Electron Arrangement in Atoms

Section 13-2

What Is Electron Configuration:

The way in which the electrons are arranged around the nucleus. In most natural phenomena, change proceeds toward the lowest possible energy. High-energy levels are unstable.

What Is Electron Configuration:

Unstable systems will lose energy in order to become more stable. In the atom, electrons and the nucleus will interact in order to make the most stable arrangements possible.

Aufbau Principle:

Electrons enter the lowest energy orbitals first - The various orbitals within a sublevel of a principal energy level are always of equal energy

Aufbau Principle:

- Within an energy level, the sublevel s is always the lowest energy level - Energy levels can overlap adjacent energy levels ‡ - Electrons enter the lowest energy first

Aufbau Diagram
1s 2s 2p2p2p 3s 3p3p3p 4s 3d3d3d3d3d 4p4p4p 5s 4d4d4d4d4d 5p5p5p 6s 4f4f4f4f4f4f4f 5d5d5d5d5d 6p6p6p 7s

Pauli Exclusion Principle:

An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons To occupy the same orbital, the two electrons must have opposite spins ‡ The orbital containing paired electrons is written

Hund s Rule:

When electrons occupy orbital of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain two electrons with two spins Denoting Electron Configurations: there are two ways

Hund s Rule:

1) Uses opposing arrows to denote electrons

Hund s Rule: ‡ Carbon -- Electron spin -- Oxygen

Hund s Rule:

‡ 2) A short hand formula ‡ (i.e.: 1s22s2) Example ‡ What is the electron configuration of the element Nickel? (28) 2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 ‡ 1s 2 3d8 ‡ Or [Ar] 4s

Periodic Table & Orbitals

Exceptional Electron Configuration:

‡ You can obtain correct electron configuration for the elements up to vanadium by following the Aufbau diagram for orbital filling.

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