2 2 2 are asymptotic to the curve. 12. (two of which have a common generator). . where v EEBi^+Ba k is etc. 13. am. it is . C = a7?/(a6)2^+2y=0. Prove that the general equation cubic curve given s by x ts z ^ to a conicoid through tho ?nd that the locus of the centres of such conicoids is the surface Verify that this surface of the curve. z(ax)=a\ lies #(ay)a 2 pass through a cubic curve which Prove that if on the surface xyz\a3 =Q.a) .344 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY 10. 2 . Shew that the curve lies upon the cylinders C == zx (c .=v*. Prove that the three cylinders #(a2)=a Ex. 11. The equations to a cubic curve are Prove that the cone generated by chords through the origin given by uru. and that the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through 0. Shew that the curve lies on each of the conicoids.
and their vertices are the summits of a tetrahedron which is selfpolar with 167. D are the points each of the conicoids passes through two of the lines BA. Prove that the equations determine a cubic curve. DC. coids. = 0.167] INTEESECTION OF 14. C. If A. 15. Prove that the cubic curve given by lies upon the conicoids where u< . TWO CONICOIDS 245 Ex. The equations ^3w 1 = w22 W4^ 2 ==w32 represent cones whose vertices are D and A respectively. The centres of conicoids through it lie on the cubic surface . AD. respect to any conicoid through the curve of intersection. which lies upon three cylinders whose generators are parallel to the coordinate axes. pass through the curve of intersection of two given conicoids. 8. . The cones through the intersection of two coniFour cones. The curve passes through A and D and touches BA at A and DC at D. Ex. in general. If the equations to the conicoids are S = ax2 + by* + cz* + 2fyz + tyzx + 2Jixy . etc.
where Sa = . v+\v' </+Aflf'.246 COOEDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. . Hence this plane is of (oc. ft. If two conicoids have double contact and the line joining the points of contact is not a common generator. . Conicoids with double contact. If these are \> X 2 X 3 X 4 then (a. /3. xn. and this equation gives four values of X. or the four vertices form a selfpolar tetrahedron. w+Xw'. ^X). t f+Xf. If the points of contact are A and B. the polar plane of (a. corresponding to X 2 X 3 X 4 the vertices of these cones. the equation S+XS'=0 represents a conicoid through the curve of intersection. (1) etc. If two conicoids have common tangent planes at two points they are said to have double contact. This conicoid is a cone if u + Xu = 0. /3. /+X/. OOL Again. Take AB as yaxis and any two lines through . vertices of and therefore passes through Thus the plane through the is the polar plane of the fourth vertex with respect to any conicoid of the system. any plane through AB meets the conicoids in two conies which touch at A and B. v + \v' w+\w' d+\d' u+\u'. their curve of intersection consists of two conies. . y) with respect to S + /zS' = has for equation which by means of the relations (1) reduces to y) with respect to any conicoid through the curve of intersection is therefore the polar plane with respect to the conicoid S'. The polar plane the polar plane of (a. y) with respect to the three cones . )8. the vertex of the cone corresponding to \ v is given by > . y). h+Xh' t b + \b'. c+\c'. any three of the cones 168.
. also the plane BAC is the plane at A. From (1) and by subtraction. 0(y. (2) But the forms sections of the conicoids B. or the curve of intersection consists of two conies which cross at A and B. the the conicoid lie on the sides of a skew and the conicoids touch at the four vertices. consist of a straight line and a conic..168] CONICOIDS WITH DOUBLE CONTACT 247 a point on AB as x.. . Let the conies in which the #t/plane cuts the conicoids be and Then the equations to the two conicoids are 0.167. In either case the common two planes. In the first case. the conigenerators coids touch at the three points A. The sections of the conicoids by the plane x = are given and therefore m = ra' (2). which may.. If AB other is a common generator of the two conicoids...and zaxes. (1) ..... quadrilateral .... and the tangent plane to either conicoid at C is the plane containing AC and in common tangent common points of the tangent to the conic at C... B.. the common points lie on a cubic curve.... For the tangent to either conicoid at B is the plane containing AB plane and the tangent to the conic at B.. if the common AB and AC meet the conic in B and C. touch at A and by the ?/0plane also and therefore their equations are of the 2 t(y. we have therefore the common points of the two conicoids lie in two planes which pass through AB. or three straight lines.. In the second case. C.. and p=p'..*)=0. z)+X'* =0. as we have points lie seen in 166.
169. the chord of contact being u = 0. meet the conicoids in two common points A and The tangents to the sections at A are tangents to both conicoids at A. at least. and The If S= is the u^ax+by+cz+d Q. and tf = a' u' If The equation conicoid is to the tangent plane at A to the second xSa + ySp + zSy + S or. /?. then = aoc+&/3+cy + d = 0. is S + \u* + fyuv + vv2 = 0. since u' = v' = 0. Hence the conicoids touch at A. Similarly they touch at B. The general equation to a conicoid having double contact with S = 0. 170. // two conicoids have two they touch at two points. + \ (uv + vu') = 0. xSa +ySp+zSy +S = Q.248 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Again. and therefore. equation to one conicoid. common plane sections The line of intersection of the planes of the sections will B. For the tangent plane at A is xSa + y Sp + zSy + S + 2\uu' + 2fjL (utf + wuf) + 2vvv' = 0. If one plane section consists of two generators CA and CB. the conicoids have the same tangent plane at A. t or. also touch at C. y). the conicoids If the other also consists of two generators the conicoids touch at their point of intersection. xS a + yS + zSy + S = 0. analytical proof is equally simple. at is B. v==a'x + b'y + c'z+d' Q represent the planes of the common sections. t> = 0. ft t Thus the conicoids touch at A. by (1). t t which represents the tangent plane at A to the first conicoid. xn. the equation to the other conicoid is of the form A is the point (a. three conditions must be satisfied if a conicoid to . and similarly. and similarly they touch at B. since two tangents determine the tangent plane at any point. and thus touch at four points.
2. the planes of their other common sections pass through one line. 6. ( Since 168). Prove that the ellipsoid and sphere given by is have double contact.169171] CIRCUMSCRIBING CONICOIDS 249 touch a given plane at a given point. CA. 1. The curve of intersection of the surfaces consists therefore of two coincident conies in the plane ABC. one from each pair of conicoids. 5. If two conicoids have a common plane section. is a sphere of zero radius contact with the conicoid. Ex. Ex. Ex. 4. AB is a common generator. The locus of a point such that the square on the tangent from it to a given sphere is proportional to the rectangle contained by its distances from two given planes is a conicoid which has double contact with the sphere. When two one is conicoids touch at all points of a plane section said to be circumscribed to the other. and the surfaces touch at points of their section by the plane. the polar planes with respect to them of any point in the plane of the section pass through one line. Ex. 7. and certain sets of three of the six planes of intersection. B. If a system of conicoids has a common conic section. When three conicoids are circumscribed to a fourth. Two conicoids which are circumscribed to a third intersect in plane curves. Ex. their common points lie in two planes which pass through BC. their other points of intersection lie in one plane. If two conicoids touch C and none of the lines BC. it does. Since the conicoids touch at B and C. they must coincide in the plane ABC. Ex. Ex. at three points A. A focus of a conicoid Circumscribing conicoids. 171. and the correwhich has double sponding directrix is the chord of contact. If three conicoids have a common plane section. 3. they intersect in plane curves. . which Cor. and therefore the general equation should contain three disposable constants. and that the chord of contact #=8. then the conicoids touch at all points of their sections by the plane ABC. 3=2. these planes pass through A. pass through one line.
Ex. every tangent has a focus at Ex. 12. A sphere of centre constant radius r has double contact with the ellipsoid ^ its ^ on one of the conies Prove that must lie Examine when the contact is real and within the ellipsoid. The centres of conicoids which have double contact with a given conicoid so that the chord of contact is parallel to a given line lie in a given plane. 15. the chord of contact is the polar of P with respect to the circle. COORDINATE GEOMETRY If [CH. and the angle between the planes of the common sections of the sphere and the ellipsoid is the same for all chords parallel to a given axis. Ex. of contact is . pline to the sphere cuts the conicoid in a conic which the point of contact. and intersect in a circle. 8. If two cones have a common circular section. 11. lie on the line the plane zQ OCL y?i a b/3 o JT Ex. and if the line joining their vertices meet the plane of the circle in P. when the sphere lies wholly Ex. two conicoids have two common generators of the same system.250 Ex. xn. the chord parallel to one of the principal axes. y=/J. 10. Ex. 130.r=oi. If a conicoid is circumscribed to another conicoid. 14. 13. Ex. Cf. 16. the tangent plane to either at an umbilic cuts the other in a conic of which the umbilic is a focus. they have double contact. Any two lie enveloping cones of the conicoid a#2 +&# 2 fc22 =l whose vertices on the concentric and aomothetic conicoid have double contact. Ex. The centres of conicoids which have double contact with the surface at its points of intersection with the chord . common generators. If a conicoid is circumscribed to a sphere. If a sphere has double contact with an ellipsoid. they have two other 9.
S' = 0. If four conicoids pass through eight given points. 1. Cor. 173. Ex. and therefore through the eight given points. represents a conicoid which passes through all the points common to the conicoids given by S = 0. One conicoid. the polar plane passes Ex.172. Take A and B any other two fixed points. through The locus of the common points of S = 0. y) with respect to the conicoid S + XS' = Hence. whatever the value of through the fixed line X. 2. The diametral planes of a given line with respect to the conicoids through eight given points pass through a fixed line. where S = and S' = represent fixed conicoids through the points. An infinite number of conicoids can be found to pass through eight 172. Hence all conicoids through eight given points pass through a quartic curve. in general. . the polar planes of any point with respect to them have the same anharmonic ratio. and one to pass through B and the eight given Let the equations to these conicoids be S = 0. passes through nine given but if the ninth point lies on the quartic curve points. S' = 0. And any an fore infinite quartic curve. an infinite number of conicoids passes through the nine. The equation S+XS' = value can be assigned to the parameter X therenumber of conicoids can be found to pass the eight given points. given points. S' = is a . Any conicoid through the eight points is given by S + XS' = 0. The polar planes of a given point with respect to the conicoids through eight given points pass through a fixed line. points. The equation to the polar plane of is (a. Then one conicoid can be found to pass through A and the eight given points. j8. 173] CONICOIDS THEOUGH EIGHT POINTS 251 Conicoids through eight given points. through the other eight.
j by P^. (0.. points 5. and we denote P t and tfSojhySfcfsSys + Sf. S' = 0. 174.1. If s = 0. The pole of a given plane with respect to the conicoids through eight given points lies on a cubic curve. P*z + AP'a3 = 0. Conicoids through seven given points... (oj ft. and therefore all conicoids Therefore which pass through seven given points pass through an eighth fixed point.. XIL Ex. y 2 ) are points ^ by of the given line. + AP'ao = 0. (1) The fixed conicoids intersect in eight points whose co ordinates are given evidently satisfy the equation by S = 0.252 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH.. Ex. The polars of a given line with respect to the conicoids through eight given points lie on a hyperboioid of one sheet. Ex. S' = 0. S" = 0.. ft.... The diametral planes of a fixed line with respect to the coincoids which pass through seven given points pass through a fixed point. Ex. 7!> and A 2 . Ex. The poles of a given plane with respect to the conicoids which pass through seven given points lie on a surface of the third degree. Paa p'a3 Pa3 P' ai  P^P^O... respect to the conicoid then the equations to the polar of AjA 2 with by S + AS'Oare The locus of the polars is therefore given Pa^PoaP'a^O. The polar planes of a given point with respect to the conicoids which pass through seven given points pass through a fixed point. Ex. 4. and therefore is point of intersection of the polar planes given by P! + AP'aj = 0... 3. 2. ... If AJ... (1). 3.. be three points with respect to v i of A A2 A 3 x . The locus of the pole is Pa.. the intersection of two hyperboloids which have a common generator. the general equation to a conicoid through the points is S + AS'+yuS"=:0 . are the equations to fixed conicoids through the seven given points... 1. therefore the curve of intersection of the hyperboloids _ p^p'^o. lie The centres of conicoids that pass through eight given on a cubic curve. ... S" = 0. .
Find the locus of the centres of conicoids that pass through a given conic and a straight line which intersects the conic. The vertices of the cones that pass Ex. The feet of the lie straight line normals to a conicoid from points on a given on a quartic curve. C. Prove that the locus of the OABC is centre of the sphere a cubic curve. Tangent planes parallel to a given plane are drawn to a system of conicoids which have double contact at fixed points with a given Prove that the locus of their points or contact is a hyperconicoid. The feet of the perpendiculars from a point (OL. of the paraboloid xyz. 1. 253 Ex. A#=2. Two cones have their vertices at an umbilic of an ellipsoid and meet the tangent plane at the opposite umbilic in two circles which cut at right angles. A variable plane ABC passes through a fixed line and cuts the which are rectangular. Prove that the vertex opposite to O lies on a cubic curve which lies on a cone that has 5. Examples IX. OA. the chord of contact lies in the polar plane of P with respect to the conicoid. lie IX. each of which contains the pole of the other. 3. 4. OC as generators. Prove that the locus of the points of contact is a hyperboloid which passes through A and B. If a cone with a given vertex P has double contact with a given conicoid. /?. in A. z = b. 9. y=A. and the generator in P.174] EXAMPLES 4. 2. OB. points 5. The shortest distance betweea the fixed line x a. bolic paraboloid which has one system of generators parallel to the given plane. . The edges OA. 10. y) to the generators of the paraboloid xy^cz lie on two cubic curves whose equations may be written 7. ellipsoid lie in two Shew that their curves of intersection with the planes. B. axes. and the diagonal plane ABC passes through a fixed line. Tangent planes are drawn through a given line to a system of conicoids which have contact with a given conicoid at fixed points A and B. OC of a parallelepiped are fixed in position. 6. meets the generator Shew that the locus of P is a cubic curve which lies on the 8. points The centres of the conicoids which pass through seven given on a surface of the third degree. lie through seven given on a curve of the sixth degree. OB.
and is at a 11. P is any point on the curve of intersection of two right cones whose axes are parallel and whose semivertical angles are a. confocals If a variable conicoid has double contact it has a fixed director sphere. OP and point O on the director sphere. OC. When AB. ABC. of conicoids can be found to pass through the curve and through AB. B. d cos cLd' cos a/ 18. XIL variable plane ABC meets the axes in A.2^ + 202^=0. and the planes OBC. passes through AB number AB The 2axis is a chord of the curve Prove that the equation to the conicoid which passes through thf curve and the saxis and which touches the plane 2#=3y at the point (0. Prove that an infinite is a given chord of a cubic curve. Prove that the two paraboloids which contain the normals to the hyperboloid at points on OP and intersect in a cubic curve whose projection on the tangent plane at is a plane cubic with three real asymptotes. 2) is 7 r2 +yg _ to _ . (  1. 16.'. the 13. is constant. Prove that two be drawn to pass through a paraboloids can given small circle on a given sphere and to touch the sphere at a given point. 1). are the generators of a hyperboloid through a 20. Find the locus of the centres of conicoids of revolution that circumscribe a given ellipsoid and pass through its centre. C. ?.2xy . Prove that its vertex lies on the surface A A 12. and pass through the cubic curve which touches the generator at 15. OB. and If d and d' are the distances of P from the vertices. and that one of these will touch a given plane which at a given point of AB. OQ OQ O .2y +22=0 14. l with respect to 1 of one of the planes of the common sections lies on 2 . and prove that their axes are coplanar. then the pole of the other also lies on 2 If two C C C C . 1. 17.254 COORDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. have double contact. Prove that the conicoids have a common generator x=y~z. C and 2 . prove that . cone passes through the constant distance p from the origin. curves of intersection of the ellipsoid whose semiaxes are OA. and the pole conicoids. line joining the poles of intersects two conicoids touch at all points of a common generator any given plane with respect to them AB. 0. with each of three 19.
BD will lie on the plane bisecting the edges AB. 25. 3 have their vertices collinear and Cj. Two conicoids are inscribed in the . AC. BC.mp). What surfaces correspond to (i) A=l. vertex P. CD of a tetrahedron. P'. . O 30. A along one of the curves of section. EXAMPLES sides of a lines IX.4(/x .raxis. xii. and the feet of the normals lie on a curve of the third degree which is the locus of the centres of the conicoids. C C line. CD. P' Q.l'p)(v . 29. through the vertex meets them in P. If three cones 19 C 2 . 26. Q . AD. The skew quadrilateral are the and the Prove that the general equation to a conicoid which touches the where OL= I' or I' . the sections of the conicoids by any plane through P have contact of the second order unless the plane passes through the tangent to the conic at P. The conicoids S and S 2 and a conicoid S have two plane each touch sections S with respect to S. BC. AC. 21 in the case when if the joins of the midpoints of AB. are taken as coordinate axes. 27. P. If conicoids pass through the curve of intersection of a given conicoid and a given sphere whose centre is O. when the contact is of the third order. 22. the normals to them from lie on a cone of the second degree. Prove that CD AD. Find the locus of the centres of hyperboloids of one sheet that pass through the sides of a given skew quadrilateral. 24. If a conicoid passes through the edges AB.CH. P'. Give a geometrical interpretation of the equation of the conicoid = '. 28. DB . CD. C 2 . in Ex. . If the intersection of two conicoids consists of a conic and two straight lines through a point P of the conic. of intersection of the tangent planes at P. the equation to any conicoid is of the form through the four sides of the skew quadrilateral 23. Q' lie . Prove that if S. C 2 . cone. 255 the vaxis. Q in one of two fixed planes. . then C 3 Cj intersect also in plane curves and the six planes of intersection pass through one . same cone and any secant Prove that the lines Q'. and S 2 pass through P.] 21. C3 intersect in plane curves. BC ABCD where A is a (ii)A=l? parameter. . the pole of the plane bisecting the edges AB. Q' . they touch at P and have a common conic section lying in the polar plane of P t common.
C 3 = represent cylinders through t the feet of the normals. The general equation to a conicoid through the feet of the normals from a point to an ellipsoid. The sides of a skew quadrilateral generators of a hyperboloid. 0) and base 2 p^ 22 e2 1* *o. Prove that it also lies on point the cylinder x^+y^ ax.vCt = 0. B 2 Prove that and the planes ABC. are along 31. intersects the cone whose vertex r2 is (0. that its equations may be written 32. Prove that the axes of paraboloids of revolution that pass through the feet of six concurrent normals to the conicoid ax2 + by 2 + cz* = 1 are parallel to one of the lines 34. A 2l 3 t .256 COOEDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. xir. BCD. curve is drawn on the sphere #2 f y2 +s2 =a 3 so that at any the latitude is equal to the longitude. Prove that the cone whose vertex t/ is (a. A and that if n 2 *3> *4 are the values of t for the four points in which the curve meets any given plane. S = 0. ABCD DAB . ft. t^t^t^l. I* in a parabola of latus rectum .~ 2c2 (A figure shows that the cones also touch along the line . 1 S + AC + AtCjj 4. Shev that the curve is a quartic curve. is where C =0 C 2 =0. CDA. and any transversal meets the hyperboloid in P n P2 in A t . 0. 33. 0) and base J+Jl.
Another important class of ruled surfaces. the generators of the conoid will project the given curve on the plane x l in a curve whose y Let P. THE CONOIDS. are parallel to the plane XOY. The hyperbolic paraboloid is a conoid. The generator of any point . and therefore has equations x_ V i _ ~" i o" Eliminating y l and zl between these equations and the equation ^i=/(2/i). y l9 z^ be equation. is z=f(y). (1. Ex. . 176] CHAPTER XIII. let us suppose.. and intersect the circle #=a. Ex. 3). the conoids. 0. ( 50. 1. Find the equation to the right conoid generated by lines which meet OZ. If the coordinate axes be chosen so that the given line is the 2axis and the given plane the #7/plane. and a cylinder is the surface generated by the line which intersect a given parallels to a given straight These are the most familiar of the ruled surfaces. 176. A cone is the surface generated by a straight line which passes through a fixed point and intersects a given curve. the locus is a right conoid. of this curve then z l =/(2/ 1 ). we obtain the equation to the conoid. curve._y2 +3 2 =r2 An*. The equation to a conoid. the conoid through P is the line joining P to the point (0. ^j). Ex. . 175. viz. : may be defined as follows a conoid is the locus of a line which always intersects a fixed line and a given curve and is If the given line is at right parallel to a given plane. since it is the locus of a line which intersects two given lines and is parallel to a given plane. angles to the given plane.175.
helix. cut all 4. XIII. so as to right cylinder . Prove that if r=2. is 2==ctan i where csata noL Lines parallel to the plane and the curves 2 Ex. is the helicoid. Shew equation 5. Ex. . Prove that the equation to the conoid they generate is rtan"" 1 s^ain" 1 ^ . x c Ex. (fig. 2. the equation to the locus becomes (The locus is the cylindroid. The graph of csin#. 51).. is wrapped round the cylinder x 2 +y2 ~r2 so that the extremities of the graph Lines parallel to the plane XOY are drawn to meet coincide on OX. XOY are drawn 2 to intersect OZ o.. (fig. (i) to the conoids generated.) 2 Fio. The curve drawn on the 2 2 2 to be given by x _ The conoid generated by intersect the 2axis and the its lines parallel to the plane XOY which that helix y/.r +y =a the generators at the same angle is called the right circular The coordinates of any point on it are easily seen. 51 Ex. from 0=0 to 0=2r7r.258 COORDINATE GEOMETRY . 52). OZ and the curve so formed. 3. Find the equation An.
. /J. x rtan~ 1 =tan~ 1 . semi. as to cut all y u sin 0. Discuss the form of the conoids represented by (i) y 2 z 4acjc. considering specially the Ans. 17. shall now obtain some general properties of 177. cot SUEFAOES IN GENEEAL.1 . c cosec 0. where ur stands for the general homogeneous expression y z of degree r.177] SUKFACES IN GENEEAL 6. Ex. Hence the equation contains N disposable constants. (ii) y ax*. and a right conoid is generated by lines which meet the curve and cut OZ at right angles. Find their equations. to denote current co The general equation of the nih degree may be written x. The number of terms in ur is y in and therefore the number of terms in the general equation is T r _0 (r 2) l)^ JL.vertical angle <x. 2 with the graphs of c tan 0. rtan~ 1 =cosec. cases in which r=l and r=2. We times be convenient to use ordinates. /:?. Ex.^. 7. and a surface represented by a cubic equation can be found pass through 19 given points. so the generators at the same angle. In the general cubic equation there are 19 disposable conto Ex. 259 Ex. N + lt l. stants. A curve is drawn on a right x = u cos #. and a surface represented by an equation of the nih degree can be found to satisfy N conditions which each involve one relation between the constants. c x c cone.o 8ay .A j or (*lXn+8X*+S). Prove that the coordinates of any point on it are given by 8. Conoids are constructed as in Ex. surfaces which are represented by an equation in cartesian In the following paragraphs it will somecoordinates. 1. z= where m == sin a.
so that the surface contains at least nine straight lines. The are __ m n ^ straight line whose equations meets the surface at points whose distances from are given (05. the equation contains 19 disposable constants. (^ +m+W 3i ^ This equation gives n values of p. 0=0. 1^=0. z) by . If an arbitrary straight meets a surface in TI points the surface is of the tith degree. real or imaginary Consider now the equation UV = *%#! It represents a hyperboloid of one sheet which intersects the surface K can be chosen ==O. 10=0. But since each of the sets of quantities u. Thus the surface contains two other straight lines. w=0. ^=0. A cubic surface contains 27 straight lines. real or KW+\W Now imaginary. If 2. lino The degree of a surface. v. Consider the surface represented by the equation of the n fch degree. at points which lie in the plane I so that this plane is a tangent plane to the hyperboloid. and then the common points lie upon the two generators of the hyperboloid which are in the plane. The surface therefore contains twentyseven straight lines. and therefore can be identified with any cubic equation. w=0. tt. Suppose then that the equation to the given surface has been thrown into this form. v=0. F( jy. !>!=(). w. there are nine hyperboloids. 178. each of which has two generators lying upon the surface. COORDINATE GEOMETEY M=0. F(a +ip y+mf> a+7l/. ^=0. ^=0 upon the surface. lie Wj 0. [CH. w l can be divided into groups of two in three ways. f) = 0. and therefore the line . tfj=0. xm. Clearly the lines 0=0.) /^ = . real or imaginary. y.260 Ex.=0. uly v { . ^=0 represent arbitrary planes. v0. w=0.
178180] THE INFLEXIONAL TANGENTS 261 meets the surface in n points. of the last paragraph. y. ratios The inflexional tangents. Two values of the l:m. Find the equation to the tangent plane at a point (x. Ex. F(#. z) in two coincident points. z) = a3 An*. and the line meets the surface at (x. If therefore c)F 'dx' 3F 3y' 3F 3z are not all zero. z) = 0. z). (/x + r\\y f (/z 3. Hence the locus of an is th tb equation of the 7i degree is a surface of the 7i degree. and the locus of the system is the tangent plane at (x. as in 134.l:n can be found to satisfy the equations 3F 32F A . lie 1. If also t the equation gives two zero values of /o. conicoid. z) is on the surface. the point (x y. Tangents and tangent planes. of the surface 2. to the form Ex. a surface of the 7i th degree Cor. y. upon a 180. y. Any plane section of a curve of the 7i th degree. z). y. If in equation (1) 179. the system of lines whose directionratios satisfy equation (2) touches the surface at (x. TJ The feet of the normals from a given point to the cylindroid . the equation to the tangent plane may be reduced. y. which is given by If the equation to the surface is made homogeneous by the introduction of an auxiliary variable t which is equated to unity after differentiation.
The inflexional tangents at P meet the curve in three coincident points. r== 3 2z 5. P is a node on the curve . y. z) whose 178.. P is a conjugate point. Hence. z). as in a cone or cylinder. z) there are two which have contact of higher order than the others.). the curve. y. if they are real and coincident. z) has for its equation and the inflexional tangents are the lines of intersection of the tangent plane and the pair of planes given by . They may be real hyperboloid of one sheet. and are therefore the tangents to The the curve at the double point. s Hence the tangent plane at (x. the values of p to the points of intersection of the surface corresponding 181. as in the and section of the surface by the tangent plane at a P on it is a curve of the nih degree. y. as in the ellipsoid. where . The equation and the line . or imaginary.__. y._. That is. I m n r/ are given by . f =/( surface is given in the form =/( *. xni. p = ^> 3z 3z tfss . . if the inflexional tangents through P are real and distinct. in the system of tangent lines through (x. If the equation to the vj). distinct. equation (1) of directions are determined by these values meet the surface in three coincident points. They are called the inflexional tangents at (x.262 COOKDINATE GEOMETBY coefficients of [CH. y+mp). 2 p and p in formed by equating to zero the The lines through (x. real and coincident. P is a cusp if they are imaginary. and any line point through P which lies in the tangent plane meets the curve P is therefore a double point of in two coincident points.
If at a point P. (x y. (.r. One therefore real. f 3 j =a through a 3 .&:_& ' 3fl~cty~3z~~ every line through P meets the surface in two coincident P is then a singular point of the first order. rt . The through any point of a conoid are real. lines through P whose directionratios satisfy the equation meet the surface in three coincident points at P./.v sin ^^ . coincident.180182] SINGULAR POINTS inflexional tangents 263 Ex. 1. Hence the other must also be real. and hence Ex. Ans . 182. or imaginary s 2 == 0. Find the locus of points on the cylindroid at inflexional tangents are at right angles. 6" have for equations y . according as rt For the conoid P$f. z) of the surface (i) inflexional tangents (ii) rf=4c. Any point on the cylindroid is given by ^ Prove that the inflexional tangents through "w. and are . point 2. The points. z\ of the t surface &. 3. *. ~~" which the Singular points. Ex.s2 =  ^ Find the equations to the y.c sin 2(9 ^ _ y _jscsin20 Ex. inflexional tangent is the generator through the point. : and is Or thus The inflexional tangents are real. 4.
and that the three tangents there. are the tangents to the surface 20 with fourpoint contact. have fourpoint contact with the surface at P. 2. distinct planes. 3. the tangents at the singular point. When the locus is a proper when it is a pair of P is a biplanar node or binode. 0=0. For the surface A4 +^ 4 +2 4 + 3^2+A'2 .2y2 . when the biplanes coincide. The . 1. z\ whose directionratios satisfy the equations cone. sections of the surface by the planes #a triple point at the origin. The six tangents through a singular point P.264 COOEDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. y. #+2y = 0. that the section of the surface by the plane has a triple point at the origin. The equation to a surface is of the form Prove that there is a unode at the origin. y=0. xm. P is a uniplanar node or unode. (x. counted twice. P is a conical point or conic node. The locus of the tangents at the origin is The six tangents which have fourpoint contact are Ex. The locus of the system of tangents through P is the surface Singular points are classified according to the nature of the locus of the tangent lines. Ex. z0. For the surface the origin the cone is a conic node. .3s2  the origin is a binode. y 42=0. They correspond to the inflexional tangents at an ordinary point of the surface. six tangents with fourpoint contact are #=0. The have Ex.
Am. 0) of the curve (iv) (a. and shew that the tangent cones at the conical points intersect the plane 2=0 in the conic Ex. the line is a nodal line. a) is a conic node. 0) is binode conic node. have seen that the 183. 0. 8. 0. 0. 2 ). about OX) . #2 +#2 2a#. For the surface is a binode and that the line of intersection of the biplanes lies on the surface.2). is (i) (0. 0) is is formed . that the section of the surface by any plane through OZ has a cusp at the origin. . ). 0. Ex. (iii) y=z=Q. (ii) xy=Q. prove that the origin Ex. by revolution y Ex. (i) (ii) (iii) Ans.183] SINGULAR TANGENT PLANES to a surface is of the 265 Ex. conic node 20. y) being a binode at which the tangent planes are Prove also that if r and p have the same sign there are two real u nodes lying on the nodal line. Prove that the zaxis is a nodal line any point (0. Find and classify the singular points of the surfaces (i) (ii) (Hi) (iv) x( (ii) (0. Find the equation to the surface generated by a variable c) and intersecting the circle passing through the points (0. (iii) (0. For the surface a nodal line with unodes at the points prove that the 3axis (0. The curve may . 6. 0. (i) 07=^=0. 2=0. Shew that the plane cx+dy=Q is a tangent plane at any point of OZ. 0. Singular tangent planes. 9. circle 7. 5. 0. 4. is (0. 10. If every point of a line drawn on a surface is a singular Find the nodal lines of the surfaces point. The equation form Shew Ex. (the surface .182. y%x=z=Q on the surface t Ex. at a point P of a surface meets the surface tangent plane in a curve We which has a double point at P. a.
For the cubic surface uvw^u^^ Oj the planes w=0. Prove that the planes z= b are singular tangent planes. 4. w~0. An interesting account of the properties of cubic surfaces with methods for the construction of models is given in Cubic Surfaces. 3. ^5=0. Wj=0 are triple tangent planes. 0=0. Prove that the planes z= are singular tangent planes to the cylindroid THE ANCHORRING. trope. Ex. and tangent planes touching at four or more points of the surface. Ex. a are singular tangent planes. Blythe. and is which at three points of the surface or triple tangent planes. If the straight line is the 2axis and the circle is y 6). points. Sketch the form of the cone and shew that the planes 2v/2cy==a^ each touch generators. Find the singular point on the surface and shew that the planes z= Ex. The intersection of the plane u = and the surface is the cubic curve = consisting of the three straight lines w ^=0. xin. c Ex.266 COORDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. the plane contains the inflexional tangents to the surface A plane is therefore the tangent plane at Q. H. u w ==0. have other double at Q. u^v^Q. These lines form a triangle and the three vertices are double points. 2. shew that the equation to the surface is (a > (x . as the tangent plane to a Such a plane is a singular tangent plane or Ex. of the singularities of surfaces the student is referred to Basset's Geometry of Surfaces. l so that the plane w=0 is tangent plane at three points. a tangent plane at two points of a surface is a We may likewise have planes touching double tangent plane. * For an adequate discussion . The sections it along two by planes parallel to XOY are lemniscates. ^! 0. 1. Kummer's Quartic Surface (Hudson) contains an exposition of the properties of various quartio surfaces. The its surface generated it a line in plane which by the revolution of a circle about does not intersect is called the anchorring 0. or tore. Or we may have a tangent plane which touches the surface at all cone or cylinder.a)2 + 22 = 62 . If Q is another double point. 5. by W.* points of a curve.
xa Ex. B. therefore a2 cos2a)2 = 4a%r2 +y2 ) . (acos <x. B. where 7. corresponding to sections through Y'OY. B' lie upon a surface of the fourth degree. 0.r2 +y2 + z2) cos2a.). a cos a. OB' equal to the axes of the section are measured along ON and ON'. the surface and the tangent plane b^ referred to a line >2 2 parallel to OY as initial line. ( acos a.'/ . ( acos 2a.4a2z2 cos2a.! ! a* . 0. Hence the points A. 0.. the points A. sin . Prove that_the inflexional tangents at (a b. a cos a. THE WAVE SURFACE. and whose equations are therefore y=0t . sin a. Thus one of the axes of any section through Y'OY is equal to b. 0. which is called the wave surface. If N'ON is normal to any central section of the ellipsoid A. x2/a 2 +z2/c2 l. The equation. that axis is an axis of the conic in which the plane cuts the ellipsoid. Since the axes of the section by the plane lx + iiiy+nz = () are given by the equation to the wave surface is where r2 = x2 +yz + z2 . a cos a. where Ex. describe a circle of radius b and an ellipse which is simply the above ellipse turned through a right angle. on simplification. Where it meets the surface we have x sin a.b 2 )2 = 4a2(j?2 +y2) 8. 0) are The tangent plane which passes through OY is 2=.183] THE WAVE SUEFACE 267 of Prove that the polar equation of the curve of intersection 6.. = z cos a.rtanoi. sin OL). 2 2 6* c* ' and lengths OA.=&/ and it touches the surface at the two points 2 2 a cos a. sin a.. Hence Therefore the curve of intersection of the surface and the tangent plane consists of two circles which intersect at the points of contact (acos 2 <x. 2 2 ) sin' a . OA OB. The remaining axes of such sections coincide in turn with the semidiameters of the ellipse y=0. 2 becomes  If the plane of section of the ellipsoid passes through one of the principal axes. Ex.). 0. (#2 +y 2 + & + a? . A'. B'. . is r =4a sin(oL#)sin(ah#). A'. .4a2(. sin OL).
the only four points common to the two sheets lie on the normals to the central circular sections. The points sheets will cross only where the axes of the central sections are equal. section of the wave surface and the plane y 0. circle and ellipse in the If P is one of these four points. and are at a distance b from the centre. the other by points such as B and B'.268 2 2 COORDINATE GEOMETRY = [CH. when we obtain Similarly. (. noting that The equation becomes . the section of the surface by the plane y=0 has a double point at P. the only two of these circles and ellipses which common points lie in the plane #=0. as clearly should be the case. b If a c. They are given by b rt ac and are thus the points of intersection of the plane y=0. xm. The circle and this ellipse clearly form the inters /a = l. ry. Change the origin to P. s=0 are Fig. and the radius of each is 6. and the points are given by > > have ac such as The wave surface consists of two sheets. Hence since there are only two real central circular sections. 53 shews an octant of the wave surface. The result can be immediately verified by putting y equal to zero in the equation to the surface. one described by A and A'. f). and the plane y=^0 is not a tangent plane at P. the sections of the surface by the planes the circles and ellipses given by #=0. This suggests that P is a singular point on the wave surface.
g^=0 when y=0. cV+V=c a 2 2 . y=0. Considering. ) is one of the singular points. #=0. Thus the plane meets both spheres in the same circle. y. Thus the wave surface has four and they are the points of intersection of the circle and ellipse which form the section of the surface by the plane #=0. we see that any real singular tangent plane must pass through a common tangent to the circle and = 0. and R. or the plane will touch the surface at all points of a conic. arg + cz(=abc. 77. s)=0. and therefore the plane parallel at least a double tangent plane. can be written in the form is 2( r 2 Now the equation to the surface _ a2)(r2 _ C2) + ( aa _ &2)( r2 _ or on one Therefore the plane of the spheres axg+cz=abc meets the surface at points lying lie in But. . or the section by the plane consists of two coincident circles. the plane we see that the common points of these spheres or ax\cz=abc. degree. Their equations are ellipse in the plane # Q QR Q y=0. and the surface in a curve of the fourth and R. if the surface has a singular tangent plane. Since any plane section of the surface is a curve of the fourth conical points. The wave surface of the surface has therefore four singular tangent planes. the intersection of the tangent plane with the surface will consist of two coincident conies.183] THE WAVE SURFACE is 269 and hence P a conical point. If the equation to the surface is /(#. or by \la*^b*x \/&~c*z = b N/o 2 "^. the singular Any plane will meet the conic in two points tangent plane in the line QR. subtracting. 22 +#2 =&2 . and the common tangents are easily found to be given by y = 0. "7\f where (. and therefore the plane is a singular tangent plane. the sections touches at degree which of the surface by the coordinate planes. is and hence the tangent plane at any point of the &rplane to OY. then.
coincide . At an elliptic point the shape of the surface is approximately that of an elliptic paraboloid. Hence if the inflexional tangents are imaginary. and are clearly parallel to the asymptotes of the indicatrix. xm. It is said to be synclastic in this case. r. since V =^= ^ Zx 2 q ' z dxdy' p 0. s. rx2 + 2sxy + ty 2 = 0. and normal at a given point of a surface be taken as the plane z = and the zaxis. =s a paraboloid if rt=fcs 2 and a parabolic In the neighbourhood of the origin the . the section of the conicoid is the conic given by z = A. Hence. or. T/). COORDINATE GEOMETKY The indicatrix. and therefore the surface lies on one side of the tangent plane at the point. z is of the second order. and the origin is an elliptic point on the surface. if we consider x and y in the neighbourhood of the origin to be small quantities of the first order. If the tangent plane [CH. we have as an approximation to the shape of the surface at the origin the conicoid given by This conicoid cylinder if rt is 2 . which is called the indicatrix. the indicatrix is a hyperbola. the indicatrix is two parallel straight lines.270 184. the indicatrix is an ellipse. if we reject terms of the third and higher orders. . this equation may be written where p. and at an infinitesimal distance h from it. sections of the surface and conicoid by a plane parallel to the tangent plane. At a hyperbolic . and the origin is a hyperbolic point and if they are coincident. q. and the equation to the surface is then z =/(#. The inflexional tangents are given by z = Q. and the origin is a parabolic point. if they are real and distinct. and therefore. 2k = rx2 + 2sxy + ty 2 . t are the values of f!i ?! SB' at the origin .
Ex. 1). o' z.184. Fa:< by means of which equation (1) can be reduced to F. Every point on a cone or cylinder is a parabolic point. F. he direction of the inflexional tangents through *. Hence the inflexional tangents coincide *xxi *"jry> i" arzj if " x =0. y.. and xF^+yFxy+zFm+tFxt^n 1)F. =tan~ l ~ Ex. 4. y 2. 3. Ex. 6. it is said to be anticlastic. Find the locus of the parabolic points on the surface (. at which a rectangular hyperbola. of degree (w etc. This equation determines a surface whose curve of intersection with the given surface is the required locus. y. z=c #+y 0. 5. Prove that the indicatrix at every point of the helicoid . Prove that the parabolic points of the cylindroid lie is = upon the lines . Ex. At such a point 1.185] THE INDICATRIX 271 point the shape is approximately that of a hyperbolic paraboloid. y. t. y. Prove that the indicatrix at a point of the surface zf(x^y) a rectangular hyperbola if (1 +p 2 )t + (l +q*)r2pqs = Q. . Fy: . two parameters u and v and are given by the equations .ry=0. F~' Fw . Ex.r.(1) Fy. F*' F"' But F* therefore is a homogeneous function of x. F y r xz . z) are given 0. lie on the cone The points is the indicatrix 185.. Ex. F. is a rectangular hyperbola. 7. Ex. of the surface xyza(yz+zx+xy)=sQ. =0. z= c. and the surface lies on both sides of the tangent plane. z are by parameters. Representation functions of If x..0=p. Prove that the points of intersection of the surface and the coordinate planes are parabolic points.
which Ex. 3. Find the tangent plane at the point "w. The equation is But and since x. 2 = a3 A2 + 63 A/m + c^p? has as determine a cone whose vertex is the origin and which . . 2. The tangent plane. Prove that the equations determine a hyperbolic paraboloid if A =().272 COOEDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Find the tangent plane at the point on the cylindroid. XIII the locus of the point (#.^ ^2 generators the lines prove that the equations 2 2 y = a2 A + 62 A/m + c2/* . y. z are functions of u and v a v+Fy2/ v +F^v = 0. z) is a surface. " w. z) = 0. 1. where Ex. 4. y. For u and v can be eliminated between the three equations. The equation to the tangent plane is Vu. If A ^ 0. for which and prove that its intersection with the surface consists of a straight line and an ellipse whose projection on the plane z=Q is the circle Ex. and a plane if A=0. y. $" on the yttBind. is Prove that the normals at points on the cylindroid for constant lie on a hyperbolic paraboloid. x = a t A2 f &! Aft 4. 5. To find the equation to the tangent plane we may proceed thus. for which Ex. and the elimination leads to an equation of the form f(x. z=cO. %u zv Ex. Ff Therefore Fw These give the directioncosines of the normal. " helicoid.
(1. (1. the point 7. Prove that the perpendiculars from generators of the cylinaroid (OL. xty z. 0=0 is a nodal line on the surface and that there is a unode at the point where it meets the plane #=(). 0).ay)(ax+by . . 1. 6. 1. Shew that the equation represents a surface of revolution. and find the equations to the generating curve.a . 2. (0. 1). y) to the lie on the conicoid on the surface ^3 J^3 +^3 =as 2 2 y(#a) + 7 (y/3) +2c(#OL)^^ 8. 0.6 ) = cz(a + 6 ) . 1. 2 lines. j8. Examine the nature of Prove that the equation a(yb)(zc)*b(x~a)(z+c) = represents a conoid which is generated by lines parallel to the plane XOY which meet the line #=a. Determine the position of the plane through the line x=a^y\zQ which meets the surface in a conic whose projection on the y^plane is a circle. a). 0). a. (0. 273 Examples X.1). two of which coincide with the nodal 4. y b.1. line.!). 2=0. Prove that the line 2j?=a. Prove that the surfaces have each four conic nodes whose coordinates are (1. lie on the hyperbolic paraboloid 2 2 2 2 2 4ab(bz. Prove that the surface contains an infinite number of straight the sections by planes through the line 5.1. (a.185] EXAMPLES X. Prove that the surface has bi nodes at the points 3. Shew also that the normals to the surface at points of the generator #/#=y/6. Prove also that the section of the surface by any plane tnrougn the nodal line consists of three straight lines.1). Prove that the only real lines lying are Shew also that the section of the surface by a plane through one of these lines consists of a straight line and a conic. (1. 0.
C' are ft. PP'. /Jt an ellipsoid . and C. Prove c). are (tf. PB. (. z = k (sec .< ~ /* 2 t __ ~  2 2  2 .tan 6).r / 2 o_ 2 ft ft c ) ~X(ft "")(&*. ft. a ruled surface. A' are (a. AA'. B. Shew PC. a. BB'. Shew that an infinite number of spheres with centres on the 2 2 #yplane cuts the surface (.r) )(7t A(c* a )(c ) A( and the corresponding expressions obtained by interchanging A and /i. ft. A. Tf A. P and P' are singular points of the second order. Prove also that any point on its curve of intersection with the cylinder x*+y*~2ay is given by Shew that it is x = 2rt sin 11. Examine the shape of the surface at the Shew that any point on PP' is a singular point. are the parameters of the confocals through a point P of 2 2 2 2 that the points on fy /ft 4^ / c2==:1 > centre O. P'B'. XIIL 9.274 COORDINATE GEOMETRY jcii. that the locus of the tangents at P and P' is a cone of the third degree). BB'. ( that the equation to the surface . P' and intersects CO' is contains the lines. c) c). P.. and find the locus of their centres. ft. c). CC'. ft. prove the wave surface which correspond to the section of the ellipsoid by the diametral plane of OP are given by 12. (. Discuss the form of the surface y V + Zkxyz + IPs* . c\ ( a. ( ft. y=2a cos2 0. P' c) <?). '  J 2 2  _/x 2 ' y . . B' are ft. and give a geometrical construction for the generator through a given point of the parabola in which it meets the xy plane.' tt)=0 a t right angles.2ak*y = 0. a.^+y )(# + ) + 0*. and that origin. ft. generated by a conic which passes through P and the lines AA'. PA. ( cos ft. c) . P'C'. 10. (that is. 6. that this surface P'A'.
The equations y. y. *)=0. If we eliminate given by f^(x. y> = 0. of intersection 40. . Conversely. between the two equations. (i) now.) which represent two cylinders whose curve is the locus of the point. We shall throughout use the symbols x'. z) = 0. /8 (y.. 165. y. z) together represent the curve of intersection of the surfaces = and /2 (#. z be made to depend upon a variable z and t = being connected by the equation z fa(t\ the equations (1) take the form = x= y fa(t). 76. For the elimination of two equations form /^ y) = 0. *=/4(*) t. . a parameter.186. 186. Hence the coordinates of any point on the curve of intersection of two surfaces can be expressed as functions of a single parameter. To find the equations a given point to a given curve. 0) first x. CTIKVES IN SPACE. x". 187. The equations to a curve. we obtain form y=/8 (*)> If. the locus of a point whose coordinates are z= 3 (0> given by x^^t). to the tangent Suppose that x. 41. ^(t). y = fa(t\ is t where of the t is the curve of intersection of two leads to surfaces.z) = MX. /2 (z.187] CHAPTER XIV. (Compare at The tangent. y. and then equations of the y. z are given as functions of a parameter t.
(x+Sx. St tends to zero. u wehve a. z\ and let Q. . directionratios of the tangent are found... 0) = 0. unless where another meaning Let the given point.. L The equations to PQ are gx . y + Sy = y+y'St + y" st 2 + . if x=f(t). tangent planes at ..r +. is position of PQ. be x + $y. curve adjacent to P.. z+Sz) be a point on the (x. " F2 (a?. Similarly. z " St r. that the tangent at given by ~ x' y' ~ z' If the equations to the curve are FI(#> 2/> z) = 0. to is r^y etc. xiv. [CH._ /d therefore whence the Cor. expressly assigned to them. x+Sx=f(t+St). as Q tends to is. and the limiting P. T/. . . etc. section of The tangent at a point P to the curve of intertwo surfaces is the line of intersection of their P. >jy Now. P. .276 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY dx cPx denote 57. y.. Then. . P.
1. a0secou (Compare Prove that the length of the curve between the points where t=ti and t~t^ is W2a(/2 *i)that the curve is a helix drawn on a cylinder whose base and making an angle of 45 with the generators. y Sy. (x+Sx.c*)(a . The directioncosines of the tangent. 3. are #=3*. fig..A) ~ 6 2(c2 . y. Find the equations 0" on the Ex.A) Ex. 189.l. (#.187189] DIRECTIONCOSINES OF TANGENT to the tangent at the point " 277 Ex.a)(P . 1.) measured from the point 0=0 2. Shew is also a cycloid The normal is curve at a point P plane. If the axes are rectangular. Sr. z) and Q. y.r=acos 0. z=a6 tan a. y=a sin ^. z are functions of and x' = doc j2. Shew is section of the ellipsoid parameter A that the tangent at a point of the curve of inter#2/a2 +#2/& 2 M2/e==l and the confocal whose is given by d\b* . Hence the actual directioncosines of the tangent at P are x' y' z' 7' 7' 7' Ex. y=3 makes a constant angle with the line 2 .62)(c2 . and that the length is of the curve 51. z=2* 3 188. 2. referred to rectangular axes. the measure of PQ. and P.A) " c 2 (a 2 . is + given by g^ _ gxz + g y z + gz* m Let the measure of the arc PQ of the curve be Sr = and therefore t^. etc. Then dx or s dy\* + (dz\* \ds)' d^J = t where x. seco. Shew that the tangent at any point of the curve whose equations. r dx dy dz ds' J5"' <&* For the helix . Sa. z+Sz) are adjacent points of a given curve. prove that jg=0 where Ex. The locus of the normals to a the plane through P at right angles to .
the equation has three roots equal to tv and therefore And generally. Ex. . Let the equations to the curve and surface be and let F(t) ^ Then the roots of the equation F() = are the values of which correspond to the points of intersection of the curve and surface. . . xiv. then in the limit. . at P.= t*l. i ana cieany i dF _Vf dx ^_^^+_. 3x8y+6i=0. 1. = and ?>f =0. P?l coincide with P. ^_ Ana. If the curve and surface have contact of the first order at the point for which t = t ly the equation = has two roots equal to t v and therefore F(t) t F(* 1 ) . dy Vf dz ~ + ~ ^ F() If the contact is of the second order. . . the tangent at to the If the is axes are rectangular the equation normal plane Pn Contact of a curve and surface. when P1? P2 . [CH. p lf P 2 Pn points of a given curve.278 COORDINATE GEOMETRY P. the curve and surface have contact of the 7i th order 190. if the contact is of the 7i th order. To find the conditions that a curve and surface should have contact of a given order. . . lie on a given surface and P 1? P 2 tend to P. If P. . .. . Find the plane that has threepoint contact at the origin with the curve x lf y _s_i.. .
has threepoint contact at the origin with the paraboloid Deduce the 191. Q. result of 88. The equation to any plane is of the If this plane and the curve order at (x> y y z\ we have have contact of the second ax'+by'+cz' ' ==(). Ex. Ex. For all values of t. 4.4cZ + 2^/j^m +y?n = 0. 0. y^ z^ on the surface The equations to a line through (x l9 y l9 z^ may be written The inflexional tangents are the lines which have threepoint contact with the surface where =0. we have dz dx . a/45 = A/ 3 = 6/5 = 1/54. (iii) 2 1 m2 + Zy^mn or 0. Fourth. Find the lines that have fourpoint contact at the surface l with Ans. Let the coordinates be functions of a parameter To find be (x. 5. Find the inflexional tangents at (x19 2 y z~^cx. Determine may have "What is closest possible contact at the origin b so that the paraboloid 2z with the curve the order of the contact ? Ans. . y. Therefore y^ . Ex. 279 Ex. /*. the limiting position of the is the osculating plane at the point P. 2. 5. we have (ii) . 3. y lt zj. and Q and R tend plane PQR to P. du di= Hence l< &=*> (jc l9 di* for threepoint contact at (0 yi%i4car 1 = 0. 1) (Compare 181. =0.189191] THE OSCULATING PLANE a. 2. t and P form the equation to the osculating plane. Prove that if the circle Lv\im/+nz~Q. z).= ! nf 4c JL L 3^ =^= i 2^! 5 (0. R are points of a curve. If P.) Ex. The osculating plane. The directionratios satisfy lmn=Q 9 l *~'ni 2 ~ri Ex.
4. Ans. Shew that the condition that four consecutive points of a curve should be coplanar is 0. . Prove that the equations determine a parabola. and find the equation to the plane in which lies. a/. z" *'" Ex. and that the points lie in the plane Ex. 8. meets 2. f) ) 17. Q tends to P is Ex. 7. 6. Ex. y=3cfl + 3dt. of* x". Ex. P and Q are points of a curve and Prove that the limiting position of the plane the osculating plane at P. v=3^ 2 = 2 3 shew that any plane three points and deauce the equation to the osculating A ns. y". . ct d. >/". [CH. 1. to the osculating plane. Ztfx . eliminating a. 5. PT is PQT as the tangent at P. _ _ .z = 3et+f. Find the osculating plane at the point "0" on the helix For the curve # = 3. z) are . 0( = 0. (3. it in . xiv. Shew that the curve for which "4:!is *H? E: a plane curve which lies in the plane axtbytcz=Q. The equations to the tangent at (x. 192. y) to the ellipsoid +z2/c* = l. Ex. /?. A * /b 2 Normals are drawn from the point (a. such that the osculating planes pass through the origin. Find the equation to the osculating plane at y) of the cubic curve through the feet of the normals. it Ex. */. To find the osculating of intersection of the surfaces /( plane at a point of the curve = 0.280 COOKDINATE GEOMETEY b. y". we obtain the equation w v> y'> 2 =0. 3.21$ + z = 2^ 3 plane at t = t^ Prove that there are three points on the cubic x= Ex. y. Therefore. 2 i/ x2/a? + (OL.
..(3) But x%+y'fy +z%=0 and x'<f>x +y'^y +z'^=0. ^=2^. Find the osculating plane at a point of the curve of inter section of the conicoids We have whence where 4 . \{x"fx +y"fy +z'%} M</*+2/'/i/+</*} .(2) . 2.zz\ .. cC* which reduces to Stf  y+pr+7r . This is to be expected. /=2a.czz' = 0..& ..3 191. (1) . =% J5 yy' (j = 6y~c/3. xx' vA. 1. and therefore equation (1) is an identity. /w =86. axx 1 4 lyy' 4. ~" tf 62 Ex. of intersection of the cylinders x'2 +z* Prove that the osculating plane at (#.... ylt 0j) on the curve a 2 y a + z2 = 6a is given by 3 4 . order with the curve. Again.a4 xx\ zz? _yy* . is etc. /yz=4=/^=0. since any plane through the tangent to a curve has contact of the ating the equations first (3). . we must have That this plane should and = H{x'<t>x +y'<l>y+z'<l>z} = fJi{x"<j>x +y"<t> y +z"<t>l }. ^=2a. C^afiba. B = COL ay. Therefore the required equation aA* bff* .. 192] THE OSCULATING PLANE is 281 and therefore the equation to the osculating plane the form of have contact of the second order with the curve. Differenti we obtain whence ky (2) the equation to the osculating plane is Ex.
and their locus is the normal plane at A. #'.//. ^ ^4 ^ bc lie on the cone + ca y + ab = 0. 2'). The principal normal and binormal.Cij* . normals are of special importance. Shew that at (#'. XIV. and .a) = 0. that which osculating plane at Two lies of the in the A and is called the principal normal. 193.(a .* 7 i2 r2 *' 7/ 2 . a) X = (/&. There is an infinite number of normals to a curve at a given point.a^ == Bz . *2 ill *'. a point of intersection of the three ?2  confocals. The equation may be further transformed. */ . 2 We have a/. 4. A 1 Rectifr' Fio. A.282 COORDINATE GEOMETKY etc. Prove that the points of the curve of intersection of the sphere and conicoid at which the osculating planes pass through the origin. *2 i is the osculating plane of the curve of intersection of the given by first two _ 1 Ex. r'l 3. Ex. on it.'/.* r2 *'. 64. [CH. or + l=0. Hence the equation may be written n.
Let us throughout denote the directioncosines of the tangent by principal normal l lt by Z 2. the plane ATP and the plane ABP is the normal called the rectifying plane. AP the principal normal.193] PRINCIPAL NORMAL AND BINOEMAL is 283 that which called the binormal. AB the binormal. " (by Lagrange's identity). y'z" . is the plane..y'x" 1 We have also . ( 188). binormal by Then. ( + . and therefore x'x" + y'y" + tfz" = s's". perpendicular to the osculating plane and is In fig. ns .+ T dx X ~ . < n. that towards shall then which the concavity of the curve is turned. and 0axes respectively. y'z"z'y"~z'x"x'z"~x'y"y'x'" 1 __ __ 191). and as the positive direction of the principal normal. But.. 3. _ dt' Arf 6tC . z . ___ . 54 AT is the tangent. '.WnOVP Wn re . ?n 3 . L m. We choose the positive direction of the binormal so that the positive directions of the tangent. osculating plane.=+! Again. m n x .z'y" ~ z'x" x'z" ~ x'y" . The plane ABT is We at A shall choose as the positive direction of the tangent the direction in which the arc increases. principal normal and binormal can be brought by rotation into coincidence with the positive directions of the x. (188). y. m %. 2.
A x and A 2 are points of a given curve so that the arc A^ is positive and of length Ss and the angle between the tangents at A a and A 2 is S\fs. that os is by . The rate _7 of change at is A x is measured by Ar the Lt ^. 2. " 9 U* ' Ex.284 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. and called the radius of torsion.gives the average rate of 08 change in the direction of the tangent over the arc is 17 A1A2 . the 194. The ** rate of change at is Ax measured by the Lt ~. ratio ^ gives the average n rate of change of direction of the osculating plane over the arc A^g. of the helix # to the helix is the 2 2 2 2 upon the right cone a?(x +y ) k z Ex. Prove that the principal normal normal to the cylinder. lie 1. and as called the 1/p. is It is denoted by and p called the radius of curvature. curvature of the curve at A. If ratio j. Prove that the parallels through the origin to the binormals . Therefore 2 X sX _ x '( x"s'x's" f and similarly. xr*. Curvature. ^^ that is by T. The a point of any curve which point describes the curve. 195. a and is called the torsion at It is denoted by I/or. direction of the osculating plane at is not plane changes as the If 6Y is n the angle between the binormals at A x and A 2 the . . Torsion.
. in the same directions as the binomials A 1 B1> A 2 B2> A3 B 3> Then t l9 1 2. . are parallel to adjacent tangents to the curve. Fio. . curvature and torsion are readily deduced by means of spherical indicatrices. and is therefore at right angles to the tangent A^TV Therefore the tangent at ^ to the indicatrix . O 3 . . we construct the spherical is curve on the sphere which indicatrix of the binomials. it is a tangent to the sphere. . be adjacent points of a given curve. . which are constructed as follows. . A 2 T2 A 3 T3 . 197.. . 55. and O6 1? O?> 2 . . Frenet's formulae. . . it is at right angles to the radius O^. 55. O 2. and let O^. . The spherical indicatrices. O63 . the limiting position of the plane t^Ot^ is parallel to the osculating plane of the curve at A r Hence the tangent Since O^ and O 2 at of ^ to the indicatrix t^t^ being the limiting position And since is at right angles to the binomial at A r ^2. O.. b l9 6 2 6 3 .. draw in the positive directions of the tangents to the curve.. directions of the binomials. .. The extremities of these radii form a the spherical indicatrix of the Similarly. In figs. . . by drawing radii in the positive tangents. 3.. . let A lf A 2 A3 .. From the origin. be drawn in the same directions as the tangents AjTj. .. . radii of the sphere of unit radius whose centre is O. are adjacent points on the indicatrices of the tangents and binormals.. 56.193197] FRENET'S FORMULAE 285 The formulae for 196. .
and therefore their normals Ob lt O6 2 are generators of the reciprocal cone. J N L .COORDINATE GEOMETRY . of the indicatrix is S\fs.. the positive direction of the principal normal. we take the arcs and great circle through t lt t2 in the same the limit is +1. doL ' " dcL Whence . XIV. and since we have fixed the positive sense. Hence we have. is the point (1 19 lt x the directioncosines of the positive tangent at indicatrix are m 188. = Lt = Lt = by (1) 7i ). in magnitude and sign. Again. Hence the limiting . . (A) v 7 Further. o Let SOL measure the arc If t^ of Then Ltry=+l. if we consider Qt lt Qt 2 Ot 3 to be generators of a cone of the second degree. Fio. principal normal at Ar Let us take as the positive direction of the tangent to the indicatrix. direction of the tangent to the indicatrix at t lt we thus fix the sign of S\Js. n9 p = dn* r1 ds . by(l). d(JL dn. is parallel to A1 P 1 the . the measures of the arc / 2 of the great circle in which the plane t L Ot 2 cuts the sphere. 56. the planes t. ^ to the d^ dm. . and of the angle t t Ot 2 are equal. [CH. and therefore.. B. and hence the measure of the arc the indicatrix.Ot 2> tz Ot3 are ultimately tangent planes. ' _^dm 7 v t/9 2 /1X or. jds .= dL J j p ds > m ~ p 9 i = dm. Since the sphere is of unit radius.
(c) are exceedingly important. the tangent plane to the reciprocal cone... to O&JL. (B).. are known as Frenet's Formulae. v 7 ... rfe ^ = ^p. 3 . of the arc 6 1 6 2 of is parallel to A^. ds (7 113 o = ^5 ds (B> v We have TT also. =1 7 . b^ of is the If great circle in the plane b^b^ and Lty=:tl. (2) 7? 3. p *s or' n . in magnitude and sign.s as . *s the principal normal at A r Suppose that its positive direction is that of the principal normal. since we have assigned a positive direction to the tangent at 6 t to the indicatrix.. with the proper sign. the indicatrix is <S/3.. The They . have.(c) p results (A)... Hence we "=T U r = U os T 3 Again. If the measure.. then the measure of the arc po is Sr. Hence Therefore.e. i.. i I* + 2+ Z 2 ... Therefore the tangent at b 1 to the indicatrix 6 1 6 2 ^3 position of ft^. and the limiting i.e. C^TMo 771.. c?L cKo by (A) and (B). * Similarly. the tangent at &A^3 and is therefore at right angles &! is a tangent to the sphere. the coordinates of 6 t are ^W m Z 3. (/i tM'vj l/n ds"~ .. and hence the directioncosines of the positive tangent at 6j to the indicatrix are dl 9 ~dp dp m Therefore ... the tangent at 6X to the indicatrix a^ right angles to O r Besides. Z 2 3 . we take the arcs in the same sense so that the limit +1. is at right angles to O^.. dL as / ^i 1 ^ + 1*^ + l*~f = 0.. dL 3 2 ~ ==^o Or. ' by J (2). we fix the sign of ST.197] FKENET'S FORMULAE 287 position of the plane b^Ob^. Ss ds .. z * a. r^= as 77l cr p ~~^= as C?71 9 71* J 1^Q 2 <r / x  .
For this class of curve ST and or <5/3. Therefore. We also at &! to agreed that the positive direction of the tangent was the positive direction of the indicatrix fc^&s the principal normal.> therefore 1 s *= X"N' 7*   S"X' 8 /2 2 Therefore. <Jr and or are negative. From (A). 56. For the curve in fig. We have agreed that the positive direction of the tangent at ^ to the indicatrix t^t^ . xiv. rotation is that of a righthanded screw. The signs of the curvature and torsion. is that of the principal normal. 56. obtain ds But Hence dl l. But if the positive direction of the principal normal is that towards which the concavity of the curve direction at ^ of the arc t^ is is turned. (see and p are always positive. 197. S\[s figs. but is the opposite direction for a curve such as that in fig.~. by squaring and adding we 199. the are positive. 55. 198. S/3. since 2a. the apparent rotation of the principal normal and binormal as the arc increases is that of a lefthanded screw. To find the radius of curvature. the that of the positive direction of the principal normal.. For such a curve For the curve in fig.. and such apparent curves are said to be dextrorsum. 55. The direction at ^ of the arc bfy is the positive direction of the principal normal for a curve such as that in fig. =s' . 55. and 2W=s's" s . 56). and such curves are therefore called sinistrorsum. <Soc.288 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH.
.. we obtain (1) B. and from or Differentiating with respect to t. so that s'=l. If the coordinates are functions of 8 y the length of the arc measured from a fixed point. To find the directioncosines of 200. If t = 8. we have = cr as . 197. AB a  i i Similarly. the principal From equations (A). we have. n^ .198201] THE RADIUS OF TORSION t 289 Cor. normal and binomial. 23. then The student should note the analogy between these formulae and those for the radius of curvature of a plane curve. m 2 = / Again. j From 200. m^p 193. Frenet's formulae. . since wi 1 = y' z ' 7. Ex. 10. i cZ% dz ^7"2""^'^~9 2 2 ds ds ds / > 201. and l^^m^n^ G . (B). Similarly. To find the radius of torsion. Deduce equation (1) from the result of Ex. .Q. . s" = 0. Compare Cor. and = 8.
Hence and Therefore = #'2 +/2 + 2 = a2 sec2a.= 2^3 <r . OL. 3. 3" = s" = 0.a sin a sin 0. 11becomes *' . XIV.290 COORDINATE GEOMETRY ' [CH. #=a(l+3A 2 ). For the cr prove that /o= 4. prove that Ex. a cos whence Ex... etc. y = . 2 m 2. For the = a/sin OL cos curve #= 3. /' = . ti 2 respectively. =8<Wl ~ A 2 . 0. tan ex. y' =a cos 0. z"' = 0. = p(^ara^ p ^ . and add.a cos 0. Ex.a sin s' 0. prove of the that or= y2/a.a sin 0.a cos 0. Find the radii of curvature and torsion at a point a cos 20. 6. Similarly. 2. " x'" a si n 0. y=3* 2 2. *" Ex. (3) by 1 .. Ex. For a point of the curve of intersection of the surfaces Ex.(3) Multiply (1). . a tan a.(2) and or /> . and we have 1_ or ^ tor 7 which. 2=\/6aA.a cos 0. x" = . . (2). m . ( For the curve #=\/6aA 3 . 0. on substituting 2 . 2 ^ and acos^. z' s'=a tan OL. 1. Find the radii of curvature and torsion of the helix We have Therefore #'= .) . 5.
Ex. where !//> and l/p are the curvatures at any point P of the curve and the normal section of the cylinder through P. <r = p tan a. . . and r^ =0. 4. . . cos2fx  . 201 shew that the tangent makes an angle of 45 with a fixed line. . and . 4.. Again. If p/cr is constant the curve is a helix. . ds* dz d?z .. the curve is a right circular helix. m^km^k^ n^hi^k^. . If P is (#. and o=2a(l4*2)^/sino. Apply Ex. sin a. since k^ + be zero.. is a 1 . 1 sr of the helix Whence the Ex. (A)). and hence that />= cr.. For the curves in Exs. 8s l are infinitesimal arcs of the curve and normal section. 2.are constant. Take the fixed line as 0axis. k+k . the generators at the same angle. 3 Multiplying by Z t m l n t . Take the zaxis parallel to the generators of the cylinder. then deduce that the torsion . Ex. If the tangent with a fixed line or = a curve makes a constant angle Then (197. . hence the curve is a helix. is a Ex. is Ans. 6. fixed line x y z *TT*T% Parallels drawn through points of the curve to this line generate a cylinder on which the curve lies.kjni 4. z\ . COBOL. 3. . with the generators.. curve is drawn on a parabolic cylinder so as to cut all Ex.202] TANGENT TO A CURVE to 291 202. />=/) cosec oi. . and =sino. T=COSO. 2. 3. . we obtain && 4. as 7i3 Therefore n2 Q. result immediately follows. Therefore ^+^ = ^ =0) (197. Tr __ . Ex.(c)). a p tan oc. y. and adding. If a curve is drawn on any cylinder and makes a constant 2 angle a. cos a. the tangent to the curve makes a constant angle with the ^kl^k^ where k is an arbitrary constant. 2 2 ^ =~* and  Since p Therefore Similarly. 1.201.^3 Wj = 1 = l+k\ and therefore kl9 ic^ 3 cannot all Hence. and ft =:=0. ds 3 V =^ dl^kdlz .a?=a 2 y=2a. Find expressions for the curvature A and torsion. If the cylinder . If p and o. Then if 8s. x jr= since. . 2 . . to shew that the curvature . 6. and the angle is a. .
by l v 12 3 x oc= . If (a. Z>(0a)+^(y0) +*. and add. and that its radius the radius of curvature at P.. /3.. (6).. It also follows that the centre of the circle. we have to s and applying Frenet's (4) And since the centre (a. . /?.. R. and therefore its coordinates are We is can easily deduce the radius and the coordinates of the centre by means of Frenet's formulae.m p.. 2 z\ differenti ating twice with respect formulae. threepoint contact with the curve at may y) ==r2 .. Therefore a==aj+i2 /o.. S are points PQRS as Q.. /3 y+m<2p. and by (3).. y ft == .. y...y) = (4). the limiting position of the circle PQR as Q and R tend to P is the osculating circle at P.. (6) Square and add Therefore. y) lies in the osculating plane. If P. From curvature at circle lies in is the definitions of the osculating plane and the P. Multiply (4).. 2 z y = . 204. yz+n^p. it follows immediately that the osculating the osculating plane at P. Q.. or the centre of curvature... of a curve.. the limiting position of the sphere and S tend to P is the osculating sphere at P. and Similarly. (2) Since the sphere (2) has (x. (5).. Q.. lies on the principal normal. R are points of a curve. 203.(*.292 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. If P. respectively. (6) r=p. the equations be taken to represent it. xiv. y) the centre and r the radius of the circle of curvature. R The osculating sphere. 2 /o.n2p. The circle of curvature. (5). (1). .
can be 2 t Further... If a curve is <7 is drawn on a sphere p 2 of radius a...... ..203... and therefore deduced. (2) (xa. we differentiate a2 = p2 +(^J we eliminate the constant satisfied a and obtain a curves differential equation by all spherical curve is drawn on a sphere of radius a so as to make a Ex..... J 3 (aa)+m3 (#) + 7i 3 (zy) = o7>'..... by (2)... Hence.204] THE OSCULATING SPHERE 293 To find the centre and radius of the osculating Assume that the equation is Then. we have on differ yy = IP. lies on a line drawn through the centre of circular curvature parallel to the binormal.. JB = a. Cor.... ds we deduce or = p* ^30"p'... as in 203.. and oc = x + l%p /8 == y + ^2/ ~"~ 'W'3p'p'> y ~ These shew that the centre of the osculating sphere. constant angle a. with the plane of the equator. or centre of spherical curvature... 1.. for fourpoint contact at (x... = . y 0).)+mz (yp)+n2 (zy)= p . or . and distant oy>' from the centre of circular curvature. entiating three times with respect to 8. 2 = a2 p if J... (1) y) I 2 = 0. if p is known.. (3) or. (4) where Whence. // p . p=a(l s A . Shew that at the point whose northpolar distance is 0. t sphere.. ....
2./o2 we obtain d/o CL_lL_ a sin dO =   Va2 where If ft 2 /o = a cos sec a+ 6. ds ~ q2 But . 3) Find the equation to the osculating sphere at the point on the curve Ans. w2 . and /= since.. ( 197). oyr Hence. 3. is p=a 2. c3 Ex. Ans. Find the curvature and torsion of the spherical indicatrix of the tangents. an arbitrary constant. or [CH. Ex. The directioncosines of the tangent are 2 2 . o 2 therefore ~ = . 5=0. is an infinitesimal if arc. (1. and then Ex. Po 1 i _^ . Whence Integrating. The equation to the sphere and 2=3.294 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY by 202. Also = p cot oc. Ex. 2 ' If the torsion is o ern 2 =' / i ?&> as in Ex. 5. xiv. 2. We have. z = a cos 6. 3) of the curve in the last example. 2. when #=7r/2. is given by 26. 0.a sin 9 cos a. (dpo\ \dcL/ . the curvature . 1. 4.. Prove that at the origin the osculating sphere of the curve =0. Lt is OOL $r = l. and if w So. Va . Find equations to represent the osculating circle at (1.
and find expressions for its curvature and torsion. A Pio. &od~r~r?\> p j = dp and . fig. (r = do7  indicatrix of the binomials are Prove that the radii of curvature and torsion of the spherical and . 57. .(1) Whence which is the differential equation to the projection and has as integral where k s cot /J sin a. the point considered. are the polar coordinates of the projection of P on any plane at right angles to the axis. on the axis. .204] EXAMPLES ON CURVATURE AND TORSION easily find . 295 Whence we where Ex. cr(oy>'or'/>) curve is drawn on a right circular cone. 6. and A is arbitrary. . angle a. 7. Let C. Shew that its projection on a plane at right angles to the axis is an equiangular spiral. and CP and OP have measures r and R respectively. so as to cut all the generators at the same angle /3. Then if CP makes an angle with OX. semivertical Ex. 57. Take the vertex of the cone as origin and the axis as zaxia. 58 we obtain dr=dR sin cL~dz tan a. From fig. . be the projection of P.. r.
cos/3.296 Again. ~=cosa. XIV. from COOEDINATE GEOMETRY (1). . If O. Ex.r.i/=/cos 9 sin/? sin 0. We have therefore Since Fio. O'. p^ Deduce equations (1).sin j8 sin 0) ^ $ Hence Ex. 58. the corresponding point on the second curve has coordinates given by . using dashes to denote differentiation with respect to by (1). The principal normals to a given curve are also principal normals to another curve. Ex. 7. [CH. / = sin OL cos /3. cos ft. and that there corresponding points are inclined must be a linear relation between the curvature and torsion of the given curve. z) is a point on the given curve. and r$ Therefore sin /?. 8. and therefore the tangent to the curve makes a constant angle y with the saxis such that cos y = cos a. Prove that the distance between corresponding points of the curves is constant. ^' = ~ (/ sin + sin /? cos = (r f cos ^ . and. Now # s. ?/=r'sin 0+sin j8cos# " .r' +?///' + zz' = R cos /?. that the tangents at at a constant angle. sin /3 cos y by differentiating the equations and applying o?. y. 9. (.
r=0. satisfy the conditions are on that account called Bertrand Ex. at the origin. OP. 0). and =Q rp rv' or Integrating. f is at right angles to OP. since Again. m= 1 77i 3 =0. tan is a linear relation between the curvature and torsion. If pl is the radius of curvature of the projection. r. But the binorraal to the second curve therefore _ .. '==/ . us etc. principal normal. . A(l\ and thus there Again.r ( ~ f ) + m2 ^=0. we have therefore. 10. mi . we obtain where ^1 is an arbitrary constant.e. at the origin. == 0==Y~r~ ^> an(^ th ere f re # investigated is constant.. The tangent to the second curve is at right angles . and curves which curves. the tangent. OT such t lr/p r=^ therefore. This problem was first by Bertrand. prove that p= . and binormal as coordinate axes. OP or OO'. If we take is of length r.204] EXAMPLES ON CURVATURE AND TORSION 297 where OO' for origin and OT. r' cr . Hence. A curve is j8 makes angles a and projected on a plane the normal to which with the tangent and binormal. and the tangent to the second curve makes an angle 6 with that tan fl=. O OB and O' to is (0. and r is constant. if and therefore 75^=0 i.
. Planes M 2C2S2 ... 1 1. . .. !. Geometrical investigation of curvature and torThe following geometrical investigation of the curvature and torsion of a curve is instructive. .. . A and 8s.g .COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH.. if the area of the triangle PQR is denoted Q by A. 2 2 . Then Cl is the centre of the circle through the points A t A2 A 3 and its limiting position when A2 and A3 tend to A! is the centre of curvature at A r Let /> denote the . Then. . be the midpoints of the sides. (fig. XIV. . M 2 M 3 . are drawn through M v M 2 normal to the sides. be consecutive vertices of an equilateral polygon inscribed in a given curve.. =Ltg^. Similarly for the projection are the projections of result. . 1 2A' whence the 205.. M C MgCj are the lines of intersection of the planes M^Sj. M 2C S and the plane A^Agj similarly. and let sion. 59). . Let A x A 2 A3 . 8s' =Lt 1 2A g. But A'= A cos fa and 8s'=8s sin a. M 2 C 2 and M 3C2 lie in the plane A2A3A4 and so on.. . . Let P be a point of the curve and and R the points of the curve distant 8s from P. . where A'.
1 C2 M 2 by an infinitesimal of higher order. CK ST . in the limit. is the radius of the Since the planes M 1 C 1 S 1 M 2 C 1 S 1 are at right angles to the plane A^Ag. we may denote the angle C 1 S 1 C2 intersect at K.Lt Sr T4. If C^Mg and C^ C^ But C t K differs from C^M! o s. the centre of the sphere through A 1? A 2 A 3 A 4 and the limiting position of Therefore. is equidistant from the points A p A 2 A 3 of points equidistant from A 2 A3 A 4 S x . C^ to the binormal at Ar But since C^ . . .= T4/. . by ST. In our figure the curve is . their line of intersection C^Sj is normal is parallel to the plane A 1 A2A 3 Therefore.205] GEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATION Ar 299 radius of the circle of curvature at quadrilateral From the cyclic CjM 2 sin But since the limiting positions of A X A2 and A2A 3 are tangents. the locus of points and CtB^ is the locus is . A. where p circle of curvature. and therefore 1 1 Lt . .A 2 = ~~ ds Therefore. Sj is the centre of spherical curvature at A r the centre of spherical curvature lies on the line drawn . the positive direction of the binormal that of S^. since the limiting value of C^2 is and the curvature = ~=. . then C 1 K = C 1 S 1 <Jr. dr Hence. if R is the radius of spherical curvature at By our convention of is 193. Since the limiting positions of CjSj and are parallel to consecutive binormals. through the centre of circular curvature parallel to the binormal. .
and Ltf? oyr = l. and hence the osculating planes of the locus are the normal planes of the curve. . and those of the limiting . ordinates of A! are x. the plane touches this surface at all points of the generator and C^ (^Sp and hence the normal planes to the curve are the tangent planes to the polar developable. if infinitesimal arcs of the curve and locus are denoted by Ss and Sslt and the curvature and torsion of pp 1 rri Ss T = L& YT 8\fs Ss. Hence. Lt^ = or the locus by l/p l and l. are consecutive points of a curve which is the locus of the centres of spherical curvature.2 S lf are the generators called the polar developable. so that Sp/Sr is positive. or Similarly. The plane S 1 S 2 S3 or MgC^ is ultimately an osculating plane to the locus. Sr normals to the curve.. yQ z position of Sj are x . " TT~ == tiYi T ^iSs T" Sr ' &T s ~ Wi1 ^T! . if are the angles between adjacent tangents and biS\[s. if the conegative. and S 1 S 2 S 2 S3 .. . z. Since C^ C1 S 1 C 2 are ultimately coincident. and Sr is therefore negative. is C. limiting positions of of a ruled surface which The C^.300 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Also Sp is Hence. y. .. . Therefore. are ultimately tangents to that locus. . The points S 1P S 2 S3 .. xiv. dextrorsum. and &\^lt 8^ are the angles between adjacent tangents and binormals to the locus. # x = projection of M^H projection of C^ on OX. ...
Therefore. and may express the coordinates of P in terms of 8.> etc.. Coordinates in terms of s. Rdli ^TF^' If (. 3. '. o"! =^r . Prove that . are the values of x'. r ^o ~f~~g" xo + > # ". . We have therefore to evaluate Since the tangent is '. etc.205. If the tangent. . > and since *J R*>fP=*<rp 9 ' r RR Ex. prinnormal and binormal at a given point O of a curve are cipal measures the arc OP. at the Similarly. f) is a point on the locus. . 1. 2/ '. we taken as coordinate axes. Obtain the result from T3 fig.206] COORDINATES IN TERMS OF ARC 301 Ex. 59. and verify that pp l ==ar(r 1 206.. r. x". the *axis. ^ 4 7><^ p v = R ^ . is <=0. 2. x'"9 . . O Ex. '. and ' = . Since the principal normal the yaxis. .. We have = &XQ + 2 where # origin. T.. Shew that if dsl is the differential of the arc of the locus of the centres of spherical curvature. # "'. by Frenet's formulae. <=!> yo'^O.
5. point. O and Ex. at Prove that the projection of the curve on the normal plane a cusp at O. z changes sign with s.. 1. 4. O and P makes Ex.)2 COORDINATE GEOMETEY [CH. Shew that the curve crosses its osculating plane at each If.. What is the shape at O of the projections on the osculating plane and rectifying plane ? Ex. Prove that the shortest distance between the tangents at is The osculating spheres at O and P cut at an angle ~ . xiv. O has Ex. The angle that the with the binormal at shortest distance between the tangents O is s/2o. is shortest distance between the principal normals at O and P of length p3L==. Ex. 2. and 2 2 V/0 it 2. and binomial at P are given by LI ~~' Wii ^1 "9 ~ ^*l ~ ^2 "8 ^3 ^3 In the following examples O and P are adjacent points and the arc OP is of length s. P 8. 1/0. = If ' p or /// 2> 2/o = "" P fff == "" a o 3 Therefore. at 6. as far as the terms in s . at any point. If s2 and higher powers of s can be rejected. is said to be stationary. of a curve. Again. we have Ex. principal normal. ' p O Therefore XQ . shew that the directioncosines of the tangent. by Frenet's formulae. The angle between the The principal normals at O and P is Ex. 3. Unless the osculating plane l/o.=0.is zero. 7. curvature at O in + <7 divides the radius of the circle of the ratio p2 : or Ex.
Find f(0) so that #=acos0. A normal at any point. 5. z=f(6) determine a plane curve. y=asin#. the curve must be plane. If the osculating plane at every point of a curve pass through a fixed point. a.206) EXAMPLES XI. prove that sin 6 a + . 4.  and tano. ~y)(y + &)3 + (a2 the cubic 1 Shew that there are three points on x = a^3 + 3bj 2 + 3tfj* +cZ z the osculating planes at which pass through the origin. Shew that by properly choosing the starting point it may be made to coincide with tne intersection of the helicoid with the cylinder 2r = c(^cta_ e dcota)) r> Find the equations to the prinbeing ordinary polar coordinates. lie on the hyper curve is drawn on the helicoid z=cta.=. cut the generators at a constant angle OL.2 fy2 f z2 =a 2. A right helix of radius a and slope its with a given curve at the point where Prove that 1/p and I/O. y=asin0.%. sin 3 ff cos j8 f>2 sin 3 y coa ft y_ "" " Pi . o For the curve x = a tan 6. 2(xt +#*+)=* at are circles of radius a. y are the angles that the tangent makes with the coordinate axes.'~ 1 y/x so as always to 2. and a. 1. Hence prove that the curves of intersection of the surfaces o. z c@. z~ N/2a log tan 6. has fourpoint contact curvature and torsion are a= 6.c2)( . I a)3 + (c2 . 303 Examples XI. /?. cipal 3. p2 > Ps are tne ra(^" 0]^ curvature of a curve and its projections on the coordinate planes. # = a cot 0. 7. />!. y_ ""~ 6 1 sin 3 QL cos a. and that they lie in the plane 9. y. z) on the curve 2 + 2oo? =#2 f 2&y = s2 + ac* has equation (^2 . If /o.x)(x 8. Shew that the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin to the = tangents to the helix #= a cos v.n. Shew that the osculating plane at a? (a?. sin 6 /? ~ + sin .
the locus of the centre of circular and spherical curvature is a helix .n~ l y/x where #=#tan0. Shew that its projection on the plane A z=Q is given by a where as^coto. \dpj curve is drawn on the paraboloid #2 +#2 =2p making a constant angle <x with the zaxis. the binormal at P makes a constant angle with the axis of the cylinder . ( A #= a cos 0. P are adjacent points of a curve and the arc OP=$. 16. P is the centre of circular curvature at P' for the locus. constant c. Prove that at the point of intersection of the surfaces x**+yjz*> z~ata. y=asin0. J Prove also that 12. is wrapped round a right circular radius a. If from any point of a curve equal infinitesimal arcs of length s are measured along the curve and the circle of curvature. For the circular helix prove the following properties : the normal to the cylinder is the principal normal at P to the helix . Prove that where dashes denote differentiation with respect to s. the radius of curvature of the inter section is catenary. then when the cylinder is developed into a plane. The shortest distance between consecutive radii of spherical cr curvature divides the radius in the ratio 19. Shew that cylinder. . 17. the curve develops into a catenary. 13. = cr ^. xiv. A curve is drawn on a sphere of radius and the principal normal at a point P makes an angle with the radius of the sphere .. to P. 10.304 COORDINATE GEOMETEY 9 Ten. and find expressions for its curvature and torsion. shew that the difference between the chord OP and the arc OP is powers of s higher than the third being neglected. the osculating plane at a point of the curve so formed cuts the tangent plane to the cylinder at the point at a constant angle tan^c/a. ds 15. p= 77====. <r= $=ccosh . at P 14. If O. 11. the distance between their extremities is 18. if P' is the centre of circular curvature at P. so that its axis lies along a generator. Prove that p = a cos r 0. If a curve is drawn on a right circular cylinder so that its osculating plane at any point makes a constant angle with the tangent plane at the point to the cylinder. 2 : p 2 (~).
.so that PQ is of constant length c. A 22. meridians at the same angle a. angle a. Shew that the binormal of the curve traced by Q makes an angle with PQ. y.cos /?fsm /?. 2 2 2 p p =sin a. developed into a plane. so as to cut all the generating lines at an angle /?. The normal plane at any point to the locus of the centres of circular curvature of any curve bisects the radius of spherical curvature at the corresponding point of the given curve. Investigate the curvature and torsion at any point in the forms sin 2 </> . 21. A curve is drawn on a paraboloid of revolution. . lies in ^ the angle tan osculating plane at the point .CHAP. A equal to its point moves on a sphere of radius a so that longitude./ d*t ds . . Shew that any point of the curve. so as to make an angle ?r/4 with the meridians. y. curve. 24. meter Prove that the . latus rectum c. point Q is taken on the binomial at a variable point P of a curve of constant torsion l/o. A curve is drawn same angle. . where p. . ^.. . satisfies on a right cone so as to cut that the locus of its all the generators at the Shew centres of spherical curvature the same conditions. The coordinates t. : : A 27. 73. d*x d*y tfz . z) of the . curve is drawn on a right circular cone of semivertical 26. . 25. with direction cosines proportional to T^. xiv. ~2 A  z = "~~2 w ^ ere $ is tne angle that the tangent to the curve makes with the generator of the cylinder through the point. Prove that at (#.. radius 20. /5 are the radii of curvature at a point of the original curve and of the developed curve respectively. A is aHana..6 sin 4 + 4 </> <f) being the angle which the tangent to the meridian through the point makes with the axis. If p be the radius of curvature of the curve and pi the radius of curvature of the developed curve at corresponding points.sin 4 . The cone Shew that is then developed into a plane. .] EXAMPLES XL o. z) its latitude is 23.sin 6 <). < n' 2< . A and makes with the principal normal an curve is drawn on a cylinder of radius a and the cylinder is 28. of a point of a curve are functions of a paraline drawn through any point (#.. N/sin a.. so as to if 305 cut all the the latitude of curve is drawn on a sphere.
306 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. P is a variable point of a given curve and A a fixed point so is taken on the tangent at P so that that the arc AP=. . Prove that PQ a s. referred to the tangent. Prove that the radius of curvature. etc. is Po Prove also that the directioncosines of the binormal to the locus.= . measured along the principal normals to a curve. /4cr. A Q Q Q . N/2/00/4CT. 7 \ A2 =^. Prove also that if A 19 /AI. Ax^eta. A length equal to the radius of torsion. /A 3 ./ ~ CP* 2 Z_" ( PZ c ) V 4 cycr " 2 {corp_' + p(p_~ c)<r'p 31. "With any point of a curve as vertex is described the paraboloid of revolution having closest contact at the point. 34. prove that /o the . >/2/> /2/o. . A JL .. principal normal and binormal to the locus. Shew that the radius of curvature. x etc. principal normal and binormal of the original curve as axes. where a is an arbitrary constant. 32. radius of curvature of the locus so formed. A. xiv. 29. pQ of the locus is given by length c is . . and that its radii of curvature and torsion are ' p(<rp'fxr') 33. With any point of a curve as vertex is described the right Shew that its axis circular cone having closest contact at the point. v t A 2 /x 2 v2 A 3 . <r. . ifcq . i v . being marked off along the binomials to a curve of constant torsion. point is at right angles to the tangent the tangent ?it to the locus of at P to the curve. v3 are the directioncosines of the tangent. A.s. Prove that its latus rectum is equal to the diameter of the osculating sphere. lies in the plane containing the binormal and tangent to the curve and 1 that its semi vertical angle is tan" 3<r/4/>. are given by c_ N/2> 30. p l9 of the locus of the centres of circular curvature is given by 2 "" Pi P'V+P' ) == 2 3 where p' r dr =.
y. is given by f(x. z. y. *> a) = 0. 2. ftjffa y>z>u*+0 SOL) where is a proper fraction. as tends to zero. ^ f(x. or by . *> a) = 0. is y. a) = 0. f(x. . a+&x.207] CHAPTER XV. can be made to represent the different members of a system of surfaces by assigning different values to a. the curve tends to a limiting /\ position given by z. a) = 0. y. y. a obtained by eliminating a between the two z. = 0. by f(x. This limiting position sponding to the value a. ENVELOPES. =/(&. a) = 0. equations f(x. = 0. SOL Hence. y. Envelope of system of surfaces whose equation The equation f(x. z. The curve of intersection of the surfaces corresponding to the values a. a) = 0. 207.z>oL+ SOL) = 0. <x) > that is. for all values of Its equation is is called the characteristic corre The locus of the characteristics the envelope of the system of surfaces. y.. where a is an arbitrary parameter. contains one parameter. f(x. y.
regard the equation f(x. y. y. The equation ing a. and the above equation becomes But at the equations /= 0.y.308 COORDINATE GEOMETEY TCH. z. z. to the characteristic are f(x.)=0. y. which lies in where a is an arbitrary parameter and r is constant. y. Hence the envelope and surface have the same tangent plane at any point of the characteristic. z. The locus of the singular points of the surfaces of the system . xv. z. y z) to the /=0. z. y. to the envelope may be obtained by eliminat between the equations to the characteristic. all points of the Consider the surface given by a = <x. and substituting in f(x. /^ = 0. . z. ex. o. /^ = point of the characteristic which represents the tangent plane at (x. /Jo. Thus. y. Find the envelope of spheres of constant radius whose centres on OX.) = () for a. The equations a) = 0. = 0. t surface At any point of the characteristic corresponding to a=<x.) . a) = 0.. a) = 0. But if (#. and this may be effected by solving the equation /<*/#. = as (x. of x t y. and hence the characteristic passes through the singular point.) z. therefore The tangent plane at where t is introduced to make any homogeneous. . z given by /^(x. y. The envelope touches each surface of corresponding characteristic. z) is a singular point on the surface /(#. is The characteristic the great circle of the sphere the plane xo^ and the envelope is the cylinder the system at 208. y. we may where a is a function the equation to the z) to the envelope is envelope. we have frfx+fydy+ftfz+fadcL^Q and and therefore /a =0. to the spheres of the system is The equation = corresponding to a a. /=/jr=/=0. lie Ex.
. the envelope of the right cones of given semivertical angle OL. sent . whose vertices lie upon OA" and whose axes are The equations to the system and to the envelope are parallel to OZ. #2 =22 tan a a. y.a)2 +#2 =z2 tan 2 (x.208210] therefore lies THE EDGE OF EEGKESSION on the envelope. Each We may characteristic touches the edge of regresconsider the equations /=0... This locus is called the edge of regression or cuspidal edge of the envelope. (o) \0a /a=atfaa where 6l and 9% are .. 309 For any point of the locus the coequation to the tangent plane to the envelope are all zero. Hence. 210.. as SOL tends to zero. z> given by /oa = 0. the common points tend to limiting positions given by </) (!<) all ). @... z) to the edge of regression regression. <> These limiting positions for a lie upon a curve whose equations are obtained by the elimination of oc. between equations (1). acteristics corresponding to values The equations to the chara and oi+ScL of a are > i a 'tt=af$a point of these characteristics satisfy the four equations.. and the tangent locus of the singular points planes to the envelope ana surfaces are indeterminate at any point of the locus.=<> values of . and the proposition thus fails for such points. The 209. to repretwo surfaces whose curve of intersection is the edge of The tangent at (x> y. /a = 0. where a is a function of x.o) \a /a proper fractions. Consider. and therefore satisfy the The coordinates of any common equations </). for example. The edge of regression.. efficients in the (x . of the system is OX. sion.
Am. x. characteristic is given by > A ^)==0. xv. <f> = 0. a. Ex. and are homogeneous with respect to a.e. its # 2 = #2. rj =y. The envelope of the surfaces /(. Ex. where a and = 0.6 2 . the line of intersection of the tangent planes to the Its equations are therefore surfaces. is found by elimi a. a. and the points of the edge of regression are the points of the curve. and has the curve for its edge of regression. c) = 0. to the curve Find the envelope of the plane SxtVfyt+zt3 and shew . The equation to the osculating plane is 2 3 ( #)=0. that 1. Find the envelope of the plane '0. y t z. 3. y. </>(a. Ex.r. edge of regression is the curve of intersection of the surfaces Find the envelope of the sphere 2 2 2 2 (x a cos 0) + (y a sin 0) + * = & a2 . 4^=4z. 6. or i m \ ni which represent a tangent to the curve. y. between the equations /= 0. Prove that the envelope of the normal planes drawn 2 z 2 is given by through the generators of the cone ax +bi/' \cz (a  . The envelope of the surfaces /(#. a. f=. ft. c 5. xyz. ft. is found by 9<* r ft /=0. x Lv+my+nzQ. e)=0. 7.310 is COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. 6) 6)=0. which represent the tangent at f=i 0. and point of the edge of regression the above equations become we have /a =0. 2 where Ex. (Frenet's formulae). fa = 0. c. 6. are parameters connected by the equation eliminating a and b between the equations 2. ^r~^r^r9rt 9& 9c Ex. where c are </> / and nating parameters connected by the equation </>(. 2. At any /aa = 0. The envelope of the osculating plane of a curve is a ruled surface which is generated by the tangents to the curve. 5. <=0. Ex. 4. 6. where z\ are functions of *. to a characteristic. point on the edge of regression is given by A whence =#. Ex. i.
P(o. The equation to the system is where a and 6 are arbitrary parameters. These are called characteristic surfaces. by But &x and S/3 are independent.210. =o. /(CL+&X. Envelope of a system of surfaces whose equation The equation f(x. is If <S/3 = X&x. is given by ] /(oc. characteristic points. y. a. =o. /(oc. /3+S/3 of 6. where ^ and 2 are proper fractions. may also be taken to represent a system of surfaces.211] ENVELOPESTWO PARAMETERS 311 211. contains two parameters./3) or by = 0.0) and P'(oL+6a. (2+8(3. is and the locus of the the points the envelope of system of elimi The equation to the envelope is found by a and b between the three equations nating Consider for example the system of spheres of constant radius whose centres are on the #yplane. and the limiting position of the curve depends on the value of X and will be different for different values The limiting positions. for all values of X of X. and r is constant. 8) = 0. z. the curve of intersection given by and the limiting position as <Soc and <S/3 tend to zero. a+<Sa of a. so that X can assume any value. 0) Let . 0. The curve of intersection of the surfaces corresponding to values a.00. where a and b are parameters. will pass through the points given by Ao. and /J. 6) = 0. however..
Find the envelope of the plane Q*\)* + (l + V)y + (lV) g a b c r where X and Ans. If the ratio 8/3/Sa. we may regard y. /3) = 0. Ex. Their locus is the pair of xo^y^^ planes z*=r*. a. which is at right angles to PP'. which represents the tangent plane at (x. The tangent plane fft at (x. given by /^ = and = 0. Consider the surface f(x. /?) = 0. jut ^ are parameters. = to the envelope may be obtained by elimi /3 between these three equations. <x/ surface. x*/a*+y /b 2 +z*/c 2 =I. z) is a characteristic and the equation becomes point.312 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. The envelope touches each surface of the system at the corresponding characteristic points. 2 Ex. and this nating be effected by solving /^ = 0. 2. fp = for oc and /3 and may a and substituting in /= 0. xv. 0. remains constant the direction of PP' is fixed. y. y. 1.. /. <). f(x. are functions of x. y. The limiting position of the curve of intersection of the spheres as P' tends to P along the line PP' is the great circle of the sphere. 212. Find the envelope of the plane cos#sin<+[sin0sin <+cos<=l Qt u C Ans. y. z) to the Therefore the envelope and surface have the same tangent plane at a characteristic point. z. The character by /=0. as the equation to the envelope. be the centres of two spheres of the system. y. The equation ^= 0. z) to the envelope has therefore the equation where a and /3 But if (x. whose equations are and these are the characteristic points. istic points are given z. . / = and/^ = 0. Hence. But all the limiting positions pass through the extremities of the diameter through P. <x. centre P.
c. 6. b. 6. 27. c.212. the envelope of the plane LMN. 2 2 (ii) Z Am. 6. c. the equations to a straight line If. 6. is found by eliminating a. C. A RULED SURFACES. y. (i) x*/a*+f/b*+z*lc*=I. 5. Find the envelope of a plane angular) coordinate planes a tetrahearon of constant volume e^/G. c on the axes. PM. is found by eliminating a. a. 2 2 (ii) o7 /a = 0. c. b. Ex. Shew that the envelope of the sphere OABC is Ex. tf. B. in x = az+ai. o? between the equations /=0. t. oc. ( =. a. + b*m* + 2= +//6 2^. . rf)=0 and ^ and </> are homogeneous with respect to a. 8. c. <=0 and Ex. /3 are functions of a single parameter we can eliminate the parameter between the two equations and thus obtain an equation which represents a surface generated by the line as t varies. so that Shew that it envelopes a conicoid which has the axes as equal conjugate diameters. A plane makes intercepts a.r?/3=c 7. c between the equations Ex. Ex. 4. 6. 6. 3. Find the envelope of the plane lx+my + nz~p when (i) p* = a?P + 6 W+ c2 /i2.213] DEVELOPABLE AND SKEW SURFACES 313 Ex. z^ a. Find 2 2 2 2= l 2 meets tangent plane to the ellipsoid ^/a +?/ /6 +3 /c the axes in A. z. 6. Ans. 3 . Prove that the envelope of the surfaces /(#. b. d) =0. PN are drawn to the coordinate planes. From a point P on the conicoid a perpendiculars PL. The locus is a ruled surface. Prove that the envelope of the surfaces f(x. A ns. 9. dare parameters connected by the equation cf>(a. where a. c)=0. 2??jt? that forms with the (rectEx. y. 6. 6. 213. y = bz+/3. Skew surfaces and developable surfaces. where a. c are parameters connected by the equation <(. c)=0.
arises in this a skew If The name developable way. / consecutive generators of the surface intersect. [CH.. that the tangents to a curve generate a developable surface and that the principal normals generate a skew surface. of a Therefore. A C. and thus the whole surface may be developed into a plane without tearing. then we have also a 6 +6 a a j8 /3 a = 0. xv. 206. On the other hand the shortest distance between consecutive generators of the same system of a hyperboloid or paraboloid does not vanish. where dashes denote if differentiation with respect to t. and are therefore developable conicoids. 1. coplanar.. *!b" Therefore. etc. interthe plane of B and C may be turned about B until it sect. consecutive generators of a surface. they do not intersect. Ex. so that the hyperboloid of one sheet and the ( hyperbolic paraboloid are skew conicoids. _ ^ ____ But a+Sa = a+a'St+a"'. higher powers of St are rejected. and B and coincides with the plane of A and B. 5 and 7. St is so small that St and 3 = 0. =_ ~ b if ~Z * a+Sa Sa. eZ The result may be stated thus: if a'&' /3'a' = 0. cubes and + b'a. If if consecutive generators if intersect the surface it is is a developable surface. . But if a'fc' /3V = 0. is o/fe' / Hence d // / // / // / // . B. 114).SbS/3Sa St 2 . and therefore d is at least of 2 the order of St 3 If. while consecutive generators do not intersect. Shew by means of Exs. a 6'"/3V^=0. therefore."a'f' . t The two generators corresponding to values the parameter have for equations + St.{ra")&*/2 an infinitesimal of the same order as St if /3V=0.. . or the two generators are St are inappreciable.314 COORDINATE GEOMETRY t. surface. is the shortest distance between them. Clearly cones and cylinders may be so treated. d .
1 or afoc. 2. p say. 0.213. The tangent plane to a ruled surface. or the tangent planes are different at different points of a generator. b'z+/3'.2te f * (3 + 4* ) a skew surface.214] TANGENT PLANE TO A EULED SURFACE 315 Ex. where /c is some function of . z) has for equation a'0+a'. 3. Cor. We may regard the coordinates of any point on the surface as functions of two variables t and z. a. Shew that the line x = Wz + 2*(1 . a's+a'. y = . surface contains only one parameter. the tangent plane given. ?&. 2 2 Ex.' +(X) j^&f+ft (t. 1 This equation clearly represents a plane passing through the line =a b'a. which If is the generator through the point Q. If a'/?' Z/a'^O. fc =0. and since when t is z. Hence the tangent plane to a developable surface is the same at all points of a generator the tangent planes to a skew surface are different at different points of a generator. generates 214. the generator the same at all points of the is generator. The equation to the tangent plane to a developable . z = $y$ generates a developable surface. equation (1) becomes and is is involves therefore independent of t only. .7 c> = ^. z). the equation (1) contains z and t. 0. The equation then given. Shew that the line given by y^txfi. given by the equations The tangent plane at (t. 60 +/3'.3^). = ^. 6. so that the plane given by (1) changes position if t is fixed and z varies. a'ff or .
viz. we obtain ' . and therefore the tangent to the curve at equations (#. A characteristic is given 7 by u = 0. a curve. y. y y z). 216. ' . the characteristics are straight lines and the envelope is a ruled surface. their point of intersection is given by aa These express the coordinates in terms of one parameter t. envelope of a plane whose equation involves one parameter is a developable surface. 0.. x = (a+a'3t)z+OL+a!St. y= represent consecutive generators of a developable surface. since u and u' are linear functions of 9. ( 214. 6. and hence the locus of the points of intersection of conis secutive generators of a developable By differentiation.). that the Cor. We have seen that the equation to the tangent plane to a developable involves only one parameter. Envelope of a plane whose equation involves one parameter. Let where a.316 215. d are functions of a parameter t. u = 0. xv. and therefore. We shall now prove a converse. 2) has for or which represent the generator through (#. > A_ = a(a'a"a"a') =  . COOEDINATE GEOMETRY If the equations [CH. Two consecutive characteristics are given by . be the equation to the plane. The generators of a developable surface are tangents to a curve.
and X are parameters. z) with the edge of regression.. and these equations may y=2tf . regression of the envelope if (x. or the envelope of the osculating of.... 3.. given by The edge of and hence. (iii) # Ex. see that the plane ag+brj+c+d=zO has threecontact at (x.. 3 6 Ex.. able in Ex. Find the equations to the developable surfaces which have the following curves for edge of regression : (i) x = 6t. s=* .. (1) But the coordinates are functions of t. and is therefore Hence the envelope is a developable surface. Thus a developable surface is the whence we planes Ex.. u+u'$t~Q. The point 213.r=3* 2. #=a(cos0A. (ii) (iii) #= # Ans.sin0).216] PROPERTIES OF DEVELOPABLES clearly lie in the plane 317 and these intersect. . and ax" + by'' + cz" = + (a"x + b"y + c"z + d") = 0. 2. locus of the tangents to. 3=2*3. a'x + b'y + c'z+d'^Q. z) is any point on the edge ... or is point the osculating plane.. we have for the edge of regression. its edge of regression. of intersection of consecutive generators is given by . from (1). of any point on the edge of regression Therefore..215.. of regression. y.. Find the equations to the edge of regression of the develop2.. Find the edge of regression of the envelope of the normal planes of a curve. 2 #=a(sin#f Acos0).. 4~3*2 .. ax'+by'+cz' = (a'x + b'y+c'z+d') = Q. be taken to represent the edge of regression. y. A normal plane is given by s^^a And by Frenet's formulae. b"y+c"z+d"=0 . (ii) where (i)(^9^) =(. 1.
* ( Therefore for a developable surface. = 0. 1 unction ot t> is^y 3(u. or u is a function of v. ax + ty t r> . s t A necessary condition is therefore rt sz = (}. 8. The envelope = f z + rc 2P the locus of the centres of spherical the polar developable. if t is the parameter.318 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 12> Z3 . Therefore. r. Py = 0. It is also sufficient.y </> . . u depends only on . XV Multiplying by l^ = # f Zgp rj l^rp't and adding. the equation to the tangent plane . and hence. ( 205). =y f m^p . =/( n) should represent a f =/( ij) represents a developable 217. the edge of regression curvature. we deduce and similarly. ^) = n # 0. and and therefore t*x ?.uyvx y n x __uy __ ~~~~ _ du ~dv' Therefore dv=0 if dw=0. I s is a function of q. * = 0. is is Hence. y  %Va. the This may be proved as follows : If t*=/(t>). we can express p and Now if u and v are functions of x and as functions of q. [CH. Let <f>=px + qy z.0i3cr/>'. Then. Hence ^~ =0 is a necessary condition. 8 * I. The condition that If developable surface. that is. s. . ^ Hence. the necessary and sufficient condition that u should be a . involves only one parameter. surface. 2 rx + sy. Again. if r 2 necessary and sufficient condition is rt s = 0. Px. For if uxvy . and hence the variation of the variation of v. by the elimination of t.
. 5. y f2 =& . vertices are the points (2a. Shew that a developable can be found to pass through two given curves. is 4ay=&W>. Ex. dm 2 ' and the required result Ex. 9. y =4az is given by passes through the parabolas #=0. and the conditions of tangency of the plane and the two surfaces give two equations involving the constants. J /=0) . 2 =4y . y a) Ex. (a?yz its and that conicoids edge of regression the curve of intersection of the Ex. is myx + am2 touches the second. Prove that the edge of regression of the developable that a= 2 = 4cu? .21VJ EXAMPLES ON EULED SUEFACES 2 . 4. curve of intersection of the surfaces Any and plane which touches the Xz + first parabola .2ff. The equation to a plane contains three disposable constants. 0. 2. Shew that the developable which passes through the curves z 4ax #=0. 8. Shew that the edge of regression of the developable that 2 2 .U U (a 2 ) ~VW =\tfw) ' . if Ex. Shew that a developable can be found to circumscribe two given surfaces. 3. Ex.  2). y 2 4bz is the cylinder y* = 2=0. #=0. (y 4az is the passes through the parabolas 2 0.2a). Prove that the edge of regression of the developable that 2 2 2 2 2 2 passes through the circles z=0.r +^ =a .f = 0) 'dm ' &o.m 2 (a+y) + m(x+y+z)x=Q.?:=0. 1.r=a.=w/(l m). . 6. is easily obtained. 7. lies on the cylinder 1 /I /*\t . 319 the surfaces xyz Ex. and the envelope of the plane is the required developable. By considering the value of rts determine = a3 xy (z c) 2 are developable. . is ?/=0. The equation to the plane therefore involves one constant. 0. that the equation to the developable surface which passes through the curves Shew 2=0. /. a plane which touches both is if it Therefore the equation to f(m) = am* Eliminate m between . A. Ex. y . ( . Shew that two cones pass through the curves and that their Ex.
Prove that the section by the xy. Ex.320 COOBDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. as in the case of 218. An ellipsoid x2/a2 +y /b +z /c =:l is surrounded by a Shew that the boundary of the luminous ring . if For example. y 2 + z 2 =a2 is given by shadow cast on the plane . xv. a oouiooid can be described through A B 1 A 2 B 2 A3 B3 The conicoid will be a paraboloid if the generators are parallel to the same plane. it will be a hyperboloid. intersect in a straight line which meets AjBj any conoid. Since the surface and conicoid have three consecutive generators in common. the locus of the normals to a skew surface at points of a given generator is a hyperbolic paraboloid. But PQR also meets the surface in three ultimately coincident points. We can deduce many properties of the generators of a skew surface from those of the generators of the hyperboloid. If . 10. zQ *\ + a* y* _ a* #<c*~a*c2' Properties of a generator of a skew surface. . say. the shortest distance and angle . 1 . given skew surface at all points of a given generator.plane of the developable generated by the tangents to the curve is given by 2 2 2 2 Ex. otherwise . . Ex. . and A 3 B3 in Q and R. 1. and therefore is a generator of the conicoid. and from 113.r=0. of PQR and A 2 B 2 is also the tangent plane to the plane surface at P. and therefore is one of the inflexional tangents through the other being the generator A 2 B 2 Therefore the P. Thus a conicoid can be found to touch a . 11. Hence the plane of A 2 B 2 and PQR is tangent plane at P to the conicoid. Now PQR meets the conicoid in three ultimately coincident points. If P is any on A2 B 2 the two planes through P and AjBj. it follows from 134. A3 B3 point respectively. that two skew surfaces have a common generator they toucli at two points of the generator. 10. A 1 B 1 A2 B2 A3 B3 are any three consecutive generators of a skew surface. Ex.
Ex. ft are functions of . line should generate a developable Ex. . For the cylindroid 2(. m. 5 to shew that the binomials of a given curve of torsion 1/cr generate a skew surface and that the parameter of distribution for any generator is the corresponding value of or.x2 4c(y. are at right angles. Thus it follows that if the tangent planes at P and P'. zcB is is <?. m n I (where J 2 +w 2 +?i2 =l). surface.rf3e)=2c (3.. 6. CP. generates a skew surface.^+2). 2. 3. dy dn n Deduce the condition that the surface. Prove that the conicoid which touches the surface y^z at all points of the generator jc2^t/ 2c is y(.2c).. points of a given generator of a skew surface. the parameter of distribution for the generator is .2 4v/ 2 ) = 2wry. Ex. Ex. Prove that the paraboloid 2/c which touches the helicoid at all points of the generator .O. prove that the parameter of distribution of the generator in the plane x sin cos is 0y . Ex. 6. the parameter of distribution. 5. the line of striction of which intersects the normal at x a a B. 4. 2wi cos 20. generates a skew surface. where a. central point and parameter of distribution for the surface and conicoid. skew Prove that the principal normals to any curve generate 7.. If the line fZ^tllZ^.CP'=<$ 2 where S is . If the line x=az + y^bz+ft. Ex. the parameter of generator is dft y distribution for the dm. Ex.rain c(u?sin 0=ycos 6. and that the normals to the surface at points of the generator He on the paraboloid z2 . 1. Apply the result of Ex. and C is the central point.218] PROPERTIES OF SKEW SURFACES 321 between the given generator and a consecutive generator Hence the generator has the same are the same for both. 0 Prove also that the parameter of distribution of any generator and that the line of striction is the zaxis. The locus of the central points of a system of generators of a skew surface is a curve on the surface which is called a line of striction.
CQ= is Ex. .COOKDINATE GEOMETRY 2 2 2 [CH. 12. 14. to PO. y + nr). Find the envelope of the plane at right angles to the plane AOB. are any pair of distance p<r /(p 4. plane through cuts the #yplane in a line AB.b ) sin 9 cos 6 (a sin " + & 2 cos2 6/+c2)* Examples XII. 13. the ^coordinate of the point where the line of striction crosses the generator is Ex. _ y . to the at P and points on a normal such that the tangent planes 2 a 2 4 a surface are at right angles. 7 and 8. . Ex. 1. 8. If the line ?/ =bz + /3 generates a skew surface. is 2 2 2 2 c^a . the line of striction of the skew x = az + Ex. For the skew surface generated by the line and that the prove that the parameter of distribution of the generator line of striction is the curve is f Ex. O is #yplane. ft + mr. Shew that the distance measured along the generator x . and a variable 2. CP p (r /(/> + <r ) . (Apply 206. is The line of striction on a hyperboloid of revolution the principal circular section. the point of intersection of the line of striction and the generator is r. 10.b sin _ z_ ~~ asin# bcosO c of the hyperboloid .) Q Q .r2/ 2 +^ 2/6 2 2 2/6"J==1 J from the principal elliptic section to the line of striction. where C is the point of intersection of the normal and the line of striction. 5. 4.XV. Ex.. 9. 11. and that if P.ft _ z_y I in n generates a skew surface. through O O AB . where Ex. Exs. a fixed point on the zaxis and P a variable point on the Find the envelope of the plane through P at right angles is a fixed point on the 2axis.<r ) from the curve.a cos _y . Deduce the results of Exs. If the line #. Shew that a given curve surface generated by its binomials.
OZ OA OB and OB OC are constant. The normals from . C are the coefficients in the equation in t. . B. Any three conjugate diameters of an ellipsoid meet a fixed sphere concentric with the ellipsoid in P. R. 8.CH. R P'. y) to the confocals / i envelope a developable surface whose equation is ).B 2 where A. 14. Prove that the radical plane of S 3 and S2 envelopes a conicoid. O P. equal 12. envelope of the plane O PQR 11. 15. 323 3. Q. Find the envelope of planes which pass through a given point ellipsoid in ellipses of constant area. R. Find the Find the envelope of the normal planes to the curve = z'c 2 1. Q. variable 5.] EXAMPLES XII. 7. Find the envelope of the plane PQR. Find the envelope of a plane that cuts three given spheres in circles.AB) 2 = 4(3B . envelope. x2 + ?/2 + & 2 = r2 2 . OY.A 2)(3AC . 6. Prove that the lines are drawn to meet a given sphere is a conicoid of revolution. B. sets of three mutually perpendicular 10. is a central conicoid whose centre is the mean centre of the given points. Given three spheres S lf S 2 S 3 S x and S 2 being fixed and S 3 and with its centre on S. so that plane meets three intersecting straight lines OX. The envelope of a plane such that the sum of the squares of its distances from n given points is constant. to one of a system of confocals meet it in If the plane is fixed and and the confocal vary. 4. O is a fixed point and P any point on a given circle. Find the envelope of a plane that cuts an ellipsoid in a conic so that the cone whose vertex is the centre of the ellipsoid and whose base is the conic is of revolution. xv. /?. Prove that the envelope of the polar planes of a given point with respect to the spheres which touch the axes (rectangular) consists of four parabolic cylinders. 9. The tangent planes x at the feet of the normals from i (OL. Prove that sections of an ellipsoid which have their centres on a given line envelope a parabolic cylinder. . envelope of the plane through P at right angles to PO. R'. and cut an 13. Find its . C. . find the envelope of the plane P'Q'R'. Q. PQR O . Through a fixed point in P. (OC .. 16. A in A. Q'.
. 17. etc. xv. #2 +# 2 f2 2 =e c 2 and the hyperboloid plane y =0 in the conic Prove that the developable surface that envelopes the sphere 2 2 x~/a +y*/b*z /c?=l meets the . 18. and that the general surface of the second degree whioh passes through the cubic is where P s abc bcx cayq abz(. Prove that the polar planes of (. A developable surface its passes through the curves prove that edge of regression lies 21. the envelope of the rectifying plane. etc. 2/c==l are the osculating planes of a cubic curve.e. Shew that the edge of regression of the envelope of the plane y is the cubic curve given by 22.324 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. of a curve are given by that the coordinates of a point on the edge of regression i. ^pf^er. and that the radii of curvature and torsion are 1 dl } \ <t*n 6) } cw / and l / \ as ' 375 as 19.. etc. where tan#=p/<r.. Shew of the rectifying developable. rj. Prove also that the direction cosines of the tangent and principal normal are proportional to lip lgr. etc.. f) with respect to the confocals to #2/aty 2/> + 2. the edge of regression lies on ' ^ _^ on the cylinder al 20.. *lx rf*U(tan0) * f If the conicoids are confocal and a developable is circumscribed to the first along its curve of intersection with the second.
shew that 2y = cos a. . Prove that the line line of striction on the skew surface generated z by the x cos a cos cos ~ y sin a sin $ cos  sin H a. sin a. ^s =='.CH. z= c. = A tan /3. prove that  line of striction. is an ellipse in is the plane 2y+z V 0. + sin (3. P where p is the radius of curvature of the 25. If the generator of a skew surface make with the tangent and principal normal of the line of striction angles whose cosines are A and /*. H its section A cos /?. by the plane z~0 is given by 2x where tan ex. 24. 325 A developable surface is drawn through the curves l. . I EXAMPLES XIJ. whose scmiaxes are and vhose centre (=<> 0. xv. 23.
. 60). If the point is taken as origin. the equations to the surface and indicatrix are z = h. Let C be its centre. CHAPTER XVI. shall We now make use of the properties of the indicatrix defined in 184. xvi. (fig. 2k = rx2 + 2sxy + ty 2 . In our investigation we 219. Curvature of normal sections through an elliptic If rt s2 >0 the indicatrix is an ellipse. point. and the normal as zaxis. proceed to investigate the curvature at a point on a given surface of the plane sections of the surface which pass through the point. CURVATURE OF SURFACES. 60. and let CP be any 220.ICH. CA and CB its axes. the tangent plane at the origin as oryplane. FIG.
The inflexional tangents are real and divide the two portions such that the concavities of normal sections of the two are turned in opposite directions. Hence. OCA. +  Pi P* and the equation to the surface is Pi If Pz OCR makes an angle with the principal section OCA. r~s 2 <0. the coordinates of P are r cos 0. 1 . p = Lt CP 2 n^> and therefore the radii of curvature of normal sections are proportional to the squares of the semidiameters of the indicatrix. 61). P Pi Pz where p 221. the indicatrix is a hyperbola. and . therefore . If we consider the curvature of a section whose concavity surface into is turned towards the positive direction of the 0axis to be . p is the radius of curvature of the normal section OCR. is the radius of curvature of the section OCR. If p l9 p 2 are the principal radii. 1 . the equations to the indicatrix become or z = . are called the principal sections at O and their radii of curvature are the principal radii. Curvature of normal sections through a hyperIf bolic point.= cos . which have the greatest and least curvature. and If the axes OX and OY are turned in the plane until they lie in the principal sections XOY OCB respectively. OCA. r sin 0..2 sin 2 . (fig. h. The sections OCB. since P is on the indicatrix. the normal section CP = r.219221] CUBVATUEE OF NORMAL SECTIONS Then. if 327 semidiameter.
section of algebraically greatest curvature passes through the real axis of the indicatrix (1). xvi. Sn > a and therefore the equations to the indicatrices are /v.. 61. and the normal section of algebraically least curvature through the The normal These indicatrices project on the #2/plane into conjugate hyperbolas whose common 220.. As in real axis of the indicatrix (2).. then the positive radii of curvature are proportional to the squares of semidiameters of the indicatrix z = h.2 /v. the asymptotes are the inflexional tangents. sections of greatest and least curvature are the principal If the axes OX and OY lie in the principal sections. .328 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. positive.2 a....2 ..2 Pi P2 Pi .. sections the equations to the indicatrices are If /op 8i p2 measure the principal radii in magnitude and _ . 2h = rx*+28xy + ty* y (&>0).. (1) and the negative radii of curvature are proportional to the squares of the semidiameters of the indicatrix (2) Fio.
the & 't indicatrix are ^__ . its and the normal section which contains them has curvature zero.. the section section at right angles to curvature has maximum curvature.. 62. "' */ lie OY in equations the ''. (fig. where a = CA. parallel straight lines. coincide. The inflexional tangents z Fio.222] CURVATURE OF NORMAL SECTIONS to the surface is 329 and the equation x2 Pi y 2 Pz The radius of curvature of the normal section that makes an angle 9 with the zxplane is given by I_cos P 222. Pi r2 p is the radius of curvature of the section principal section OCR which makes an angle 9 with the OCA. 2 sin 2 Pz Pi Curvature of normal sections through a paras2 = 0. Pi .. 62). Pi /v2 2* = +. The finite principal radius p1 is given by Hence the equations z = h. of zero sections. the indicatrix consists of two If rt bolic point..2. The normal These two sections are the principal If OX and to the principal sections. ..221. If to the indicatrix and surface are 27i = . .
x and y are small quantities of the first order.QV 2 T O of the sections. since all circle normal sections have the same curvature. and the other is a small circle of the sphere. But T . Points at which 223. Hence QV = if . and the common tangent to the sections as #axis. The circle in the plane containing the normal a great circle. The curvature of an oblique section. 60). and where QQ' meets the surface. the normal as 0axis. 2h = ra 2 + 2sxh tan 6 + tan 2 0. Hence the theorem immediately follows. where 9 is the angle between sections. the triangle is right angled at C. at is of Meunier's theorem is clue to Besant. the indicatrix is a and the principal sections are indeterminate. If C is the centre of the great circle and C of the small circle. fix and h may be rejected.330 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. of the second order. Umbilics. and the is the angle between angle the planes. the equations to the indicatrix are z = h.XVL If r = t and # = 0. the the If the tangent plane at the point is taken as #j/plane. h is and therefore to our degree of approxi2h z 2 and mation. and. p = /> cos 0. The re between the curvatures of a normal section and an oblique section through the same tangent line is stated in Meunier's Theorem // p and p are the radii of curvature lation : of a normal section and an oblique section through same tangent. (see tig. 2 /<. The equations to QQ' are y = h tan 0. the indicatrix 224. be the common tangent to the sections and consider the sphere which touches OT at O and passes through an adjacent and The planes of the ultimately coincident point on each section. is circular are umbilics. sections cut the sphere in circles which are the circles of curvature The following proof Let OT COC COC . 2/6 = ra 2 + 2sxy + ty*. 2 = h.
+ ol any two perpendicular constant. since dp = 'dp dx *dp dii = rl L * l ^~ ~'j.rf t 7 P cos 6 __ rZ. For the hyperbolic paraboloid prove that the principal radii at the origin are J principal sections are 3. p^ + qm by . directioncosines 2. given by But therefore. 2. If p. . do dy . 3*/ and . J . L ?? 1 = . 2 ~P~~~ Cor. and that the Ex. p becomes p Qi and Meunier's theorem immediately follows. 1. the to a given section of a surface through a given tangent point O on it. since the direction cosines of the normal to the surface are Oy the angle between the plane of the section and the is normal section through OT.223225] RADIUS OF CURVATURE 331 Expression for radius of curvature of a given any point of a surface.r= y.^771. is P P . section through . 1. Find the principal radii at the origin of the paraboloid Find also the radius of curvature of the section . + 2. Frenet's formulae. jT+pt + f When = 0.+ ~f as Vx as as . Let or. 3."da dx + 'do '. p are the radii of curvature normal sections at a point of a surface. Ex.r=y. Ex. ra 2 . n2 . Ans. Then. o?x=3y and  . have directioncosines 1 19 ?>i t n r Let the normal to OT which lies in the plane of the section have 225.
[CH. surface 5.and yaxes. if the axes of the indicatrix are a and 2 ai 6. its equation is *2 <* 2 + !+ 18* r ?!i where y = OP. The equations to the indicatrix are z = y k where k is / _M small. 2/*x . and let h be the distance between the planes of the indicatrix and the tangent plane. and 2a and 2/? are the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane through the centre which is parallel to the tangent plane at P. Principal radii at a point of an ellipsoid. Then let j9 Now kji y~~>* Therefore. Since the coordinate axes are conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid. and ^ t ?/2 y """~ Therefore. XVL Ex. Take OP as 2axis and the diametral plane of OP as &?/plane. if the principal radii are p l and rt /> 2 .332 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 4. section of the surface Prove that at the origin the radius of curvature of the a + 2 ?/ + b)/z = ^ ^ ^ by the plane is (P + w )*(a 2 Ex. centre O. 2 = a2 == = 62 = 6' 2 . Let p be a point on an ellipsoid. The locus of the centres of curvature of sections of the ra v/ 2 which pass through the origin is the surface given by 226. Then take the principal axes of the section of the ellipsoid by the a'yplaiie as x. 2 J 2 72 f\Z ~ _ ^ 2/c/3 ' y y be the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at P.
5. 228. If P is prove that the curvature at ac/b\ (See 95. in general. on a developable surface. Prove that the principal radii at a point (#.) an umbilic of the ellipsoid ^2 /a 2 +. y Ex. parameters of the confocals through a point the ellipsoid #2/a 2 +yM/2 f 2 2/^ 2==1 the principal radii at P are J a be Ex. the radius of curvature of the section is r2/p where r is the central radius parallel to PT. The tangents to the principal sections at a point P of an ellipsoid whose centre is O are parallel to the axes of the central section of the ellipsoid by the diametral plane of OP. A curve drawn on a surface so that pass. 2. 2.y 2/& 2 +2 2 /c 2 =l. Ex. Lines of curvature of an ellipsoid. Lines of curvature section One at . The generators 229. ( 226).226229] LINES OF CURVATURE 333 Ex. But the tangents to the curves of intersection of the ellipsoid and the confocal hyperboloids through P are also parallel to the axes of the section. prove that circular section of the ellipsoid. 1. If the sum of the principal PQ P lies on a real central Ex. principal any point of a developable is the normal section through the generator. P on If X. (121). Therefore the lines of curvature on the ellipsoid are its curves of intersection with confocal hyperboloids. The normal at a point P of an ellipsoid meets the principal planes through the mean axis in Q and R. z) 2 ellipsoid jc*/a?+y /b*+z*/c*=l are given by on the Ex. P of any normal section through P is LINES OF CURVATURE. and the two lines of curvature through any point cut at right angles. Hence the form one system of lines of curvature. If PT is tangent to a normal section at P on an ellipsoid. There 227. abc radii at P is equal to + PR. two lines of curvature through every point of the surface. IL are the 3. y. 4. its tangent at touches one of the principal sections of the any point surface at the point is called a line of curvature.
The normals to an ellipsoid at its points of intersection with a confocal generate a developable surface. the curve is curvature of the surface. (1) O and P are adjacent points of a line of curvature. P will lie surface are #rcoa0 _ yrsin0 _ zli r cos Pi ' r sin 9 P2 is 1 1 Therefore. Ex.. xvi. if the normal at P / coplanar with the normal 1 with OZ. if O and P are adjacent points of a curve drawn on a surface and the the surface at O and P intersect. cos and therefore O and P are adjacent points of one of the principal sections. the curve of intersection of the cone and any sphere which has its centre at the vertex cuts all the generators at right angles.+ .0 Vi /v If sin . = 0. The equations to the normal at P to the rcos0. and the condition (1) is satisfied there fore the normals at adjacent points of a line of curvature intersect. A fundamental property of : lines of curvature may be stated as follows // O and P are adjacent and ultimately coincident points of a line of curvature. . conversely.. the normals to the surface at O and P intersect . or cos = 0. \ Rin0cos0()=. normals to a line of Let O be the origin and 2* = let />. Pi P'2 on the indicatrix and will have coordinates rsin0. The normals to a surface at points of a line of curvature.334 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. i. other system consists of curves drawn on the surface to cut all the generators at right angles. = or sin = 0. If the normals at O and P intersect. at O.. h.2 the equation to the surface be . and therefore the second system of lines of curvature consists of the curves of intersection of the cone and concentric spheres whose centres are at the vertex. 230./2 +. or the curve is a line of curvature..e. In the case of a cone.
63). where or 6 = L CPN. and let PT and PK be the tangents to the meridian and circular sections through P. Thus the other principal radius axis. and therefore. The circular section is an TPN and KPN oblique section through the tangent PK. 63. if p is the principal radius in the plane KPN. . and let C be the centre of the circular section. (fig. by Meunier's theorem. be any point on the surface. are the planes of the principal sections. its In the surface formed by the revolution of a paraboU directrix one principal radius at any point is twice the other. The radius in the plane TPN is the radius of curvature principal at P of the generating curve. Let PN be the normal at P. Let P. and therefore any circular section is a line of curvature. The 230. all points of a circular section pass througli the normals at same point on the axis. about 1. the meridian sections are lines of curvature. CP = p cos 0. meeting the axis Then in N. Therefore. Flu. is the intercept on the normal between P and the Ex.229231] LINES OF CUEVATUEE 335 The normals by Lines of curvature on a surface of revolution. and its radius of curvature is CP. p = PN. 231. to a surface of revolution at all points of a meridian section lie in the plane of the section.
developable surface is generated by the tangents to a Prove that at the point Q on the tangent at P. since the triangle cab rightangled at Jf pQ is the radius of curvature of the line of curvature. 5. 6> = is . Then N. 4. Find the radius of curvature at of the line of curvature of the developable. its directrix. 6V=a&. M are consecutive points PQ cut the consecutive FIG. if 6yr' is the angle between consecutive tangents to the line of Q QL QL Q curvature. if p l is the principal radius. Therefore. Let QM.336 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 2. meet the sphere of unit radius whose centre is in a. 3. 64). and therefore is ST. of the is 0^1 and trie angle between the planes PQN. (fig. Then. where is .) and of Ex. Ex. about For the surface formed by the revolution of a catenary the principal radii at any point are equal and of opposite sign. a. PQM is the angle between consecutive osculating planes. 6>' = fo. c respectively. But the angle between consecutive generators Ex. Therefore. (A opposite sign surface whose principal radii at each point are equal is called a minimal surface. PQ = . Ex. the principal radius of the developable p Let the plane through Q at right angles to generators in N and M. Q. [CH. In the conicoid formed by the revolution of a central conic about an axis one principal radius varies as the cube of the other. xvi. L are consecutive points on the line of curvature. principal section. Draw at right angles to the consecutive generator. A given curve. (the catenoid). we have ''' T OL T . 6. NQ.Jty Hence ana . Then N. Q.
. .O.. 9 rp k T . z\ the radius of curvature of the section is given by lr pl^ + 2rfmV ... 85). the coincident values of 2 :mi *i sp pq~i k i. if we write k for (1) and (2) into VI +p* + g 2 we may combine .' n ^ i+q tp ? k ... B... dp dcr EE^.. l+ P . Shew that the radius of torsion of the line of curvature of is ..... to the sections coincide. (cf../ a the developable ^ ... where . 337 Ex.. (5) m.... cr and s is the arc of the edge of regression... Shew that the lines of curvature of generated by tangents to a helix are plane curves... are the direction cosines of the TI found that if l v lt X tangent to a normal section of the surface through the m point (x. ^ This equation gives two values of ^ tn^ which correspond two sections through the point which have a given If p is a principal radius. p =^. the developable Ex. Therefore the principal radii are given by or If pr^s equation (4) are l i is satisfied.. The principal radii and lines of curvature through In 225 we have a point of the surface %=f(x.... y).... these radius of curvature..... y. : . 232... (2) Therefore.... whence l^ + m +(pl l + qm l )^^l .232] EQUATIONS TO LINES OF CURVATURE 6.. + qm^ z l We have also ^= 0... 7......
we obtain the differential equation to the projections of the two lines we of curvature.and yaxes are identiL Now m cal.338 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. Shew that the projections on the ^yplane of the lines of /v>2 <7/2 curvature of the paraboloid  f* . the lt v projections of PQ and P'Q' on the x.. are &A.+ b T = 2s:A. Ex.=22 and the confocal a r.. y. from (5). ySL (JL 1. (Z v =2e are given by . 3. the differential equation to the projection on the #2/plane of the line of axes is curvature corresponding to the radius p o t'P dy f/y* Cvi't/ +*> w/% O fj k ^ cfa //'/ \Vv(S W.^. the r principal radii r A r A 6 2.= 2s are fi$ O given by where Ex. xvi. #2 a Prove that at a point of the intersection of the paraboloid 2 v* ?/ ^ ^[. if PQ is a straight line whose directioncosines are n lf and P'Q' is its projection on the ajyplane. dx*{s(l+p*)rpq}+dxdy{t(I+p*)r(l + q*)} Shew Ex. viz.&P k *  P9f which may be written or If c eliminate p/k between these equations. that the principal radii at a point of the paraboloid h 7. and therefore the gradient of P'Q' with reference to the OX and OY is mjl^ Hence. 2 // abt? . 79 whereas .
Prove that when a=b or this equation reduces to *]LJL ax x ax 3?= 4 y paraboloid. . p q to the surface z~f(x. and shew that ** .. 3 is where A._ ' . J/ ___ of the ellipsoid and the confocal 4. If t .y) at a point of a curve intersect the consecutive normal is drawn on it should dp __ __ dq dx \pdz dy + qdz* and deduce the equation to the lines of curvature obtained in 232. Ex. 6. .. 5. m. Prove that the integral of the equation in Ex. 8. Ex. equation. Shew that this verifies the results of 231 for the 2 . dq sdx + tdy* Wj. lf a(ai>.. Prove that for the helicoid 2 y 2 = where u* .r 2 Z?. dl dm dn _ Ex.232] EXAMPLES ON LINES OF CURVATURE 4. 9. dp rdjc + sdy. of intersection  . Prove that at a point of a line of curvature of the ellipsoid and shew that the coordinates of any point of the curve _z *. a +A * * >  * * verify this Ex. Ex. line of curvature. 7. Prove that the intersection of the surface 32= and the plane ax=*by is a line of curvature of the surface. #! are the directioncosines of the tangent to a and I. whence Ex.. = = Apply 48.yi>(bpy a*A+6* ts ' lines of Hence prove that the curvature of the paraboloid are its curves of intersection with confocals. is an arbitrary constant. 339 Ex. n are the directioncosines of the normal to the surface at the point. Prove that the condition that the normal. 2 2 . 10. this becomes _ A+i . Also dz=pdx + qdy. yAx or f# = where A and B are arbitrary constants.
11. c?/ 2 u^ <7 * = ex UL ?. 10 from the equations of 232.u6~Q. /'cos 2 ^. XVL Any on the surface is given by The tangent plane at P is ursin0ycos0H . Hence the lines of curvature are the intersections of the helicoid and cylinders where A Ex. the radius of curvature at Q is given by P of the ^ & T 4. prove that r ! x p * and deduce the Ex. etc. fc {(^ +c Therefore (u*+c*)dffl 2c~ : V tt  C This gives two values of dB du which correspond to the two If p is a principal radius.. Prove that at a point of the conoid the principal radii are given by where /s ^g. T . P. 12./. <j2 The differential equation to the projections lines of curvature is . /> Hence i 11% c .340 COOKDINATE GEOMETRY point. For the helicoid 3=ctan~ ^.   . we have coincident values of dO : du. P But if _^ VttMc 8 2 " d is normal section through the distance PQ./sin .." is the perpendicular to the plane from the point Q. r~t A results of Ex. is an arbitrary constant. [CH. as in sections with radius p. on the #//plane of the where u and are polar coordinates. c and hence. 232.J. We have r p=. if p U + &S0+M.. and & == I + y.
1 Similarly. . Find the curvature at the origin of the lines of curvature of the surface Pi P' If is ly iTi. principal 4wi the distance of the point from the 2axis. Prove that at a point of the surface of revolution x= the principal radii are where z'sr.232] EXAMPLES ON LINES OF CURVATURE 13. the square of the curvature of the line of curvature that touches OY is . And. . pl+qm=n. Deduce the result of 231. and substituting.smce Therefore. obtain ds^ == (j^ ~~^A^ dcL \ s +Wi ^*\_ t_ ^ Pi 5 ^/~" r~*~Tj[ " P* Again. l^rpqs(l+p*)} + lmir(l+y*)t(l+p')} + m^s(l+q*)tpq}=Q. and therefore at the origin . radius is infinite and the other is one where u is zm. . 16. etc. . c?^ </w dn f. ?n=w = 0. . Ex. Also =3=0 therefore differentiating (1).p2 . if /) 'aE+3SL +n S[^ . For the surface prove that pj = . dl 5S =a f. 15. Z=l. But for a line of curvature. 14. at the origin we pq dm rf: . z(x*+y*)=2mxy. . Find the principal radii at a point of the cylindroid Prove that at any point of the generator x ?/.(1) and for the line of curvature that touches OX.. is the radius of curvature of the line of curvature 1 which touches OX. 341 Ex. Ex.. Ex. n are the directioncosines of the tangent to a curve and a the arc.
[CH. of the curvatures of the lines 18. If   . At an umbilic . PN 2 are the normals at a point P to an ellipsoid and the confocal hyperboloids of one and two sheets through P. 19. Prove that the curvature at P of the curve of section of the ellipsoid and hyperboloid of two sheets is (pi~ 2 + /V 2 ) where p^ 1 is the curvature of the section of the ellipsoid by the plane PNN 1? and /o. rj. p are the coordinates of the centre.342 COORDINATE GEOMETRY 17. Ex. V where A and /x are the parameters of the confocals through P. jo=0 gives imaginary values of q. (rz + l+p2 =^0 the umbilic unless c2 f 2 =0). obtain 4 pz 77=0. 233. we have ~~ from equa r t s ~A:' where p is the radius of curvature of any normal section through the umbilic. Umbilics. principal sections are indeterminate tions (5) of 232.c2 ) + &y (c2 . Hence shew that the squares through a point P are of curvature + A . xvi. PN. PN. . a V(62 . Ex. we x  ellipsoid c2../~ l is the curvature of the section of the hyperboloid of two sheets by the plane PN^. Prove that the equation to an P2 ellipsoid can be put in the Pl JPW PlP2 PlP2 where Ex. 1. Find the umbilica of the By differentiation. the directions of the therefore.a2 ) . or j0=  > Whence At an Hence umbilic s(l +p 2)=rpg or ^=0orgr = 0.r #2/a2 +y2/b2 +z2/c2 = l.c2 (a 2 If a>6>c. Ex. We have also at o.
If the umbilic is the origin. The O .a) tan OL . the normal at the origin the saxis. y. 5. This equation gives three values of tan a which correspond to the three lines of curvature through the umbilic. with the 07axis. 343 Therefore. and that the radius and the line an umbilic is given by ro _ a xy Ex. Ex. . the .d)tan 2 o. if the tangent to a line of curvature makes an angle a. Prove that the surface aW+b^+M has an umbilic where it meets the line Ex.26) .233] UMBILICS p= c2x j . z) should intersect the is o normal at r /c ^ 9/ . . 4.cy3 =0. rt .(2c . 5.6 =0. Investigate the lines of curvature through an umbilic of an ellipsoid. ^ &JT f xy(2c a) + xy*(d . Shew that the points of intersection of the surface of curvature at z are umbilics.) 2. and the principal plane which contains the umbilics the ^plane. Ex. Prove that in general three lines of curvature pass through an umbilic.v . the equation to the surface is P condition that the normal at (#. 6. If the umbilic is taken as origin. since = ' ac (Cf. Therefore. the directions of the three lines of curvature through the origin are given by Ex. 3. ?/). 226. If the origin is an umbilic of the surface z=/(. Ex. .r. and c tan 3 01+ (26 . since At an umbilic & PT* = c2 Hence.
// three systems of surfaces cut everywhere at ricjht angles. If =^=. This is a particular case of a general theorem on the lines of curvature of a triplyorthogonal system. and the members through any given point cut at right angles. and the first equation then reduces to (c dy b dz) (adz c dx) (bd. be dx dy : since the tangent to the curve lies in the tangent plane to the surface. we have 'bt o~ or _ffnj w2 f~\ 3r_3<7 ~~ dff 2 woJ 'dr_'dt ~~ oi oy o *"~ ^* oy origin are given Therefore the directions of the lines of curvature through the by tan 3 a + tan a =0> real line of curvature and the only Ex. the lines of curvature of any member of one system .va dy) 0. at the origin. a o c these equations give three values of : dz. through the umhilics is the section by the principal plane that contains the umbilics. are together said to form a triplyorthogonal system of they surfaces. i/ a b' If P and Q are adjacent and ultimately coincident points of a curve drawn on the surface. equation to the ellipsoid xt+yt + czt + fyzx + Zwz^Q. When three systems of surfaces are such that through each point in space there passes one member of each system. 234. and surface c a I directions of the three lines of curvature through an umbilic rf i_^_j_l_ = P a b c are umbilics on the surface. which we proceed to enunciate and prove..<>. =f =y. that the points of intersection of the line 3 ~3 Shew . and that the (JT. of the ellipsoid 7.. We are its have seen that the lines of curvature of an ellipsoid curves of intersection with the confocal hyperboloids. The confocals of a given conicoid form such a three system.344 COORDINATE GEOMETRY is [CH. Dupin's theorem. the normals at P and Q intersect if Ako. Whence. Triplyorthogonal systems of surfaces. z) are given by _ 7 __ __ dz c' d _ __ rf c b _ a d __ ' rf . xvi. we have a ++.
0. . that if the curve of intersection of two surfaces is a line of curvature on each. y) are. the at all points of the line. Hence the coordinate planes are the planes of the principal sections at O of the three surfaces and the curve of intersection of B! and S 2 touches a principal section of S t at O. y. planes. 0. 1. the curve of a line of curvature of S r Ex. . and .234] DUPIN'S THEOREM 345 are its curves of intersection with the members of the other two systems. By means of Ex. Ex. on the curve of intersection of the S t and S2 x and y are of the second order of small quantities. 2. . . Take them for coordinate The equations to the three surfaces are then. S p of the first system. 232. The tangent planes to Sx and S2 at (0. the two surfaces cut at a constant angle. If a line of curvature of a surface lies surface and sphere cut at a constant angle on a sphere. Let O be any point on a given surface. and they are at right angles therefore Similarly. prove that if two surfaces cut at a constant angle and their curve of intersection is a line of curvature of one. and hence the coordinates of a point of the curve adjacent to O are 0. intersection of S l and S3 is Similarly. = 0. if y2 be rejected. Near the origin. to to to Sx S2 S3 . /6 . then it is a line of curvature of the other also. 1 +A f 2 we have MA=o and therefore /^ = h2 = /* 3 = 0. and let S2 and S 3 be the surfaces of the second and We have to prove that third systems that pass through O. . 2x + ajj 2 + Zl^yz + b^2 + 2 2 . given by surfaces . therefore is a line of curvature. the curves of intersection of S 1 with S 2 and S 3 are the lines of curvature on S r The tangent planes at O to the three surfaces cut at right angles. 8. But O is any point of S x and therefore the curve touches a principal section at any point of its length. .
XVL Ex. These intercept on the surface of the sphere a portion of area a. centre of a sphere of unit radius parallels to the normals to the surface at all points of the boundary of S. and the tangent plane at the origin as . Consider a closed Draw from the portion. The equation to the conicoid which has the same principal radii is then of the form 2ws + Zfyz + Zfury + fy/ 2 4. [CH. t 0) we have W The principal radii are therefore given by where 8 is the parameter of distribution for the generator. and therefore the conicoid and surface have the same indicatrix at P. Take the generator as . 0. Investigate the principal radii of a skew surface at points of a given generator. If the normals to a surface at make a constant angle with line of curvature.raxis. given generator. ( 218).346 COOEDINATE GEOMETEY 3. whose boundary is called the horograph of the portion S. the central point as origin. and a is taken to measure the whole curvature of the portion S. at a point. . The average curvature over S S. If P is any point of the generator. is r. the generators of the conicoid through P are the inflexional tangents of the skew surface. the section is a Curvature at points of a generator of a skew We have shewn that a ruled conicoid can be found to touch a given skew surface at all points of a 235. of the surface whose area is A. Ex. Gauss method of estimating the curvasuggested the following 236. If P is a point within is then Lt j.as S is indefinitely diminished the measure of curvature or specific curvature at P.cz 2 = 0. all points of a plane section the plane of the section. Whence at ( r. Hence the sections of the conicoid and of the surface through P have the same curvature.ryplane. surface. S. The measure of curvature ture of a surface at a given point.
arid the normals at P and R intersect at C2 . be infinitesimal arcs of the lines of curvature through P. If the angles PCjQ. (fig. we have and the area PQRS If is pqrs is the horograph corresponding to PQRS. so that Fio. and let QS and RS be arcs of the lines of curvature through Q and R. PC 2 R are S0 1 and S92 . Then the normals to the surface at P and Q intersect at C 1 so that . PR. />! and Expressions for the measure of curvature. I/ p% are the principal radii at a point P the measure is of curvature at P Let PQ. The measure of curvature at a point of the surface . 65). 65. Therefore the measure of curvature at P Cor.235237] THE MEASURE OF CURVATURE 347 237.
pass through a point corresponding to Z7=u. If assign a particular value to one of the parameters. > that the whole curvature of the portion of tho surface cut off by the plane # =. determine a surface.348 Ex. If the two curves P. (47. 8. 27r(l sinrx.rl)f2 r3 =0. Ex. since x. 2t Ex. CURVILINEAR COORDINATES. Any diametral plane divides an ellipsoid into two portions total curvatures are equal. y. Find the measure of curvature at the point surface (y 2 +2 2 )(2.( 1 \ .A/ \ >KV skew surface distant x Ex. the plane of contact divides the surface into two portions whose total curvatures are 2^(1+ sin ex. and the measures of curvature at P and P' are Li and R^ prove that \l R+\/R^ is constant. that the equations and are parameters. At a point of a given generator of a from the central point the measure of curvature is is the parameter of distribution. 4. The measure of curvature at a point P of the ellipsoid x2 v 2 z 2 p* *+i5+7 ==1 is aWcr where p is the perpendicular from the centre oid r r r a 2 b* c 2 . COORDINATE GEOMETRY Jf a cone of revolution. z) on the Ex. The normals to a skew surface at points of a generator lie on a hyperbolic paraboloid. Ex. ( 185). the measure of curvature is ~=y where S is the point (a. say varies is a U. 2 Prove that its measure of curvature at a point of the curve is I/a. z are now functions of one where U V we V parameter.). 3. y. circumscribes ellipsoid. the position of P may be . Vv. xvi. [CH. y. and Ex. 0. If the tangent planes at any two points P and P' of a given generator of a skew surface are at right angles. We have seen. The horograph is the circle of intersection of the unit sphere and the right cone whose vertex is the centre and semivertical angle ~~OL. then the locus of the point (x. an 1. Ex. 5. z) as curve on the surface. whose 2. 7. Prove that at any point of the generator the surface and paraboloid have the same measure of curvature. 6.).r is 2n. semi vertical angle ou. 0).> to the tangent plane at P. Prove that at any point P of the paraboloid y 2 +2 2 =4o#. Ex. 9. 238. The binomials to a given curve generate a skew surface.
Therefore if l> *v\ Xu. the directioncosines of the tangents at O to the curves 7=u. (fig. If one of the parameters remains constant while the other varies. Thus a point on an ellipsoid is coordinates of the point P. 66). /A = constant? If A and p are the curvilinear coordinates of a point on the surface. y = uain& 1. 9 z cO.Zu> ra. . n are the directioncosines of the normal at O to the surface. considered as determined if the parameters of the confocal hyperboloids which pass through it are known. 6 constant? 2. If O. is the point of a given surface whose curvi linear coordinates are u t v. Ex.r = wcos0. V=v y are proportional to *>y*. The hyperboloid x ~ A + /z _ a 1 + \fi of one sheet ? . Directioncosines of the normal to the surface. and these parameters may be taken as the curvilinear coordinates of determined in position the point. curves correspond to u constant.239] DIKECTIONCOSINES OF THE NORMAL 349 by the values u and v of the and these values are then called the curvilinear parameters.238.yu. what is the locus of the point when (i) A = /z. The helicoid is given by . What Ex. (ii) A// = Xr? 239. is given by z /__l~ ^ ~ 1 f f A/A ' _ ^ ~~ P ~~ r+'A/z ' c What curves correspond to A = constant. the locus of the point is the curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the hyperboloid which corresponds to the constant parameter.
We can find the principal radii at a point of the surface when . Therefore if ds is the differential of the arc of the curve. since Lt(OP/($. The principal radii and lines of curvature. 66). XVL and where i = m 2 = n 2 . TV An equation between the coordinates of a point on a surface represents a curvilinear curve drawn on the surface.s) = ds z = Edu 2 + 2Fdudv+ Gdv*. l. Then and hence if OP 2 = ESu* + 2FSuSv + GSv*. The linear element. 1 E=xu +y u*+zu (Cf. z\ (x + Sx. Find / if d& = z 241. (fig. relation between the differentials of the arc of the curve and the coordinates. If denotes the angle NOM.) Cor. cubes and higher powers are rejected. The value is called the For the surface of revolution.y + 8y. We proceed to find the 240. Let O and P. y. z + Sz). and curvilinear coordinates (u. be adjacent points of the curve and have cartesian coordinates (x.350 COORDINATE GEOMETRY I [CH. Ex.185. of ds given by this equation linear element of the surface.
& may be written 2 du*(EHE'p) + 2dudv(FHF'p) + dv (GH . and we have similar expressions Again. for dy> dz. ^ H H = EGF (1). and therefore if it has directioncosines ra. n. to the surface is the principal normal of section. for the normal section whose radius of curvature Whence But and ld*x + md~y + n $ z L a) dx = x*du+xjlv. d2x = x uudu2 + 2x uv du dv + x vvdv2 + x ud2 u + xvd2 v. Therefore the principal radii are given by .G'p) = 0. . a principal radius the values coincide. we have is /o. . d2 y and d2z. H where ""2 H 2 . yv ^ Equation (2) yv .239241] EQUATION TO LINES OF CURVATURE 351 the coordinates are expressed as functions of meters as follows : two para The normal any normal I. (3) and gives two values of du:dv which correspond to the two normal p is If sections with a given radius of curvature. Substituting these in we obtain (2) H P where E'du2 + 2F'dudv+G'dv 2 y uu * uu E'= XHU .
^ ^ G* : Equation If 0.r. Cor. (5) J^'C" _ jp'2 The measure of curvature is CW. p. W. 2) is where p is the perpendicular from /* to the tangent plane at 0. by (3) and (4). 1. He is also referred to Applications Gfomttriques du Calcid Co. then Hence ^= ^'= (4) and on substituting in equations of * and (6).352 If COORDINATE GEOMETRY p is [CH. Diffirentiel. we obtain the equations 232. P. = equation to the tangent plane is ^(^^)(}/ u zv z uy^ Oj and etc. Eisenhart. Bianchi. and lines of curvature of the surface z=f(jcy Take w==u?. . 2482) is an adjacent point on a normal section through 0.E'F) . The student and applied (Oinn & will find the methods of curvilinear coordinates discussed in a recent treatise on Differential Geometry by L. 2. 1. XVI. Find the principal y). v=y. Hi l^T tor an umbilic ^ = ^ = ^7.dudv(QE' . Edu + Fdv _ Fdu + Gdv _ ~ E'du+F'dv and therefore for a du*( EF' line of curvature. Thtorie dea Surfaces^ Darlxmx . (2) may also be obtained as follows the point considered. is given by (. and P. the radius of curvature of the section. 7^  . since lAOr*=Edu?+2Fdudv + Gdv\ = p ' ~Ed~u*+2Fdudv + Gdi* radii Ex. /.F'Q) = 0.G'E)+dv*(FG' . (x+Sx. de Tannenberg . Geometria Differ'enziale. The Hence Therefore. y4Sy. ?/. a principal radius. ). p F'du + G'dv~ H' .
Ex.241] EXAMPLES ON LINES OF CURVATURE 2. For the surface I/ V ~~ U UV prove that the principal radii are given by a*6 wliere V + *fy> du 2 ( 2 ~ & + u v) . Taking u^s and v~r. 3. (T Therefore the principal radii are given by Ex. 5. Find the measure of curvature at the is line of striction. 8. The curve curvature is .& = 0. when r=0. 4. A ruled surface is Find the principal radii at a point distant r generated by the binomials of a given from the curve. 353 Ex. 7. 6.1/cr2 the line of striction. zcO^ Pi= :=' p2 = 3^2 __ ca . Find the locus of points on the helicoid at which the measure of curvature has a given value. the measure of Ex. 2> where a. and that the lines of curvature are given by dQ Ex. 01. Apply the method of curvilinear coordinates to prove that for the helicoid #=wcos 0. The coordinates and are functions Frenet's formulae. Apply the method of curvilinear coordinates to prove that the principal radius of a developable at a distance I along a generator from the edge of regression Ex. y usin 0.y the principal radii at any point are and the lines of curvature are given are arbitrary constants. and . . and a9 . by dv 4F = 4a 2 ^ 2 + (w and that the lines of curvature are given Ex. is . and //=A/i+sS applying we obtain /'=0. For the surface #3it(l + t>')tt s . curve. by u=a v= l . of the point are given by of s and r.
w are the direction cosines of the normal to the surface. of the semiaxes of the confocals through a P on are c^aA. Find the principal radii of the surface a*d*~aP(aP+y*) at the points where xy^z. c2 = cfA. l=. Taking A and as the curvilinear coordinates of the point. 77. Prove that the cone passes through a line of curvature of the paraboloid xy=cus.and * i a^c * Deduce that /i / 2 ) and that the If /. 1. w. the perpendicular from the origin to the tangent plane at Shew that this equation can be written in the form 2 2 2 3. the parametric curves Examples XIII. c^c. lines of curvature are A = constant. if L_ V7 r uu __ V7 slU> *~(' since We have also Ex. 2 = ft. f) is a centre of principal curvature at 3. xvi. prove A/* M"' = Vr^. . Prove that along a given line of curvature of a conicoid. /* = constant. one principal radius varies as the cube of the other. are given Prove that the principal by 2 radii at a point of the surface xyz~< Q7 6 where p is the point. 10. ^6A. point 9. and that if (. p. etc. y.= A/^ * a if A/A a . ^ and F' are zero.r + pp T 3y + />/3 3 2 1' +f>p (#. Prove that are lines of curvature. 2..354 Ex. a 2 E=<z/z. COORDINATE GEOMETRY The squares the conicoid [CH. 4.
z =/(0). y = u sin XIII. *2 Prove that the differential equation of the projections on the of the lines of curvature of the ellipsoid s where asfe 2 ^. 355 For the surface 0. (in which the asymptotic cone has three mutually perpendicular generators). 12. y. prove that the angles that the lines of curvature make with the generators are given by 6. 13. Shew A curve is drawn on the surface touching the axis of x at the origin and with its osculating plane Prove that at the origin inclined to the 2axis at an angle <f>. z) is Prove that the whole curvature of the portion of the paraboloid the generators through the origin and through the tan. Prove that the on the surfaces lines of curvature of the paraboloid xy^az lie sinh 1  a sinh" 1 2 = A a .XVL] 5. makes with the principal normal to the section at Q Q 10. the normal chord at any point is the harmonic mean between the principal radii. ' where 11.CH. For a rectangular hyperboloid. 8. Shew on the section that the normal to the surface at a neighbouring point distant s from P. that the sum or difference of the distances of any point on a line of curvature of the paraboloid xy az from the generators through the vertex is constant. 2 2 y=sa &  . The principal radii at a point P of a surface are p^ the radius of curvature of a normal section through P is R.r' f y J* a (x*y )* the measure of curvature of the former varies as and p 2 and 9. A is an arbitrary constant. Prove that at a point of the intersection of the cylindroid 2 2 2 2 2 = = 2 z(x +y ) mvy and the cylinder (. 7. EXAMPLES x u cos 0. PT is tangent at P to a curve on an ellipsoid along which the measure of curvature is constant. /J = c3 a2 . xy^az bounded by point (x.1 14. Prove that the normal section of the ellipsoid through PT is an ellipse which has one of its vertices at P.
of a Prove that the measure of curvature at points of a generator skew surface varies as cos 4 #. and hence shew that the integral x where k is an arbitrary constant. Prove that for the surface tractrix about its axis P2~Pl formed by the revolution of the and that the surface has at any point a constant measure 2 of curvature a" . . Prove that the surface has a line of urnbilics lying on the sphere ruled surface is generated by the principal normals to a 17. y) the equation for the principal radii can be JL_i( 2 p 19. A p/J p What 18. makes an angle < with the plane ZOX. + <M dy) <W c)(o?.y) =0 p\dx i Prove that the osculating plane 22 = _ Pi 2 of the line of curvature of the surface +^ Pt 2 7/ which touches OX. If the surface z written m. such that 20. xvi. 15. where 6 is the angle between the tangent planes at the point and at the central point. given curve prove that at the point of a principal normal distant r from the curve the principal radii are given by . n are the directioncosines of the normal at a point to f(x. Deduce that (a. 16.356 COOEDINATE GEOMETKY [CH.a Yof the equation is where f = dx . if Prove that k=^ 2^ 2 _ 2 \\ ^i re(^ uce8 to a2 ( A) & 2 (6 2 A) and deduce that the lines of curvature are the curves of intersection of the ellipsoid and its confocals. are the principal radii at points of the curve? .
where Prove that the measure of curvature at P of the surface generated by the line is cos*0 (tO\ 2 25. f'(l+f' ) + uf'=0. At and the hyperboloid boloid are (1 a point of the curve of intersection of the paraboloid xy = cz o^+^^ + c^O the principal radii of the para\/2). 357 If the surface of revolution y = wsin#. where the point makes A. The principal radius of a cone at any point of its curve of intersection with a concentric sphere varies as (uiu A. Prove that the locus of the centres of principal curvature at the point of contact is +y .CH. in /x)T . and /x are the angles that the generator through with the focal lines. 24. shew that the only real minimal surface of revolution formed by the revolution of a catenary about its directrix. A straight line drawn through the variable point P. is 2 22.XVI. (a cos <.J 21. A variable ellipsoid whose axes are the coordinate axes touches the given plane /UP + rz=l. Hence. z=f(u) is a minimal surface. EXAMPLES #=wcos#. parallel to the &rplane of <. is some function makes an angle 0. 0). a siri <. with the zaxis. XIII. 23.
2 clearly satisfied by the tangents to the 1 or the projections of the a2 +2/ 2/^2 / . be easily verified from the differential equation. r^ + 2^714 +*m = 8 1 . XVII. m differential equation of asymptotic lines. A curve drawn on a surface so as to touch at each is called point one of the inflexional tangents through the point an asymptotic line on the surface. where y l s ellipse = 0. whence. 232. as in It is evident lines of a hyperboloid of This may from the definition that the asymptotic one sheet are the generators. ASYMPTOTIC LINES. The ?i x are the directioncosines of the tangent to an asymptotic line on the surface z=/(#. If 181. 243. 2 If the equation to the hyperboloid is c x c 2 ~ Whence the differential equation becomes or y = Vlx This equation is Va^+ft2 = . 242. the differential equation of the proon the #j/plane of the asymptotic lines is jections r dx~ + Zsdxdy +tdy 2 = 0. we have.[CH. y). from l ly x. CHAPTER XVII.
The torsion of an asymptotic lines line. where line. = 244. lines through any point The normals line generate asymptotic to a surface at points of an a skew surface whose line of striction is the asymptotic line. 245. We also have proved. 12 cos a. The osculating plane of an asymptotic X line. 1.. a with the a>axis. ? rat = sin a. m 2 = cos a. the tangent to an asymptotic Therefore. that the projections of the generators are the tangents. P2 The tangents make angles Pi Hence. for one asymptotic ^= and Also. have the Cor. The two asymptotic same osculating plane. 2J by P Frenet's formulae. If l m v lt TI are the directioncosines of line. Whence or 1 3 = m 3 = n3 is Therefore the binormal of the asymptotic line is the normal to the surface. wx = n 2 = 0. ? __ 2__J _ ( r^2 __ 28^771. line. from 8 = . or the tangent plane to the surface the osculating plane of the asymptotic Cor. sin a.. + imf) = 0. Consider the asymptotic through the origin on the surface 2*=* + Pi r2 4/ 2 + .242245] TORSION OF ASYMPTOTIC LINE 359 asymptotic lines are the tangents. 2.. 244. (104).
We Ex. 3. lines of the helicoid Prove that the asymptotic consist of the generators right cylinders. y = u si n Using the values of/?. Find the differential equation to the projections of the asymptotic lines of the conoid x = u cos 0. an arbitrary constant. Therefore the differential of the arc of the But . = coso. Prove that the projections of the asymptotic *i2 lines of the <y2 paraboloid 22='^ is T^ n the #yplane are given by y = A. and thus the equation developable surfaces. 1. but the osculating plane of an asymptotic line is not the same at all points of the line. line witn a definite osculating plane at each point.360 COORDINATE GEOMETRY if d/3 is [CH. at the origin. the asymptotic lines are also the generators. or It U/ ^=~G?#. we obtain o?#=0. V Z #=OL. p = 0. q = 0. m c Therefore or Cor. s. and hence one asymptotic line through each point is the generator. pi / ~ = ~cota = <r ^ v/ *"" The two asymptotic lines through a point have the same torsion. where a. r = l/p lf sin a.XVIL line. z /(#). 0. (ii) w 2 =A/. (T s = 0. and the osculating plane of an asymptotic line is the same at all points of the line. Hence J/cr=0. tures is ^ =V KP* is verified for For a hyperboloid of one sheet. 12. however. and . fl > where A.has a o definite value A/ * at each point. The asymptotic lines of a developable surface are the generators. is arbitrary. . The value is the rate at which the tangent plane is have thus an instance of a straight twisting round the generator. 2. The osculating plane at each point of the line is determinate. where A is arbitrary. g. and the curves of intersection with coaxa) . . (i) r. Ex. But one of the principal curvaalso zero. given in Ex. (i) From From Ex. (ii)  232.
r//plane are given by M= a sec (0a). whence . Ex. . (1) becomes of To obtain the curvature Jpi* of the other line we must change the sign Ex. y n sin 0. ^ = cosa. Prove that the differential equation to the projections on the xy.. 6. . 5. m = cosoc. z=ae m* are equiangular spirals. . totic lines of the conoid y u sin 0. z =f(u) > z"du*+uJ<t0*=Q. r ^>i 5=0. and the two surfaces have the same measure of curvature at any point of the line.. For the hyperboloid of revolution ^ = 1. 9. The asymptotic lines of the catenoid w = ccoshl e cylinders 2u=c(ae0 + a~ e~ ) y where a is arbitrary. where a. prove that Ct" C the projections of the asymptotic lines on the .. 2 where tan 2a. *' = ^' S *2 Find the asymptotic lines of the cone z=wcotoc. where Ex. lie Ex.= 2 =0.. 7. Ex. t />2 > *^ 3 * . z = m sin 20 a lemniscate. Ex. = sina. Find the curvatures of the asymptotic lines through the origin on the surface Pi 2 Differentiating rt l + 2sl l m + /m 2 =Q. we l l obtain  For one ?? line. w. 11._. y n sin 0.==0. Prove that the projections on the dryplane of the asympjc= a cos 0. n.245] EXAMPLES ON ASYMFfOTIC LINES 4. on the Ex. 361 Ex. 10. Z2 =sina. </2 8. The normals to a surface at points of an asymptotic line generate a skew surface. is an arbitrary constant. Prove that the projection on the #yplane of an asymptotic line of the cylindroid x = it cos is 0.plane of the asymptotic lines of the surface of revolution x = u cos is 0. . ^i ^ And at the origin.. A .
t>=/*.cos d </>) and w = asi ' by ^ GEODESICS. 3. 14. lines . where A.3y2 . or the shortest distance on the surface Therefore. Prove that the asymptotic on the surface of revolu y=wsin#. Prove that the asymptotic xvlu lie e~ u> y e z=eu v on the cylinders where a and b are arbitrary constants. ?< = A. 1011 16. where are given z z=f(u\ =a flog tan ^f.u\ the asymptotic lines are u v y= 3i>(l + \&) .362 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. theorem. 4. It follows that the principal normal at any point is the normal to the surface. with a normal section through P. the method of curvilinear coordinates to Exs. An infinitesimal arc PQ by section of the surface of a geodesic coincides with the the osculating plane at P that is. Ex. . Q is along the geodesic . Ex. For the surface the asymptotic lines are given by arbitrary constants. For the surface x = 3i*(l f v2) . 6. In curvilinear coordinates the differential equation to the asymptotic lines is Apply Ex. A curve drawn on a surface so that its osculating plane at any point contains the normal to the surface at the point is a geodesic. and /A are Ex. z = 3u 2 . by Meunier's the arc of least curvature between two adjacent points P and through the points. 15. the geodesic arc PQ is through P and Q. Ex. 246. xvn. 12. lines of the surface v~H j 13.v3 = constant.
B". A". Ex. it is 2. we have geodesies. If the cylinder is (a. Ex.y= 248. becomes a geodesic when the sheets are wound again on the cylinder. 6). 0). 1. both. are the positions of A. B'".. .) Geodesies on developable surfaces. the geodesic develops into the straight line joining the points fore if A and B Ex. 0. (Apply 230. the geodesies through A and B are given by . F(x> y. z)=0. //. to any formed. and d?x ds* for geodesies on the surface z =/(#. B". . points A . 1. .. There247. y). From ds* ds* ds* for geodesies on the surface F(x.r=acos0. 3) = 0.. and the surface is developed into a plane... the infinitesimal arc PQ is unaltered in length when the surface is developed into a plane. any helix develops into a straight line. A". A'". are (a cos a. in the plane. Ex. The differential equations to the definition of a geodesic.. it will contain two arbitrary constants.246248] EQUATIONS TO GEODESICS 363 The principal normal to a right helix is the normal to the and hence the geodesies on a cylinder are the helices that can be drawn on it. A one of the points B'. #2 +y2 =a 2 and A and B . is a geodesic passes through two points A and B of a developable. and with the equation to the surface. If a geodesic is either a plane curve or a line of curvature. . the cylinder is developed into a plane. If an integral of one of the equations (1) can be found.. The geodesies on any cylinder are helices. If the surface a developable. Ex. . the line joining any one of the points A'. When An infinite number of geodesies can be drawn through two and B of a cylinder... . cylinder. If any number of sheets is unwrapped from the cylinder and B'. B on the plane so A'. 2. B"\ . y. will represent the geodesies. a sin a.. 3.
on the helicoid uco$0. in terms of elliptic Ex. 2 And Therefore the radius of curvature of the projection is Hence. (2) where k a first is an arbitrary constant. whence the complete integral can be found functions.plane is 10. xvn.is its curvature. dz For a geodesic.r' ^. of the projection we have or . Ex. //).r. y). But by Ex. to the geodesies Find the equations jc .2 u(l w" ) = (w + e X. If /u Wj. 7ij are the direction cosines of the tangent to a geodesic. . the xy. .. x" cos sin 6 . therefore qx py = 0. the radius of curvature of the projection on n 1 /A ^ ^. 2. 1. y=usiuO. arid p= sin or But therefore Hence. . z = cO. we obtain integral . (I 04. Similarly. = +y" u"u&*=0 2 +/ 2 +/2 =l u' 2 + (u* + c 2 )0'* = l 2 2 . . on integrating. Eliminating ds between this ecjuation and equation (2).364 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. at any poir*. q = ^ cos ^ dz . an integral of one of the equations (2) and the equation z=f(x y) together represent the geodesies of t the surface z =/(#. from (1 ). Find the differential equation to the projections on the 4^plane of the geodesies on the surface =/(. and . which gives. (1) .
?sin c is constant. Figures 67 and 68 represent the cone and its development into a plane. (cf. and we get .= c. Let the semivertical angle of tne cone be a. z u2 r. 1. Investigate the geodesies through two given points on a right cone. where y = u sin 6. The perpendiculars from the vertex of a right cone to the tangents to a given geodesic are of constant length. and the plane BO7 make an angle /3 with the zx. x' = u' cos an arbitrary constant. . p = f uj 1 . . Ex. 249] GEODESICS ON SURFACE OF REVOLUTION 365 249.248. 3.plane. and take the &rplane through A. for a geodesic. and therefore the geodesic develops into a straight line. Tf a geodesic on a surface of revolution cuts the meridian at any point at an angle <. f/ dy ~x~c. tion to Geodesies on a surface of revolution. the distance If the cone is slit along of the vertex from any tangent to the geodesic remains unaltered. the perpendicular on to the tangent at a point P = O P si n = u cosec OL sin <. . u& sin 0.. 4. ds whence the result is simply another form of Ex. sin*/> = j. 247). Deduce that on a right cylinder the geodesies are helices. Lsy. (fig. 67). (As where Change to polar x = u cos 0. coordinates. and 2 * q = ^j u . But . Ex. and developed into a plane. . Suppose that A and B are distant a and b from the vertex. where u is the distance of the point from the axis. 249. The circular sections of the cone through A and B become arcs of concentric circles of radii a and 6. any surface of revolution is of the form or The equa z= Hence r. < Ex. '70 y' = u' sin + uff cos 0. If O is the vertex. Let the points be A and B. p   = qd x or Therefore yT~xr4 = Q TT (fix cPv d f dx 3(yr ds as Hence c is dx y . say. and OA arc AD . 7/1 We that of have 2.
(in our figure).. . /J=27r So that.. is wrapped If AI and B. This equation represents a cylinder which intersects the cone in the geodesic. one. r. that if (H) geodesies pass through two points A and B. OjBg . does not lie on the sheets that have been unrolled from the cone.. any point on polar coordinates r. are C^Bg. AjB 4 however. sin a(/J + 2w?r) < ir. The geodesic develops into AjBj... are each equal to the circumference of the circle in the plane ADC..B 2 becomes a second geodesic passing through A and B and completely surrounding the cone.. since AjB^ has AO A 1 1 ar sin P + AC^PjB^ AO^Bj. through A and B are those which develop into AjBj. .)} satisfy the w{asin(0sina) + b sin (y0sin = & sin a.. and if P.2 are joined and the plane sector . OAB A^B^ again on the cone.366 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. (1) Fio. when in addition to of the surface of the cone. if we are to have any geodesic through A and B. 67. 1 Now and the polar coordinates the relations between the cylindrical coordinates u. Similarly AjB 3 becomes a third geodesic. \js referred to OjAj as initial line. arid the angle between the planes through the axis of the cone and A and B is /?.. It is clear from the figure.comthe curved sector plete sheets are successively developed into a plane.. ^ + br sin (y . The equations to surfaces through all the geodesies through A and can be obtained from equation (1) by writing (yS + 2?iw)sina for y.. . ty in the plane are in space and therefore the coordinates equation of any point of the geodesic .. A. two. the positions of OB. sin y .. xvn.... and hence the only geodesies. If the arcs D t D 2 D 2 D 3 .^) = ab sin y. B or . If A and B are points on the same generator of the cone.
. then sin OL< J...T" V = ax'x" + by'y" + cz'z". We have also p . is : tangent to the geodesic at from the centre pr is constant to the perpendicular tangent plane to the surface at P... and p is the Let the equation to the conicoid be ax2 +by 2 Then at any point of a geodesic..250] GEODESICS ON A CONICOID 367 A geodesic on a cone will therefore not cross a generator at two is less points unless the semivertical angle of the cone than J... (2) .and deduce the equa2 KL tion to the projections of the geodesies in the form tan a sinadO Ww . r is the central radius parallel to the 250. If A and B are points on the same generator OAB of a cone semivertical angle a. 5.. 6 Ex. Whence + b*yy' + c zz'. A 6..). 8.. Determine the values of k and through A and B. Geodesies on conicoids.. of the vertex Ex...... < if the geodesic passes Ex. P. Therefore X . and a geodesic through A and B cuts OA at right angles at A.. and deduce the equation (1) of Ex. where p is the radius of curvature of the geodesic... Also OB =a sec (2ir sin a) and the length of the geodesic arc AB is a tan (%TT sin a.. . where k and < are arbitrary constants.. Find the length of the geodesic AB. Ex. Shew u z that a first is integral of the equations of the geodesies of the cone 7=. by (1). geodesic Find the distance AB. z p^p' = a xx' z ). 4.. Ex.... 9. from any tangent to the Am. 7... u = k sec (0 sin <x f <).2 = ohf + b*y* + czzz . The following theorem due to Joachimsthal If P is any point on a geodesic mi a central conicoid.
. 3. Since X= from (3) we deduce /o= (Of.. If a. 4. 6... hence along a given geodesic the radius of curvature varies as the cube of the central radius which is parallel to the tangent Ex.) Cor...... 2 . since the tangent to the geodesic the conicoid... the Hues of curvature through P. Ex.368 COORDINATE GEOMETRY is [CH. ft are the parameters of the through P.. Shew that the theorem of 250 is also true for the lines of curvature of the conicoid. 250.. (3) and therefore pr Cor.... f2 and we have from Ex. Again.. and A. 1.. 2. and /? are the axes of the meridian section and p l is its radius of curvature.. 2. make equal angles with ellipsoid jp/aP confocals PT is the tangent to a geodesic through any point P on the + ip/b* + &*/<? = !. The constant pr has the same value for touch the same line of curvature. p= t .. axx + + czz = 0. r2  226. 2s by r' 2 2 2 2 ).(axx" + lyy" + czz") = A(aV +6y+<. 1. The radius of curvature at any point P of a geodesic drawn or a conicoid of revolution is in a constant ratio to the radius of curvature at P of the meridian section through P.. 2. 3 For all geodesies through an umbilic. = Hence.. combining (2) and X/. 'p . If the constant value of pr is /:. Ex. PT makes an angle Q with the tangent to . is constant. Ex. Ex.. Ex.(3). (1). all geodesies that Two geodesies that touch the same line of curvature Prove that they intersect at a point P... bijy' a tangent to and therefore ax or 2 + by'* + cz' = ... xvn. pr ac. 5.
the arc of the B. 3 ?/* 3 cos 9. and the result immediately follows. Consider a geodesic through the origin on the surface Pi If the tangent Pz makes an angle 9 with OX. ' whence . ?/i x then. has equation j* /i y* f^t A =l . The curvature and torsion of a geodesic. 251] CURVATUEE AND TORSION OF GEODESICS a2 6V2 A cos'2 + p siu2 = jj 369 She curve of intersection of the ellipsoid and the confocal whose parameter is A. geodesic. 8. referred to its principal axes. Ex. 2A . The osculating planes of the geodesic touch the confocal 251. generally. differentiating i2 with respect to and applying Frenet's formulae. Suppose that its parameter If the normals to tho ellipsoid and confocals through P is v. and z x \ cos2 f /x if v sin 2 = constant. nx = TIS . 7. Ex. <Z _ l_ rx. ij = cos 9. Prove that (where pr = &). cos*0 =. the equation to the cone. = 0. We / have. The central section parallel to the tangent plane at P. = sin 9 t = = sin 9. are taken as coordinate axes. One oonfocal touches the tangent. = __nP _. hence.*L + J* +*<. The tangents to a given geodesic on an ellipsoid all touch the same confocal. v v v A \L The tangent at P to the geodesic since its equations are is a generator of this cone. /A AH We have also p' 2 ==a2 6V/A/A.gg 250. at the origin.O. vertex P. Whence. which envelopes the confocal is .
be consecutive points of a curve traced on a surface. o. A geodesic is drawn on the ellipsoid from an umbilic to the extremity B of the mean torsion at B. its torsion at the umbilic Ex.= aiuO cos O 8[ \ Pl />2 / ).=cos 6 sin 6 cr \ c* a* / ) Ahoprac. 6 is 202. and at B. 2.370 COORDINATE GEOMETEY gives. <r= ptanfl. Shew that _ v Ex. Cor. 2. and sin 2 0. torsion is zero at the point of contact. If the surface is is developable. and therefore ( > . _ 72 a*""~i* ' whence = Geodesic curvature. (fig. Pi we obtain. 1. 69). and Cor. differentiating * ?ji 2. Let P. is zero.sin d _ cos Q ~ P Similarly. Find its At B. Along the geodesic through P and O measure off an arc OG equal . [en. pi =a r. we have. . axis. at the origin. its constant.= ^ Pl + p* . sing cos Eliminating in 220. so that Pi = 0. 252. jo=fc. o 2 P2 =7 o . c. Eliminating we have . If a geodesic passes through an umbilic. the angle at which the geodesic For a geodesic on a cylinder. a result obtained p p. where 6 crosses the generator. <r. XVIL which cos 9 . 1. 221. we have the result of If a geodesic touches a line of curvature. Cor. 3.
whence the geodesic curvature is expressed in terms of the curvatures of the curve and the geodesic. and OGT a normal section. S\f. & p* . which become and the respectively the osculating planes of the curve geodesic. and along PO produced a length PO is GOT by Then. ^ = curvature 1 it of geodesic = . And since the plane OCG is ultimately that of the indicatrix. TG. Denote the angle to PO. /o. if the angle CTG is denoted by w. cos w.252] GEODESIC CURVATURE 371 OT also equal to PO. Lt~. GC can be taken to measure the angles COT. and the geodesic touches the curve at O. the angle n OP = &?. the angle a GOC by <Se. and therefore the arcs CT. Hence. 69. Let us denote by .=/>cosecft>=0 A cota>. or Therefore 1 _ == i. the angle CGT is a right angle. whence (i) />=/> coso>. and Lt. (ii) Se = S\[s sin o> . ultimately the tangent at O to the curve or geodesic. if S\fs . is defined to be the geodesic curvature of the curve. The points CGT lie on a sphere whose centre is O.. TOG. the normal From the rightangled triangle CGT. GOC. or the osculating plane of the curve and section of the surface through the tangent to the curve.+ Pi Po P 2. o> is ultimately the angle between the planes OCT and OGT.251. = S\f.= curvature Lt of curve =p . O Fig. 08 TOO by <Si/r. . Again.
372 COORDINATE GEOMETRY have thus (i) [CH. Let L2J P w2 . Then the geodesic curvature is Uu. If a curve of curvature /> 1 is projected osculating plane. then since o> is the complement of the angle between the principal normal to the curve and the tangent to the curve F=i>. its projection Ex. 3.3 and the result of Ex. for the curve on the cone. Kx. xvn. of a curve on a surface is the curvature of on the tangent plane to the surface. ?i 2 be the directioncosines of the principal normal to the curve. tf u and v are the curvilinear coordinates of a point on a and the parametric curves cut at right angles. 204. the curvature of the geodesic which touches the curve is curve sin/? is /itAll a. Ex. shew that the geodesic curvatures of the parametric curves are i Let to be the angle between the osculatConsider the curve ing plane and the normal section through tne tangent. 7. Shew that the geodesic curvatures of the through the origin on the surface lines of curvature Ex. Prove that at a distance R from the vertex. and that the geodesic curvature of the ?^/* 4. 2. another proof of Meunier's theorem and (ii) the relation between the geodesic and ordinary curvatures of the curve. given by Pff s:?!?^. >2 Ex. Prove that at the origin the geodesic curvature of the section of the surface cuP + by 2 = 2z by the plane ljff + my+ne = is Ex. semivertical angle GL> so as to cut all the generators at the same angle ft. 10). the radius of curvature of the projection Hence the geodesic curvature is p sec a. ^"^liL. A curve is drawn on a right cone. surface 5. verify the equation p* = pg + p Ex. We on a plane through the tangent which makes an angle a with the Cor. By means of the results of ~. U=u . 1. (204.
... since the parametric curves are at right angles. shew that the squares of the geodesic curvatures of the curves of inter2 X* Z* ?/ section of the ellipsoid + .. Ex..252. (fig. and tt '^ ~ Therefore p* 2tfV A' M  \ Similarly for the curve T= v. E Ex... = _rJ v'C/# ... 9.. are /*)' f^'X?' 232. Geodesic torsion.253] GEODESIC TORSION 37S Now Therefore ^fi^. this result may be deduced from that of Ex. 7. (1) w with the normal to Let us take as the positive direction of thfc &> with the normal binormal that which makes an angle 90 to the surface. is the tangent at drawn on a surface. . and therefore COS fa) = _w _ qm +n l 2 ~ 2  3 .. P^ 9y (This solution is taken from Bianchi's (jeometria Differenziale. and then choose the positive direction of the The binormal makes an angle 90 the surface. If or.) Ex. .. then CD is the angle between the principal O to a curve normal to the curve and the normal to the surface... By means of the expressions given in 241. the parametric curves function of v alone and are geodesies. therefore " Xr ^=0. 18.. 6. and the osculating plane of the curve makes an angle o> with the normal section through OT. p ds ov 4 I 1 If* * w<7 and l But... Shew how 253. If the parametric curves are at right angles and Q is a a function of u alone.= i and its confocals whose paraC j^G meters are A and /A.. 70).
OZ respectively. Then ^ = cos 0.374 COORDINATE GEOMETRY [CH. n 2 = cos a).2 surface be P2 Then at the origin (2) becomes l^li dw^cosw ds or p1 p2 since (3) OT make an angle 6 with OX. N^ (2) Now take O as the origin. so that the tangent. Differentiate with respect to s. m 1 = sin 0. the arc of the curve. . TO. OY. and we have. principal normal and binormal can be brought into coincidence with OX. ft) cos CD TT. sin Then a) = Fio.= cos or (? (pZfc+g^WjW / / . = sin cos w. and let the equation to the ^2 Pl 0. do) cfo by (1). 7i t = and Let . XVIL tangent to the curve. .
The torsion of a curve sin 6 cos 6 p + ds' drawn on a developable dw is the angle at which the curve crosses the generator. is wrapped round a circular cylinder. Examples XIV. 2. prove that the asymptotic \<v/ lines consist and the curves whose projections on the ayplane are given by x2 =cf(^\ where c is an arbitrary constant. and deduce that . 1. so that its axis is along a generator. of the generators . the value of ^ is the torsion of the geodesic that touches the curve at O. constant c. 1. OT at O. The geodesic torsion of a curve drawn on a surface at a equal to the torsion of any curve which touches it at O and whose osculating piano at O makes a constant angle with the tangent plane at O to the surface Ex. p is the principal radius. Prove that at the origin its torsion is h. r A catenary. /> 2 and hence. geodesic torsion of a curve drawn on a cone.253] EXAMPLES XIV. The vertical angle si cos p OL. and w is the angle that the osculating plane makes with the normal section where 6 is of the surface through the tangent. and is evidently the same for all curves which touch Cor. point O is 2.= sm0cos0l da V! . If a curve touches a line of curvature at O its geodesic torsion at Cor. by 251. It is called the geodesic torsion of the curve. 2. For the conoid *=/( ?). 1. or az* where z is the distance of the point from the directrix of the catenary. O is zero. semiso as to cut all the generators at an angle /?. A geodesic is drawn on the surface touching the #axis. Ex. 375 Therefore (3) becomes 1 a d* * J\ j. Shew that its torsion radius at any point is equal to its geodesic torsion. is ft is ip w h ere the distance of the point from the vertex.
where u is the distance of the point of crossing from the axis. A geodesic is drawn on a right cone.typJdne of the geodesies on the surface of revolution x u cos 0. y u sin 0. Prove that the projections on the yplane of the geodesies on the catenoid w=ccosh ? are given by where k 7. isan arbitrary constant. cos" 1 . Prove that at a distance R from the vertex its curvature and torsion IP ten a! where p is the perpendicular from the vertex to the tangent. a. If a geodesic on a surface of revolution cuts the meridians at a constant angle. z.376 COORDINATE GEOMETRY L CH. 9. Prove that any curve is a geodesic on its rectifying developable or on the locus of its binomials. 4. jections on the . is A an arbitrary constant. and an asymptotic line on the locus of its principal normals. Prove that the equation to the projections on the . Prove N/ 4 MVC ) 2 with the axis. drawn on a catenoid so as to cross the meridians at an angle whose sine is . 5. geodesic on the ellipsoid of revolution crosses a meridian at an angle 6 at a distance u from the axis. the surface must be a right cylinder .f(u) oL~a where a and fV'+(l)' I J ?WM*a* a are arbitrary constants. 10. is Geodesies are an arbitrary constant.XVIL 3. semiverticai angle a. that at the point of crossing it makes an angle en cos . Prove that the pr equation of the projection on the #yplane of a geodesic on the surface x2 + y*=2az is 8 8 a ._* (tt + r ) p '~ If+a* ' where k 6.r?/plane Prove that the polar equation to their prois u+c where 8.
Prove that the geodesic curvatures at the curve of intersection of the surfaces S 2 and S 3 regarded first as a curve on the surface S 2 and then as a curve on the surface S3 are respectively the principal curvature of S 3 in its section by the tangent plane to S2 and the principal curvature of S 2 in its section by the tangent plane to S3 . A JS^W^L^^ ' ' tan' AJX(* abr. 14. S 2 .] 11. 15. S3 are the surfaces of a triply orthogonal system that of pass through a point O. A curve for which for is constant constant is a geodesic on a cylinder. and a curve which ds \ov ( ) is is 13. Verify this proposition for coiifocal conicoids.CH. fi y V iW* .  (A.!>)(<?. the a geodesic on a surface of revolution. O . xvii. and the fixed line is the axis of the surface. 377 curve If the principal normals of a curve intersect a fixed line.ti1 ( /Jt _ xp where and UL are the parameters of the confocals through the point . Prove that the angles that the osculating planes of the 3*2 1 lines of 7/2 g2 curvature through a point of the ellipsoid ^+"jgH 1~^ CL" C O the corresponding principal sections are tan~' make with abcM A. EXAMPLES XIV . Sj. The curvature of each of the branches of the curve of intersection of a surface and its tangent plane is twothirds the curvature of the asymptotic line which touches the branch. a geodesic on a cone. is 12.
.
.. .......^3) 2 + (z' .... the distance from the point P........ by a b : : c.. mx ly=v.... fl y'bu.. Therefore a ~^ =y ~ = b c /.. follows : nbmc=\. y' 9 z') to the plane ax + by + cz \d~0 can be found as follows......... (1) represent ....y) a t f ....... p. the axes are rectangular. (1) N P* = (x f .. Since JA + wtytitti/=0.... yz'cu.... and the direction of NP is given by Note to When . the equation (2) represents the plane through the line and the origin... to the remaining one are equivalent to four independent con The equations .. m... equations n xa yb = zc I lcna=fjL m 9 malb so that &f m/ifw>'=0... Hence From Note to (1). (2) the planes through the line parallel to the coordinate axes ...... nymz=X. (a. n f A.z' y.. x viy'fi'. z' ycu . (1) Ax+fty}^2=0. n are equivalent to ^ . Let N.. The constants may be put If more symmetrical form as v..APPENDIX 37 : Distance from a point to a plane. v. y) be the foot of the perpendicular from P to the plane. Then a<x + b{$ + cy + d = 0... 43 : Constants in the equations of a in a line.. since NP is parallel to the normal. y' and p=bu.. (j/.. N is given by a=a?'aw.. the ... ......... from which hnxp. 1 or. x' oLau.. the ratios of any five of the quantities /.... ...a) 2 + (y ...
v to A are given. example. or n In I. we have Of and Choosing where the spaces (1). respectively. Ex. as stated. 2=0 represent the given base. Then VQ/QP= 0. n I. v have been called the The ratios I m n A and the line is referred to as " the line (1 m.COORDINATE GEOMETRY stants. when they are given. y) 7/2'.) : : : /u. A. and. The scheme on p. I. : 1*7^. : 9 hx+ny + vzQ. (. Miscellaneous Examples I. (2). A. the ratios of m. each element is equal to its cofactor. fi. (x'9 y'9 z') be any point on the cone and let and hence Q is the point VP cut the base in Q. JA. the nymz=h determine fixed planes. the line is determined. Hence in the spaces (1). determine fixed planes equations . Now in the determinant 53. mxly~v. provided that the orientations of the new and the original axes are the same. v to I are given. (2). 'yy \ 7TTT' V' . (3) are to be filled. n. 73 can be written down mechanically. 9 v). : line. 116. coordinates of the n. n. for lznx=fjL. (3) we may place of I . Cone with a given curve as base. p. be the given vertex. Let P. the equations If. and f(x. if the ratios of m." (See Note to 54 : Section of a surface by a given plane. y)=0. JW+ ma Note to 63 Let V. o w.
. (2) w + my' + nz'+p and v=Za + m3f ny+p. z) =0..... base the curve in which the plane is A more general case y) and cuts the surface f(x. This equation can be written Zy which.. . z') is any point on the cone.. if and if VQ/QP=A/1. 9 .. ^" . which is and ana f("'/^ ^ ^ vx ' P*'*? . y) of the second degree. give if u'==lx' f / " > ' A+r~ o . y... in the case hi the form Z~y is where f(x. can be expanded or ( 2 which can then be transformed as in 63...APPENDIX Therefore. since iii Q lies on the surface f(x. (1) and (2) "A A.. ~ *'*' /fe'  or the coordinates of P satisfy the equation which represents the cone. If P.. ('... y) =0..... y'._ u Q the condition that the coordinates of P should satisfy the equation fauvx J fiuvy ' \u~v uv ' yy_tN uv / ' and this equation represents the cone....... ^^ . (1) ana and Whence. is the point VP meets the plane hi Q. that of the cone with vertex V.. /?.. Q Ay' + ff Xz'+y\ ' \A + 1 Since ' A+ l/' Q lies on the plane and on the surface. (a..
... by putting A obtain the equations (1) of Thus different methods of factorising the equation of the hyperboloid lead to the same two systems of generating lines.....cos a sin a sin2 a + cos2 a ' sin a a?aco8ay6sina "" ~~ a 2 ' . in the a/a ...sin _ .iv COORDINATE GEOMETRY X* Note to 96: Thegeneratorsof the hyperboloid +y3 gS The equation of the hyperboloid can 6* also be written _*l_* ca a*' whence we deduce that the lines whose equations are tions (3).. (2) ..sm a . we obtain Adding and subtracting the equa If now we put we /* for 1  k 96...... .....b cos a c The reduction of the general equation of the second degree (axes rectangular). ) whose equation is v sin a = 1. cos a V2 = * ! / J ca 1... The equation of the hyperboloid can be written 104: X2 y2 22 fx ( \a cos a +7 y 6 .sin X a  It  cos 6 a= ^ c . sin a v ) / f /* . that is. 6 sin a. (1) 2rf. b sin a...cos a f (a cos a.......... 0). .... are generators of the hyperboloid...sin a ) =0... Note to The generators of ~i + cj . Hence the tangent plane at .the equations (5) become (4).cos _ y /6 . cuts the Z surface where lines it cuts the planes . 0)... identical with for the 1 equations (2) of k' t9 Similarly from 96.cos a +sin a T .y ( \ b \a ...... = 1 through the point c a D (a cos a......... The nature of the surfaces represented by the equations i f f .. or cos a f ..
transforms into then Aj. /. we shall prove that if. / cA or .A. b A. h. Ix + my + nz+p. the transformed equation obtained by substituting for f rj. A8 are the roots of the equation a . by a rotation of rectangular axes. A a . expressions of the form . (3) (1) and therefore it is of the form 2 aa^+fy' + cz + 2/2/2 + 2gzx + 2hxy + 2ux + 2vy + 2w+d=Q We shall now and (2) First how the values of X 19 A 2 A3 /z in equations may be found when equation (3) is given. . ax* + by2 + cz* + 2fyz + tyzx + Skaey indicate . g. h.APPENDIX is shown in the following tables : is If we change the origin and rotate the axes. g =0.
C are the cofactors of a. and A. 9. Whence a= 6= c 2 2 f m 2 8 . i.A3J3wi s . B. g . b.y. and written in the form As can also be A2 (a+6+c)+A(A + B + C)D=0.y* = AaAgm^ + A 3A 1 m a2 + A 06 . hf 9. bcf*= A aA 3 ( wn a 3 r 53 (E) . .e. etc. by 53.) (Of. since Z'/ 1 a = l. j f. bc + ca+ab /* g*W = + AjA 2 . b. a + % A3 a + c 2 + 2fyz + 2gzx h 2Ao. similarly ca . Also h. a. where Ds a. h. h. in D. =A!f A a fA 3 .A2 = AaAa^!2 + A sA 1 n i> + Aj /. c f ' respectively. Therefore the roots of the discriminating cubic are A lf A a . = + A 3n32 h = X l ll m l + A 2? 2m2 4. g . Aa 93. Again. h.VI COORDINATE GEOMETRY it This equation is called the Discriminating Cubic. . f. 6. . Suppose that the scheme for change of axes then is =Jr and =oa.
... Aa = 3........ ic 9 f 3y A 8 a + 5z2 .3.. we obtain (If we aA h.... 2.......... (4) Whence 1 19 m lt n x and.. ...al + hm + gn 1 = hl + bm+fn = gl+fm + cn m n =A ' . is f CA and so another proof that X l Ex. the other directioncosines.. g =0. Z a =2w a =n a or .... 3. ^)^=0 . 2 Of. if the Jines ==J. respectively. g... Verify the following transformations : B...APPENDIX The vii From directioncosines of the new axes can be found as follows the above equations we obtain ) : + A aJa (^ and similarly....81/2 .. 2 ..CK 2B . a + 3y + 5 2 2 are taken a f .....= 9 ............. Orj. similarly..... 3.. .........8xy transforms into =^= 3* + 3T7a + 9 Ex. A x + (6 ...... bX l9 /.. satisfy the equations . whence A.= or = j r=5 Thus Of. 2.Syz ......... corresponding to A! = . (6) where A is the corresponding root of the discriminating cubic.. we have Il m 1 2n lf or ~ 2! 7 m 4 =~ l n . lf A....8xy 9A*9A 481=0.. eliminate l^im^: Wj from the equations (4).. J .  = ^ y = ~.. A. a root of the discriminating cubic.Aj ) *% +/M! = 0..... 9.) gives.....= ... ^=f =..... for cubic.
viii COORDINATE GEOMETRY 32s* + y2 (iii) + 2a + fyz  XZ 2 a 1620. (i) 3. Reduce to the given forms a : + 33y f72 + 12?/2102a.cosines l r . (iii) + 33y2 + 222 fl2^20^12^= + 20y* + 72. Ex. nr . + ^" + 15^ = 1 and (ii) into 5f 2 + 5i7 2 ~9 (i) transforms into ^ 2 = l. respectively. A!=A 2 ==:1 1 o +2m + 3w =0.16ya + 5z2 + 8?/2 .ftw + 2(toy= 36. r = l. . 3. in the plane x + 2y + 3z Derive the same results Ex.I2yz . 22x + 28^^336. this can be written and if the origin is changed to \ V ~A~ ' 2 ""V' . with .2? z . = . we can determine new axes Of. ax* \bif\ cz 2 By the above methods direction.42 a . into mr + 2/02 f 2023 f 2hxy + 2ux + 2vy + 2tt'2 + d = 0. Show that (i) and (ii) 2x2 + 5z/ 2 + 10z2 12y2 f 620. A3 are all diiferent from zero. (ii) ^31^42 a za 36. to  = l.12yz + Uzx 4xy . 2. give In ll (i) OJ l is given by A 3 ~15. x Wxy y . so that this equation transforms f vm l or + If A x . to ? 2 9 T) J^4^ P +~ = 1 . to +  =1 (v) 5x*12y*W + 2Qyz4. for the axes in the case of (ii).2/= 20^2.e.fax 4xy = l f represent an ellipsoid and hyperboloid of revolution. 2 Show that 1 3# + 45z/2 + 402 2 + 1 2yz sents a right circular cylinder Consider now the case of whose axis is x/6 + 362 .3) and radius 1. 5. OTJ can be any two perpendicular lines as is evident from the nature of the surface.12a.24^ = 49 reprey/2z/( . A 2 . Ex. W. 36^ . whence i. 1 Of and 0.142 + Sxy .336. + 4xi/ = 1 4z2 + y2 .= =:. to 2 (iv) 13a. (iv) 5*2 . O^. 7o. to = 1. Of.
The given equation in this case represents a central conicoid (or and {. the transformed equation is W =W V which. provided that the corresponding U or or is also zero. +ffi + cy ~ w .v. (8) y and the value of /*. j3. v. down the equations (6).APPENDIX this IX becomes A ^. y) is the centre (or vertex). w d u. cone. y. The above transformation can still be carried out if one of the quantities X 19 A 2 . where U* V8 W a If the new origin is (f '. Thus the values of a. OY. we have ^a + 6^3 +/y = . or. A 3 is zero... The determinant fi can be found from the given equation g. c. adding. elliptic or hyperbolic cylinder. Or?. a pair . 0.(6) . can be reduced to which represents an of planes. forms a useful mnemonic for writing for a. Thus if A 3 =0. O and (a. (7). y) referred to OX. f. by a change of origin.Z2 and /. d directly. j8. OZ. if ft=0. 77'. if /z0). j3.(7) and. w. we have the scheme U Similarly (aZ 2 ( + Aw 2 + gn^tf = . f ') referred to Of.(8) Again. in the same way. got .
the transformed equation is A^f 2Uf + d=0... (8) ax + hy + gz + u 0.. This is what is to be expected...... since any point on the axis of an elliptic or hyperbolic cylinder can be considered a centre. by /3 w s n 3 respectively...... .... ulz + vm z + tun 2 _ ~ l)  A2 (aZa + hml f gn ' f ~ /A and . we have the case in which one of the quantities A If A a ....... Lastly.. can be reduced to and represents an elliptic or hyperbolic paraboloid.... and if A a =A3 =0...... hx+by+fz + vQ...... (6') .. A 8 is zero and the corresponding quantity U or V or is not zero.. since A a = 0.. ....... as the terms of second cylinder.... by (5).. degree in the given equation must form a perfect square.. we have n. and represents a parabolic These cases are easily recognisable.. then O and (a. referred to OX... (all + ^ w a + ^3) ' = ^ by (5). rj' 9 ') referred to Of...... 0.. the sum is identically zero.. Hence (a.. OY. which can be reduced to A 1 f2 f2V?j=0.. the transformed equation is WO....... which represents a pair of parallel planes.. (8') (6).... /3. and they are easily discussed by a direct method which is indicated in Ex. W=0. (7)...... These equations correspond to but are not independent. adding... OZ. _ ~ al 1 +hml+ gn ' 1 ^ /_ "" /.. ..x In this case f ' .. y) can be any point on the line of intersection of the planes corresponding to (6) and (7)... by a change of origin. .... (7)..'. Similarly if A 2 =A 3 =0 and V W=0. is indeterminate.. If the final origin is (f '. and add. 3 a+/0 +Cy==WaWw.... Suppose W The transformed equation is a + _) (U\ + f Aa which.... (7') and and similarly hv+bp+fy =w Wt.. (8). OTJ.... 6 below...... y) ~ I... COORDINATE GEOMETRY .. If we multiply the equations (6)..
. Reduce the equations (i) (ii) (iii) (3* (3* (3 Equation (i) can be written .. ]8. and solve for the other = 0. y.(uoc + vfl + wy + d) and the reduced two e. put y . is zero . (8) give a point at infinity. = . (7'). y. (6). . thus verifying that the point (a. j8.  aaffy8 + gry + tt=0. y) from . with equation (9). (6). i... gra +/)8 f m W0. first solve the discriminating cubic.2w>y + d =0. If they reduce to two independent equations. find (. give. (8). j8.2v0 4.. equation is If the equations lead to a paradoxical result (as in /3 . (7). (Cf.... al 3 + hm^ + gn 3 = A 3 Z 3 0.. W^O. (u<x + vfi + ivy + d) and the reduced A^ + X rf + A f one root. But we have also U* Va or or W(Z8a + ra30 + n3y) = uavftwyd . determine the values of a. cy + w 0. surface. the equations gra +/]8 + cy + w equation is (3) If (7). ul 3 + vm s + wn 3 since. so that the equations (6). (8') by a. 47).. on the (8). i. 6 below. s . follows (1) If : the terms of second degree form a perfect square proceed as in Ex. p. n a from any two of the equations A^ m 45. \L p. Note that in . 2 Then 2 3 . Then W=ttZ8 f vm3 Hwns and the reduced equation . (8). wo obtain floe 2 + bfi* + cy2 + 2/jSy + 20ya + 2^aj3 + 2wa 4.... this case the three equations y) lies (7). Then p. and add to (9). y.e. + A 27j2 p. by (5). But.. In any other case. paraboloid. na respectively and add. /}. attempt to solve the equations (6). ^oH6j8+/y + v=0.) We may sum up the methods of reduction in the various cases as aa + A/?fgryf u=0 ha + bfi+fy + v^Q. 6. 0. (9) Any two of the equations (6').APPENDIX since. (2) If the roots X l9 A 2 A 3 are all different from zero. a. etc. j8. and added. is Ex. respectively. find 8 =0.. which are the coordinates of the vertex of the If we multiply the equations (6'). by hypothesis.e. assign an arbitrary value to one of the quantities a. A 3 say. if is xi we multiply them by 139 m s.. 45. when multiplied by lst w3 respectively. the result identically zero. (7'). (8'). (7).g..
There are two changes in the sequence of signs in the equation.40z .y* . 1. 17^ = 1 If (iii) (iv) ^I. and represents a hvperboloid of one sheet.1.34z/ . 1. vertex ** (1. centre (Y. as in (ii). we note that 3x4y + z=Q x + y + z=Q 9 represent perpenryOf . 2. a 2  3^ + 2 =0. . IQ xl _ y1 z1 ________. (v) lIx* + 5y* + 2zz + 2Qyz + 4zxlQxylQxUy 2 =0. of which the roots cannot be found by inspection. Verify the following reductions (i) (2x . 1). /i = l. 6419.14 =0 .i). + 1 2y . (The values to three places are 0806. 7x2 + 7/a + z2 + IQyz + 8zx8xy + 2x + 4:y . dicular planes. 2 a y=3. f +rf . 0). s(6A16) This gives A =3.Szx . 18fV=9.2y . and the equation becomes which. The discriminating cubic is A 8 ~6Aa 3Af2=0.WxyGx.3z) 2 + 19s . Write (iii) in the form and choose A so that the planes 3a4y + z + A=0.102 + 7 = 0. 8.34 =0 .2 . are at right angles. The reduced equation is 0806! + 0387i7 f 6419 {" = !. 2 a 2ic . . a a ~16y + 5z + 81/2 ~I4zx + Sxy + 4x + 20^442 24=0.IQzx.COORDINATE GEOMETRY or and therefore represents a pair of parallel In (ii) planes. two of the roots are positive and one is negative.28xy + Wx + 26y + 1 6z . 1). . a (ix) 5a. vertex (J.12y~ 122 + 18=0. centre (1.) We find in the usual way that <x = l. ____ _ _ (viii) 32^+ya + 2a + Qyz. so that reduces to rf v 3f and represents . centre (1. 1). Ex. and hence. a parabolic cylinder.6yz + 423 . f).10z + 20yz . 0=2.44z + 50 0 . 2^^2^l. reduces to : Ex. Reduce the equation za + 2i/a + 3za . by Descartes' Rule. 1. Taking the first as fOf and the second as (ii) we have ~7~ = j= . 7.2xy  lOa. vertex : (1. 0387.
c) and base z=0. 0. The cylinder meets the sphere in a second circle in the plane . 0.and zaxes through 45. . If one plane of a set is x + y + z =0. the plane at*(xyz)2t(bx+ay)b(x~y+z)=:Q cuts the cone ax*+by 2 =(a + b)z* in perpendicular lines. the section of the reciprocal cone by the same plane is a parabola.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 52. . Show also that the lines along which these planes touch the cone lie in the plane bc 53. # a + y* 2axQ has a reciprocal cone given by a*y z =c(z . 0.c)(cz . I. xxi Show that the cone ** I bc y* + ^ + 1=0 ca ao ** has sets of three mutually perpendicular tangent planes. for all values of t.c a . its A cone has vertex equation is cy* +4ax(z cone is ay 2 f cx(z . Hence show that if the section of a cone by a plane at right angles to a generator is a circle. y*=4ax is its The plane z = x cuts it in a circle. Draw a diagram showing the cone and the section by the plane z=x. + 4a^2a. s +y + z =4. * i I I ab o V/ Show that. Lines drawn through points on the circle parallel to the line x/2 =y/ a a a a a a?+y + z=l. The cone whose vertex is (0. * y ml ca . 56. show that the other two are given by and that the line of intersection of these planes is x=y=z. 58. c) and base z=0. By changing the origin to the vertex. that all such planes touch the cone a and deduce ? a 54. y . own 57.f8y f2z f4yz~2za. 2a) and base z=0. 55.c) = (0. Show that the cone whose vertex is (3.8i/~2z9=0. 5) and which passes through the curve of intersection of the plane x+ yfz=0 and the surface yz + zx+xy + l=Qis given by and that it meets the surface again at points in the plane 5#f4y + 3z + 2=0. 59.1 =2/2 generate a cylinder whose equation is 2a.c) =0. y*=4ax. and turning the x. The cone whose vertex reciprocal.2ax). show that the cone is right circular and has a semivertical angle of 45. Show that and that the equation of the reciprocal is (0._f!_ a+b b sets of three f Show that any cone whose vertex is on the paraboloid a? a f y 2 = 2cz mutually and which passes through a meridian section has perpendicular generators. 4.
Ifyz + 820. z 2 ) on the ellipsoid . 16/3. 61.q) 2 + c(a + b)(z .IQxy + Sx + 32y + 8z . (#a .= . and the normal at P to the ellipsoid x 2 /a* + y z lb z + z 2 lc 2 = l meet the plane XOY in a line QR and a point G. ^p+mg+nr=0.14i/ 2 i5z 2 =0 in perpendicular generators are 3# f 2y + z = 0. (xl9 ylt zj and Q. 65. . each of which cuts the cone ax 2 + by* + cz 2 ~Q in perpendicular lines. 64. if (p. Find the tangent planes to the hyperboloid 3s a . 62. y2 . on the ellipsoid meet a principal plane in G and show that the plane which bisects PP' at right angles also bisects GG'. line Show that the pair of tangent planes to ax2 + by 2 + cz2 = 1 whose .rx)* f (gx . are at right angles. 63.96 =0 is and the two whose vertex at the point (4/3. If the normals at points P and G'.xxii COORDINATE GEOMETRY circles lie on the cone 25z 2 + y* + 25z 2 .ly* + 42z 2 = 126 which pass through the lines (i) = =. 2xy4z=Q.= is given by of intersection is e n I m  and deduce that.py)*]. a . If the normals at P.ca irl 6 c a  i 2 66. the line of intersection lies on the cone a(b +c)(a? pY +b(c +a)(y . Show that QR is the polar of G with respect to the ellipse . Show that the two tangent planes to ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 = 1 which pass through the line given by nymz=p. 60. by the equation (nymzpy (lznxq) z ^+ a* g + (mxly~r) a 2 ^ !=(px+qy+rz) P' . If two planes. q.r) 2 = abc [(ry qz)* + (pz . their line of intersection lies on the cone (2a + 6 + c)# a + (26 f c + a)y 2 + (2c + a + 6)2 2 =0. 4/3). and (u) giving the" points of contact in each case. r) is a fixed point and the planes are at right angles.. The tangent plane at a point P. . not in a principal plane. 67. lznx=q are represented t mxly=r. Show that the equations of the two planes which pass through the line 2x = y=2z and cut the cone 15a.
(a. 72. c' and meet the planes YOZ. ZOX at points on the lines x=Q. ZOX in G and G'. Show that the locus of ellipsoid a 2* 2 + b*y* + c 2z 2 = (a 2 . .6 2 ) 2 Q is the . show that PQ is given 68.y a /6 a . +=+. 0. The normal to the ellipsoid # 2 /a 2 + y*/b z + z 2 /c 2 = 1 at a point P its curve of intersection with the plane Ix + my f 7iz=0 is produced outwards to a point such that PQ p = k*. Normals are drawn to the ellipsoid x*/a 2 + y 2 /b 2 + z a /c 2 = 1 at pouits on its section by the given plane z = y. r = 1.z 2 /c 2 = 1 such that the planes through the centre and the generators through P are at right Show that the normal at P intersects the conic angles. where p is the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at P. 69. The normal at a point P on the ellipsoid z 2 /a a f y 2 /6 2 Hz a /c a = l meets the planes YOZ. j8. plane through them can be written . 3/=0. 2 /a 2 4. and & is a constant. z=y(l6Vcs ) (a 1 =1 _ z=0 . Show that the normals meet the plane XOY at points on the conic . 2 touches each of the conicoids show that P lies on the curve of intersection of the cone 8 2 z =0 + (c + (a (6 c)a*x* a)&V 6)c and the surface 71. Q v ar a+ 6 2 TP 'ivy + f^Yty I/ H><it _ ' n^"Y^ I* t< 2 >2y2 ^TF2= (a + &)* + (b C/ 2 +k 2 2 ) + (c /*2y2 v t 8 = _ ' + k2 ) 2 73. c) (&<.) 70. and OQ is drawn from the origin O equal to and parallel to GG'. z=y(loVc). P is a point on the hyperboloid a. y) to the ellipsoid 2. =o. .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES =l by the equations meet at the point (a. I. 3f the equation of the . xxiii y). Show that lies on the conic on Q . If the feet of three of the normals from s2 /a 2 +y 2 /6 2 + z 2 /c 2 = l are (xr y r z r ).a 2 )(a 2  'V* 2 (6 c 2 )(c 2 a 2 )z 1 z 2z8 +1=0. If the polar plane of P with respect to the conicoid aa.
0) counted twice.a 2 ) 2 + x y (a . normals intersect at the point ( . of constant length K. g. 54. 2). 0) to the ellipsoid consist of the normals at (2.c (c_+ a) fry + (a (b+ca)**(c+~ab)* (a+bc)* 79. If P. normal at a + 2y a =24. 80. 2. . 2 + 2y a +3z a =984 which lie in the .y /6 + z2 /c2 = 1 and perpendicular from the centre O to the tangent plane at P. If P (/. on the 2 ellipsoid will intersect if and if (a. 77. 19 yq. 2. . and that PQ is a principal axis of the section of the surface by the plane xp. The normals at (x l9 y lt zj. 78. the 81. If the line ?^ = ^Il?=5". m. other than the normal at P. (4. 2/3. show that the normal at P meets the conicoid again at the point given by axt === by^ cz l 2 .Scxiv COORDINATE GEOMETRY 74.c 2 ) 2 + z 2* 2 (c 2 . Show that the equation of the plane through the feet of these normals is 75. 40). is a point on the cone ax* + by* + cz=0. n m I r is perpendicular to its polar with respect to the surface a#a + &y a + cz a = l. 2) are the normals to the ellipsoid at these points. z=0 cuts it. 2. /?.62) 2 76. bc(qnrm) ca(rlpn). at the points where the line a?2# + 4=0. show that ON lies on the cone z z 2 a ON If is the is PN y*z*(b* . P is a point on the ellipsoid x /a 4. Q a + b+c* and that the locus of Q the cone is the curve of intersection of the conicoid and a a + fr)c z (6 + c)a . 18. 9 zr n ab(pmql) =0. and the ( plane x + y + z~2 are the points (12. and the normals to the ellipse z =0. y) is the point of intersection. (# a y a z 2 ). (x l9 y l9 zj t is a point on the curve of intersection of the conicoid ax 2 + by 2 + cz 2 = 1 and its director sphere. 8). =24 The six normals from (4/3.18. three normals. 6. pass through P. (2. The feet of the normals to a. h). 10). 2). and meets the surface in P and Q. show that the normals at P and Q lie in the plane bc(qn rm)(x p)+ca(rl pn)(y q)+ab(pm ql)(z r)=0. 1. The plane x .12.z =4 cuts the ellipsoid a? 2 + 2y a + 3z 2 =50 in a circle and the radii of the circle through the points (6.
Show that the points (1. + y*lb* + z*/c* = l.Xi)(x 2 .ZB) =0 represents the plane drawn through the normal at P at right angles to the plane PQR and deduce that the projections on the plane PQR of the normals at P. POQ. OP. ya . ya . OQ are produced to P' and Q' so that OP'/OP =OQ'/OQ = k. Show that the sides of the triangle PQR touch 2 a a a 2 a Show also that ellipsoid 3 /a + y /6 + z /c = J at their midpoints.^s) + (* .6=#/2 the equations of the equiconjugate diameters of the conic are . K)R' are equal to the areas of the triangles QOR. 4. k being a certain fixed length. ROP. are s/l=y/2=s/2. a OR the the necessary and sufficient condition that the line + i/ a/6 a f 2 2 /e 2 = l. POQ. (xa . of which one the plane through OR and the midpoint of PQ. Q. OR are three conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid cones whose vertices are P' and Q' intersect hi two planes. (ara . xxv 82. 2 .z a /c a = 1. OQ'. are conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid I m n is should cut the ellipsoid in the ends of two conjugate diameters 2a a (m y . OR' are drawn at right angles to the planes QOR. The axes are the lines in which the given plane cuts the cone l/x \\y + 1/z =0. the equations of the axes are a?/2=y/ 3 =2/6. x\ . 2). 8 2 x*la +y*lb* + 2 /c a OR = 1. Q.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES I. Show that OP'. OP. 8) are the extremities of a normal chord of the hyperboloid 2a: a + y* . and of lengths such that AOP'. 2x+ y+2z=0 of the axes of the conic 3# a fy 2 3 a =3. z a ). OR' are conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid 85.ss ) + (y . P. are 86.z a =2 and that the chord is a principal axis of the section of the surface by the plane 83. K)Q'. OP.nj8) a + 26 2 (n a . OQ.ma) 2 87. OQ. (xlt yl9 zj. respectively. OQ. The lengths of the axes of the conic are 4. The equations =6W + cWm 1 + o* V.yi)(ya . zs ) are the extremities of three conjugate diameters of the ellipsoid x 2 /a 2 + y a /6 a f.i)(i . ROP.Zy) 2 + 2c 2 (J0 . ( 6. and the other touches the ellipsoid X2 z* % is yz conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid OP'. OP. The axes of all sections parallel to the given plane lie in the planes 88. 2. R are concurrent at the orthocentre of the triangle PQR. Show that the enveloping x*la* 84. OQ'. where k is a constant. Show that (x . R. a?/2=y/2 = /l f and the lengths of the axes are 6 and 6/\/5.
Ux (2. the lengths of the semiaxes are (39/2)i. 92.2yz ~ 1. 6) is circular and that its area is twice that of ( the parallel central section.1 2. the lengths of the semiaxes are 3(595)}. If the plane lx + my + nz hyperbola of eccentricity 2. of the the ellipsoid %2 yK ~ + ~+g whose o planes are parallel to fixed plane =Q. 36 . 91. (22.s 2 /c 2 1 are at right angles. COORDINATE GEOMETRY The The foci of the conic # 2 /9f y 2 /4tz 2 /l=21. circle in also that if the generators through P are at right angles.z/n lies on the cone 95. 2:2:1. the lengths of the semiaxes are 18. the line x\l=y \iti. 90. 4.3. . 35) . Show that if a 2 f 6 a ~2c 2 the generators through any one of the ends of an equicon jugate diameter of the principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid # 2 /a 2 f 2/ a /6 2 .b 2 ) my f (a 2 + 6 2 . 38. .c 2 ) nz] ( Ix + my + nz) [(6 f c2 ) + 6 2w 2 (c2 + a 2 ) f c^^ 96.11). x2y + 2z = Sl. (39/4) J. and that hyperboloid x any point on the surface given by _ JJ. and the (3.119. 9(595)* ( their directions are given by 2: . Show that 2 x l + Xy=l A 2 fJL 2z represents a generator of the is .xxvi 89. P lies whose centre that the section of the hyperboloid 4x 2 +y*2z* = 12 . (9. (2. 97.2 2.3y6z = 7 is 10/3) . is . . 2. the extreis (10.29).]ie on the oonicoid a + c 2 ~ a 2 ) Ix + (c 2 + a 2 . mities of the axes are (22. are 4. 170) 93. A r. 1 : . : . 0.4z 2 = 12. . 2 centre of the conic + 5y2 . 2xy2z + 36 =0. __ ~ A r.59).3. #2 ct Show c that the director circles of sections 1. 26.41)./ (m2 + T m(n 2 + $ 1 2 cuts the paraboloid xy~az in a 94. n 2z ~ 2alm )i are given by nx + am 2 (m + n*fi _ ny + al (ri* + J)l . (9.14. which the plane y + z=Q cuts the surface. directions of the axes are given by 2 2 1. The centre of the conic 2x* + 2/ 2 ~ 12z. The centre of the conic 5# 2 + 17?/ 2 7z 2 =0. The axes of the conic xyaz _ 9 Ix + my + nzQ.1).10. Show that the sphere which has the given circular section as a great circle is Show is . Z'~ /Lt  A Show on the 98. 2x + fy6z=0. 70. : : : 6#. 1).
Two circular sections of the ellipsoid r. and ON 2 2 2 2 z 1 (#'.r 2 ). . the section of the the plane ax + by + cz = ISabc is a parabola 2 2 2 length 4\/3(a + 6 + c ) . R. c(a+bc)n 107. If each of two tangent cones to a conicoid has sets of three mutually perpendicular generators.. show that the bisector of the angle PON is given by 103. 3. the axis is parallel vertex is (a 2 + 5bc. P. is and the focus a? given _ by y _ ^ P a(b+ca)l b(c+ab)m =:l.2 2 /c 2 = 1. 105. if a point Q is taken on the bisector such that OQ2 =ON . Show that along generators of the hyperboloid x /a + y /b . with the ellipsoid 100. 2. 102. X 2 la 2 + y 2 /b 2 + z*lc 2 = l of that the square of the opposite systems have the same radius radius of the sphere through them is 62  Show 2 a r(6 2 r 2 ). _ 2 1 .2 . 101. Q lies on the surface a2 i __ y* if _ __ z2 i . (a>b>c). xxvii 99. If OP = r and ON =p. their common points lie in two perpendicular planes. The hyperbolic paraboloid which has the lines z=cr . (a>6>c). Q. 104. and the focus is 106. r=l.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES ellipsoid T. 2'). or b2 + ^~ a c (b . b 2 + 5ca. OP. is a 2x x'(pr + a 2 ) _ b 2y _ c 2z and that. If a + b + c=Q. P. The radius of a real circular cylinder which circumscribes the x 2 /a 2 + y 2 /b 2 + z 2 /c 2 = I is b and the area of its curve of contact is 2 2 2 2 2 n(b c*c a + a b $. If the plane lx + nz=p cuts the hyperboloid in is a parabola. If the plane lx + my+nz+p=Q cuts the cone in a parabola. the point show that a zl 2 ~cW and that the vertex of the parabola / 2 p + ^2/2 p z _ C 2 n z\ cone ax z + by* + cz a =0 by whose latus rectum is of to the line x y z the . y'. the directrix lies in the plane (b + ca)lx + (c + ab)my + (a + bc)nz=0. is a point on the ellipsoid x /a + y~jb + z /c the perpendicular from the centre to the tangent plane at P. c 2 + 5a6). S are vertices of a skew quadrilateral whose sides lie z 2 2 2 .2 (zp + ZR) (z&s c ) = (ZQ + z s ) (ZPZR c ).
rator through P and the generator of the same system through P' in the and Q'. y) on the hyperboloid x 2 /a* f y 2 /6 2 .a. . 6. 2f. Show that it generates the hyperboloid 2x 2 f 3y 2 z 2 . ( . c).c 2. Show that the same surface is generated by a variable circle with its centre on the line x=09 2y=z 9 which has its plane at right angles to the line 3y+z=Q.b 2 ) =0. The equation of the hyperboloid which has the coordinate axee and the line xa=yb=zca& a generator is ~ + y + __ +.a. (a.2yz=2a*. points A Q 114. 6.a 2 ) (a 2 . The ( vertices of c).a 2 ) + c 22 2 (a 2 . Show that the altitudes are generators of the hyperboloid a 2x*(b 2 . Show that the which are at right angles to the planes of the circular sections are = 2z5. c) (fec)(ca) and the equations of the other generator through the point (ca)(a6) (ab)(bc) are zc __ __ bc + ca+ab bcca + ab bc+caab xa yb 109. 2h. 113.3 2 /c 2 = 1 are the lines in which the tangent plane at the point meets the planes o 26 2 c2 Show that the same result holds for the paraboloid *'/**  . 2g bca. 2f =0. and intersects that line. . The condition that ox + by + cz + 2fyz f 2gzx + 2hxy = 1 should have generators at right angles to the planes of its circular sections is 2 2 2 abc. jS.ft 2 ) + (6 a . equations of the generators of the hyperboloid 110. (a. for principal axes 108. 2h. 6.c 2 ) f b y 2 (c . A xa. 2g. PP' is a diameter of the principal elliptic section of the hypervariable generator intersects a geneboloid X 2 la 2 + y 2 lb 2 z 2 /c 2 = l. cab variable circle with its centre on OZ and its plane at right 112. Show that ZQZQ' = . intersects that line. c). 111. c).y~z. Show that the two generators through the point (a.c 2 )(c 2 .6.xxviii COORDINATE GEOMETRY is as generators given by =0. angles to the line x~a. a tetrahedron are (a. 6. i o.
. . Establish the following results involving the coordinates of a Appendix. =d. R. if they meet any generator of the opposite system in P. IX' + m// K nv' + 1' A + w' JA + n'v = 0.mz  A) + w'(fo . (^. A. w'.//) f n'fraa. n'.v) ( Aa.\')+m(l'z~n'x~ jLt')4n(w ~^t/~j/ )=0. are generators of the same system and that. Note to 43).cz2 = 1 by (Z. v) is a diameter of the section of the surface the plane .. A. n.ly . /LI. w. i>). QS) is line (see 116. a harmonic range.nx  p.. (1) If (I. n. the lines (?. A. if the axes are rectangular and the planes are perpendicular. S. m. //. bv I . or by (3) l(riym'z. /ut. A. m. p. y=a. respectively. rt /x. to x*/a 2 f y 2 2 /6 section has coordinates m. v) touches the surface 6cA 2 if (4) The tangent planes I. the ellipsoid a a /a a f ya /6 2 + z a /c 2 = l intersect if and the equation of the plane containing them is a a (6 a c*)mnx+ 6 2 (c 2 a 2 )nZy + c2 (a 2 ~6 2 )Zm2 (7) oa. The normals at the points where the line (I. . p. za = /x(s + a). v. are given + 2 2 /c2 = 1 whose by line of inter and. + py + 1#). /z(ya)+yf 2=0. xxix 115./y .= m cu.)* = 2 (mx . 9 v. xa. v) meets The line + by* 4. lines is and the plane through the l'(ny given by / . n. the line . A. A'. m. A.v) =0. A(za)+y + 2=0.mz (6) a A) f 6 (Iz . are given by a (ny . cXav a/i 6 A  n / + d=ty . (5) The tangent planes to x*[a + y*/b=2z whose line of intersection has coordinates I. za t x=a.nx . n. m. A. Q. a n. (PR. The line (I. v) lies in the plane ax + by\cz aZf&m + cn=0 (2) If and /u. and that any point on the surface is given by z x y _ _ ___ 2 + A H /i A/* A/xAfi Af/xA/n f a Show that t y=a z~a. /n.. v') intersect. Show that the equations of the generators of yz + zx f xy + o 8 = ya=A(#+a). n.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES are I. m. m.
xxx (8) is COORDINATE GEOMETRY The polar + cz 2 = 1 line is of (/. a generator of the surface if it is cv m/b.nly* + vlmz* + A/*v = 0.t. bm. /LI. 2 a _ AZ 2 = /im = vn . abv. A. n.= *mn. v) ax* + by 2 (6cA. 2 + p. + cxy + a6c = 0. al . p. _ (10) The meters and the lino conicoid which has the coordinate axes as conjugate dia(I. n. a generator of ayz + 620. v) as a generator is given by Awwa. A. en). A (9) If the line (1 9 Imn en =:_=_= v /*.  = Afjv v) is m. ca/*. and . Vo6c. abn . n. m. a A I/a bf. m. al.bm p. A. . with respect to the surface if the line a generator of the surface.
b'c) +y (ca . 6. x(ad' f 6. and calculate the breadth of each face of the prism. Find the angle between the lines show that the lines intersect. Ans. 1) so as to intersect the line z2 3 1" Find also the coordinates of the of intersection. . y3s+7=0. ^. Find the equations of the line parallel to the plane 2#+y 2 2 = 5.c'd)=0. . Prove that the equations of the perpendicular from the origin to the line a^+6?/ + c+rf=0 = a'a?+6'y + c^+rf are .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES L Prove that the lines II. ir/3. Prove that the planes 2. Ans. x(bc' . 3. and find the equation of the plane containing them.a'b) = 0. and the equation point of the plane through the given line and the required line. and find the coordinates of their point of intersection. intersect the line joining the points (1.b'd)+z(ed' .c'a) + z(ab' . 4. 3).1) in points which form a harmonic range with the given points. drawn through the point (3.4. Ans. (3. (1.a'd)+y(bd' . 3). are coplanar.Il=^_ =: iZ_ j (i ? 2. 2. 3). 2. Show that the planes form a triangular prism. / 5.
0. Find the equation of the right circular cone whi^h passes asaxia 2#=3y= 5*. COORD TNATE GEOMETRY Obtain.35*. x~tyz and radius 4.xxxii 7. Find the equations of the straight "" 1 line perpendicular to both of the lines 2 3 ' 2 and passing through their intersection. and cylinder Ans. ). 14. and has the line x=yz . l 8. and find the angle between them. 1 *\ Ant 9. 97/1 3\/6. of diagonal 2#. 2 z Prove that 4#2 + 8y* f. 10. BAG are at right angles.1 2^y = represents a pair of Find also the angle between planes. is folded along the diagonal so that the planes DAC. square ABCD./!_ s 1 """!' "~0 ^3 ~T" 2~~ 1 find the length and equations of tho shortest distance ordinates of the points where it meets the given lines.  **' """'STS' lines Find the length of the shortest distance between the Am. and is parallel to the line 0=2. shortest distance between 12.6y? + &w? . the lines in which the plane llj?13y + 2*~0 cuts them. line ATM. 11.y . Find the equation of the plane which passes through the 7s 5 =0=#f#f *3. Find the equation of the right circular cylinder whose axis is prove that the area of the section of the by the plane XOY is 24?r through the line An*.s2 . 3. and the co (1. ^ ^_ lines a? For the 2 _. 2).4z = 3. 15. DC 13. A AC. in the symmetrical form. the equations of the projection of the line 8#7y on the plane 6x . Z s= y3 = zl _. Show that the and AB is then 2a/\/3~.
Obtain the formulae for the transformation from a set of rectangular axes OX. xxxiii 16. to a second rectangular set.. #=0. Ans. circle . 0. OZ O m XOY and <f> 2 with OX. 2=0. #=0. so as to subtend a right angle at the origin. 2#+4yf 5^=6 and touch the plane 2=0. and the line y=0.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES II. 3) make angles </> and the projections of and Orj on the plane O. Prove that lines drawn from the origin so as to touch the sphere #2 +^2 4. 2= am5 . Prove that the font of the perpendicular from the origin to PQ lies on the curve of intersection of the surfaces m2 2 ==(2 ~c2)m2 and 21. < sin + f cos <. = 0. 3) are the directioncosines 17. ^2 + 2w# f 2vy f Zwz 4. Find the equations of the spheres which pass through the 2 aP+yt+z ^!. A line PQ moves with its extremities on the lines y = mX) 2=c .vy + w)2 2 . ?/== mx. O% O where O lies in the plane XOY and makes an angle with OX and Of makes an angle with OZ. Of are a second set of rectangular axes whose are lr . x ^^ ocy 4. s= aw2 . of three mutually perpendicular lines. If Or. prove that and that 18. If lr m r > . z c. < y= z sin 7) = 0+rj cos 0cos <t> f cos 0sin <. . OZ. Lines are drawn parallel to the plane o?=0 to intersect the 2 parabola ?/ =4<&r. x2 y 2 4az. section of the surface Apply these to show that the by the plane 2#2#+3=0 is a circle of radius 2. 0. zc. r . y=2an.rf= d(x* +y 2 lie on the cone + z ) = (ux 4. 23.c 2 z =_ c and the hyperbola Ans. directioncosines referred to OX. OY. OY. n r (r=l. O. Prove that they l generate the surface <^y ^ 22. viz. 20. nr (r=l. 2. z*~xy=*e*. 24. Find the surface generated by a straight line which intersects the lines y=^ z ^ c 2=0. 2. prove that 19. and is parallel to the plane #+^=0. Find the surface generated by a variable line which intersects the parabolas #=2am.
2*4. Ans. Prove that its centre lies on the ellipsoid 32. 7yz 4. Prove that the plane cuts the sphere in a circle whose centre is (a. 6. 26. Find the radius of the circle 2##. 0. 0.4y 42=0 cuts the cones = 0. 31. (0. axes are rectangular. Prove that the diameter whose plane is parallel to the plane ZOX z=c generates the surface 27. and their semi vertical angles are 7r/4 and Show that any 7r/3 respectively. of the right circular cylinder which has the circle for Show that the plane 7# 4.xxxiv COORDINATE GEOMETRY which touch the two is 25. 3) are drawn from the origin r to meet the 2 2 2 2 in P. . m . 1. =a O plane PQR is and that the radius of the 29. c). tangent plane to the first cuts the second in perpendicular generators. and that the equation plane through the other two common generators of the cones is of the 5#. always parallel to the plane ZOX. the surface xym+cz(l fwi 2)=0. and the equation a normal section. ellipse whose axes are of lengths 2a and 2& (a>b) moves with its major axis parallel to OX and its minor axis parallel to OY. Q. zc\ y= )n%2 _ such that circle on PQ is PQ as mx.tocy = 3Gs .2^32=0.to? . Two right circular cones have a common vertex and axis. prove that the equation of the sphere # 4. An > J i J3 * % \ \a 2 ~o ~T To 2 6 / I 33. 2. C and the ABC is 30. ft. 0). B. prove that the diameter of the circle If A. are the points (a.13=0. are /r .Sy 2  W in the same pair of perpendicular lines. Prove that the locus of the centres of spheres lines z= c y^mx. circle PQR is x /(2/3)a. 0) and (0. y\ and that the equation of the sphere which has this circle for a central section is If three mutually perpendicular lines whose directioncosines nr (r=l.?/ 42 28. so that three mutually perpendicular lines can be drawn from O to intersect it. P and Q are points on the lines y = wio7. R.
OQ. OQ. whose directioncosines are lr . OR. If P is any point on the curve x* u2 a? y* z* " +2 I \ of intersection of the ellipsoid 1 \ 4 """ t) 0> the at P to the ellipsoid cuts the cylinder f1~=l in an ellipse of a" " constant area. (2.2).2^ + 2z = 0. (3. are three mutually perpendicular generators of the cone Prove that the three planes through OP. 1.12). 40. and is parallel to the line x=y=. 37. 1 13). (13. OQ. Find the points of contact of the tangent planes to the conicoid 2#2 25y 2 f2. 36. 1. (3. find the length of the chord of the conicoid of6 + 4y z . If the axes are rectangular. \/154. . 1. wi r .2 2 =l. 4. pass through the line (ca)y _(ab)z 35. Ant. wh ich is parallel to the plane 3x . . 3# + 4s=0 to touch the conicoid #2 + 3y2 6s2 =4. Find the equations of the two planes that can be drawn through the line # = 4. 2).MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES II. 38. which intersect in the line joining the points (12.3). OR.at right angles respectively to the tangent planes which touch along OP. Ans. and is bisected at the point (2. values of a is b c ___ A \a b lies the plane c a tangent plane to the conicoid point of contact and that its on the line 3a 39. xxxv 2. nr (r=*l. . 3). 1. 34. 41.4z* = 28. Ans. Prove that for all z. OP. 3). Find the equation of the tangent plane to the surface which passes through the point Ans. Prove that the straight contact of a common tangent lines joining the origin to the points of plane to the conicoids are at right angles. OR.
y) and base o.r2 4fey2 =l. #2^46315=0. COOEDTNATE GEOMETRY Find the equations of the two plane sections of the surface l. Prove that the equation of the cone whose vertex is (a. which have their centres on the line and pass through the point ( . and the normal at P meets J the XOY GP. (i) the equation of the cone whose vertex is (a. cone is described whose vertex is A. Prove that if pole of Q. P is any point on the curve ' of intersection of the ellipsoid a "9"*" 2 4'rH to+o=l> and the plane a r 62 c2 b plane c =1. the plane Q.. Q Q CD Q 47. From O lies .xxxvi 42. ' and M on one of the lines x 44. Deduce . Ans. from the equations and AP4P =0.1 ) = 0. and (ii) the equation of the other plane section of the conicoid and the cone. A A with respect to a central coni46. . in G. 5.1. 2x 4y 422+5=0. /J. P~lx+my+mp=Q is obtained by eliminating A. /?. 2=0. with to the given conicoid. Prove that P must lie on one of the planes X rt v*  3 Z U. and at points in a lies in a fixed plane P. show that the plane through AB and passes through the centre of the conicoid. parallel to Prove that Q (the origin) on the conic OQ is drawn equal and ax 4 by 4 cz = c 2 a V4 62y a 4 c?z* = c*. and whose base is the 45. and then obtain the form / 4 P'2(o#2 4 fy2 4 c*2 . If the polar planes of P and to the polar coid meet in a line AB. the midpoint of the normal chord at P. a point on the ellipsoid ^ ^2 ^+p+72 lies $ =1 : > on the plane ZOX. lies on a conicoid which touches the given respect conicoid at all points of its intersection with the plane P. M. equation of the cone in the where P =?<x4w/84wyp. y) and base the conic ax? + by 2 +cz*= 1. z0. 43. and the plane through parallel of P meets the plane through P parallel to the polar plane of plane in a line CD. It meets section of the conicoid a#2 4fy2 4tf22 =l by the plane the given couicoid at points in the plane XOY. 1).
OR are conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid /y2 whose equation referred to rectangular axes areas of the triangles QOR. 2 QOR. If P(a?!. POQ 51. 5 53. prove that the plane of e & the conic touches the cone 54. xxxvii which pass through the r is Prove that the locus of centres of sections of o#*h6y2 + ca^l line fL"~ =SLHt! = ?Jl2 is a conic whose centre I m n ' given by lZ m n 49. y3 . Q. II. OR is given by i^fo + ^ff^ + dx o 3 1 y o" c z 3 ~ 0. R(a:3 . an ^ the POP. Q. y l9 a. If a plane section of its cu?+ 6y2 + c&\ has one of its axes along the line =^=1 equation must be (A 2 + p? . touch the cone ROP. 3) are the extremities of rove three conjugate semidiameters of the ellipsoid "a+AJj'fla^l. ROP. y^ *. yf . + b*(c*a*)v ~ U + *(a*P)w_n If the radius of the director circle of the conic lx+my+nz**Q9 2== l of constant length r. and the cone which touches the coordinate planes and the planes QOR. (#2 . If one axis of a central section of the ellipsoid ~i+" + i ~l > Z l^s in the plane ux+vy+wz~Q a g (fr*~c2)M t the other lies on the cone .).). POQ by 52. P that the cone through the coordinate axes and OP. OQ. the planes . * POQ are equal.MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 48. OQ. R pass through the line the centre and 60. y3 . yn . Prove that the equal conjugate diameters of the conic in which the plane #+y 43=0 cuts the conicoid 2afl+3y*+ 4s2 = 1 are the lines in which the plane cuts the cone Stf2 y2 10 2 =0. If the axes are rectangular and P. Q(a?2 . (#3 . 53. 23) are the extremities of three conjugate diameters of the A ellipsoid the the planes through s+^i+i^li prove that normals at P. is a + o jrafa c ny2 #2 =1. 2: 2 ). (#j. R. If OP.
prove that its locus is a hyperboloid of one sheet whose circular sections are perpendicular to the given lines. have a common circular section.2*2 t/ Z 61. #=. 57. touches the conicoid at all points of a . circle. bny+m I? __ + which the plane cuts The fixed plane Ix+my+nz^p. Prove that any cone whose vertex is O and whose base is the section of the ellipsoid by a plane through AB is right circular. If the axes are rectangular and a line moves so as to intersect the lines y~Q x a. nfl iiF cuts the all cone aa? + by2 +cz 2 =0 in a Prove that the axes of parabola. (ii) =w=w. 60. . 25^+ 40^ + 34?2 = 9 and radius.24ry + 34y2 = 25. parallel parabolic sections lie in the plane a2 (6 . 63. Prove that any enveloping cone of the conicoid x* f tyz 2z* = a 2 whose vertex lies on the zaxis. O is an umbilic of an ellipsoid and OP is the normal chord through O.._+ c2 (a _ b)z_ rk 0> and the vertices on the line Ix _ my _ nz 59. Prove that the lengths of the semiaxes of the section of the surface 2yz + %zx + %xy + a 2 = by the plane Ix + my + nz = are a and considering the cases (i) l+m+n=Q. y = mz and the circle ^2 +?y a =a2. .xxxviii COORDINATE GEOMETRY 56. show that the and whose surface is a hyperboloid of revolution whose axis is 2 2 2z 2 =a 2 equation referred to its principal axes is # 4# By xyz . where 4r+=0. Prove that the axes of the conic in which the plane lines in cuts the paraboloid ax*+by*=2z are the ^ the cone anx\l 58. c)x b 2 (c a)y ___. The tangent planes at O and P intersect in a line AB. ^=0. finding its equation 62. Prove that the cylinders 41#3 . origin the Prove that the centre of any sphere which passes through and through a circular section of the ellipsoid lies on the hyperbola .
A 4 . 0) and does not intersect OZ lies on the cone (x 72. A 6 and the generators of the other system through A 2 . QDR are 20 and 2<.O.y2 = ax. 71. P and D are the extremities of conjugate diameters of the 66. Aa are the edges of a cube whose volume is 2\/2a3 . y 0. The generators through any point on the hyperboloid The other in the points P and Q. *2 lie on the parabola 20 . generator asina. If a >6c show that the points of intersection of perpendicular the hyperboloid 2i~ = l tt S. B. . Find the equation of the plane PQR. cot2 6 + cot2 <f> = (a 2 + 62 )/c2 #8 +y 8 2 2 = a* through the point (a COBOL. z = is gi ve n by x (x 4.r2 f .a) + y (y f 1z) = 0. z P is an extremity of an equicon jugate diameter of the ellipse principal elliptic section of the hyperboloid j+pg sas l ad the If generators through P and D form a skew the angles QPR.. prove 67. S lies on the plane . A 3 .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES 64. PQDR. quadrilateral that . 6 are the vertices of a regular hexagon inscribed 1? in the principal circular section.fi 2 2?/z generators of 69. z(a?P + b*m? f nz1 cV If a hyperboloid passes through six edges of a cube it must be formed by the revolution of a hyperbola of eccentricity \/3/2 about a diagonal of the cube. a) 2 f 2 2 y = z* tan o. 3=0 and 2c2 =a2 h&2 the two generators through P of 2 the hyperboloid ^/a 2 ^ # 2/>2 /^! are at right angles. If #2/a 2 hy2/62 = l. Prove that any hyperboloid which passes through the zaxis and the cir cl e . and show that if A of A 2 .. Ke on tne rea ^ central circular sections. the generators of the one system through Aj. prove that P lies on the curve of intersection of the hyperboloid and the cylinder 65. A A A 68. 0) intersects a generator through the point (acos/3. n. and the parabola #2 =4ay+a 2 s=0 a:=0. A 3 . The centres of conicoids that pass through the circle #2 [32= a2.gz . 0. Prove that 3 cos 2 0/2 =2 cos 2 (a. II. A g .1 ) + 2?ic*(fo f my . and if the eccentric angle of A is three times the eccentric angle of B. 70. If the two planes that pass through the origin and cut the hyperboloid in circles are inclined at a constant angle a. meet the plane lx+my + generators through P and Q intersect in R. show that the generator which passes through (a.1 ) = 0.#)/2. 0) at an angle 9. 4 . and prove that if R always lies on the plane z=0. a sin /?. xxxix If the generators through a point P on the hyperboloid meet the principal elliptic section in A and B. .
If r > wi r . witn their centres at the origin. Q. y) is. 9.T . If a cone intersects a conicoid in plane curves. /y 3t^rzj. Prove that the equation of the conicoid which passes through the lines #=0. z= s=c.fAa?y=0 lie on the cone ( < 4 79. A planes hyperboloid which passes through these parallels lies on the surface x y z . R.(yc) (3(y + c) y a c2 y =0. y). and one of its principal axes passes through the fixed point (p. /J. Prove that the centre of the 75. and has a centre at (OL. o# a + 6y*+<*+ 2^* + 2. /}'. # 0. their planes and the plane of contact of the enveloping cone which has the same vertex pass through one line.xl COORDINATE GEOMETRY = 73. (a'. z= c.</T+2&r^ = l transforms the equations' of o are with similar equations for Orj and . _ r. 74. Show that if into Aj^ + A^ + Asf^l. and through P. Hyperboloids are drawn through the lines #=0. prove that Hence or otherwise show that the cone through the coordinate axes and the principal axes is given by and the cone which touches the coordinate planes and the planes by principal 80. z~c . Prove that the coordinate axes and the three lines of intersection of the three pairs of planes that pass through the four common generators of the cones oo. o#2f 6# =1. OZ respectively. /?. A variable cone is drawn through the conic z=0. R parallels are drawn to OX. y = 6. Q.3 + 6y2 + c 2 2 =0. if y xy o. State what this equation represents. and discuss the case in which c y=0. Prove that the vertex must lie on the circle 78. y') He on the paraboloid variable line is drawn through the origin to meet the fixed #=a. 2 77. 0). OY. . (i) (ii) 2.l^Oa o c aoc 76. Prove that the lines of interwith respect to them of two fixed points section of the jpolar planes (a. z=c in P. 3) are the directioncosines of the principal a axes of the conicoid tf# 2 f ty f cz 2 +%fyz+tyzx + 2 A^=l. nr (r= 1.
Prove 0y = a3 lies in represents a hyperboloid of revolution. for all values of A.. Prove that the general equation of conicoids of revolution that 2 pass through the fixed point (0. hyperboloids lie on the paraboloid y 85. and hence prove that (abcfghxyz)*\ represents a conicoid of revolution (a is if . prove that 87. Prove that the locua of the feet of the perpendiculars from the origin to the tangents to the helix #=acos#. (x.26V ~ 2abt curve 2ff=a(2cos0f08in0). For the curve 2 2 /o=o=3a(l M ) . y2 = 4oo. 0. x par= = 2abt. The only conicoid of revolution which has its centre at the and passes through the parabola 2 6. and that the axis the coordinate planes. 2y = a(2sin 00cos0). y=2oe*/ a makes a constant angle with the (2 v \. origin. y. line z=#. 86. z~c\ and show that the axes of all such 2 #a = 4c. and prove that 88. for all values of 0. y a y t. Show that this curve lies on the hyperboloid #2 Hy 2 sa =a2 and that it crosses the generator # acosa y asina. or on the cone xP+y'*=z 2 . 82. z) given by ~ a2 .A)y 2 4(cthat. z=a# is the sin a. II xli Show that the necessary and sufficient condition that a conicoid should be of revolution is that its two systems of real circular sections should coincide.r. 2 log z= b2t\ prove that p=ois Prove also that the centre of circular curvature at (.A)#2 + (b . z .s. . 89. at cos a.ia and show that 84.2a) =c(2s.rcos 0f y sin 0) (#sin a perfect square. v=asin 0. their axes envelope the parabola y =0. one of 83. 81. Show For the curve .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 2=a0. c). z==0. . z~c\ #=0. the equation cos 0)2 f 2z(. <r = ^ a A 8D2 . "~T right angles at the point where OOL.d) 2 .+4a2 6 2 is a is right cone whose semivertical angle tan" 1 '2a/b. that the tangent at any point to the curve of intersection of the cylinders y2 =4o#. Prove also that ^ an d that B a. the equation represents a hyperboloid of revolution which passes through the given lines y=0. y=0.c). and the parabola y ~4o#. . 2 Prove that.
of lengths a. as diameter. OA. 92. Show that if the principal normal. is of length s. (i) the length of the arc measured from cos 2 0) the point (a. locus of PQ. Show that the edge of regression of the developable surface which passes through the two curves. Show that the curve on the cone which the semicircle assumes can be represented by the equations paper OA OCA Zx a (cos 30 + cos s/3a) is 6). o. 96. and binomial at P respectively. is a developable surface.xlii COORDINATE GEOMETRY as semicircle A'BA is drawn with A'OA as diameter and 90. measured from a fixed point A. prove that 95. OB. as P moves along the curve. A distance PT equal to s is measured backwards along the tangent at P. If the radii of curvature and torsion of C. with the tangent. Show that the length of the arc AP of the curve is proportional to the perpendicular from O to the osculating plane at P. (ii) 4a 2 =p 2 (4 + 3cos 2 0). 2^=a(sin 30+sin : 0). and a second semicircle so as to lie within the first. so that the tangent at a variable P makes a constant angle with a fixed line. 2a0. 97. 2 2 (& +c )paccr=0. lies on the conicoids y2 f 6o# =0. A curve is drawn on a sphere of centre O. and the radius of curvature of C 2 at T is p . whose cosines are a. prove that A> <H 93. and 91. are the principal semiaxes of an ellipsoid. 1 at P. *= \/3acos 0. c Prove that the curvature at respectively. 94. and the locus of T is a curve Co. Prove that the tangent to the locus of the centres of circular curvature of a curve makes an angle with the corresponding principal normal to the curve such that sin 0p/It. 6. P is a variable point on a given curve and PQ a line through P which makes fixed angles. The semicircle A'BA is then cut out of the and OA' and folded so as to form a right cone with A O OCA OA coinciding along a generator. c. is described on centre. where p~* and o" are the curvature and torsion 2>. If $0 is the angle between the radii of spherical curvature at the ends of an infinitesimal arc &r. (iii) and obtain for it the results 0.at P are p and . is section of the ellipsoid by the plane OC and are of the A ABC . P is a variable point on a curve C t and the arc AP. A is a point point on the curve where the osculating plane passes through O.
y. Show that the measure of curvature of the surface of revolution so formed is a~ 2 and that the whole curvature of the part of the surface intercepted between the plane ZOX and the _ 100. and OZ in Q. #=ttcos 0. II xliii For the surface * 2 (o?2 fy2 4 )=c show that the principal radii are 99. . A surface is generated by a variable straight line which meets is rotated The curve in the plane XOY. .MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. Prove that at any point of the surface. 98. . z) is 27r(#/a 1). for which xae about OY. y=wsin By z(a w)cot 0. and that the measure of curvature of the surface at P is a~ 2 the circle . s=0 in P. so that the angle POX is equal to the angle OQP. j^+y^a*. parallel plane through (#.
.
199. 92. cylinder. defined. reciprocal. conicoids. 342. Geometria Differenziale. 203. 266. 229. Bertrand curves. xlv . 29. lines. 30. 163. 245. 110. 330. 131. Anhannonic ratio of four planes. Conditions satisfied by plane. Blythe. Characteristic points. 202. singular point. of Surfaces. Besant. Conicoid through three given lines. Geometry Bianohi. of central conicoid. surface of degree n. of enveloping cone. Central point. 336. 292. 124. of of of of ellipsoid. hyperboloid. Basset. 246. with given direction ratios. lines of curvature on. in which plane cuts cone. 264. Circle of curvature. Catenoid. 292. Conditions for umbilic. Centre of curvature. enveloping conicoid. 215. 140 paraboloid. 135. 266. Cone. Bifocal chords. 202. Axes of plane sections. touching skew surface. Bisectors of angles lines. Circular sections. 134 of paraboloid. 210. Area of plane section. 37. 88. 259. Confocal conicoids. Condition for developable surface. 168. Axes. Axis of paraboloid. conicoid. 176. conjugate diameters of. general central conicoid. 93. 228. 142. Anticlastio surface. 271. 282. 299. 38. 34. condition for. 109. 17. equation homogeneous. Cubic Surfaces. 219.INDEX The numbers refer to pages. Conicoids of revolution. 320. with given direction cosines. Centre of conicoid. 297. 196. Binomial. 289. 266. between two planes. 293. 298. zeroroots of discriminating cubic. 334. Cones through intersection of two conicoids. between two 114. 216. 22. Centre of spherical curvature. Conic node or conical point. 358. 138. 103. Circumscribing cone. 92. 131. 186. 307. 352. 318. with three mutually perpendicular generators. principal. 120. 183. Characteristic. of surface of revolution. equal roots of discriminating cubic. 352. 139. Central planes. 90. 311. 92. 138. 264. 120. 27. Asymptotic lines. Meunier's theorem. 206. 88. 373. through six normals to ellipsoid. geodesies on. 101. 124. with double contact. 365. Binode. equation when base given. Anchor ring. 249. 34. tangency of plane and conicoid. Angle between two 15. 109. Angle between two planes. defined. 263. 137.
120. polar. 192. 239. 101. 363. 326. Equations. lines of. 6. lines. 110. of general conicoid. of normal to ellipsoid. of cone. Cylinder. surface of revolution. 35. 332. equations to. 125. of normal sections.y 4. 349. lines of curvature on. of three perpendicular lines. 114. Equation. 9. hyperbola. of geodesic. parametric. Frenet's formulae. see polar lines. Cylindroid. 111. 32. 12. on surface of revolution. 346. 245. 258. cylindrical. Cuspidal edge. 217. 204. 38. of asymptotic lines. 24. conicoid when origin is at centre. 20. 30. diametral planes. 271. 208. Curve. 4. 184. 40. 336. 33. 335. Developable. 313. Edge of regression. 202. 348. 330 specific. Dupin's theorem. 12. 259. sign of. 277. 309. equation to. Coordinates. lines of curvature on. of central conicoids. ellipse. 352.xlvi INDEX The numbers refer to pages. 26. 69. Discriminating cubic. 113. 257. of a point from a line. of a point from a plane. plane. 300. 293. 13. on developable. 369. relation between directioncosines and. of normal to surface. on conicoid. 109. Contact of conicoids. geodesic. through seven points. 311. 333. Conicoids 251. 286. of curve. parabolas. 352. of spherical curves. 246. the surface of degree n. elliptic. a Factors of (abcfgh) (xyz)* \(x* 4. of surfaces. 259. of geodesies. conditions for equal roots. 177. of oblique sections. 278. 246. 19. cylinder. Enveloping cone. the oonicoid. enveloping. 289. Directioncosines. De Longchamps. quartic. cylinder. 193. Directionratios. Degree of a surface. of conicoids. 252. Diameters. 183. Distance between two points. reality of roots. spherical. through eight points. of paraboloid. 4. to curve. 123.z ). of cone. 299. 93. 284. 288. conditions for zeroroots. 338. Double tangent planes. Curvature. 333. 238. 99. to surface. Constants in equations to the plane. Differential equations. 283. 25. 371. definition and equation of. 326. Envelopes one parameter. of line of curvature. 270. 114. Foci of conicoids. 316. torsion of curve on.  a a Focal . Double contact. 209. linear. 178. 110. 114. Conjugate lines. 341. 307. curvilinear. to to to to to 8. 358. of tangent to curve. 293. Conoid. Elliptic point on surface. two parameters. principal radii of. Diametral planes. cone with given base. 272. 101. 42. of a point of a curve in terms of 301. of paraboloid. 1. of lines of curvature. 333. 95. of plane one parameter. 120. Element. condition for. 203. Envelope 316. diameters. 309. cartesian. 101. of curve and surface. 187. 34. 344. 318. Curves. 257. polar. 275. of principal normal and binormal. 206. #. 203. 229. 333. 350. 190. to conoid. the straight line. Curvilinear coordinates. 28. 123. 370. 196. 210. 333. 348. 326. 266. 124. of curve. Ellipsoid. cubic. 205. Crossratio of four planes. Developable surfaces.
167. 53. 30. Parametric equations. 365. 108. conic. Osculating circle. of intersection of mutually per mutually perpendicular. definition. 101. 316. 279. Origin. 300. 346. Midpoint of given line. 321. 187. differential equations. 108. Parameters of confocals through a point on a conicoid. Orthogonal systems of surfaces. conicoids with common. 181. Horograph. Polar developable. 336. Meunier's theorem. given lines. 367. on conicoid. 7. Linear element. equations. 290. Parameter of distribution. Normals. Hudson. 239. 161. to surface along a line of curvature. Normal. 334. Lagrange's identity. 148. 103. intersecting four given lines. equation to. 166. Hyperboloid of one sheet. 122. Minimal surfaces. of parallel tangents. equation to.22. equation to. 241. Midpoints of system of parallel chords. Locus of midpoints of parallel chords. change of. 264. 266. of poles of plane with respect to confocals. 285. through three points. 169. 367. 197. Helicoid. 32. 270. 108. 43. of curvature. '. 363. 326. Geodesic curvature. to confocals. 350. 22. 47. Polar lines. to curve. 125. 204. principal. 258. on surface of revolution. 321. 204. 363. to ellipsoid. to paraboloid. 153. Line. Indicatrix. spherical. 271. 34. condition that cone has three xlvii The numbers refer to pages. 108. Inflexional tangents. equation to. 327. 292. equations to. Perpendicular. 300. Hyperbolic point on surface. two given three Points of intersection of line and conicoid. pendicular tangent planes. Paraboloid. 270. 292. Nodal line. normal to plane. 56. curvature of. 359. 282. 371. 358. 362.INDEX Gauss. of conicoids. Point dividing line in given lines. MacCullagh. Hyperboloid of two sheets. 149. 320. 113. parallel to plane. 344. of centres of osculating spheres. equations to straight. systems of. Kummer's Quartio Sur face. asymptotic. 329. 270. 182. 181. 43. generation of coniooids. Osculating plane of curve. Geodesic torsion. 265. 261. ratio. 84. 333. Geodesies. of curve. 102. 339. Parabolic point on surface. Generators of cone. 238. . six from a given point. Invariants. Intersection of three planes. of strict ion. 105. 330. Joachims thai. 6. 277. Generating lines of hyperboloid. Lines. 165. 258. Plane. Integral curvature. properties of a. 331. 371. 125. 199. geodesic on coniooid. Normal plane. 197. of conicoid. Measure of curvature. condition that lines should be. 231. of asymptotic line. 100. 358. Node. 38. 365. Helix. 202. 346. 9*2. 40. Osculating sphere. on cone. 88. asymptotic lines of. measure of curvature. of developable. on developable. 203. 153. 33. 126. Power of point with respect to sphere. of tangents from a point. 148. Generator. of paraboloid. 154. intersecting intersecting O4. 346. Normal sections. 346. 111. generators of. 373. 125. coplanar. 326.
265. 15. Tetrahedron. sign of. 344. PKINTUU IN (. Salmon. 293. 228. 204. 72. 261. 352. 293. 101. 187. 92. geodesic. 219. 373. 266. surface of. 284. to conicoid. to curve. of directions of rotation. 134. of curvature and torsion. of curve. line of. 313. lines of curvature on. 369. 124. 327. 124. 314.xlviii INDEX The numbers refer to pages. of conicoid. Surfaces. THE UNIVSKblTY . of torsion. 3. 228. 375. 199. 102. 275. 321. volume of. 212. 299. 82. 221. 332. conditions for. 13. developable and skew. 64. 107. 19. Triplyorthogonal systems. of conicoid. equation. 309. 342. 238. 350. planes. edge of. Regression. Tangent. 101. 288. curvature. Skew surfaces. Section of surface by given plane. 288. intersection of Tangency of given plane and coni Radical plane of two spheres. Singular points. 138. 64. 327. 282. Shortest distance of two lines. Tangents. 315. Tangent plane to sphere. LTD. Rectifying plane. circular. Synclastic surface. 314. of (abcfgh)(xyz)*. geodesies on. 337. Transformation of coordinates. of ellipsoid. with given centre. radius of. 198. 148. of asymptotic lines. 265. Segments. 289. 68. Signs of coordinates. of figure. Umbilics. Sections. equation to. Volume of tetrahedron. 227. axes of. AND CO. generation of conicoid. 261. 2. 124. 264. 103. tangent planes. singular. Specific curvature. 284. 17. Quartio curve of oonieoids. Projection of segment. 282. 120. 346. of geodesies. Wave Whole surface. Reciprocal cone. of curve on developable. 1. 335. conditions that conicoid is.RtfAT BRITAIN BY ROBERT MACLKHOSK FKKSS. 131. 267. 350. coid. Radii. Trope. 143. 214. principal. Striction. 81. 124. 61. inflexional. 272. 259. Principal axes. 137. 288. Problems on two straight lines. 284. Reduction of general equation of second degree. Properties of a generator. 65. 167. 365. 263. of spherical curvature. 337. 320. normal. radii. to ruled surface. Ruled surfaces. GLASGOW. Sphere. directions. of revolution. in general. 83. 359. 57. Unode. 13. Revolution. 346. Torsion. of volume of tetrahedron. Spherical curvature. 92. to surface. Radius of curvature. 204. 262. Vertex of paraboloid. 270. 75.