FHSST Authors
The Free High School Science Texts: Textbooks for High School Students Studying the Sciences Mathematics Grades 10  12
Version 0 September 17, 2008
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FHSST Core Team
Mark Horner ; Samuel Halliday ; Sarah Blyth ; Rory Adams ; Spencer Wheaton
FHSST Editors
Jaynie Padayachee ; Joanne Boulle ; Diana Mulcahy ; Annette Nell ; Ren´ Toerien ; Donovan e Whitﬁeld
FHSST Contributors
Rory Adams ; Prashant Arora ; Richard Baxter ; Dr. Sarah Blyth ; Sebastian Bodenstein ; Graeme Broster ; Richard Case ; Brett Cocks ; Tim Crombie ; Dr. Anne Dabrowski ; Laura Daniels ; Sean Dobbs ; Fernando Durrell ; Dr. Dan Dwyer ; Frans van Eeden ; Giovanni Franzoni ; Ingrid von Glehn ; Tamara von Glehn ; Lindsay Glesener ; Dr. Vanessa Godfrey ; Dr. Johan Gonzalez ; Hemant Gopal ; Umeshree Govender ; Heather Gray ; Lynn Greeﬀ ; Dr. Tom Gutierrez ; Brooke Haag ; Kate Hadley ; Dr. Sam Halliday ; Asheena Hanuman ; Neil Hart ; Nicholas Hatcher ; Dr. Mark Horner ; Mfandaidza Hove ; Robert Hovden ; Jennifer Hsieh ; Clare Johnson ; Luke Jordan ; Tana Joseph ; Dr. Jennifer Klay ; Lara Kruger ; Sihle Kubheka ; Andrew Kubik ; Dr. Marco van Leeuwen ; Dr. Anton Machacek ; Dr. Komal Maheshwari ; Kosma von Maltitz ; Nicole Masureik ; John Mathew ; JoEllen McBride ; Nikolai Meures ; Riana Meyer ; Jenny Miller ; Abdul Mirza ; Asogan Moodaly ; Jothi Moodley ; Nolene Naidu ; Tyrone Negus ; Thomas O’Donnell ; Dr. Markus Oldenburg ; Dr. Jaynie Padayachee ; Nicolette Pekeur ; Sirika Pillay ; Jacques Plaut ; Andrea Prinsloo ; Joseph Raimondo ; Sanya Rajani ; Prof. Sergey Rakityansky ; Alastair Ramlakan ; Razvan Remsing ; Max Richter ; Sean Riddle ; Evan Robinson ; Dr. Andrew Rose ; Bianca Ruddy ; Katie Russell ; Duncan Scott ; Helen Seals ; Ian Sherratt ; Roger Sieloﬀ ; Bradley Smith ; Greg Solomon ; Mike Stringer ; Shen Tian ; Robert Torregrosa ; Jimmy Tseng ; Helen Waugh ; Dr. Dawn Webber ; Michelle Wen ; Dr. Alexander Wetzler ; Dr. Spencer Wheaton ; Vivian White ; Dr. Gerald Wigger ; Harry Wiggins ; Wendy Williams ; Julie Wilson ; Andrew Wood ; Emma Wormauld ; Sahal Yacoob ; Jean Youssef Contributors and editors have made a sincere eﬀort to produce an accurate and useful resource. Should you have suggestions, ﬁnd mistakes or be prepared to donate material for inclusion, please don’t hesitate to contact us. We intend to work with all who are willing to help make this a continuously evolving resource!
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Contents
I Basics 1
3 3
1 Introduction to Book 1.1 The Language of Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II
Grade 10
5
7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9
2 Review of Past Work 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is a number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters and Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiplication and Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Negative Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 What is a negative number? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Working with Negative Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Living Without the Number Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.9
Rearranging Equations
2.10 Fractions and Decimal Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.11 Scientiﬁc Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.12 Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.12.1 Natural Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.12.2 Integers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.12.3 Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.12.4 Irrational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.13 Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.14 Inﬁnity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.15 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3 Rational Numbers  Grade 10 3.1 3.2 3.3 23
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Big Picture of Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 vii
CONTENTS 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8
CONTENTS
Forms of Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Converting Terminating Decimals into Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Converting Repeating Decimals into Rational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 29
4 Exponentials  Grade 10 4.1 4.2 4.3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Deﬁnition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Laws of Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 Exponential Law 1: a0 = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Exponential Law 3: a−n =
m
Exponential Law 2: am × an = am+n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1 an , a
= 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Exponential Law 5: (ab)n = an bn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Exponential Law 6: (am )n = amn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Exponential Law 4: a ÷ a = am−n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
n
4.4
End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 37
5 Estimating Surds  Grade 10 5.1 5.2 5.3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Drawing Surds on the Number Line (Optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 End of Chapter Excercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 41
6 Irrational Numbers and Rounding Oﬀ  Grade 10 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Irrational Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Rounding Oﬀ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 45
7 Number Patterns  Grade 10 7.1
Common Number Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 7.1.1 Special Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.2 7.3
Make your own Number Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7.3.1 Patterns and Conjecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.4
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 53
8 Finance  Grade 10 8.1 8.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Foreign Exchange Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 How much is R1 really worth? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Cross Currency Exchange Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Enrichment: Fluctuating exchange rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
8.3
Being Interested in Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 viii
CONTENTS 8.4
CONTENTS
Simple Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 8.4.1 Other Applications of the Simple Interest Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.5
Compound Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 Fractions add up to the Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 The Power of Compound Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Other Applications of Compound Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
8.6
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8.6.1 8.6.2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
8.7
End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 71
9 Products and Factors  Grade 10 9.1 9.2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Recap of Earlier Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 Parts of an Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Product of Two Binomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Factorisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7
More Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Factorising a Quadratic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Factorisation by Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Simpliﬁcation of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 83
10 Equations and Inequalities  Grade 10
10.1 Strategy for Solving Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 10.2 Solving Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 10.3 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 10.4 Exponential Equations of the form ka(x+p) = m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 10.4.1 Algebraic Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 10.5 Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 10.6 Linear Simultaneous Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 10.6.1 Finding solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 10.6.2 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 10.6.3 Solution by Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
10.7 Mathematical Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10.7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10.7.2 Problem Solving Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 10.7.3 Application of Mathematical Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
10.7.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 10.8 Introduction to Functions and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 10.9 Functions and Graphs in the RealWorld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 10.10Recap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 ix
CONTENTS
CONTENTS
10.10.1 Variables and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 10.10.2 Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 10.10.3 The Cartesian Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 10.10.4 Drawing Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 10.10.5 Notation used for Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
10.11Characteristics of Functions  All Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 10.11.1 Dependent and Independent Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 10.11.2 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 10.11.3 Intercepts with the Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 10.11.4 Turning Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.11.5 Asymptotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.11.6 Lines of Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
10.11.7 Intervals on which the Function Increases/Decreases . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.11.8 Discrete or Continuous Nature of the Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.12Graphs of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 10.12.1 Functions of the form y = ax + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 10.12.2 Functions of the Form y = ax2 + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 10.12.3 Functions of the Form y =
a x
+ q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
10.12.4 Functions of the Form y = ab(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 10.13End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 11 Average Gradient  Grade 10 Extension 135
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 11.2 StraightLine Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 11.3 Parabolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 11.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 12 Geometry Basics 139
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 12.2 Points and Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 12.3 Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 12.3.1 Measuring angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 12.3.2 Special Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 12.3.3 Special Angle Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 12.3.4 Parallel Lines intersected by Transversal Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 12.4 Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 12.4.1 Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 12.4.2 Quadrilaterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 12.4.3 Other polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 12.4.4 Extra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 12.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 12.5.1 Challenge Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 x
CONTENTS 13 Geometry  Grade 10
CONTENTS 161
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 13.2 Right Prisms and Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 13.2.1 Surface Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 13.2.2 Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 13.3 Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 13.3.1 Similarity of Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 13.4 Coordinate Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 13.4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 13.4.2 Distance between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 13.4.3 Calculation of the Gradient of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 13.4.4 Midpoint of a Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 13.5 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 13.5.1 Translation of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 13.5.2 Reﬂection of a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 13.6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 14 Trigonometry  Grade 10 189
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 14.2 Where Trigonometry is Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 14.3 Similarity of Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 14.4 Deﬁnition of the Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 14.5 Simple Applications of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 14.5.1 Height and Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 14.5.2 Maps and Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 14.6 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 14.6.1 Graph of sin θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 14.6.2 Functions of the form y = a sin(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 14.6.3 Graph of cos θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 14.6.4 Functions of the form y = a cos(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
14.6.5 Comparison of Graphs of sin θ and cos θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 14.6.6 Graph of tan θ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 14.6.7 Functions of the form y = a tan(x) + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 14.7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 15 Statistics  Grade 10 211
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 15.2 Recap of Earlier Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 15.2.1 Data and Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 15.2.2 Methods of Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 15.2.3 Samples and Populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 15.3 Example Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 xi
. 217 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Probability Identities . .6.5 Data Set 5: Price of Petrol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grouping Data . . .8 Complementary Events . 217 15. . . . 253 17. . . . . . . . . . .2 Laws of Exponents . . 221 15. . . . . . .1 Data Set 1: Tossing a Coin . . . . . . 220 15. . . . . . . . . .3 Probability Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . 213 15. . .8 Summary of Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 xii . . . . . . .6. . . . .Grade 11 17. . . . . . . .1 Measures of Central Tendency . . . . .4 Relative Frequency vs. 219 15. . . .1 Exercises . . . . 251 17. . . . . . . 214 15. . .9 End of Chapter Exercises . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . .2 Measures of Dispersion . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Mutually Exclusive Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 16. . . . . . . 225 15. . . .5. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Pie Charts . . . . . . . . . . .9 Exercises .6. . . . . . 235 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 16 Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Summarising Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Exercises . . . . 246 III Grade 11 249 251 17 Exponents . . 229 15.1 Exponential Law 7: a n = n am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .5 Graphical Representation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Grouping Data . . . . . . . . . .Graphical Representation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 End of chapter Exercises . . . . . .2. . . . . .2 Data Set 2: Casting a die . . . . Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 16. . . . . . . . . 238 16. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . 215 15. . . . . . . . . . . . 214 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . .Summarising Data . . . . . . .1 Sample Space of a Random Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 235 16. . . . . 215 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 15. . . 242 16. . . . . . . . 240 16. . . . . . .3 Exponentials in the RealWorld . . .3 Data Set 3: Mass of a Loaf of Bread . . . . . .1 Classical Theory of Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Data Set 4: Global Temperature . . .2. .5 Project Idea .Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 15.1 Introduction .2 Histograms and Frequency Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 15. . . . . . . . . . . .4 Line and Broken Line Graphs . . . . . . . . . .Grade 10 235 16. . . 242 16. . .3. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 15. . . . . . . . . 222 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 15. . . . . . . . . . 251 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Random Experiments . . .5. . . . . . . . .1 Bar and Compound Bar Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 251 √ m 17. . . .
. . . . . . . .2 Solution by Factorisation .3 Surd Law 3: n a b = √ m n am = a n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 22 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . .2 Depreciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Solution by the Quadratic Formula . . . . .1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .1. . . . . .2 Decoding the Terminology . . . . 293 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 22. . . . . . . . . 271 21. . . . . . 274 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution by Completing the Square . . . . .4 Like and Unlike Surds . . . . . . 299 xiii . . . .CONTENTS 18 Surds . . 255 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 21.Grade 11 20 Quadratic Sequences . . 271 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 20. . . . . 287 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 21. . . .3 Simple Depreciation (it really is simple!) . . . . . .Grade 11 287 22.1 The General Formula . . . . . . .6 Rationalising Denominators . . . . 259 19 Error Margins . . . . .9 Formulae Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Surd Law 2: 18. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . .9. . . . . 284 21. . .5 Present Values or Future Values of an Investment or Loan . . . . . .6 Finding i . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 271 21. . . . . . . . . 269 21 Finance . . . . . . . . . . .4 Compound Depreciation . 280 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . 285 21. . . 255 √ √ √ 18. . . . . . . . . . .1 Now or Later . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 18. 256 √ n √a n b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . 282 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . .1. .2 Equations . . . . . .Trial and Error . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 21. . . . .5 Simplest Surd form . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 CONTENTS 255 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Finding n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 20. .3 End of chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 21. . . . . . . .2 What is a quadratic sequence? . . . . . . . . . .2 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. . . . . . . .Grade 11 261 265 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 21. 257 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Nominal and Eﬀective Interest Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Surd Calculations . 284 21. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Finding an equation when you know its roots . . . . . . . . . 296 22. . 271 21. . . . . . .1 Surd Law 1: n a n b = n ab . . . . . . .
. . . . . .2. . . .3 Asymptotes . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 27. . . 301 23. . .4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ab(x+p) + q . . . . . . . 333 28 Exponential Functions and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 27. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Average Gradient . . . 336 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2 Quadratic Inequalities . . . . . . . .4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a x+p + q . . . . . 341 29. . 323 26. .6 Writing an equation of a shifted parabola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 xiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 23 Solving Quadratic Inequalities . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 26.3 End of Chapter Exercises . .3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 27 Hyperbolic Functions and Graphs . . .Grade 11 CONTENTS 301 23. . . . . . .3 Turning Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 313 25. 317 26 Quadratic Functions and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .1 Introduction .2 Intercepts . . . . . . 335 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .2 Functions of the Form y = a(x + p)2 + q 321 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . .1 Domain and Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . .1 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 28. . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2. .3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 RealWorld Applications: Mathematical Models . . . . . . .Grade 11 341 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 26. .1 Introduction . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 322 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Functions of the Form y = a x+p 329 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 26. . . . . .2 Functions of the Form y = ab(x+p) + q .3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Domain and Range . . . . . . .2. . . .5 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 27. . . . . . .2. . .2 Intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Algebraic Solution .Grade 11 335 28. . . .Grade 11 27. . . . . . . . . 309 25 Mathematical Models . . . 304 24 Solving Simultaneous Equations . . . . . . . . . .4 Axes of Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 26. . . . . 338 28. .2 Intercepts .3 Asymptotes . . . 329 27. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . 313 25. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 29. . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 307 24. . . . . . . . . . .2 End of Chatpter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 +q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 28. . . . . . . . 301 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 26. . . . . 339 29 Gradient at a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 24. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . .5. . 381 32. . 389 32. 347 30.4 Method of Linear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Transformations .3 Trigonometric Identities . . . .1 Decision Variables . . . . . . . . Right Cones and Spheres . 384 32. . . . .2 Objective Function . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . 345 30. . . . . . . . . . . 373 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Functions of the form y = cos(θ + p) . .2 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3 Example of a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 31. . . . . . . . . . . 357 31. . .2. . . 45◦ and 60◦ . . 371 31. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 347 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. . . . . . . . . . . 373 31. . . . . .CONTENTS 30 Linear Programming . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 30.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Inclination of a Line . . . . . .1 History of Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .3 Functions of the form y = tan(kθ) . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Right Pyramids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 30. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Coordinate Geometry . . . . .6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . 346 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 30. .4 Feasible Region and Points . .1 Rotation of a Point . . . . . . . . . . 345 30. .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 357 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Enlargement of a Polygon 1 . . .2. . . . . . . .1 Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Writing the Objective Function . . . . . .1 Equation of a Line between Two Points . . . . . . . .2 Terminology . 389 32. . . . . . . . . 361 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Functions of the form y = sin(θ + p) . . . . . 347 30.3 Constraints . . . . . . . .5 Skills you will need . .Grade 11 CONTENTS 345 30. . . . . . . . . . . 360 31. . . . . . . . 368 31. . . . . . . .3 Similarity of Polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 30. . . . . . 346 30. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Functions of the form y = tan(θ + p) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 xv . . 381 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 32. . . .2 Equation of a Line through One Point and Parallel or Perpendicular to Another Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Alternate Deﬁnition for tan θ . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . 346 30. .2 Functions of the form y = cos(kθ) . . . . . . 371 31. .4 Triangle Geometry . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Functions of the form y = sin(kθ) . . . . . . 385 32. . . . . . . . .Grade 11 381 32. 368 31.2. . . . . . . . . . . 387 32. . . . . . 383 32. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Solution . . .1 Deriving Values of Trigonometric Functions for 30◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .1 Writing Constraint Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solving the Problem . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . 352 31 Geometry . . . . . 345 30. . . . . . . 376 32 Trigonometry . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Distribution of Data . .4 Relationship between Standard Deviation and the Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Solution using CAST diagrams . . . . . . . . . . 401 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .3 Cumulative Histograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 33. . .4 Solving Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Algebraic Solution . . . . . 437 34. . . . Median. .2 Relationship of the Mean. . . . . . . and Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Scatter Plots . .4 General Solution Using Periodicity . . . 412 32. . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 428 33. . . . .4 Reduction Formula . 424 33. . . .1 Graphical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 419 33. . 405 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 33. . . .1 Five Number Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 33. .1 Variance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 32. . . . .3 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 33. . . . . . . . . .7 End of Chapter Exercises . . 406 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Interpretation and Application . 416 33 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Identiﬁcation of Independent and Dependent Events . . .5. . . . . .4. . . . . . 414 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 32. 409 32. . . . . . . . .2 Box and Whisker Diagrams . .4. . 392 32. . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Sine Rule . . . . 435 34 Independent and Dependent Events . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 35. . . .4. . . . . . . . .3 The Area Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Symmetric and Skewed Data .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 A Trigonometric Identity . . . . . 409 32.2. . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 419 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Exercises . . . . . . 432 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 32. . . 424 33. . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 11 437 34. . . .4. . . . . . . 445 xvi . . . .2 Standard Deviation and Variance . . . . . 437 34. . . . 426 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 394 32. . .6 Misuse of Statistics . . . . . . . .7 More Complex Trigonometric Equations . . .2 The Cosine Rule .4. . . . . . . . . . . . 407 32. . . 429 33. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Deﬁnition of Logarithms . . .2. 441 IV Grade 12 443 445 35 Logarithms . .5 Sine and Cosine Identities . .3 Graphical Representation of Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion . . . . . . .2 Standard Deviation . 399 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 33. . .5 Linear Trigonometric Equations . . . 424 33. . . . . . . .3. .6 Quadratic and Higher Order Trigonometric Equations . . . . . . . . . 438 34.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Introduction .8 Finite Geometric Series . . . . . . . . . . .6.2 Logarithm Bases . . . . . . . . .6 Logarithm Law 3: loga (x · y) = loga (x) + loga (y) . . . . . 466 36. . .1 General Equation for the nth term of an Arithmetic Sequence . 477 37. . . . .3 Laws of Logarithms . . 472 37 Finance . . . . 458 36. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . 450 b 35. . . . . . . . . . . 449 35. . . .Grade 12 477 37. . . 452 35. . . . . . .4 Logarithm Law 1: loga 1 = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Arithmetic Sequences . . . .10. . . .11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 472 36. . . . . . . . . 471 36. . . . . . . . . 462 36. . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 457 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . 461 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . 457 36. . 470 36. 457 36.2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Some Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . .A Flu Epidemic .1 Example . .3 A Series of Payments . . .1 Sequences and Series . . . . . . . 479 xvii . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General Formula for a Finite Arithmetic Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 36. . . . . . . . . . .1 Inﬁnite Geometric Series . .12End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448 35. . . .4 Recursive Formulae for Sequences . . . . . . . 463 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sigma Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Solving simple log equations . . . . . . . .7 Logarithm Law 4: loga x y = loga (x) − loga (y) . . . . . . . . . . . 446 35. . . . . . . . . . . . 465 36.9 Inﬁnite Series . . . . . . 455 36 Sequences and Series . . . . . . . . . . 467 36. . . . . . . . . . 459 36. . . . . .9 Logarithm Law 6: loga ( b x) = loga (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finding the Length of the Investment or Loan . 448 35. . . . . . . 447 35. . . . . .10End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . 477 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Exercises . . . . . . . . . 459 36. .5. . . . . .2 General Equation for the nth term of a Geometric Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Logarithm Law 2: loga (a) = 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .9.7 Finite Squared Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Logarithm Law 5: loga (xb ) = b loga (x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Logarithmic applications in the Real World . . . . . . 469 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Geometric Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8. 454 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 35. 471 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461 36. . . . . 450 √ 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . .2.CONTENTS CONTENTS 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 35. . . . . . . . . .6 Finite Arithmetic Series . . . . . . .5 Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 501 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 39. . .2. . . . . . .2. . . . .4 Average Gradient and Gradient at a Point . . 490 37. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 37. . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .Present and Future Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 38. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Deﬁnition of a Function . . . 498 38. .2 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .5. . . . . 493 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 37. . 485 37. . . . . . .3. . . .Using Factor Theorem . 496 38. . . 493 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 40. . . . .3 Factorisation of Cubic Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Inverse Function of y = ax + q . . . . . . . 504 39. . . .5 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 39. . . . Series and Functions . 484 37. . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 End of Chapter Exercises . 498 39 Functions and Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Graphs of Inverse Functions . . .3 Notation used for Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sequences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 37. . .5 Formulae Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 39. .3 Future Value of a series of Payments . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 38. . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . 485 37. . . 490 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Loan Schedules . . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Diﬀerentiation from First Principles . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 501 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 509 40. . . . 509 40. . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Limits . . .5 Inverse Function of y = ax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Exercises . . . . . . . 506 39. . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . 490 38 Factorising Cubic Polynomials . . . . . . . . .Investments and Loans . 501 39. . . . . . .4.1 A Tale of Achilles and the Tortoise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . 519 xviii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 37. 489 37. . . . .1 Exercises .5 Solving Cubic Equations . . . . .2 Equations . . . . . . . .6 Exercises . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Investments and Loans . . . . . . . . .4. 501 39. . . . .1 Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Factor Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 493 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . .Solving of Cubic Equations .3 Calculating Capital Outstanding . . . .5. 479 37. 510 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 40. . . . . . . . . . . 511 40. . . . . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Inverse Function of y = ax2 . . . .2 Present Values of a series of Payments . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 40 Diﬀerential Calculus . . . . .2. . . . . . 502 39. . .1 Why do I have to learn this stuﬀ? . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Equation of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .3 Local minimum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Applying Diﬀerentiation to Draw Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 40. 539 41. . . . . . . . . . . .7 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . .4. . .4 Derivation of cos(α − β) . . . . . . .3 Derivation of cos(α + β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . .2 Circle Geometry . . . 577 43. . . . . . . . . 578 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 43. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 523 40. . . .3 Coordinate Geometry . . 524 40. . . . .1 Summary of Diﬀerentiation Rules . . . . . . . .Grade 12 577 43. . . . . 579 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . .1 Compound Angle Identities . . . . . . . Local maximum and Point of Inﬂextion .6. .Grade 12 539 41. . . 573 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Problems in Two Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Problemsolving Strategy for Identities . .4. . .1 Finding Equations of Tangents to Curves .4 Rules of Diﬀerentiation . . . . 540 41. . . . . . . . . . . 549 42. . . . 529 40. . . . . .5. . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rotation of a Point about an angle θ . . . . . . . 549 42. 582 43. . . .6 Using Diﬀerential Calculus to Solve Problems .CONTENTS CONTENTS 40. . . .1. . . .5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Rate of Change problems . . . .2 Equation of a Tangent to a Circle at a Point on the Circle . 550 42. . . .2 Applications of Trigonometric Functions . . . 574 43 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Derivation of sin(α + β) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 43. . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . 534 40.1. . . . . 579 43. . . . . . . . . . . 550 42. . . . 523 40. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Curve Sketching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . 582 xix . . . . . . . . . .2 Axioms . . . .1 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . 571 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . .2 Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . 535 41 Linear Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Linear Programming and the Feasible Region . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 530 40. . . . . . . . . 571 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 549 42. .2 Derivation of sin(α − β) . . . . . . . . . . . 539 41. . . . .5 Derivation of sin 2α . . . . . . . . . .3 Theorems of the Geometry of Circles . . . 521 40. . . . . 539 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Feasible Region and Points . . . . .1. . . . . . 566 42. . . . . . 566 42. . . . . . . . . . 573 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546 42 Geometry .3 Characteristics of Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578 43. . . . . . .4 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . .6 Derivation of cos 2α . . . . . .1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Characteristics of Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 43. . .3 Spherical Geometry . . . . . . . 610 V Exercises 613 615 617 619 46 General Exercises 47 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Applications . . . .Not covered in Syllabus A GNU Free Documentation License xx . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Taxicab Geometry . . . . 600 45 Combinations and Permutations . . . . . .CONTENTS CONTENTS 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 45.2 Problems in 3 dimensions . . . . . . . . . . .3 Other Geometries . . . . . . . . .Grade 12 591 44. . . . . . . . . . . . 591 44. . . . . .3. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 44.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 591 44. . . . . . . . . .1 Making a List . . 607 45. . . . . . . . . . . . 594 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . 588 43. . .5. . . .4 The Fundamental Counting Principle . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Combinatorics and Probability . . . . . . .1 Counting Permutations . . . . . . . 604 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Fractal Geometry . . . . . .3 Extracting a Sample Population . . . .3.2 Tree Diagrams . . .4. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Exercises . 604 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Function Fitting and Regression Analysis . . . . . . . 608 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Using a calculator . . . . . . . . 587 43. . . . . . 589 44 Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Correlation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Permutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Factorial Notation . . . . . . . . 586 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605 45. . . . . . . .2 A Normal Distribution . . . . .2 Manhattan distance . . . . . . . . . . 584 43. . . . . . . . . 603 45. . . 603 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. .3. . . .1 Counting Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603 45. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . 605 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606 45. . .Grade 12 603 45. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Method of Least Squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 45. . . . . . . . 586 43.4 End of Chapter Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Counting . . . . . . . . .5 Combinations .
Part I Basics 1 .
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like English or Zulu. 3 . The punctuation marks of mathematics are the diﬀerent signs and symbols that are used. the plus sign (+). Mathematics is a language. for example. All languages have an alphabet. Like any language. the equals sign (=) and so on.Chapter 1 Introduction to Book 1.1 The Language of Mathematics The purpose of any language. mathematics has letters (known as numbers) that are used to make up words (known as expressions). the multiplication sign (×). the minus sign (). Punctuation marks (like a full stop or a comma) are used to further clarify what is written. This is needed because when a sentence is written. There are also rules of grammar which explain how words are supposed to be used to build up sentences. speciﬁcally it is the language of Science. which is a group of letters that are used to make up words. is to make it possible for people to communicate. and sentences (known as equations). There are also rules that explain how the numbers should be used together with the signs to make up equations that express some meaning. the person reading the sentence understands exactly what the writer is trying to explain.
1.1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO BOOK 4 .
Part II Grade 10 5 .
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Diﬀerent types of numbers are described in detail in Section 1. you can only touch three of something. Some of these real numbers can be written in a particular way and some cannot.3 Sets A set is a group of objects with a welldeﬁned criterion for membership. all the numbers which you will see are called real numbers and mathematicians use the symbol R to stand for the set of all real numbers. but they are all still apples. A number can be written many diﬀerent ways and it is always best to choose the most appropriate way of writing the number.5. is that it must be an apple. All the green apples form another subset. You can just think about it.1 Introduction This chapter describes some basic concepts which you have seen in earlier grades. solve them and try them out on your classmates to see if you get the same answers. A subset is part of a set. before moving on with the rest of the book. 7 . three pencils. It is still the same number.Chapter 2 Review of Past Work 2.2 What is a number? A number is a way to represent quantity. 2. You should feel conﬁdent with the content in this chapter. The set of apples can then be divided into red apples and green apples. For example. In high school. the criterion for belonging to a set of apples. You can also try making up your own questions. Numbers are not something that you can touch or hold. “a half” may be spoken aloud or written in words. no matter which way you write it. and lays the foundation for the remainder of this book. A better way of writing “a half” is as a fraction 1 2 or as a decimal number 0.12. Practice is the only way to get good at maths! 2. you do not need to see three apples in front of you to know that if you take one apple away. three books. But you can touch three apples. but that makes mathematics very diﬃcult and also means that only people who speak the same language as you can understand what you mean. A number represents quantity because we can look at the world around us and quantify it using numbers. You can never just touch three. How many minutes? How many kilometers? How many apples? How much money? How much medicine? These are all questions which can only be answered using numbers to tell us “how much” of something we want to measure. that there will be two apples left. So try out your skills on the exercises throughout this chapter and ask your teacher for more questions just like them. However. That is your brain representing the apples in numbers and then performing arithmetic on them. which simply means all of the real numbers. All the red apples form another set which is a subset of the set of apples. because they are not physical. For example.
2.4 CHAPTER 2. The speed of light is a big number and it takes up space to always write down the entire number. 1+x=2 4−y =2 z + 3 − 2z = 2 These letters are referred to as variables. you are performing arithmetic 1 . 1+ 4− =2 =2 =2 +3−2 However. For example. subtracted. which is used to combine things. We use the set and interval notation and the symbols described because it is easier than having to write everything out in words. Therefore. it is accepted that the letter c represents the speed of light. then write R15 instead of z and R10 instead of y and the change is then x. The number 1 is a constant. multiply or divide them. letters are also used to represent some constants. For example.10) (2. letters are usually used to represent numbers. So instead of: one plus one is equal to two mathematicians write 1+1=2 In earlier grades.3] ∪ [6. x represents the amount of change you should get back and z is the amount of money given to the cashier. if x is a real number such that 1 < x ≤ 3 or 6 ≤ x < 10.2. 1 Arithmetic is derived from the Greek word arithmos meaning number. For more advanced mathematical workings. but x = 26 in 2 + x = 28. then the set of all the possible x values is (1. place holders only work well for simple equations. So. letters can be used to describe a situation. multiplied or divided. x + 10 = 15 (2. if the price is R10 and you gave the cashier R15.2) can be used to describe the situation of ﬁnding how much change can be expected for buying an item. since they can take on any value depending on what is required. Mathematics as a language uses special notation to write things down. Here we use it to combine two or more intervals. x = 1 in Equation 2. The symbol for union is ∪.2.1) where the ∪ sign means the union (or combination) of the two intervals.3) We will learn how to “solve” this equation towards the end of this chapter. 8 . the following equation x+y =z (2. When two numbers are added. REVIEW OF PAST WORK Now we come to the idea of a union. y represents the price of the item you are buying. Such constants represented by letters occur most often in physics and chemistry. subtract. A constant has a ﬁxed value. These four basic operations can be performed on any two real numbers. place holders were used to indicate missing numbers in an equation. The speed of light in a vacuum is also a constant which has been deﬁned to be exactly 299 792 458 m·s−1 (read metres per second).4 Letters and Arithmetic The simplest things that can be done with numbers is to add. For example. mathematically. In the case of the speed of light. In this equation. Additionally.
In this case.5) The sign = means “is not equal to”. 2. /) are opposites of each other. is known as the commutative property for addition.7) It is usually neater to write known numbers to the left. Don’t worry. −2 is a negative number. then addition means that we move to the right and subtraction means that we move to the left. but the order in which numbers are subtracted does matter. which is explained in detail in Section 2. Therefore.4) If we look at a number line.7 Brackets Brackets2 in mathematics are used to show the order in which you must do things.CHAPTER 2.5 Addition and Subtraction Addition (+) and subtraction () are the most basic operations between numbers but they are very closely related to each other. Mathematicians are lazy and like to write things in the shortest. ·) and division (÷. Extension: Commutativity for Multiplication The fact that ab = ba is known as the commutative property of multiplication. 2 + 3 = 5 and 3 + 2 = 5.8. it looks better to write 4x. we will just get back to a again a+b−b=a 5+2−2=5 (2.6) Sometimes you will see a multiplication of letters as a dot or without any symbol.5 2. both addition and multiplication are described as commutative operations. then subtract b. This means that: a+b a−b = b+a = b − a if a = b (2. multiplication (×. The order in which numbers are added does not matter. This is important as you can get diﬀerent answers depending on the order in which you do things. 2. For example. if we start with a and add b. and letters to the right. its exactly the same thing. abc = a·b·c = a×b×c a×b×c (2. Extension: Commutativity for Addition The fact that a + b = b + a. but 5 − 3 = 2 and 3 − 5 = −2. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2. the “4” is a constant that is referred to as the coeﬃcient of x. 9 . For example.6 Multiplication and Division Just like addition and subtraction. You can think of subtracting as being the opposite of adding since adding a number and then subtracting the same number will not change what you started with. For 2 Sometimes people say “parenthesis” instead of “brackets”. neatest way possible. So although 4x and x4 are the same thing. Multiplying by a number and then dividing by the same number gets us back to the start again: a×b÷b=a 5×4÷4=5 (2.
then you can do it one step at a time (a + b)(c + d) (a + 3)(4 + d) = a(c + d) + b(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd = a(4 + d) + 3(4 + d) = 4a + ad + 12 + 3d (2. REVIEW OF PAST WORK (5 × 5) + 20 = 45 whereas 5 × (5 + 20) = 125 (2.10) If you see a multiplication outside a bracket like this a(b + c) 3(4 − 3) then it means you have to multiply each part inside the bracket by the number outside a(b + c) = ab + ac (2.2.8 2. in the above example.8 example CHAPTER 2. You can always put your own brackets into equations using this rule to make things easier for yourself. it would have been smarter to have done this 3(4 − 3) = 3 × (1) = 3 It can happen with letters too 3(4a − 3a) = 3 × (a) = 3a (2.1 Negative Numbers What is a negative number? Negative numbers can be very confusing to begin with.8. if we were to take a positive number a and subtract it from zero.15) 2. but there is nothing to be afraid of. Likewise it doesn’t matter which order you do addition and subtraction. In fact. So. If there are two brackets multiplied by each other. These numbers are known as positive numbers. Just as long as you do any ×÷ before any +−. the answer would be the negative of a.14) (2. 10 .13) Extension: Distributivity The fact that a(b + c) = ab + ac is known as the distributive property.11) 3(4 − 3) = 3 × 4 − 3 × 3 = 12 − 9 = 3 unless you can simplify everything inside the bracket into a single term.12) (2. A negative number is simply a number that is less than zero.8) (2. The numbers that are used most often are greater than zero. you should always do multiplications and divisions ﬁrst and then additions and subtractions3 . for example: a×b+c÷d = 5 × 5 + 20 ÷ 4 = (a × b) + (c ÷ d) (5 × 5) + (20 ÷ 4) (2.9) If there are no brackets. 0 − a = −a 3 Multiplying and dividing can be performed in any order as it doesn’t matter.
but −b is a negative number 5 − 3 = 5 + (−3) So.1: Table of signs for multiplying or dividing two numbers. most people ﬁnd 12 − 3 a lot easier to work out than −3 + 12. Subtraction is actually the same as adding a negative number. it is the same as adding the number if it were positive.16) Table 2. The ﬁrst column shows the sign of the ﬁrst number. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2. a + + b + + a+b + ? ?  Table 2. In this example. is the accepted way of writing subtractions. So multiplying or a + + b + + a × b or a ÷ b + + a − b = a + (−b) (2. The ﬁrst column shows the sign of the ﬁrst number.2 Working with Negative Numbers When you are adding a negative number. if you subtract a negative number. and the third column shows what sign the answer will be. and instead of writing a + (−b). This also means that −b + a is the same as a − b. Now. even though they are the same thing. the second column gives the sign of the second number.CHAPTER 2. Adding numbers works slightly diﬀerently. we write a − b.2. have a look at Table 2. For example.8. which do you ﬁnd easier to work out? Most people ﬁnd that the ﬁrst way is a bit more diﬃcult to work out than the second way. 2. which looks neater and requires less writing. but −2 × 3 = −6 and 2 × −3 = −6. A positive number has positive sign (+).8 On a number line. 2 × 3 = 6 and −2 × −3 = 6. it is the same as subtracting that number if it were positive.1: On the number line. whereas multiplying or dividing numbers which have the same sign always gives a positive number. a − b. the second column gives the sign of the second number.2: Table of signs for adding two numbers. this means that subtraction is simply a shortcut for adding a negative number. a negative number appears to the left of zero and a positive number appears to the right of zero. dividing a negative number by a positive number always gives you a negative number. a and b are positive numbers. 11 . So. and a negative number has a negative sign (). and we call this their sign. numbers increase towards the right and decrease towards the left. Numbers are either positive or negative. negative numbers 3 2 1 0 1 positive numbers 2 3 Figure 2.1 shows how to calculate the sign of the answer when you multiply two numbers together. Table 2. For example. Positive numbers appear to the right of zero and negative numbers appear to the left of zero. and the third column shows what sign the answer will be. Likewise.
8 CHAPTER 2. and remember to put a negative sign before the answer if the bigger number was subtracted to begin with. so for example you can use Tip 1 on −10 + 3 to get 3 − 10.2. If the numbers have diﬀerent sign. Calculate: (a) (−5) − (−3) (d) 11 − (−9) (g) (−1) × 24 ÷ 8 × (−3) (j) 3 − 64 + 1 (m) −9 + 8 − 7 + 6 − 5 + 4 − 3 + 2 − 1 12 (b) (−4) + 2 (e) −16 − (6) (h) (−2) + (−7) (k) −5 − 5 − 5 (c) (−10) ÷ (−2) (f) −9 ÷ 3 × 2 (i) 1 − 12 (l) −6 + 25 . and then use Tip 3 to get −(10 − 3) = −7. even though they are exactly the same question. but it can get very ineﬃcient to use it every time you want to add or subtract negative numbers. So. To keep things simple. then the sign of the answer depends on which one is bigger. a question like “What is −7 + 11?” looks a lot more complicated than “What is 11 − 7?”. In this equation. −a + b = b−a (2. −c − d = −7 − 2 = Negative Numbers Tip 3 In Table 2. then it is easier to move the numbers around so that the equation looks easier. This tip tells us that all we need to do is take the smaller number away from the larger one. Negative Numbers Tip 1 If you are given an equation like −a + b. −(c + d) −(7 + 2) = −9 (2.18) 2 − 11 = e−F = −(F − e) (2. Negative Numbers Tip 2 When you have two negative numbers like −3 − 7. we will write down three tips that you can use to make working with negative numbers a little bit easier. REVIEW OF PAST WORK If you add two positive numbers you will always get a positive number.19) −(11 − 2) = −9 You can even combine these tips together.17) −5 + 10 = 10 − 5 = 5 This makes equations easier to understand. F is bigger than e. Exercise: Negative Numbers 1. you can calculate the answer by simply adding together the numbers as if they were positive and then putting a negative sign in front. These tips will let you work out what the answer is when you add or subtract numbers which may be negative and will also help you keep your work tidy and easier to understand. 2. we have seen that adding a negative number to a positive number is the same as subtracting the number from the positive number.1 is a good way to visualise what negative numbers are.8.3 Living Without the Number Line The number line in Figure 2. but if you add two negative numbers you will always get a negative number.2 we saw that the sign of two numbers added together depends on which one is bigger. For example. For this case.
how exactly do we go about ﬁnding what the change is? In mathematical terms. must be done to the other. Likewise if you move a multiplied number from one side to the other. as long as you always do it to both sides. multiply and divide them. we wrote a general equation for calculating how much change (x) we can expect if we know how much an item costs (y) and how much we have given the cashier (z). Method: Rearranging Equations You can add. and a 13 .22) x = x = = z−y 15 − 10 5 so now we can ﬁnd the change is the price subtracted from the amount handed over to the cashier. In real life we can do this in our head. This is because you really just divided both sides by that number.21) Now. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2. subtract. x + 10 = 15 (2. multiply or divide both sides of an equation by any number you want. the human brain is very smart and can do arithmetic without even knowing it. The equation is: x+y =z (2. so that only x is on the left hand side of the = sign and everything else is on the right. subtract. if the price is R10 and you gave the cashier R15. We want to rearrange the terms in the equation. whatever. When you subtract a number from both sides of an equation. So for our example we could subtract y from both sides x+y x+y−y = = z z−y (2. that we have written this equation down. In order to keep the scales balanced. which is exactly what happened. the change should be R5. it looks just like you moved a positive number from one side and it became a negative on the other. we are ready to tackle some real mathematics problems! Earlier in this chapter. is done to one side. this is known as solving an equation for an unknown (x in this case). then write R15 instead of z and R10 instead of y.CHAPTER 2.9 Rearranging Equations Now that we have described the basic rules of negative and positive numbers and what to do when you add. In the example. The most important thing to remember is that an equation is like a set of weighing scales.20) So.9 2. Say whether the sign of the answer is + or (a) −5 + 6 (d) −5 ÷ 5 (g) −5 × −5 (j) 5 × 5 (b) −5 + 1 (e) 5 ÷ −5 (h) −5 × 5 (c) −5 ÷ −5 (f) 5 ÷ 5 (i) 5 × −5 2. it looks like it changed to a divide.
23) However you must be careful when doing this. subtract.9 CHAPTER 2. So. multiply or divide the other side too. Figure 2. In order to keep the scales balanced. The correct thing to do is 5a + c = 5+c÷a = c÷a = 3a 3 3 − 5 = −2 (2. you must do the same thing to both sides. multiply or divide the one side.25) Exercise: Rearranging Equations 14 .2.2: An equation is like a set of weighing scales. REVIEW OF PAST WORK x+y z x+y−y z−y divide the other side too. as it is easy to make mistakes. number divided by itself is just 1 a(5 + c) a(5 + c) ÷ a a × (5 + c) a 1 × (5 + c) 5+c c = 3a = 3a ÷ a a = 3× a = 3×1 = 3 = 3 − 5 = −2 (2. The following is the wrong thing to do 5a + c 5+c = = 4 3a 3a ÷ a (2. subtract. if you add. you must add.24) Can you see why it is wrong? It is wrong because we did not divide the c term by a as well.
We call the number on the top. the reciprocal of 3 3 is 2 .14. The reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction turned upside down. Table 2.Multiplicative Inverse The reciprocal of a number is also known as the multiplicative inverse. There are several ways to write a number divided by another one. . some numbers would take a huge amount of paper (and ink) to write out in full! Some decimal numbers will have a number which will repeat itself. which is written as a comma in South 14 Africa. A fraction multiplied by its reciprocal is always equal to 1 and can be written b a × =1 b a This is because dividing by a number is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal.3 lists some common fractions and their decimal forms.. Find the value for x if 0. so 0. The ﬁrst way of writing a fraction is very hard b to work with.. so we will use only the other two.12 = 0..33333 . a/b and a . where there are an inﬁnite number of 3’s. We can ˙ write this decimal value by using a dot above the repeating number. However. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 1.12 15 .CHAPTER 2. then 2r − 5 = . Solve 9 − 2n = 3(n + 2) 4..Fraction The word fraction means part of a whole.121212 .10 + 1 bx =1 2. The integer and the fractional parts are separated by a decimal point.5(x − 8) = 0. All real numbers can be written as a decimal number. For example. like 0. . If there are two repeating numbers such as 0. such as a ÷ b. A decimal number is a number which has an integer part and a fractional part. So. such as 0. These kinds of repeating decimals are called recurring decimals.121212 .33333 . then you can place dots5 on each of the ˙˙ repeated numbers 0. . . . For example the number 3 100 can be written much more cleanly as 3. in other words the numerator 2 becomes the denominator and the denominator becomes the numerator.2x + 11 3..10 Fractions and Decimal Numbers A fraction is one number divided by another number. . Change the formula P = A + Akt to A = 5. 5 or a bar. .3 = 0.27) Extension: Deﬁnition ..26) Extension: Deﬁnition . the numerator and the number on the bottom the denominator. If 3(2r − 5) = 27. Solve for x: 1 ax 2. 2. . 1 5 numerator = 1 denominator = 5 (2. (2.
The following are examples of real numbers and it is seen that each number is written in a diﬀerent way. In this example.125 ˙ 0.05 0.1. the size of the HI virus is around 120 × 10−9 m.00 × 108 ms−1 .28) where a is a decimal number between 0 and 10 that is rounded oﬀ to a few decimal places.5 0.e. 2. First. to two decimal places. determine where the decimal point must go for two decimal places (to ﬁnd a) and then count how many places there are after the decimal point to determine m. REVIEW OF PAST WORK Decimal Form 0.75 Table 2. A set diagram of the diﬀerent number types is shown in Figure 2.11 Scientiﬁc Notation In science one often needs to work with very large or very small numbers.2 × 10−3 represents 0. write the speed of light which is 299 792 458 ms−1 in scientiﬁc notation. but since the number after the 9 is a 7. 34 − 5. − 1 90 (2. For example. 2. 2. So the speed of light in scientiﬁc notation.00 × 10m . because there are 8 digits left after the decimal point. √ 3. we need to work out the value of the exponent m) and what this number is (the value of a). a = 3. the decimal point must go after the ﬁrst 2. integer or natural. − 6.12 Real Numbers Now that we have learnt about the basics of mathematics. 56 .35. irrational.166 0. As another example.00. 10. where m = 8. 1. The m is an integer and if it is positive it represents how many zeros should appear to the right of a.0032.11 Fraction 1 20 1 16 1 10 1 8 1 6 1 5 1 2 3 4 CHAPTER 2.2557878. This is equal to 120 × 0. we need to work out how many times the number must be multiplied or divided by 10 to make it into a number between 1 and 10 (i. we can look at what real numbers are in a little more detail. These can be written more easily in scientiﬁc notation.1 0.3. which has the general form a × 10m (2.0625 0. to two decimal places is 3. 16 .2 0. If m is negative then it represents how many times the decimal place in a should be moved to the left. We do this by counting the number of decimal places the decimal point must move.000000001 m which is 0.00000012 m.2 × 103 represents 32000 and 3.2. If a number must be converted into scientiﬁc notation. So the number is 3. For example 3.3: Some common fractions and their equivalent decimal forms. it can be further labelled as either rational.29) Depending on how the real number is written.
We√ not see will imaginary numbers in this book but you will see that they come from −1. if you see a number you can be sure it is a real one. the integers Z and the natural numbers N.12 N Z Q R Figure 2. The irrational numbers are the numbers not inside the set of rational numbers.33) (2. −3. 3. 2.12.3: Set diagram of all the real numbers R. 1. 2. . These numbers are called natural numbers and are the simplest numbers in mathematics. The following are examples of rational numbers: 20 .32) .CHAPTER 2. This type of number is known as a rational number. . The integers are a subset of the real numbers. 2. but what happens when you divide one apple into 4 equal pieces and share it among your friends? Then it is not a whole apple anymore and a diﬀerent type of number is needed to describe the apples. the rational numbers Q. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2. Extension: NonReal Numbers All numbers that are not real numbers have imaginary components. (2. 4 . All of the integers are also rational numbers.30) Mathematicians use the symbol N to mean the set of all natural numbers. since every integer is a real number. The natural numbers are a subset of the real numbers since every natural number is also a real number. For example you can have 4 apples.31) Mathematicians use the symbol Z to mean the set of all integers. 1. 2 10 17 3 15 (2. Since we won’t be looking at numbers which are not real. 4 .3 Rational Numbers The natural numbers and the integers are only able to describe quantities that are whole or complete. 9 −1 20 .2 Integers The integers are all of the natural numbers and their negatives . . . but not all rational numbers are integers. A rational number is any number which can be written as: a b where a and b are integers and b = 0. 0. .1 Natural Numbers The ﬁrst type of numbers that are learnt about are the numbers that were used for counting. −1. .12. 2.12. 0. 2. − 4. (2. 3. −2. .
. This can be achieved by dividing both the numerator and the denominator by the same integer. 6. 24.34) (2. a. 8. You can also add rational numbers together by ﬁnding a lowest common denominator and then adding the numerators. You can add and multiply rational numbers and still get a rational number at the end.4: 8 12 of the pizza is the same as 2 3 of the pizza. For example. 12.35) Extension: Notation Tip The statement ”4 integers a. c and d” can be written formally as {a. 16. c Two rational numbers ( a and d ) represent the same number if ad = bc. 18 . The following numbers all have a factor of 3 3. 6 Some people say divisor instead of factor. It is always best b to simplify any rational number so that the denominator is as small as possible. a. 15. If we have 4 integers. 3 8 12 2 3 Figure 2. 21.4). A factor of a number is an integer which evenly divides that number without leaving a remainder. REVIEW OF PAST WORK Extension: Notation Tip Rational numbers are any number that can be expressed in the form a . 28 . . c and d. which is very useful. and the following all have factors of 4 4. which gives 8 1/10. b. Extension: Rational Numbers All integers are rational numbers with denominator 1. Finding a lowest common denominator means ﬁnding the lowest number that both denominators are a factor 6 of. . The set of rational numbers contains all numbers which can be written as terminating or repeating decimals. c. 2 of a pizza is the same as 12 (Figure 2. b.2. 18. then the rules for adding and multiplying rational numbers are c a + b d a c × b d = = ad + bc bd ac bd (2. 24 . b ∈ Z.12 CHAPTER 2. d} ∈ Z because the ∈ symbol means in and we say that a. 12. . 9. b Mathematicians use the symbol Q to mean the set of all rational numbers. c and d are in the set of integers. b = 0 b which means “the set of numbers a when a and b are integers”. b. 20. b. the rational number 1000/10000 can be divided by 1000 on the top and the bottom.
. 3 2 3 4 3 We can do this by multiplying 4 by 3 and 3 by 4 . = b d b c bc A rational number may be a proper or improper fraction. 3 2 + 4 3 = = = = = 3 3 2 4 × + × 4 3 3 4 3×3 2×4 + 4×3 3×4 9 8 + 12 12 9+8 12 17 12 (2. For example. Since long division. which is 12. (2. . .14159265 . for example 2 = 1. 2 15 −20 are improper fractions. −10 13 −53 . If you do not have a calculator. if we wish to add 4 + 2 . The lowest common denominator of 3 and 4 is the number that has both 3 and 4 as factors. π is a Greek letter and is pronounced “pie”.. which we know is 12.4 Irrational Numbers An irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number.36) Dividing by a rational number is the same as multiplying by its reciprocal. Multiplying a number by 1 doesn’t change the number. Improper fractions can always be written as the sum of an integer and a proper fraction. −1 3 −5 . as long as neither the numerator nor the denominator is zero: a c a d ad ÷ = . REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2. then please ask your friends or your teacher to explain it to you. then you unfortunately have to use long division. . For example. 3 and 4 are really just complicated ways of 4 writing 1.12.41421356 . .12 The common denominators between 3 and 4 are all the numbers that appear in both of these lists.. was ﬁrst taught in primary school. it will not be discussed here. When expressed as decimals these numbers can never be fully written out as they have √ inﬁnite number of an decimal places which never fall into a repeating pattern. we ﬁrst need to write both fractions so that their 3 denominators are the same by ﬁnding the lowest common denominator.37) 2. Proper fractions have a numerator that is smaller than the denominator. If you use a calculator. Improper fractions have a numerator that is larger than the denominator. π = 3. 3 For example. like 12 and 24. Exercise: Real Numbers 19 . 2 15 −20 are proper fractions.CHAPTER 2. Converting Rationals into Decimal Numbers Converting rationals into decimal numbers is very easy. . If you have trouble with long division. you can simply divide the numerator by the denominator.
Instead of saying that x is between 6 and 10. Write the following in symbols: (a) (b) (c) (d) x is greater than 1 y is less than or equal to z a is greater than or equal to 21 p is greater than or equal to 21 and p is less than or equal to 25 2.2. Identify the number type (rational. √ the following pair of numbers real and rational or real and irrational? Explain. we often write 6 < 10. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 1. integer) of each of the following numbers: c (a) d if c is an integer and if d is irrational. Exercise: Mathematical Symbols 1. we mean that x can be greater than or equal to y. < means ‘is less than’ and ≤ means ‘is less than or equal to’. 3 (b) 2 (c) 25 (d) 1. real. we say that x is greater than 5 and if we write x ≥ y. Is 4. Similarly.13 CHAPTER 2. irrational. When talking about recurring decimals and irrational numbers. 20 . inﬁnity is often treated as if it were a number. 1 8 2. but it is clearly a very diﬀerent type of “number” than the integers or reals. the term inﬁnite was used to describe neverending digits.13 Mathematical Symbols The following is a table of the meanings of some mathematical signs and symbols that you should have come across in earlier grades. In mathematics. Sign or Symbol > < ≥ ≤ Meaning greater than less than greater than or equal to less than or equal to So if we write x > 5.14 Inﬁnity Inﬁnity (symbol ∞) is usually thought of as something like “the largest possible number” or “the furthest possible distance”. This directly means ‘six is less than x which in turn is less than ten’.525 √ (e) 10 2.
.. If p = q + 4r.. REVIEW OF PAST WORK 2.15 2. Calculate (b) 10 + 3(2 + 6) (d) 2 × 9 − 3(6 − 1) + 1 (e) 8 + 24 ÷ 4 × 2 (f) 30 − 3 × 4 + 2 (c) 50 − 10(4 − 2) + 6 (h) 20 − 4 × 2 + 3 (g) 36 ÷ 4(5 − 2) + 6 (i) 4 + 6(8 + 2) − 3 (j) 100 − 10(2 + 3) + 4 2. 3.. then r = .CHAPTER 2. Solve x−2 3 =x−3 21 .15 End of Chapter Exercises (a) 18 − 6 × 2 1.
REVIEW OF PAST WORK 22 .2.15 CHAPTER 2.
2. and 0. 3. 3.1) You can see that all the denominators and all the numerators are integers1 . 7 −1 . 1 21 . Deﬁnition: Rational Number A rational number is any number which can be written as: a b where a and b are integers and b = 0. This chapter describes rational numbers. 23 .1 Introduction As described in Chapter 2. 1 Integers (3. The numbers that will be used in high school are all real numbers.3 Deﬁnition 10 .2 The Big Picture of Numbers Real Numbers Rationals Integers All numbers inside the grey oval are rational numbers. Whole Natural Irrationals 3.Chapter 3 Rational Numbers . a number is a way of representing quantity. 2. 3.2) are the counting numbers (1. but there are many diﬀerent ways of writing any single real number.. 20 −3 6 The following numbers are all rational numbers. (3. .Grade 10 3. −3 10 . their opposites (1..)..).. .
because in each case.5.4.39 (3.GRADE 10 Important: Only fractions which have a numerator and a denominator that are integers are rational numbers. 3. If a is an integer. either the numerator or the denominator is not an integer.4 Forms of Rational Numbers All integers and fractions with integer numerators and denominators are rational numbers.4 CHAPTER 3. while √ 2 . 4. which of the following are valid values for a? √ (d) 2. Exercise: Rational Numbers 1. 20 −3 6. 7 −1. 5. Two types of decimal numbers can be written as rational numbers: 1. you should be able to write a decimal number as a rational number. There are two more forms of rational numbers. Write the 2 following numbers as decimals: 1. . 2. If a 1 5 6 (b) a 3 (c) b 2 (d) 1 c is a rational number. This means that all integers are rational numbers. for example the fraction 24 4 10 can be written as 0. Activity :: Investigation : Decimal Numbers You can write the rational number 1 as the decimal number 0. Therefore.3) are not examples of rational numbers. Therefore.33 . which of the following are rational numbers: (a) 2. 1 4 1 10 2 5 1 100 2 3 Do the numbers after the decimal comma end or do they continue? If they continue. is there a repeating pattern to the numbers? You can write a rational number as a decimal number.1 (a) 1 (b) −10 (c) 2 3. decimal numbers that end or terminate.3. b is an integer and c is not an integer. because they can be written with a denominator of 1. −3 π . RATIONAL NUMBERS .
.e. The fractional part can be written as a rational number.333333.103 = 2 + 0 3 1 + + 10 100 1000 103 = 2 1000 2103 = 1000 Exercise: Fractions 1. Each digit after the decimal point is a fraction with denominator in increasing powers of ten.589 = 10.4) from (3.4) multiply by 10 on both sides subtracting (3. Write the following as fractions: (a) 0. i.5) 0. Important: Notation for Repeating Decimals You can use a bar over the repeated numbers to indicate that the decimal is a repeating decimal.589. a bit more work is needed to write the fractional part of the decimal number as a fraction. and similarly. If we wish to write 0.12 (c) 0. 3 3 1 = 9 3 25 . with a numerator and a denominator that are integers.1 is 0.5) (3. 3. . for example the fraction can be written as 0.33333 .25 can be written as a rational number as 4 .5 1 3 2. 3. the rational number 6 can be written in decimal notation as 0.589 has an integer part of 10 and a fractional part of 0.3 in the form follows x = 10x = 9x = x = a b (where a and b are integers) then we would proceed as (3.6 Converting Repeating Decimals into Rational Numbers When the decimal is a repeating decimal.2589 3.589 because 10 + 0. For example.58 (d) 0.5 Converting Terminating Decimals into Rational Numbers A decimal number has an integer part and a fractional part. .1 (b) 0.GRADE 10 3. We will explain by means of an example. 5 For example. decimal numbers that have a repeating pattern of numbers. .33333 . 10. 1 the decimal number 0.83333.CHAPTER 3. For example: • • 1 10 1 100 is 0. RATIONAL NUMBERS .01 This means that: 2.
7 CHAPTER 3. .4142135. RATIONAL NUMBERS . . . Write the following decimals in fractional form: (a) 0. But √ all decimal numbers can be written as rational numbers. (d) 0.570571 .432 as a rational fraction x = 1000x = 999x = x = 5.7) subtracting (3. .432432432 . (b) 0.6333 . . Write the following in decimal form. 3. (c) 0. the decimal number was multiplied by 10 and for the second example. (d) 0. • Decimal numbers that repeat. 5432. if you have two numbers recurring. 3. . . • Integers. 26 . . while for the second example there were three numbers (i.999999 .11414541454145 . using the repeated decimal notation: 2 (a) 3 3 (b) 1 11 5 (c) 4 6 1 (d) 2 9 . . you should always use rational numbers or fractions instead of decimals.. .6) from (3. 3) that recurred. Can you spot the pattern yet? The number of zeros after the 1 is the same as the number of recurring numbers. However.3. In general. . . 432) that recurred. if you have three numbers recurring. (b) 5.6) (3. Exercise: Repeated Decimal Notation 1.313131 (c) 11. then multiply by 10.123123123123 . .7) For the ﬁrst example. Write the following using the repeated decimal notation: (a) 0. • Decimal numbers that end.e. is an irrational number and cannot be written with an integer numerator and an integer denominator. . . then multiply by 1000. 5427 5427 201 = 999 37 multiply by 1000 on both sides (3. if you have one number recurring.e.. . .7 Summary The following are rational numbers: • Fractions with both denominator and numerator as integers. when possible.11111111 .1212121212 . . then multiply by 100.GRADE 10 And another example would be to write 5. . 2. because some decimal numbers not like 2 = 1. This is because for the ﬁrst example there was only one number (i.432432432 . the decimal number was multiplied by 1000. .
which of the following are rational numbers: (a) (b) (c) (d) 5 6 a 3 b 2 1 c 2.5 (b) 0.12 (c) 0. ˙ 4. b ∈ Z.8 3.GRADE 10 3.CHAPTER 3. express 0.8 End of Chapter Exercises 1. If a is an integer. RATIONAL NUMBERS . 27 .218 is a rational number.6 (d) 1.78 as a fraction a b where a.277 ˙˙ 3. Write each decimal as a simple fraction: (a) 0. b is an integer and c is not an integer. Show that the decimal 3. Showing all working.59 (e) 12.
GRADE 10 28 . RATIONAL NUMBERS .3.8 CHAPTER 3.
you will learn about the shortcuts to writing 2 × 2 × 2 × 2. .1) Important: Exponentials If n is an even integer. −n.2 Deﬁnition Exponential notation is a short way of writing the same number multiplied by itself many times. a−n = 1 ÷ a ÷ a ÷ . a is called the base and n is called the exponent. The nth power of a is deﬁned as: an = 1 × a × a × . . We will now have a closer look at writing numbers using exponential notation. We can also deﬁne what it means if we have a negative index. Then. 4 29 . 4. (−2)2 = 1 × −2 × −2 = 4 is positive and so is (−2)−2 = 1 ÷ −2 ÷ −2 = 1 .2) (n times) (4. although −2 is negative. instead of 5 × 5 × 5. For example. then an will always be positive for any nonzero real number a.Grade 10 4. × a with a multiplied by itself n times.1 Introduction In this chapter. ÷ a (n times) (4. . Likewise 52 is 5 × 5 and 35 is 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3. . This is known as writing a number in exponential notation. Deﬁnition: Exponential Notation Exponential notation means a number written like an when n is an integer and a can be any real number. we write 53 to show that the number 5 is multiplied by itself 3 times and we say “5 to the power of 3”.Chapter 4 Exponentials . For example.
9) For example..× a = am+n For example. Some of these laws might have been seen in earlier grades.6) (4. a0 a × an a−n am ÷ an (ab) (am )n n m = 1 = am+n 1 = an = am−n = a b = amn n n (4.. 160 = 1 2. 27 × 23 = (2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2) × (2 × 2 × 2) = 210 = 27+3 30 . (a = 0) 1.10) Our deﬁnition of exponential notation shows that ×1 × a × . Exercise: Application using Exponential Law 1: a0 = 1.× a (m times) (n times) (m + n times) (4. .3 CHAPTER 4. but we will explain each law in detail. × a = 1 × a× . x0 = 1 and (1 000 000)0 = 1.3) (4.. −160 = −1 4. EXPONENTIALS .1 Exponential Law 1: a0 = 1 Our deﬁnition of exponential notation shows that a0 = 1.7) (4. (−16)0 = 1 5.3.3 Laws of Exponents There are several laws we can use to make working with exponential numbers easier.8) 4. (a = 0) (4. (16 + a)0 = 1 4.5) (4.4. but we will list all the laws here for easy reference. . and not only remember them.3. so that you can understand them. 16a0 = 16 3.2 Exponential Law 2: am × an = am+n am × an = 1 × a× .4) (4.GRADE 10 4..
This saved mathematicians a lot of time.24 = 27 [Take note that the base (2) stays the same.] 4. 3. Multiplication takes a very long time to do and is very tedious. In the Interesting Fact Fact days before calculators.CHAPTER 4.÷ a 1 1 × a× ···× a 1 an (n times) (n times) (4. x2 .x5 = x7 Exercise: Application using Exponential Law 2: am × an = am+n 3.3. 1. 2x3 y × 5x2 y 7 = 10x5 y 8 4. a =0 = 1 4 1 1 2−2 32 = 22 . there was no need to actually multiply the numbers together in order to ﬁnd out what their multiple was. 23 . 2−7 = = 1 2×2×2×2×2×2×2 1 27 Exercise: Application using Exponential Law 3: a−n = 1. is very easy and quick to do.GRADE 10 4. Adding numbers however. 1 22 1 an ..3 teresting This simple law is the reason why exponentials were originally invented. 3 × 32a × 32 = 32a+3 2. all multiplication had to be done by hand with a pencil and a pad of paper.a an =0 Our deﬁnition of exponential notation for a negative exponent shows that a−n = = = 1 ÷ a÷ . which they could use to do something more productive.32 = 36 ( 2 )−3 = ( 3 )3 = 27 3 2 8 31 .11) This means that a minus sign in the exponent is just another way of writing that the whole exponential number is to be divided instead of multiplied. This meant that for certain numbers.. 2−2 = 2.3 Exponential Law 3: a−n = 1 . EXPONENTIALS . For example. If you look at what this law is saying you will realise that it means that adding the exponents of two exponential numbers (of the same base) is the same as multiplying the two numbers together.
.x2 a3 .x4 a5 .GRADE 10 = mn4 = x4 . 3.5 Exponential Law 5: (ab)n = an bn The order in which two real numbers are multiplied together does not matter..12) = 24 = 27−3 Exercise: Exponential Law 4: am ÷ an = am−n 1. (2 · 3)4 = 24 34 = (24 ) × (34 ) = (2 · 3) × (2 · 3) × (2 · 3) × (2 · 3) = (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) × (3 × 3 × 3 × 3) 32 . m n−4 CHAPTER 4. 2.4 Exponential Law 4: am ÷ an = am−n We already realised with law 3 that a minus sign is another way of saying that the exponential number is to be divided instead of multiplied. × b = an b n For example.x−2 = x6 a8 4. Law 4 is just a more general way of saying the same thing. 5. 4. . a6 a2 32 36 = a6−2 = a4 = 32−6 = 3−4 = 2 1 34 [Always give ﬁnal answer with positive index] 32a 4a8 a a4 3x = 8a −6 = 8 a6 = a3x−4 4..13) ×b × b × . 27 ÷ 23 = 2×2×2×2×2×2×2 2×2×2 = 2×2×2×2 am a−n am−n (4. (ab)n = = a× b × a × b × .3 4. am an = = For example.× a (n times) (n times) (4.a5 a−3 .. . Therefore.3.3. We can get this law by just multiplying law 3 by am on both sides and using law 2. EXPONENTIALS .4.× a× b (n times) a× a × .
3 Exercise: Exponential Law 5: (ab)n = an bn 1. EXPONENTIALS . .CHAPTER 4.GRADE 10 4.9 Question: Simplify: 5 152x−3 Answer Step 1 : Factorise all bases into prime factors: 2x−1 x−2 = = 52x−1 . (3n+3 )2 = 32n+6 Worked Example 1: Simlifying indices . . After all.3.32x−4 52x−3 .6 Exponential Law 6: (am )n = amn We can ﬁnd the exponential of an exponential just as well as we can for a number. [(a4 )3 ]2 = a24 3. (2x2 y)3 = 23 x2×3 y 5 = 8x6 y 5 2.32x−3 Step 2 : Add and subtract the indices of the sam bases as per laws 2 and 4: 33 . × am (n times) a× a× . (5a 49a2 b6 n−4 3 ) = 125a3n−12 4. (22 )3 = = = = (22 ) × (22 ) × (22 ) am × am × . an exponential number is a real number. × a (m × n times) (4. (am )n = = = For example...(32 )x−2 (5. ( 7a )2 = b3 3. (x3 )4 = x12 2.14) amn (2 × 2) × (2 × 2) × (2 × 2) (26 ) 2(2×3) Exercise: Exponential Law 6: (am )n = amn 1.3)2x−3 52x−1 .
4. 3.32x−4−2x+3 = 52 .4 End of Chapter Exercises 1. 1.3a+3 6a a2m+n+p am+n+p .am 3n .3−1 Step 3 : Write simpliﬁed answer with positive indices: = 25 3 Activity :: Investigation : Exponential Numbers Match the answers to the questions. 1. Simplify. Leave your answers with positive exponents. Simplify as far as possible: (a) 3020 (e) (2x)3 (b) 10 (f) (−2x)3 (c) (xyz)0 (g) (2x)4 (d) [(3x4 y 7 z 12 )5 (−5x9 y 3 z 4 )2 ]0 (h) (−2x)4 2. 8.4 CHAPTER 4. (a) 3x−3 (3x)2 (b) 5x0 + 8−2 − ( 1 )−2 .GRADE 10 = 52x−1−2x−3 . Simplify without using a calculator. Possible answers are: 3 . 2 Question 23 73−3 ( 2 )−1 3 87−6 (−3)−1 (−1)23 Answer 4. EXPONENTIALS .1x 2 (c) 5b−3 5b+1 3.9n−3 27n−1 2a (d) ( 2x )3 y −b 34 . by ﬁlling in the correct answer into the Answer column. showing all steps: (a) (b) (c) 2a−2 .
(−3)2 . Simplify.273−2n 812−n 23n+2 .CHAPTER 4. EXPONENTIALS . (−3)−4 (b) (3−1 + 2−1 )−1 (c) (d) 9n−1 . without using a calculator: (a) (−3)−3 .112x 222x−1 .32x 4.4 4.8x+1 42x−2 62x .GRADE 10 (e) (f) 23x−1 .8n−3 43n−2 35 .
EXPONENTIALS .4 CHAPTER 4.GRADE 10 36 .4.
so we usually do not write 2 a. For example. a perfect cube is a number which is the cube of an integer. You will agree that 16 < 18.Grade 10 5.. It√ very common for n to be 2. 2 and 3 6 are surds. Using our √ √ rule again. for √ √ √ example 7 or 3 5. so we can √ simplify 16 to 4. which was 42 = 16. then √a < √b. It is sometimes useful to know the approximate value of a surd√ without having to use a calculator. It is easy to see that 3 is above 1 and below 2. Similarly. √ How do we use this fact to help us √ guess what 18 is? Well. we call it a surd. and so we get 4 < 18! √ Can you see now that we now have shown that 18 is between 4 and 5? If we check on our √ calculator. we want to be able to guess where a surd like 3 is on the number line. So how √ do we know where surds lie on the number line? From a calculator we know that 3 is equal to √ 1.Chapter 5 Estimating Surds . Using our rule. because 33 = 27. (Challenge: n Interesting n Fact Fact Can you explain why?) If you don’t believe this fact.. √ In this chapter we will only look at surds that look like n a.. and a < b. you can easily see that √ < 25? 18 √ that 25 = 5. For example. and we see that our idea was right! You will notice that our idea used perfect squares that were close to the number 18. Here is a quick summary of what a perfect square or cube is: teresting A perfect square is the number obtained when an integer is squared. we also know that 16 < √18. But to see this for other surds like √ 18 without using a calculator. check it for a few numbers to convince yourself it is true. we can see that 18 = 4. We can use the same trick again. but this is only half the story. √ but 4 is not a surd because it can be simpliﬁed to the rational number 2. we also know that 18 < 25. For example. But we know that 52 = 25 so√ √ Now it is easy to simplify to get 18 < 5. 37 . 27 is a perfect cube. But we know that 16 is a perfect square. where a is any positive number. Instead we is write the surd as just a. which is much easier to read. you must ﬁrst understand the following fact: teresting If a and b are positive whole numbers. Now we have a better idea of what 18 is.. but this time with 18 on the righthand side. and the closest perfect square above 18.73205. √ Now we know that 18 is less than 5. Interesting Fact Fact 9 is a perfect square since 32 = 9.1231. For example. If the √ root√ a number nth of cannot be simpliﬁed to a rational number. We found the closest perfect square underneath 18. which was 52 = 25...1 Introduction You should known by now what the nth root of a number means.
(Remember that consecutive numbers that are two numbers one after the other. Table 5. Therefore 5 < 26. we can write a as the √ of two sum √ perfect squares. there is a much easier way. which is indeed between 3 and 4.1. . like 5 and 6 or 8 and 9. 38 .) Answer Step 1 : From the table ﬁnd √ largest perfect square below 26 the This is 52 = 25..1: Some perfect squares and perfect cubes Integer Perfect Square Perfect Cube 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 4 8 3 9 27 4 16 64 5 25 125 6 36 216 7 49 343 8 64 512 9 81 729 10 100 1000 √ 3 Similarly. √ Let us call the surd we are working with a. because 27 = 3 and 64 = 4 and 52 is between 27 and 64. we will create a list of some of the perfect squares and perfect cubes.73 . In fact 3 52 = 3. when given the surd √ 52 you should be able to tell that it lies somewhere between 3 √ √ 3 3 and 4. we can use a compass to draw a circle from the top of the hypotenuse down to the number line. The list is shown in Table 5.. The intersection will be the √ point b on the number line! teresting Not all numbers can be written as the sum of two squares.2 Drawing Surds on the Number Line (Optional) √ How can we accurately draw a surd like 5 on the number line? Well.5.2360. and measure the distance along the number line using a ruler. We know from Pythagoras’ theorem that a = b2 + c2 is the length of the hypotenuse of a triangle that has sides that have lengths of b and c. See if you can ﬁnd a Interesting Fact Fact pattern of the numbers that can. But for some surds. . we could use a calculator √ to ﬁnd 5 = 2. Sometimes. 5.GRADE 10 To make it easier to use our idea. Worked Example 2: Estimating Surds √ Question: Find the two consecutive integers such that 26 lies between them.2 CHAPTER 5. so a = b2 + c2 . ESTIMATING SURDS . So if we draw a triangle on the number line with sides of length b and c.
Step 3 : Put the √ inequalities together Our answer is 5 < 26 < 6. 5.3 1. Simplifying gives all 8 < 49 < 27 which is false. 6.GRADE 10 Step 2 : From the table ﬁnd smallest perfect square above 26 √ This is 62 = 36. 5. Therefore 26 < 6. End of Chapter Excercises √ √5 lies between √10 lies between √20 lies between √30 lies between 3 √5 lies between 3 √10 lies between 3 √20 lies between 3 30 lies between (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 and and and and and and and and 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 2 2 3 4 2 2 3 4 and and and and and and and and 3 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) (c) 3 3 4 5 3 3 4 5 and and and and and and and and 4 4 5 6 4 4 5 6 (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) (d) 4 4 5 6 4 4 5 6 and and and and and and and and 5 5 6 7 5 5 6 7 39 . Step 3 : Consider (c) as the solution √ If 3 < 3 49 < 4 then cubing all terms gives 33 < 49 < 43 . 2. 4.3 Worked Example 3: Estimating Surds √ Question: 3 49 lies between: (a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 (c) 3 and 4 (d) 4 and 5 Answer Step 1 : Consider (a) as the solution √ If 1 < 3 49 < 2 then cubing all terms gives 1 < 49 < 23 . ESTIMATING SURDS . Simplifying gives √ 27 < 49 < 64 which is true. 3. 5. So 3 49 does not lie between 1 and 2. So 3 49 lies between 3 and 4. 7.CHAPTER 5. 8. Simplifying gives √ 1 < 49 < 8 which is false. So 3 49 does not lie between 2 and 3. Step 2 : Consider (b) as the solution √ If 2 < 3 49 < 3 then cubing √ terms gives 23 < 49 < 33 .
3 CHAPTER 5.5.GRADE 10 40 . ESTIMATING SURDS .
4 3. Examples of irrational numbers are: √ √ √ 3 2. . they go on forever and there is no repeated pattern of digits. 41 . . Not only is that impossible. but writing numbers out to many decimal places or a high accuracy is very inconvenient and rarely gives better answers.Chapter 6 Irrational Numbers and Rounding Oﬀ .618 033 989 .14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510 . 4. You should know that a rational number can be written as a fraction with the numerator and denominator as integers. 2. √ 1+ 5 ≈ 1. which is even better. 1. 100 Irrational numbers are numbers that cannot be written as a rational number.2 Irrational Numbers Activity :: Investigation : Irrational Numbers Which of the following cannot be written as a rational number? Remember: A rational number is a fraction with numerator and denominator as integers. For this reason we often estimate the number to a certain number of decimal places or to a given number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. 6. 1. 1. 4. . π. . Terminating decimal numbers or repeating decimal numbers are rational. 3.618 033 989 2 Important: When irrational numbers are written in decimal form. π = 3. This means that any number that is not a terminating decimal number or a repeating decimal number are irrational.1 Introduction You have seen that repeating decimals may take a lot of paper and ink to write out.Grade 10 6.
The last digit of π = 3. The last digit of 120 99 ˙˙ = 1. then look for a repeated pattern of digits. . You round up the ﬁnal digit if the ﬁrst digit after the  was greater or equal to 5 and round down (leave the digit alone) otherwise. For example. .7320508 .653 Worked Example 4: RoundingOﬀ Question: Roundoﬀ the following numbers to the indicated number of decimal places: ˙˙ 1. . if you wanted to roundoﬀ 2. 120 99 = 1. must be roundedup. 6.6525272 rounded to three decimal places is 2. many decimal places. √ 3. .212 rounded to 3 decimal places 2. to 4 decimal places Answer Step 1 : Determine the last digit that is kept and mark the cutoﬀ point with . must be roundedup. √ 3. . π = 3. . Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer. ﬁrst write the number in decimal form.21212121212 2.6525272 All numbers to the right of  are ignored after you determine whether the number in the third decimal place must be rounded up or rounded down. then the number is irrational. Step 2 : Determine whether the last digit is rounded up or down.7320508 . If there is no repeated pattern.1416 rounded to 4 decimal places √ 3. since the ﬁrst digit after the  is a 5. The last digit of 3 = 1. IRRATIONAL NUMBERS AND ROUNDING OFF .7320508 . 120 = 1.6525272 to three decimal places then you would ﬁrst count three places after the decimal.7321 rounded to 4 decimal places 42 . 120 99 ˙˙ = 1.3 CHAPTER 6.3 Rounding Oﬀ Rounding oﬀ or approximating a decimal number to a given number of decimal places is the quickest way to approximate a number.141592654 . If it goes on forever. 1. π = 3. 1. we must round up the digit in the third decimal place to a 3 and the ﬁnal answer of 2. 3 = 1. this is not convenient and it is often necessary to round oﬀ.141592654 . When you write irrational numbers in decimal form. . . . π = 3.6. So. 3 = 1. 1.21212121212 to 3 decimal places 99 2. you may (if you have a lot of time and paper!) continue writing them for many.21212121212 must be roundeddown. . If the number is terminated then it is rational. 2. 3 = 1. to 4 decimal places √ 3.GRADE 10 Important: Irrational Numbers If you are asked to identify whether a number is rational or irrational. However. 2. . .141592654 .
. . (b) 1. .141592654 .618 033 989 . 1.0016 √ (f) 0.CHAPTER 6.25 √ (g) 36 √ (h) 1960 √ (i) 0. Write the following irrational numbers to 2 decimal places: (a) 3. (d) 2. (d) 2. . . 3 = 1. .618 033 989 .73205 . . (c) 1. 3 = 1.111111 (d) 0.71828182845904523536 . (a) 3.GRADE 10 6. . . . Use your calculator (where necessary) and write the following irrational numbers to 5 decimal places: √ (a) 8 √ (b) 768 √ (c) 100 √ (d) 0.141592654 . Write the following rational numbers to 2 decimal places: (b) 1 (c) 0.999991 2.41421356 .49 √ (e) 0.0036 √ (j) −8 0.41421356 . . Write the following irrational numbers to 3 decimal places and then write √ them as a rational number to get an approximation to the irrational number. . Therefore.4 End of Chapter Exercises (a) 1 2 1.732 = 1 1000 = 1 250 . Use your calculator and write the following irrational numbers to 3 decimal places: √ (a) 2 √ (b) 3 √ (c) 5 √ (d) 6 4.04 √ (k) 5 80 5. (c) 1. . 3. (b) 1.4 6. . For example.. 3 is approximately 183 1 250 . 43 . .71828182845904523536 . . . .732. √ √ 732 183 To 3 decimal places. IRRATIONAL NUMBERS AND ROUNDING OFF .
6.GRADE 10 44 . IRRATIONAL NUMBERS AND ROUNDING OFF .4 CHAPTER 6.
Chapter 7
Number Patterns  Grade 10
In earlier grades you saw patterns in the form of pictures and numbers. In this chapter we learn more about the mathematics of patterns.Patterns are recognisable regularities in situations such as in nature, shapes, events, sets of numbers. For example, spirals on a pineapple, snowﬂakes, geometric designs on quilts or tiles, the number sequence 0, 4, 8, 12, 16,....
Activity :: Investigation : Patterns Can you spot any patterns in the following lists of numbers? 1. 2. 3. 4. 2; 1; 1; 5; 4; 6; 8; 10; . . . 2; 4; 7; 11; . . . 4; 9; 16; 25; . . . 10; 20; 40; 80; . . .
7.1
Common Number Patterns
Numbers can have interesting patterns. Here we list the most common patterns and how they are made. Examples: 1. 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 25, ... This sequence has a diﬀerence of 3 between each number. The pattern is continued by adding 3 to the last number each time. 2. 3, 8, 13, 18, 23, 28, 33, 38, ... This sequence has a diﬀerence of 5 between each number. The pattern is continued by adding 5 to the last number each time. 3. 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, ... This sequence has a factor of 2 between each number. The pattern is continued by multiplying the last number by 2 each time. 4. 3, 9, 27, 81, 243, 729, 2187, ... This sequence has a factor of 3 between each number. The pattern is continued by multiplying the last number by 3 each time. 45
7.2
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10
7.1.1
Special Sequences
Triangular Numbers 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28, 36, 45, ... This sequence is generated from a pattern of dots which form a triangle. By adding another row of dots and counting all the dots we can ﬁnd the next number of the sequence. Square Numbers 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, ... The next number is made by squaring where it is in the pattern. The second number is 2 squared (22 or 2 × 2) The seventh number is 7 squared (72 or 7 × 7) etc Cube Numbers 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729, ... The next number is made by cubing where it is in the pattern. The second number is 2 cubed (23 or 2 × 2 × 2) The seventh number is 7 cubed (73 or 7 × 7 × 7) etc Fibonacci Numbers 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, ... The next number is found by adding the two numbers before it together. The 2 is found by adding the two numbers in front of it (1 + 1) The 21 is found by adding the two numbers in front of it (8 + 13) The next number in the sequence above would be 55 (21 + 34) Can you ﬁgure out the next few numbers?
7.2
Make your own Number Patterns
You can make your own number patterns using coins or matchsticks. Here is an example using dots: 3 Pattern 1 4 2
1 dot
6 dots
15 dots
28 dots
46
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10
7.3
How many dots would you need for pattern 5 ? Can you make a formula that will tell you how many coins are needed for any size pattern? For example if the pattern 20? The formula may look something like dots = pattern × pattern + ...
Worked Example 5: Study Table Question: Say you and 3 friends decide to study for Maths, and you are seated at a square table. A few minutes later, 2 other friends join you and would like to sit at your table and help you study. Naturally, you move another table and add it to the existing one. Now six of you sit at the table. Another two of your friends join your table, and you take a third table and add it to the existing tables. Now 8 of you can sit comfortably.
Figure 7.1: Two more people can be seated for each table added.
Examine how the number of people sitting is related to the number of tables. Answer Step 1 : Tabulate a few terms to see if there is a pattern Number of Tables, n 1 2 3 4 . . . n Number of people seated 4=4 4+2=6 4+2+2=8 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 . . . 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ... + 2
Step 2 : Describe the pattern We can see for 3 tables we can seat 8 people, for 4 tables we can seat 10 people and so on. We started out with 4 people and added two the whole time. Thus, for each table added, the number of persons increases by two.
7.3
Notation
A sequence does not have to follow a pattern but when it does we can often write down a formula to calculate the nth term, an . In the sequence 1; 4; 9; 16; 25; . . . where the sequence consists of the squares of integers, the formula for the nth term is an = n 2 47 (7.1)
7.3 You can check this by looking at: a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 ...
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10
= = = = =
12 = 1 22 = 4 32 = 9 42 = 16 52 = 25
Therefore, using (7.1), we can generate a pattern, namely squares of integers.
Worked Example 6: Study Table continued .... Question: As before, you and 3 friends are studying for Maths, and you are seated at a square table. A few minutes later, 2 other friends join you move another table and add it to the existing one. Now six of you sit at the table. Another two of your friends join your table, and you take a third table and add it to the existing tables. Now 8 of you sit comfortably as illustrated:
Figure 7.2: Two more people can be seated for each table added. Find the expression for the number of people seated at n tables. Then, use the general formula to determine how many people can sit around 12 tables and how many tables are needed for 20 people. Answer Step 1 : Tabulate a few terms to see if there is a pattern Number of Tables, n 1 2 3 4 . . . n Number of people seated 4=4 4+2=6 4+2+2=8 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10 . . . 4 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ...+ 2 Formula = 4 + 2 · (0) = 4 + 2 · (1) = 4 + 2 · (2) = 4 + 2 · (3) . . . = 4 + 2 · (n − 1)
Step 2 : Describe the pattern The number of people seated at n tables is: an = 4 + 2 · (n − 1) Step 3 : Calculate the 12th term Using the general formula (36.1) and considering the example from the previous section, how many people can sit around, say, 12 tables? We are looking for a12 , that is, where n = 12: an a12 = = = = = a1 + d · (n − 1) 4 + 2 · (12 − 1) 4 + 2(11) 4 + 22 26 48
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10 Step 4 : Calculate the number of terms if an = 20 an = a1 + d · (n − 1) 4 + 2 · (n − 1) 2 · (n − 1)
7.3
16 ÷ 2 = 8+1 = n =
20 = 20 − 4 =
n−1 n 9
Step 5 : Final Answer 26 people can be seated at 12 tables and 9 tables are needed to seat 20 people.
It is also important to note the diﬀerence between n and an . n can be compared to a place holder, while an is the value at the place “held” by n. Like our “Study Table”example above, the ﬁrst table (Table 1) holds 4 people. Thus, at place n = 1, the value of a1 = 4, and so on: n an 1 4 2 6 3 8 4 10 ... ...
Activity :: Investigation : General Formula 1. Find the general formula for the following sequences and then ﬁnd a10 , a50 and a100 : (a) 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, . . . (b) 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, . . . (c) 2, −1, −4, −7, −10, . . . 2. The general term has been given for each sequence below. Work out the missing terms. (a) 0; 3; ...; 15; 24 (b) 3; 2; 1; 0; ...; 2 (c) 11; ...; 7; ...; 3 −n + 4 n2 − 1
−13 + 2n
7.3.1
Patterns and Conjecture
In mathematics, a conjecture is a mathematical statement which appears to be true, but has not been formally proven to be true under the rules of mathematics. Other words that have a similar in meaning to conjecture are: hypothesis, theory, assumption and premise. For example: Make a conjecture about the next number based on the pattern 2; 6; 11; 17 : ... The numbers increase by 4, 5, and 6. Conjecture: The next number will increase by 7. So, it will be 17 + 7 or 24. 49
7.4
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10
Worked Example 7: Number patterns Question: Consider the following pattern. 12 + 1 22 + 2 32 + 3 42 + 4 = = = = 22 − 2
32 − 3 42 − 4 52 − 5
1. Add another two rows to the end of the pattern. 2. Make a conjecture about this pattern. Write your conjecture in words. 3. Generalise your conjecture for this pattern (in other words, write your conjecture algebraically). 4. Prove that your conjecture is true. Answer Step 1 : The next two rows 52 + 5 = 62 − 6 62 + 6 = 72 − 7 Step 2 : Conjecture Squaring a number and adding the same number gives the same result as squaring the next number and subtracting that number. Step 3 : Generalise We have chosen to use x here. You could choose any letter to generalise the pattern. x2 + x = (x + 1)2 − (x + 1) Step 4 : Proof Lef t side : x2 + x
Right side : (x + 1)2 − (x + 1)
Right side
= x2 + 2x + 1 − x − 1 = x2 + x = lef t side
T heref ore x2 + x = (x + 1)2 − (x + 1)
7.4
Exercises
1. Find the nth term for: 3, 7, 11, 15, . . . 2. Find the general term of the following sequences: 50
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) −2,1,4,7, . . . 11, 15, 19, 23, . . . x − 1,2x + 5,5x + 1, . . . sequence with a3 = 7 and a8 = 15 sequence with a4 = −8 and a10 = 10
7.4
3. The seating in a section of a sports stadium can be arranged so the ﬁrst row has 15 seats, the second row has 19 seats, the third row has 23 seats and so on. Calculate how many seats are in the row 25. 4. Consider the following pattern: 22 + 2 3 +3 42 + 4
2
= 42 − 4 = 52 − 5
= 32 − 3
(a) Add at least two more rows to the pattern and check whether or not the pattern continues to work. (b) Describe in words any patterns that you have noticed. (c) Try to generalise a rule using algebra i.e. ﬁnd the general term for the pattern. (d) Prove or disprove that this rule works for all values. 5. The proﬁts of a small company for the last four years has been: R10 000, R15 000, R19 000 and R23 000. If the pattern continues, what is the expected proﬁt in the 10 years (i.e. in the 14th year of the company being in business)? 6. A single square is made from 4 matchsticks. Two squares in a row needs 7 matchsticks and 3 squares in a row needs 10 matchsticks. Determine: (a) (b) (c) (d) the ﬁrst term the common diﬀerence the formula for the general term how many matchsticks are in a row of 25 squares
7. You would like to start saving some money, but because you have never tried to save money before, you have decided to start slowly. At the end of the ﬁrst week you deposit R5 into your bank account. Then at the end of the second week you deposit R10 into your bank account. At the end of the third week you deposit R15. After how many weeks, do you deposit R50 into your bank account? 8. A horizontal line intersects a piece of string at four points and divides it into ﬁve parts, as shown below. 1 3 5
2 51
4
7.4
CHAPTER 7. NUMBER PATTERNS  GRADE 10 If the piece of string is intersected in this way by 19 parallel lines, each of which intersects it at four points, ﬁnd the number of parts into which the string will be divided.
52
Chapter 8
Finance  Grade 10
8.1 Introduction
Should you ever ﬁnd yourself stuck with a mathematics question on a television quiz show, you will probably wish you had remembered the how many even prime numbers there are between 1 and 100 for the sake of R1 000 000. And who does not want to be a millionaire, right? Welcome to the Grade 10 Finance Chapter, where we apply maths skills to everyday ﬁnancial situations that you are likely to face both now and along your journey to purchasing your ﬁrst private jet. If you master the techniques in this chapter, you will grasp the concept of compound interest, and how it can ruin your fortunes if you have credit card debt, or make you millions if you successfully invest your hardearned money. You will also understand the eﬀects of ﬂuctuating exchange rates, and its impact on your spending power during your overseas holidays!
8.2
Foreign Exchange Rates
Is $500 (”500 US dollars”) per person per night a good deal on a hotel in New York City? The ﬁrst question you will ask is “How much is that worth in Rands?”. A quick call to the local bank or a search on the Internet (for example on http://www.xrates.com/) for the Dollar/Rand exchange rate will give you a basis for assessing the price. A foreign exchange rate is nothing more than the price of one currency in terms of another. For example, the exchange rate of 6,18 Rands/US Dollars means that $1 costs R6,18. In other words, if you have $1 you could sell it for R6,18  or if you wanted $1 you would have to pay R6,18 for it. But what drives exchange rates, and what causes exchange rates to change? And how does this aﬀect you anyway? This section looks at answering these questions.
8.2.1
How much is R1 really worth?
We can quote the price of a currency in terms of any other currency, but the US Dollar, British Pounds Sterling or even the Euro are often used as a market standard. You will notice that the ﬁnancial news will report the South African Rand exchange rate in terms of these three major currencies. So the South African Rand could be quoted on a certain date as 6,7040 ZAR per USD (i.e. $1,00 costs R6,7040), or 12,2374 ZAR per GBP. So if I wanted to spend $1 000 on a holiday in the United States of America, this would cost me R6 704,00; and if I wanted £1 000 for a weekend in London it would cost me R12 237,40. This seems obvious, but let us see how we calculated that: The rate is given as ZAR per USD, or ZAR/USD such that $1,00 buys R6,7040. Therefore, we need to multiply by 1 000 to get the 53
8.2
CHAPTER 8. FINANCE  GRADE 10 Table 8.1: Abbreviations and symbols for some common currencies. Currency Abbreviation Symbol South African Rand ZAR R United States Dollar USD $ British Pounds Sterling GBP £ Euro EUR e
number of Rands per $1 000. Mathematically, $1,00 = ∴ 1 000 × $1,00 = = R6,0740 1 000 × R6,0740 R6 074,00
as expected. What if you have saved R10 000 for spending money for the same trip and you wanted to use this to buy USD? How much USD could you get for this? Our rate is in ZAR/USD but we want to know how many USD we can get for our ZAR. This is easy. We know how much $1,00 costs in terms of Rands. $1,00 = $1,00 = ∴ 6,0740 1,00 $ = 6,0740 R1,00 = = R6,0740 R6,0740 6,0740 R1,00 1,00 6,0740 $0,164636 $
As we can see, the ﬁnal answer is simply the reciprocal of the ZAR/USD rate. Therefore, R10 000 will get: R1,00 = ∴ 10 000 × R1,00 = = We can check the answer as follows: $1,00 = 1 646,36 × $1,00 = = R6,0740 1 646,36 × R6,0740 R10 000,00 $ 1,00 6,0740 1,00 6,0740
10 000 × $ $1 646,36
∴
Six of one and half a dozen of the other So we have two diﬀerent ways of expressing the same exchange rate: Rands per Dollar (ZAR/USD) and Dollar per Rands (USD/ZAR). Both exchange rates mean the same thing and express the value of one currency in terms of another. You can easily work out one from the other  they are just the reciprocals of the other. If the South African Rand is our Domestic (or home) Currency, we call the ZAR/USD rate a “direct” rate, and we call a USD/ZAR rate an “indirect” rate. In general, a direct rate is an exchange rate that is expressed as units of Home Currency per 54
CHAPTER 8. FINANCE  GRADE 10 units of Foreign Currency, i.e., Domestic Currency / Foreign Currency.
8.2
The Rand exchange rates that we see on the news are usually expressed as Direct Rates, for example you might see: Table 8.2: Examples of Currency Abbreviation 1 USD 1 GBP 1 EUR exchange rates Exchange Rates R6,9556 R13,6628 R9,1954
The exchange rate is just the price of each of the Foreign Currencies (USD, GBP and EUR) in terms of our Domestic Currency, Rands. An indirect rate is an exchange rate expressed as units of Foreign Currency per units of Home Currency, i.e. Foreign Currency / Domestic Currency Deﬁning exchange rates as direct or indirect depends on which currency is deﬁned as the Domestic Currency. The Domestic Currency for an American investor would be USD which is the South African investor’s Foreign Currency. So direct rates from the perspective of the American investor (USD/ZAR) would be the same as the indirect rate from the perspective of the South Africa investor. Terminology Since exchange rates are simple prices of currencies, movements in exchange rates means that the price or value of the currency changed. The price of petrol changes all the time, so does the price of gold, and currency prices also move up and down all the time. If the Rand exchange rate moved from say R6,71 per USD to R6,50 per USD, what does this mean? Well, it means that $1 would now cost only R6,50 instead of R6,71. The Dollar is now cheaper to buy, and we say that the Dollar has depreciated (or weakened) against the Rand. Alternatively we could say that the Rand has appreciated (or strengthened) against the Dollar. What if we were looking at indirect exchange rates, and the exchange rate moved from $0,149 1 1 per ZAR (= 6,71 ) to $0,1538 per ZAR (= 6,50 ). Well now we can see that the R1,00 cost $0,149 at the start, and then cost $0,1538 at the end. The Rand has become more expensive (in terms of Dollars), and again we can say that the Rand has appreciated. Regardless of which exchange rate is used, we still come to the same conclusions. In general, • for direct exchange rates, the home currency will appreciate (depreciate) if the exchange rate falls (rises) • For indirect exchange rates, the home currency will appreciate (depreciate) if the exchange rate rises (falls) As with just about everything in this chapter, do not get caught up in memorising these formulae  that is only going to get confusing. Think about what you have and what you want  and it should be quite clear how to get the correct answer.
Activity :: Discussion : Foreign Exchange Rates In groups of 5, discuss: 1. Why might we need to know exchange rates? 2. What happens if one countries currency falls drastically vs another countries currency? 55
8.2 3. When might you use exchange rates?
CHAPTER 8. FINANCE  GRADE 10
8.2.2
Cross Currency Exchange Rates
We know that the exchange rates are the value of one currency expressed in terms of another currency, and we can quote exchange rates against any other currency. The Rand exchange rates we see on the news are usually expressed against the major currency, USD, GBP and EUR. So if for example, the Rand exchange rates were given as 6,71 ZAR/USD and 12,71 ZAR/GBP, does this tell us anything about the exchange rate between USD and GBP? Well I know that if $1 will buy me R6,71, and if £1.00 will buy me R12,71, then surely the GBP is stronger than the USD because you will get more Rands for one unit of the currency, and we can work out the USD/GBP exchange rate as follows: Before we plug in any numbers, how can we get a USD/GBP exchange rate from the ZAR/USD and ZAR/GBP exchange rates? Well, USD/GBP = USD/ZAR × ZAR/GBP. Note that the ZAR in the numerator will cancel out with the ZAR in the denominator, and we are left with the USD/GBP exchange rate. Although we do not have the USD/ZAR exchange rate, we know that this is just the reciprocal of the ZAR/USD exchange rate. USD/ZAR = Now plugging in the numbers, we get: USD/GBP = = = = USD/ZAR × ZAR/GBP 1 × ZAR/GBP ZAR/USD 1 × 12,71 6,71 1,894 1 ZAR/USD
Important: Sometimes you will see exchange rates in the real world that do not appear to work exactly like this. This is usually because some ﬁnancial institutions add other costs to the exchange rates, which alter the results. However, if you could remove the eﬀect of those extra costs, the numbers would balance again.
Worked Example 8: Cross Exchange Rates Question: If $1 = R 6,40, and £1 = R11,58 what is the $/£ exchange rate (i.e. the number of US$ per £)? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required The following are given: • ZAR/USD rate = R6,40 • ZAR/GBP rate = R11,58 56
That means there are lots of Rands (high supply) trying to buy Pounds. And if you are starting to wonder why this is relevant . Step 3 : Solve the problem USD/GBP = = = = Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer $1. From the given information we know that it would cost you R11. then you have Rands but you need to “buy” Pounds. USD/ZAR × ZAR/GBP 1 × ZAR/GBP ZAR/USD 1 × 11.58 what is the $/£ exchange rate (i. Think about a time where lots of South Africans are visiting the United Kingdom.e. If there is a stamp that lots of people want (high demand) and few people own (low supply) then that stamp is going to be expensive.3 Enrichment: Fluctuating exchange rates If everyone wants to buy houses in a certain suburb. the number of US$ per £)? Overview of problem You need the $/£ exchange rate. You can think about this is many diﬀerent contexts.40 1. like stampcollecting for example. which is a very important section in the study of Economics. The exchange rate is the price you have to pay to buy those Pounds. FINANCE . then there are lots of sellers and this will cause house prices in the area to fall because the buyers would not have to struggle as much to ﬁnd an eager seller. Use this information to: 1. If you are going to visit London. This is all about supply and demand. calculate how much R11. Pounds will start to become more expensive (compare this to the house price example at the start of this section if you are not convinced). then house prices are going to go up .8094 8. 2.58 is worth in $. and other South Africans are importing goods from the United Kingdom.40. in other words how many dollars must you pay for a pound. and £1 = R11.because the buyers will be competing to buy those houses. So you need £1. and the 57 .GRADE 10 The following is required: • USD/GBP rate Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: USD/GBP = USD/ZAR × ZAR/GBP. Do you get the same answer as in the worked example? 8.2 Activity :: Investigation : Cross Exchange Rates .8094 can be bought for £1.2.CHAPTER 8.58 to buy £1 and that $ 1 = R6. If there is a suburb where all residents want to move out.58 6. calculate how much R1 is worth in $.think about currencies.40.Alternate Method If $1 = R 6.
or deposit it in a bank account. you could either keep it in your wallet. If it stayed in your wallet. (a) How much will the MP3 player cost in Rands.or just buying more goods from South Africa. businesses . This is covered in detail in the study of Economics. but let us look at some of the basic issues here. it is interesting to think about what factors might aﬀect the supply (people wanting to “sell” a particular currency) and the demand (people trying to “buy” another currency).3 CHAPTER 8. I want to buy an IPOD that costs £100. interest rates. this would cause the currency to fall in value . In other words. with the plan of making proﬁt oﬀ it. Exercise: Foreign Exchange 1. FINANCE . or Euros .. as a way of encouraging you to bank it with them. and that more people were wanting to invest in South Africa .a self fulﬁlling expectation). some of which have more economic rationale than others: • economic factors (such as inﬂation ﬁgures. If the bank looked after it for you. or political unrest) • market sentiments and market behaviour (for example if foreign exchange markets perceived a currency to be overvalued and starting selling the currency. for R1 000 you will get fewer Pounds than you would have before the exchange rate moved. This payment is like a reward. you could spend it any time you wanted.3 Being Interested in Interest If you had R1 000. In which country is the car the cheapest if you compare it to the South African Rand ? (b) Sollie and Arinda are waiters in a South African Restaurant attracting many tourists from abroad. or Pounds. This is seen as a movement in exchange rates..13 R7. people would need to use more Dollars. to buy the same amount of Rands. There would be a greater demand for Rands . then they could spend it. Another context which might be useful for you to understand this: consider what would happen if people in other countries felt that South Africa was becoming a great place to live. In other words. trade deﬁcit information. There are various factors aﬀect exchange rates. monetary policy and ﬁscal policy) • political factors (such as uncertain political environment.04 (a) In South Africa the cost of a new Honda Civic is R173 400. In England the same vehicle costs £12 200 and in the USA $ 21 900. 58 . which provides you with a reason to leave it with the bank for a while. rather than keeping the money in your wallet.whether in properties.and the “price of the Rand” would go up.GRADE 10 exchange rate will change. Sollie gets a £6 tip from a tourist and Arinda gets $ 12. Although it really does come down to supply and demand.8. How many South African Rand did each one get ? 8. if I buy it now? (b) How much will I save if the exchange rate drops to R12? (c) How much will I lose if the exchange rate moves to R15? 2. with the exchange rate currently at £1 = R14. Study the following exchange rate table: Country Currency United Kingdom (UK) Pounds(£) United States (USA) Dollars ($) Exchange Rate R14. I believe the exchange rate will reach R12 in a month. The bank usually “pays” you to deposit it into an account.
and you can expect to receive interest in return. could spend their entire working career dealing with the eﬀects of interest on ﬁnancial matters. In this chapter you will be introduced to the concept of ﬁnancial mathematics . FINANCE . The interest rate is usually labelled i (5% in the example).4 If you deposit money into a bank account. That is the price of borrowing money.we are just looking at the same idea. with an “opening balance” of R1 000 at the start of the year. Do not just take our word for it! 8. So we can see that: I =P ×i and Closing Balance = = = = Opening Balance + Interest P +I P + (P × i) P (1 + i) 59 (8. Accountants.GRADE 10 We call this reward ”interest”. Similarly. your “closing balance” at the end of the year will therefore be: Closing Balance = = = Opening Balance + Interest R1 000 + R50 R1 050 We sometimes call the opening balance in ﬁnancial calculations Principal. The concept is simple. actuaries and bankers.and given the tools to cope with even advanced concepts and problems. Important: Interest The concepts in this chapter are simple . consider how much you will get by investing R1 000 for 1 year with a bank that pays you 5% simple interest. as you work your way through. and the interest amount (in Rand terms) is labelled I (R50 in the example). As an easy example of simple interest. if you borrow money from a bank (or from a department store. 8. for example. but from many diﬀerent angles. you are eﬀectively lending money to the bank .05 = R50 So. At the end of the year.CHAPTER 8. yet it is core to the world of ﬁnance. you will get an interest of: Interest = R1 000 × 5% 5 = R1 000 × 100 = R1 000 × 0.1) . for example) then you can expect to have to pay interest on the loan. but not interest on interest.4 Simple Interest Deﬁnition: Simple Interest Simple interest is where you earn interest on the initial amount that you invested. or a car dealership. which is abbreviated as P (R1 000 in the example). The best way to learn from this chapter is to do the examples yourself.
2) As we have seen.(A) = P (1 + i · n) (8. Three months is 1/4 of a year. P = R1 000 • interest rate. It is not a complicated formula.which is why they call it Simple Interest. For 3 years. we can generalise the result. then. Important: Interest Calculation Annual Rates means Yearly rates.(per annum) = per year Worked Example 9: Simple Interest Question: If I deposit R1 000 into a special bank account which pays a Simple Interest of 7% for 3 years. this works when n is a fraction of a year and also when n covers several years. which is: 1/4 × (P × i). In other words. using the symbol (A) for the Closing Balance: Closing Balance. n = 3 years We are required to ﬁnd the closing balance (A). Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8. what if you leave it there for 3 years? It is actually quite simple .2) that: Closing Balance. The closing balance would therefore be: Closing Balance = P + 1/4 × (P × i) = P (1 + (1/4)i) 2. or 2.(A) = P (1 + i · n) 60 . so you would only get 1/4 of a full year’s interest.GRADE 10 This is how you calculate simple interest. and p.a. 1. which is just as well because you are going to see a lot of it! Not Just One You might be wondering to yourself: 1.4 CHAPTER 8. you would get three years’ worth of interest. i = 7% • period of time. being: 3 × (P × i). FINANCE . The closing balance at the end of the three year period would be: Closing Balance = = P + 3 × (P × i) P × (1 + (3)i) If you look carefully at the similarities between the two answers above. how much interest will you be paid if you only leave the money in the account for 3 months.8. if you invest your money (P ) in an account which pays a rate of interest (i) for a period of time (n years). how much will I get back at the end? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required • opening balance.
2) that: Closing Balance (A) = P (1 + i · n) Step 3 : Solve the problem • interest rate.4 A = = = P (1 + i · n) R1 000(1 + 3 × 7%) R1 210 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The closing balance after 3 years of saving R1 000 at an interest rate of 7% is R1 210.075 × n) = 0.6666667 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer n has to be a whole number.CHAPTER 8.5 − 1 0.5% Closing Balance (A) = R45 000 = (1 + 0. FINANCE . The period is 7 years for R30 000 to generate R45 000 at a simple interest rate of 7.for how many years must I invest this amount to generate R45 000 Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required • opening balance. i = 7.5% . Worked Example 10: Calculating n Question: If I deposit R30 000 into a special bank account which pays a Simple Interest of 7.5%. A = R45 000 We are required to ﬁnd the number of years. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8. P = R30 000 • closing balance. therefore n = 7.GRADE 10 Step 3 : Solve the problem 8.075 6.075 × n n n = = = P (1 + i · n) R30 000(1 + n × 7. 8.1 Other Applications of the Simple Interest Formula 61 .5%) 45000 30000 1.5 0.4.
5% p. Tjad’s drum kit cost him R12 500.(A) = P (1 − i · n) 62 . n = 7 years • closing balance.2) that: Closing Balance.81 P (1 + i · n) R2 250(1 + 2 × 7. FINANCE . Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8.2) that: Closing Balance. n = 2 years We are required to ﬁnd the closing balance (A) and then the montly payments. What rate of simple depreciation does this represent ? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required • opening balance.50 ÷ 24 R107.4 CHAPTER 8. simple interest. for depreciation the formula will change to: Closing Balance. It has now been valued at R2 300.8. P = R12 500 • period of time.(A) = P (1 + i · n) Therefore.5%) R2 587. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required A new opening balance is required.075pa period of time.5% = 0. A = R2 300 We are required to ﬁnd the rate(i).81 Worked Example 12: Depreciation Question: Seven years ago.50 2587. P = R2 500 − R250 = R2 250 interest rate. Calculate what Troy’s monthly payments will be.(A) = P (1 + i · n) Step 3 : Solve the problem A = = = Monthly payment = = Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Troy’s monthly payments = R 107. • • • • 10% of R 2 500 = R250 new opening balance. as the 10% deposit is paid in cash.a.GRADE 10 Worked Example 11: HirePurchase Question: Troy is keen to buy an addisional hard drive for his laptop advertised for R 2 500 on the internet. There is an option of paying a 10% deposit then making 24 monthly payments using a hirepurchase agreement where interest is calculated at 7. i = 7.
Calculate the balance accumulated by the end of 2 years. and then take the principal and the interest and invest it back into the same account again. 8. 2. (b) An investment of R225 at a rate of 12.5 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Therefore the rate of depreciation is 11. if simple interest was calculated ? 4. Calculate the simple interest for the following problems. An amount of R3 500 is invested in a savings account which pays simple interest at a rate of 7..5% per annum. (a) How much will Bongani pay in total ? (b) How much interest does he pay ? (c) What is his montly installment ? 8.5 Compound Interest To explain the concept of compound interest. He is charged simple interest at 17. (a) A loan of R300 at a rate of 8% for l year. the following example is discussed: Worked Example 13: Using Simple Interest to lead to the concept Com pound Interest Question: If I deposit R1 000 into a special bank account which pays a Simple Interest of 7%. FINANCE . Then I take it all out at the end of the second year.66% Exercise: Simple Interest 1. I have given him the amount of R 18 000 on his birtday. I made a deposit of R5 000 in the bank for my 5 year old son’s 21st birthday.CHAPTER 8. and then put it all back in again? And then I take it all out at the end of 3 years? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required • opening balance. Bongani buys a dining room table costing R 8 500 on Hire Purchase. P = R1 000 • interest rate.11657.5% for 6 years.5% per annum over 3 years.. What if I empty the bank account after a year. i = 7% 63 . 3.GRADE 10 Step 3 : Solve the problem A = P (1 − i · n) R2 300 = R12 500(1 − 7 × i) i = 0. At what rate was the money invested.
04.90 Step 5 : Determine the closing balance at the end of the third year After the second year. Compound interest is a double edged sword.GRADE 10 • period of time. What has changed? In the ﬁrst example I earned R70 interest each year .great if you are earning interest on cash you have invested. when I took the money out and then reinvested it. for 3 years We are required to ﬁnd the closing balance at the end of three years.90(1 + 1 × 7%) = R1 225. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: Closing Balance = P (1 + i · n) Step 3 : Determine the closing balance at the end of the ﬁrst year Closing Balance = P (1 + i · n) = R1 000(1 + 1 × 7%) = R1 070 Step 4 : Determine the closing balance at the end of the second year After the ﬁrst year. i=7% and n=3 years for both problems. we withdraw all the money and redeposit it. but crippling if you are stuck having to pay interest on money you have borrowed! In the same way that we developed a formula for Simple Interest. Closing Balance = P (1 + i · n) = R1 070(1 + 1 × 7%) = R1 144.04 which is more than R1 210 from the ﬁrst example. let us ﬁnd one for Compound Interest. But in the second situation. (And interest on the interest on my interest in the third year!) This more realistically reﬂects what happens in the real world. I was actually earning interest in the second year on my interest (R70) from the ﬁrst year. Closing Balance = P (1 + i · n) = R1 144. second and third year. The opening balance for the third year is therefore R1 144. though .04 Step 6 : Write the ﬁnal answer The closing balance after withdrawing the all the money and redepositing each year for 3 years of saving R1 000 at an interest rate of 7% is R1 225.5 CHAPTER 8. we end up with R1 225. we withdraw all the money and redeposit it.so we will look at more closely next. 1 year at a time.90. FINANCE . The opening balance for the second year is therefore R1 070. Except in the second situation.the same in the ﬁrst. because this is the balance after the ﬁrst year. we have basically the same problem because P =R1 000.8. 64 . Deﬁnition: Compound Interest Compound interest is the interest payable on the principal and its accumulated interest. because this is the balance after the ﬁrst year. and is known as Compound Interest. It is this concept which underlies just about everything we do . In the two worked examples using simple interest.
and then ﬁnally we are taking the new balance after a total of 5 months. and check how easy it really is. the closing balance at the end of the ﬁrst year is: Closing Balance after 1 year = P (1 + i) This is the same as Simple Interest because it only covers a single year. Does the ﬁnal formula look familiar? Correct .CHAPTER 8.it is the same result as you would get for simply investing P for one full year. Then we are taking that new balance and adding interest for a further 4 months. and assume we can earn interest of 9%. How much would that be worth after 10 years? 65 . let us invest the money for 1 month. Consider an amount of R10 000 that you have to invest for 10 years. and adding interest for 7 more months. if we take that out and reinvest it for another year .5. which is a year. then for 4 months.just as you saw us doing in the worked example above then the balance after the second year will be: Closing Balance after 2 years = = [P (1 + i)] × (1 + i) P (1 + i)2 And if we take that money out.2 The Power of Compound Interest To see how important this “interest on interest” is. 8. Look carefully at the long equation above.5. then for 7 months.GRADE 10 8.5 If our opening balance is P and we have an interest rate of i then. Closing Balance after 1 month = Closing Balance after 5 months = = = = Closing Balance after 12 months = = = = = P (1 + i) 12 Closing Balance after 1 month invested for 4 months more 4 1 [P (1 + i) 12 ] 12 P (1 + i) 12 + 12 P (1 + i) 12 Closing Balance after 5 month invested for 7 months more [P (1 + i) 12 ] 12 P (1 + i) 12 + 12 P (1 + i) 12 P (1 + i)1 12 5 7 5 7 5 1 4 1 which is the same as investing the money for a year. Then. Therefore. This is exactly what we would expect.3) 8. the balance becomes: Closing Balance after 3 years = [P (1 + i)2 ] × (1 + i) = P (1 + i)3 We can see that the power of the term (1 + i) is the same as the number of years. Take a look again. Closing Balance after n years = P (1 + i)n (8. then adding interest for just 1 month. then invest it for another year. It is not as complicated as it looks! All we are doing is taking the opening amount (P ). because: 1 month + 4 months + 7 months = 12 months. FINANCE . Can you see that? Do not move on until you have understood this point.1 Fractions add up to the Whole It is easy to show that this formula works even when n is a fraction of a year. For example. we shall compare the diﬀerence in closing balances for money earning simple interest and money earning compound interest.
8.(A) = P (1 + i)n We need to ﬁnd n. He does not want to pay back more than R625 000 altogether on the loan. Step 3 : Solve the problem A = (1 + i)n P 625000 = (1 + 0.13)3 = 1.13)n 350000 1. Worked Example 14: Taking out a Loan Question: Mr Lowe wants to take out a loan of R 350 000.. i = 13% peryear We are required to ﬁnd the time period(n). Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8.84.GRADE 10 The closing balance for the money earning simple interest is: Closing Balance = = = P (1 + i · n) R10 000(1 + 9% × 10) R19 000 The closing balance for the money earning compound interest is: Closing Balance = = = P (1 + i)n ) R10 000(1 + 9%)10 R23 673. over what period should he take the loan Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required • opening balance.but you will be able to prove it mathematically yourself! Again. compound interest helps that amount to increase exponentially. (1...64 So next time someone talks about the “magic of compound interest”. (1..3) that: Closing Balance.13)n Try n = 3 : Try n = 4 : Try n = 5 : (1. P = R350 000 • closing balance.44. When you are earning interest on money you have invested.13)5 = 1.5 CHAPTER 8. Therefore we covert the formula to: A = (1 + i)n P and then ﬁnd n by trial and error. A = R625 000 • interest rate. If the interest rate he is oﬀered is 13%.. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Mr Lowe should take the loan over four years 66 .. But if you have borrowed money. the build up of the amount you owe will grow exponentially too. = (1. FINANCE .63. not only will you know what they mean .13)4 = 1. keep in mind that this is good news and bad news..785..
n = 2 year • interest rate.3) that: Closing Balance.3 Other Applications of Compound Growth Worked Example 15: Population Growth Question: South Africa’s population is increasing by 2. i = 5% perday We are required to ﬁnd the closing balance(A).(A) = P (1 + i)n Step 3 : Solve the problem A = = = P (1 + i)n 43 000 000(1 + 0.025)2 45 176 875 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer There are 45 176 875 − 43 000 000 = 2 176 875 more people in 2 year’s time Worked Example 16: Compound Decrease Question: A swimming pool is being treated for a buildup of algae.5% peryear We are required to ﬁnd the closing balance(A). What area is covered by algae after 30 days of treatment ? Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required • opening balance. P = 43 000 000 • period of time. Initially.5 8.(A) = P (1 + i)n 67 .GRADE 10 8.CHAPTER 8. With each day of treatment. i = 2. If the current population is 43 million. FINANCE . how many more people will there be in South Africa in two year’s time ? Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required • opening balance. P = 50m2 • period of time.5. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8.3) that: Closing Balance.5% per year. 50m2 of the pool is covered by algae. n = 30 days • interest rate. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know from (8. the algae reduces by 5%.
73m2 Exercise: Compound Interest 1.2 Equations Closing Balance .6 CHAPTER 8.1 P i n Deﬁnitions Principal (the amount of money at the starting point of the calculation) interest rate.GRADE 10 But this is compound decrease so we can use the formula: Closing Balance.3% and your water and electricity account is R 1 425 on average.73m2 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Therefore the area still covered with algae is 10. Calculate the balance accumulated by the end of 2 years.05)30 10. An amount of R3 500 is invested in a savings account which pays compound interest at a rate of 7. While memorising them is nice (there are not many). what would you expect to pay in 6 years time ? 3.6 Summary As an easy reference. How much money (to the nearest rand) should he invest if he wants to reach a sum of R 100 000 in ﬁve year’s time ? 8. 8.5% per annum. here are the key formulae that we derived and used during this chapter.(A) = P (1 − i)n Step 3 : Solve the problem A = = = P (1 − i)n 50(1 − 0.6. Financial experts are not paid a salary in order to recite formulae. they are paid a salary to use the right methods to solve ﬁnancial problems. Shrek wants to invest some money at 11% per annum compound interest. 2.simple interest Solve for i = P (1 + i · n) Solve for n 68 . If the average rate of inﬂation for the past few years was 7. it is the application that is useful. normally the eﬀective rate per annum period for which the investment is made 8.8. FINANCE .6.
g. both in years. Discuss: (a) Which type of interest would you like to use if you are the borrower? (b) Which type of interest would you like to use if you were the banker? 7. if the interest rate is 10%? 6.CHAPTER 8. (c) An R800 loan for l year at 16%.1094 . (b) A R1 500 investment for 3 years at 6%. determine the exchange rate between the Australian Dollar and the Japanese Yen.00% compound interest 3. Bonnie bought a stove for R 3 750. 8.20. Calculate how much you will earn if you invested R500 for 1 year at the following interest rates: (a) 6. Which account would leave Bianca with the highest accumulated balance at the end of the 3 year period? 4. 69 . if the exchange rate is e1 = R9. Your hotel will cost e200 per night. (a) A R2 000 loan for 2 years at 5%.25 interest that was charged for hirepurchase. if the interest rate is 10%? 5. You are going on holiday to Europe.7 Closing Balance .GRADE 10 8.2287 and 1 AUD = R 5. 2.5% per annum. whereas Bank B oﬀers a savings account paying compound interest at a rate of 10. How much will you need in Rands to cover your hotel bill. or both in months etc. 9. Bank A oﬀers a savings account which pays simple interest at a rate of 11% per annum. Calculate the compound interest for the following problems.85% simple interest (b) 4. 8. How much simple interest is payable on a loan of R2 000 for a year.compound interest Solve for i = P (1 + i)n Solve for n Important: Always keep the interest and the time period in the same units of time (e. FINANCE . If the exchange rate 100 Yen = R 6. Determine the simple rate of interest that was charged.7 End of Chapter Exercises 1. Bianca has R1 450 to invest for 3 years.). After 3 years she paid for it and the R 956. How much compound interest is payable on a loan of R2 000 for a year.
FINANCE .8.GRADE 10 70 .7 CHAPTER 8.
9. Examples are given as reminders. e k. a · xk + b · x + cm = 0 d·y +e·y+f ≤0 p (9. c. If these two binomials are multiplied.2. the following is the result: 71 .2. (ax + b) and (cx + d). You will recap some of the work on factorisation and multiplying out expressions that you learnt in earlier grades.2 Product of Two Binomials A binomial is a mathematical expression with two terms. You should be familiar with the following names used to describe the parts of an mathematical expression. 9.2) Name term expression coeﬃcient exponent (or index) base constant variable equation inequality binomial trinomial Examples (separated by commas) a · xk .1 Introduction In this chapter you will learn how to work with algebraic expressions.Grade 10 9. e · y. e. b. d.2 Recap of Earlier Work The following should be familiar. c a.g. y. cm .1) (9. d · y p + e · y + f a. d · y p . f a · xk + b · x + cm . p x.1 Parts of an Expression Mathematical expressions are just like sentences and their parts have special names.Chapter 9 Products and Factors .b · x. d. e. b. y a · xk + b · x + cm = 0 d · yp + e · y + f ≤ 0 expression with two terms expression with three terms 9. f x. This work will then be extended upon for Grade 10.
3 Factorisation Factorisation is the opposite of expanding brackets. Factorisation would be to start with 2x + 2 and to end up with 2(x + 1). PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . In previous grades you factorised based on common factors and on diﬀerence of squares. 8n (g) 3uv.2 CHAPTER 9. For example expanding brackets would require 2(x + 1) to be written as 2x + 2. 45n 72 . 9. 9kp (i) 24xyz. For example.9. 18x (f) 2xy. 6u (c) 3st.GRADE 10 (a · x + b)(c · x + d) = (ax)(cx) + (ax)d + b(cx) + b · d = (ax)(c · x + d) + b(c · x + d) Worked Example 17: Product of two Binomials Question: Find the product of (3x − 2)(5x + 8) Answer (3x − 2)(5x + 8) = = = (3x)(5x) + (3x)(8) + (−2)(5x) + (−2)(8) 15x2 + 24x − 10x − 16 15x2 + 14x − 16 The product of two identical binomials is known as the square of the binomials and is written as: (ax + b)2 = a2 x2 + 2abx + b2 If the two terms are ax + b and ax − b then their product is: (ax + b)(ax − b) = a2 x2 − b2 This is known as the diﬀerence of squares. 16yz (e) abc. 2x − 6x2 can be factorised as follows: 2x − 6x2 = 2x(1 − 3x) Activity :: Investigation : Common Factors Find the highest common factors of the following pairs of terms: (a) 6y. 15xz (d) 18kl. 4su (h) 9xy.2. Common Factors Factorising based on common factors relies on there being common factors between your terms. 4xyz (b) 12mn. ac (j) 3m.
Therefore the factors of x2 − 16 are (x − 4) and (x + 4). PRODUCTS AND FACTORS .3 is an equation.3) Since 9.2 (9. a2 x2 − b2 = (ax + b)(ax − b) 9.CHAPTER 9. both sides are always equal. x2 − 16 can be written as (x2 − 42 ) which is a diﬀerence of squares. This means that an expression of the form: For example. Worked Example 18: Factorisation Question: Factorise completely: b2 y 5 − 3aby 3 Answer b2 y 5 − 3aby 3 = by 3 (by 2 − 3a) Worked Example 19: Factorising binomials with a common bracket Question: Factorise completely: 3a(a − 4) − 7(a − 4) Answer Step 1 : bracket (a − 4) is the common factor 3a(a − 4) − 7(a − 4) = (a − 4)(3a − 7) Worked Example 20: Factorising using a switch around in brackets Question: Factorise 5(a − 2) − b(2 − a) Answer Step 1 : Note that (2 − a) = −(a − 2) 5(a − 2) − b(2 − a) = 5(a − 2) − [−b(a − 2)] = 5(a − 2) + b(a − 2) 73 = (a − 2)(5 + b) .GRADE 10 Diﬀerence of Squares We have seen that: (ax + b)(ax − b) = a2 x2 − b2 a2 x2 − b2 can be factorised to (ax + b)(ax − b) Therefore.
PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . Fortunately.4) . you will never go wrong! 74 (9.2.9. multiply 2x + 1 by x2 + 2x + 1.GRADE 10 Exercise: Recap 1. (2x + 1)(x2 + 2x + 1) 2x(x2 + 2x + 1) + 1(x2 + 2x + 1) (apply distributive law) [2x(x2 ) + 2x(2x) + 2x(1)] + [1(x2 ) + 1(2x) + 1(1)] 4x3 + 4x2 + 2x + x2 + 2x + 1 (expand the brackets) 4x3 + (4x2 + x2 ) + (2x + 2x) + 1 (group like terms to simplify) 4x3 + 5x2 + 4x + 1 (simplify to get ﬁnal answer) = = = = = Important: Multiplication of Binomial with Trinomial If the binomial is A + B and the trinomial is C + D + E. Factorise completely: (a) 7a + 4 (d) 12kj + 18kq (g) −6a − 24 (j) −a2 b − b2 a (m) 4(y − 3) + k(3 − y) (p) a2 (a + 7) + a(a + 7) (b) 20a − 10 (e) 16k 2 − 4k (h) −2ab − 8a (k) 12k 2 j + 24k 2 j 2 (n) a(a − 1) − 5(a − 1) (q) 3b(b − 4) − 7(4 − b) (c) 18ab − 3bc (f) 3a2 + 6a − 18 (i) 24kj − 16k 2 j (l) 72b2q − 18b3 q 2 (o) bm(b+4)−6m(b+4) (r) a2 b2 c2 − 1 9.2.3 More Products We have seen how to multiply two binomials in section 9. For example.3 CHAPTER 9. we use the same methods we used to multiply two binomials to multiply a binomial and a trinomial. then the very ﬁrst step is to apply the distributive law: (A + B)(C + D + E) = A(C + D + E) + B(C + D + E) If you remember this. In this section we learn how to multiply a binomial (expression with two terms) by a trinomial (expression with three terms). Find the products of: (a) 2y(y + 4) (d) (y + 8)(y + 4) 2. Factorise: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 2l + 2w 12x + 32y 6x2 + 2x + 10x3 2xy 2 + xy 2 z + 3xy −2ab2 − 4a2 b (b) (y + 5)(y + 2) (e) (2y + 9)(3y + 1) (c) (y + 2)(2y + 1) (f) (3y − 2)(y + 6) 3.
Step 3 : Solve the problem (x + y)(x2 − xy + y 2 ) = = = = = x(x2 − xy + y 2 ) + y(x2 − xy + y 2 ) (apply distributive law) [x(x2 ) + x(−xy) + x(y 2 )] + [y(x2 ) + y(−xy) + y(y 2 )] x3 − x2 y + xy 2 + yx2 − xy 2 + y 3 3 2 2 2 2 (expand the brackets) (group like terms to simplify) x + (−x y + yx ) + (xy − xy ) + y 3 x3 + y 3 (simplify to get ﬁnal answer) Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The product of x + y and x2 − xy + y 2 is x3 + y 3 . x + y.3 Worked Example 21: Multiplication of Binomial with Trinomial Question: Multiply x − 1 with x2 − 2x + 1. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem Apply the distributive law and then simplify the resulting expression.GRADE 10 9. and a trinomial. We need to multiply them together. x2 − 2x + 1. 75 . Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given two expressions: a binomial.CHAPTER 9. PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . Step 3 : Solve the problem (x − 1)(x2 − 2x + 1) = = = = = x3 − 3x2 + 3x − 1 x3 − 2x2 + x − x2 + 2x − 1 (expand the brackets) x3 + (−2x2 − x2 ) + (x + 2x) − 1 (group like terms to simplify) (simplify to get ﬁnal answer) x(x2 − 2x + 1) − 1(x2 − 2x + 1) (apply distributive law) [x(x2 ) + x(−2x) + x(1)] + [−1(x2 ) − 1(−2x) − 1(1)] Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The product of x − 1 and x2 − 2x + 1 is x3 − 3x2 + 3x − 1. and a trinomial. x2 − xy + y 2 . x − 1. Worked Example 22: Sum of Cubes Question: Find the product of x + y and x2 − xy + y 2 . Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem Apply the distributive law and then simplify the resulting expression. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given two expressions: a binomial. We need to multiply them together.
8y 2 + 4y factorises to 4y(2y + 1). ax2 + bx factorises to x(ax + b). PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . We can see here that x is a common factor of both terms.4 Factorising a Quadratic Finding the factors of a quadratic is quite easy. Remove the brackets and simplify:(2h + 3)(4h2 − 6h + 9) 9. we can immediately write down what the factors are. This means that if we ever come across a quadratic that is made up of a diﬀerence of squares. The third simplest quadratic is made up of the diﬀerence of squares. The simplest quadratic has the form ax2 . Find the products of: (a) (−2y 2 − 4y + 11)(5y − 12) (c) (4y 2 + 12y + 10)(−9y 2 + 8y + 2) (e) (10y 5 + 3)(−2y 2 − 11y + 2) (g) (−10)(2y 2 + 8y + 3) (i) (6y 7 − 8y 2 + 7)(−4y − 3)(−6y 2 − 7y − 11) (k) (8y 5 + 3y 4 + 2y 3 )(5y + 10)(12y 2 + 6y + 6) (m) (4y 3 + 5y 2 − 12y)(−12y − 2)(7y 2 − 9y + 12) (o) (9)(8y 2 − 2y + 3) (q) (−6y 4 + 11y 2 + 3y)(10y + 4)(4y − 4) (s) (−11y 5 + 11y 4 + 11)(9y 3 − 7y 2 − 4y + 6) (b) (−11y + 3)(−10y 2 − 7y − 9) (d) (7y 2 − 6y − 8)(−2y + 2) (f) (−12y − 3)(12y 2 − 11y + 3) (h) (2y 6 + 3y 5 )(−5y − 12) (j) (−9y 2 + 11y + 2)(8y 2 + 6y − 7) (l) (−7y + 11)(−12y + 3) (n) (7y + 3)(7y 2 + 3y + 10) (p) (−12y + 12)(4y 2 − 11y + 11) (r) (−3y 6 − 6y 3 )(11y − 6)(10y − 10) (t) (−3y + 8)(−4y 3 + 8y 2 − 2y + 12) 2. and some are easier than others. We know that: (a + b)(a − b) = a2 − b2 . 76 . Exercise: Products 1. we can also write: a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b).GRADE 10 (x + y)(x2 − xy + y 2 ) = x3 + y 3 This is known as a sum of cubes. The second simplest quadratic is of the form ax2 + bx. For example.9. This is true for any values of a and b.4 Important: We have seen that: CHAPTER 9. Therefore. which factorises to (x)(ax). 25x2 factorises to (5x)(5x) and 2x2 factorises to (2x)(x). Activity :: Investigation : Diﬀerence of Cubes Show that the diﬀerence of cubes (x3 − y 3 ) is given by the product of x − y and 2 x + xy + y 2 . and more importantly since it is an equality. For example.
and we need a more general method to factorise quadratics like x2 − x − 2? We can learn about how to factorise quadratics by looking at how two binomials are multiplied to get a quadratic. PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . many quadratics do not fall into these categories. write down two brackets with an x in each bracket and space for the remaining terms. Finally.4 Worked Example 23: Diﬀerence of Squares Question: Find the factors of 9x2 − 25. the middle term is the sum of two terms. (x + 2)(x + 3) is multiplied out as: (x + 2)(x + 3) = x(x + 3) + 2(x + 3) = (x)(x) + 3x + 2x + (2)(3) = x2 + 5x + 6. For example.CHAPTER 9. ( x )( x ) Next decide upon the factors of 6.GRADE 10 9. Similarly. So. how do we use this information to factorise the quadratic? Let us start with factorising x2 + 5x+ 6 and see if we can decide upon some general rules. the 6 in the quadratic is the product of the 2 and 3 the brackets. Since the 6 is positive. Step 2 : Write the quadratic as the diﬀerence of squares 9x2 − 25 = (3x)2 − 52 Step 3 : Write the factors (3x)2 − 52 = (3x − 5)(3x + 5) Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The factors of 9x2 − 25 are (3x − 5)(3x + 5). Answer Step 1 : Examine the quadratic We see that the quadratic is a diﬀerence of squares because: (3x)2 = 9x2 and 52 = 25. Firstly. We see that the x2 term in the quadratic is the product of the xterms in each bracket. The three types of quadratic that we have seen are very simple to factorise. However. we have four possibilities: Option 1 (x + 1)(x + 6) Option 2 (x − 1)(x − 6) Option 3 (x + 2)(x + 3) 77 Option 4 (x − 2)(x − 3) . these are: Factors of 6 1 6 2 3 1 6 2 3 Therefore.
6) Write down a set of factors for a and c. First divide the entire equation by any common factor of the coeﬃcients. The possible factors for c are: (1. it means only one of the factors of c is negative. Option 1 (x + 1)(x + 6) x2 + 7x + 6 Option 2 (x − 1)(x − 6) x2 − 7x + 6 Option 3 (x + 2)(x + 3) x2 + 5x + 6 Option 4 (x − 2)(x − 3) x2 − 5x + 6 We see that Option 3 (x+2)(x+3) is the correct solution.5) There are some tips that you can keep in mind: • If c is positive. As you have seen that the process of factorising a quadratic is mostly trial and error. so as to obtain an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a. ( x )( x ) (9.3). multiply out your brackets again just to make sure it really works. • Once you get an answer. Write down a set of options for the possible factors for the quadratic using the factors of a and c. The possible factors for a are: (1. and are both positive if b is positive. Method: Factorising a Quadratic 1. the other one being positive. 4. The quadratic is in the required form. Expand all options to see which one gives you the correct answer. Write down a set of options for the possible factors for the quadratic using the factors of a and c. )( x ) (9. b and c have no common factors and a is positive. Step 2 : Write down two brackets with an x in each bracket and space for the remaining terms.1) or (1. Option 1 (x − 1)(3x + 1) 3x2 − 2x − 1 Option 2 (x + 1)(3x − 1) 3x2 + 2x − 1 78 . Write down two brackets with an x in each bracket and space for the remaining terms. however the is some information that can be used to simplify the process. 5.1). Therefore. Worked Example 24: Factorising a Quadratic Question: Find the factors of 3x2 + 2x − 1.9. If c is negative. then the factors of c must be either both positive or both negative. ( x 3. PRODUCTS AND FACTORS .GRADE 10 Next we expand each set of brackets to see which option gives us the correct middle term. there are two possible options.4 CHAPTER 9. Answer Step 1 : Check whether the quadratic is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 with a positive. 2. Write down a set of factors for a and c. The factors are both negative if b is negative.
Factorise the following: (a) x2 − 2x − 15 (b) x2 + 2x − 3 (c) x2 + 2x − 8 (d) x2 + x − 20 (e) x2 − x − 20 3. Factorise the following: (a) x2 + 8x + 15 (d) x2 + 9x + 14 (b) x2 + 10x + 24 (e) x2 + 15x + 36 (c) x2 + 9x + 8 (f) x2 + 13x + 36 2. 79 .GRADE 10 Step 3 : Check your answer (x + 1)(3x − 1) = = = = x(3x − 1) + 1(3x − 1) (x)(3x) + (x)(−1) + (1)(3x) + (1)(−1) 3x2 − x + 3x − 1 x2 + 2x − 1. Find the factors for the following trinomials: (a) 3x2 + 17x − 6 (b) 7x2 − 6x − 1 (c) 8x2 − 6x + 1 (d) 2x2 − 5x − 3 9. Find the factors for the following quadratic expressions: (a) 2x2 + 11x + 5 (b) 3x2 + 19x + 6 (c) 6x2 + 7x + 2 (d) 12x2 + 7x + 1 (e) 8x2 + 6x + 1 4. Therefore.5 Factorisation by Grouping One other method of factorisation involves the use of common factors. We get this by taking out the x + 1 and see what is left over.5 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The factors of 3x2 + 2x − 1 are (x + 1) and (3x − 1). We have a +2x from the ﬁrst term and a +3 from the second term. we can now write: (x + 1)(2x + 3). Similarly. You can see that there is another common factor: x + 1. We know that the factors of 3x + 3 are 3 and (x + 1). 9. the factors of 2x2 + 2x are 2x and (x + 1). Therefore.CHAPTER 9. This is called factorisation by grouping. Exercise: Factorising a Trinomial 1. if we have an expression: 2x2 + 2x + 3x + 3 then we can factorise as: 2x(x + 1) + 3(x + 1). PRODUCTS AND FACTORS .
PRODUCTS AND FACTORS . Factorise by grouping: x2 − 6x + 5x − 30 3. Step 2 : Determine if there are factors in common between some terms 7 is a common factor of the ﬁrst two terms and b is a common factor of the second two terms. You can apply the diﬀerent factorisation methods to simplify the expression. Factorise by grouping: 5xy − 3y + 10x − 6 9. the expression will be a fraction. x2 + 3x x+3 x(x + 3) x+3 x provided x = −3 80 = = . Step 5 : Rewrite expression taking the factors into account 7(x + 2y) + b(x + 2y) = (x + 2y)(7 + b) Step 6 : Write the ﬁnal answer The factors of 7x + 14y + bx + 2by are (7 + b) and (x + 2y). Factorise by grouping: a2 − 2a − ax + 2x 5.6 CHAPTER 9. Factorise by grouping: 6x + 9 + 2ax + 3 2. Factorise by grouping: 5x + 10y − ax − 2ay 4.6 Simpliﬁcation of Fractions In some cases of simplifying an algebraic expression.GRADE 10 Worked Example 25: Factorisation by Grouping Question: Find the factors of 7x + 14y + bx + 2by by grouping Answer Step 1 : Determine if there are common factors to all terms There are no factors that are common to all terms.9. Exercise: Factorisation by Grouping 1. Step 3 : Rewrite expression taking the factors into account 7x + 14y + bx + 2by = 7(x + 2y) + b(x + 2y) Step 4 : Determine if there are more common factors x + 2y is a common factor. For example. x2 + 3x x+3 has a quadratic in the numerator and a binomial in the denominator.
PRODUCTS AND FACTORS .6 Worked Example 26: Simpliﬁcation of Fractions Question: Simplify: 2x−b+x−ab ax2 −abx Answer Step 1 : Factorise numerator and denominator Use grouping for numerator and common factor for denominator in this example.GRADE 10 9. Simplify: 81 .CHAPTER 9. = = = (ax − ab) + (x − b) ax2 − abx a(x − b) + (x − b) ax(x − b) (x − b)(a + 1) ax(x − b) Step 2 : Cancel out same factors The simpliﬁed answer is: = a+1 ax Worked Example 27: Simpliﬁcation of Fractions x +x Question: Simplify: x x−x−2 ÷ x2 +2x 2 −4 Answer Step 1 : Factorise numerators and denominators 2 2 = (x + 1)(x − 2) x(x + 1) ÷ (x + 2)(x − 2) x(x + 2) Step 2 : Multiply by factorised reciprocal (x + 1)(x − 2) x(x + 2) × (x + 2)(x − 2) x(x + 1) = Step 3 : Cancel out same factors The simpliﬁed answer is = 1 Exercise: Simpliﬁcation of Fractions 1.
Factorise: 2. Show that (2x − 1)2 − (x − 3)2 can be simpliﬁed to (x + 2)(3x − 4) 3. Simplify: x2 −1 3 × 1 x−1 − 1 2 9.9.7 (a) (c) (e) CHAPTER 9.GRADE 10 3a 15 5a+20 a+4 3a2 −9a 2a−6 (g) 6ab+2a 2b (i) 4xyp−8xp 12xy 2 (k) a −5a ÷ 3a+15 2a+10 4a 2 +8x 16 (x) 2xp+4x ÷ 6x 12 2 (o) a +2a ÷ 2a+4 5 20 6b2 (q) 5ab−15b ÷ a+b 4a−12 2a+10 4 a2 −4a a−4 9a+27 9a+18 2 (h) 16x y−8xy 12x−6 (j) 3a+9 ÷ 7a+21 14 a+3 12p2 (l) 3xp+4p ÷ 3x+4 8p (y) 24a−8 ÷ 9a−3 12 6 2 +pq (p) p 7p ÷ 8p+8q 21q 2 a−f 2 (r) f f −aa (b) (d) (f) 2. What must be added to x2 − x + 4 to make it equal to (x + 2)2 82 . PRODUCTS AND FACTORS .7 End of Chapter Exercises (a) a2 − 9 (d) 16b6 − 25a2 (g) 16ba4 − 81b (j) 2a2 − 12ab + 18b2 (m) 125a3 + b3 (p) 64b3 + 1 (b) m2 − 36 (e) m2 − (1/9) (h) a2 − 10a + 25 (k) −4b2 − 144b8 + 48b5 (n) 128b7 − 250ba6 (q) 5a3 − 40c3 (c) 9b2 − 81 (f) 5 − 5a2 b6 (i) 16b2 + 56b + 49 (l) a3 − 27 (o) c3 + 27 (r) 2b4 − 128b 1.
we want to get the unknown variable alone on the left hand side of the equation with all the constants on the right hand side of the equation. For example. these rules have to be applied more than once. multiply or divide both sides of an equation by any number you want. This means we need to subtract 5 and add 1 on the left hand side. Method: Rearranging Equations You can add. we also need to subtract 5 and add 1 on the right hand side. before we have the unknown variable on the left hand side 83 . an equation is like a set of weighing scales. we must divide by 2 and multiply by 3 on the left hand side in 3 order to get x alone. subtract. as long as you always do it to both sides. 2 x 3 2 x÷2×3 3 2 3 × ×x 2 3 1×1×x x = 8 = 8÷2×3 8×3 2 = 12 = 12 = These are the basic rules to apply when simplifying any equation. because we need to keep the equation balanced. in order to keep the equation balanced. However. As we saw in section 2. we need to keep in mind that what is done to one side must be done to the other. When we solve equations. 2 x = 8. x+5−1 = −6 x+5−5−1+1 x+0+0 x = −11 + 1 = −10 = −6 − 5 + 1 In another example. In most cases.1 Strategy for Solving Equations This chapter is all about solving diﬀerent types of equations for one or two variables. In general.9 (page 13). in the equation x + 5 − 1 = −6. For example. we want to be able to write the equation as x = 1. we must also divide by 2 and multiply by 3 on the right hand side.Chapter 10 Equations and Inequalities . in the equation x − 1 = 0. we want to get x alone on the left hand side of the equation. that must always be balanced.Grade 10 10. However.
we will get: x=− 84 . because division by 0 is undeﬁned. x) is 1(one).2 Solving Linear Equations The simplest equation to solve is a linear equation. we will learn how to ﬁnd the value of the variable that makes both sides of the linear equation true. 2x + 2 = 2x = 2x = 1 1 − 2 (like terms together) −1 (simpliﬁed as much a possible) 1 2 Now we see that 2x = −1.2 of the equation. Since the highest power on the variable is one(1) in a linear equation. grouping terms and factorisation. CHAPTER 10. identify what is wrong. If x y = 0. A linear equation is an equation where the power on the variable(letter. 2x + 2 2−x 3x + 1 4 x−6 3 = 1 = 2 = 7x + 2 In this section. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .g.10. This section relies on all the methods we have already discussed: multiplying out expressions. For example. x + 1 = 1 true. 2.GRADE 10 We are now ready to solve some equations! Important: The following must also be kept in mind: 1. 4x − 8 4(x − 2) 4(x − 2) (x − 2) 4 = = = = 3(x − 2) 3(x − 2) 3(x − 2) (x − 2) 3 10. Make sure that you are comfortable with these methods. what value of x makes both sides of the very simple equation. The following are examples of linear equations. Division by 0 is undeﬁned. then x = 0 and y = 0. Activity :: Investigation : Strategy for Solving Equations In the following. there is at most one solution or root for the equation. e. This means if we divide both sides by 2. before trying out the work in the rest of this chapter.
”Move” all terms with the variable to the left hand side of equation. we get: 10. Step 3 : Solve the problem 4−x = −x = −x = −x = 4 4 − 4 (move all constant terms (numbers) to the RHS (right hand side)) 0 (group like terms together) 0 (simplify grouped terms) 0 0 −x = ∴ x = Step 4 : Check the answer 85 . 6. 5. Worked Example 28: Solving Linear Equations Question: Solve for x: 4 − x = 4 Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given 4 − x = 4 and are required to solve for x. 3.CHAPTER 10. Expand(Remove) all brackets. 4. 2. back into the original equation. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem Since there are no brackets.GRADE 10 1 If we substitute x = − 2 . to check your answer.2 = = = 2x + 2 1 2(− ) + 2 2 −1 + 2 1 That is all that there is to solving linear equations. Bearing in mind that the sign of the terms will chance(from (+) to () or vice versa. Group all like terms together and simplify as much as possible. Find the solution. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Method: Solving Equations The general steps to solve equations are: 1. substitute the solution into the original equation. and all constant terms (the numbers) to the right hand side of the equal tosign. Substitute solution into original equation to check answer. as they ”cross over” the equal to sign. Important: Solving Equations When you have found the solution to an equation. we can start with grouping like terms and then simplifying. Factorise if necessary.
then grouping like terms and then simplifying.10. Step 3 : Solve the problem 4(2x − 9) − 4x = 4 − 6x 8x − 36 − 4x = 4 − 6x (expand the brackets) 8x − 4x + 6x = 4 + 36 (move all terms with x to the LHS and all constant terms to the RHS of the =) (8x − 4x + 6x) = (4 + 36) (group like terms together) 10x = 40 10 40 x = 10 10 x = 4 (simplify grouped terms) (divide both sides by 10) Step 4 : Check the answer Substitute solution into original equation: 4(2(4) − 9) − 4(4) = 4(8 − 9) − 16 = 4(−1) − 16 = −4 − 16 = −20 = 4 − 6(4) 4 − 24 −20 −20 −20 Since both sides are equal to −20.2 CHAPTER 10. the answer is correct. the answer is correct.GRADE 10 Substitute solution into original equation: 4−0=4 4=4 Since both sides are equal. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We start with expanding the brackets. Step 5 : Write the Final Answer The solution of 4 − x = 4 is x = 0. Step 5 : Write the Final Answer The solution of 4(2x − 9) − 4x = 4 − 6x is x = 4. Worked Example 29: Solving Linear Equations Question: Solve for x: 4(2x − 9) − 4x = 4 − 6x Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given 4(2x − 9) − 4x = 4 − 6x and are required to solve for x. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Worked Example 30: Solving Linear Equations Question: Solve for x: Answer 2−x 3x+1 =2 86 .
the answer is correct. we can start by multiplying both sides of the equation by (3x+1). (x = −1 ) 3 Step 3 : Solve the problem 2−x 3x + 1 (2 − x) 2−x 10. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem Since there is a denominator of (3x+1). Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We start with multiplying each of the terms in the equation by 3.GRADE 10 Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required 2−x We are given 3x+1 = 2 and are required to solve for x. Step 5 : Write the Final Answer 2−x The solution of 3x+1 = 2 is x = 0. then grouping like terms and then simplifying.) (simplify grouped terms) = 0 ÷ (−7) = 0 zero divide by any number is 0 Step 4 : Check the answer Substitute solution into original equation: 2 − (0) 3(0) + 1 2 1 = = 2 2 Since both sides are equal to 2. Step 3 : Solve the problem 4 x−6 = 3 4x − 18 = 4x − 21x = 7x + 2 21x + 6 (each term is multiplied by 3 6 + 18 (move all terms with x to the LHS and all constant terms to the RHS of the =) 24 24 −17 −24 17 (simplify grouped terms) (divide both sides by 17) −17x = −17 x = −17 x = 87 . But because division by 0 is not permissible. Worked Example 31: Solving Linear Equations 4 Question: Solve for x: 3 x − 6 = 7x + 2 Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required 4 We are given 3 x − 6 = 7x + 2 and are required to solve for x. there is a restriction on a value for x. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .CHAPTER 10.2 = 2 = 2(3x + 1) = 6x + 2 (remove/expand brackets) −x − 6x = 2 − 2 −7x = 0 theref ore x x (move all terms containing x to the LHS and all constant terms (numbers) to the RHS.
2 CHAPTER 10. = = 16 24 q 2 4 1 15. Solve for k: 10k + 5 + 0 = −2k + −3k + 80 20. Solve for w: −3w = 0 4. Solve for t: 12t + 0 = 144 5. Solve for d: 6d − 2 + 2d = −2 + 4d + 8 16.GRADE 10 Step 4 : Check the answer Substitute solution into original equation: 4 −24 × −6 3 17 4 × (−8) −6 (17) (−32) −6 17 −32 − 102 17 −134 17 Since both sides are equal to −134 17 . Solve for y: 2y − 3 = 7 3. Solve for z: 4z = 16 2. Solve for f : 3f − 10 = 10 17. Solve for q: 4 q 10. Solve for x: 7 + 5x = 62 6. Solve for b: 12 − 6b + 34b = 2b − 24 − 64 11. Solve for q: 13. Solve for p: 18 − 2p = p + 9 12. = = = = = 7× −24 +2 17 7 × (−24) +2 17 −168 +2 17 (−168) + 34 17 −134 17 the answer is correct.10. Step 5 : Write the Final Answer 4 The solution of 3 x − 6 = 7x + 2 is. Solve for j: 8(j − 4) = 5(j − 4) 18. Solve for y: 55 = 5y + 3 4 7. Solve for a: 23a − 12 = 6 + 2a 9. Solve for m: 6 = 6(m + 7) + 5m 88 . Solve for v: 3v + 16 = 4v − 10 14. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . x = −24 17 . Solve for c: 6c + 3c = 4 − 5(2c − 3). Solve for r: −(−16 − r) = 13r − 1 19. Exercise: Solving Linear Equations 1. Solve for z: 5z = 3z + 45 8.
The following are examples of quadratic equations. For example. v Extension: Solutions of Quadratic Equations There are two solutions to a quadratic equation.CHAPTER 10. 2. In order to solve: we need to be able to write 2x2 − x − 3 as (x + 1)(2x − 3). Method: Solving Quadratic Equations 1. b and c have no common factors. 2x2 + 4x + 2 = 0 can be written as x2 + 2x + 1 = 0 by dividing by 2. because any one of the values can solve the equation. we know that: (x + 1)(2x − 3) = 2x2 − x − 3. 3. that is writing the quadratic as a product of two expressions in brackets. x2 + 1 + 2x 3. 89 .3 Solving Quadratic Equations A quadratic equation is an equation where the power on the variable is at most 2. Once writing the equation in the form (rx + s)(ux + v) = 0. First divide the entire equation by any common factor of the coeﬃcients. x + x2 2. This means (rx + s)(ux + v) = 0. We solve quadratic equations by factorisation. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . For example. Write ax2 + bx + c in terms of its factors (rx + s)(ux + v). while a quadratic equation has at most two solutions. x2 − 3x − 2 = 0 can be written as (x − 1)(x − 2) = 0. There are some special situations when a quadratic equation only has one solution. which we already know how to do.3 10. so as to obtain an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a.GRADE 10 10. which gives x = 1 and x = 2 as the two solutions to the quadratic equation x2 − 3x − 2 = 0. 2x2 − x − 3 = 0 Activity :: Investigation : Factorising a Quadratic Factorise the following quadratic expressions: 1. 16x2 − 9 5. it then follows that the two s solutions are x = − r or x = − u . This means that both x − 1 = 0 and x − 2 = 0. 2x2 + 2x = 1 2−x = 2x 3x + 1 4 x − 6 = 7x2 + 2 3 Quadratic equations diﬀer from linear equations by the fact that a linear equation only has one solution. x2 − 4x + 5 4. For example. 4x2 + 4x + 1 Being able to factorise a quadratic means that you are one step away from solving a quadratic equation.
3x − 1 = 0 Worked Example 33: Solving Quadratic Equations √ Question: Solve for x: x + 2 = x Answer Step 1 : Square both sides of the equation Both sides of the equation should be squared to remove the square root sign. Step 4 : Write the equation with the factors (x − 2)(x + 1) = 0 Step 5 : Determine the two solutions We have x+1=0 or x−2=0 90 .10.3 CHAPTER 10. x = −1 or x = Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer 3x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 for x = −1 or x = 1 .GRADE 10 Worked Example 32: Solving Quadratic Equations Question: Solve for x: 3x2 + 2x − 1 = 0 Answer Step 1 : Find the factors of 3x2 + 2x − 1 As we have seen the factors of 3x2 + 2x − 1 are (x + 1) and (3x − 1). Step 2 : Write the equation with the factors (x + 1)(3x − 1) = 0 Step 3 : Determine the two solutions We have x+1=0 or Therefore. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . x + 2 = x2 Step 2 : Write equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 x+2 = x + 2 − x2 −x − 2 + x2 = = x2 0 0 0 (subtract x2 to both sides) (divide both sides by 1) x2 − x + 2 = Step 3 : Factorise the quadratic x2 − x + 2 The factors of x2 − x + 2 are (x − 2)(x + 1). 3 1 3.
Step 6 : Check whether solutions are valid √ Substitute x = −1into the original equation x + 2 = x: LHS = = = but RHS = (−1) + 2 √ 1 1 (−1) 10. Answer Step 1 : Check if the equation is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 The equation is in the required form. Worked Example 34: Solving Quadratic Equations Question: Solve the equation: x2 + 3x − 4 = 0. (10.1) 91 .GRADE 10 Therefore. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .CHAPTER 10. x = −1 or x = 2.3 Therefore LHS=RHS Therefore x = −1 √ Now substitute x = 2 into original equation x + 2 = x: LHS √ 2+2 = √ 4 = = 2 and RHS = 2 Therefore LHS = RHS Therefore x = 2 is the only valid solution Step 7 : Write the ﬁnal answer √ x + 2 = x for x = 2 only. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal solution Therefore the solutions are x = 1 or x = −4. with a = 1. Step 2 : Factorise the quadratic You need the factors of 1 and 4 so that the middle term is +3 So the factors are: (x − 1)(x + 4) Step 3 : Solve the quadratic equation x2 + 3x − 4 = (x − 1)(x + 4) = 0 Therefore x = 1 or x = −4.
divide both sides of the equation by 2.10.3 CHAPTER 10. Therefore. Solve for a: 4a2 − 17a − 77 = 0 9. Solve for b: −75b2 + 290b − 240 = 0 8. we get x2 − 2x + 1. so there is only one solution for x: x = 1. Solve for a: (5a − 9)(a + 6) = 0 4. Step 3 : Solve the quadratic equation x2 − 2x + 1 = (x − 1)(x − 1) = 0 In this case. Solve for x: 20x + 25x2 = 0 5. Solve for x: 14x2 + 5x = 6 19. Solve for x: (3x + 2)(3x − 4) = 0 3. Solve for w: 3w2 + 10w − 25 = 0 15. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . −2x2 + 4x − 2 = 0 0 x2 − 2x + 1 = Step 2 : Factorise x2 − 2x + 1 The middle term is negative. Solve for v: v 2 − v + 3 16. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal solution The root of 0 = −2x2 + 4x − 2 is x = 1. Solve for x: x2 − 4x + 4 = 0 17. Solve for y: 2y = 1 y 2 − 3y + 14 3 3 11. Solve for t: t2 = 3t 12. Solve for t: t2 − 6t = 7 18. the quadratic is a perfect square. There is a common factor: 2. with no common factors. Solve for x: (2x + 1)(2x − 9) = 0 6. Solve for θ: θ2 − 4θ = −4 13. Solve for t: 2t2 − 2t = 12 20. Exercise: Solving Quadratic Equations 1.GRADE 10 Worked Example 35: Solving Quadratic Equations Question: Find the roots of the quadratic equation 0 = −2x2 + 4x − 2. Solve for y: 3y 2 + 2y − 6 = y 2 − y + 2 92 . Solve for x: 2x2 − 5x − 12 = 0 2 10. the factors are (x − 1)(x − 1) If we multiply out (x − 1)(x − 1). Solve for q: −q 2 + 4q − 6 = 4q 2 − 5q + 3 14. Answer Step 1 : Determine whether the equation is in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. Solve for x: (2x − 3)(2x − 3) = 0 7. Therefore. Solve for x: (2x + 3)(2x − 3) = 0 2.
This means that if we can write all terms in an equation with the same base. Since the bases are equal (to 3). 93 . then: ax = ay if and only if: x=y .4 10. For example take the equation 3x+1 = 9. we can solve the exponential equations by equating the indices. if we remember how to apply the laws of exponentials.CHAPTER 10. Activity :: Investigation : Solving Exponential Equations Solve the following equations by completing the table: 2x = 2 3 2x 3x = 9 3 3x 2x+1 = 8 3 2x+1 2 1 x 0 2 1 x 0 2 1 x 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .GRADE 10 10. we know that the exponents must also be equal. Solving exponential equations are simple.4 Exponential Equations of the form ka(x+p) = m examples solved by trial and error) Exponential equations generally have the unknown variable as the power. This gives: x = 1. Therefore we can write: x + 1 = 2. The following are examples of exponential equations: 2x 2 3x+1 4 −6 3 −x = = = 1 2 7x + 2 You should already be familiar with exponential notation. This can be written as: 3x+1 = 32 .1 Algebraic Solution Deﬁnition: Equality for Exponential Functions If a is a positive number such that a > 0.4.
27. the base is two and we can write 4 as 22 . 1.GRADE 10 Method: Solving Exponential Equations Try to write all terms with the same base. All terms are written with the same base. 3. 8. x Worked Example 37: Solving Exponential Equations Question: Solve: 2x+4 = 42x 94 .4 CHAPTER 10.243 3. For example. in the list 2.10.81. 49x8 Worked Example 36: Solving Exponential Equations Question: Solve for x: 2x = 2 Answer Step 1 : Try to write all terms with the same base. 2. 13.169 5.625 4.16.128. 4x2 .64.1024 2. The base is the ﬁrst in the list. Activity :: Investigation : Exponential Numbers Write the following with the same base.8.9. 2x. 2x = 21 Step 2 : Equate the indices x=1 Step 3 : Check your answer 2x = 2(1) = 21 Since both sides are equal.4. 4.125.512. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer x=1 is the solution to 2 = 2.32.25. 5. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . 8x3 . the answer is correct.
52x+2 = 53 f. 4 3 Exercise: Solving Exponential Equations 1.CHAPTER 10. Solve the following exponential equations. the answer is correct. 64x+1 = 162x+5 c. 32x+1 = 33 e. 125x = 5 . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . a. 2x+4 2x+4 2x+4 Step 2 : Equate the indices x + 4 = 4x Step 3 : Solve for x x+4 = 4x = = = 42x 22(2x) 24x 10. Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer x= is the solution to 2x+4 = 42x . 2x+5 = 25 d.GRADE 10 Answer Step 1 : Try to write all terms with the same base. Solve: 39x−2 = 27 95 b. 65−x = 612 2.4 x − 4x = −4 −3x = −4 −4 x = −3 4 x = 3 Step 4 : Check your answer LHS = = = RHS = = = = = = = = 2x+4 4 2( 3 +4) 23 16 1 (216 ) 3 42x 42( 3 ) 8 43 (48 ) 3 ((22 )8 ) 3 (216 ) 3 LHS 1 1 1 4 Since both sides are equal.
2x + 2 2−x 3x + 1 4 x−6 3 ≤ 1 ≥ 2 < 7x + 2 The methods used to solve linear inequalities are identical to those used to solve linear equations.5 CHAPTER 10. If both sides of the inequality are divided by −2. The following are examples of linear inequalities. Solve 2x + 2 = 1. The only diﬀerence occurs when there is a multiplication or a division that involves a minus sign. For example. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . making −4 < −3. x = 4 2. the direction of the inequality changes. −4 is not greater than −3. Therefore. Activity :: Investigation : Inequalities on a Number Line Represent the following on number lines: 1.10. In order to compare am inequality to a normal equation. the inequality must switch around. we shall solve an equation ﬁrst. we get 96 . For example. then −x > −1. 2x + 2 = 1 2x = 1 − 2 2x = −1 1 x = − 2 If we represent this answer on a number line. we know that 8 > 6.GRADE 10 3. if x < 1. x ≤ 4 4. Solve for x: 25(1−2x) = 54 6. Solve for x: 27x × 9x−2 = 1 10. Solve for k: 81k+2 = 27k+4 4. x < 4 3. x ≥ 4 5. The growth of an algae in a pond is can be modeled by the function f (t) = 2t . Find the value of t such that f (t) = 128? 5. x > 4 A linear inequality is similar to a linear equation and has the power on the variable is equal to 1. Important: When you divide or multiply both sides of an inequality by any number with a minus sign.5 Linear Inequalities graphically.
Worked Example 38: Linear Inequalities Question: Solve for r: 6 − r > 2 Answer Step 1 : Move all constants to the RHS −r > 2 − 6 −r > −4 Step 2 : Multiply both sides by 1 When you multiply by a minus sign. there is only a single value of x for which the equation is true. there is a range of values for which the inequality is true.CHAPTER 10. r<4 Step 3 : Represent answer graphically r<4 0 1 2 3 4 5 Worked Example 39: Linear Inequalities Question: Solve for q: 4q + 3 < 2(q + 3) and represent solution on a number line. However.5 ≤ 1 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 As you can see. for the equation. the direction of the inequality changes. 2x + 2 2x ≤ 1 − 2 2x ≤ −1 1 x ≤ − 2 If we represent this answer on a number line. we get 1 x ≤ −2 10. This is the main diﬀerence between an equation and an inequality.GRADE 10 x = −1 2 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Now let us solve the inequality 2x + 2 ≤ 1. Answer Step 1 : Expand all brackets 4q + 3 4q + 3 < 2(q + 3) < 2q + 6 97 . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . for the inequality.
middle and right of inequalities 5−3≤ x+3−3 2≤ x Step 2 : Represent answer graphically 2≤x<5 0 1 2 3 4 5 <8−3 <5 Exercise: Linear Inequalities 1. (a) −2 ≤ x − 1 < 3 98 . Illustrate your answer on a number line if x is a real number. Answer Step 1 : Subtract 3 from Left. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Solve for x and represent the solution graphically: (a) 3x + 4 > 5x + 8 (b) 3(x − 1) − 2 ≤ 6x + 4 (c) x−7 > 2x−3 3 2 (d) −4(x − 1) < x + 2 1 5 (e) 2 x + 1 (x − 1) ≥ 6 x − 3 1 3 2.10.GRADE 10 Step 2 : Move all constants to the RHS and all unknowns to the LHS 4q + 3 4q − 2q 2q Step 3 : Solve inequality 2q q < 3 Divide both sides by 2 3 < 2 < < < 2q + 6 6−3 3 Step 4 : Represent answer graphically q< 0 1 3 2 2 3 4 5 Worked Example 40: Compound Linear Inequalities Question: Solve for x: 5 ≤ x + 3 < 8 and represent solution on a number line.5 CHAPTER 10. Solve the following inequalities.
CHAPTER 10. 10. So the solution to the system of simultaneous equations in (10. Illustrate this answer on a number line.1) y= 1 x 2 The intersection of the two graphs is (2.3) is y = 1 and x = 2.GRADE 10 (b) −5 < 2x − 3 ≤ 7 3. if there are n unknown variables. are the values of the unknown variables which satisfy the system of equations simultaneously. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . then the solution to the system of simultaneous equations is the coordinate of the point at which both graphs intersect. 99 y= −1 2x − −2 −1 1 2 3 3 . that must be solved for.6 10.6 Linear Simultaneous Equations Thus far. The solutions to the system of simultaneous equations.2 Graphical Solution Simultaneous equations can also be solved graphically. If the graphs corresponding to each equation is drawn. (10. x = 2y y = 2x − 3 Draw the graphs of the two equations in (10. Solve for x: 7(3x + 2) − 5(2x − 3) > 7. When two unknown variables need to be solved for. one must have at least as many independent equations as variables. then n equations are required to obtain a solution for each of the n variables.1 Finding solutions In order to ﬁnd a numerical value for an unknown variable. all equations that have been encountered have one unknown variable. that means at the same time. We solve simultaneous equations graphically and algebraically/ 10. An example of a system of simultaneous equations is: 2x + 2y = 1 2−x =2 3y + 1 (10. two equations are required and these equations are known as simultaneous equations.3) 1 (2. In general.3).1).6.6.2) 10.
The graphs intersect at (4.22). Step 3 : Write the solution of the system of simultaneous equations as given by the intersection of the graphs.GRADE 10 This can be shown algebraically as: x = ∴ y y − 4y = = = = 2y 2(2y) − 3 −3 −3 1 −3y y Substitute into the ﬁrst equation: x = = 2(1) 2 Worked Example 41: Simultaneous Equations Question: Solve the following system of simultaneous equations graphically.10. 4y + 3x = 4y − 19x = 100 12 Answer Step 1 : Draw the graphs corresponding to each equation. For the ﬁrst equation: 4y + 3x = 4y = y and for the second equation: 4y − 19x = 4y y = = 12 19x + 12 19 x+3 4 = 12 = 100 100 − 3x 3 25 − x 4 40 4y 4y + 3x = x 19 − 100 30 20 10 −8 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8 Step 2 : Find the intersection of the graphs. x = y = 100 4 22 . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .6 CHAPTER 10.
CHAPTER 10. 101 . then the system of equations should be solved algebraically. thereby reducing the number of equations and the number of variables by 1.6.6 10.GRADE 10 10. we ﬁrst solve the ﬁrst equation for x: x= 1 −y 2 and substitute this result into the second equation: 2−x 3y + 1 1 2 − ( 2 − y) 3y + 1 1 2 − ( − y) 2 1 2− +y 2 y − 6y −5y y = 2 = 2 = 2(3y + 1) = 6y + 2 = −2 + = 1 2 1 10 1 +2 2 = − ∴ x = = = = 1 −y 2 1 1 − (− ) 2 10 6 10 3 5 The solution for the system of simultaneous equations (??) is: x y = 3 5 1 10 = − Worked Example 42: Simultaneous Equations Question: Solve the following system of simultaneous equations: 4y + 3x = 4y − 19x = 100 12 Answer Step 1 : If the question. back substitution then yields the values for the other variables. Continue until you reach a single equation with a single variable. In the example (??). which (hopefully) can be solved.3 Solution by Substitution A common algebraic technique is the substitution method: try to solve one of the equations for one of the variables and substitute the result into the other equations. does not explicitly ask for a graphical solution. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .
Determine how many of each there are. In total there are 7 cycles and 19 wheels.10.GRADE 10 Step 2 : Make x the subject of the ﬁrst equation.6 CHAPTER 10. 4y + 3x = 3x = x = 100 100 − 4y 100 − 4y 3 Step 3 : Substitute the value obtained for x into the second equation. 4(22) + 3(4) = 88 + 12 = 4(22) − 19(4) = 88 − 76 = 100 12 Worked Example 43: Bicycles and Tricycles Question: A shop sells bicycles and tricycles. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Step 2 : Set up the necessary equations If b is the number of bicycles and t is the number of tricycles. Answer Step 1 : Identify what is required The number of bicycles and the number of tricycles are required. if a bicycle has two wheels and a tricycle has three wheels. 100 − 4y ) = 3 12y − 19(100 − 4y) = 4y − 19( 12y − 1900 + 76y 88y y Step 4 : Substitute into the equation for x. then: b+t = 2b + 3t = 7 19 Step 3 : Solve the system of simultaneous equations using substitution. 102 . 100 − 4(22) 3 100 − 88 3 12 3 4 = = = 12 36 36 1936 22 x = = = = Step 5 : Substitute the values for x and y into both equations to check the solution.
1 Mathematical Models Introduction Tom and Jane are friends. e − 4f + 47 = 0 4. x + y = 0 10. Therefore. Tom picked up Jane’s Physics test paper. How much did we get?” Let’s help Jane ﬁnd out what her marks are.7. Solve graphically: x + 2y = 7. Tom’s mark (which we shall call t) and Jane’s mark (which we shall call j). 2c + 3d − 59 = 0 3. Tom says: “I have 2 marks more than you do and the sum of both our marks is equal to 14.7 b Into second equation: 2(7 − t) + 3t 14 − 2t + 3t t Into ﬁrst equation: b = = = = = = 7−t 19 19 5 7−5 2 Step 4 : Check solution by substituting into original system of equations. Solve graphically and conﬁrm your answer algebraically: 3a − 2b7 = 0 . both marks add up to 14. Therefore. We have two unknowns.GRADE 10 10. Solve algebraically: 15c + 11d − 132 = 0. He knows that Jane hates maths so he decided to tease her. t + j = 14 The two equations make up a set of linear (because the highest power is one) simultaneous 103 . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Solve algebraically: −18e − 18 + 3f = 0.CHAPTER 10.7 10. 2+5 = 7 19 2(2) + 3(5) = 4 + 15 = Exercise: Simultaneous Equations 1. t=j+2 Also. a − 4b + 1 = 0 2. Tom has 2 more marks than Jane. but will not tell Jane what her marks are.
Important: Follow the three R’s and solve the problem. Rewrite the information given in terms of x.00 more than a chocolate milkshake. Let the requested be a variable e. The solution of the equations then gave the solution to the problem. This problem is an example of a simple mathematical model. Read ALL of it ! 2. We took a problem and we able to write a set of equations that represented the problem. 4.7 CHAPTER 10. This is the reponse 5. we see that Tom scored 8 on his test and Jane scored 6. 3.7. 10. translate the words into algebraic language. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .GRADE 10 equations. 6.7.00. Find out what is requested. If three fruit shakes and 5 chocolate milkshakes cost R78.g..3 Application of Mathematical Modelling Worked Example 44: Mathematical Modelling: One variable Question: A fruit shake costs R2..Response . x.2 Problem Solving Strategy The purpose of this section is to teach you the skills that you need to be able to take a problem and formulate it mathematically. in order to solve it. which we know how to solve! Substitute for t in the second equation to get: t+j j+2+j 2j + 2 = 14 = 14 = 14 2(j + 1) = 14 j+1 = 7 j = 7−1 = 6 Then. The general steps to follow are: 1. Request . Set up an equation (i. Solve the equation algebraically to ﬁnd the result. determine the individual prices. t = j+2 = 6+2 = 8 So.10. a mathematical sentence or model) to solve the required variable. mathematically.Result 10.e. That is. Answer Step 1 : Summarise the information in a table Fruit Chocolate Price number x+2 3 x 5 104 Total 3(x + 2) 5x .
00 105 . One ruler and one pen cost R 8.GRADE 10 Step 2 : Set up an algebraic equation 3(x + 2) + 5x = 78 Step 3 : Solve the equation 3x + 6 + 5x = 78 8x = 72 x = 9 10.00 Worked Example 45: Mathematical Modelling: Two variables Question: Three rulers and two pens cost R 21.00.5) Step 3 : Solve the equations simultaneously First solve the second equation for y: y =8−x and substitute the result into the ﬁrst equation: 3x + 2(8 − x) = 21 3x + 16 − 2x = 21 x = 5 therefore y y = 8−5 = 3 Step 4 : Present the ﬁnal answers one Ruler costs R 5. Find the cost of one ruler and one pen Answer Step 1 : Translate the problem using variables Let the cost of one ruler be x rand and the cost of one pen be y rand.00 and the Fruitshake costs R 11.CHAPTER 10.00 and one Pen costs R 3.7 Step 4 : Present the ﬁnal answer Chocolate milkshake costs R 9.00.4) (10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Step 2 : Rewrite the information in terms of the variables 3x + 2y x+y = = 21 8 (10.
Find the numbers that satisfy this statement. write the solution as a set of integers. For each wedding cake. 5. What are the dimensions of the rectangle? 3. 7. how much proﬁt does he make for each cake sold? 6. write the solution in interval notation.GRADE 10 Exercise: Mathematical Models 1. The length of the rectangle is 17 cm more than its width. Find the unknown number. 8. What are the sizes of the two angles? 5. His speed on the way to the telephone is 5 m/s and his speed on the way back is 4 m/s. The length of a rectangle is 2 cm more than the width of the rectangle.Grade 10 106 . What are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 − 3x + 2 = 0? 2. Find the number. The two smaller angles in a rightangled triangle are in the ratio of 1:2. George’s wedding cakes cost R400 each. 4. R50 for overhead. Solve for x: x − 1 = 10. The sum of 27 and 12 is 73 more than an unknown number. Solve the inequality and then answer the questions: x x 3 − 14 > 14 − 4 (a) If xǫR. A man runs to a telephone and back in 15 minutes. it costs George R150 for ingredients. What are the solutions to the equation x2 + x = 6? 3. Find how many CDs each person has. If 4 times a number is increased by 7. the result is 15 less than the square of the number. 7. 10.4 End of Chapter Exercises 1. 6. The perimeter of the rectangle is 20 cm.7. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . George owns a bakery that specialises in wedding cakes. In the equation y = 2x2 − 5x − 18. Stephen has 1 l of a mixture containing 69% of salt. by formulating an equation and then solving it.7 CHAPTER 10. Find the distance to the telephone. (b) if xǫZ and x < 51. which is a value of x when y = 0? 4. 2. Manuel has 5 more CDs than Pedro has. Seveneighths of a certain number is 5 more than onethird of the number. The diagonal of a rectangle is 25 cm more than its width. Solve for a: 1−a 2 − 2−a 3 42 x >1 9. and R5 for advertising. How much water must Stephen add to make the mixture 50% salt? Write your answer as a fraction. Find the length and the width of the rectangle. Altogether the boys have 63 CDs. Solve for x and y: 7x + 3y = 13 and 2x − 3y = −4 chapterFunctions and Graphs . As a percentage of George’s costs.10. Bob has twice as many CDs as Manuel has.
1 Variables and Constants In section 2. Such observations are not always obvious from looking at the numbers alone. A major advantage of functions is that they allow us to visualise equations in terms of a graph. The number 1 is a constant. distance or a more abstract quantity. understanding world economies and for keeping aeroplanes in the air. You never have more than one amount of money at any time because you can always add everything to give one number. as a function of time. so they are worth learning about. like time.GRADE 10 10. a variable will be written as a letter. if the lines cross it means that the two people meet each other at that time. an area of mathematics that tries to plan where people and items are for businesses. Businesses ﬁnd it very useful to plot the graph of their money over time so that they can see when they are spending too much. we were introduced to variables and constants.10. but always give the same answer. In this chapter we will learn how to understand and create real valued functions. This idea is used in logistics. curing diseases. A function is always dependent on one or more variables. Sometimes letters are used to represent constants. By understanding how your money changes over time. 10. the amount of clouds in the sky. the season. identify the variables and the constants: 107 . But the important thing is that there is only one temperature when you measure it. Most often. including. A graph is an accurate drawing of a function and is much easier to read than lists of numbers. A constant has a ﬁxed value. you can plan for the day. so long is the equation is consistent. 10. as its easier to work with. • your weight is a function of how much you eat and how much exercise you do. the strength of the wind. a variable can take any value in some set of numbers. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . It is the fact that you always get the same answer from a set of inputs. predicting natural disasters.9 Functions and Graphs in the RealWorld Some typical examples of functions you may already have met include:• how much money you have. you can plan to spend your money sensibly.CHAPTER 10. To recap. functions also appear on a daytoday level. but everybody has a diﬀerent function so that is why people are all diﬀerent sizes.8 Introduction to Functions and Graphs Functions are mathematical building blocks for designing machines. Activity :: Investigation : Variables and Constants In the following expressions. Functions can take input from many variables. unique to that function. Despite their use in the problems facing humanity. the time of day.10 Recap The following should be familiar. which is what makes functions special. where you are and many more. because you cannot be in two places at once! If you were to plot the graphs of where two people are as a function of time. By understanding how the temperature is eﬀected by these things. • where you are is a function of time. • the temperature is a very complicated function because it has so many inputs. 10. how to read graphs and how to draw them.4 (page 8).8 10.
Instead of writing y = 5x.3 The Cartesian Plane When working with real valued functions. In general. our major tool is drawing graphs. We usually think of the real numbers as an inﬁnitely long line.1. y) = (5.10. a relation is an equation which relates two variables.10 1.10. Besides writing relations as equations. Alan is two years older than Nathan. In both examples x and y are variables and 5 is a constant. 2x2 = 1 2.10. and rotate the one for y. y = 5x and y 2 + x2 = 5 are relations. if we have two real variables. one for x and one for y. 108 . but for a given value of x the value of y will be very diﬀerent in each relation. tables and graphs. you saw that variables can be related to each other. then we can assign values to them simultaneously. If we want to pick two numbers at the same time. For example. but now we must use two dimensions. they can also be represented as words. as in Figure 10. x and y. Therefore the relationship between the ages of Alan and Nathan can be written as A = N + 2. we could also say “y is always ﬁve times as big as x”. That is. y = 4. and picking a number as putting a dot on that line. For example. we can do something similar. In the ﬁrst place. Just as we write “let x = 5” for “let x be 5”. where A is Alan’s age and N is Nathan’s age. y = 7 − 2 −5 x x CHAPTER 10. We could also give the following table: x 2 6 8 13 15 y = 5x 10 30 40 65 75 Activity :: Investigation : Relations and Functions Complete the following table for the given functions: x y = x y = 2x y = x + 2 1 2 3 50 100 10. We call this the Cartesian plane. we have the shorthand notation “let (x.2 Relations and Functions In earlier grades. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . 3x + 4y = 7 3. What we do is use two lines.GRADE 10 10. 3)” for “let x be 5 and y be 3”. we can say “let x be 5 and y be 3”.
and (3. in a very abstract way. For example. We could then consider all the points (x.2) 2 1 x −4 −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 −3 −4 2 3 4 (2. 5) would not since 5 = 2 × 3. we need to calculate a few points.5.CHAPTER 10.2: Graph of f (x) = 2x The form of this graph is very pleasing – it is a simple straight line through the middle of 109 . Then we plot the points on the Cartesian Plane and join the points with a smooth line. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . (1. whereas (3. 10.10 4 3 (−3. we would obtain the graph shown in 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 10. If we put a dot at each of those points. i. y = 2x.2) Figure 10.e. 5).1: The Cartesian plane is made up of an x−axis (horizontal) and a y−axis (vertical). (2. and then at every similar one for all possible values of x.10.4 Drawing Graphs In order to draw the graph of a function. 2). The great beauty of doing this is that it allows us to “draw” functions. 6) would all be such points. Assume that we were investigating the properties of the function f (x) = 2x.GRADE 10 y 10. y) such that y = f (x).
which we have followed here. 8). where f is the function name and x is the independent variable.10 CHAPTER 10.10. 8).10.5 Notation used for Functions Thus far you would have seen that we can use y = 2x to represent a function. f (x) = 2x and g(t) = 2t + 1 are two functions. For example. Both notations will be used in this book. 0). Answer Step 1 : Replace n with k − 1 f (n) = f (k − 1) = n2 − 6n + 9 (k − 1)2 − 6(k − 1) + 9 Step 2 : Remove brackets on RHS and simplify = = k 2 − 2k + 1 − 6k + 6 + 9 k 2 − 8k + 16 Worked Example 47: Function notation Question: If f (x) = x2 − 4. Answer Step 1 : Replace x with b f (b) = butf (b) = 110 b2 − 4 45 . ﬁnd f (k − 1) in terms of k. (6. This notation however gets confusing when you are working with more than one function. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .GRADE 10 the plane.(2. Activity :: Investigation : Drawing Graphs and the Cartesian Plane Plot the following points and draw a smooth line through them. (2. The technique of “plotting”. calculate b if f (b) = 45. is the key element in understanding functions. A more general form of writing a function is to write the function as f (x). (6. Worked Example 46: Function notation Question: If f (n) = n2 − 6n + 9. 16) 10.
2). If g(x) = x and f (x) = 2x. (2. that has the values listed in the table. . plot the following points: (1. 111 . (3. that has the values listed in the table.10 b − 49 = b = 2 {ExerciseRecap 1. Time (s) Distance (m) 0 0 1 10 2 20 5 10 20 Use the values in the table and draw a graph of distance on the yaxis and time on the xaxis. Join the points. (5. x y 1 10 2 20 3 30 40 400 50 500 600 6000 700 7000 800 8000 900 9000 1000 10000 4. Do you get a straightline? 5.8).4). write out: (a) f (t) (b) f (a) (c) f (1) (d) f (3) 6.6). x y 1 2 2 4 3 6 40 80 50 100 600 1200 700 1400 800 1600 900 1800 1000 2000 3. write out: (a) f (t) + g(t) (b) f (a) − g(a) (c) f (1) + g(2) (d) f (3) + g(s) 7. Guess the function in the form y = . Guess the function in the form y = . (4. Complete the table below by ﬁlling in how far the car has travelled away from you after 5. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .GRADE 10 Step 2 : f(b) = f(b) b2 − 4 = 45 0 +7or − 7 10. . Guess the function in the form y = . . On a Cartesian plane. A car drives by you on a straight highway. . x y 1 1 2 2 3 3 40 40 50 50 600 600 700 700 800 800 900 900 1000 1000 2.10). . If f (x) = x + x2 . . 10 and 20 seconds.CHAPTER 10. The car is travelling 10 m every second. that has the values listed in the table.
1 Dependent and Independent Variables Thus far. all the graphs you have drawn have needed two values. (b) Example graph showing asymptotes of a function. dependent and independent variables 2. 112 .All Grades There are many characteristics of graphs that help describe the graph of any function. E 3 2 1 B −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 (a) D A F 1 2 f (x) 3 2 1 C 3 h −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 (b) 1 2 3 g(x) A B. intercepts with axes 4. asymptotes 6.11 Characteristics of Functions . continuous nature of the function Some of these words may be unfamiliar to you.3: (a) Example graphs showing the characteristics of a function. These values are given special names in mathematics.11. Examples of these properties are shown in Figure 10. C.GRADE 10 10. The yvalue is usually determined from some relation based on a given or chosen xvalue. but each will be clearly described. lines of symmetry 7. 10. The calculated yvalue is known as the dependent variable. domain and range 3.10. These properties are: 1. turning points 5. E yintercept xintercept turning points Figure 10. The given or chosen xvalue is known as the independent variable. because its value can be chosen freely. an xvalue and a yvalue.3. F D. because its value depends on the chosen xvalue.11 CHAPTER 10. intervals on which the function increases/decreases 8. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .
x > 0} which reads as “the set of all x values where x is a real number and is greater than zero”. we know that no matter what value of x we choose. Therefore the yintercept is yint = 3(0) + 5 = 5. y = 0 and at the yintercept. Hence the range of this function is all the real numbers strictly greater than zero. which can be obtained using at least one x value. For example. Set Notation A set of certain x values has the following form: {x : conditions. It is important to note that this notation can only be used for all real numbers in an interval.3 Intercepts with the Axes The intercept is the point at which a graph intersects an axis.11. and we have the relation y = 2x . suppose x and y are real valued variables.3(a).7) It is obvious that 2 is the lower number and 8 the upper number. no one alive is.1 to 3 metres — no living person can have a height of 0m. calculate the intercepts of y = 3x + 5. In Figure 10. The round bracket means ’excluding 2’. Then for any value of x. so the domain of this relation is the whole set of real numbers. lower number.8] (10. For the xintercept. then the domain is all living people. and the square bracket means ’including 8’ as x is less than or equal to 8. more conditions} (10. You will usually need to calculate the intercepts. giving xint = − 3 . An important aspect of this range is that it does not contain all the numbers between 0. The range is the set of all the y values.1 and 3. However. 113 .2 Domain and Range The domain of a relation is the set of all the x values for which there exists at least one y value according to that relation. We can use two types of brackets. ] or round ones (. Both notations are used in mathematics. ).GRADE 10 10. since x is greater than 2.11. For example. If the relation is of height to people. x = 0. and while strictly its not impossible to be taller than 3 metres. upper bracket’.6) We read this notation as “the set of all x values where all the conditions are satisﬁed”. The two most important things to remember is that at the xintercept. so you should be familiar with each. then x is any number in the interval (2. upper number. As another example. the A is the yintercept and B. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . It cannot be used to describe integers in an interval or rational numbers in an interval. Therefore the xintercept is 5 found from 0 = 3xint + 5. So if x is a real number greater than 2 and less than or equal to 8. comma. y = 0. set notation and interval notation. The xintercepts are the points at which the graph cuts the xaxis and the yintercepts are the points at which the graph cuts the yaxis. Interval Notation Here we write an interval in the form ’lower bracket. there is a value of y. For the yintercept. C and F are xintercepts. square ones [.CHAPTER 10. 10. A square bracket means including the number at the end of the interval whereas a round bracket means excluding the number at the end of the interval. x = 0.11 10. but only six billion of them (as many as there are people). 2x can never be less than or equal to 0. the set of all positive real numbers can be written as {x : x ∈ R. These are two ways of writing the domain and range of a function. while the range would be about 0.
10.4: (a) Maximal turning point.11. This is described as the axis of symmetry.10. y 2 yvalues decreasing 1 0 −1 minimal turning point (a) −2 (b) yvalues increasing yvalues increasing y 2 maximal turning point 1 0 −1 −2 yvalues decreasing Figure 10. (b) Minimal turning point. while the graph in Figure 10.11. These lines include the x. which the graph of a function will approach. 10.3(b).5 Asymptotes An asymptote is a straight or curved line.11.5 is symmetric about the yaxis. that the yvalues increase) from ∞ to point E.7 Intervals on which the Function Increases/Decreases In the discussion of turning points.GRADE 10 10. the yaxis and line h are both asymptotes as the graph approaches both these lines. we saw that the graph of a function can start or stop increasing or decreasing at a turning point. These are shown in Figure 10.6 Lines of Symmetry Graphs look the same on either side of lines of symmetry. For example. but never touch. the yvalues decrease) from point E to point D and then it increases from point D to +∞. A minimal turning point is a point on the graph where the graph stops decreasing in value and starts increasing in value and a maximal turning point is a point on the graph where the graph stops increasing in value and starts decreasing. in Figure 10. but never touches them.11 CHAPTER 10.4 Turning Points Turning points only occur for graphs of functions that whose highest power is greater than 1. the graph in Figure 10. For example. In Figure 10. We see that the graph increases (i. 10. E is a maximal turning point and D is a minimal turning point.3(b) has a 114 .3(a) can be described as a continuous graph. If the graph in Figure 10.11.e.11. In Figure 10.e. f (x) g(x) h(x) = 2x2 − 2 = x3 − 2x2 + x − 2 2 4 x −2 = 3 There are two types of turning points: a minimal turning point and a maximal turning point.3(a) is examined.and yaxes. then it decreases (i.3(a). For example. we ﬁnd that the values of the graph increase and decrease over diﬀerent intervals. graphs of the following functions will have turning points. 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .4.8 Discrete or Continuous Nature of the Graph A graph is said to be continuous if there are no breaks in the graph.
The domain of the function f (x) = 2x + 5 is 3. In Figure 10. it is clear that the graph does have a break in it around the asymptote. Exercise: Domain and Range 1. Determine the range of f . because the graph looks the same on both sides of the yaxis. If g(x) = −x2 + 5 and x is between . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . on the following graph: (a) the xintercept(s) (b) the yintercept(s) 115 .3 and 3.11 1 −2 −1 1 −1 2 Figure 10. Label.5: Demonstration of axis of symmetry.GRADE 10 10.3(b). 2. on the following graph: the xintercept(s) the yintercept(s) regions where the graph is increasing regions where the graph is decreasing 4 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 −3 2 3 4. 3. 3. Label. 0. determine: (a) the domain of g(x) (b) the range of g(x) (a) (b) (c) (d) 3. break around the asymptotes. The yaxis is an axis of symmetry.CHAPTER 10.
In the equation. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . a and q are constants and have diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function.1 Graphs of Functions Functions of the form y = ax + q Functions with a general form of y = ax + q are called straight line functions.10. y = ax + q.12 CHAPTER 10.6 for the function f (x) = 2x + 3. plot the following graphs: (a) a(x) = x − 2 116 .6: Graph of f (x) = 2x + 3 2 3 4 5 Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = ax + q 1.12.GRADE 10 (c) regions where the graph is increasing (d) regions where the graph is decreasing 3 2 1 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 10. 12 9 6 3 −3 2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 −3 −6 Figure 10. On the same set of axes.12 10. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 10.
a is referred to as the slope or gradient of a straightline function. On the same set of axes.12 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. 117 . The range of f (x) = ax + q is also {f (x) : f (x) ∈ R} because there is no value of f (x) ∈ R for which f (x) is undeﬁned. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects where the graph passes through the yaxis. a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 Domain and Range For f (x) = ax + q. Intercepts For functions of the form. y = ax + q. If a < 0 then the graph increases from right to left (slopes downwards). If a > 0 then the graph increases from left to right (slopes upwards). the domain is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which f (x) is undeﬁned. For example.CHAPTER 10. 2. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 10. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) f (x) = −2 · x g(x) = −1 · x h(x) = 0 · x j(x) = 1 · x k(x) = 2 · x Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. Table 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .1. the slope of the graph increases. the details of calculating the intercepts with the x and y axis is given. The range of g(x) is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ R}. For this reason.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = ax + q. the domain of g(x) = x − 1 is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which g(x) is undeﬁned.GRADE 10 (b) (c) (d) (e) b(x) = x − 1 c(x) = x d(x) = x + 1 e(x) = x + 2 10. For this reason. As a increases. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects the slope of the graph. q is known as the yintercept.
Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ax + q In order to sketch graphs of the form.14) 0 = For example. Firstly. yintercept 3. f (x) = ax + q. xintercept Only two points are needed to plot a straight line graph. we determine that a > 0. we need to determine three characteristics: 1.12 CHAPTER 10.10. This means that the graph will have an upward slope. The xintercept is obtained by setting y = 0 and was calculated earlier to be xint = 1.GRADE 10 The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = = = ax + q a(0) + q q (10. xint − 1 1 x−1 Worked Example 48: Drawing a straight line graph Question: Draw the graph of y = 2x + 2 118 .8) (10. the xintercepts of g(x) = x − 1 is given by setting y = 0 to get: g(x) = 0 = xint = Turning Points The graphs of straight line functions do not have any turning points. Mark the intercepts.10) For example. generally. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . the yintercept of g(x) = x − 1 is given by setting x = 0 to get: g(x) yint = = = x−1 0−1 −1 The xintercepts are calculated as follows: y a · xint xint = = = ax + q a · xint + q −q q − a (10. The easiest points to use are the xintercept (where the line cuts the xaxis) and the yintercept. Axes of Symmetry The graphs of straightline functions do not. The yintercept is obtained by setting x = 0 and was calculated earlier to be yint = −1.11) (10.9) (10.12) (10. sketch the graph of g(x) = x − 1. For example. sign of a 2.13) (10. have any axes of symmetry.
7: Graph of the function g(x) = x − 1 Answer Step 1 : Find the yintercept For the intercept on the yaxis.1) 2 3 4 Figure 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .12 3 2 1 (1.CHAPTER 10. let y = 0 0 = 2x = x = 2x + 2 −2 −1 Step 3 : Draw the graph 3 2 1 −3 −2 +2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 3 y= 2x 119 .GRADE 10 10. let x = 0 y = = 2(0) + 2 2 Step 2 : Find the xintercept For the intercept on the xaxis.0) −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 (0.
List the yintercepts for the following straightline graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) y=x y =x−1 y = 2x − 1 y + 1 = 2x 2. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . clearly indicating the intercepts with the axes as well as the coordinates of the point of interception on the graph: x + 2y − 5 = 0 and 3x − y − 1 = 0 10. On the same set of axes.2 Functions of the Form y = ax2 + q The general shape and position of the graph of the function of the form f (x) = ax2 + q is shown in Figure 10.8. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) a(x) = −2 · x2 + 1 b(x) = −1 · x2 + 1 c(x) = 0 · x2 + 1 d(x) = 1 · x2 + 1 e(x) = 2 · x2 + 1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a.3) (4.12 CHAPTER 10.12. Give the equation of the illustrated graph below: y (0. Sketch the following relations on the same set of axes. Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = ax2 + q 1. 2.0) x 3.10.GRADE 10 Exercise: Intercepts 1. plot the following graphs: (a) f (x) = x2 − 2 (b) g(x) = x2 − 1 120 . On the same set of axes.
These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table ??.GRADE 10 10. 121 . a > 0 (a positive smile) a < 0 (a negative frown) Figure 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . This is shown in Figure 10.9. (c) h(x) = x2 + 0 (d) j(x) = x2 + 1 (e) k(x) = x2 + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects whether the turning point is to the left of the yaxis (q > 0) or to the right of the yaxis (q < 0).8: Graph of the f (x) = x2 − 1.CHAPTER 10. you should have found that a aﬀects whether the graph makes a smile or a frown. the graph makes a frown and if a > 0 then the graph makes a smile. If a < 0. Complete the following table of values for the functions a to k to help with drawing the required graphs in this activity: x −2 −1 0 1 2 a(x) b(x) c(x) d(x) e(x) f (x) g(x) h(x) j(x) k(x) From your graphs.9: Distinctive shape of graphs of a parabola if a > 0 and a < 0.12 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 1 2 3 4 Figure 10.
17) . Therefore if a > 0. For example. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .q]}. the range of f (x) = ax2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q.12 CHAPTER 10. We will consider these two cases separately.16) (10. The range of g(x) can be calculated as follows: x2 x +2 g(x) Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [2. The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = ax2 + q = a(0) + q = q 122 2 (10.∞)}. the details of calculating the intercepts with the x and y axis is given.15) (10.GRADE 10 Table 10. 2 ≥ ≥ ≥ 0 2 2 Intercepts For functions of the form. the domain is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which f (x) is undeﬁned.2: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = ax2 +q.10.∞)}. y = ax2 + q. a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 Domain and Range For f (x) = ax2 + q. This is left as an exercise. The range of f (x) = ax2 + q depends on whether the value for a is positive or negative. the domain of g(x) = x2 + 2 is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which g(x) is undeﬁned. Similarly. If a > 0 then we have: x2 ax2 ax2 + q f (x) ≥ 0 ≥ 0 (The square of an expression is always positive) (Multiplication by a positive number maintains the nature of the inequality) ≥ q ≥ q This tells us that for all values of x. it can be shown that if a < 0 that the range of f (x) = ax2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. f (x) is always greater than q.
The coordinates of the (minimal) turning point is therefore (0.19) (10. Similarly. if q < 0 and a > 0 then − a is also positive. the yintercept of g(x) = x2 + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: g(x) = yint = = x2 + 2 02 + 2 2 10. and the graph should intersect with the xaxis. This is q consistent with what we expect. q > 0 q and a < 0. the graph of g(x) = x2 + 2 does not have any xintercepts. Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ax2 + q In order to sketch graphs of the form. f (x) = ax2 + q. the xintercepts of g(x) = x2 + 2 is given by setting y = 0 to get: g(x) = 0 = −2 = x2 + 2 x2 + 2 int x2 int which is not real. For example. q).12 The xintercepts are calculated as follows: y = ax2 + q ax2 int −q ± − +q q a (10. q Similarly.q]}.GRADE 10 For example.21) 0 = ax2 = int xint = q However. Since the turning point lies on the yaxis. q). then − a is positive and the graph is hat shaped and should have two xintercepts. then the lowest value that f (x) can take on is q. we need to calculate determine four characteristics: 1. sign of a 123 .18) (10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . If however.CHAPTER 10. Solving for the value of x at which f (x) = q gives: q = ax2 + q tp ax2 tp x2 tp 0 0 = 0 = xtp = ∴ x = 0 at f (x) = q. if a < 0. Axes of Symmetry There is one axis of symmetry for the function of the form f (x) = ax2 + q that passes through the turning point. We know that if a > 0 then the range of f (x) = ax2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q. then the highest value that f (x) can take on is q and the coordinates of the (maximal) turning point is (0. So. since if q > 0 and a > 0 then − a is negative and in this case the graph lies above the xaxis and therefore does not intersect the xaxis. Turning Points The turning point of the function of the form f (x) = ax2 + q is given by examining the range of the function.∞)} and if a < 0 then the range of f (x) = ax2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. the axis of symmetry is the yaxis.20) (10. (10. Therefore. if a > 0.21) is only valid if − a > 0 which means that either q < 0 or a < 0.
− 3]}. we determine that a < 0. Therefore. Mark the intercepts. This means that the graph will have a maximal turning point. there are no xintercepts. The range of the graph is determined as follows: x2 1 − x2 2 1 − x2 − 3 2 ∴ f (x) ≥ 0 ≤ 0 ≤ −3 ≤ −3 Therefore the range of the graph is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. sketch the graph of g(x) = − 2 x2 − 3. xintercept CHAPTER 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . domain and range 3.12 2. The domain of the graph is {x : x ∈ R} because f (x) is deﬁned for all x ∈ R. This gives: yint = = = 1 − (0)2 − 3 2 1 − (0) − 3 2 −3 x = −3 0 0 0 0 0 Take square root of both sides: x = The xintercept is obtained by setting y = 0.10. Firstly.GRADE 10 1 For example. This gives: 0 3 −3 · 2 −6 1 = − x2 − 3 2 int 1 = − x2 2 int = x2 int = x2 int which is not real. yintercept 5. − 3). then the ycoordinate of the turning point is 3. turning point 4. The yintercept is obtained by setting x = 0. turning point and axis of symmetry. We also know that the axis of symmetry is the yaxis. 124 . The xcoordinate is determined as follows: 1 − x2 − 3 = 2 1 − x2 − 3 + 3 = 2 1 − x2 = 2 1 Divide both sides by − 2 : x2 = ∴ The coordinates of the turning point are: (0. Using the fact that the maximum value that f (x) achieves is 3.
(4. For what values of x is g increasing ? 10. 7) x 3 h 9 (a) (b) (c) (d) Find the values of a and p.10: Graph of the function f (x) = − 1 x2 − 3 2 Exercise: Parabolas 2. Find the values of b and q. 3.3 Functions of the Form y = a x +q a Functions of the form y = x + q are known as hyperbolic functions. Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = 1.12.CHAPTER 10.11. Two parabolas are drawn: g : y = ax2 + p and h : y = bx2 + q. plot the following graphs: (a) a(x) = −2 + 1 x (b) b(x) = −1 + 1 x 125 a x +q .3) Figure 10. Show that if a < 0 that the range of f (x) = ax2 +q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. y 23 g 1. 7) (4. Find the values of x for which ax2 + p ≥ bx2 + q. Draw the graph of the function y = −x2 + 4 showing all intercepts with the axes.q]}. On the same set of axes. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .GRADE 10 10.12 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 1 2 3 4 (0. The general form of the graph of this function is shown in Figure 10.
Domain and Range For y = a x + q. The axes of symmetry for each graph are shown as a dashed line.∞)}. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 10.x = 0}.12 CHAPTER 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . 126 + q is . 2. Therefore the range of f (x) = {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. the function is undeﬁned for x = 0. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects whether the graph lies above the xaxis (q > 0) or below the xaxis (q < 0).GRADE 10 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 Figure 10.q) ∪ (q. (c) c(x) = (d) d(x) = (e) e(x) = 0 x +1 +1 x +1 +2 x +1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. The domain is therefore {x : x ∈ R. plot the following graphs: 1 (a) f (x) = x − 2 1 (b) g(x) = x − 1 1 (c) h(x) = x + 0 1 (d) j(x) = x + 1 1 (e) k(x) = x + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q.11: General shape and position of the graph of a function of the form f (x) = a x 1 2 3 4 + q.10. a x We see that y = + q can be rewritten as: y y−q If x = 0 then: (y − q)(x) = = = a +q x a x a a y−q a x x = This shows that the function is undeﬁned at y = q. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects whether the graph is located in the ﬁrst and third quadrants of Cartesian plane.3. On the same set of axes.
2) ∪ (2. q>0 q<0 For example. For example. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . Intercepts a For functions of the form. 127 .12 a x + q. the intercepts with the x and y axis is calculated by setting x = 0 for the yintercept and by setting y = 0 for the xintercept. 2 x + 2 is {x : x ∈ R.∞)}.23) which is undeﬁned. Therefore there is no yintercept.22) (10.3: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = The axes of symmetry are shown as dashed lines. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞.CHAPTER 10. x = 0} because g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2 +2 x 2 x 2 2 y−2 (y − 2) = If x = 0 then: x(y − 2) = x = We see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2. The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = = a +q x a +q 0 (10. the domain of g(x) = x = 0. a>0 a<0 10. the yintercept of g(x) = 2 x + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: y = = 2 +2 x 2 +2 0 yint which is undeﬁned.GRADE 10 Table 10. y = x + q.
2 For example. domain and range 2. we need to calculate determine + 2.∞)}. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .2) ∪ (2. x = 0} and the range to be {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞. xintercept For example. Therefore the asymptotes are at x = 0 and y = 2. Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a x +q a x In order to sketch graphs of functions of the form.25) (10.∞)}. sketch the graph of g(x) = 2 x + q. Mark the intercepts and asymptotes. the domain of g(x) = x + 2 is {x : x ∈ R.24) (10. the xintercept of g(x) = 2 x + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: y 0 = = 2 +2 x 2 +2 xint 2 xint 2 2 −2 −1 −2 = −2(xint ) xint xint Asymptotes = = = There are two asymptotes for functions of the form y = the domain and range. asymptotes 3.26) (10.28) (10.2) ∪ (2. yintercept 4. a x +q.12 CHAPTER 10. There is no yintercept and the xintercept is xint = −1. They are determined by examining We saw that the function was undeﬁned at x = 0 and for y = q. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞. We have determined the domain to be {x : x ∈ R.29) 0 = a xint a xint = = = For example.27) (10. x = 0} because g(x) is undeﬁned at x = 0.GRADE 10 The xintercepts are calculated by setting y = 0 as follows: y = a +q x a +q xint −q −q(xint ) a −q (10. Therefore the asymptotes are x = 0 and y = q.10. We also see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2. f (x) = four characteristics: 1. 128 . From this we deduce that the asymptotes are at x = 0 and y = 2.
plot the following graphs: (a) a(x) = −2 · b(x) + 1 (b) b(x) = −1 · b(x) + 1 (c) c(x) = −0 · b(x) + 1 129 . EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . draw the graph of xy = −6.GRADE 10 10. what is the point symmetrical to (2.13. 10. On the same set of axes.12 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 Figure 10.CHAPTER 10. 8 (b) Draw the graph of y = 3 + 3 on the same set of axes. The general shape of a graph of a function of this form is shown in Figure 10. (a) Does the point (2.25. 3) ? (a) How would the graph y = 8 + 3 compare with that of xy = 8? Explain 3 your answer fully. what is the corresponding yvalue ? (d) What happens to the yvalues as the xvalues become very large ? (e) With the line y = −x as line of symmetry.12: Graph of g(x) = 2 x 1 2 3 4 + 2. Using grid paper.4 Functions of the Form y = ab(x) + q Functions of the form y = ab(x) + q are known as exponential functions. 3) not on the graph ? (c) If the xvalue of a point on the drawn graph is 0. Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = ab(x) + q 1. Draw the graph of xy = 8.12. (b) Why is the point (2. 2. 3) lie on the graph ? Give a reason for your answer. Exercise: Graphs 1.
On the same set of axes.13: General shape and position of the graph of a function of the form f (x) = ab(x) +q.12 CHAPTER 10.4: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = ab(x) + q. Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 Domain and Range For y = ab(x) + q.10. 130 . Table 10. the domain is {x : x ∈ R}. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) f (x) = 1 · b(x) − 2 g(x) = 1 · b(x) − 1 h(x) = 1 · b(x) + 0 j(x) = 1 · b(x) + 1 k(x) = 1 · b(x) + 2 (d) d(x) = −1 · b(x) + 1 (e) e(x) = −2 · b(x) + 1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 10. Therefore. 2. the function is deﬁned for all real values of x. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects the position of the yintercept.GRADE 10 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 Figure 10.4. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects whether the graph curves upwards (a > 0) or curves downwards (a < 0).
32) (10. y = ab(x) + q.36) (10. 2x 3 · 2x ≥ ≥ 0 0 2 3 · 2x + 2 ≥ Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [2.12 a · b(x) + q f (x) ≥ q ≥ q Therefore. Intercepts For functions of the form.30) (10. then the range is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞.CHAPTER 10. the intercepts with the x and y axis is calculated by setting x = 0 for the yintercept and by setting y = 0 for the xintercept. the yintercept of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: y yint = = = = 3 · 2x + 2 3 · 20 + 2 3+2 5 (10. if a < 0.34) (10. 131 .35) (10. If a < 0 then: b(x) a·b a · b(x) + q (x) f (x) ≤ q ≤ 0 ≤ q ≤ 0 Therefore.GRADE 10 The range of y = ab(x) + q is dependent on the sign of a. The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = ab(x) + q = ab(0) + q = a(1) + q = a+q For example. For the range.q]}.31) (10. For example. the domain of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2 is {x : x ∈ R}. then the range is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q. If a > 0 then: b(x) a · b(x) ≥ 0 ≥ 0 10. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .∞)}.33) The xintercepts are calculated by setting y = 0 as follows: y = 0 = ab(xint ) b (xint ) ab(x) + q ab(xint ) + q −q q − a (10. the graph of the function of form y = ab(x) + q does not have any xintercepts. if a > 0.37) = = Which only has a real solution if either a < 0 or q < 0. Otherwise.∞)}.
They are determined by examining the domain and range. For example. Asymptotes There are two asymptotes for functions of the form y = ab(x) + q. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞.14: Graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2. domain and range 2. the domain of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2 is {x : x ∈ R. x = 0} because g(x) is undeﬁned at x = 0. f (x) = ab(x) + q. we need to calculate determine four characteristics: 1. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .2) ∪ (2. The yintercept is yint = 5 and there are no xintercepts. yintercept 3. xintercept For example. Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ab(x) + q In order to sketch graphs of functions of the form. 132 .∞)}.12 CHAPTER 10.GRADE 10 For example.∞)}. sketch the graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2.10. From this we deduce that the asymptotes are at x = 0 and y = 2. Mark the intercepts. We also see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2. We saw that the function was undeﬁned at x = 0 and for y = q. the graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2 does not have any xintercepts. the xintercept of g(x) = 3 · 2x + 2 is given by setting y = 0 to get: y 0 = 3 · 2xint + 2 −2 = 3 · 2xint −2 2xint = 3 which has no real solution. Therefore the asymptotes are x = 0 and y = q. Therefore. = 3 · 2x + 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 Figure 10. We have determined the domain to be {x : x ∈ R} and the range to be {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [2.
Marc had 15 coins in ﬁve rand and two rand pieces. (d) Predict how the graph y = 2. for a certain ball. Given the functions f (x) = −2x2 − 18 and g(x) = −2x + 6 (a) Draw f and g on the same set of axes. 2 (a) Is the xaxis and asymptote or and axis of symmetry to both graphs ? Explain your answer.CHAPTER 10. (a) Determine the equation of the function f . letting x represent the number of ﬁve rand coins and y represent the number of two rand coins. (c) Solve the equation 2x = ( 1 )x graphically and check that your answer is 2 correct by using substitution.8)x shows the relationship between x.1) 0 1 2 x yaxis at the point A(0. He wrote a system of equations to represent this situation. Draw the graphs of y = 2x and y = ( 1 )x on the same set of axes. (b) Which graph is represented by the equation y = 2−x ? Explain your answer. (c) Hence use your graphs and the points of intersection to solve for x when: i. He had 3 more R2coins than R5coins. What is the approximate height of the ﬁfth bounce of this ball to the nearest tenth of a unit ? 3.GRADE 10 10. 4) is on f . and y. 10.13 Exercise: Exponential Functions and Graphs 1.4) A(0. Then he solved the system by graphing. The curve of the exponential function f in the accompanying diagram cuts the f 4 3 2 1 B(2. the number of bounces.13 End of Chapter Exercises 1. 2. (b) Calculate the points of intersection of f and g. 2. 133 . the height of the bounce. the function of which the curve is the reﬂection of the curve of f in the xaxis. After a ball is dropped. (c) Determine the range of h. the rebound height of each bounce decreases.2x on the same set of axes. (b) Determine the equation of h. 1) and B(2. f (x) > 0 ii. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES . The equation y = 5(0. f (x) g(x) ≤0 (d) Give the equation of the reﬂection of f in the xaxis.2x will compare to y = 2x and then draw the graph of y = 2.
13 CHAPTER 10. (b) Draw their graphs on the same set of axes. (c) What is the solution? 134 .10.GRADE 10 (a) Write down the system of equations. EQUATIONS AND INEQUALITIES .
Straight Line Function Fill in the table by calculating the average gradient over the indicated intervals for the function f (x) = 2x − 2: x1 AB AC BC x2 y1 y2 y2 −y1 x2 −x1 y 2 1 C(2.1) 11. (x1 .2) In chapter 10. we saw that the gradient of a straight line graph is calculated as: (11.0) x A(1.1 Introduction y2 − y1 x2 − x1 for two points (x1 .y1 ) and (x2 .y1 ) and (x2 .y2 ) as: y2 − y1 .7.Grade 10 Extension 11.4) 135 −4 .2) −1 1 −1 −2 −3 B(1.4.2 StraightLine Functions Activity :: Investigation : Average Gradient .1). (11.Chapter 11 Average Gradient .y2 ) on the graph. x2 − x1 This is the same as (11. We can now deﬁne the average gradient between any two points.
11. Method: Average Gradient Given the equation of a curve and two points (x1 .1 the various points have been joined by straightlines. AVERAGE GRADIENT .7) y G(3.7) B(2.2) x Figure 11. A(3.GRADE 10 EXTENSION What do you notice about the gradients over each interval? The average gradient of a straightline function is the same over any two intervals on the function.7) y G(3.2) C(1.1) D(0.1) D(0. The average gradients between the joined points are then the gradients of the straight lines that pass through the points.Parabolic Function Fill in the table by calculating the average gradient over the indicated intervals for the function f (x) = 2x − 2: x1 x2 y1 y2 AB BC CD DE EF FG What do you notice about the average gradient over each interval? What can you say about the average gradients between A and D compared to the average gradients between D and G? y2 −y1 x2 −x1 A(3.2) F(2.3 CHAPTER 11.1: The average gradient between two points on a curve is the gradient of the straight line that passes through the points.7) B(2. 11. x2 ): 136 .1) E(1.2) F(2. For example.2) C(1.2) The average gradient of a parabolic function depends on the interval and is the gradient of a straight line that passes through the points on the interval.1) x E(1. in Figure 11.3 Parabolic Functions Activity :: Investigation : Average Gradient .
CHAPTER 11. . AVERAGE GRADIENT . 4.. . Step 2 : Calculate the y coordinates We use the equation for the curve to calculate the yvalue at x1 and x2 . Calculate the average gradient using: y2 − y1 x2 − x1 11.GRADE 10 EXTENSION 1. 3. Calculate y2 by substituting x2 into the equation for the curve. 137 . y1 = 5x2 − 4 1 = 5(−3)2 − 4 = 5(9) − 4 = 41 y2 = = = = 5(3)2 − 4 5(9) − 4 41 5x2 − 4 2 Step 3 : Calculate the average gradient y2 − y1 x2 − x1 41 − 41 3 − (−3) 0 = 3+3 0 = 6 = 0 = Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The average gradient between x = −3 and x = 3 on the curve y = 5x2 − 4 is 0. Write the equation of the curve in the form y = . 2. Calculate y1 by substituting x1 into the equation for the curve.3 Worked Example 49: Average Gradient Question: Find the average gradient of the curve y = 5x2 − 4 between the points x = −3 and x = 3 Answer Step 1 : Label points Label the points as follows: x1 = −3 x2 = 3 to make it easier to calculate the gradient.
2. AVERAGE GRADIENT . 138 .4 End of Chapter Exercises 1.4 CHAPTER 11. Determine the average gradient between the points where x = 1 and x = 4. Given: f (x) = x3 − 6x. An object moves according to the function d = 2t2 + 1 . Calculate the average speed of the object between 2 and 3 seconds.11.GRADE 10 EXTENSION 11. where d is the distance in metres and t the time in seconds.
perpendicular lines. A line is formed when many points are placed next to each other.1. Similarities and diﬀerences between quadrilaterals 3. sides.Chapter 12 Geometry Basics 12. obtuse. R and S) and some lines (labelled BC and DE). angles. Some examples of points are shown in Figure 12. S R Q P Some points B D Some lines C E Figure 12.1: Examples of some points (labelled P . but are always continuous. Properties of triangles and quadrilaterals 4. The endpoints of lines are labelled with capital letters. parallel lines. Lines can be straight or curved. 139 . Examples of two lines are shown in Figure 12. reﬂex or revolution 6. Classiﬁcation of angles into acute. A point is something that is not very wide or high and is usually used in geometry as a marker of a position. Points are usually labelled with a capital letter. You should feel comfortable with the work covered in this chapter before attempting to move onto the Grade 10 Geometry Chapter (Chapter 13) or the Grade 10 Trigonometry Chapter (Chapter 14). This chapter revises: 1. straight.1. Terminology: quadrilaterals.1 Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to recap some of the ideas that you learned in geometry and trigonometry in earlier grades. transversals 2. Q. This means that there are never any breaks in the lines. bisectors. diagonals. Theorem of Pythagoras which is used to calculate the lengths of sides of a rightangled triangle 12. vertices. right. Congruence 5.2 Points and Lines The two simplest objects in geometry are points and lines.
12.3 CHAPTER 12.3. For example. The ∠ symbol is a short method of writing angle in geometry. The length of the line between points A and B is AB. even though the lines making up the angles are of diﬀerent lengths. Unit of Length Abbreviation kilometre km metre m centimetre cm millimetre mm 12. for example. C B A ˆ Figure 12. GEOMETRY BASICS Lines are labelled according to the start point and end point. Angles are measured in degrees which is denoted by ◦ . Table 12. the angle can be referred to as ∠CBA or ∠ABC.1.2: Angle labelled as B.3 Angles An angle is formed when two straight lines meet at a point. We call the line that starts at a point A and ends at a point B. ∠CBA or ∠ABC C F A (a) B E (b) G ˆ ˆ Figure 12. So if we say AB = CD we mean that the length of the line between A and B is equal to the length of the line between C and D. with AB referring to the vector from the point A with length AB and in the direction from point A to point B. AB. So. AB = BA. Since the line from point B to point A is the same as the line from point A to point B. The point at which two lines meet is known as a vertex. Some common units of length are listed in Table 12. we have that AB=BA. In science. A line is measured in units of length. in Figure 12.3: Examples of angles. 140 . usually. BA is the line segment with the same length but direction from point B to point A.3. Usually. in Figure 12. Angles are labelled with a ˆ on a letter. the ˆ angle is at B. vectors are only equal if they have the same length and same direction. the angle is made up when line segments CB and BA meet. Angles can also be labelled according to the line segments that make up the angle. Similarly. we sometimes talk about a vector and this is just a fancy way of saying the we are referring to the line that starts at one point and moves in the direction of the other point.1: Some common units of length and their abbreviations. We label a vector in a similar manner to a line. A = E. So.
Activity :: Measuring Angles : Use a protractor to measure the following angles: 12.3.CHAPTER 12. An angle is a rotation around the vertex. A picture of a protractor is shown in Figure 12. Make sure you start measuring at 0◦ .4.3 12. 90◦ 120 ◦ 60◦ 150◦ 30◦ 180◦ 0◦ Figure 12.3. This means that the idea of length cannot be used to measure angles. GEOMETRY BASICS 12. Move the protractor along the line so that the centre point on the protractor is at the vertex of the two lines that make up the angle. Method: Using a protractor 1.4: Diagram of a protractor. but depends only on how both the lines are placed as can be seen in Figure 12.1 Measuring angles The size of an angle does not depend on the length of the lines that are joined to make up the angle.2 Special Angles What is the smallest angle that can be drawn? The ﬁgure below shows two lines (CA and AB) making an angle at a common vertex A. then the smallest angle that can be drawn occurs when the two lines are pointing in the same direction. Follow the second line until it meets the marking on the protractor and read oﬀ the angle. 141 . 2. Using a Protractor A protractor is a simple tool that is used to measure angles.3. 3. Place the bottom line of the protractor along one line of the angle. This gives an angle of 0◦ . down towards line AB. If line CA is rotated around the common vertex A.
Once angles can be measured. all right angles are 90◦ . Extension: Angles larger than 360◦ All angles larger than 360◦ also look like we have seen them before. Important: • Acute angle: An angle ≥ 0◦ and < 90◦ . An angle twice the size of a straight line is 360◦ . • Revolution: An angle measuring 360◦ . and an obtuse angle will always be larger than an acute angle. • Obtuse angle: An angle > 90◦ and < 180◦ . Angles that measure more than 360◦ are largely for mathematical convenience. they can then be compared. We call this a revolution. B and C lie on a straight line. An angle measuring 360◦ looks identical to an angle of 0◦ . any other angle can be obtained. then the points lie on a straight line. • Straight angle: An angle measuring 180◦ . C 90◦ A B 360◦ A C B Figure 12. Conversely. if the angle between three points is 180◦ . If you are given an angle that is larger than 360◦ .6. shown in Figure 12. An angle of 90◦ is called a right angle. These are simply labels for angles in particular ranges. continue subtracting 360◦ from the angle. We say CA is perpendicular to AB or CA ⊥ AB. • Reﬂex angle: An angle > 180◦ and < 360◦ . until you get an answer that is between 0◦ and 360◦ . except for the labelling. therefore all right angles are equal. • Right angle: An angle measuring 90◦ .12. 142 .5: An angle of 90◦ is known as a right angle. GEOMETRY BASICS 0◦ A B A C B C A 180◦ B If line CA is now swung upwards. then the angle between them is 180◦ . A right angle is half the size of the angle made by a straight line (180◦ ). If line CA and line AB point in opposite directions (the third case in the ﬁgure) then this forms an angle of 180◦ .3 C swing point C down towards AB CHAPTER 12. Important: If three points A. For example.
3 C reﬂex C obtuse B A B A B acute A C Figure 12.X1 ) ˆ ˆ X1 + X2 ˆ2 + X3 ˆ X ˆ ˆ X3 + X4 ˆ4 + X1 ˆ X = 180◦ = 180◦ = 180◦ = 180◦ linear pair (adjacent angles on a straight line) vertically opposite angles ˆ ˆ X1 = X3 ˆ2 = X4 ˆ X supplementary angles complementary angles two angles whose sum is 180◦ two angles whose sum is 90◦ Important: The vertically opposite angles formed by the intersection of two straight lines are equal.X4 ).3 Special Angle Pairs ˆ ˆ In Figure 12.X4 .6: Three types of angles deﬁned according to their ranges. (X4 . GEOMETRY BASICS 12. (X2 . ˆ3 and X4 . two or more streets intersect.4 Parallel Lines intersected by Transversal Lines Two lines intersect if they cross each other at a point. forming four angles: X1 . at a traﬃc intersection. straight lines AB and CD intersect at point X. the middle of the intersection is the common point between the streets. ˆ X C 3 A 2 X 4 1 D B ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Figure 12. Adjacent angles on a straight line are supplementary.3.CHAPTER 12. For example. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (X3 . 12.7: Two intersecting straight lines with vertical angles X1 .X3 and X2 .7. 12. X2 . 143 .X3 ). Special Angle adjacent angles Property share a common vertex and a common side adjacent angles formed by two intersecting straight lines that by deﬁnition add to 180◦ angles formed by two intersecting straight lines that share a vertex but do not share any sides Example ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (X1 .3. The table summarises the special angle pairs that result.X2 ).
AB and CD are two parallel lines and EF is a transversal. The properties of the angles formed by these intersecting lines are summarised in the table below. GEOMETRY BASICS Parallel lines are lines that never intersect. the two straight lines. For example the tracks of a railway line are parallel. A transversal of two or more lines is a line that intersects these lines. 144 .3 CHAPTER 12.8. will meet on that side. teresting A section of the Australian National Railways TransAustralian line is perhaps Interesting Fact Fact one of the longest pairs of manmade parallel lines. to Mile 793. F h C a b d A e f E Figure 12.guinnessworldrecords. For example in Figure 12. from Mile 496.com) The Australian National Railways TransAustralian line over the Nullarbor Plain. Western Australia. if produced indeﬁnitely. between Ooldea and Watson. is 478 km (297 miles) dead straight. We say AB CD. We wouldn’t want the tracks to intersect as that would be catastrophic for the train! All these lines are parallel to each other. Longest Railroad Straight (Source: www. Notice the arrow symbol for parallel. between Nurina and Loongana.12. South Australia. This postulate can be used to prove many identities about the angles formed when two parallel lines are cut by a transversal.8: Parallel lines intersected by a transversal c g D B Extension: Euclid’s Parallel Line Postulate If a straight line falling on two straight lines makes the two interior angles on the same side less than two right angles (180◦ ).
c = g. d = h Notes 12. a = e. GEOMETRY BASICS Name of angle interior angles Deﬁnition the angles that lie inside the parallel lines the angles that lie outside the parallel lines the interior angles that lie on opposite sides of the transversal cointerior angles that lie on the same side of the transversal the angles on the same side of the transversal and the same side of the parallel lines Examples a. 2.f ). then the lines are parallel. 6. corresponding. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal. (c. a = c. b = d (a. the sum of the cointerior angles on the same side of the transversal is 180◦ . b + c = 180◦ (a.h) are pairs of corresponding angles. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal. Use adjacent.d) and (b. Exercise: Angles a c 30◦ 1. then the two lines are parallel. If two lines are intersected by a transversal such that a pair of alternate corresponding angles are equal. g and h are exterior angles (a. 4.c) are interior angles on the same side.c) and (b. f . then the lines are parallel. If two lines are intersected by a transversal such that a pair of alternate interior angles are equal.3 the word interior means inside the word exterior means outside exterior angles alternate interior angles Z shape cointerior angles on the same side C shape corresponding angles F shape Important: 1. cointerior and alternate angles to ﬁll in all the angles labeled with letters in the diagram alongside: g 145 d f b e . If two lines are intersected by a transversal such that any pair of cointerior angles on the same side is supplementary. the corresponding angles are equal.g) and (d. 5.CHAPTER 12. (b.d) are pairs of alternate interior angles. a + d = 180◦. c and d are interior angles e. 3. b = f . b.e). If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal. the alternate interior angles are equal.
M O S 1 B C O Q 115◦ 3 A 2 Q 35◦ 55◦ 2 K 1 3 2 1 2 3 45◦ L R P B1 3 T R K N a) b) P T 85◦ U 3 2 1 Y M V 2 3 1 N 85 ◦ c) L C 5. Find all the unknown angles in the ﬁgure alongside: B C 1 30◦ 1 2 3 2 F 3 1 2 G 3 100 ◦ D A D 1 H X 4x 3. Determine whether there are pairs of parallel lines in the following ﬁgures. Find the value of x in the ﬁgure alongside: x Y x+20◦ Z 4.12.3 CHAPTER 12. If AB is parallel to CD and AB is parallel to A EF. prove that CD is parallel to EF: E D B F 146 . GEOMETRY BASICS E A 1 2.
These are the angles that are inside the polygon. * Figure 12.4.CHAPTER 12. Each line that makes up the polygon is known as a side.4 Polygons If you take some lines and join them such that the end point of the ﬁrst line meets the starting point of the last line. The properties of these triangles are summarised in Table 12.4 12.9. Place them along your ruler as shown to see that A + B + C = 180◦ A B C A B C Important: The sum of the angles in a triangle is 180◦ . you will get a polygon. isosceles. GEOMETRY BASICS 12.9: Examples of polygons. Cut it out and label the angles A. Properties of Triangles Activity :: Investigation : Sum of the angles in a triangle 1. The number of sides of a polygon equals the number of interior angles. B and C on both sides of the paper 3. Draw dotted lines as shown and cut along these lines to get three pieces of paper ˆ ˆ ˆ 4. Some examples of polygons are shown in Figure 12. If a polygon has equal length sides and equal interior angles then the polygon is called a regular polygon. 147 . A polygon has interior angles.2. Draw on a piece of paper a triangle of any size and shape ˆ ˆ ˆ 2. except for the one marked * 12. They are all regular.1 Triangles A triangle is a threesided polygon. rightangled and scalene. There are four types of triangles: equilateral.
isosceles Two sides are equal in length.12. The side opposite this angle is called the hypotenuse. GEOMETRY BASICS Name Table 12. A B rightangled B This triangle has one right angle. po hy te nu se A scalene (nonsyllabus) 148 . The angles opposite the equal sides are equal.4 CHAPTER 12. C All sides and angles are diﬀerent.2: Types of Triangles Diagram Properties C 60◦ 60◦ A C 60◦ B equilateral All three sides are equal in length and all three angles are equal.
4 A C Figure 12. ∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 180◦ Important: Any exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles. An exterior angle is formed by extending any one of the sides. ˆ ˆ ˆ BAC + BCA = CBD D B ˆ ˆ ˆ BAC + CBA = BCD B ˆ ˆ ˆ ABC + BAC = ACD B A A C C D A D C Figure 12. GEOMETRY BASICS B 12.CHAPTER 12. any exterior angle is equal to the sum of the two opposite interior angles.10: In any triangle. 149 .11: In any triangle.
GEOMETRY BASICS RHS SSS SAS If two sides and the included angle of one triangle are equal to the same two sides and included angle of another triangle. AAS Similar Triangles Description If all three pairs of corresponding angles of two triangles are equal.4 Congruent Triangles Label Description If the hypotenuse and one side of a rightangled triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and the respective side of another triangle then the triangles are congruent. Diagram a a c b c b If all pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are in proportion. If one side and two angles of one triangle are equal to the same one side and two angles of another triangle. then the two triangles are congruent.12. then the triangles are similar. then the two triangles are congruent. then the triangles are similar. x y p q z r x p = y q = z r 150 . If three sides of a triangle are equal in length to the same sides of another triangle then the two triangles are congruent Diagram CHAPTER 12.
151 . Give reasons for your answers. If there is not enough information to make a descision. a) N x b) N 30o c) N x y P N d) 19 P 36o O P 68o x O N 68o P y O 68o x O 116 R 76 e) 15 x f) N R 12 14 x S g) P N 5 T y P 20 O R x 15 9 P O S 21 O 2. State whether or not the following pairs of triangles are congruent or not. All lengths are in mm. GEOMETRY BASICS The theorem of Pythagoras 12. say why.CHAPTER 12. then ˆ △ABC is rightangled (B = 90◦ ).4 b A c c B a a C b ˆ If △ABC is rightangled (B = 90◦ ) then 2 2 2 b =a +c Converse: If b2 = a2 + c2 . Calculate the unknown variables in each of the following ﬁgures. Exercise: Triangles 1.
where one pair of opposite sides is parallel. 152 .3: Examples of quadrilaterals.4 B a) E CHAPTER 12.12. isosceles trapezium Figure 12.16 Figure 12. Trapezium A trapezium is a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel opposite sides.17 Table 12. the other pair of sides is equal in length and the angles at the ends of each parallel side are equal.12: Examples of trapeziums. square and kite.13 Figure 12. GEOMETRY BASICS b) B C A D B c) d) E B A C D E C A B e) A C A D C D D 12.2 Quadrilaterals A quadrilateral is any polygon with four sides. parallelogram. An isosceles trapezium has one line of symmetry and its diagonals are equal in length. Name of quadrilateral trapezium parallelogram rectangle rhombus square kite Figure Figure 12. The basic quadrilaterals are the trapezium. It may also be called a trapezoid.15 Figure 12. rhombus. A special type of trapezium is the isosceles trapezium.14 Figure 12.4.12 Figure 12. rectangle.
they cut each other in half).e.13: An example of a parallelogram.CHAPTER 12. D C A Figure 12. • All sides are equal in length. • Both diagonals bisect each other (i. • Diagonals are equal in length. D A Figure 12. • Both pairs of opposite angles are equal. Rectangle A rectangle is a parallelogram that has all four angles equal to 90◦ . A summary of the properties of a rhombus is: • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. • Both diagonals bisect each other. • All angles are right angles. A summary of the properties of a rectangle is: • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. Rhombus A rhombus is a parallelogram that has all four side of equal length. GEOMETRY BASICS Parallelogram 12.4 A trapezium with both sets of opposite sides parallel is called a parallelogram. • Both pairs of opposite sides are equal in length. A summary of the properties of a parallelogram is: • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel.14: Example of a rectangle. 153 / / / / / / // / // B C B / . • Both pairs of opposite sides are of equal length equal.
A summary of the properties of a rhombus is: • Both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. • Diagonals bisect both pairs of opposite angles (ie. A summary of the properties of a kite is: • Two pairs of adjacent sides are equal in length. • Both diagonals bisect each other at 90◦ . all 45◦ ). CHAPTER 12. • Diagonals are equal in length. Square A square is a rhombus that has all four angles equal to 90◦ . A square is a rhombus with all angles equal to 90◦ . GEOMETRY BASICS • Diagonals of a rhombus bisect both pairs of opposite angles. • All sides are equal in length. Kite A kite is a quadrilateral with two pairs of adjacent sides equal.12.15: An example of a rhombus. 154 . D • x / // • x C x A / // / • • B / x Figure 12. • All angles are equal to 90◦ . D C • • / / • • A • / / • • • B Figure 12.4 • Both pairs of opposite angles equal.16: An example of a square. A rhombus is a parallelogram with all sides equal. • Both diagonals bisect each other at 90◦ . • Both pairs of opposite angles equal.
• One diagonal bisects the other diagonal and one diagonal bisects one pair of opposite angles.18: Examples of other polygons.17: An example of a kite. C x x A / •• D Figure 12. • Diagonals intersect at rightangles. 155 / B decagon heptagon . octagon nonagon pentagon hexagon Figure 12. Sides 5 6 7 8 10 15 Name pentagon hexagon heptagon octagon decagon pentadecagon Table 12. some of which are given in the table below.3 Other polygons There are many other polygons. GEOMETRY BASICS 12.4.4: Table of some polygons and their number of sides.4 • One pair of opposite angles are equal where the angles must be between unequal sides. 12.CHAPTER 12.
156 . GEOMETRY BASICS 12. Area of parallelogram and rhombus: base × perpendicular height b 4. say whether the statement is true or false. Area of rectangle: length × breadth l s 5.1) Areas of Polygons 1. give a counterexample to prove it: (a) All squares are rectangles (b) All rectangles are squares (c) All pentagons are similar (d) All equilateral triangles are similar (e) All pentagons are congruent (f) All equilateral triangles are congruent 2. Find the areas of each of the given ﬁgures . For each case below.remember area is measured in square units (cm2 . Area of triangle: 1 2× base × perpendicular height h 2. Area of trapezium: 1 2× h (sum of sides) × perpendicular height h 3.4. For false statements.4 CHAPTER 12. m2 . (12. Area of square: length of side × length of side s r 6. Area of circle: π x radius2 Exercise: Polygons 1.4 Extra Angles of regular polygons You can calculate the size of the interior angle of a regular polygon by using: ˆ n − 2 × 180◦ A= n ˆ where n is the number of sides and A is any angle.12. mm2 ).
5 Exercises 1. c and d in each case. Find a.CHAPTER 12.5 a) 5cm 10cm d) 7cm b) 5cm c) 10cm 10cm 3cm 5cm 12cm 8cm 5cm e) 10cm f) 6cm g) 10cm h) 15cm 16cm 9cm 21cm 12. GEOMETRY BASICS 12. b. giving reasons in each case. P b a d c Q S (a) 73◦ R 157 . A 62 ◦ B N M 137◦ 57◦ 62◦ (a) D G C 123◦ P H 120◦ (b) O 60◦ K 60◦ L (c) 2. Find all the pairs of parallel lines in the following ﬁgures. giving reasons.
158 T . All rightangled isosceles triangles with perimeter 10 cm are congruent. iv. ii. i. All rectangles with the same area are similar. All regular quadrilaterals are similar. In any △ABC with ∠ABC = 90◦ we have AB 3 + BC 3 = CA3 . H N I K P iii.5 K A C E (b) 100 a ◦ CHAPTER 12. v. Q (c) For each pair of ﬁgures state whether they are similar or not. iii. A D F C i. M R O Q U R V S iv. (b) Say which of the following pairs of triangles are congruent with reasons. B G J E L ii. All equilateral triangles are similar. GEOMETRY BASICS W B T D F (c) X 50◦ L b 45◦ c d a M c d N U b V O (a) Which of the following claims are true? Give a counterexample for those that are incorrect.12. Give reasons.
D A d a e E B b c C 159 . Line DE is parallel to BC.CHAPTER 12.5 J W 5 3 R X 3 12. show that the sum of the three angles in a triangle is 180◦ .5 P 45◦ 2 L K Z Y 12. GEOMETRY BASICS (a) A √ 2 2 45◦ B C Q (b) 5 H 7. Using the ﬁgure below.1 Challenge Problem 1.5.
12. GEOMETRY BASICS 160 .5 CHAPTER 12.
It is relatively simple to calculate the surface areas and volumes of prisms. A right prism is a polygon that has been stretched out into a tube so that the height of the tube is perpendicular to the base. 300 B. In modern times. Activity :: Researchproject : History of Geometry Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the foundation of geometry.C. 3000 . geometric concepts have become very complex and abstract and are barely recognizable as the descendants of early geometry.500 B. the other being the study of numbers.) (a) Harappan geometry (b) Vedic geometry 2. Classical Greek geometry (c.E. 1.C.Chapter 13 Geometry .2 Right Prisms and Cylinders In this section we study how to calculate the surface areas and volumes of right prisms and cylinders. 161 . 600 .1 Introduction Geometry (Greek: geo = earth.) (a) Euclid (b) Archimedes 13. A square prism has a base that is a square and a triangular prism has a base that is a triangle. Ancient Indian geometry (c.300 B.C . metria = measure) arose as the ﬁeld of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Hellenistic geometry (c. Describe the various stages of development and how the following cultures used geometry to improve their lives.500 C.) (a) Thales and Pythagoras (b) Plato 3.Grade 10 13. It was one of the two ﬁelds of premodern mathematics.
Explain to your partner. Surface Area of Prisms Calculate the area of each face and add the areas together to get the surface area. 13.13.GRADE 10 square prism triangular prism cylinder Figure 13. nets and formulae.1 Surface Area The term surface area refers to the total area of the exposed or outside surfaces of a prism. in order to calculate the surface area of a prism you simply have to calculate the area of each face and add it up. For example. the triangular prism has two faces that are triangles and three faces that are rectangles. This is easier to understand if you imagine the prism as a solid object. while the curved surface ﬂattens into a rectangle.2. a right triangular prism and a cylinder. you will see that each face of a prism is a simple polygon. how each relates to the other. If you examine the prisms in Figure 13. GEOMETRY .2 CHAPTER 13. Therefore. Activity :: Discussion : surface areas Study the following prisms.1. In the case of a cylinder the top and bottom faces are circles.1: Examples of a right square prism. 162 .
= 2( 2 b × h) + 2(H × S) + (H × b) Cylinder r h r h 2π r S.A.A.CHAPTER 13. = 2πr2 + 2πrh Exercise: Surface areas 1. = 2[(L × b) + (b × h) + (L × b)] Triangular Prism H H h S b S S H H S h b H 1 S. GEOMETRY .A. Calculate the surface area in each of the following: 163 .2 L h h L L L h b h h b Rectangular Prism h b L b L S.GRADE 10 13.
2 CHAPTER 13.2. (b) The inside walls and ﬂoor of a circular reservoir with diameter 4m and height 2. Exercise: Volume 1. Write down the formula for each of the following volumes: 164 . If a litre of paint. how much paint is needed to paint: (a) A rectangular swimming pool with dimensions 4m × 3m × 2. So. 10 cm 6 cm 8 cm 8 cm hint: diameter = 2 × radius 3. Volume of Prisms Calculate the area of the base and multiply by the height to get the volume of a prism.5m 4m 13. 10 cm 20 cm 8 cm hint: use Pythagoras to ﬁnd height of triangular face. inside walls and ﬂoor only.5m 2.2 Volume The volume of a right prism is calculated by multiplying the area of the base by the height. paints 2m2 . for a square prism of side length a and height h the volume is a × a × h = a2 h.5m. 7 cm 2. GEOMETRY .GRADE 10 1. 10 cm 2.13.
a Now. Show that for a cube with side length a. A cube is a special prism that has all edges equal. This means that each face is a square. what happens to the surface area if one dimension is multiplied by a constant? For example.GRADE 10 13.2 a) h b L b) H h b c) h r 2. how does the surface area change when the height of a rectangular prism is divided by 2? Worked Example 50: Scaling the dimensions of a prism 165 .CHAPTER 13. An example of a cube is a die. GEOMETRY . Calculate the following volumes: a) 10 cm 7 cm 6 cm b) 20 cm 5 cm 10 cm c) 10 cm 5 cm 3. the surface area is 6a2 and the volume is a3 .
GRADE 10 1 h 2 b b l l b b l l h 1 h 2 h l l b b 1 h 2 Surface Area = Volume = 2(l × h + l × b + b × h) l×b×h Surface Area = Volume = = 1 1 2(l × 2 h + l × b + b × 2 h) 1 l × b × 2h 1 2 (l × b × h) Figure 13. Now calculate the reduction factor in the volume and the surface area. The prism in the diagram has sides of lengths L. h L b a) Consider enlarging all sides of the prism by a constant factor x. Where x > 1. GEOMETRY . Answer Step 1 : Identify The volume of a prism is given by: V =L×b×h The surface area of the prism is given by: A = 2 × (L × b + L × h + b × h) Step 2 : Rescale If all the sides of the prism get rescaled. Calculate the volume and surface area of the enlarged prism as a function of the factor x and the volume of the original volume. the new sides will be: L′ b′ h′ = = = x×L x×b x×h The new volume will then be given by: 166 . where 0 < x < 1.13.2: Rectangular prisms Question: The size of a prism is speciﬁed by the length of its sides.2 h CHAPTER 13. a) In the same way as above now consider the case. b and h.
. = . 13.. In this section. an eightsided polygon.... The surface area of the rescaled prism was given by: A′ = x2 × A Again... the surface area will be increased by a factor of x2 . GEOMETRY . A stop sign is in the shape of an octagon..◦ ˆ E=.. In analogy...cm EF = . since x > 1.. = ...1 Similarity of Polygons Activity :: Discussion : Similar Triangles Fill in the table using the diagram and then answer the questions that follow. ˆ A=.cm AC .cm BC .CHAPTER 13..◦ .2....cm DF = ......◦ ˆ F =. you will learn about similar polygons.cm DE = . b) The answer here is based on the same ideas as above.. the volume of the prism will be increased by a factor of x3 ..◦ ˆ C.cm = .3.3 Polygons Polygons are all around us.◦ ˆ B=... 13. The honeycomb of a beehive consists of hexagonal cells..GRADE 10 13. as for the example in Figure 13. the volume will de reduced by a factoe of x3 and the surface area will be decreased by a factor of x2 When the length of one of the sides is multiplied by a constant the eﬀect is to multiply the original volume by that constant..3 V′ = = = = x×L×x×b×x×h x3 × L × b × h x3 × V L ′ × b ′ × h′ The new surface area of the prism will be given by: A′ = 2 × (L′ × b′ + L′ × h′ + b′ × h′ ) = 2 × (x × L × x × b + x × L × x × h + x × b × x × h) = x2 × 2 × (L × b + L × h + b × h) = x2 × A Step 3 : Interpret a) We found above that the new volume is given by: V ′ = x3 × V Since x > 1.. since here 0 < x < 1. AB .◦ 167 ˆ D.
We can do this by showing that the ratio of corresponding sides is equal or by showing that corresponding angles are equal. the ratios of corresponding sides are equal. Worked Example 51: Similarity of Polygons Question: Show that the following two polygons are similar. What can you say about the numbers you calculated for: ˆ ˆ 2. Step 2 : Decide how to approach the problem 168 . We use the symbol ≡ to mean is similar to. Deﬁnition: Similar Polygons Two polygons are similar if: 1. What can you say about C and F ? If two polygons are similar.5 2 cm 5c m cm B 3 cm C E 1. This means that the two polygons will have the same angles and their sides will be in the same proportion. DF ? 1. GEOMETRY . their corresponding angles are equal. C B D H A G F E Answer Step 1 : Determine what is required We are required to show that the pair of polygons is similar.GRADE 10 4 cm D 2. What can you say about A and D? ˆ ˆ 3. one is an enlargement of the other.5 cm F AB BC AC DE . or 2. EF . What can you say about B and E? ˆ ˆ 4.13.3 A CHAPTER 13.
b.5 120◦ 98 ◦ J 3 C b c K f 92 d g 1. c and d and the following angles: 169 . determine the lengths of the sides and angles labelled with letters: D 6 4. a. This means that: AB BC CD DE EA = = = = GH HJ JK KL LG and ˆ A = ˆ B = ˆ C = ˆ = D ˆ E = ˆ G ˆ H ˆ J ˆ K ˆ L Step 2 : Determine what is required We are required to determine the following lengths: 1.3 Step 4 : Final answer Since corresponding angles are equal.GRADE 10 We are not given the lengths of the sides. Step 3 : Show that corresponding angles are equal All angles are given to be 90◦ and ˆ A ˆ B ˆ C ˆ D ˆ = E ˆ = F ˆ = G ˆ = H 13. Worked Example 52: Similarity of Polygons Question: If two pentagons ABCDE and GHJKL are similar.5 ◦ H E a 40◦ e A 3 B L 2 G Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given We are given that ABCDE and GHJKL are similar. but we are given the angles. because all rectangles will always have corresponding angles equal to each other. the polygons ABCD and EFGH are similar. we can show that corresponding angles are equal. Step 5 : Comment on result This result shows that all rectangles are similar to each other. GEOMETRY .CHAPTER 13. Important: All rectangles and squares are similar. So.
5 = 1. f and g CHAPTER 13.5 × 1. We are given one pair of sides DC and KJ that correspond DC = 4. Exercise: Polygonsmixed 1.5 = 4 = 1.5 so we know that all sides KJ 3 of KJHGL are 1.5 ∴ c = 6 ÷ 1.5 ∴ b = 1.5 = 2.3 1. Step 4 : Calculate lengths a 2 b 1. Give reasons.5 = 3 = 1. e.5 ∴ a = 2 × 1.13. Find the values of the unknowns in each case.25 4 2 92◦ 120◦ 40◦ Activity :: Similarity of Equilateral Triangles : Working in pairs.5 ∴ d = 2 Step 5 : Calculate angles = 92◦ (corresponds to H) = 120◦ (corresponds to D) = 40◦ (corresponds to E) e f g Step 6 : Write the ﬁnal answer a = b = c = d = e = f = g = 3 2.5 times smaller than ABCDE. show that all equilateral triangles are similar. so no calculation is needed. GEOMETRY . 170 .GRADE 10 Step 3 : Decide how to approach the problem The corresponding angles are equal.5 6 c 3 d = 1.25 = 1.
Some consider that the introduction of analytic geometry was the beginning of modern mathematics. Find the angles and lengths marked with letters in the following ﬁgures: a) b) c) a a 70 b a W 35 b Z 120◦ d c X Y WY=130 XZ=60 10◦ d) 5 4 a e) f) a 15 6 9 b 100 b−2 a+3 13. also called coordinate geometry and earlier referred to as Cartesian geometry. GEOMETRY . It is concerned with deﬁning geometrical shapes in a numerical way.CHAPTER 13. and extracting numerical information from that representation. and the Cartesian coordinate system.4.1 Coordinate Geometry Introduction Analytical geometry.GRADE 10 13.4 A x y B 30 m m a E y I F 160◦ a J 65◦ b D b 95◦ 15◦ C H G L c K Q y x y x y x 50◦ c M a b N T 45◦ b a a b 20 m m 45◦ R y x x y P O c U x 30◦ 210◦ 25◦ A V a 25 mm a B S b Z D W C 2. is the study of geometry using the principles of algebra.4 13. 171 .
it can be seen that the length of the line P R is 3 units and the length of the line QR is four units. However. the length of the side P Q can be obtained by using the Theorem of Pythagoras: P Q2 ∴ P Q2 ∴ PQ = P R2 + QR2 = 32 + 42 = 32 + 42 = 5 The length of AB is the distance between the points A and B. y1 ) A C The formula for calculating the distance between two points is derived as follows.1) P −2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 Q (2.GRADE 10 13. 1) and point Q has coordinates (−2. Distance is a number that describes how far apart two point are. this means how long is the dashed line? 2 1 (2. y2 ) B (x1 . In order to generalise the idea. The distance between the points A and B is the length of the line AB. (x2 . GEOMETRY .2) R In the ﬁgure.13. −2).2 Distance between Two Points One of the simplest things that can be done with analytical geometry is to calculate the distance between two points. y1 ) and B is any other point with coordinates (x2 . the length of AB is given by: AB = However. y2 ). How far apart are points A and B? In the ﬁgure. According to the Theorem of Pythagoras. AB = = AC 2 + BC 2 (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 172 AC 2 + BC 2 . has a right angle at R. the △P QR.4 CHAPTER 13. assume A is any point with coordinates (x1 . point P has coordinates (2. Therefore. BC = y2 − y1 AC = x2 − x1 Therefore. For example.4.
for any two points. Line P S is less steep than P T but is steeper than P R. the formula is: (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 13. y1 ) and (x2 . (x2 .4. Then the gradient is the ratio of the length of the vertical side of the triangle to the horizontal side of the triangle. and line P R is steeper than P Q.2) is: 173 . Then the distance is: Distance = = = = = = (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 (2 + 2)2 + (1 + 2)2 √ 16 + 9 √ 25 5 (2 − (−2))2 + (1 − (−2))2 13. GEOMETRY .2) is then found as follows.GRADE 10 Therefore. y1 ) and the coordinates of point Q be (x2 . y2 ). y2 ) B (x1 . T S R Q P The gradient of a line is deﬁned as the ratio of the vertical distance to the horizontal distance. y2 ). Consider a line between a point A with coordinates (x1 .4 Distance = Using the formula. line P T is the steepest. (x1 . y1 ) and a point B with coordinates (x2 .3 Calculation of the Gradient of a Line The gradient of a line describes how steep the line is. Let the coordinates of point P be (x1 .1) and (2.CHAPTER 13.4.1) and (2. This can be understood by looking at the line as the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle. distance between the points P and Q with coordinates (2. with coordinates (2. In the ﬁgure. y1 ) A C Gradient = y2 −y1 x2 −x1 For example the gradient of the line between the points P and Q. y2 ).2) (Figure 13.
y1 ) and (x2 . (x2 . − ) 2 It can be conﬁrmed that the distance from the each end point to the midpoint is equal. y1 ) X Y ∴ = = x1 + x2 2 y1 + y2 2 x1 + x2 y1 + y2 .4. For example. what is the midpoint of the line between point P with coordinates (2.4 CHAPTER 13. GEOMETRY . 1) and point Q with coordinates (−2.GRADE 10 Gradient = = = = y2 − y1 x2 − x1 −2 − 1 −2 − 2 −3 −4 3 4 13. The coordinates of the midpoint of any line between any two points A and B with coordinates (x1 .5). Let the midpoint of AB be at point S with coordinates (X. −2) is: x1 + x2 2 −2 + 2 2 0 y1 + y2 2 −2 + 1 2 1 − 2 X = = = Y = = = 1 ∴ S(0. is generally calculated as follows. −0. 174 . 1) and point Q with coordinates (−2. y2 ). knowing the coordinates of the middle point or midpoint of a line is useful. −2). y2 ) B (X. y1 ) and (x2 . The coordinate of the midpoint S is (0. y2 ).4 Midpoint of a Line Sometimes.13. Y ) S A (x1 . S 2 2 Then the coordinates of the midpoint (S) of the line between point P with coordinates (2. Y ). The aim is to calculate X and Y in terms of (x1 .
5)2 √ 4 + 2. G(1.GRADE 10 13.1) 1 P −2 −1 S −1 −2 1 midpoint 2 Q (2.5 + 2))2 (2))2 + (−1.CHAPTER 13.5 − (−2))2 (0 + 2))2 + (−0.2) Exercise: Coordinate Geometry 1.5 − 1)2 and QS = = = = = = (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 (0 − (−2))2 + (−0.25 √ 6.25 (0 − 2)2 + (−0. H(3.25 It can be seen that P S = QS as expected. GEOMETRY .7) 175 .25 √ 6.0). 2 (2.5))2 √ 4 + 2. In the diagram given the vertices of a quadrilateral are F(2.5).4 PS = = = = = (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 (−2)2 + (−1.
GRADE 10 H(3. P. C(5. U(0.5) 4 3 2 I(7.4 7 CHAPTER 13. F(2.3). Find the coordinates of H by using the fact that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.0).3). ﬁnd them. ﬁnd them. a) b) c) d) What are the lengths of the opposite sides of FGHI? Are the opposite sides of FGHI parallel? Do the diagonals of FGHI bisect each other? Can you state what type of quadrilateral FGHI is? Give reasons for your answer. B(4.3). R and S are the points (2. b) Are two of the sides of this pentagon of equal length? If yes. Q.0). GEOMETRY .4). (2.7).7) 6 5 G(1.1) and G(2.2). 3.2) 1 0 1 1 0 1 F(2.1) are the vertices of a pentagon. 6.2). 4.5) and D(1. 176 . a) Show that: (i) AD = BC (ii) AB DC b) What name would you give to ABCD? c) Show that the diagonals AC and BD do not bisect each other. ABCD is a quadrilateral with verticies A(0.2).0) 2 3 4 5 6 7 and I(7.3). A quadrialteral ABCD with vertices A(3.1) and D(1.1).1) and V(4. B(1.3) respectively. 5. (5. EFGH is a parallelogram with verticies E(1. a) Show that: (i) SR = 2PQ (ii) SR PQ b) Calculate: (i) PS (ii) QR c) What kind of a quadrilateral is PQRS? Give reasons for your answers.13. (3. T(1.3) is given.2). b) Find the lengths of the sides of the quadrilateral. a) Are two of the sides of this pentagon parallel? If yes. 2. S(1. C(4. a) Draw the qaudrilateral.
GRADE 10 13.CHAPTER 13. Similarly. The new x coordinate of point A is the same (x=1). For example. The new coordinates of point A are therefore G(1. if it was moved to the position of point G? 3 2 1 1 −1 −2 −3 2 C B A G F E D When a point is moved vertically up or down on the Cartesian plane. Point x coordinate y coordinate A B C D E F G What do you notice about the x coordinates? What do you notice about the y coordinates? What would happen to the coordinates of point A. the x coordinate is the same (x = −2.2). by ﬁlling in the coordinates of the points shown in the ﬁgure.5.5 13. the new y coordinate is given by adding the shift to the old y coordinate. The new y coordinate is therefore y=2.5 Transformations In this section you will learn about how the coordinates of a point change when the point is moved horizontally and vertically on the Cartesian plane. Activity :: Discussion : Translation of a Point Horizontally Complete the table.5. What happens to the coordinates of a point that is translated horizontally or vertically? Activity :: Discussion : Translation of a Point Vertically Complete the table.5). the x coordinate of the point remains the same. the new y coordinate is given by subtracting the shift from the old y coordinate. 177 .1 Translation of a Point When something is moved in a straight line. we say that it is translated. GEOMETRY .5 5=2. Important: If a point is shifted upwards.3 Point A is moved 4 units upwards to the position marked by G. If a point is shifted downwards. but the new y coordinate is shifted in the positive y direction 4 units and becomes y=2+4=2. by ﬁlling in the coordinates of the points shown in the ﬁgure. but the y coordinate changes by the amount that the point was moved up or down. You will also learn about what happens to the coordinates of a point when it is reﬂected on the xaxis. but the y coordinate is shifted in the negative ydirection by 5 units. in Figure 13. 13. yaxis and the line y = x. for point B that is moved downwards by 5 units.
GRADE 10 3 B (2. The new coordinates of point B at H is therefore (2. if it was moved to the position of point G? When a point is moved horizontally left or right on the Cartesian plane. For example.1).5.5.5). in Figure 13.5 5=2.2) Figure 13. The new x coordinate is therefore x=2. but the new x coordinate is shifted in the positive x direction 4 units and becomes x=2+4=2.2.5) 2 1 4 units 5 units H A −3 Point A B C D E F G G −2 −1 1 2 −1 −2 −3 A (1. the y coordinate is the same (y = −2.5 CHAPTER 13. The new y coordinate of point A is the same (y=1).5. Point B is 5 units downwards to the position marked by H. the y coordinate of the point remains the same. The new coordinate of point A at G is therefore (2.3: Point A is moved 4 units upwards to the position marked by G.1).13. 178 .4 Point A is moved 4 units right to the position marked by G. GEOMETRY . but the x coordinate is shifted in the negative xdirection by 5 units. but the x coordinate changes by the amount that the point was moved left or right. for point B that is moved left by 5 units. Similarly. B C 2 1 D E F G −2 −1 1 2 3 x coordinate y coordinate What do you notice about the x coordinates? What do you notice about the y coordinates? What would happen to the coordinates of point A.
If a point is shifted to the left. Important: If a point is shifted to the right. d d you mirror your reﬂection We can apply the same idea to a point that is reﬂected on the xaxis.CHAPTER 13. the new x coordinate is given by adding the shift to the old x coordinate.5. GEOMETRY .4: Point A is moved 4 units to the right to the position marked by G.5 2 A (2. 179 . only the y coordinate of the point changes.2.1) 4 units 1 G −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 5 units 2 3 H B (2. Important: When a point is reﬂected about the xaxis. Reﬂection on the xaxis If a point is reﬂected on the xaxis. Point B is 5 units to the left to the position marked by H.5. the yaxis and the line y = x. the new x coordinate is given by subtracting the shift from the old x coordinate.2 Reﬂection of a Point When you stand in front of a mirror your reﬂection is located the same distance (d) behind the mirror as you are standing in front of the mirror. 13.5) Figure 13. then the reﬂection must be the same distance below the xaxis as the point is above the xaxis and viceversa.GRADE 10 13.
The coordinates of Q are (15. GEOMETRY .10). Reﬂection on the yaxis If a point is reﬂected on the yaxis. Therefore. then the reﬂection must be the same distance to the left of the yaxis as the point is to the right of the yaxis and viceversa. Worked Example 54: Reﬂection on the yaxis Question: Find the coordinates of the reﬂection of the point Q. therefore its reﬂection will be the same distance below the xaxis as the point P is above the xaxis. The original points are shown with • and the reﬂected points are shown with ◦.5 CHAPTER 13. Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer The coordinates of the reﬂected point are (5. Important: When a point is reﬂected on the yaxis.13.10). Worked Example 53: Reﬂection on the xaxis Question: Find the coordinates of the reﬂection of the point P. The coordinates of P are (5.2) 2 1 B’ (2. x=5.2) Figure 13.1) A’ (1.5). Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required 180 . The y coordinate remains unchanged.10) and need to ﬁnd the coordinates of the point if it is reﬂected on the xaxis. For a reﬂection on the xaxis. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem The point P is above the xaxis. only the x coordinate of the point changes. the x coordinate remains unchanged. if Q is reﬂected on the yaxis. if P is reﬂected on the xaxis. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given the point P with coordinates (5. Therefore.1) −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 3 B (2.GRADE 10 A (1.5: Points A and B are reﬂected on the xaxis. y=10.
y=5.1 2 ) −2 1 B (1 2 . Therefore.1) 2 3 1 B’ (2.2) −3 −2 A’ (2.6: Points A and B are reﬂected on the yaxis. the y coordinate remains unchanged.1) −1 1 −1 −2 2 A (2. Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer The coordinates of the reﬂected point are (15. GEOMETRY .5 B (1.2) 2 1 C (1.3) Study the information given and complete the following table: 181 .2) 2 1 B’ (1. Activity :: Casestudy : Reﬂection of a point on the line y = x 3 A’ (1.1) −3 −2 −1 1 −1 A (2. Therefore. x=15.2) −3 D (2. For a reﬂection on the yaxis. Reﬂection on the line y = x The ﬁnal type of reﬂection you will learn about is the reﬂection of a point on the line y = x. We are given the point Q with coordinates (15.CHAPTER 13.1) 3 Figure 13. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem The point Q is to the right of the yaxis.5) and need to ﬁnd the coordinates of the point if it is reﬂected on the yaxis. The original points are shown with • and the reﬂected points are shown with ◦.5). therefore its reﬂection will be the same distance to the left of the yaxis as the point Q is to the right of the yaxis.GRADE 10 13.
3) CHAPTER 13. x=5.2) −3 Figure 13. if R is reﬂected on the line y = x.3) A (3.1) (2. Important: The x and y coordinates of points that are reﬂected on the line y = x are interchanged.1 2 ) A B C D What can you deduce about the coordinates of points that are reﬂected about the line y = x? The x and y coordinates of points that are reﬂected on the line y = x are swapped around.7: Points A and B are reﬂected on the line y = x.2) (1. The y coordinate of the reﬂected point is the x coordinate of the original point.GRADE 10 Reﬂection (1. Therefore.1) −1 −2 B’ (1.5).1) 1 (1 2 . Worked Example 55: Reﬂection on the line y = x Question: Find the coordinates of the reﬂection of the point R.5). Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given the point R with coordinates (5. The coordinates of R are (5. The original points are shown with • and the reﬂected points are shown with ◦.1) 1 2 3 −3 −2 −1 B (2.5 Point (2. Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer The coordinates of the reﬂected point are (5.13.2) 1 (2. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem The x coordinate of the reﬂected point is the y coordinate of the original point. Therefore.5) and need to ﬁnd the coordinates of the point if it is reﬂected on the line y = x. y=5. 182 . GEOMETRY . or interchanged. 3 2 1 A’ (1. This means that the x coordinate of the original point becomes the y coordinate of the reﬂected point and the y coordinate of the original point becomes the x coordinate of the reﬂected point.
y) → (x + 3. y) (x. y) → (y.y) by moving a units horizontally and b units vertically. y + b) means translate point (x. So if we translate (1.2) by the rule (x.Z) if they are reﬂected about the given lines: a) yaxis (x=0) 183 .3) B (1.2) (3. GEOMETRY . y) → (x + 4. y) → (x.2) (2. y) → (x + a. y) → (x. y − 1) it becomes (4. We have moved 3 units right and 1 unit down.5 Rules of Translation A quick way to write a translation is to use a ’rule of translation’.1) (2. Find the coordinates of each of the points ( S . For example (x.0) (2. we translate each point in the region.1) AA (3. y − 3) (x.CHAPTER 13.GRADE 10 13. Column 1 (x. Translating a Region To translate a region.0) (2.3) Activity :: Discussion : Rules of Transformations Work with a friend and decide which item from column 1 matches each description in column 2. x) Column 2 a reﬂection on xy line a reﬂection on the x axis a shift of 3 units left a shift of 3 units down a reﬂection on the yaxis Exercise: Transformations 1.1). −y) (x. y) (x. y) → (x − 3. Example Region A has been translated to region B by the rule: (x. y + 2) (1. y) → (−x.
V’( 5 .8).GRADE 10 S Z Y 3 2 1 0 T U 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 xaxis V W X 4 5 6 2. 184 .3). 10≤y≤10.y) → (y. W’(4.y) → (x.y) (v) H(4.6) e) V( −3 .y) 6 5 4 3 2 1 (5. b) Identify the line of reﬂection in each case (some may not exist): (i) H(4.7) b) Y(1. (x. (x.3).y) → (x. X’(5.y)→ (x. Z’(3.x) (iv) H(4. Write down the rule used for each of the following reﬂections: a) Z(7.x) (iii) H(4.3). (x. −3 ) 7 3 3 7 3. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Using squared paper.9).13. Y’(1. a) Reﬂect the given points using the rules that are given.9) d) W(4. copy the diagram given.1) 0 4.6).3). (x.y) → (y. 5 ).y) (ii) H(4. Let 10≤x≤10.3). GEOMETRY .8) c) X(5.5 b) xaxis (y=0) c) y=x d) y=x yaxis 6 5 4 CHAPTER 13.3). (x.
a) b) c) d) e) (x. soup etc. How much air is contained in the tin when it contains the product (i. cooldrink. What is the volume of the tin given on its label? 8. Look around the house or school and ﬁnd a can or a tin of any kind (e. y − 3) (x.e.) 9. Write down the values you measured on the diagram below: side top bottom 4. If the height of the tin is kept the same. beans.17 cents/cm2 . Surface Area and scale factors of objects 1. paint etc. Measure the height of the tin and the diameter of its top or bottom. y) (x. Compare the volume you calculated with the value given on the label.CHAPTER 13.e.g. ii) Draw the image of the ﬁgure according the rules given. y) (x. but now the radius is doubled. the circles) (c) the total surface area of the tin 5. 3. If you wanted to double the volume of the tin. soup. Write a rule that will give the following transformations of DEFG to D’E’F’G in each case.e.) 2. 7. x) (x. Why do you think space is left for air in the tin? 10. the rectangle) (b) the area of the top and bottom of the tin (i. rounded oﬀ to 2 decimal places): (a) the area of the side of the tin (i. −y) 13. 185 . how much does it cost to make the tin? 6. calculate the following (in cm2 .GRADE 10 i) Identify the transformation.6 End of Chapter Exercises 1. y) → (y. Find the volume of your tin (in cm3 . y) → (−x. y) → (x. rounded oﬀ to 2 decimal places). but keep the radius the same. y) → (x + 5. If the tin metal costs 0. by what scale factor will the: (a) area of the side surface of the tin increase? (b) area of the bottom/top of the tin increase? 13. by how much would you need to increase the height? 11. y) → (x. cooldrink.6 Activity :: Investigation : Calculation of Volume. Using your measurements. GEOMETRY .
y)→(x+3.13.y3) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 b) (x.y) 1 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 c) (x. Using the rules given. GEOMETRY .GRADE 10 G’ 4 3 F’ 2 1 D’ 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 E’ 3 4 5 6 2 G 3 4 F 5 a) D 6 E F’ E’ 5 F E 4 3 2 1 D’ 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 D 1 2 3 4 5 6 G’ 2 b) G 3 2.6 5 CHAPTER 13.y)→(x4. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 a) (x. identify the type of transformation and draw the image of the shapes.y)→(y.x) 6 186 .
6 0 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 d) (x.y) 6 187 . GEOMETRY .y)→(x.GRADE 10 1 13.CHAPTER 13.
GRADE 10 188 . GEOMETRY .6 CHAPTER 13.13.
but we have not learned how to calculate an angle if we only know the lengths of the sides. People (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Lagadha (circa 13501200 BC) Hipparchus (circa 150 BC) Ptolemy (circa 100) Aryabhata (circa 499) Omar Khayyam (10481131) Bhaskara (circa 1150) Nasir alDin (13th century) alKashi and Ulugh Beg (14th century) Bartholemaeus Pitiscus (1595) teresting You should be familiar with the idea of measuring angles from geometry but Interesting Fact Fact have you ever stopped to think why there are 360 degrees in a circle? The reason is purely historical.Grade 10 14. Activity :: Investigation : History of Trigonometry Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the foundation of trigonometry.1 Introduction In geometry we learn about how the sides of polygons relate to the angles in the polygons. The works of the following people or cultures can be investigated: 1. We will learn about trigonometric functions. Trigonometry (pronounced: trigohnomehtree) deals with the relationship between the angles and the sides of a rightangled triangle. Cultures (a) Ancient Egyptians (b) Mesopotamians (c) Ancient Indians of the Indus Valley 2. There are 360 degrees in a circle because the ancient 189 . which form the basis of trigonometry. Describe the various stages of development and how the following cultures used trigonometry to improve their lives.Chapter 14 Trigonometry .
3 Similarity of Triangles If △ABC is similar to △DEF . Of particular value is the technique of triangulation. it is possible to deduce proportionalities between corresponding sides of the two triangles. music theory. seismology.2 CHAPTER 14. optics. biology. probability theory. number theory (and hence cryptology). Activity :: Discussion : Uses of Trigonometry Select one of the uses of trigonometry from the list given and write a 1page report describing how trigonometry is used in your chosen ﬁeld. electrical engineering. in geography to measure distances between landmarks. The number system that we use everyday is called the decimal system (the base is 10). meteorology. 14. Other ﬁelds which make use of trigonometry include astronomy (and hence navigation. phonetics. computer graphics. TRIGONOMETRY . chemistry. 360 = 6 × 60 so for them it made sense to have 360 degrees in a circle. GPSs (global positioning systems) would not be possible without trigonometry. land surveying and geodesy. acoustics. which is used in astronomy to measure the distance to nearby stars. architecture. such as the following: AB BC= DE EF AB AC= DE DF 190 . and in satellite navigation systems. medical imaging (CAT scans and ultrasound). then this is written as: △ABC ∼ △DEF C F B E A D Then. pharmacy. 14. and in space). but computers use the binary system (the base is 2). cartography. on the oceans.14. mechanical engineering. in aircraft. civil engineering.GRADE 10 Babylonians had a number system with base 60. A base is the number you count up to before you get an extra digit. economics. electronics. crystallography and game development. many physical sciences. analysis of ﬁnancial markets. oceanography. statistics.2 Where Trigonometry is Used There are many applications of trigonometry.
4 AB DE= BC = AC The most important fact about similar triangles ABC and DEF is that the EF DF angle at vertex A is equal to the angle at vertex D. There are three basic trigonometric functions: 1. but each ˆ ˆ ˆ with A = 30◦ .GRADE 10 AC BC= DF EF 14. TRIGONOMETRY . we often use the Greek symbol θ for an unknown angle (we also use α . the angle at B is equal to the angle at E. etc). β . and the angle at C is equal to the angle at F. 14. In trigonometry. k. Measure angles and lengths very accurately in order to ﬁll in the table below (round answers to one decimal place).4 Deﬁnition of the Trigonometric Functions We are familiar with a function of the form f (x) where f is the function and x is the argument. b. such as a. sine 191 . Examples are: f (x) = g(x) = h(x) = 2x x+2 2x2 (exponential function) (linear function) (parabolic function) The basis of trigonometry are the trigonometric functions.CHAPTER 14. we often use the letter x for our unknown variable (although we can use any other letter too. γ etc). Note: In algebra. ∠A = ∠B ∠C = = ∠D ∠E ∠F Activity :: Investigation : Ratios of Similar Triangles In your exercise book. A′′ A′ A 30 30 30 60 60 60 C AB BC ′= A′ B ′C B′′ ′′′= A B B ′′ C ′′ = B C′ B ′ C ′′ B ′′ Dividing lengths of sides (Ratios) AB CB AC ′= AC = ′ AB C ′B′ A′ C ′ = A′ C ′ = A′′ B ′′ C ′′ B ′′ = A′′ C ′′ A′′ C ′′ = What observations can you make about the ratios of the sides? These equal ratios are used to deﬁne the trigonometric functions. B = 90◦ and C = 60◦ . draw three similar triangles of diﬀerent sizes.
We deﬁne: sin θ cos θ tan θ = = = opposite hypotenuse adjacent hypotenuse opposite adjacent These functions relate the lengths of the sides of a triangle to its interior angles. cos 3. we refer to the lengths of the three sides according to how they are placed in relation to the angle θ. We will ﬁnd ways of using our knowledge of rightangled triangles to deal with the trigonometry of non rightangled triangles in Grade 11. cosine 3. B opposite hy po te n us e θ A adjacent C In the rightangled triangle. sin 2. Consider a rightangled triangle.4 2.GRADE 10 These functions are deﬁned from a rightangled triangle.14. adjacent and hypotenuse only make sense when you are working with rightangled triangles! Always check to make sure your triangle has a rightangle before you use them. tangent These are abbreviated to: 1. otherwise you will get the wrong answer. The side opposite to θ is labelled opposite. the side next to θ is labelled adjacent and the side opposite the rightangle is labelled the hypotenuse. Activity :: Investigation : Deﬁnitions of Trigonometric Functions 192 . tan CHAPTER 14. One way of remembering the deﬁnitions is to use the following mnemonic that is perhaps easier to remember: Silly Old Hens Cackle And Howl Till Old Age Opposite Sin = Hypotenuse Adjacent Cos = Hypotenuse Opposite Tan = Adjacent Important: The deﬁnitions of opposite. TRIGONOMETRY .
b and c are the hypotenuse. we saw in the above Activity that we could work these values out for some special angles. along with the values of the trigonometric functions at these angles. Worked Example 56: Finding Lengths Question: Find the length of x in the following triangle. state whether a. Complete each of the following. Some of these angles are listed in the table below. In each of the following triangles.4 c a c a a θ b b θ b c θ a b a c θ a b c b θ θ c 2. it is very diﬃcult to calculate the values of sin θ. 14. 193 . the ﬁrst has been done for you A a) b) c) C B ˆ sin A = ˆ cos A = ˆ tan A = CB opposite = hypotenuse AC d) e) f) ˆ sin C = ˆ cos C = ˆ tan C = 3. However. One usually needs to use a calculator to do so. cos θ and tan θ.GRADE 10 1. 0◦ 1 0 0 30◦ √ 3 2 1 2 1 √ 3 45◦ 1 √ 2 1 √ 2 60◦ 1 2 √ 3 2 √ cos θ sin θ tan θ 90◦ 0 1 − 180◦ −1 0 0 1 3 These values are useful when asked to solve a problem involving trig functions without using a calculator. TRIGONOMETRY . opposite or adjacent sides of the triangle. Complete each of the following: 45o 30o 2 √ 2 60o sin 60 = cos 30 = tan 60 = √ 2 1 sin 45 = cos 45 = tan 45 = 45o 1 For most angles θ.CHAPTER 14.
use tan−1 on your calculator Don’t forget to set your calculator to ‘deg’ mode! ⇒ θ = 26. TRIGONOMETRY .6m Worked Example 57: Finding Angles Question: Find the value of θ in the following triangle.GRADE 10 100m x 50◦ Answer Step 1 : Identify the trig identity that you need In this case you have an angle (50◦ ).5 Step 3 : Use your calculator to ﬁnd the angle Since you are ﬁnding the angle. So you should use tan 50 100 Step 2 : Calculate the fraction as a decimal number tan θ = ⇒ tan θ = 0.14. 50m θ 100m Answer Step 1 : Identify the trig identity that you need In this case you have the opposite side and the hypotenuse to the angle θ.4 CHAPTER 14.6◦ 194 . the opposite side and the hypotenuse. So you should use sin x 100 Step 2 : Rearrange the question to solve for x sin 50◦ = ⇒ x = 100 × sin 50◦ Step 3 : Use your calculator to ﬁnd the answer Use the sin button on your calculator ⇒ x = 76.
GRADE 10 14. In this section we will show how trigonometry can be used to solve some other practical problems. Give answers correct to 2 decimal places. This angle is found to be 38. It is much more sensible to measure a distance along the ground and use trigonometry to ﬁnd the height of the building.5 Exercise: Finding Lengths Find the length of the sides marked with letters. We have walked 100 m away from the building and measured the angle up to the top. TRIGONOMETRY .CHAPTER 14. 14. We could just use a tape measure lowered from the roof but this is impractical (and dangerous) for tall buildings. Figure 14. We call 195 .5 Simple Applications of Trigonometric Functions Trigonometry was probably invented in ancient civilisations to solve practical problems involving constructing buildings and navigating their ships by the stars.5.7◦ . a) a 37◦ b) b 62 23◦ 21 c) d) 49◦ c 19 55 ◦ 33 d e) 12 f) e 31 17◦ 22◦ f g) h) 30◦ 32 20 23◦ h g 14.1 Height and Depth One simple task is to ﬁnd the height of a building by using trigonometry.1 shows a building whose height we do not know.
We see that △ACD and △AED are both rightangled.GRADE 10 38.7◦ tan 38. As you can see from Figure 14. As we know the length of one side and an angle. we now have a rightangled triangle. which is the height of the building we are trying to ﬁnd. and the angle of depression to the bottom of the tower C to be 34◦ . For each of the triangles.5 CHAPTER 14.7◦ = = 80 m Worked Example 58: Height of a tower Question: A block of ﬂats is 100m away from a cellphone tower. Step 2 : Calculate CD 196 . What is the height of the cellphone tower correct to 1 decimal place? E B 62◦ 34◦ D A 100m C Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy To ﬁnd the height of the tower. Someone at A measures the angle of elevation to the top of the tower E to be 62◦ . this angle the angle of elevation. we can calculate the height of the triangle.7◦ 100m Figure 14.1.1: Determining the height of a building using trigonometry. we see that we have the opposite and the adjacent of the angle of elevation and we can write: opposite adjacent height = 100 m ⇒ height = 100 m × tan 38. we have an angle and we have the length AD. Thus we can calculate the sides of the triangles. TRIGONOMETRY .14. If we examine the ﬁgure. all we have to do is ﬁnd the length of CD and DE.
only lengths are changed. we ﬁnd that CD = 67. This means that they are an exact copy of the real thing.5 ˆ tan(C AD) = =⇒ CD = = CD AD ˆ AD × tan(C AD) 100 × tan 34◦ Use your calculator to ﬁnd that tan 34◦ = 0.GRADE 10 14. and hence ﬁnd the scale of the map. So. 14.07 m = 255. due South of Pretoria and due East of Cape Town.CHAPTER 14. Worked Example 59: Scale Drawing Question: A ship approaching Cape Town Harbour reaches point A on the map.45 m + 188.5. but are usually smaller. TRIGONOMETRY . Using this. but all angles are the same.07 m Step 4 : Combine the previous answers We have that the height of the tower CE = CD + DE = 67.6745. use trigonometry to ﬁnd out how far East the ship is to Cape Town. If the distance from Cape Town to Pretoria is 1000km. Pretoria Cape Town A 197 .5 m.2 Maps and Plans Maps and plans are usually scale drawings. We can use this idea to make use of maps and plans by adding information from the real world.45m Step 3 : Calculate DE ˆ tan(DAE) = =⇒ DE = = = DE AD ˆ AD × tan(DAE) ◦ 100 × tan 62 188.
C 5m 5◦ A 4m Garage Wall Roof B D Answer Step 1 : Set out strategy We see that the triangle ABC is a rightangled triangle.4358 m = 4. Furthermore. 198 . and angle ABC = 5◦ . Thus if we work out how many kilometers this same distance is. which is holding up the roof? Give the answer to 2 decimal places. Step 2 : Execute strategy ˆ If BC=5m. Step 2 : Identify given information Let us denote Cape Town with C and Pretoria with P . TRIGONOMETRY .5 CHAPTER 14. we see that 5 blocks = =⇒ 1 block = 1000 √ km 2 200 √ km 2 ˆ CP × cos(ACP ) 1000 × cos(45◦ ) 1000 √ 2 km Worked Example 60: Building plan Question: Mr Nkosi has a garage at his house. If he wants the roof to be at an angle of 5◦ . The garage is 4m high.GRADE 10 Answer Step 1 : Identify what happens in the question We already know the distance between Cape Town and A in blocks from the given map (it is 5 blocks). we see that the distance AC and distance ˆ ˆ AP are both 5 blocks. and he decides that he wants to add a corrugated iron roof to the side of the garage.4358 m Thus we have that the height of the wall BD = 5 m − 0. and so ACP = AP C = 45◦ . The height of the wall is then the height of the garage minus AC. and thus we have the scale of the map. then AC = = = = ˆ BC × sin(ABC) 5 × sin 5◦ 5 × 0. As we have one side and an angle of this triangle. we can calculate how many kilometers each block represents.0871 0.56 m.14. we can calculate AC. We can see that triangle AP C is a rightangled triangle. how high must he build the wall BD. and his sheet for the roof is 5m long. Thus it is an isoceles triangle. Step 3 : Carry out the calculation CA = = = To work out the scale.
We then know that it later decreases to 0 when θ = 180◦ .2. 14.GRADE 10 14. Round answers to 1 decimal place. TRIGONOMETRY . 2. the function sin θ has a value of 0 at θ = 0◦ . 199 . If the string to the kite is 50 m. Then plot the values with sin θ on the yaxis and θ on the xaxis. The sine graph is shown in Figure 14. Putting all this together we can start to picture the full extent of the sine graph.6 Exercise: Applications of Trigonometric Functions 1.1 m long? 14. Its value then smoothly increases until θ = 90◦ when its value is 1.6. A boy ﬂying a kite is standing 30 m from a point directly under the kite. Notice the wave shape. The height of the wave above (or below) the xaxis is called the waves’ amplitude. using your calculator to calculate the values.15 m tall casts a shadow 10. and its minimum amplitude is 1.6 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions This section describes the graphs of trigonometric functions. What is the angle of elevation of the sun when a tree 7. ﬁnd the angle of elevation of the kite. Thus the maximum amplitude of the sinewave is 1.CHAPTER 14. with each wave having a length of 360◦. We say the graph has a period of 360◦ . θ sin θ θ sin θ 1 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 −1 0◦ 180◦ 30◦ 210◦ 60◦ 240◦ 90◦ 270◦ 120◦ 300◦ 150◦ 330◦ 360◦ Let us look back at our values for sin θ θ sin θ 0◦ 0 30◦ 1 2 45◦ 1 √ 2 60◦ √ 3 2 90◦ 1 180◦ 0 As you can see. long.1 Graph of sin θ Activity :: Graph of sin θ : Complete the following table.
plot the following graphs: (a) f (θ) = −2 · sin θ (b) g(θ) = −1 · sin θ (c) h(θ) = 0 · sin θ 200 .3: Graph of f (θ) = 2 sin θ + 3 14.2 Functions of the form y = a sin(x) + q In the equation.GRADE 10 1 −360 −180 180 −1 360 Figure 14.3 for the function f (θ) = 2 sin θ + 3. On the same set of axes.2: The graph of sin θ. 2.6.6 CHAPTER 14. y = a sin(x) + q. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 14.14. Activity :: Functions of the Form y = a sin(θ) + q : 1. a and q are constants and have diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. On the same set of axes. 5 4 3 2 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 14. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) a(θ) = sin θ − 2 b(θ) = sin θ − 1 c(θ) = sin θ d(θ) = sin θ + 1 e(θ) = sin θ + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. TRIGONOMETRY .
the peaks get higher. If q = −1. the range of f (θ) = a sin θ + q is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [−a + q. the range of f (θ) = a sin θ + q is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [a + q. If q = 2. Therefore if a > 0.CHAPTER 14.6 (e) k(θ) = 2 · sin θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. it can be shown that if a < 0. We will consider these two cases separately. the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned. The range of f (θ) = a sin θ + q depends on whether the value for a is positive or negative. This is left as an exercise.1. As the magnitude of a increases. then the whole sine graph shifts up 2 units. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 14. Important: The easiest way to ﬁnd the range is simply to look for the ”bottom” and the ”top” of the graph. − a + q]}. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects the height of the peaks of the graph. the whole sine graph shifts down 1 unit. Table 14.GRADE 10 (d) j(θ) = 1 · sin θ 14. a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = a sin(θ) + q. the peaks get lower.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = a sin(x) + q. f (θ) is always between −a + q and a + q.a + q]}. TRIGONOMETRY . As it decreases. q is called the vertical shift. Similarly. 201 . If a > 0 we have: 1 ≤ sin θ ≤ 1 a ≤ a sin θ ≤ a (Multiplication by a positive number maintains the nature of the inequality) a+q ≤ a sin θ + q ≤ a + q a+q ≤ f (θ) ≤ a + qThis tells us that for all values of θ.
3 Graph of cos θ Activity :: Graph of cos θ : Complete the following table. Activity :: Functions of the Form y = a cos(θ) + q : 1. of f (θ) = a sin(x) + q is simply the value of f (θ) at θ = 0◦ .6. θ cos θ θ cos θ 1 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 −1 0◦ 180◦ 30◦ 210◦ 60◦ 240◦ 90◦ 270◦ 120◦ 300◦ 150◦ 330◦ 360◦ Let us look back at our values for cos θ θ cos θ 0◦ 1 30◦ √ 3 2 45◦ 1 √ 2 60◦ 1 2 90◦ 0 180◦ −1 If you look carefully.4 Functions of the form y = a cos(x) + q In the equation.5 for the function f (θ) = 2 cos θ + 3. a and q are constants and have diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. The graph of cos θ is shown in ﬁgure 14. y = a cos(x) + q. 14. all we need to do is to shift the sine graph 90◦ to the left. TRIGONOMETRY . it will have the same period and amplitude as the sine graph. cos 60◦ = 1 = sin 30◦ = sin (90◦ − 60◦ ) 2 This tells us that in order to create the cosine graph. yint = = = = f (0◦ ) a sin(0◦ ) + q a(0) + q q 14.6. you will notice that the cosine of an angle θ is the same as the sine of the angle 90◦ − θ. Take for example. Then plot the values with cos θ on the yaxis and θ on the xaxis.6.14. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 14.GRADE 10 The yintercept. On the same set of axes. yint . using your calculator to calculate the values correct to 1 decimal place. As the cosine graph is simply a shifted sine graph.6 Intercepts CHAPTER 14. plot the following graphs: 202 .
2.4: The graph of cos θ. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 14.GRADE 10 14. 203 . TRIGONOMETRY . 2.6 1 −360 −180 180 −1 360 Figure 14. plot the following graphs: (a) f (θ) = −2 · cos θ (b) g(θ) = −1 · cos θ (c) h(θ) = 0 · cos θ (d) j(θ) = 1 · cos θ (e) k(θ) = 2 · cos θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a.CHAPTER 14.5: Graph of f (θ) = 2 cos θ + 3 (a) a(θ) = cos θ − 2 (b) b(θ) = cos θ − 1 (c) c(θ) = cos θ (d) d(θ) = cos θ + 1 (e) e(θ) = cos θ + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects the amplitude of the cosine graph in the same way it did for the sine graph. You should have also found that the value of q shifts the cosine graph in the same way as it did the sine graph. 5 4 3 2 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 14. On the same set of axes.
Intercepts The yintercept of f (θ) = a cos(x) + q is calculated in the same way as for sine.2: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = a cos(x) + q. yint = f (0◦ ) = a cos(0◦ ) + q = a(1) + q = a+q 14. This is because the maximum and minimum values of a cos(θ) + q will be the same as the maximum and minimum values of a sin(θ) + q. a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = a cos(θ) + q.6.6. Then plot the values with tan θ on the yaxis and θ on the xaxis. TRIGONOMETRY . 204 . the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned.14.GRADE 10 Table 14.6 CHAPTER 14. It is easy to see that the range of f (θ) will be the same as the range of a sin(θ) + q. using your calculator to calculate the values correct to 1 decimal place.6 Graph of tan θ Activity :: Graph of tan θ : Complete the following table.5 Comparison of Graphs of sin θ and cos θ 1 90◦ shift −360 −180 180 −1 360 Figure 14.6: The graph of cos θ (solidline) and the sine graph (dashedline). 14.
which is put into it. So we know that for values of θ for which sin θ = 0. Also. we must also have tan θ = 0. 4 2 −360 −180 180 −2 −4 360 Figure 14. In this case we have shown that sin θ tan θ = cos θ for any value of θ. 205 . 14. there is an easy way to visualise the tangent graph. The graph is shown in Figure 14. TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 10 θ tan θ θ tan θ 1 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 −1 0◦ 180◦ 30◦ 210◦ 60◦ 240◦ 90◦ 270◦ 120◦ 300◦ 150◦ 330◦ 360◦ 14.7: The graph of tan θ. sin θ = cos θ opposite hypotenuse adjacent hypotenuse = opposite = tan θ adjacent This is the ﬁrst of an important set of equations called trigonometric identities.6.7.6 Let us look back at our values for tan θ θ tan θ 0◦ 0 30◦ 1 √ 3 45◦ 1 60◦ √ 3 90◦ ∞ 180◦ 0 Now that we have graphs for sin θ and cos θ. which holds true for any value. The dashed vertical lines are at the values of θ where tan θ is not deﬁned. An identity is an equation. if cos θ = 0 our value of tan θ is undeﬁned as we cannot divide by 0. Let us look back at our deﬁnitions of sin θ and cos θ for a right angled triangle.CHAPTER 14.7 Functions of the form y = a tan(x) + q In the ﬁgure below is an example of a function of the form y = a tan(x) + q.
You should have found that the value of a aﬀects the steepness of each of the branches. TRIGONOMETRY . a>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 206 . 2.3: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = a tan(x) + q.6 CHAPTER 14. On the same set of axes. Activity :: Functions of the Form y = a tan(θ) + q : 1. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) f (θ) = −2 · tan θ g(θ) = −1 · tan θ h(θ) = 0 · tan θ j(θ) = 1 · tan θ k(θ) = 2 · tan θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. On the same set of axes. Table 14. plot the following graphs: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) a(θ) = tan θ − 2 b(θ) = tan θ − 1 c(θ) = tan θ d(θ) = tan θ + 1 e(θ) = tan θ + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q.8: The graph of 2 tan θ + 1.14.3. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects the vertical shift as for sin θ and cos θ.GRADE 10 10 5 −360 −180 −5 −10 180 360 Figure 14. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 14.
for θ ∈ [0◦ .CHAPTER 14. tan θ approaches inﬁnity.6 The domain of f (θ) = a tan(θ) + q is all the values of θ such that cos θ is not equal to 0. yint = = = = f (0◦ ) a tan(0◦ ) + q a(0) + q q Asymptotes As θ approaches 90◦ . Thus the tan θ curve gets closer and closer to the line θ = 90◦ . Exercise: Graphs of Trigonometric Functions 1. We sin have already seen that when cos θ = 0. yint . But as θ is undeﬁned at 90◦ . θ ◦ ◦ We know that cos θ = 0 for all θ = 90 + 180 n. of f (θ) = a tan(x) + q is again simply the value of f (θ) at θ = 0◦ . without using a table of values. Using your knowldge of the eﬀects of a and q.∞)}. So the domain of f (θ) = a tan(θ) + q is all values of θ. but never equal it. where n is an integer. Thus the line θ = 90◦ is an asymptote of tan θ. without ever touching it. except the values θ = 90◦ + 180◦ n. tan θ also has asymptotes at θ = 90◦ + 180◦ n. The range of f (θ) = a tan θ + q is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ (−∞. θ can only approach 90◦ . TRIGONOMETRY . sketch each of the following graphs. Intercepts The yintercept.GRADE 10 Domain and Range 14. Give the equations of each of the following graphs: 2 a) 180 −2 360 x 10 c) 5 y b) 2 0 y −90 90 −5 90 −2 180 270 360 x −10 207 . 360◦] (a) y = 2 sin θ (b) y = −4 cos θ (c) y = −2 cos θ + 1 (d) y = sin θ − 3 (e) y = tan θ − 2 (f) y = 2 cos θ − 1 2. as we have division by zero. where n is an integer. tan θ = cos θ is undeﬁned.
0). Find the angle F EG. Calculate A the length XR. Find the distance between the wall and the base of the ladder? ˆ 5. E(5. In the following triangle ﬁnd the angle ABC A 9 41◦ D 17 C B 6. 10. 2) and G(8. A(5. 14).14.7 End of Chapter Exercises c 50 b a 20 ◦ ◦ 1. 8. −2). B the length P X. A ladder of length 15 m is resting against a wall. Find the angle between the wall and the ladder? 4. the ladder makes an angle 37◦ to the wall. The perpendicular line from P to QR intersects QR at X. C(0. −13) and D(−12.GRADE 10 14.7 CHAPTER 14. What is the angle the ladder makes with the wall? 208 . QR = 22 cm and P RQ = 30◦ . A ladder of length 25 m is resting against a wall. F (6. Find the angle between the line through C and D and the yaxis. In the following triangle ﬁnd the length of side CD A 15◦ 9 35◦ D C B 7. ˆ 9. and ˆ C the angle QP X 3. 0) and B(11. Calculate the unknown lengths 5m e 60◦ 25◦ 30◦ 16 cm d g 80◦ f ˆ 2. A 5 m ladder is placed 2 m from the wall. Find the angle between the line through A and B and the xaxis. 4). the base of the ladder is 5 m from the wall. In the triangle P QR. P R = 20 cm. TRIGONOMETRY .
One of the angles of a rhombus (rhombus .GRADE 10 14. B Find the length of both diagonals. TRIGONOMETRY . 13.A foursided polygon. what is the angle of elevation of the boat to the nearest integer? B If the boat moves another 7 m towards the lighthouse. A rightangled triangle has hypotenuse 13 mm Find the length of the other two sides if one of the angles of the triangle is 50◦ .) with perimeter 20 cm is 30◦ . 14. (Tricky) A triangle with angles 40◦ . each of whose sides is of equal length. 9 cm and 2 cm. what is the new angle of elevation of the boat to the nearest integer? 15.7 11. Captain Hook was sailing towards a lighthouse of height 10 m. Find the size of the smallest angle of the triangle. An isosceles triangle has sides 9 cm. 12. Find the length of each side of the triangle.CHAPTER 14. A If the top of the lighthouse is 30 m away. 40◦ and 100◦ has a perimeter of 20 cm. A Find the sides of the rhombus. 209 .
14.GRADE 10 210 .7 CHAPTER 14. TRIGONOMETRY .
population growth and economic growth. analysis and interpretation of information that were introduced in earlier grades are developed further. Primary data describes the original data that have been collected. sports results. and primary data can be classiﬁed as qualitative or quantitative. Figure 15. This work will be brieﬂy reviewed. Skills relating to the collection. 15. Secondary data is primary data that has been summarised or processed. This type of data is also known as raw data. Often the primary data set is very large and is therefore summarised or processed to extract meaningful information.Grade 10 15. organisation. There are two types of data: primary and secondary. government spending. graphs and tables is all around us. The word ”data” is the plural of the word ”datum”.1 Data Data and Data Collection Deﬁnition: Data Data refers to the pieces of information that have been observed and recorded.1 summarises the classiﬁcations of data. rate of HIV/AIDS infection. and therefore one should say. on television. This chapter demonstrates how Mathematics can be used to manipulate data. 211 . 15. from an experiment or a survey.2. We are exposed to crime rates. ”the data are” and not ”the data is”.1 Introduction Information in the form of numbers. display. rainfall. on the radio or in the newspaper. Quantitative data is information that can be written as numbers. Qualitative data is information that cannot be written as numbers. Data can be classiﬁed as primary or secondary.2 Recap of Earlier Work The collection of data has been introduced in earlier grades as a method of obtaining answers to questions about the world around us. to represent or misrepresent trends and patterns and to provide solutions that are directly applicable to the world around us.Chapter 15 Statistics .
• A town councillor might want to know how many accidents have occurred at a particular intersection. and that this aﬀects the ability to understand the situation. the manager can make an informed decision as to what soft drinks to stock.2 Methods of Data Collection The method of collecting the data must be appropriate to the question being asked.1. For example. 212 . newspapers. then this would give the wrong impression that you did not need an independent supply of electricity.1: Classes of data.2. but you were getting your electricity from a neighbour. magazines and the Internet) The most important aspect of each method of data collecting is to clearly formulate the question that is to be answered. STATISTICS . 15. Questionnaires. questionnaires. Purpose of Data Collection Data is collected to provide answers that help with understanding a particular situation. Experiments 3. family. For example: • The local government might want to know how many residents have electricity and might ask the question: ”Does your home have a safe. • A company manufacturing medicines might ask “How eﬀective is our pill at relieving a headache?” The question asked of people using the pill for a headache might be: “Does taking the pill relieve your headache?” Based on responses. and might ask their customers: “How can we improve our customer service?” • A cell phone manufacturing company might collect data about how often people buy new cell phones and what factors aﬀect their choice. interviews or surveys would be most appropriate for the list of questions in Section 15. so that the cell phone company can focus on those features that would make their product more attractive to buyers. independent supply of electricity?” • A supermarket manager might ask the question: “What ﬂavours of soft drink should be stocked in my supermarket?” The question asked of customers might be “What is your favourite soft drink?” Based on the customers’ responses. if the ﬁrst question in the list was rephrased to be: ”Does your home have electricity?” then if you answered yes.GRADE 10 secondary qualitative quantitative Figure 15.15. The councillor would visit the local police station to research their records to collect the appropriate data.2 data primary CHAPTER 15. Some examples of data collecting methods are: 1. The details of the data collection should therefore be structured to take your question into account. For example. books. to decide whether a robot should be installed. the company learns how eﬀective their product is. However. • A motor car company might want to improve their customer service. it is important to note that diﬀerent questions reveal diﬀerent features of a situation. Other sources (friends.2. surveys and interviews 2.
There are various methods of doing this but all start with a complete list of each member of the population.1 Data Set 1: Tossing a Coin A fair coin was tossed 100 times and the values on the top face were recorded. The next best method is to randomly select a sample of subjects for the interviews. compared to both boys and girls being interviewed. compared to if only girls were interviewed. Choosing a representative sample is crucial to obtaining results that are unbiased.GRADE 10 15.3.3. then your population would be all the learners in your school.3 15.3. are randomly selected then it does not matter too much how many interviews are conducted.2. maybe one from each class. The data are recorded in Table 15. then that would be the sample that is used to conduct your survey. for the survey on winter ﬂu. 213 . For example. 15. This means that whatever the method used to select subjects for the interviews. each subject has an equal chance of being selected. The following terms should be familiar: Population describes the entire group under consideration in a study. you might select a sample of learners. 15. the study should be designed to maximise the amount of information collected while minimising the eﬀort. if you had a total population of 1 000 learners in your school and you randomly selected 100. Sample describes a group chosen to represent the population under consideration in a study. STATISTICS .CHAPTER 15. Most modern scientiﬁc calculators have a random number generator or you can ﬁnd one on a spreadsheet program on a computer. The following are some example sets of data which can be used to apply the methods that are being explained. is how much data is needed to make sure that the results give an accurate reﬂection to the answers that are required for the study. Then names can be picked out of a hat or can be selected by using a random number generator.3 Example Data Sets The remainder of this chapter deals with the mathematical details that are required to analyse the data collected. The concepts of populations and samples is vital to minimising eﬀort. So. if you wanted to know how many learners in your school got the ﬂu each winter. For example. 15. if we wanted to determine whether peer pressure aﬀects the decision to start smoking. then the results would be diﬀerent if only boys were interviewed. Therefore questions like: ”How many interviews are needed?” and ”How do I select the subjects for the interviews?” must be asked during the design stage of the interview process. If the subjects for the interviews.2 Data Set 2: Casting a die A fair die was cast 100 times and the values on the top face were recorded. Ideally.2. The most accurate results are obtained if the entire population is sampled for the survey. Random sample describes a sample chosen from a population in such a way that each member of the population has an equal chance of being chosen. but this is expensive and timeconsuming.3 Samples and Populations Before the data collecting starts. For example. an important point to decide upon.
STATISTICS .08 801.63 812.59 789.21 789.GRADE 10 H H T T H T T T H T H T H H T T T T T T H T T T T H H H H H H T H T H H T T T T Table 15.01 796.69 801.19 799.05 801.3 Data Set 3: Mass of a Loaf of Bread A loaf of bread should weigh 800g.99 808.3.57 Wednesday 815.4. from the same manufacturer.82 789.3: Masses (in g) of 10 diﬀerent loaves of bread.26 787.00 788. 15. ”The Trade Metrology Act requires that if a loaf of bread is not labelled.86 796.28 806.35 801.35 806.37 809. The data is shown in Table 15.4 Data Set 4: Global Temperature The mean global temperature from 1861 to 1996 is listed in Table 15.24 792. an average of 10 loaves must be an exact match to the mass stipulated.50 819.48 818. The masses of 10 diﬀerent loaves of bread were measured at a store for 1 week.13 820. measured at the same store over a period of 1 week.05 Thursday 807.30 791. H means that the coin landed headsup and T means that the coin landed tailsup.edu/DASL/ 214 . 3 1 4 2 5 1 1 2 6 5 5 4 2 6 4 3 1 6 1 2 3 3 6 3 1 2 6 6 1 1 6 2 4 2 3 3 4 3 2 4 2 6 5 4 1 6 5 5 4 2 6 6 4 5 3 3 1 4 5 5 6 4 3 3 5 1 6 1 2 2 5 6 5 2 1 6 5 4 5 2 5 2 5 2 3 3 3 5 3 1 6 6 4 6 6 6 2 1 4 5 6 5 6 3 5 6 6 4 3 4 4 1 1 4 3 1 2 1 4 5 2 5 1 3 4 4 3 3 5 1 1 1 4 2 3 5 2 4 3 5 5 2 6 6 4 2 5 3 3 3 3 4 6 4 5 2 6 6 3 2 2 4 4 5 1 6 3 2 1 2 4 2 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 5 4 3 1 1 5 5 3 4 1 4 4 5 5 2 3 6 6 3 1 Table 15.68 815.63 807. obtained from http://www.61 792.39 796. with the leeway of ﬁve percent under or 10 percent over. it must weigh 800g.05 795.76 819. http://lib.3. . 15.16 784.80 791.65 805.23 780.21 787.43 799.24 825.93 793.33 797.84 790.99 799. The data.edu/stats/Data/Climate/.3 H H T H T H T H T T T H T H H T T T H T T H H T H T H T T T H H T T H T T H T H H T T H T T T T H H T H H T T H H T H T CHAPTER 15.37 796.Sunday Tribune of 10 October 2004 on page 10” Monday 802.cmu.23 Table 15.38 790.65 Sunday 799.78 798.83 817.74 809.41 798.71 812.72 780.ucar.15.80 802.62 795.stat.20 807.3.67 802.76 802.72 809.32 809.39 799. was converted to mean temperature in degrees Celsius.20 Tuesday 787.89 Saturday 786.01 805.68 785.45 817.cgd. However.87 776.45 803.1: Results of 100 tosses of a fair coin.96 Friday 801.59 801.2: Results of 200 casts of a fair die.54 802.64 789.
802 12.631 12.584 12.092 12.726 12.66 12.035 13.4 Temperature 13.323 13.857 12. Is there a warming of the planet? 15.094 13.993 13.031 13.437 13.902 12.857 12.79 12.962 12. would be grouped together.208 13.869 13.904 12.767 12.28 13.7 12.187 13. so data values that fall into a speciﬁc interval. and then count how many of each data value there are in each group.718 12.124 13.113 13.148 13.004 13.864 12.192 12.133 13.195 Year 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 15.871 12.601 12.355 13.796 12.09 13.764 12. STATISTICS .156 13.792 12.005 12.111 13.759 12.057 13.982 12.58 12.868 13.044 13.152 13.GRADE 10 Year 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 Temperature 12.719 12.857 12.936 12.269 13.611 12.16 12.754 12.935 12.183 13.175 12.836 13.821 12.874 12.237 13.031 13.85 12. The grouped data is often presented graphically or in a frequency table. 15.015 13.871 12.898 13.117 13.006 13.385 13.881 12.826 12.147 13.647 12.31 13.678 12.733 12.154 13.619 12.3.669 12.314 Table 15.68 12.107 13.811 12.943 12.671 12.5 Data Set 5: Price of Petrol The price of petrol in South Africa from August 1998 to July 2000 is shown in Table 15.139 13.959 Year 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 Temperature 12.228 13.93 12.635 12.092 13.903 13.935 13.868 12.853 12.73 12.153 13.964 13.5.783 12.723 12.594 12.752 12.922 12.129 13.687 12.787 12.727 12.4 Grouping Data One of the ﬁrst steps to processing a large set of raw data is to arrange the data values together into a smaller number of groups.781 12.596 12.CHAPTER 15.944 12.483 13.799 12.575 12.064 12.912 12.728 12.055 Year 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Temperature 13.4: Global temperature changes over the past x years.34 13.703 12.787 12.015 13.783 12. The groups are usually based on some sort of interval of data values.975 12.957 13.671 12.145 13.825 12.041 12.992 12.709 12.332 13. (Frequency means “how many times”) 215 .014 12.845 12.
61 July 1999 R 2.31 May 1999 R 2.22 March 1999 R 2. (Tally is a convenient way to count in 5’s. STATISTICS . Answer Step 1 : Identify the groups There are two unique data values: H and T. Therefore there are two groups.) 142 161 141 163 132 170 169 162 156 132 172 155 139 146 169 216 140 152 138 152 150 142 168 132 160 139 157 164 150 133 168 .81 November 1999 R 2.35 November 1998 R 2.89 April 2000 R 3.03 May 2000 R 3.25 April 1999 R 2.Grouping Data 1. one for the Hdata values and one for the Tdata values.37 September 1998 R 2.22 July 2000 R 3. The height of 30 learners are given below.25 February 1999 R 2.4 CHAPTER 15. There are 100 data values and the total of the frequency column is 44+56=100.15.29 December 1998 R 2.36 Worked Example 61: Grouping Data Question: Group the elements of Data Set 1 to determine how many times the coin landed headsup and how many times the coin landed tailsup.18 June 2000 R 3.49 June 1999 R 2.38 October 1998 R 2.5: Petrol prices Date Price (R/l) August 1998 R 2.1 Exercises .61 August 1999 R 2.31 January 1999 R 2. Fill in the grouped data below. 15.81 March 2000 R 2.86 December 1999 R 2.75 October 1999 R 2.86 February 2000 R 2.85 January 2000 R 2. We use llll to indicate 5.GRADE 10 Table 15.62 September 1999 R 2.4. Data Value H T Frequency 44 56 Step 3 : Check that the total of the frequency column is equal to the total number of data values. Step 2 : Count how many data values fall into each group.
5. The choice of the groups should be such that they help highlight features in the data.2. Functions and graphs have been studied in Chapter ??.5 130 140 150 160 170 2. a lot of information can be quickly shown in an attractive fashion. 15. then the resulting graph is known as a histogram. According to the frequency table for Data Set 1. it must be organised in a manner that allows for the information to be extracted most eﬃciently. 3140. are shown in Figure 15.1. 15. If percentages are used for various components of a compound bar. with a group size of 1. The frequency polygons for the histograms in Figure 15. 56 21 42 47 36 49 16 15 23 35 40 38 48 27 40 11 44 33 47 23 33 38 51 13 45 33 52 44 25 39 37 22 33 53 32 29 24 17 57 58 30 30 19 28 22 59 34 44 23 40 A Draw up a grouped frequency table using intervals 1120. Examples of histograms are shown in Figure 15. with group sizes of 1 and 2.3 for Data Set 2.6: Frequency table for Data Set 2.4. instead of drawing graphs from equations as was done in Chapter ??. The frequencies (or percentages) are listed along the yaxis and the categories are listed along the xaxis. bar graphs. The following guesses were recorded. etc. An experiment was conducted in class and 50 learners were asked to guess the number of sweets in a jar. The compound bar chart is a little more complex but if this method is used sensibly. The bars are of equal width and should not touch neighbouring bars. except the pair of data values are plotted as a point and the points are joined with straight lines. If these grouped values are plotted in a manner similar to a bar graph.5. One method of organisation is to display the data in the form of graphs. STATISTICS . Examples of a bar and a compound bar graph. The same data used to plot a histogram are used to plot a frequency polygon. Groups Frequency 0 < n ≤1 30 1 < n ≤2 32 2 < n ≤3 35 3 < n ≤4 34 4 < n ≤5 37 5 < n ≤6 32 Table 15.2 Histograms and Frequency Polygons It is often useful to look at the frequency with which certain values fall in preset groups or classes of speciﬁed sizes.3 are shown in Figure 15. the coin landed headsup 44 times and tailsup 56 times. A compound bar chart (also called component bar chart) is a variant: here the bars are cut into various components depending on what is being shown. and similar techniques will be used here. The heights of the bars correspond to the frequencies.CHAPTER 15. 2130. histograms and pie charts will be drawn directly from the data. However.GRADE 10 Group ≤h< ≤h< ≤h< ≤h< ≤h< Tally 140 150 160 170 180 Frequency 15.5 Graphical Representation of Data Once the data has been collected. for Data Set 1 Table 15. 217 . then the total bar height must be 100%. 15.1 Bar and Compound Bar Graphs A bar chart is used to present data where each observation falls into a speciﬁc category and where the categories are unrelated.
and the values in the graph on the right are higher than the values of the graph on the left. The compound bar graph extends from 0% to 100%. The scales on the yaxis for each graph are the same.group size=1 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 Histogram . Groups Frequency 0 < n ≤2 62 2 < n ≤4 69 4 < n ≤6 69 Table 15.5 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CHAPTER 15.7: Frequency table for Data Set 2.group size=2 Frequency Figure 15.4: Examples of histograms for Data Set 2. with a group size = 1 (left) and a group size = 2 (right). 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Histogram . The scales on the yaxis for each graph are the same. and the values in the graph on the right are higher than the values of the graph on the left.GRADE 10 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Total Relative Frequency (%) Relative Frequency (%) Heads Tails Bar Graph Compound Bar Graph Figure 15. with a group size = 1 (left) and a group size = 2 (right). 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Histogram .3: Examples of histograms for Data Set 2.group size=2 Frequency Figure 15. Unlike histograms. with a group size of 2.15.2: Examples of a bar graph (left) and compound bar graph (right) for Data Set 1. many frequency polygons can be plotted together to compare several fre218 Frequency Tails Heads .group size=1 Frequency 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 Histogram . STATISTICS .
Answer Step 1 : Determine the frequency table for Data Set 2. The wedges are usually shown in diﬀerent colours to make the distinction between the diﬀerent categories easier. Draw a wedge corresponding to the angular contribution. Data Value Frequency 1 30 2 32 3 35 4 34 5 37 6 32 Total – 200 Step 2 : Calculate the angular size of the wedge for each data value Data Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 Angular Size of Wedge Frequency 30 × 360◦ = 200 × 360 = 54◦ Total Frequency 32 × 360◦ = 200 × 360 = 57.6◦ Total Frequency 32 × 360◦ = 200 × 360 = 57. Method: Drawing a piechart 1. and each category is represented as a wedge of the circle or alternatively as a slice of the pie.6◦ Total 219 . Worked Example 62: Pie Chart Question: Draw a pie chart for Data Set 2. Draw a circle that represents the entire data set. A pie chart is based on a circle. The area of each wedge is proportional to the ratio of that speciﬁc category to the total number of data values in the data set. 4.5: Example of a pie chart for Data Set 1.2◦ Total Frequency 37 × 360◦ = 200 × 360 = 66.GRADE 10 quency distributions.6◦ Total Frequency 35 ◦ ◦ Total × 360 = 200 × 360 = 63 Frequency 34 × 360◦ = 200 × 360 = 61. Calculate what proportion of 360◦ each category corresponds to according to Angular Size = Frequency × 360◦ Total 3. 2.5. and what the contribution each category makes to the entire set of data. Heads Tails Figure 15. showing the relative proportions of each data value to the total. 15. Check that the total degrees for the diﬀerent wedges adds up to close to 360◦.CHAPTER 15. STATISTICS . Pie charts show what contribution each group makes to the total data set.5 15. provided that the data has been grouped in the same way.3 Pie Charts A pie chart is a graph that is used to show what categories make up a speciﬁc section of the data.
Line and broken line graphs are plots of a dependent variable as a function of an independent variable. for example. each of the pairs results in a speciﬁc point on the graph. histogram.y) graphs. Just as in (x. compound bar. Petrol Price (R/l) 3 2 1 0 June 1999 August 1999 December 1998 February 1999 December 1999 February 2000 October 1998 October 1999 Figure 15. e. 2 3 4 5 Pie Chart for Data Set 2 1 6 Note that the total angular size of the wedges may not add up to exactly 360◦ because of rounding. Her mass is measured once a month and is tabulated 220 August 1998 April 1999 April 2000 June 2000 . they all CONNECT the points by LINES. frequency polygon and pie) are drawn from grouped data.5 CHAPTER 15. Many other line graphs exist.15. are used to describe approximately the basic relationship between the given pairs of variables. and being a LINE graph these points are connected to one another by a LINE. Worked Example 63: Line Graphs Question: Clawde the cat is overweight and her owners have decided to put her on a restricted eating plan. 15. and between these points. with the size of each wedge as calculated above. The graphs that will be studied in this section are drawn from the ungrouped or raw data.5. Sometimes polynomials.6: Example of a line graph for Data Set 5. the average global temperature as a function of time. or the average rainfall in a country as a function of season. STATISTICS .g.4 Line and Broken Line Graphs All graphs that have been studied until this point (bar. Usually a line graph is plotted after a table has been provided showing the relationship between the two variables in the form of pairs. not necessarily straight lines.GRADE 10 Step 3 : Draw the pie.
Represent the following information using a broken line graph.56 4. Walk Cycle Train Bus Car Total 15 24 18 8 35 100 2. Draw a line graph of the data to determine whether the restricted eating plan is working. Step 2 : Plot the graph 4 3 Mass (kg) 2 1 0 May September Step 3 : Analyse Graph There is a slight decrease of mass from March to October.36 4. 15.Graphical Representation of Data 1.CHAPTER 15.53 4.5 17 221 10h00 19 11h00 20 12h00 24 October June August March April July .5 Answer Step 1 : Determine what is required We are required to plot a line graph to determine whether the restricted eating plan is helping Clawde the cat lose weight. but very slowly. Time Temp (◦ C) 07h00 16 08h00 09h00 16. Represent the following information on a pie chart.37 15. STATISTICS . so the restricted eating plan is working.GRADE 10 below.41 4. We are given all the information that we need to plot the graph.51 4.5 Exercises . Month March April May June July August September October Mass (kg) 4.5.43 4.41 4.
is the average of the data values. Time in seconds 16 . There are several types of average. draw a frequency polygon on this histogram.6 Summarising Data If the data set is very large.75 76 . (also known as arithmetic mean). especially when sets of diﬀerent sizes are being compared. STATISTICS . denoted by x.55 56 . Other common types of average are the median and the mode.6 CHAPTER 15. 82 43 51 75 48 32 66 90 62 54 61 42 79 45 49 78 60 62 29 82 81 55 63 49 68 72 61 91 53 60 5. it is a measure of central tendency which means that it gives an indication of the main tendency of the set of data. The maths marks of a class of 30 learners are given below. Averages are useful for comparing data.15.GRADE 10 3.65 66 .6. Speciﬁcally.45 46 .1 Measures of Central Tendency An average is simply a number that is representative of a set of data. 15. it is useful to be able to summarise the data set by calculating a few quantities that give information about how the data values are spread and about the central values in the data set.85 Frequency 5 10 26 30 15 12 10 4. is simply the arithmetic average of a group of numbers (or data set) and is shown using the bar symbol ¯ So the mean of the variable x is x . ungrouped data. Perhaps the simplest and most commonly used average is the mean of a set of data.25 26 . Using a coloured pen. The mean is calculated from the raw.1) x= ¯ number of values Method: Calculating the mean 222 . Deﬁnition: Mean The mean of a data set. Use a compound bar graph to illustrate the following information Year Girls Boys 2003 18 15 2004 15 11 2005 13 18 2006 12 16 2007 15 10 15. Represent the following information on a histogram. ¯ pronounced ”xbar”. Mean The mean. represent this information using a suitable graph. x. The mean of a set of values is calculated by adding up all the values in the set and dividing by the number of items in that set. and is calculated ¯ as: sum of all values (15.35 36 .
Method: Calculating the median 1. Divide the total by the number of data values.2. The median is calculated from the raw.20.40.50} is 30. Count how many data values there are in the data set.20.86. Find the data value in the central position of the set. 3. 150 ÷ 5 = 30 Step 4 : Answer ∴ the mean of the data set x = {10.14.68.CHAPTER 15. 2.2. 223 . 3.99. Step 3 : Find the central position of the data set The central position of the data set is 4.85.6 Worked Example 64: Mean Question: What is the mean of x = {10. as follows. Find the total of the data values in the data set.50}? Answer Step 1 : Find the total of the data values 10 + 20 + 30 + 40 + 50 = 150 Step 2 : Count the number of data values in the data set There are 5 values in the data set.10.1}? Answer Step 1 : Order the data set from lowest to highest 1.85.10. There are an equal number of data values on either side of the median value.40. Step 3 : Divide the total by the number of data values. 14 is in the central position of the data set.30.68. ungrouped data. Step 4 : Find the data value in the central position of the ordered data set. Order the data from smallest to largest or from largest to smallest. Count how many data values there are in the data set. when the data set has been arranged from highest to lowest or from lowest to highest. Step 5 : Answer ∴ 14 is the median of the data set {1.99 Step 2 : Count the number of data values in the data set There are 7 points in the data set. 2. Median Deﬁnition: Median The median of a set of data is the data value in the central position.2.GRADE 10 1. STATISTICS .68.99}.30. Worked Example 65: Median Question: What is the median of {10.14.14. 15.
4.6 CHAPTER 15. 11 is in position 4 and 14 is in position 5. Method: Calculating the mode Count how many times each data value occurs.10.2.GRADE 10 This example has highlighted a potential problem with determining the median.14. The mode is the data value that occurs the most.5 Mode Deﬁnition: Mode The mode is the data value that occurs most often. The mode is calculated from grouped data. 5. add 1.e.68. 9. the median is the mean of the two middle points.85.86. as the positions of the data values that must be averaged to obtain the median. STATISTICS . but what happens when there is an even number of data values in the data set? When there is an even number of data values. i. 4.10} Answer Step 1 : Count how many times each data value occurs. 224 . 4. Worked Example 67: Mode Question: Find the mode of the data set x = {1. and then divide by 2. take the two whole numbers on either side of the fraction.99 Step 2 : Count the number of data values in the data set There are 8 points in the data set. or single data items.10. 7.14.15.2. 3.68. 6.10. 8. If the number you get is a whole number. it is the most frequent value or most common value in a set. Worked Example 66: Median Question: What is the median of {11. Step 5 : Answer ∴ the median of the data set {1. 2. Step 4 : Find the data values around the central position of the ordered data set.68.99.11.99} is (11 + 14) ÷ 2 = 12. Step 3 : Find the central position of the data set The central position of the data set is between positions 4 and 5. If the number you get is a fraction.10.14. then that is the central position.85.11. 8.2. Important: Finding the Central Position of a Data Set An easy way to determine the central position or positions for any ordered data set is to take the total number of data values. It is very easy to determine the median of a data set with an odd number of data values.1}? Answer Step 1 : Order the data set from lowest to highest 1.
7. 4 occurs most often. If all points in a data set occur with equal frequency. Range Deﬁnition: Range The range of a data set is the diﬀerence between the lowest value and the highest value in the set. 3. 4.GRADE 10 data value 1 2 3 4 5 frequency 1 1 1 3 1 data value 6 7 8 9 10 frequency 1 1 2 1 2 15. 8. For example. they provide information on the central data values in a set. median and mode are measures of central tendency. Find the lowest value in the data set.10} Answer Step 1 : Find the highest and lowest values. 2. 3. 3. 2.10} is 4. Method: Calculating the range 1. 225 . 4. Step 2 : Subtract the lowest value from the highest value to calculate the range.10}. Step 3 : Answer The mode of the data set x = {1. 2. Find the highest value in the data set. 4. 2. 4. 10 − 1 = 9 Step 3 : Answer For the data set x = {1. Some measures of dispersion are range. 8. 9. i. 4. A data set can have more than one mode. 2. 2. 7. STATISTICS . 3. 6. Subtract the lowest value from the highest value. 5. When describing data it is sometimes useful (and in some cases necessary) to determine the spread of a distribution. 9. the range is 9. 4. 8. 8.e. Worked Example 68: Range Question: Find the range of the data set x = {1. 5.2 Measures of Dispersion The mean. Measures of dispersion provide information on how the data values in a set are distributed around the mean value. 10 is the highest value and 1 is the lowest value.10.6 Step 2 : Find the data value that occurs most often. 5. 15.CHAPTER 15.10. 7.6. 4. percentiles and quartiles. The diﬀerence is the range. 6. 9.10. 8. 3. 8. both 2 and 3 are modes in the set 1. 4. 6. 4. it is equally accurate to describe the data set as having many modes or no mode. 3.
15. 4. 8. also called the upper quartile. Worked Example 69: Quartiles Question: What are the quartiles of {3. (Q3 ) 226 . (Q1 ) The second quartile = 18.12. The lowest 25% of the data being found below the ﬁrst quartile value. The lowest 75% of the data set should be found below the third quartile.5. 25. 2. 12 ÷ 4 = 3 Step 4 : Find the data values corresponding to the quartiles. 28. Determine the data values corresponding to the ﬁrst.6 Quartiles CHAPTER 15. The result is the number of data values per group. The quartiles of a data set are formed by the two boundaries on either side of the median.9.24. The median.1. 50} Step 2 : Count the number of data values in the data set There are 12 values in the data set.30.5.25. (Q2 ) The third quartile = 29. The third quartile occurs between positions 9 and 10 and is the average of data values 28 and 30. Step 3 : Divide the number of data values by 4 to ﬁnd the number of data values per quartile.28.50}? Answer Step 1 : Order the data set from lowest to highest {1. STATISTICS . 41. For example: Data Items 22 24 48 51 ↓ Lower quartile (Q1 ) 60 72 73 ↓ Median (Q2 ) 75 80 88 ↓ Upper quartile (Q3 ) 90 Method: Calculating the quartiles 1.41. The second quartile occurs between positions 6 and 7 and is the average of data values 12 and 24. 9. or second quartile divides the set into two equal sections.GRADE 10 Deﬁnition: Quartiles Quartiles are the three data values that divide an ordered data set into four groups containing equal numbers of data values.8. 24. 1 3 5 Q1 8 9 12 Q2 24 25 28 Q3 30 41 50 The ﬁrst quartile occurs between data position 3 and 4 and is the average of data values 5 and 8. The median is the second quartile. 5. 3. second and third quartiles using the number of data values per quartile. which divide the set into four equal sections. Count how many data values there are in the data set. 3. 30. also called the lower quartile. Step 5 : Answer The ﬁrst quartile = 6. 12. Order the data from smallest to largest or from largest to smallest. Divide the number of data values by 4.
58.GRADE 10 Interquartile Range 15.5 2 2 Step 5 : The upper quartile lies between the 9th and 10th mark i.5 and 66. Step 3 : The median lies between the 6th and 7th mark i.5 2 2 Step 4 : The lower quartile lies between the 3rd and 4th mark i. 91. The calculation of percentiles is identical to the calculation of quartiles. Quartiles and the Interquartile Range Question: A class of 12 students writes a test and the results are as follows: 20. Step 8 : The Semiinterquatile Range The Semiinterquartile Range = 25 = 12.5. 43. Answer Step 1 : 20 39 40 Q1 43 43 46 M 53 58 63 Q3 70 75 91 Step 2 : The Range The range = 91 .e. 53.5 . The semiinterquartile range is half the interquartile range.5. trimming oﬀ the lowest and highest quarters. Q3 −Q1 2 Worked Example 70: Medians. except the aim is to divide the data values into 100 groups instead of the 4 groups required by quartiles. 49. 40. 75.5 and 66.5 and 75% of the marks are less than 66.41.20 = 71.e. Find the range. 70. This tells us that the width of the middle 50% of the data values is 25. Order the data from smallest to largest or from largest to smallest. 39. They also tell us that 50% of the marks lie between 41.CHAPTER 15. i. This tells us that the marks are quite widely spread. Method: Calculating the percentiles 1. Q3 − Q1 .5 2 Percentiles Deﬁnition: Percentiles Percentiles are the 99 data values that divide a data set into 100 groups. These quartiles tell us that 25% of the marks are less than 41.e.e.5 = 25.5 2 2 Step 6 : Analysing the quartiles The quartiles are 41. 2. 227 .e. STATISTICS . 50% of the marks are less than 49. M = 46+53 = 99 = 49.5.5.5. Q1 = 40+43 = 83 = 41. 63. giving the range of the middle half of the data set. quartiles and the Interquartile Range. Count how many data values there are in the data set. Q3 = 63+70 = 133 = 66. and is calculated by subtracting the ﬁrst quartile from the third quartile.6 Deﬁnition: Interquartile Range The inter quartile range is a measure which provides information about the spread of a data set. 46. Step 7 : The Interquartile Range The Interquartile Range = 66. i. 43.
vi. Median and Mode for Grouped Data Question: Consider the following grouped data and calculate the mean.55 56 . One of them leaves. Three sets of data are given: A Data set 1: 9 12 12 14 16 22 24 B Data set 2: 7 7 8 11 13 15 16 16 C Data set 3: 11 15 16 17 19 19 22 24 27 For each one ﬁnd: i. iii. 228 . We do not know actual masses. and 3 in the second jar.6. She has 4 marbles. This is show in the table below. Divide the number of data values by 100. Four friends each have some marbles.50 51 . so we approximate by choosing the midpoint of each group. The result is the number of data values per group. How many marbles do the remaining friends have together? Worked Example 71: Mean. the modal group and the median group.3 Exercises . Determine the data values corresponding to the ﬁrst. how many are there in the n jar? 3.45 46 . STATISTICS . ii. The mean number of sweets in the ﬁrst two jars is 2. second and third quartiles using the number of data values per quartile. 4.GRADE 10 3. They work out that the mean number of marbles they have is 10. 15. how many are there in the third jar? B If the mean number in the ﬁrst four jars is 4. There is 1 sweet in one jar. iv.15.60 61 . v. We then multiply those midpoint numbers by the frequency. Find a set of ﬁve ages for which the mean age is 5. 4.6 CHAPTER 15. Then we add these numbers together to ﬁnd the approximate total of the masses. A If the mean number in the ﬁrst three jars is 3. how many are there in the fourth jar? C If the mean number in the ﬁrst n jars is n. Mass (kg) 41 . the modal age is 2 and the median age is 3 years.65 Frequency 7 10 15 12 6 Total = 50 Answer Step 1 : Calculating the mean To calculate the mean we need to add up all the masses and divide by 50. the the the the the the range lower quartile interquartile range semiinterquartile range median upper quartile 2.Summarising Data 1.
65 Midpoint (41+45)/2 = 43 48 53 58 63 Frequency 7 10 15 12 6 Total = 50 Midpt × Freq 43 × 7 = 301 480 795 696 378 Total = 2650 15.7 Misuse of Statistics In many cases groups can gain an advantage by misleading people with the misuse of statistics.60 61 .45 46 .50 51 .7 Step 2 : Answer The mean = 2650 = 53. Time in seconds 36 . STATISTICS . The following data were collected from a group of learners. modal and median group exercises.53. since the 25th and 26th terms are contained within this group. 1.CHAPTER 15.65 66 .105 Frequency 5 11 15 26 19 13 6 2. • Axes that do not start at zero. ﬁnd the mean.GRADE 10 Mass (kg) 41 .55 56 .55 56 . 50 The modal group is the group 51 . 229 .85 86 . the modal group and the median group. In each data set given. Common techniques used include: • Three dimensional graphs. The median group is the group 51 .75 76 .53 because it has the highest frequency. Times recorded when learners played a game.45 46 . Exercise: More mean.95 96 . Mass in kilograms 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Frequency 3 5 8 12 14 9 7 2 15.
and are presented in a table and pie chart below. STATISTICS . Explain why. • Using misconceptions of mathematical concepts For example.15. the following pairs of graphs show identical information but look very diﬀerent. 20 15 10 5 0 J F M A Months M J J 20 15 10 5 0 J J M A Months M F J 10 8 6 4 2 0 Option 1 Option 2 10 9 8 7 Option 1 Option 2 15. CHAPTER 15.Misuse of Statistics 1. • Assumption that a correlation shows a necessary causality. • Using statistics that are not truly representative of the entire population.7 • Axes without scales. The data were collected during a 20 minute time interval during the middle of the day. 2006 2007 2. A company has tried to give a visual representation of the increase in their earnings from one year to the next. White Colour of car White Blue Red Frequency of drivers speeding 22 10 8 Blue Red 230 . In a study conducted on a busy highway.GRADE 10 • Graphic images that convey a negative or positive mood.7. data was collected about drivers breaking the speed limit and the colour of the car they were driving. Does the graph below convince you? Critically analyse the graph.1 Exercises .
” 6. 8 diﬀerent oﬃces were monitored for noise levels and productivity of the employees in the oﬃce.7 3. The results are graphed below.CHAPTER 15. Explain. The caption from a newspaper article quoted below.” Do you agree with these conclusions? Explain.GRADE 10 Conclusions made by a novice based on the data are summarised as follows: “People driving white cars are more likely to break the speed limit. 50 million copies 40 million copies Our sales Competitor’s sales 4. “More than 40% of learners in South Africa are below average in mathematics. Can you think of a better explanation? 2400 Number of tourist passengers 2000 1600 1200 800 400 0 O N D J F M A M J Months of 2006/2007 5. demonstrates a misuse of statistical concepts.” “Drivers in blue and red cars are more likely to stick to the speed limit. In an eﬀort to discredit their competition. 15. Their claim is that the competitor is losing business. A record label produces a graphic. showing their advantage in sales over their competitors. STATISTICS . To test a theory. Identify at least three devices they have used to inﬂuence and mislead the readers impression. a tour bus company prints the graph shown below. Noise Level vs Productivity × Productivity × × × × × × Noise Level 231 .
8 Summary of Deﬁnitions mean The mean of a data set.9 54.7 78.87 0. 2.1 69.0 ≤ m < 65. 3.0 60. “Using the median size as a reference. The masses (in kg.49 1. and mode of Data Set 3. 5.0 ≤ m < 55.8 CHAPTER 15.00 1. 232 .9 Test 8 0.55 0.9 58.0 Test 5 1.3 50.1 Average Bike 1 Bike 2 A What kind of average should be used for this information? B Calculate the average you chose in the previous question for each motorbike.7 59.7 51.9 Test 10 1.9 Test 7 1. 6.4 74. 4.0 Test 3 0. The two diﬀerent motorbikes are tested for the time it takes (in seconds) for them to accelerate from 0 km/h to 60 km/h. 6. The students in Bjorn’s class have the following ages: 5. Calculate the mean.80 1. 6.2) number of values median The median is the centre data value in a data set that has been ordered from lowest to highest mode The mode is the data value that occurs most often in a data set.1 Test 4 0. 60.4 56.0 Test 9 0.0 ≤ m < 50. and complete it.0 ≤ m < 80. x. 47. Find the median of their heights.6 63.0 65.5 71.1 kg) of thirty people were measured as follows: 45. STATISTICS .4 72.0 70. 4. and is ¯ calculated as: sum of values x= ¯ (15. 42.8 67.9 Test 2 1. correct to the nearest 0. denoted by x.5 66.7 47. this leads to poor productivity. 44.9 57.8 A Copy the frequency table below.7 49.71 0.0 75.” Explain the ﬂaws in this thinking.2 54.5 60. 3.0 B Draw a frequency polygon for this information. 3.15.0 55.1 57.0 ≤ m < 75. Mass (in kg) Tally Number of people 45.68 1. 15. you would be able to ﬁt four 1 cent coins and a car into a match box. 42.0 ≤ m < 70.” Explain why this statement is true.GRADE 10 The following statement was then made: “If an oﬃce environment is noisy. and 47.9 63.1 68. 7.0 ≤ m < 60. 15.9 67.1 61. The tallest 7 trees in a park have heights in metres of 41. median. 1.6 49. Find the mode of their ages.9 60.0 70.7 52. An engineering company has designed two diﬀerent types of engines for motorbikes.1 59. is the average of the data values.0 Test 6 0.0 50.06 0.9 Exercises 1.92 1. Test 1 1. C What can you conclude from looking at the graph? 6.09 1. 9.
STATISTICS . A company wanted to evaluate the training programme in its factory. between 16 km and 30 km daily? 9. This information is shown in the table below. B Find the modal class. E How many learners are taller than your approximate average in (b)? 8. B Find the medians and quartiles for both sets of data. C Determine the mode. C Find the Interquartile Range for both sets of data. Distance in km Frequency 15 4 610 5 1115 9 1620 10 2125 7 2630 8 3135 3 3640 2 4145 2 A Find the approximate mean. D Comment on the results. The heights of 40 learners are given below. C What percentage of samples drove i. The annual salaries of the employers are: R600 000 R120 000 R100 000 A Find the mean of these salaries. In a traﬃc survey. C Find the median. a random sample of 50 motorists were asked the distance they drove to work daily. which would you use for negotiating salary increases if you were a trade union oﬃcial? Why? 233 R250 000 R100 000 R90 000 R200 000 R100 000 R80 000 . A small ﬁrm employs nine people.9 C Which motorbike would you choose based on this information? Take note of accuracy of the numbers from each set of tests. more than 30 km? iii. D How far will a motorbike travelling at 60 km/h travel in 1 second? 7.GRADE 10 15. Trained Untrained 121 128 129 135 156 144 137 130 120 142 152 134 131 126 118 126 153 139 135 132 125 148 149 140 130 127 134 145 145 142 A Draw a backtoback stem and leaf diagram to show the two sets of data. B Calculate the approximate mean.CHAPTER 15. less than 16 km? ii. They gave the same task to trained and untrained employees and timed each one in seconds. 10. D Determin the modal class. 154 141 168 142 140 132 166 150 145 169 151 161 159 173 152 138 150 139 132 170 132 161 142 131 149 163 170 145 150 156 162 146 138 157 146 147 152 171 152 160 A Set up a frequency table using 6 intervals. B Find the mode. D Of these three ﬁgures.
5 44.15.5 Midpoint Freq × Midpt Sum = Sum = 234 . Class 3039 4049 5059 6069 7079 8089 9099 Tally Frequency 34. The marks for a particular class test are listed here: 67 31 69 58 67 62 91 96 60 67 64 73 58 78 60 82 71 87 71 87 71 51 78 49 60 89 84 38 A Complete the frequency table using the given class intervals.GRADE 10 11. STATISTICS .9 CHAPTER 15.
A set of outcomes is known as an event.Grade 10 16.1 Sample Space of a Random Experiment The set of all possible outcomes in a random experiment plays an important role in probability theory and is known as the sample space. Probability theory is concerned with predicting statistical outcomes. The meanings of statements like: ‘The HIV test is 85% reliable. or • certain that they will not happen. A simple example of a statistical outcome is observing a head or tail when tossing a coin. or • uncertain. (We say one die. With the results of either a heads or tails or one of {1. each number 1 should occur for 6 of the number of rolls. 235 .) 1 For a fair coin. These experiments are repeatable and yield diﬀerent outcomes each time.2 Random Experiments The term random experiment or statistical experiment is used to describe any repeatable experiment or situation. 16. 5. A basic understanding of probability is vital in grasping basic statistics. Therefore. Many branches of mathematics touch and interact with one another. 16. 4. Another simple example of a statistical outcome is obtaining the numbers 1. 6 In earlier grades.’ will also be explained. In general. 3. This chapter builds on earlier work and describes how to calculate the probability associated with diﬀerent situations. For example. and describes how probability is used to assign a number describing the level of chance or the odds associated with aspects of life.5. with individual experiments having one of a set of outcomes or results.4.2. 2.2. the act of tossing a coin or rolling a die can be considered to be simple random experiments. and probability is largely abstract without statistics to determine the ”real world” probabilities. The letter S is used to indicate the sample space. and the ﬁelds of probability and statistics are no diﬀerent. events from daily life can be classiﬁed as either: • certain that they will happen. or 6 when rolling a die. heads should occur for 2 of the number of tosses and for a fair die.1 Introduction Very little in mathematics is truly selfcontained. many dice.6} being the outcomes.Chapter 16 Probability .3. the idea has been introduced that diﬀerent situations have diﬀerent probabilities of occurring and that for many situations there are a ﬁnite number of diﬀerent possible outcomes. the probability of observing a head on one 1 toss of a fair coin is 2 and that for obtaining a four on one roll of a fair die is 1 .
S. Universal set Sample space.2). Worked Example 73: Random Experiments Question: In a box there are pieces of paper with the numbers from 1 to 9 written on them. 8. 5.4. PROBABILITY . 3. Venn diagrams can also be used to indicate the union and intersection between events in a sample space (Figure 16.16. It is clear that outcomes and events are subsets of the sample space. Answer Step 3 : Determine all the possible outcomes The possible outcomes when rolling a die are: 1. 2.4. 4. For example. the elements of S are then the outcomes of the random experiment.5. 5. S For rolling a die. Step 4 : Deﬁne the sample space. The Venn diagram in Figure 16. Worked Example 72: Sample Space Question: What outcomes make up the sample space S when rolling a die. 5 and 6. 4.e. S Event B Event A Figure 16. P = {2. 9} Answer Step 1 : Consider the events: • Drawing a prime number. 6. For example.2.6}. 3.1 shows the diﬀerence between the universal set. 7} 236 . 7. 2. when tossing a coin the sample space S is made up of {heads. a sample space and events and outcomes as subsets of the sample space.3. The sample space is made up of all possible outcomes of a statistical experiment and an event is a subset of the sample space. the sample space and events associated with the outcomes. when rolling a die the outcomes that are an even number (i. S = {1. A set of outcomes is referred to as an event. the sample space is S = {1. {2.GRADE 10 Using the terminology of set theory.1: Diagram to show diﬀerence between the universal set and the sample space.tails}.2 CHAPTER 16. A Venn diagram can be used to show the relationship between the outcomes of a random experiment. 3.6}) would be referred to as an event.
P and E is also written as P ∩ E. A Event. 3.GRADE 10 16. 7. 8. 4.2 Sample space. PROBABILITY . 8} Step 2 : Draw a diagram S P 5 9 2 7 3 4 6 8 1 E Step 3 : Find the union The union of P and E is the set of all elements in P or in E (or in both). A and B. 6. 5. in the sample space S and (right) intersection of two events A and B. P or E is also written P ∪ E. B Event A Event B Figure 16. Step 4 : Find the intersection The intersection of P and E is the set of all elements in both P and E. etc. ∴ n(S) = n(P ) = n(E) = n(P ∪ E) = n(P ∩ E) = 9 4 4 7 2 237 . in the sample space S. P or E = 2. The crosshatched region indicates the intersection. n(X) for the number of elements in X.CHAPTER 16. 4. S Sample Space S Event. 6. Step 5 : Find the number in each set We use n(S) to refer to the number of elements in a set S. P and E = 2. • Drawing an even number.2: Venn diagram to show (left) union of two events. E = {2.
but it is not logically impossible. it is certain that whichever number is selected will have had a probability of 0 of being selected. X and Y . Geography or History. but exactly which one might not be known. and there are 8 who take Maths only and 16 who take only History. n(A) iii. being closely related in meaning to likely. and 30 take Maths. X = {even numbers from 1 to 16} and Y = {prime numbers from 1 to 16} A Draw a Venn diagram S. PROBABILITY . in selecting a number uniformly between 0 and 1. Mathematically. the probability of selecting 1/2 is 0. n(B) iv. A Draw a Venn diagram to illustrate all this information. n(S) ii. n(A ∪ B) F Is n(A ∪ B) = n(A) + n(B) − n(A ∩ B)? 16. 0. n(X ∩ Y ). n(Y ). B and S by means of a Venn diagram. and doubtful. the number who take Geography and History is 6. There are 79 Grade 10 learners at school. B How many learners take Maths and Geography but not History? C How many learners take Geography only? D How many learners take all three subjects? 3. representing the event of taking a piece of paper labelled with a prime number.5 the odds of a coin landing on a given side are 0. probabilities are usually given as a percentage between 0% and 100%. whereas a probability of 0% is often taken to mean the event is impossible. D Represent A. S = {whole numbers from 1 to 16}. In everyday speech. S? B Write down the set A. However. those who take History is 36.3 Probability Models The word probability relates to uncertain events or knowledge.5 = 1. The number who take Geography is 41. hazardous. The odds of an event is deﬁned as the ratio of the probability that the event occurs to the probability that it does not occur. odds. C Write down the set B. 2.GRADE 10 1. there is a distinction between logically impossible and occurring with zero probability. probability theory formulates incomplete knowledge pertaining to the likelihood of an occurrence. it will rain. A probability of 100% means that an event is certain. for example. One piece of paper is taken out and then replaced. the outcomes that occur may be known. A probability is a real number between 0 and 1. n(X ∪ Y ). This means that on average.3 Exercise: Random Experiments CHAPTER 16. All of these take either Maths. Another way of referring to probabilities is odds.16. A What is the sample space. E Write down i. For example. representing the event of taking a piece of paper labelled with a factor 12. Chance. B Write down n(S). n(X). risky. and bet are other words expressing similar ideas. a meteorologist might say there is a 60% chance that it will rain tomorrow. 238 . Further. the coin will land on that side as many times as it will land on the other side. Probability is connected with uncertainty. Pieces of paper labelled with the numbers 1 to 12 are placed in a box and the box is shaken. usually written ”1 to 1” or ”1:1”. For example. The number who take Maths and History is 16. This means that in 6 of every 10 times when the world is in the current state. n(A ∩ B) v. In any statistical experiment.
3.2.6} i. there are 13 clubs. When all the outcomes are equally likely (in any activity). Equally likely outcomes are outcomes which have an equal chance of happening.CHAPTER 16.5.3 16. What is the probablity that it is: A B C D red blue or white not green not green or red? 2. There are 4 kings (one of each suit). and the probability of this 13 1 event is 52 = 4 . A ball is picked at random.6} Number of favourable outcomes: n(E)=3 Probability of getting a number more than 3 = P(more than 3) = n(E)/n(S)=3/6=1/2 Worked Example 74: Classical Probability Question: Various probabilities relating to a deck of cards Answer A standard deck of cards (without jokers) has 52 cards. i. 2. we can think of each card as a possible outcome. you can calculate the probability of an event happening by using the following deﬁnition: P(E)=number of favourable outcomes/total number of possible outcomes P(E)=n(E)/n(S) For example.GRADE 10 16. 2. We cannot simply add together the number of number of outcomes for each event separately (4 + 13 = 17) as this inadvertently counts 16 one of the outcomes twice (the king of clubs).3. there are 52 total outcomes. What is the probability that it is: 239 . We can now look at various events and calculate their probabilities: 1. tails is equally likely to occur. The probability of drawing a king is 4 1 52 = 13 . The correct answer is 52 . Therefore. A card is selected randomly from a pack of 52. A bag contains 6 red. Out of the 52 cards. Event 1: get a 4 The only possible outcome is a 4.1 Classical Theory of Probability 1.e the total number of possible outcomes n(S)=6.e number of favourable outcomes: n(E)=1. Event 2: get a number greater than 3 Favourable outcomes: E = {4. when you throw a fair dice the possible outcomes are S = {1.e E=4 i. if the event of interest is drawing a club. 3. Exercise: Probability Models 1. 3 blue. Probability of getting a 4 = P(4)=n(E)/n(S)=1/6. For example when a fair coin is tossed. each outcome in the sample space S = heads. there are 13 favourable outcomes.5. What is the probability of drawing a king OR a club? This example is slightly more complicated.4. If we randomly draw a card from the deck. PROBABILITY . 2 green and 1 white balls. Therefore.
Worked Example 75: Relative Frequency and Probability Question: Determine the relative frequencies associated with each outcome of the statistical experiment detailed in Table 16. the data in Table 16. Even numbers from 2 100 are written on cards. 240 . Relative frequency should therefore be seen as an approximation to probability.GRADE 10 3. H H T H T H T H T T T H T H H T T T H T T H H T H T H T T T H H T T H T T H T H H T T H T T T T H H T H H T T H H T H T H H T T H T T T H T H T H H T T T T T T H T T T T H H H H H H T H T H H T T T T Table 16.4 Relative Frequency vs. tossing a coin 100 times. The following two worked examples show that the relative frequency of an event is not necessarily equal to the probability of the same event.1: Results of 100 tosses of a fair coin. determining the total number of possible outcomes and calculating the probability of each outcome using the deﬁnition of probability 2. performing the experiment and calculating the relative frequency of each outcome Relative frequency is deﬁned as the number of times an event happens in a statistical experiment divided by the number of trials conducted. What is the probability of selecting a multiple of 5. H means that the coin landed headsup and T means that the coin landed tailsup. For example. i. It takes a very large number of trials before the relative frequency of obtaining a head on a toss of a coin approaches the probability of obtaining a head on a toss of a coin.16.e. Answer Step 1 : Identify the diﬀerent outcomes There are two unique outcomes: H and T.1 represent the outcomes of repeating 100 trials of a statistical experiment 100 times. PROBABILITY . Probability There are two approaches to determining the probability associated with any particular event of a random experiment: 1. Step 2 : Count how many times each outcome occurs. if a card is drawn at random? 16.4 A B C D E the 2 of hearts a red card a picture card an ace a number less than 4? CHAPTER 16.1.
there were 100 trials.56. PROBABILITY .CHAPTER 16. Answer Step 1 : Identify the diﬀerent outcomes There are two unique outcomes: H and T.5. in total. Worked Example 76: Probability Question: Determine the probability associated with an evenly weighted coin landing on either of its faces. 241 . The statistical experiment of tossing the coin was performed 100 times.5 number of favourable outcomes total number of outcomes 1 = 2 = 0.4 Step 3 : Determine the total number of trials.44 and the relative frequency of the coin landing tailsup is 0. There are two possible outcomes. Step 4 : Calculate the relative frequency of each outcome frequency of outcome number of trials 44 = 100 = 0.5 = Relative Frequency of H = Relative Frequency of T The probability of an evenly weighted coin landing on either face is 0. Step 3 : Calculate the probability of each outcome number of favourable outcomes total number of outcomes 1 = 2 = 0.56 Probability of H Relative Frequency of T The relative frequency of the coin landing headsup is 0. Step 2 : Determine the total number of outcomes.GRADE 10 Outcome H T Frequency 44 56 16.44 = = frequency of outcome number of trials 56 = 100 = 0. Therefore.
3) Worked Example 77: Probabilty identitys Question: What is the probability of selecting a black or red card from a pack of 52 cards Answer P(S)=n(E)/n(S)=52/52=1. within S. the relative frequency approaches the probability of a coin toss. 100.5 CHAPTER 16.16. because all cards are black or red! Worked Example 78: Probabilty identitys Question: What is the probability of drawing a club or an ace with one single pick from a pack of 52 cards Answer Step 1 : Identify the identity which describes the situation P (club ∪ ace) = P (club) + P (ace) − P (club ∩ ace) Step 2 : Calculate the answer 1 + 4 1 + 4 16 52 4 13 1 1 1 − × 13 4 13 1 1 − 13 52 = = = = Notice how we have used P (C ∪ A) = P (C) + P (A) − P (C ∩ A). 200 trials of tossing a coin.2) (16. PROBABILITY .GRADE 10 16. 242 . for the sample space S and two events A and B.5 Project Idea Perform an experiment to show that as the number of trials increases. 50.6 Probability Identities The following results apply to probabilities.1) P (A ∩ B) = P (A) × P (B) P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (B) − P (A ∩ B) (16. P (S) = 1 (16. Perform 10. 20. 16.
11 on it is rolled.7 Exercise: Probability Identities Answer the following questions 1. PROBABILITY .8. 243 . A ∩ B = ∅ (where ∅ refers to the empty set).CHAPTER 16. What is the probability that: A All ﬁve shots miss the center? B At least 3 shots hit the center? 2. B only one of the arrows hit the bullseye? 3. Examples of mutually exclusive events are: 1. He ﬁres ﬁve shots.5. A dice with the numbers 1. Also a fair coin is tossed.9. A tossed coin landing on heads or landing on tails This means that if we examine the elements of the sets that make up A and B there will be no elements in common. equation 16. 2.7 Mutually Exclusive Events Mutually exclusive events are events. Since.7. His probability of hitting the target is 0. Wendy: 0. B What is the probability that: i.3 becomes: P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (B) for mutually exclusive events. Kosma: 0. P (A ∩ B) = 0. A die landing on an even number or landing on an odd number.7. A tail is tossed and a 9 rolled? ii. Rory is target shooting. Heather: 0. which cannot be true at the same time.6. The probability that an arrow hits the bullseye is 0. Sarah: 0. A head is tossed and a 3 rolled? 4.9. Therefore. If she ﬁres three arrows. Four children take a test.GRADE 10 16. An archer is shooting arrows at a bullseye. what is the probability that: A All the arrows hit the bullseye. With a single pick from a pack of 52 cards what is the probability that the card will be an ace or a black card? 16. A Draw a sample space diagram to show all outcomes.4. The probability of each one passing is as follows. What is the probability that: A all four pass? B all four fail? C at least one passes? 5.3. A student passing or failing an exam 3.5.
A small private school has a class with children of various ages. 3 years female 6 3 years male 2 4 years female 5 4 years male 7 5 years female 4 5 years male 6 If a pupil is selceted at random what is the probability that the pupil will be: A a female B a 4 year old male C aged 3 or 4 D aged 3 and 4 E not 5 F either 3 or female? 3.GRADE 10 1.8 Exercise: Mutually Exclusive Events Answer the following questions CHAPTER 16. Fiona has 85 labeled discs.25. For example. If a disc is selected at random what is the probability that the disc number: A ends with 5 B can be multiplied by 3 C can be multiplied by 6 D is number 65 E is not a multiple of 5 F is a multiple of 4 or 3 G is a multiple of 2 and 6 H is number 1? 16. 244 . A box contains coloured blocks. if P (A) = 0. PROBABILITY . What is the probability that the block will be: A purple B purple or white C pink and orange D not orange? 2. This means that P (A′ ) = 1 − P (A) where A’ refers to ‘not A’ In other words. Colour Number of blocks Purple 24 Orange 32 White 41 Pink 19 A block is selected randomly. The table gies the number of pupils of each age in the class. the probability of ‘not A’ is equal to one minus the probability of A.16. The number of each colour is given in the following table. which are numbered from 1 to 85. then the probability of A not occurring is the probability associated with all other events in S occurring less the probability of A occurring.8 Complementary Events The probability of complementary events refers to the probability associated with events not occurring.
nor probability 1 events certain. For example. equivalently.P(R) = 1 3/14 = 11/14 Step 3 : Alternate way to solve it • Alternately P(R’) = P(B) + P(W) + P(G) • P(R’) = 4/14 + 5/14 + 2/14 = 11/14 Extension: Interpretation of Probability Values The probability of an event is generally represented as a real number between 0 and 1. the more likely it is to occur. one red and one blue. 245 . or. what is the probability that at least one of them will be a six? Answer Step 1 : Work out probability of event 1 To solve that kind of question. two green balls and four blue balls: 1. inclusive. Calculate the probability that a ball which is not red will be drawn Answer Step 1 : Find event 1 Let R be the event that a red ball is drawn: • P(R)n(R)/n(S)=3/14 • R and R’ are complementary events Step 2 : Find the probabilitys ∴ P(R’) = 1 .CHAPTER 16. but the converses are not always true: probability 0 events are not always impossible. such as a ﬂipped or spun coin landing headsup or tailsup. Calculate the probability that a red ball will be drawn from the bag. An impossible event has a probability of exactly 0. ”50%” or ”1/2”. and a certain event has a probability of 1. Worked Example 80: Probability Question: A bag contains three red balls. 2. and that the blue one will not be a six is also 5/6. Step 2 : Work out probability of event 2 The probability that the red dice will not be a six is 5/6. ﬁve white balls.GRADE 10 16. if two mutually exclusive events are assumed equally probable. we can express the probability of each event as ”1 in 2”. The rather subtle distinction between ”certain” and ”probability 1” is treated at greater length in the article on ”almost surely”. Most probabilities that occur in practice are numbers between 0 and 1.8 Worked Example 79: Probability Question: If you throw two dice. PROBABILITY . The closer an event’s probability is to 1. indicating the event’s position on the continuum between impossibility and certainty. work out the probability that there will be no six. Step 4 : Probability of one So the probability that at least one will be a six is 1 − 25/36 = 11/36. Step 3 : Probability of neither So the probability that neither will be a six is 5/6 × 5/6 = 25/36.
What is the probability that a child chosen at random will eat only Strawberry Pops? 2. A group of 45 children were asked if they eat Frosties and/or Strawberry Pops. and 3:2 odds are equivalent to probability 3/5. what is the probability that one pupil chosen at random has: A Both chips and Fanta B has only Fanta? 3. 8. which is equal to 1/1. A packet has yellow and pink sweets. are (1/2)/(1 . For example. Eight of these are orange and two are pink. 4 ginger biscuits.9 End of Chapter Exercises 1. What is the probability that the ﬁrst car to leave the car park is: A an Opal B not an Opal 6. Tamara has 18 loose socks in a drawer. A What is the probability of taking out a yellow sweet B If 44 if the sweets are yellow. how many sweets are pink? 5. Use a Venn diagram to work out the following probabilities from a die being rolled: A A multiple of 5 and an odd number B a number that is neither a multiple of 5 nor an odd number C a number which is not a multiple of 5. If 23 had a packet of chips and 7 of these also had a Fanta. all but 3 had a packet of chips or a Fanta or both.1/2). 11 chocolate chip cookies and 18 Jambos.16. which is the ratio of the probability of one event to the probability of all other events. Ingrid bought 15 tickets. The odds of headsup. In a car park with 300 cars. If a biscuit is selected at random. 31 eat both and 6 eat only Frosties. 280 tickets were sold at a raﬄe. 16. In a group of 42 pupils. Odds a:b for some event are equivalent to probability a/(a+b). A plate contains 9 shortbread cookies. Calculate the probability that the ﬁrst sock taken out at random is: A Orange B not orange C pink D not pink E orange or pink F not orange or pink 7. The probability of taking out a pink sweet is 7/12. 4.GRADE 10 Probabilities are equivalently expressed as odds. there are 190 Opals. what is the probability that: A it is either a ginger biscuit of a Jambo? B it is NOT a shortbread cookie. 1:1 odds are equivalent to probability 1/2. What is the probability that Ingrid: A Wins the prize B Does not win the prize? 246 . for the tossed/spun coin.9 CHAPTER 16. PROBABILITY . This is expressed as ”1 to 1 odds” and often written ”1:1”. but is odd.
purple or blue ii. A What is the sample space? B Find a set to represent the event.P(A and B) 13. The children in a nursery school were classiﬁed by hair and eye colour. the card is replaced before the next card is chosen. The remaining cards are then shuﬄed and one card chosen. Brown eyes ii. 44 had red hair and not brown eyes. How many purple sweets have streaks? 11. will be purple is 1/7 and the probability that it will be black is 3/5. 14 had brown eyes and red hair. O or B. P.GRADE 10 16. All the clubs are taken out of a pack of cards. blue and black sweets in it. A A sample space in which there are two events that are not mutually exclusive B A sample space in which there are two events that are complementary. Thuli has a bag containing ﬁve orange. The probability that a sweet. A If I choose a sweet at random what is the probability that it will be: i. 5 had brown eyes but not red hair and 40 did not have brown eyes or red hair. D Represent the above events in a Venn diagram E What description of the sets P and N is suitable? (Hint: Find any elements of P in N and N in P. P? C Write down a set. After being chosen. Black iii. For each of the following. 12.) 14. 247 . three purple and seven pink blocks. D Draw a Venn diagram to show the above information. N. of drawing a numbered card. A jar has purple. of drawing a picture card. chosen at random. A What is the sample space for this experiment? B What is the set describing the event of drawing a pink block. What is the probability that this child will have red hair 10. C Find a set for the event.CHAPTER 16.9 9. The bag is shaken and a block is withdrawn. The colour of the block is noted and the block is replaced. Use a Venn diagram to prove that the probability of either event A or B occuring is given by: (A and B are not exclusive) P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) . PROBABILITY . draw a Venn diagram to represent the situation and ﬁnd an example to illustrate the situation. Red hair C A child with brown eyes is chosen randomly. A How many children were in the school B What is the probility that a child chosen at random has: i. purple B If there are 70 sweets in the jar how many purple ones are there? C 1/4 if the purple sweets in b) have streaks on them and rest do not. to represent the event of drawing either a orange or a purple block.
GRADE 10 248 . PROBABILITY .9 CHAPTER 16.16.
Part III Grade 11 249 .
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23 = 2 m (17.1 Introduction In Grade 10 we studied exponential numbers and learnt that there were six laws that made working with exponential numbers easier.3) √ 3 22 A number may not always have a real nth root. There is one law that we did not study in Grade 10.1 Exponential Law 7: a n = m √ n am We say that x is an nth root of b if xn = b. then there is no real number such that x2 = −1 because x2 can never be a negative number.2 Laws of Exponents In Grade 10. We can therefore say √ m a n = n am √ where n am is the nth root of am (if it exists). For example. (−1)4 = 1.2. They are called complex numbers. we notice that m m (a n )n = a n ×n = am (17. we choose the positive real solution and move on. so both 2 and 2 are 2nd (square) roots of 4. an = m √ n am (17. 251 . Using law 6.1) 17.Chapter 17 Exponents .Grade 11 17. It is also possible for more than one nth root of a number to exist. Extension: Complex Numbers There are numbers which can solve problems like x2 = −1. (−2)2 = 4 and 22 = 4.2) therefore a n must be an nth root of am . This will be described here. Usually if there is more than one root. For example. For example. 17. but they are beyond the scope of this book. so −1 is a 4th root of 1. For example. What happens when the index is not an integer. but is a rational number? This leads us to the ﬁnal law of exponents. if n = 2 and a = −1. we worked only with indices that were integers.
x3 = 8x3 3 3 252 .2 CHAPTER 17.17. EXPONENTS .x4× 4 = 23 .GRADE 11 Worked Example 81: Rational Exponents Question: Simplify without using a calculator: 5 4−1 − 9−1 1 2 Answer Step 1 : Rewrite negative exponents as numbers with postive indices 5 − 1 2 = 1 4 1 9 Step 2 : Simplify inside brackets 5 9−4 ÷ 1 36 5 36 × 1 5 (62 ) 2 1 1 2 1 2 = = = Step 3 : Apply exponential law 6 = 6 Worked Example 82: More rational Exponents Question: Simplify: (16x4 ) 4 Answer Step 1 : Covert the number coeﬃcient to indexform with a prime base = (24 x4 ) 4 3 3 Step 2 : Apply exponential laws = 24× 4 .
8)n . If there are 10 bacteria. in 1 day and in 1 week? Answer Step 1 : P opulation = Initial population×(1+growth percentage)time period in hours Therefore. how many will there be in half of a year? What will be the population be in 10 years and in 100 years ? Answer Step 1 : P opulation = Initial population×(1+growth percentage)time period in months 253 .GRADE 11 17. for example on a savings account or on a loan and compound growth. you used exponentials to calculate diﬀerent types of interest.3 Exercise: Applying laws Use all the laws to: 1.5 + 8 3 7 12m 9 11 8m− 9 2 (c) (b) s 2 ÷ s 3 1 1 (d) (64m6 ) 3 2 2. Worked Example 84: More Exponentials in the Real world Question: A species of extremely rare.8)168 = 7.25)−0. If there are a total 821 of this type of ﬁsh and their growth rate is 2% each month.8)5 = 188 Step 3 : In 1 day = 24 hours P opulation = 10(1. Worked Example 83: Exponentials in the Real world Question: A type of bacteria has a very high exponential growth rate at 80% every hour.687 × 1043 Note this answer is given in scientiﬁc notation as it is a very big number.8)24 = 13 382 588 Step 4 : in 1 week = 168 hours P opulation = 10(1. Simplify: (a) (x0 ) + 5x0 − (0. where n = number of hours Step 2 : In 5 hours P opulation = 10(1. determine how many there will be in 5 hours.3 Exponentials in the RealWorld In Chapter 8. EXPONENTS . deep water ﬁsh has an extremely long lifespan and rarely have children.CHAPTER 17. in this case: P opulation = 10(1. Rewrite the expression as a power of x: x x √ x x x 17.
02)120 = 8 838 Step 4 : in 100 years = 1 200 months P opulation = 821(1. Simplify: √ x3 x 3 3 16 7. 17. Simplify as much as you can: a2 b4 6.716 × 1013 Note this answer is also given in scientiﬁc notation as it is a very big number. EXPONENTS . Rewrite the expression as a power of x: x √ x x x x √ 3 x 254 . Simplify as far as possible: 2. where n = number of months Step 2 : In half a year = 6 months P opulation = 821(1. Simplify: √ 3 x4 b5 8. Simplify as much as you can: 9a6 b4 1 2 5. Simplify as much as you can: 4 (b) (s2 ) 2 4 (d) (−m2 ) 3 4 (f) (3y 3 )4 3a−2 b15 c−5 (a−4 b3 c) −5 2 1 4. in this case: P opulation = 821(1.GRADE 11 Therefore.02)6 = 924 Step 3 : In 10 years = 120 months P opulation = 821(1.4 End of chapter Exercises A 8− 3 √ 2 B 16 + 8− 3 2 1.02)1 200 = 1.4 CHAPTER 17. Simplify: (a) (x3 ) 3 5 (c) (m5 ) 3 4 (e) −(m2 ) 3 3.02)n.17.
1 Surd Calculations There are several laws that make working with surds easier. √ √ 1 1 n n a b = an bn (18.2 Surd Law 2: n n a b = √ na √ n b If we look at a b in exponential notation and applying the exponential laws then. √ √ √ n n n a b = ab (18.3) 18.1) √ n a a n = √ (18. 2 × 32 = 64 = 8 √ √ √ 3. n a = a n and n b = b n . a2 b3 × b5 c4 = a2 b8 c4 = b4 c2 √ 3 (ab) n √ n ab 1 18.Chapter 18 Surds .5) Some examples using this law: 255 .Grade 11 18. In exponential notation.1 Surd Law 1: √ √ √ n a n b = n ab It is often useful to look at a surd in exponential notation as it allows√ to use the exponential us √ 1 1 laws we learnt in section ??.1.1. We will list them all and then explain where each rule comes from in detail. Then.4) = = Some examples using this law: 1.2) n b b √ m n am = a n (18. n a b = = = a b an bn √ n a √ n b 1 1 1 n (18. √ √ 16 × 3 4 = 3 64 = 4 √ √ √ 2.
4 Like and Unlike Surds √ √ m Two surds m a and n b are called like surds if √ = n.7) am = abm to rewrite the unlike surds so that bn is the same for all the surds. An important thing to realise about the surd laws we have just learnt is that the surds in the laws are all like surds. however 2 and 3 2 are unlike surds. √ 1 n am = (am ) n m = an (18.1. Worked Example 85: Like and Unlike Surds Question: Simplify to like surds as far as possible. If we wish to use the surd laws on unlike surds. showing all steps: Answer Step 1 : Find the common root 15 √ √ 3 3× 55 = √ √ 15 35 × 53 Step 2 : Use surd law 1 35 .1 1. √ 6 23 = = = 26 3 1 22 √ 2 18.6) For example.GRADE 11 √ √ 3 3= 38=2 √ √ √ a2 b13 ÷ b5 = a2 b8 = ab4 18.53 √ 243 × 125 √ 15 30375 15 = = = √ 15 256 .3 Surd Law 3: √ n am = a n m If we look at √ n am in exponential notation and applying the exponential laws then. SURDS . For √ √ √ example 2 and 3 are like surds.18. √ √ √ 12 ÷ 3 = 4 = 2 √ 3 24 ÷ CHAPTER 18. then we must ﬁrst convert them into like surds. In order to do this we use the formula √ √ bn n (18. 2. otherwise they are called unlike surds.1. 3.
GRADE 11 18. Worked Example 86: Simplest surd form √ Question: Rewrite 18 in the simplest surd form: Answer Step 1 : Break the number 18 into its lowest factors √ 18 = = = = = √ 2×9 √ 2×3×3 √ √ 2× 3×3 √ √ 2 × 32 √ 3 2 Worked Example 87: Simplest surd form √ √ Question: Simplify: 147 + 108 Answer Step 1 : Simplify each square root seperately √ √ √ √ 147 + 108 = 49 × 3 + 36 × 3 = 72 × 3 + 62 × 3 Step 2 : Take the values that have square root sign = 2 under the surd to the outside of the √ √ 7 3+6 3 Step 3 : The exact same surds can be treated as ”like terms” and may be added = √ 13 3 257 . SURDS . For example.1.5 Simplest Surd form In most cases. answers are given in simplest surd form.CHAPTER 18. √ √ 50 = 25 × 2 √ √ 25 × 2 = √ = 5 2 √ √ 5 2 is the simplest surd form of 50. when working with surds.1 18.
The surd is expressed in the numerator which is the prefered way to write expressions.18.GRADE 11 18. SURDS .8) √ √ If we have a fraction which has a √ denominator which looks like a + b. which have rational denominators instead of surd denominators.1.6 Rationalising Denominators It is useful to work with fractions. This is because √ √ √ √ ( a + b)( a − b) = a − b (18. you can multiply it out by another x. √ x 5x − 16 √ ×√ x x Step 2 : There is no longer a surd in the denominator. Worked Example 88: Rationalising the Denominator √ Question: Rationalise the denominator of: 5x−16 x Answer Step 1 : Get√ of the square root sign in the denominator rid √ To get rid of x in the denominator. √ √ Any expression of the form √ a + √b (where a and b are rational) can be changed into a rational √ √ number by multiplying by a − b (similarly a − b can be rationalised by multiplying by √ √ a + b). Note that √x = 1. We will now see how this can be achieved. then we can simply √ multiply both top and bottom by a − b achieving a rational denominator. It is possible to rewrite any fraction.) √ √ 5x x − 16 x x √ ( x)(5x − 16) x Worked Example 89: Rationalising the Denominator Question: Rationalise the following: 5x−16 √ y−10 258 .1 CHAPTER 18. This √ ”rationalises” the surd in the denominator.10) which is rational (since a and b are rational).9) √ a+ b a− b a+ b √ √ c a−c b = a−b or similarly c √ √ a− b = = √ √ c a+ b √ ×√ √ √ a+ b a− b √ √ c a+c b a−b (18. thus the equation x becomes rationalised by multiplying by 1 and thus still says the same thing. which has a surd in the denominator as a fraction which has a rational denominator. √ √ c a− b c √ √ ×√ √ = √ (18. (That’s why denominators get rationalised.
2 End of Chapter Exercises √ √ √ √ ( x − 2)( x + 2) 10 √ x− 1. Rationalise the denominator: 1 x 3.GRADE 11 Answer Step 1 : Rationalise this denominator by using a clever form of ”1” √ y + 10 5x − 16 ×√ √ y − 10 y + 10 Step 2 : Multiply out the numerators and denominators √ √ 5x y − 16 y + 50x − 160 y − 100 Step 3 : There is no next step in this case.CHAPTER 18. SURDS . Expand: 2. All the terms in the numerator are diﬀerent and cannot be simpliﬁed and the denominator does not have any surds in it anymore. Write as a single fraction: √ 3 √ + x 2 x 4. 18. Write in simplest surd form: 259 .2 Worked Example 90: Rationalise the denominator y−25 Question: Simplify the following: √y+5 Answer Step 1 : Multiply this equations by a clever form of ”1” that would rationalise this denominator √ y−5 y − 25 ×√ √ y+5 y−5 Step 2 : Multiply out the numerators and denominators √ √ y y − 25 y − 5y + 125 y − 25 √ y(y − 25) − 5(y − 25) = (y − 25) √ (y − 25)( y − 25) = (y − 25) √ y − 25 = 18.
Expand and simplify: (2 + 7..18.2 (a) (c) (e) √ 72 √ (b) (d) (f) √ 2 2) CHAPTER 18. Expand and simplify: (2 + 6. Expand and simplify: (1 + √ √ 2)(1 + 8) √ √ √ 3)(1 + 8 + 3) 8.. Rationalise the denominator: y−4 √ y−2 2x − 20 √ √ y − 10 9. Fill√ the blank surdform numberwhich will make the following equation a true statement: in √ √ −3 6 × −2 24 = − 18 × .. The use a calculator is not permissible in this question. without use of a calculator: √ √ √ 5( 45 + 2 80) 13...GRADE 11 √ √ 45 + 80 √ √ √48 12 √ 4√ ( 8÷ 2) 18÷ 72 √ 8 √ 16√ ( 20÷ 12) 5. Simplify completely by showing 1 √ √ 12 + 3 (3 3) all your steps: 3− 2 17.... SURDS . Write the following with a rational denominator: √ 5+2 √ 5 14.. Proof(without the use of a calculator) that: 8 +5 3 11. without use of a calculator: √ √ 98 − 8 √ 50 12. Evaluate without using a calculator: √ 7 .. 260 . Simplify. Simplify. 2+ 2 1 2 16. Simplify: √ √ 98x6 + 128x6 √ 7 2− 2 1 2 5 − 3 13 1 = 6 2 2 3 15. Rationalise the denominator: 10.
. Important: Simpliﬁcation and Accuracy It is best to simplify all expressions as much as possible before roundingoﬀ answers. .65 as an answer.66 a decimal number.73 + 3.19 + 3. it is best to simplify any expression as much as possible.46 5. For example. √ √ Table 19. However. Answer Step 1 : Simplify the expression 261 . This maintains the accuracy of your answer. Write the answer to three decimal places. = 8. = 8.1: Two methods of writing 3 3 + 12 as Method 1 √ √ √ √ √ √ 3 3 + 12 = 3√3 + √ · 3 4 3 3 + 12 = 3√3 + 2 3 = 5 3 = 5 × 1. .65 In the example we see that Method 1 gives 8. . in a calculation that has many steps. before using your calculator to work out the answer in decimal notation.66 as an answer while Method 2 gives 8. there are two ways of doing this as described in Table 19.660254038 . The answer of Method 1 is more accurate because the expression was simpliﬁed as much as possible before the answer was roundedoﬀ.Grade 11 We have seen that numbers are either rational or irrational and we have see how to roundoﬀ numbers. it is best to leave the rounding oﬀ right until the end.46 8. if you were asked to write √ √ 3 3 + 12 as a decimal number correct to two decimal places. Method 2 = = = 3 × 1.732050808 . Worked Example 91: Simpliﬁcation and Accuracy √ √ Question: Calculate 3 54 + 3 16.1.Chapter 19 Error Margins . In general.
25992105 . Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer to the required number of decimal places. . . .299605249 . × 4 ÷ 3 = = = = 2.25992105 . .GRADE 11 √ √ 3 3 54 + 16 = = = = = √ √ 3 3 27 · 2 + 8 · 2 √ √ √ √ 3 3 3 3 27 · 2 + 8 · 2 √ √ 3 3 3 2+2 2 √ 3 5 2 5 × 1. 6. = 6. = 2. = 6.300 to three decimal places. Step 2 : Convert any irrational numbers to decimal numbers √ 3 5 2 = 5 × 1.86 To two decimal places √ ∴ x+1+ 1 3 (2x + 2) − (x + 1) = 2. 262 . Write the answer 3 to two decimal places.CHAPTER 19. . ERROR MARGINS . 2.144761059 . Answer Step 1 : Simplify the expression √ 1 x+1+ 3 √ 1√ x+1+ 2x + 2 − x − 1 3 √ 1√ x+1+ x+1 3 4√ x+1 3 (2x + 2) − (x + 1) = = = Step 2 : Substitute the value of x into the simpliﬁed expression 4√ x+1 3 4 3. . . . . .6 + 1 3 4 4. .300 to three decimal places √ √ 3 3 54 + 16 = 6.859681412 . ∴ Worked Example 92: Simpliﬁcation and Accuracy 2 √ Question: Calculate x + 1 + 1 (2x + 2) − (x + 1) if x = 3.299605249 .6. .859681412 . .6 3 2. = 6.300 Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer to the required number of decimal places.6.86 (to two decimal places) if x = 3. .
It is usually good practise to only estimate numbers when it is absolutely necessary.83.827 has 4 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. approximating them only at the very end of a calculation. It is important to know when to estimate a number and when not to. For example.0 has 5 signiﬁcant ﬁgures. If it is necessary to approximate a number in the middle of a calculation. each nonzero digit is a signiﬁcant ﬁgure. so it would be 6. rounding as you go. 263 . but if you wish to write it to 3 signiﬁcant ﬁgures it would mean removing the 7 and rounding up. and to instead use symbols to represent certain irrational numbers (such as π). Zeroes are only counted if they are between two nonzero digits or are at the end of the decimal part. the number 2000 has 1 signiﬁcant ﬁgure (the 2).GRADE 11 Extension: Signiﬁcant Figures In a number. Estimating a number works by removing signiﬁcant ﬁgures from your number (starting from the right) until you have the desired number of signiﬁcant ﬁgures. For example 6. but 2000. then it is often good enough to approximate to a few decimal places.CHAPTER 19. ERROR MARGINS .
ERROR MARGINS .CHAPTER 19.GRADE 11 264 .
2. 3. For example. called a common second diﬀerence. (20.1) is a quadratic sequence.Chapter 20 Quadratic Sequences . is a quadratic sequence. 2−1 = 1 1 1 We then see that the second diﬀerences are equal to 1.1) a4 − a3 a5 − a4 =7−4 =3 = 11 − 7 = 4 We then work out the second diﬀerences. you learned about arithmetic sequences. 4..2 What is a quadratic sequence? Deﬁnition: Quadratic Sequence A quadratic sequence is a sequence of numbers in which the second diﬀerences between each consecutive term diﬀer by the same amount. . then: a2 − a1 a3 − a2 =2−1 =4−2 =1 =2 (20. . If we take the diﬀerence between consecutive terms. 7. 2. . the sequence of {1. Note that the diﬀerences between consecutive terms (that is. 1.}. . where the diﬀerence between consecutive terms was constant. which is formed by taking the diﬀerences between consecutive terms of (20. the ﬁrst diﬀerences) of a quadratic sequence form a sequence where there is a constant diﬀerence between consecutive terms. .Grade 11 20.. 20. 265 .1 Introduction In Grade 10. Thus. has a linear formula of the kind ax + b. 4. In the above example. . . 11. 3. which is simply obtained by taking the diﬀerence between the consecutive diﬀerences {1..1).. 2. 4.} obtained above: 3−2 = 4−3 = . . . Let us see why . In this chapter we learn about quadratic sequences.
Check is it works for the second term. . QUADRATIC SEQUENCES . 23.2 CHAPTER 20. i. 82. 7. 38. The diﬀerence between 2n2 = 2 and original number (5) is 3. 49. 17. . General Case If the sequence is quadratic.. 71. 11.GRADE 11 Exercise: Quadratic Sequences The following are also examples of quadratic sequences: 3. . 16. So continuing the sequence. then b then c. . 31. . 23.. the nt h term should be Tn = an2 + bn + c TERMS 1st diﬀerence 2nd diﬀerence a+b+c 3a + b 2a 4a + 2b + c 5a + b 2a 9a + 3b + c 7a + b In each case. 12.. 15 Step 2 : Find the 2nd diﬀerences between the terms. 10. The diﬀerence between term 2( 12) and 8 is 4. .. 30. 36. 266 . 2. 23. . the 2nd diﬀerence is 2a. 50. 21. the second diﬀerence is 4. 12. So for the sequence 5. 38. 38.. 57. 27. 31. .. 6.20. 9. the diﬀerences between each term will be: 15 + 4 = 19 19 + 4 = 23 Step 3 : Finding the next two terms. i. 12.. 15. Then 2n2 = 8. 7. which is can be written as n + 2. If n = 1. This fact can be used to ﬁnd a. which leads to n + 2. . when n = 2.. So the next two terms in the sequence willl be: 38 + 19 = 57 57 + 23 = 80 So the sequence will be: 5. Step 5 : We now need to work out the next part of the sequence. Answer Step 1 : Find the ﬁrst diﬀerences between the terms.. . .. 10. 26. 4. We know that the ﬁrst diﬀerence is 4. . 25. which is 5 in this particular sequence. 80 Step 4 : We now need to ﬁnd the formula for this sequence. . 15.e. . Can you calculate the common second diﬀerence for each of the above examples? Worked Example 93: Quadratic sequence Question: Write down the next two terms and ﬁnd a formula for the nth term of the sequence 5. the formula for the nt h term is 2n2 + n + 2.e. . 22. The start of the formula will therefore be 2n2 . . you have to get the value of term 1.
8) (20. 68.5) (20. an a1 a2 a3 = = = = A · n2 + B · n + C 2 (20.. B and C are some constants to be determined. .2 Worked Example 94: Quadratic Sequence Question: The following sequence is quadratic: 8.4) (20.7). 3rd term = 3(3)2 + 5(3) = 42 Extension: Derivation of the nth term of a Quadratic Sequence Let the nth term for a quadratic sequence be given by an = A · n 2 + B · n + C where A. Find the rule.3) (20.CHAPTER 20. B = d− 267 D 2 3 ·D 2 = 2A (20.7) ⇒ B = d − 3A The common second diﬀerence is obtained from D = (a3 − a2 ) − (a2 − a1 ) = (5A + B) − (3A + B) ⇒A= Therefore. 1st term = 3(1)2 + 5(1) = 8 = 2. QUADRATIC SEQUENCES .GRADE 11 20.9) .. Answer Step 1 : Assume that the rule is an2 + bn + c TERMS 1st diﬀerence 2nd diﬀerence 8 14 6 22 20 6 42 26 6 68 Step 2 : Determine values for a. 22.6) A(1) + B(1) + C = A + B + C A(2)2 + B(2) + C = 4A + 2B + C A(3)2 + B(3) + C = 9A + 3B + C Let d ∴d ≡ a2 − a1 = 3A + B (20. b and c T hen 2a = 6 which gives a = 3 And And 3a + b = 14 → 9 + b = 14 → b = 5 a+b+c=8→3+5+c=8→c=0 Step 3 : Find the rule The rule is therefore: nt h term = 3n2 + 5n Step 4 : Check answer For n n n = 1. from (20.2) (20. 2nd term = 3(2)2 + 5(2) = 22 = 3. 42.
then 7 + 12 = 19 Therefore 61 + 6 × 6 = 97 The next number in the sequence is 97. 268 . What is the next number in the sequence ? 2. 7. 61.16) (20.11) Worked Example 95: Using a set of equations Question: Study the following pattern: 1.GRADE 11 C = a1 − (A + B) = a1 − D 3 −d+ ·D 2 2 (20. 19.17) (20. Step 3 : Setting up sets of equations a+b+c 4a + 2b + c 9a + 3b + c Step 4 : Solve the sets of equations eqn(2) − eqn(1) : 3a + b = 6 (20. then y = 7 For the third term: n = 3. 1.14) eqn(3) − eqn(2) : 5a + b = 12 eqn(5) − eqn(4) : 2a = 6 T heref ore a = 3. 37.18) = = = 1 7 19 (20. then y = 19 etc. CHAPTER 20.10) ∴ C = a1 + D − d th Finally.2 From (20.. 3. Use variables to write an algebraic statement to generalise the pattern..15) (20...20.12) (20.. QUADRATIC SEQUENCES . then y = 1 For the second term: n = 2. . b = −3 and c = 1 Step 5 : Final answer The general formula for the pattern is 3n2 − 3n + 1 Step 6 : Term 100 Substitude n with 100: 3(100)2 − 3(100) + 1 = 29 701 The value for term 100 is 29 701. What will the 100th term of the sequence be ? Answer Step 1 : The next number in the sequence The numbers go up in multiples of 6 1 + 6 = 7. the general equation for the n term of a quadratic sequence is given by an = 3 D 2 · n + (d − D) · n + (a1 − d + D) 2 2 (20.13) (20. Step 2 : Generalising the pattern TERMS 1st diﬀerence 2nd diﬀerence 1 6 6 7 12 6 19 18 6 37 24 6 61 The pattern will yield a quadratic equation since second diﬀerence is constant Therefore an2 + bn + c = y For the ﬁrst term: n = 1.4).
. 10. 10.5. 16. . 21. . C 8. . . 41. n for a quadratic sequence yields a parabolic graph. 26. D 9. . . H 3. 31. 17.5. . .5. . 18. we obtain a graph of a parabola. 8. 125. 14. . 15. 17. . I 10. 49. B 1. 32. 21. . . . an a8 a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 1 yintercept. 9. . . . . 92. . 9. 20. 44. QUADRATIC SEQUENCES . 6. 2. . a1 2 3 4 5 Index. 3.3 End of chapter Exercises an = n2 + 2n + 1 1. 5. If we plot each of the terms vs. 53. 84. . 19. Determine which of the following sequences is a quadratic sequence by calculating the common second diﬀerence: A 6. 109. J 1. 21. 51. a10 a9 Term. . n 6 7 8 9 10 20. . 7.5. 6. . 80. 22. E 2. K 2. 10.5. 30. 15. . G 2. . F 5. 24. 50. 27. . . 14.3 Extension: Plotting a graph of terms of a quadratic sequence Plotting an vs. 70. . . . . the corresponding index. . Given the quadratic sequence. 146. . 102. 13. Find the ﬁrst 5 terms of the quadratic sequence deﬁned by: 2. 6.GRADE 11 20. .CHAPTER 20. 269 . 71.
27. . . .69. . an = 36? 5. . . . 270 .50.13. Given an = 2n2 . ﬁnd a11 ? 7. Given an = 3n2 .50. A 4. an = 85? 6.55. .23. .36. .9.5n2 .21. QUADRATIC SEQUENCES . .8.22. . . Given an = 4n2 + 3n − 1. ﬁnd for which value of n. E 7.32. .5. H 1. D 5.130.32.7. Given an = (n − 4)2 . . Given an = 7n2 + 4n.55.47.5. . C 7.28. .12. .37. . I 6.GRADE 11 3. .29. G 3. .125.64. .8. 52. .82.21.77. . F 3. . B 2. .5. . Given an = 1. 35.3 L 0. J 2. . ﬁnd a5 ? 9. .7.127. .10. an = 242? 4. ﬁnd for which value of n.20.17. ﬁnd a10 ? 10. For each of the quadratic sequences. . CHAPTER 20.31. ﬁnd the common second diﬀerence. ﬁnd a9 ? 8.13.13.19. .27. the formula for the general term and then use the formula to ﬁnd a100 . .18.39. 20. ﬁnd for which value of n.14. Given an = n2 + 4. 9.
Determining the value of assets (as in the example of the second hand cars) is one reason. so it is a good idea to go back to Chapter 8 and revise what you learnt in Grade 10. We call this loss in value depreciation. One way of calculating a depreciation amount would be to assume that the car has a limited useful life. Just like interest rates.1 Introduction In Grade 10. If you buy a second hand (or should we say preowned!) car from a dealership. Simple depreciation assumes that the value of 271 .2 Depreciation It is said that when you drive a new car out of the dealership. In the compound depreciation method the value of the asset is reduced by the same percentage each year. Extension: Depreciation You may be wondering why we need to calculate depreciation. and in this section we will look at two ways of how this is calculated.Grade 11 21. The terminology used for simple depreciation is straightline depreciation and for compound depreciation is reducingbalance depreciation. you will understand about depreciation and will learn how to determine which bank is oﬀering the better interest rate. then by a smaller amount in the second year and by even a smaller amount in the third year. age and use.Chapter 21 Finance . the two methods of calculating depreciation are simple and compound methods. but there is also a more ﬁnancial reason for calculating depreciation . the ideas of simple and compound interest was introduced. and so on. Second hand cars are cheaper than new cars. And from there on the value keeps falling. it loses 20% of its value. or depreciating.tax! Companies can take depreciation into account as an expense. 21. If you master the techniques in this chapter. and thereby reduce their taxable income. because it is now “secondhand”. and the older the car. In this chapter we will be extending those ideas. 21. A lower taxable income means that the company will pay less income tax to the Revenue Service. usually the cheaper it is. they will base the price on something called book value. but the decrease is most in the ﬁrst year. The book value of the car is the value of the car taking into account the loss in value due to wear. In the straightline method the value of the asset is reduced by the same constant amount each year. This means that the value of an asset does not decrease by a constant amount each year.3 Simple Depreciation (it really is simple!) Let us go back to the second hand cars.
and the cost of the car today is R60 000. the book value of the car after two years can be simply calculated as follows: Book Value after 2 years = = = = = as expected.6) R36 000 Worked Example 96: Simple Depreciation method Question: A car is worth R240 000 now. the depreciation amount reduces value! P (1 − n × i) R60 000(1 − 2 × 20%) R60 000(1 − 0. Note that the diﬀerence between the simple interest calculations and the simple depreciation calculations is that while the interest adds value to the principal amount. Therefore.Total depreciation after n years = = P − n × (P × i) P (1 − n × i) For example.4) R60 000(0. on a staightline depreciation. If it depreciates at a rate of 15% p.GRADE 11 the car decreases by an equal amount each year. which means that the old one will be valueless at that point in time. the amount of depreciation is calculated: R60 000 = R12 000 per year. what is it worth in 5 years’ time ? Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required P i n A = = = is R240 000 0. If we replace the word interest with the word depreciation and the word principal with the words initial value we can use the same formula: Total depreciation after n years = n × (P × i) Then the book value of the asset after n years is: Initial Value . What we are saying is that after 5 years you will have to buy a new car.a.15 5 required 272 . let us say the limited useful life of a car is 5 years.3 CHAPTER 21. For example. 5 years The value of the car is then: End End End End End of of of of of Year Year Year Year Year 1 2 3 4 5 R60 R60 R60 R60 R60 000 000 000 000 000 1×(R12 2×(R12 3×(R12 4×(R12 5×(R12 000) 000) 000) 000) 000) = = = = = R48 R36 R24 R12 R0 000 000 000 000 This looks similar to the formula for simple interest: Total Interest after n years = n × (P × i) where i is the annual percentage interest rate and P is the principal amount. FINANCE .21.
R10 000 = R50 000.R10 000) / 5 = R10 000 In general. The annual depreciation amount is then calculated as (R60 000 . but now instead of depreciating the full value of the asset. FINANCE . and will only apply the depreciation to the value of the asset that we expect not to recoup. Thus.CHAPTER 21. Step 2 : Value of the photocopier after 1 year 12 000 − 4 000 = R8 000 Step 3 : Value of the machine after 2 years 8 000 − 4 000 = R4 000 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer 4 000 − 4 000 = 0 After 3 years the photocopier is worth nothing Extension: Salvage Value Looking at the same example of our car with an initial value of R60 000. we will take into account the salvage value.3 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer In 5 years’ time the car is worth R60 000 Worked Example 97: Simple Depreciation Question: A small business buys a photocopier for R 12 000. after 2 years and then after 3 years ? Answer Step 1 : Understanding the question The owner of the business wants the photocopier to depreciates to R0 after 3 years.Salvage Value Useful Life 273 .25 60 000 = 240 000(1 − 0.15 × 5) 21. For the tax return the owner depreciates this asset over 3 years using a straightline depreciation method. what if we suppose that we think we would be able to sell the car at the end of the 5 year period for R10 000? We call this amount the “Salvage Value” We are still assuming simple depreciation over a useful life of 5 years.e. i.75) 240 000 × 0. R60 000 . the value of the photocopier will go down by 12 000 ÷ 3 = R4 000 per year.GRADE 11 Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem A Step 3 : Solve the problem A = = = 240 000(1 − 0. the for simple (straight line) depreciation: Annual Depreciation = Initial Value . What amount will he ﬁll in on his tax form after 1 year.
00 576.2) = R60 000(0. Initial Value . What did grandpa pay for the donkey then ? 3. so after two years. Seven years ago. Grandpa bought the donkey 5 years ago. End End End End End of of of of of ﬁrst year second year third year fourth year ﬁfth year R60 R48 R38 R30 R24 000(1 − 1 × 20%)=R60 000(1 − 1 × 20%)=R60 400(1 − 1 × 20%)=R60 720(1 − 1 × 20%)=R60 576(1 − 1 × 20%)=R60 000(1 − 1 × 20%)1 000(1 − 1 × 20%)2 000(1 − 1 × 20%)3 000(1 − 1 × 20%)4 000(1 − 1 × 20%)5 = = = = = R48 R38 R30 R24 R19 000.00 608. Shrek wants to buy his grandpa’s donkey for R800.00 720.4 CHAPTER 21. its value depreciates simply at 15% per annum.00 400. It has now been valued at R2 300. Over a period of 10 years the value of the truck depreciates to R0 (using the straightline method). FINANCE . What rate of simple depreciation does this represent ? 4. What is the value of the truck after 8 years ? 2. if our second hand car has a limited useful life of 5 years and it has an initial value of R60 000.80 We can now write a general formula for the book value of an asset if the depreciation is compounded. but that the initial value of the asset this year. the car is now worth R48 000. Fiona buys a DsTV satellite dish for R3 000. A business buys a truck for R560 000. After 1 year. then the interest rate of depreciation is 20% (100%/5 years). is the book value of the asset at the end of last year.Total depreciation after n years = P (1 − i)n (21. seeing that it only depreciated at a rate of 3% per year using the straightline method. His grandpa is quite pleased with the oﬀer.GRADE 11 Exercise: Simple Depreciation 1. For example. the car is worth: Book Value after ﬁrst year = P (1 − n × i) = R60 000(1 − 1 × 20%) = R60 000(1 − 0. Due to weathering.8) = R48 000 At the beginning of the second year.21.8) = R38 400 We can tabulate these values. After how long will the satellite dish be worth nothing ? 21. Rocco’s drum kit cost him R 12 500.4 Compound Depreciation The second method of calculating depreciation is to assume that the value of the asset decreases at a certain annual rate.1) 274 . the car is worth: Book Value after second year = P (1 − n × i) = R48 000(1 − 1 × 20%) = R48 000(1 − 0.2) = R48 000(0.
8)2 = R38 400 as expected.CHAPTER 21.2)2 Note that the diﬀerence between the compound interest calculations and the compound depreciation calculations is that while the interest adds value to the principal amount. the depreciation amount reduces value! Worked Example 98: Compound Depreciation Question: The Flamingo population of the Bergriver mouth is depreciating on a reducing balance at a rate of 12% p. the book value of the car after two years can be simply calculated as follows: Book Value after 2 years = P (1 − i)n 21.a.527731916 1688. Worked Example 99: Compound Depreciation Question: Farmer Brown buys a tractor for R250 000 and depreciates it by 20% per year using the compound depreciation method.12 5 required Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem A = Step 3 : Solve the problem A = = = 3 200(0.12)5 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer There would be approximately 1 690 ﬂamingos in 5 years’ time. What is the depreciated value of the tractor after 5 years ? Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required 275 .742134 3 200(1 − 0. If there is now 3 200 ﬂamingos in the wetlands of the Bergriver mouth. = R60 000(1 − 20%)2 = R60 000(1 − 0. how many will there be in 5 years’ time ? Answer to three signiﬁcant numbers.4 = R60 000(0. FINANCE .GRADE 11 For example. Answer Step 1 : Determine what has been provided and what is required P i n A = = = is R3 200 0.88)5 3 200 × 0.
2)5 Exercise: Compound Depreciation 1. On January 1. Four years ago the value of the computer was R10 000 and is now worth R4 520. What is the value of the car on January 1. 276 .8)5 = 250 000 × 0. 3. A 20 kg watermelon consists of 98% water. 2008 the value of my Kia Sorento is R320 000. How much does in weigh after a month of 31 days ? 4. Calculate the value of x correct to two decimal places. Whether the money was borrowed or invested. We call these future values.5% per annum as people migrate to the cities.32768 = 81 920 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Depreciated value after 5 years is R 81 920 250 000(1 − 0. Calculate the decrease in population over a period of 5 years if the initial population was 2 178 000. FINANCE . the calculations examined what the total money would be at some future date.1 Present Values or Future Values of an Investment or Loan Now or Later When we studied simple and compound interest we looked at having a sum of money now.2 5 required Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem A = Step 3 : Solve the problem A = 250 000(0. the cars value will decrease 20% of the previous years value. If it is left outside in the sun it loses 3% of its water each day. The population of Bonduel decreases at a rate of 9. 2012.5 21.5. 21. and calculating what it will be worth in the future.21. 2.GRADE 11 P i n A = = = is R250 000 0. A computer depreciates at x% per annum using the reducingbalance method.5 CHAPTER 21. Each year after that.
we start oﬀ with a sum of money and we let it grow for n years. and a bank account pays Simple Interest of 7%. if R1 000 is needed at some future time.3) Now think about what is happening here.51(1 + 10%)−5 R1 000 We end up with R1 000 which . If I have R1 000 now and I invest it at 10% for 5 years. to look at a sum of money in the future. which relates the open balance (P ). and come up with: P = A · (1 + i)−n This can also be written as follows. however. A = P (1 + i × n) Solving for P gives: P = A/(1 + i × n) (21.CHAPTER 21.we just need to solve for the opening balance using the equations for simple interest. In Equation 21. the interest rate (i as a rate per annum) and the term (n in years) is: A = P · (1 + i)n (21. FINANCE . if R1 000 is deposited into a bank account now.if you think about it for a moment .is what we started oﬀ with.2. the closing balance (A). we can solve for P instead of A.GRADE 11 21.in other words.5 It is also possible. This is called a present value. How much would you need to invest in this bank account today? P = = = A 1+n·i R1 210 1 + 3 × 7% R1 000 Does this look familiar? Look back to the simple interest worked example in Grade 10. how much must be invested to ensure the money grows to R1 000 at that future date? The equation we have been using so far in compound interest.6) Let us say you need to accumulate an amount of R1 210 in 3 years time. until we see what it is worth right now. There we started with an amount of R1 000 and looked at what it would grow 277 . We can test this as follows.in other words we take oﬀ interest for n years. if I know I have to have R1 610. and work out what it is worth now. However. BUT.5) (21. I need to invest: P = = = A · (1 + i)−n R1 610. In Equation 21. then the present value can be found by working backwards . Do you see that? Of course we could apply the same techniques to calculate a present value amount under simple interest rate assumptions . the future value is what that amount will accrue to by some speciﬁed future date.51 in 5 years time.51 at the end.2) Using simple algebra. For example. but the ﬁrst approach is usually preferred.4) (21.3 we have a sum of money which we know in n years time. P = A/(1 + i)n (21. I will have: A = = = P · (1 + i)n R1 000(1 + 10%)5 R1 610. and we “unwind” the interest .
A loan has to be returned in two equal semiannual instalments. you have always known what interest rate to use in the calculations. ﬁnd the sum borrowed.65% p.21. A=R3 000.4% p.5 years time.6 Finding i By this stage in your studies of the mathematics of ﬁnance.a. 8. What interest is she charging me? 2.a. Now we have worked backwards to see what amount we need as an opening balance in order to achieve the closing balance of R1 210.666667 − 1 31. you should be able to show that: A/P = (1 + i)n (1 + i) = (A/P )1/n i = (A/P )1/n − 1 You do not need to memorise this equation. How much did he invest if his money earned interest at a rate of 13. compounded semiannually and each instalment is R1 458. it is easy to derive any time you need it! So let us look at the two examples mentioned above. compounded quarterly for the next ﬁve years and 7. however. 278 . 1. You have then either taken a known starting point and calculated a future value. present values are usually always calculated assuming compound interest. compounded monthly for the remaining period ? 2. What interest rate do I need to earn to meet this goal? Each time that you see something diﬀerent from what you have seen before.45% Ouch! That is not a very generous neighbour you have. I want to borrow R2 500 from my neighbour.a. make sure you use the compound interest rate formula! Exercise: Present and Future Values 1. and you were told to “solve for i”. who said I could pay back R3 000 in 8 months time.666667. or taken a known future value and calculated a present value.6 CHAPTER 21. This means that: i = = (R3 000/R2 500)1/0. n=8/12=0. If the rate of interest is 16% per annum. 21. I currently have R400. and how long the investment or loan will last.GRADE 11 to in 3 years’ time using simple interest rates. After a 20year period Josh’s lump sum investment matures to an amount of R313 550.2% p. start oﬀ with the basic equation that you should recognise very well: A = P · (1 + i)n If this were an algebra problem. FINANCE . In practice. Check that you agree that P =R2 500. I will need R450 for some university textbooks in 1. So unless you are explicitly asked to calculate a present value (or opening balance) using simple interest rates.compounded half yearly for the ﬁrst 10 years. But here are other questions you might ask: 1.
17% interest. Worked Example 100: Term of Investment . not 8 because that is the number of months) which means i is the annual interest rate. At what annual rate was interest compounded ? 21.7 Finding n . if we know what the starting sum of money is and what it grows to. Solving for n.1 (on page 38) for some ideas as to how to go about ﬁnding n. This section will calculate n by trial and error and by using a calculator.5% compound interest for an unknown period of time.5 − 1 8. which has a number of variables: A = P · (1 + i)n We have solved for A (in section 8.5) and i (in section 21. In other words.then we can work out how long the money needs to be invested for all those other numbers to tie up. This time we are going to solve for n. P (in section 21.CHAPTER 21. We have our standard formula. Always keep this in mind keep years with years to avoid making silly mistakes. A machine costs R45 000 and has a scrap value of R9 000 after 10 years. we expressed n as a number of years ( 12 years. n=1.Trial and Error Question: If we invest R3 500 into a savings account which pays 7. Refer to Table 5. you should have the money you need! 8 Note that in both examples. A=R450. at the end of which our account is worth R4 044.5 i = = (R450/R400)1/1.17% 21.7 This means that as long as you can ﬁnd a bank which pays more than 8.GRADE 11 2. Exercise: Finding i 1. and if we know what interest rate applies .Trial and Error By this stage you should be seeing a pattern. The proper algebraic solution will be learnt in Grade 12. Determine the annual rate of depreciation if it is calculated on the reducing balance method. After 5 years an investment doubled in value.5). we can write: A = A = P P (1 + i)n (1 + i)n Now we have to examine the numbers involved to try to determine what a possible value of n is.69. How long did we invest the money? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required 279 .6). FINANCE . 2. Check that P =R400.
Although it has not been explicitly stated.115 1. Interest however.075n 1.075)n P (1 + i)n (1 + i)n We now use our calculator and try a few values for n.7&.3% per year and the Brata at 19.5 2. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: A = A = P Step 3 : Solve the problem R4 044.075 1.0 2. i. The fuel in the tank of a truck decreases every minute by 5.5%)n (1.5% We are required to ﬁnd n.GRADE 11 • i=7. 12 times per year.156 1. 280 . 1. So how do we compare a monthly interest rate. compunded annually of 15. Calculate after how many minutes there will be less than 30l in the tank if it originally held 200l.21.69 = R3 500 1. where the interest is quoted as a per annum amount.8 Nominal and Eﬀective Interest Rates So far we have discussed annual interest rates. may be paid more than just once a year. to an annual interest rate? This brings us to the concept of the eﬀective annual interest rate. Step 4 : Write ﬁnal answer The R3 500 was invested for about 2 years. FINANCE .5% of the amount in the tank at that point in time.198 Exercise: Finding n . per year. say.e.8 • P =R3 500 • A=R4 044. 21. After how many years will the book value of the two models be the same ? 2.Trial and Error 1.69 CHAPTER 21. also compunded annually.0 1.5 We see that n is close to 2. we have assumed that when the interest is quoted as a per annum amount it means that the interest is once a year. Possible n 1. for example we could receive interest on a monthly basis.156 = (1 + 7. A company buys two typs of motor cars: The Acura costs R80 600 and the Brata R101 700 VAT included. The Acura depreciates at a rate.
GRADE 11 21. 281 . We use i12 to denote the monthly interest rate. FINANCE . We have introduced this notation here to distinguish between the annual interest rate.1 The General Formula So we know how to convert a monthly interest rate into an eﬀective annual interest. So we can calculate the amount that would be accumulated by the end of 1year as follows: Closing Balance after 12 months = = = P × (1 + i)n Remember. i. but it is an important point! 21. a savings account with an opening balance of R1 000 oﬀers a compound interest rate of 1% per month which is paid at the end of every month. Note that this is greater than simply multiplying the monthly rate by 12 (12 × 1% = 12%) due to the eﬀects of compounding. regardless of the diﬀerences in how frequently the interest is paid. we have used n = 12 months to calculate the balance at the end of one year. We can calculate the accumulated balance at the end of the year using the formulae from the previous section.683% If we recalculate the closing balance using this annual rate we get: Closing Balance after 1 year = = = P × (1 + i)n R1 000 × (1 + 12. we need to solve for i in the following equation: P × (1 + i)1 = P × (1 + i12)12 (1 + i) = (1 + i12)12 divide both sides by P i = (1 + i12)12 − 1 subtract 1 from both sides For the example. Similarly. this means that the eﬀective annual rate for a monthly rate i12 = 1% is: i = = = = (1 + i12)12 − 1 (1 + 1%)12 − 1 0. This way. for a given Opening Balance. For example. so we need to use the same units (months) for our time period of measurement. way is to calculate and compare the “eﬀective annual interest rate” on each option. We have seen this before. So we need to solve for the eﬀective annual interest rate so that the accumulated balance is equal to our calculated amount of R1 126. The diﬀerence is due to interest on interest. we can compare appleswithapples. But be careful our interest rate has been given as a monthly rate.83 which is the same as the answer obtained for 12 months.83 Note that because we are using a monthly time period. R1 000 × (1 + 1%)12 R1 126. or a semiannual interest rate or an interest rate of any frequency for that matter into an eﬀective annual interest rate.83.CHAPTER 21. the trick to using the formulae is to deﬁne the time period.8 One way to compare diﬀerent rates and methods of interest payments would be to compare the Closing Balances under the diﬀerent options. The eﬀective annual interest rate is an annual interest rate which represents the equivalent per annum interest rate assuming compounding.683%)1 R1 126.12683 12. and use the interest rate relevant to the time period. It is the annual interest rate in our Compound Interest equation that equates to the same accumulated balance after one year. Speciﬁcally. Another. we can convert a quarterly interest. more widely used.8.
equates to an eﬀective annual interest rate of 12. We are required to ﬁnd: • the quarterly interest rate. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required We are given that a savings account has a nominal interest rate of 8% paid quarterly.7) 21.8) For example. FINANCE .55%.8 CHAPTER 21. i Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: quarterly interest rate = Nominal interest Rate per annum number of quarters per year 282 . This is the eﬀective annual interest rate. that a nominal interest rate of 12% per annum paid monthly. (21. is not to state the interest rate as say 1% per month. monthly interest rate = Nominal interest Rate per annum number of periods per year (21. This annual amount is called the nominal amount. So if you are given an interest rate expressed as an annual rate but paid more frequently than annual.03)4 . and (b) the eﬀective annual interest rate. and so i = 12.68%.GRADE 11 For a quarterly interest rate of say 3% per quarter. i4 • the eﬀective annual interest rate. and the diﬀerence is due to the eﬀects of interestoninterest. The market convention is to quote a nominal interest rate of “12% per annum paid monthly” instead of saying (an eﬀective) 1% per month. Worked Example 101: Nominal Interest Rate Question: Consider a savings account which pays a nominal interest at 8% per annum. Calculate (a) the interest amount that is paid each quarter. In general. So (1 + i) = (1. the follow equation holds: P (1 + i) = P (1 + iT )T where iT is the interest rate paid T times per annum. We can calculate the eﬀective annual interest rate by solving for i: P (1 + i) = P (1 + i4)4 where i4 is the quarterly interest rate. for interest paid at a frequency of T times per annum. we ﬁrst need to calculate the actual interest paid per period in order to calculate the eﬀective annual interest rate. is: monthly interest rate = = = Nominal interest Rate per annum number of periods per year 12% 12 months 1% per month The same principle apply to other frequencies of payment. We know from a previous example.2 Decoding the Terminology Market convention however.8. but rather to express this amount as an annual amount which in this example would be paid monthly. the interest will be paid four times per year (every three month). paid quarterly. the monthly interest rate on 12% interest per annum paid monthly.21.
We need the accumulated value. we have 1 + i = (1 + iT )T and for cacluating accumulated value. for a nominal interest rate of 8% paid quarterly.CHAPTER 21. we have A = P × (1 + i)n Step 3 : Calculate the eﬀective interest rate There are 12 month in a year.5% per month 283 . We are working with a yearly time period. so i12 = = = Nominal annual interest rate 12 18% 12 1. If you save R100 in such an account now.24%. A. so n = 3. Step 2 : Recall relevant formulae We know that monthly interest rate = Nominal interest Rate per annum number of periods per year for converting from nominal interest rate to eﬀective interest rate.24% Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer The quarterly interest rate is 2% and the eﬀective annual interest rate is 8.GRADE 11 and P (1 + i) = P (1 + iT )T where T is 4 because there are 4 payments each year. Step 3 : Calculate the monthly interest rate Nominal interest Rate per annum number of periods per year 8% 4 quarters 2% per quarter 21. how much would the amount have accumulated to in 3 years’ time? Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required Interest rate is 18% nominal paid monthly. paid monthly. Echo Bank oﬀers an interest rate of 18% nominal. FINANCE . The amount we have saved is R100.8 quarterly interest rate = = = Step 4 : Calculate the eﬀective annual interest rate The eﬀective annual interest rate (i) is calculated as: (1 + i) = (1 + i4)4 (1 + i) = (1 + 2%)4 i = (1 + 2%)4 − 1 = 8. Worked Example 102: Nominal Interest Rate Question: On their saving accounts. so P = 100. There are 12 months in a year.
91 = 100 × (1 + 19. i. (Remember to round oﬀ to the the nearest cent.015)1 2 − 1 19. compounded monthly. iT = Nominal Interest Rate T 284 .1 P i n iT Deﬁnitions Principal (the amount of money at the starting point of the calculation) interest rate. Financial experts are not paid a salary in order to recite formulae. they are paid a salary to use the right methods to solve ﬁnancial problems.91. While memorising them is nice (there are not many).9. Calculate the eﬀective rate per annum. we have 1+i = i = = = = Step 4 : Reach the ﬁnal answer = P × (1 + i)n CHAPTER 21.21. it is the application that is useful.56%)3 = 100 × 1.5%)1 2 − 1 (1. here are the key formulae that we derived and used during this chapter. Cebela is quoted a nominal interest rate of 9.75% p.9 and then. normally the eﬀective rate per annum period for which the investment is made the interest rate paid T times per annum.) Exercise: Nominal and Eﬀect Interest Rates 1.e.56% A = 170.7091 Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer The accumulated value is R170.GRADE 11 (1 + i12)1 2 (1 + i12)1 2 − 1 (1 + 1.9 Formulae Sheet As an easy reference. 21. FINANCE .15% per annum compounded every four months on her investment of R 85 000.a. Calculate the eﬀective rate equivalent to a nominal interest rate of 8. 2. 21.
She owes Hilton Fashion world R5 000 and the shop agrees to let Paris pay the bill at a nominal interest rate of 24% compounded monthly. Tintin invests R120 000. that would yield the same book value as in 3a after 3 years. C Suppose Tintin invests his money for a total period of 4 years. The interest rate is quoted as 11% per annum based on simple interest.2% per annum compounded monthly. Paris opens accounts at a number of clothing stores and spends freely. 3. What will the value of the Mercedes be at the end of 2013 if A the car depreciates at 6% p. but after 18 months makes a withdrawal of R20 000. A computer is purchased for R16 000. FINANCE .10 21. how much will he receive at the end of the 4 years? 6.a. Calculate the required monthly payment for this contract. She gets heself into terrible debt and she cannot pay oﬀ her accounts. It depreciates at 15% per annum. B Use the eﬀective rate to calculate the value of Tintin’s investment if he invested the money for 3 years. A Determine the book value of the computer after 3 years if depreciation is calculated according to the straightline method. B Find the rate. straightline depreciation B the car depreciates at 12% p.00 for 5 years at 12% per annum compounded monthly for the ﬁrst 2 years and 14% per annum compounded semiannually for the next 3 years. reducingbalance depreciation. Shrek buys a Mercedes worth R385 000 in 2007. 2.10 End of Chapter Exercises 1. 4. A Calculate the eﬀective rate per annum correct to THREE decimal places.a. according to the reducingbalance method.CHAPTER 21. He is quoted a nominal interest rate of 7. Greg enters into a 5year hirepurchase agreement to buy a computer for R8 900.2 Equations Simple Increase : A = Compound Increase : A = Simple Decrease : A = Compound Decrease : A = Ef f ective Annual Interest Rate(i) : (1 + i) = P (1 + i × n) P (1 + i)n P (1 − i × n) P (1 − i)n (1 + iT )T 21.GRADE 11 21.9. How much will Maggie receive in total after 5 years? 5. A How much money will she owe Hilton Fashion World after two years ? B What is the eﬀective rate of interest that Hilton Fashion World is charging her ? 285 . Maggie invests R12 500.
21.GRADE 11 286 . FINANCE .10 CHAPTER 21.
287 . quadratic equations. but it is easy to solve numerically. 22. with a = 2. All the options for s and v are considered below. We look at diﬀerent methods of solving quadratic equations. Answer Step 1 : Determine whether the equation has common factors This equation has no common factors. Step 2 : Determine if the equation is in the form ax2 + bx + c with a > 0 The equation is in the required form. This is a set of simultaneous equations in s and v. the basics of solving linear equations. Here is an example to remind you of what is involved. Step 3 : Factorise the quadratic 2x2 − 5x − 12 has factors of the form: (2x + s)(x + v) with s and v constants to be determined.Chapter 22 Solving Quadratic Equations Grade 11 22.1 Introduction In grade 10. This chapter extends on that work. b = −5 and c = −12. This multiplies out to 2x2 + (s + 2v)x + sv We see that sv = −12 and s + 2v = −5.2 Solution by Factorisation The solving of quadratic equations by factorisation was discussed in Grade 10. Worked Example 103: Solution of Quadratic Equations Question: Solve the equation 2x2 − 5x − 12 = 0. exponential equations and linear inequalities were studied.
2 CHAPTER 22. a = −2 or a = 5 288 . x−4=0 It is important to remember that a quadratic equation has to be in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 before one can solve it using these methods. Step 4 : Write the equation with factors (2x + 3)(x − 4) = 0 Step 5 : Solve the equation If two brackets are multiplied together and give 0. therefore 2x + 3 = 0 or 3 Therefore. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Therefore.22. Worked Example 104: Solving quadratic equation by factorisation Question: Solve for a: a(a − 3) = 10 Answer Step 1 : Rewrite the equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 Remove the brackets and move all terms to one side.GRADE 11 s 2 2 3 3 4 4 6 6 v 6 6 4 4 3 3 2 2 s + 2v 10 10 5 5 2 2 2 2 We see that the combination s = 3 and v = −4 gives s + 2v = −5. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . a2 − 3a − 10 = 0 Step 2 : Factorise the trinomial (a + 2)(a − 5) = 0 Step 3 : Solve the equation a+2=0 or a−5=0 Solve the two linear equations and check the solutions in the original equation. then one of the brackets must be 0. x = − 2 or x = 4 Step 6 : Write the ﬁnal answer 3 The solutions to 2x2 − 5x − 12 = 0 are x = − 2 or x = 4.
b = −3 or b = 1 2 Exercise: Solution by Factorisation Solve the following quadratic equations by factorisation. 2y 2 − 10 = 0 1. y 2 − 5y + 6 = 0 12. 2. 7y 2 = 28 4. 13y − 42 = y 2 289 . 16y 2 − 400 = 0 11. However.2 Worked Example 105: Solving fractions that lead to a quadratic equation 4 3b Question: Solve for b: b+2 + 1 = b+1 Answer Step 1 : Put both sides over the LCM 3b(b + 1) + (b + 2)(b + 1) 4(b + 2) = (b + 2)(b + 1) (b + 2)(b + 1) Step 2 : Determine the restrictions The denominators are the same. b = −2 and b = −1 Step 3 : Simplify equation to the standard form 3b2 + 3b + b2 + 3b + 2 = 4b2 + 2b − 6 = 2b2 + b − 3 = 4b + 8 0 0 Step 4 : Factorise the trinomial and solve the equation (2b + 3)(b − 1) = 2b + 3 = 0 or −3 or b= 2 0 b−1=0 b=1 Step 5 : Check solutions in original equation Both solutions are valid Therefore.CHAPTER 22. −y 2 − 11y − 24 = 0 14. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2y 2 − 8 = 28 3. y 2 + 28 = 100 7. y 2 − 4 = 10 6.GRADE 11 22. y 2 + 5y − 36 = 0 13. Some answers may be left in surd form. 2y 2 − 61 = 101 5. 7y 2 + 14y = 0 8. therefore the numerators must be the same. 12y 2 + 24y + 12 = 0 10. y 2 + 2y = 8 9.
290 .1) We cannot easily ﬁnd factors of this term.GRADE 11 15. 5y y−2 y−2 y+1 + = 3 y +2= −6 y 2 −2y 2y+1 y−7 22. Therefore we can write: √ √ (x − 1)2 − 2 = [(x − 1) − 2][(x − 1) + 2] = 0. The solution to x2 − 2x − 1 = 0 is then: (x − 1) − or √ 2=0 √ (x − 1) + 2 = 0. y 2 − 5ky + 4k 2 = 0 17.3 Solution by Completing the Square We have seen that expressions of the form: a2 x2 − b2 are known as diﬀerences of squares and can be factorised as follows: (ax − b)(ax + b).22. This simple factorisation leads to another technique to solve quadratic equations known as completing the square. by trying to solve for x in: x2 − 2x − 1 = 0. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .3 CHAPTER 22. 19. This example demonstrates the use of completing the square to solve a quadratic equation. but the ﬁrst two terms look similar to the ﬁrst two terms of the perfect square: (x − 1)2 = x2 − 2x + 1. y(2y + 1) = 15 18. y 2 + 9y + 14 = 0 16. we can cheat and create a perfect square by adding 2 to both sides of the equation in (22. However. (22. We demonstrate with a simple example.1) as: x2 − 2x − 1 = 0 0+2 2 2 0 x − 2x − 1 + 2 = x2 − 2x + 1 = (x − 1)2 = (x − 1)2 − 2 = √ 2 = ( 2)2 (x − 1)2 − 2 2 Now we know that: which means that: is a diﬀerence of squares. √ √ This means x = 1 + 2 or x = 1 − 2.
make the coeﬃcient of the x2 term = 1.CHAPTER 22. 5. Write the equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. e.g. square it and add it to both sides The coeﬃcient of the x term is 10. Take half the coeﬃcient of the x term.g. (−10) = −5. 11 = 1. Take the constant over to the right hand side of the equation. e.3 3. x2 + 2x = 3 22. square it and add it to both sides of the equation. by dividing through by the existing coeﬃcient. in x2 + 2x = 3. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Therefore: 2 x2 − 10x + 25 = 11 + 25 Step 5 : Write the left hand side as a perfect square (x − 5)2 − 36 = 0 Step 6 : Factorise equation as diﬀerence of squares (x − 5)2 − 36 = 0 [(x − 5) + 6][(x − 5) − 6] = 0 Step 7 : Solve for the unknown value [x + 1][x − 11] ∴ x = −1 = or 0 x = 11 291 . e.g.GRADE 11 Method: Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square 1. Write the left hand side as a perfect square: (x + 1)2 − 4 = 0 6. Therefore we add 1 to both sides to get: x2 + 2x + 1 = 3 + 1. x2 + 2x − 3 = 0 2. The coeﬃcient of the x2 term is 1. Step 4 : Take half the coeﬃcient of the x term. (−5)2 = 25. If necessary. half of the x term is 1. You should then be able to factorise the equation in terms of diﬀerence of squares and then solve for x: (x + 1 − 2)(x + 1 + 2) = 0 Worked Example 106: Square Question: Solve: Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the x2 − 10x − 11 = 0 by completing the square Answer Step 1 : Write the equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 x2 − 10x − 11 = 0 Step 2 : Take the constant over to the right hand side of the equation x2 − 10x = 11 Step 3 : Check that the coeﬃcient of the x2 term is 1. 4.
SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .22. Therefore: 2 x2 − 4x + 4 = 8 + 4 Step 5 : Write the left hand side as a perfect square (x − 2)2 − 12 = 0 Step 6 : Factorise equation as diﬀerence of squares [(x − 2) + √ √ 12][(x − 2) − 12] = 0 Step 7 : Solve for the unknown value [x − 2 + √ √ 12][x − 2 − 12] = 0 √ √ ∴ x = 2 − 12 or x = 2 + 12 Step 8 : The last three steps can also be done in a diﬀerent the way Leave left hand side written as a perfect square (x − 2)2 = 12 Step 9 : Take the square root on both sides of the equation √ x − 2 = ± 12 Step 10 : Solve for x √ √ Therefore x = 2 − 12 or x = 2 + 12 Compare to answer in step 7. (−4) = −2. Therefore. Exercise: Solution by Completing the Square Solve the following equations by completing the square: 292 . square it and add it to both sides The coeﬃcient of the x term is 4. (−2)2 = 4. divide both sides by 2: x2 − 4x = 8 Step 4 : Take half the coeﬃcient of the x term.GRADE 11 Worked Example 107: Square Question: Solve: Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the 2x2 − 8x − 16 = 0 by completing the square Answer Step 1 : Write the equation in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 2x2 − 8x − 16 = 0 Step 2 : Take the constant over to the right hand side of the equation 2x2 − 8x = 16 Step 3 : Check that the coeﬃcient of the x2 term is 1. The coeﬃcient of the x2 term is 2.3 CHAPTER 22.
In these situations. This b 2 means if we add and subtract 2a from the right hand side of (22. Consider the general form of the quadratic function: f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. This means that the second term is 2a .2) f (x) = a(x2 + x + ).2) into a perfect square plus some extra terms. z 2 + 8z − 6 = 0 9.6) − 2 + b2 4a We set f (x) = 0 to ﬁnd its roots. which yields: a(x + b 2 b2 ) = −c 2a 4a 293 (22. 2z 2 − 11z = 0 7. c b (22.7) . which is 2× the ﬁrst term × the second term.4 Solution by the Quadratic Formula It is not always possible to solve a quadratic equation by factorising and it is lengthy and tedious to solve a quadratic equations by completing the square. x2 + 4x + 3 = 0 3. we know b b that the ﬁrst term is x so 2× the second term is a . nothing has changed. 2x2 + 12x + 4 = 0 5. x2 + 10x − 2 = 0 22. 2a 2a 2a Factor out the a to get: In general if you add a quantity and subtract the same quantity.5) (22.2) we will get: f (x) c b = a(x2 + x + ) a a b b = a x2 + x + a 2a = a = a x+ x+ b 2a b 2a 2 (22. So. a a Now we need to do some detective work to ﬁgure out how to turn (22. x2 + 16x + 10 = 0 8. (x + b b b 2 ) = x2 + 2 x + ( )2 .GRADE 11 1. We know that for a perfect square: (m + n)2 = m2 + 2mn + n2 and (m − n)2 = m2 − 2mn + n2 The key is the middle term. 5 + 4z − z 2 = 0 22. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .3) 2 − b 2a +c− b 2a 2 2 + c a c a (22. x2 + 5x + 9 = 0 6.4 2.4) (22. 3x2 + 6x − 2 = 0 10.CHAPTER 22.2). x2 + 8x − 5 = 0 4. In (22. you can use the quadratic formula that gives the solutions to any quadratic equation.
SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Therefore. 4 Worked Example 109: Using the quadratic formula but no solution Question: Solve for the solutions to the quadratic equation x2 − 5x + 8 = 0. Worked Example 108: Using the quadratic formula Question: Solve for the roots of the function f (x) = 2x2 + 3x − 7.4 CHAPTER 22. These solutions are also called the roots of the quadratic equation. Answer Step 1 : Determine whether the equation can be factorised The expression cannot be factorised.12) = 4 √ −3 ± 2 14 = (22.22.8) which can be further simpliﬁed to: x= −b ± √ b2 − 4ac 2a (22. Step 2 : Identify the coeﬃcients in the equation for use in the formula From the equation: a=2 b=3 c = −7 Step 3 : Apply the quadratic formula Always write down the formula ﬁrst and then substitute the values of a. 294 . the general quadratic formula must be used.13) 4 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The two roots of f (x) = 2x2 + 3x − 7 are x = √ −3+2 14 4 and √ −3−2 14 .11) 2(2) √ −3 ± 56 (22.9) These are the solutions to the quadratic equation. but these may not always exists (depending on the sign of the expression b2 − 4ac under the square root).GRADE 11 Now dividing by a and taking the square root of both sides gives the expression x+ Finally.10) 2a −(3) ± (3)2 − 4(2)(−7) = (22. b and c. Notice that there are two solutions in general. solving for x implies that x = − b ± 2a b = − ± 2a c b2 − 2 4a a b2 − 4ac 4a2 b =± 2a c b2 − 2 4a a (22. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac x = (22.
the general quadratic formula must be used. 9. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . the solutions were left in surd form. 10.16) (22. 295 . Read the instructions when answering questions in a test or exam whether to leave answers in surd form. 6. 7. using the calculator. Exercise: Solution by the Quadratic Formula Solve for t using the quadratic formula. 5. 3t2 + t − 4 = 0 t2 − 5t + 9 = 0 2t2 + 6t + 5 = 0 4t2 + 2t + 2 = 0 −3t2 + 5t − 8 = 0 −5t2 + 3t − 3 = 0 t2 − 4t + 2 = 0 9t2 − 7t − 9 = 0 2t2 + 3t + 2 = 0 t2 + t + 1 = 0 Important: • In all the examples done so far.17) Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer Since the expression under the square root is negative these are not real solutions √ ( −7 is not a real number). Therefore there are no real solutions to the quadratic equation x2 − 5x + 8 = 0.4 x = = = (22.14) (22.GRADE 11 Answer Step 1 : Determine whether the equation can be factorised The expression cannot be factorised. Answers can also be given in decimal form. • Completing the square as a method to solve a quadratic equation is only done when speciﬁcally asked. but that the entire graph lies above the xaxis. 4. 8. 2.15) (22. This means that the graph of the quadratic function f (x) = x2 − 5x + 8 has no xintercepts. 1. 3. or in decimal form to an appropriate number of decimal places.CHAPTER 22. Step 2 : Identify the coeﬃcients in the equation for use in the formula From the equation: a=1 b = −5 c=8 Step 3 : Apply the quadratic formula √ b2 − 4ac 2a −(−5) ± (−5)2 − 4(1)(8) 2(1) √ 5 ± −7 2 −b ± 22. Therefore.
will take you to an equation. • Do some of them by completing the square and then compare answers to those done using the other methods. −8y 2 − 16y + 42 = 0 5. 2y 2 − 98 = 0 2. completing the square or by using the quadratic formula: • Always try to factorise ﬁrst. −4y 2 − 41y − 45 = 0 22. −5y 2 − 26y + 63 = 0 33. x2 − 70 = 11 34. 12y 2 − 22y − 14 = 0 29. 1. −81y 2 − 99y − 18 = 0 20. −18y 2 − 55y − 25 = 0 15. −40y 2 + 58y − 12 = 0 11. 3y 2 + 10y − 48 = 0 31. 24y 2 + 61y − 8 = 0 4. −4y 2 + 8y − 3 = 0 32.22. 16y 2 + 20y − 36 = 0 23.5 Finding an equation when you know its roots We have mentioned before that the roots of a quadratic equation are the solutions or answers you get from solving the quadatic equation. 2x2 − 30 = 2 35. Working back from the answers. 42y 2 + 104y + 64 = 0 24. x2 − 16 = 2 − x2 36. there would be other possibilities as well when each term on each side of the equal to sign is multiplied by a constant. −32y 2 + 24y + 8 = 0 17. Worked Example 110: Find an equation when roots are given Question: Find an equation with roots 13 and 5 Answer Step 1 : Write down as the product of two brackets The step before giving the solutions would be: (x − 13)(x + 5) = 0 Notice that the signs in the brackets are opposite of the given roots. −3y 2 + 15y − 12 = 0 8. 49y 2 + 0y − 25 = 0 9. 6y 2 + 7y − 24 = 0 13. −24y 2 + 37y + 72 = 0 12. 36y 2 + 44y + 8 = 0 27. −5y 2 + 0y + 5 = 0 7. 14y 2 − 81y + 81 = 0 21. 2y 2 − 5y − 3 = 0 14. 35y 2 − 8y − 3 = 0 19. 9y 2 − 76y + 32 = 0 25. 5y 2 − 5 = 19 − y 2 22. Step 2 : Remove brackets x2 − 8x − 65 = 0 Of course. −25y 2 + 25y − 4 = 0 16. 16y 2 + 0y − 81 = 0 30. 64y 2 + 96y + 36 = 0 28. 9y 2 − 13y − 10 = 0 18. −54y 2 + 21y + 3 = 0 26. −12y 2 + 66y − 72 = 0 10. −9y 2 + 24y − 12 = 0 6. 5y 2 − 10 = 115 3.5 CHAPTER 22. 296 . then use the formula if the trinomial cannot be factorised.GRADE 11 Exercise: Mixed Exercises Solve the quadratic equations by either factorisation. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .
rational roots 297 ∆ not a perfect square irrational roots .real roots ∆>0 unequal roots ∆=0 equal roots ∆ a perfect square . The Nature of the Roots Real Roots (∆ ≥ 0) Consider ∆ ≥ 0 for some quadratic function f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. The discriminant is deﬁned as: ∆ = b2 − 4ac.19) 2a 2a Since the square roots exists (the expression under the square root is nonnegative. What is the Discriminant of a Quadratic Equation? Consider a general quadratic function of the form f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. We have already seen that whether the roots exist or not depends on whether this factor ∆ is negative or positive.CHAPTER 22. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . (22.18) This is the expression under the square root in the formula for the roots of this function.5 Worked Example 111: Fraction roots 3 Question: Find an equation with roots − 2 and 4 Answer Step 1 : Product of two brackets Notice that if x = − 3 then 2x + 3 = 0 2 Therefore the two brackets will be: (2x + 3)(x − 4) = 0 Step 2 : Remove brackets The equation is: 2x2 − 5x − 12 = 0 Extension: Theory of Quadratic Equations .GRADE 11 22. There various possibilities are summarised in the ﬁgure below. but it gives one a good understanding about some of the solutions of the quadratic equations.Advanced This section is not in the syllabus. In this case there are solutions to the equation f (x) = 0 given by the formula √ √ −b ± b2 − 4ac −b ± ∆ x= = (22. ∆ ∆ < 0 .imaginary roots ∆ ≥ 0 .) These are the roots of the function f (x).
in this √ case. HG] The equation x2 + 12x = 3kx2 + 2 has real roots. 2003. B When will the roots of the equation be equal? 7. 4. A Find a value of k for which the roots are equal. 2002. Nov. A Find the largest integral value of k. [IEB. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . We therefore say that the roots of f (x) are imaginary (the graph of the function f (x) does not intersect the xaxis). HG] Given: x2 + bx − 2 + k(x2 + 3x + 2) = 0 (k = −1) A Show that the discriminant is given by: ∆ = k 2 + 6bk + b2 + 8 B If b = 0. Discuss the nature of the roots. B Find one rational value of k. Nov. C If b = 2.5 CHAPTER 22. b 2a (22. [IEB. Nov. HG] If b and c can take on only the values 1. Nov. p. q and r are positive real numbers and form a geometric sequence. [IEB. for which the above equation has rational roots. 6. 2005. these are given by x=− Unequal Roots (∆ > 0) There will be 2 unequal roots if ∆ > 0. since. [IEB. Nov. c) such that x2 + bx + c = 0 has real roots.22. Nov. B Find an integer k for which the roots of the equation will be rational and unequal. determine all pairs (b. Imaginary Roots (∆ < 0) If ∆ < 0. HG] A Prove that the roots of the equation x2 − (a + b)x + ab − p2 = 0 are real for all real values of a. then the solution to f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 contains the square root of a negative number and therefore there are no real solutions. Nov. 2001. 2004. Otherwise.advanced exercises Exercise: From past papers 1. 3. 298 . from the formula.GRADE 11 Equal Roots (∆ = 0) If ∆ = 0. 2 or 3.20) Extension: Theory of Quadratics . then the roots are irrational. if ∆ is not a perfect square. ∆ is rational. 2005. HG] Show that k 2 x2 + 2 = kx − x2 has nonreal roots for all real values for k. discuss the nature of the roots of the equation. 2003. [IEB. [IEB. The roots of f (x) are rational if ∆ is a perfect square (a number which is the square of a rational number). 5. then the roots are equal and. HG] Consider the equation: k= x2 − 4 2x − 5 where x = 5 2 2. HG] In the quadratic equation px2 + qx + r = 0. ﬁnd the value(s) of k for which the roots are equal. b and p. [IEB.
Saskia and Sven copy it down incorrectly. Solve for x: 2x4 − 5x2 − 12 = 0 5. .. and x = −4. Sven has a mistake in the coeﬃcient of x and obtains the solutions 1 and 15. b and c.) 6 C x+2= (correct to 2 decimal places) x 2x 1 + =1 D x+1 x−1 2 3 6. using factorisation. Solve: x2 − x − 1 = 0 3. Bjorn got stuck along the way. 2c √ x= −b ± b2 − 4ac A Use this formula to solve the equation: 2x2 + x − 3 = 0 B Solve the equation again.GRADE 11 22. 299 = = = = = + 0 0 0 0 − a c Divided by x2 where x = 0 Rearranged Divided by c where c = 0 Subtracted Got stuck a from both sides c 8. The two roots of the equation 4x2 + px − 9 = 0 diﬀer by 5. An equation of the form x2 + bx + c = 0 is written on the board. . to see if the formula works for this equation. Solve for x: A x(x − 9) + 14 = 0 B x2 − x = 3 (Show your answer correct to ONE decimal place.) 4.6 22. Calculate the value of p. Solve: 16(x + 1) = x (x + 1) y2 12 =7 +3 (Hint: Let y 2 + 3 = k and solve for k ﬁrst and use the answer to solve y. Solve for x by completing the square: x2 − px − 4 = 0 7. Bjorn stumbled across the following formula to solve the quadratic equation ax2 +bx+c = 0 in a foreign textbook. Saskia has a mistake in the constant term and obtains the solutions 4 and 2.. His attempt his shown below: ax2 + bx + c c b a+ + 2 x x b c + +a x2 x b a 1 + + x2 cx c b 1 + x2 cx 1 b ∴ 2+ x cx Complete his derivation. The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has roots x = values for a.) 2 1.CHAPTER 22. Solve: y 2 + 3 + 2. Find one set of possible 9. SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Determine the correct equation that was on the board. C Trying to derive this formula to prove that it always works. 10.6 End of Chapter Exercises (Give your answer correct to two decimal places.
22.6 CHAPTER 22.GRADE 11 300 . SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS .
Step 2 : Rewrite the original equation with factors (2x − 1)2 ≤ 0 Step 3 : Solve the equation which shows that f (x) = 0 only when x = 1 . 23.1 Introduction Now that you know how to solve quadratic equations. Worked Example 112: Quadratic Inequality Question: Solve the inequality 4x2 −4x+1 ≤ 0 and interpret the solution graphically. 2 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer 1 This means that the graph of f (x) = 4x2 − 4x + 1 touches the xaxis at x = 2 .2 Quadratic Inequalities A quadratic inequality is an inequality of the form ax2 + bx + c > 0 ax2 + bx + c ≥ 0 ax2 + bx + c < 0 ax2 + bx + c ≤ 0 Solving a quadratic inequality corresponds to working out in what region the graph of a quadratic function lies above or below the xaxis. but there are no regions where the graph is below the xaxis. Step 5 : Graphical interpretation of solution x= 1 2 2 1 0 301 1 2 . you are ready to learn how to solve quadratic inequalities.Chapter 23 Solving Quadratic Inequalities Grade 11 23. Factorising this quadratic function gives f (x) = (2x − 1)2 . Answer Step 1 : Factorise the quadratic Let f (x) = 4x2 − 4x + 1.
Answer Step 1 : Factorise the quadratic The factors of x2 − 5x + 6 are (x − 3)(x − 2).5 f (3) = 0 f (4) = 2 sign of f (x) + + + + We see that the function is positive for x ≤ 2 and x ≥ 3. SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES . 1 2 3 4 Worked Example 114: Solving Quadratic Inequalities Question: Solve the quadratic inequality −x2 − 3x + 5 > 0. The xintercepts are solutions to the quadratic 302 . Answer Step 1 : Determine how to approach the problem Let f (x) = −x2 − 3x + 5. f (x) cannot be factorised so. Step 2 : Write the inequality with the factors x2 − 5x + 6 ≥ 0 0 (x − 3)(x − 2) ≥ Step 3 : Determine which ranges correspond to the inequality We need to ﬁgure out which values of x satisfy the inequality. choose any point in the region and evaluate the function. From the answers we have ﬁve regions to consider. Region A Region B Region C Region D Region E x<2 x=2 2<x<3 x=3 x>3 f (x) f (1) = 2 f (2) = 0 f (2.2 CHAPTER 23.GRADE 11 Worked Example 113: Solving Quadratic Inequalities Question: Find all the solutions to the inequality x2 − 5x + 6 ≥ 0.23. use the quadratic formula to determine the roots of f (x).5) = −2. Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer and represent on a number line We see that x2 − 5x + 6 ≥ 0 is true for x ≤ 2 and x ≥ 3. For each region. A 1 B C D 2 3 E 4 Step 4 : Determine whether the function is negative or positive in each of the regions Let f (x) = x2 −5x+6.
We can see that this is a parabola with a maximum turning point that intersects the xaxis at x1 and x2 . From the answers we have ﬁve regions to consider. 303 . by drawing a rough sketch of the graph of the function. A B C D x1 x2 E Step 3 : Determine whether the function is negative or positive in each of the regions We can use another method to determine the sign of the function over diﬀerent regions. SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES . 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 x1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 1 x2 It is clear that g(x) > 0 for x1 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer and represent the solution graphically −x2 − 3x + 5 > 0 for x1 x1 x2 When working with an inequality where the variable is in the denominator.2 0 0 −3 ± (3)2 − 4(1)(−5) 2(1) √ −3 ± 29 2√ −3 − 29 2√ −3 + 29 2 Step 2 : Determine which ranges correspond to the inequality We need to ﬁgure out which values of x satisfy the inequality. a diﬀerent approach is needed.CHAPTER 23. We know that the roots of the function correspond to the xintercepts of the graph.GRADE 11 equation −x2 − 3x + 5 = x + 3x − 5 = ∴x = = x1 x2 = = 2 23. Let g(x) = −x2 − 3x + 5.
23.3
CHAPTER 23. SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES  GRADE 11
Worked Example 115: nominator Question: Solve
Nonlinear inequality with the variable in the de
Answer Step 1 : Subtract
1 2 ≤ x+3 x−3
1 x−3
from both sides
2 1 − ≤0 x+3 x−3 Step 2 : Simplify the fraction by ﬁnding LCD 2(x − 3) − (x + 3) ≤0 (x + 3)(x − 3) x−9 ≤0 (x + 3)(x − 3) Step 3 : Draw a number line for the inequality

undef 3
+
undef 3

0 9
+
We see that the expression is negative for x < −3 or 3 < x ≤ 9. Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer x < −3 or 3<x≤9
23.3
End of Chapter Exercises
Solve the following inequalities and show your answer on a number line. 1. Solve: x2 − x < 12. 2. Solve: 3x2 > −x + 4 3. Solve: y 2 < −y − 2 4. Solve: −t2 + 2t > −3 5. Solve: s2 − 4s > −6 6. Solve: 0 ≥ 7x2 − x + 8 7. Solve: 0 ≥ −4x2 − x 8. Solve: 0 ≥ 6x2 9. Solve: 2x2 2 + x + 6 ≤ 0 10. Solve for x if: 11. Solve for x if: x < 2 and x = 3. x−3 4 ≤ 1. x−3 304
CHAPTER 23. SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES  GRADE 11 12. Solve for x if: 13. Solve for x: 14. Solve for x: 4 < 1. (x − 3)2
23.3
2x − 2 >3 x−3
−3 <0 (x − 3)(x + 1) 15 − x x x2 + 3 ≤0 3x − 2 3 x
15. Solve: (2x − 3)2 < 4 16. Solve: 2x ≤ 17. Solve for x: 18. Solve: x − 2 ≥ 19. Solve for x:
x2 + 3x − 4 ≤0 5 + x4 x−2 ≥1 3−x
20. Determine all real solutions:
305
23.3
CHAPTER 23. SOLVING QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES  GRADE 11
306
Chapter 24
Solving Simultaneous Equations Grade 11
In grade 10, you learnt how to solve sets of simultaneous equations where both equations were linear (i.e. had the highest power equal to 1). In this chapter, you will learn how to solve sets of simultaneous equations where one is linear and one is a quadratic. As in Grade 10, the solution will be found both algebraically and graphically. The only diﬀerence between a system of linear simultaneous equations and a system of simultaneous equations with one linear and one quadratic equation, is that the second system will have at most two solutions. An example of a system of simultaneous equations with one linear equation and one quadratic equation is: y − 2x = −4 x +y =4
2
(24.1)
24.1
Graphical Solution
The method of graphically ﬁnding the solution to one linear and one quadratic equation is identical to systems of linear simultaneous equations.
Method: Graphical solution to a system of simultaneous equations with one linear and one quadratic equation 1. Make y the subject of each equation. 2. Draw the graphs of each equation as deﬁned above. 3. The solution of the set of simultaneous equations is given by the intersection points of the two graphs. For the example, making y the subject of each equation, gives: y = 2x − 4 y = 4 − x2 Plotting the graph of each equation, gives a straight line for the ﬁrst equation and a parabola for the second equation. The parabola and the straight line intersect at two points: (2,0) and (4,12). Therefore, the solutions to the system of equations in (24.1) is x = 2, y = 0 and x = −4, y = 12 307
24.1
CHAPTER 24. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  GRADE 11
4
6 4 2 −6 −4 −2 −2
(1,0) 2
=
y
4
x
2
−
6
− x2
(4,12)
−4 −6 −8 −10 −12 −14
Worked Example 116: Simultaneous Equations Question: Solve graphically: y − x2 + 9 y + 3x − 9 = 0 = 0
Answer Step 1 : Make y the subject of the equation For the ﬁrst equation: y − x2 + 9 = y = and for the second equation: y + 3x − 9 = y = 0 −3x + 9 0 x2 − 9
Step 2 : Draw the graphs corresponding to each equation.
y= 4
40 30
−3 x+
9
(6,27)
y=
−8
−6
−4
−2
2 (3,0) 4
y=
10
x2
−9
20
6
8
Step 3 : Find the intersection of the graphs. The graphs intersect at (−6,27) and at (3,0). Step 4 : Write the solution of the system of simultaneous equations as given by the intersection of the graphs. The ﬁrst solution is x = −6 and y = 27. The second solution is x = 3 and y = 0. 308
CHAPTER 24. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  GRADE 11
24.2
Exercise: Graphical Solution Solve the following systems of equations algebraically. Leave your answer in surd form, where appropriate. 1. b2 − 1 − a = 0, a + b − 5 = 0 2. x + y − 10 = 0, x2 − 2 − y = 0
4. x + 2y − 14 = 0, x2 + 2 − y = 0
3. 6 − 4x − y = 0, 12 − 2x2 − y = 0
5. 2x + 1 − y = 0, 25 − 3x − x2 − y = 0
24.2
Algebraic Solution
The algebraic method of solving simultaneous equations is by substitution. For example the solution of y − 2x = −4 x2 + y = 4 is: y = x + (2x − 4) =
2
2x − 4 4 0 0
into second equation
∴ the 2 solutions for x are: x = −4 and x = 2
x2 + 2x − 8 = Factorise to get: (x + 4)(x − 2) =
The corresponding solutions for y are obtained by substitution of the xvalues into the ﬁrst equation y = 2(−4) − 4 and: y = 2(2) − 4 = −12 for x = −4 = 0 for x = 2
As expected, these solutions are identical to those obtained by the graphical solution.
Worked Example 117: Simultaneous Equations Question: Solve algebraically: y − x2 + 9 y + 3x − 9 = 0 = 0
Answer Step 1 : Make y the subject of the linear equation 309
24.2
CHAPTER 24. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  GRADE 11
y + 3x − 9 = y =
0 −3x + 9
Step 2 : Substitute into the quadratic equation
(−3x + 9) − x2 + 9 Factorise to get:
= 0
∴ the 2 solutions for x are: x = −6 and x = 3
x2 + 3x − 18 = 0 (x + 6)(x − 3) = 0
Step 3 : Substitute the values for x into the ﬁrst equation to calculate the corresponding yvalues.
and: y = −3(3) + 9 =
y = −3(−6) + 9 =
27 for x = −6 0 for x = 3
Step 4 : Write the solution of the system of simultaneous equations. The ﬁrst solution is x = −6 and y = 27. The second solution is x = 3 and y = 0.
Exercise: Algebraic Solution Solve the following systems of equations algebraically. Leave your answer in surd form, where appropriate. 310
CHAPTER 24. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  GRADE 11 1. a + b = 5 2. a − b + 1 = 0 3. a −
(2b+2) 4
24.2
a − b2 + 3b − 5 = 0 =0
a − 2b2 + 3b + 5 = 0 a − 9 + b2 = 0 a − b2 = 0
a − b2 + 5b − 6 = 0
4. a + 2b − 4 = 0 5. a − 2 + 3b = 0 6. a − b − 5 = 0 7. a − b − 4 = 0 8. a + b − 9 = 0 9. a − 3b + 5 = 0 10. a + b − 5 = 0 11. a − 2b − 3 = 0 12. a − 2b = 0 13. a − 3b = 0 14. a − 2b − 10 = 0 15. a − 3b − 1 = 0 16. a − 3b + 1 17. a + 6b − 5 = 0 18. a − 2b + 1 = 0 19. 2a + b − 2 = 0 20. a + 4b − 19 = 0 21. a + 4b − 18 = 0
a − 2b2 − 5b + 3 = 0
a + 2b2 − 12 = 0 a + b2 − 4b = 0 a − b2 + 1 = 0 a + b2 − 18 = 0
a − 3b2 + 4 = 0 a − b2 + 4 = 0
a − b2 − 2b + 3 = 0 a − b2 − 5b = 0 a − b2 = 0
a − 2b2 − b + 3 = 0 a − b2 − 8 = 0
a − 2b2 − 12b + 4 8a + 5b2 − 101 = 0 2a + 5b2 − 57 8a + b2 − 8 = 0
311
24.2
CHAPTER 24. SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS  GRADE 11
312
Chapter 25
Mathematical Models  Grade 11
Up until now, you have only learnt how to solve equations and inequalities, but there has not been much application of what you have learnt. This chapter builds introduces you to the idea of a mathematical model which uses mathematical concepts to solve realworld problems.
Deﬁnition: Mathematical Model A mathematical model is a method of using the mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a physical system. Mathematical models are used particularly in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines (such as physics, biology, and electrical engineering) but also in the social sciences (such as economics, sociology and political science); physicists, engineers, computer scientists, and economists use mathematical models most extensively.
A mathematical model is an equation (or a set of equations for the more diﬃcult problems) that describes are particular situation. For example, if Anna receives R3 for each time she helps her mother wash the dishes and R5 for each time she helps her father cut the grass, how much money will Anna earn if she helps her mother 5 times to wash the dishes and helps her father 2 times to wash the car. The ﬁrst step to modelling is to write the equation, that describes the situation. To calculate how much Anna will earn we see that she will earn :
5 + 2
= R15 +R10 = R25
×R5 for cutting the grass
×R3 for washing the dishes
If however, we say, what is the equation if Anna helps her mother x times and her father y times. Then we have: Total earned = x × R3 + y × R5
25.1
RealWorld Applications: Mathematical Models
Some examples of where mathematical models are used in the realworld are: 1. To model population growth 2. To model eﬀects of air pollution 3. To model eﬀects of global warming 4. In computer games 313
25.1
CHAPTER 25. MATHEMATICAL MODELS  GRADE 11
5. In the sciences (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology) to understand how the natural world works 6. In simulators that are used to train people in certain jobs, like pilots, doctors and soldiers 7. In medicine to track the progress of a disease
Activity :: Investigation : Simple Models In order to get used to the idea of mathematical models, try the following simple models. Write an equation that describes the following realworld situations, mathematically: 1. Jack and Jill both have colds. Jack sneezes twice for each sneeze of Jill’s. If Jill sneezes x times, write an equation describing how many times they both sneezed? 2. It rains half as much in July as it does in December. If it rains y mm in July, write an expression relating the rainfall in July and December. 3. Zane can paint a room in 4 hours. Billy can paint a room in 2 hours. How long will it take both of them to paint a room together?
1 4. 25 years ago, Arthur was 5 more than 3 as old as Lee was. Today, Lee is 26 less than twice Arthur’s age. How old is Lee?
5. Kevin has played a few games of tenpin bowling. In the third game, Kevin scored 80 more than in the second game. In the ﬁrst game Kevin scored 110 less than the third game. His total score for the ﬁrst two games was 208. If he wants an average score of 146, what must he score on the fourth game? 6. Erica has decided to treat her friends to coﬀee at the Corner Coﬀee House. Erica paid R54,00 for four cups of cappuccino and three cups of ﬁlter coﬀee. If a cup of cappuccino costs R3,00 more than a cup of ﬁlter coﬀee, calculate how much each type of coﬀee costs? 7. The product of two integers is 95. Find the integers if their total is 24.
Worked Example 118: Mathematical Modelling of Falling Objects Question: When an object is dropped or thrown downward, the distance, d, that it falls in time, t is described by the following equation: s = 5t2 + v0 t In this equation, v0 is the initial velocity, in m·s−1 . Distance is measured in meters and time is measured in seconds. Use the equation to ﬁnd how far an object will fall in 2 s if it is thrown downward at an initial velocity of 10 m·s−1 ? Answer Step 1 : Identify what is given for each problem We are given an expression to calculate distance travelled by a falling object in terms of initial velocity and time. We are also given the initial velocity and time and are required to calculate the distance travelled. Step 2 : List all known and unknown information • v0 = 10 m · s−1 • t = 2s 314
CHAPTER 25. MATHEMATICAL MODELS  GRADE 11 • s =? m Step 3 : Substitute values into expression s = = = = = 5t2 + v0 t 5(2)2 + (10)(2) 5(4) + 20 20 + 20 40
25.1
Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The object will fall 40 m in 2 s if it is thrown downward at an initial velocity of 10 m·s−1 .
Worked Example 119: Another Mathematical Modelling of Falling Objects Question: When an object is dropped or thrown downward, the distance, d, that it falls in time, t is described by the following equation: s = 5t2 + v0 t In this equation, v0 is the initial velocity, in m·s−1 . Distance is measured in meters and time is measured in seconds. Use the equation ﬁnd how long it takes for the object to reach the ground if it is dropped from a height of 2000 m. The initial velocity is 0 m·s−1 ? Answer Step 1 : Identify what is given for each problem We are given an expression to calculate distance travelled by a falling object in terms of initial velocity and time. We are also given the initial velocity and time and are required to calculate the distance travelled. Step 2 : List all known and unknown information • t =? s • v0 = 0 m · s−1 • s = 2000 m
Step 3 : Substitute values into expression s = 2000 = 2000 = t2 ∴ t = = = 5t2 + v0 t 5t2 + (0)(2) 5t2 2000 5 400 20 s
Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The object will take 20 s to reach the ground if it is dropped from a height of 2000 m.
315
in hundreds. 3. 33 . 316 . Therefore. 32 . will continue indeﬁnitely? Give a reason for your answer. MATHEMATICAL MODELS . the following data model emerged: Year 1 2 3 4 Number of trees in hundreds 1 3 9 27 1. Determine an algebraic expression that describes the number of trees in the nt h year in the forest. Answer Step 1 : Find the pattern The pattern is 30 .GRADE 11 Activity :: Investigation : Mathematical Modelling The graph below shows the how the distance travelled by a car depends on time. three to the power one less than the year. How far does the car travel in 20 s? 2. which determines the number of trees in the forest.25. How long does it take the car to travel 300 m? Worked Example 120: More Mathematical Modelling Question: A researcher is investigating the number of trees in a forest over a period of n years. Use the graph to answer the following questions.. Step 2 : Trees in year 6 year6 = hundreds = 243hundreds = 24300 Step 3 : Algebraic expression for year n number of trees = 3n−1 hundreds Step 4 : Conclusion No The number of trees will increase without bound to very large numbers. thus the forestry authorities will if necessary cut down some of the trees from time to time.. are there in the SIXTH year if this pattern is continued? 2. After investigating numerous data. 31 . .1 CHAPTER 25. 400 Distance (m) 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 Time (s) 40 1. How many trees. Do you think this model.
Answer Step 1 : Summarise the information in a table Let the proposed increase be x. d. using any two points.2 Worked Example 121: Setting up an equation Question: Currently the subsription to a gym for a single member is R1 000 annually while family membership is R1 500. ﬁnd the equation of the straight line. Use the equation to ﬁnd how long it takes a tennis ball to reach the ground if it is thrown downward from a hotair balloon that is 500 m high. The table below lists the times that Sheila takes to walk the given distances. in m·s−1 .2 End of Chatpter Exercises 1. Distance is measured in meters and time is measured in seconds. that it falls in time. MATHEMATICAL MODELS . Then use the equation to answer the following questions: 317 5 1 10 2 15 3 20 4 25 5 30 6 . If the relationship between the distances and times are linear. Time (minutes) Distance (km) Plot the points. the distance. v0 is the initial velocity.GRADE 11 25.CHAPTER 25. Single Family Step 2 : Set up an equation Now 1 000 1 500 After increase 1 000+x 1 500+x 1 000 + x = Step 3 : Solve the equation 5 (1 500 + x) 7 7 000 + 7x = 2x = x Step 4 : Write down the answer Therefore the increase is R250. When an object is dropped or thrown downward. t is described by the following equation: s = 5t2 + v0 t In this equation. The gym is considering raising all member5 shipfees by the same amount. The tennis ball is thrown at an initial velocity of 5 m·s−1 . Determine the proposed increase. = 7 500 + 5x 500 250 25. If this is done then the single membership will cost 7 of the family membership. 2.
the number of people in the lift and how often it will stop: If N people get into a lift at the lobby and the number of ﬂoors in the building is F . then the lift can be expected to stop F −F times.2 CHAPTER 25.GRADE 11 A How long will it take Sheila to walk 21 km? B How far will Sheila walk in 7 minutes? If Sheila were to walk half as fast as she is currently walking. The length of the block is y.5I 2 and use your answer to the ﬁrst question. The ends are rightangled triangles having sides 3x.5I 2 where I is the current in amperes. A Since both power and current must be greater than 0.25. C What is the maximum current that can be drawn? D From your graph. The power P (in watts) supplied to a circuit by a 12 volt battery is given by the formula P = 12I − 0. how many times is the lift expected to stop? B How many people would you expect in a lift. A wooden block is made as shown in the diagram. MATHEMATICAL MODELS . The total surface area of the block is 3 600 cm2 . what would the graph of her distances and times look like? 3. A If the building has 16 ﬂoors and there are 9 people who get into the lift. You are late for a meeting and wonder if it will be quicker to take the stairs. B Draw a graph of P = 12I − 0. You are in the lobby of a business building waiting for the lift. 4x and 5x. E At what value of current will the power supplied be a maximum? 4. read oﬀ how much power is supplied to the circuit when the current is 10 amperes? Use the equation to conﬁrm your answer. to deﬁne the extent of the graph. if it stopped 12 times and there are 17 ﬂoors? 5. ﬁnd the limits of the current that can be drawn by the circuit. F −1 F N 3x 4x y Show that y= 300 − x2 x 318 . There is a fascinating relationship between the number of ﬂoors in the building.
by drawing a graph. B During which time interval was the temperature dropping? 9. Now deduce that the total cost.008t3 − 0. A washing powder box has the shape of a rectangular prism as shown in the diagram below. The room temperature.GRADE 11 25. 10. During an experiment the temperature T (in degrees Celsius). 10] A At what rate (rounded oﬀ to TWO decimal places) is the temperature falling when t = 4 minutes? B Find the lowest room temperature reached during the 10 minutes for which the cooling system operates. is given by: x 55 + litres per kilometre P (x) = 2x 200 Assume that the petrol costs R4.00 per hour (travelling time). for a 2 000 km trip is given by: C(x) = 256000 + 40x x 8. MATHEMATICAL MODELS . a cooling system is allowed to operate for 10 minutes. 10] A Determine an expression for the rate of change of temperature with time. In order to reduce the temperature in a room from 28◦ C. 7.2 6.CHAPTER 25. C.16t where t ∈ [0. T after t minutes is given in ◦ C by the formula: T = 28 − 0.00 per litre and the driver earns R18. travelling at an average speed of x km per hour. a transport company has determined that the rate at which petrol is consumed by one of its large carriers. After doing some research. in Rands. Washing powder Show that the total surface area of the box (in cm2 ) is given by: A = 8x + 960x−1 + 240 Extension: Simulations A simulation is an attempt to model a reallife situation on a computer so that it 319 . a breadth of 4 cm and a length of x cm. The box has a volume of 480 cm3 . varies with time t (in hours). A stone is thrown vertically upwards and its height (in metres) above the ground at time t (in seconds) is given by: h(t) = 35 − 5t2 + 30t Find its initial height above the ground. according to the formula: 1 T (t) = 30 + 4t − t2 2 t ∈ [1.
Simulation can be used to show the eventual real eﬀects of alternative conditions and courses of action. problem solve and role play. and preservice and inservice teachers.25. training and education.2 CHAPTER 25. By changing variables.GRADE 11 can be studied to see how the system works. a more recent use of simulations in education include animated narrative vignettes (ANV). however. video has been used for teachers and education students to observe. Other contexts include simulation of technology for performance optimization. Simulation in education Simulations in education are somewhat like training simulations. testing. In the past. They focus on speciﬁc tasks. Simulation is used in many contexts. safety engineering. ANVs are cartoonlike video narratives of hypothetical and realitybased stories involving classroom teaching and learning. ANVs have been used to assess knowledge. 320 . problem solving skills and dispositions of children. including the modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning. predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. MATHEMATICAL MODELS .
y = ax2 + q. The general shape and position of the graph of the function of the form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is shown in Figure 26. In this chapter. 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 −3 2 3 4 5 Figure 26. On the same set of axes.1. 26.Chapter 26 Quadratic Functions and Graphs Grade 11 26.2 Functions of the Form y = a(x + p)2 + q This form of the quadratic function is slightly more complex than the form studied in Grade 10. you studied graphs of many diﬀerent forms.1 Introduction In Grade 10.1: Graph of f (x) = 1 (x + 2)2 − 1 2 Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = a(x + p)2 + q 1. plot the following graphs: A B C D a(x) = (x − 2)2 b(x) = (x − 1)2 c(x) = x2 d(x) = (x + 1)2 321 . you will learn a little more about the graphs of functions.
This is shown in Figure 10.2. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . The axes of symmetry are shown as dashed lines. you should have found that a aﬀects whether the graph makes a smile or a frown. The range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q depends on whether the value for a is positive or negative. choose your own values of p and q to plot 5 diﬀerent graphs (on the same set of axes) of y = a(x+ p)2 + q to deduce the eﬀect of a.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = a(x + p)2 + q.GRADE 11 E e(x) = (x + 2)2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of p. 2. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects whether the turning point is to the left of the yaxis (q > 0) or to the right of the yaxis (q < 0). plot the following graphs: A f (x) = (x − 2)2 + 1 B g(x) = (x − 1)2 + 1 C h(x) = x2 + 1 D j(x) = (x + 1)2 + 1 E k(x) = (x + 2)2 + 1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. the domain is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which f (x) is undeﬁned.1. You should have also found that the value of p aﬀects whether the turning point of the graph is above the xaxis (p < 0) or below the xaxis (p > 0).1 Domain and Range For f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q. Following the general method of the above activities. If a > 0 then we have: (x + p)2 a(x + p)2 a(x + p)2 + q f (x) ≥ 0 ≥ 0 (The square of an expression is always positive) (Multiplication by a positive number maintains the nature of the inequality) ≥ q ≥ q 322 .2 CHAPTER 26.26. p<0 p>0 a>0 a<0 a>0 a<0 q≥0 q≤0 26. If a < 0. 3. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 26. On the same set of axes. The axes of symmetry for each graph is shown as a dashed line. Table 26. From your graphs.9. We will consider these two cases separately. the graph makes a frown and if a > 0 then the graph makes a smile.
then yint = q.∞)}. it can be shown that if a < 0 that the range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. (x − p)2 2 ≥ 0 2 2 ≥ ≥ Exercise: Domain and Range 1. This is left as an exercise. The range of g(x) can be calculated as follows: (x + p) + 2 g(x) Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [2. the yintercept of g(x) = (x − 1)2 + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: g(x) yint = (x − 1)2 + 2 = (0 − 1)2 + 2 = (−1)2 + 2 = 1+2 = 3 a(x + p)2 + q a(0 + p)2 + q ap2 + q (26. This tells us that for all values of x.1) (26. For example.2. What is the domain the equation y = 2x2 − 5x − 18 ? 26.GRADE 11 26.8) q ± − −p a 323 .2) (26. f (x) is always greater than q.4) (26.6) (26. Therefore if a > 0. the range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q.CHAPTER 26. Give the range of f (x).∞)}. The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = = = If p = 0. the details of calculating the intercepts with the x and y axis is given.2 Intercepts For functions of the form.3) The xintercepts are calculated as follows: y = 0 = a(xint + p)2 xint + p xint = = = a(x + p)2 + q a(xint + p)2 + q −q − q a (26.q]}. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . For example. y = a(x + p)2 + q.7) (26. 2.5) (26. the domain of g(x) = (x − 1)2 + 2 is {x : x ∈ R} because there is no value of x ∈ R for which g(x) is undeﬁned.2 Similarly. Given the function f (x) = (x − 4)2 − 1.
and yintercepts of the function f (x) = (x − 4)2 − 1. 2 324 . Find the x.GRADE 11 q However. For example. and the graph should intersect with the xaxis. if a > 0. since if q > 0 and a > 0 then − a is negative and in this case the graph lies above the xaxis and therefore does not intersect the xaxis. This is q consistent with what we expect.2. So. Therefore. Exercise: Turning Points 1.2 CHAPTER 26. = (x − 1)2 + 2 Exercise: Intercepts 1. Find the turning point of the following function by completing the square: y = 1 (x + 2)2 − 1. Calculate the coordinates of the turning point of f . Given: f (x) = −x2 + 4x − 3. The coordinates of the (minimal) turning point is therefore (−p. 3.3 Turning Points The turning point of the function of the form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is given by examining the range of the function. 2. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .26. 2. the xintercepts of g(x) = (x − 1)2 + 2 is given by setting y = 0 to get: g(x) 0 = (xint − 1)2 + 2 −2 = (xint − 1)2 which is not real.q). (26. then the lowest value that f (x) can take on is q. We know that if a > 0 then the range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q.∞)} and if a < 0 then the range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. then the highest value that f (x) can take on is q and the coordinates of the (maximal) turning point is (−p. 3. Find the intercepts with both axes of the graph of f (x) = x2 − 6x + 8. if q < 0 and a > 0 then − a is also positive. Determine the turning point of the graph of f (x) = x2 − 6x + 8 .q). Calculate the x.q]}. 26.8) is only valid if − a > 0 which means that either q < 0 or a < 0. if a < 0. Similarly. Given: f (x) = −x2 + 4x − 3.and yintercepts of the graph of f . q > 0 q and a < 0. If however. the graph of g(x) = (x − 1)2 + 2 does not have any xintercepts. Solving for the value of x at which f (x) = q gives: q 0 0 0 x = a(x + p)2 + q = a(x + p)2 = (x + p)2 = x+p = −p ∴ x = −p at f (x) = q. q Similarly. then − a is positive and the graph is hat shaped and should have two xintercepts.
Since the xcoordinate of the turning point is x = −p. sign of a 2. Write down an example of an equation of a parabola where the yaxis is the axis of symmetry.GRADE 11 26.2. The xcoordinate is determined as follows: 1 − (x + 1)2 − 3 2 1 − (x + 1)2 − 3 + 3 2 1 − (x + 1)2 2 1 Divide both sides by − 2 : (x + 1)2 = −3 = 0 = 0 = 0 = 0 = −1 Take square root of both sides: x + 1 ∴ x 325 . Firstly. this is the axis of symmetry. Using the fact that the maximum value that f (x) achieves is 3. The range of the graph is determined as follows: (x + 1)2 1 − (x + 1)2 2 ≥ ≤ 0 0 −3 −3 1 − (x + 1)2 − 3 ≤ 2 ∴ f (x) ≤ Therefore the range of the graph is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. − 3]}.5 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q In order to sketch graphs of the form. turning point 4.CHAPTER 26. domain and range 3. we need to calculate determine four characteristics: 1. then the ycoordinate of the turning point is 3. Mark the intercepts.4 Axes of Symmetry There is one axis of symmetry for the function of the form f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q that passes through the turning point and is parallel to the yaxis. The domain of the graph is {x : x ∈ R} because f (x) is deﬁned for all x ∈ R.2. turning point 2 and axis of symmetry. sketch the graph of g(x) = − 1 (x + 1)2 − 3. Exercise: Axes of Symmetry 1. yintercept 5. xintercept For example. This means that the graph will have a maximal turning point. we determine that a < 0. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 26. f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q. Write down the equation of the axis of symmetry of the graph of y = 3(x − 2)2 + 1 3.2 26. Find the equation of the axis of symmetry of the graph y = 2x2 − 5x − 18 2.
3. b2 = 4ac. This gives: yint 1 = − (0 + 1)2 − 3 2 1 = − (1) − 3 2 1 = − −3 2 1 = − −3 2 7 = − 2 The xintercept is obtained by setting y = 0.2 CHAPTER 26.26. −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 (1. − 3). Therefore. Draw the graph of y = 3(x − 2)2 + 1 showing all the relative intercepts with the axes as well as the coordinates of the turning point. 326 . 2. there are no xintercepts.3) −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 1 2 3 4 (0. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .2: Graphs of the function f (x) = − 2 (xint + 1)2 − 3 Exercise: Sketching the Parabola 1. We also know that the axis of symmetry is parallel to the yaxis and passes through the turning point.GRADE 11 The coordinates of the turning point are: (−1. This gives: 0 = 3 = −3 · 2 = −6 = 1 − (xint + 1)2 − 3 2 1 − (xint + 1)2 2 (xint + 1)2 (xint + 1)2 which is not real. b < 0. Draw a neat sketch graph of the function deﬁned by y = ax2 + bx + c if a > 0.5) 1 Figure 26. The yintercept is obtained by setting x = 0.
2. B The x . Given: f : x = x2 − 2x3. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .7) is the turning point of f (x) = −2x2 − 4ax + k. Show that if a < 0. Therefore the new equation will become: y = (x − 1)2 − 2(x − 1) − 3 = x2 − 2x + 1 − 2x + 2 − 3 = x2 − 4x If the given parabola is shifted 3 units down. (3. 4) is shifted vertically by 4 units upwards. 5.CHAPTER 26.axis is moved down three. A parabola with turning point (1. Show that a = −1 and b = 6.6 Writing an equation of a shifted parabola Given a parabola with equation y = x2 − 2x − 3. the new equation will become: (Notice the xaxis then moves 3 units upwards) y+3 = y = x2 − 2x − 3 x2 − 2x − 6 26.q]}.9). The graph of the parabola is shifted one unit to the right. What are the coordinates of the turning point of the shifted parabola ? 327 .9) 4. ﬁnd the values of the constants a and k.3 End of Chapter Exercises 1. Or else the yaxis shifts one unit to the left.3 26. The graph in the ﬁgure is represented by the equation f (x) = ax2 + bx.2. The coordinates of the turning point are (3. then the range of f (x) = a(x + p)2 + q is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. 3.GRADE 11 26. Give the equation of the new graph originating if: A The graph of f is moved three units to the left. If (2.
GRADE 11 328 .26.3 CHAPTER 26. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .
plot the following graphs: 329 a x+p +q .Chapter 27 Hyperbolic Functions and Graphs Grade 11 27. On the same set of axes. you studied graphs of many diﬀerent forms. a x+p 1 2 3 4 5 + q.2 Functions of the Form y = +q This form of the hyperbolic function is slightly more complex than the form studied in Grade 10.1 Introduction In Grade 10. 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 Figure 27. you will learn a little more about the graphs of functions. a x+p 27. In this chapter.1: General shape and position of the graph of a function of the form f (x) = The asymptotes are shown as dashed lines. Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = 1.
The domain is therefore {x : x ∈ R. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects whether the graph is located in the ﬁrst and third quadrants of Cartesian plane. You should have also found that the value of p aﬀects whether the xintercept is negative (p > 0) or positive (p < 0).GRADE 11 A a(x) = B b(x) = C c(x) = D d(x) = E e(x) = −2 x+1 −1 x+1 0 x+1 +1 x+1 +2 x+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a.1.x = 330 . 3. plot the following graphs: A f (x) = B g(x) = C h(x) = D j(x) = E k(x) = 1 x−2 + 1 1 x−1 + 1 1 x+0 + 1 1 x+1 + 1 1 x+2 + 1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of p.1 For y = −p}. the function is undeﬁned for x = −p. Table 27. choose your own values a of a and p to plot 5 diﬀerent graphs of y = x+p + q to deduce the eﬀect of q. Following the general method of the above activities. On the same set of axes. The axes of symmetry for each graph is shown as a dashed line. 2. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects whether the graph lies above the xaxis (q > 0) or below the xaxis (q < 0). These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 27. q>0 q<0 27.27. p<0 p>0 a>0 a<0 a>0 a<0 a x+p +q.2.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = The axes of symmetry are shown as dashed lines. Domain and Range a x+p + q. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .2 CHAPTER 27.
For example. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Write down the domain of f . The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint a +q x+p a = +q 0+p a +q = p 331 = (27.2) (27.∞)}.2 Intercepts a For functions of the form. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞. the domain of g(x) = at x = −1.∞)}. 8 Determine the domain of y = − x+1 + 3 27.3) . Therefore the range of f (x) = {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞.GRADE 11 We see that y = a x+p 27. x = −1} because g(x) is undeﬁned y = 2 +2 x+1 2 x+1 2 2 y−2 (y − 2) = (y − 2)(x + 1) = (x + 1) = We see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2.q) ∪ (q.1) (27.CHAPTER 27. y = x+p + q. + 4. Exercise: Domain and Range Determine the range of y = Given:f (x) = 8 x−8 1 x + 1.2) ∪ (2.2.2 + q can be rewritten as: a +q x+p a y−q = x+p If x = −p then: (y − q)(x + p) = a a x+p = y−q y = This shows that the function is undeﬁned at y = q. the intercepts with the x and y axis is calculated by setting x = 0 for the yintercept and by setting y = 0 for the xintercept. 2 x+1 a x+p + q is + 2 is {x : x ∈ R.
332 + q. 5 x + 2. the xintercept of g(x) = 2 x+1 = + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: = = 2 +2 x+1 2 +2 xint + 1 2 xint + 1 2 2 −2 −1 − 1 y 0 −2 = −2(xint + 1) = xint + 1 xint xint = = = −2 Exercise: Intercepts 1 Given:h(x) = x+4 − 2.6) (27. the yintercept of g(x) = + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: = = = = = 2 +2 x+1 2 +2 0+1 2 +2 1 2+2 4 y yint The xintercepts are calculated by setting y = 0 as follows: y= a +q x+p 0 = a xint + p a = = a +q xint + p −q −q(xint + p) a −q a −p −q (27.8) (27.2.3 Asymptotes a x+p There are two asymptotes for functions of the form y = examining the domain and range.and yaxes. Give a reason why there is 27.9) xint + p = xint For example.4) (27.GRADE 11 2 x+1 For example.2 CHAPTER 27.5) (27.27. Determine the coordinates of the intercepts of h with the x. Determine the xintercept of the graph of y = no yintercept for this function.7) (27. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . They are determined by .
333 . 8 1 3. x = −1} because g(x) is undeﬁned at x = −1. We also see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2. Sketch the graph of h showing clearly the asymptotes and ALL intercepts with the axes. asymptotes 3. determine the equation of the graph with asymptotes y = 2 and x = 1 and passing through the point (2. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞. Draw the graph of y = x + 2. We have determined the domain to be {x : x ∈ R.4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = a x+p +q + q. Exercise: Asymptotes Given:h(x) = 1 x+4 Write down the equation of the vertical asymptote of the graph y = − 2.CHAPTER 27. Suppose the hyperbola is shifted 3 units to the right and 1 unit down. 8 x−8 +4. 5. Draw the graph of y = 5 x−2. yintercept 4. f (x) = determine four characteristics: 1. 27. 4. 2 For example. Plot the graph of the hyperbola deﬁned by y = x for −4 ≤ x ≤ 4. Exercise: Graphs 1 1. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .2. What is the new equation then ? 1 2. 1 2.GRADE 11 27. the domain of g(x) = x+1 + 2 is {x : x ∈ R. Based on the graph of y = x . Indicate the new horizontal asymptote. Indicate the asymptotes 27.2) ∪ (2. Explain your method.3 End of Chapter Exercises 2 1. Therefore the asymptotes are at x = −1 and y = 2.5 + 2.2) ∪ (2. Therefore the asymptotes are x = −p and y = q. Draw the graph of y = x and y = − x+1 + 3 on the same system of axes. From this we deduce that the asymptotes are at x = −1 and y = 2.Determine the equations of the asymptotes of h. Mark the intercepts and asymptotes. The yintercept is yint = 4 and the xintercept is xint = −2. x = −1} and the range to be {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞.∞)}. sketch the graph of g(x) = 2 x+1 a x+p + 2. we need to calculate In order to sketch graphs of functions of the form. xintercept For example. Draw the graph of the function deﬁned by y = and intercepts with the axes. Given:h(x) = x+4 − 2.∞)}. 1 x−1 .3 We saw that the function was undeﬁned at x = −p and for y = q. domain and range 2. 3).
HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .3 CHAPTER 27.2: Graph of g(x) = 2 x+1 1 2 3 4 + 2.27.GRADE 11 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 Figure 27. 334 .
1 Introduction In Grade 10. 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 Figure 28. you studied graphs of many diﬀerent forms. In this chapter. you will learn a little more about the graphs of exponential functions.1: General shape and position of the graph of a function of the form f (x) = ab(x+p) +q. On the same set of axes.2 Functions of the Form y = ab(x+p) + q This form of the exponential function is slightly more complex than the form studied in Grade 10. On the same set of axes. plot the following graphs: A B C D E a(x) = −2 · b(x+1) + 1 b(x) = −1 · b(x+1) + 1 c(x) = −0 · b(x+1) + 1 d(x) = −1 · b(x+1) + 1 e(x) = −2 · b(x+1) + 1 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of a. 28. plot the following graphs: 335 .Grade 11 28. 2.Chapter 28 Exponential Functions and Graphs . Activity :: Investigation : Functions of the Form y = ab(x+p) + q 1.
then the range is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ [q. Following the general method of the above activities. Therefore.1. choose your own values of a and q to plot 5 diﬀerent graphs of y = ab(x+p) + q to deduce the eﬀect of p. The axes of symmetry for each graph is shown as a dashed line. the function is deﬁned for all real values of x. You should have found that the value of a aﬀects whether the graph curves upwards (a > 0) or curves downwards (a < 0). These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 28.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of functions of the form y = ab(x+p) + q. The range of y = ab(x+p) + q is dependent on the sign of a.2 A B C D E CHAPTER 28. Table 28.2. the domain is {x : x ∈ R}.1 Domain and Range For y = ab(x+p) + q. if a > 0. If a > 0 then: b(x+p) a · b(x+p) a · b(x+p) + q ≥ 0 0 q q f (x) ≥ ≥ ≥ Therefore.∞)}. 336 . You should have also found that the value of p aﬀects the position of the xintercept.GRADE 11 f (x) = 1 · b(x+1) − 2 g(x) = 1 · b(x+1) − 1 h(x) = 1 · b(x+1) 0 j(x) = 1 · b(x+1) + 1 k(x) = 1 · b(x+1) + 2 Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of q. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 3.28. p<0 a>0 a<0 a>0 p>0 a<0 q>0 q<0 28. You should have also found that the value of q aﬀects the position of the yintercept.
4) (28.3) +q abp + q For example. For the range.q]}.2) (28. 28.5)x+3 . then the range is {f (x) : f (x) ∈ (−∞. Exercise: Domain and Range 1.2 Intercepts For functions of the form.2 a·b (x+p) +q f (x) ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ 0 0 q q For example. the domain of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 is {x : x ∈ R}.GRADE 11 If a < 0 then: b(x+p) a·b (x+p) 28. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . if a < 0.∞)}.5) (28.CHAPTER 28. The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = = = ab(x+p) + q ab (0+p) (28. the yintercept of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: y yint = = = = = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 3 · 20+1 + 2 3 · 21 + 2 3·2+2 8 The xintercepts are calculated by setting y = 0 as follows: y ab (xint +p) = ab(x+p) + q (xint +p) (28. 2x+1 3 · 2x+1 ≥ ≥ 0 0 2 Therefore. 2.7) 0 = = b(xint +p) ab −q q = − a 337 +q . Give the domain of y = 3x . the intercepts with the x and y axis is calulated by setting x = 0 for the yintercept and by setting y = 0 for the xintercept. y = ab(x+p) + q. What is the domain and range of f (x) = 2x ? 3.2. 3 · 2x+1 + 2 ≥ Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [2.1) (28.6) (28. Determine the domain and range of y = (1.
We also see that g(x) is undeﬁned at y = 2. Exercise: Intercepts 1. we need to calculate determine four characteristics: 1. 2.4 Sketching Graphs of the Form f (x) = ab(x+p) + q In order to sketch graphs of functions of the form. Give the equation of the asymptote of the graph of y = 3x − 2.2. Therefore. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .GRADE 11 Which only has a real solution if either a < 0 or Q < 0.8)x−1 − 3 ? 28. Therefore the asymptotes are x = −p and y = q. Otherwise. For example. x = −1} because g(x) is undeﬁned at x = −1. the graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 does not have any xintercepts.3 Asymptotes There are two asymptotes for functions of the form y = ab(x+p) + q. They are determined by examining the domain and range. yintercept 338 . Give the yintercept of the graph of y = bx + 2.2.and yintercepts of the graph of y = 1 (1. Exercise: Asymptotes 1. We saw that the function was undeﬁned at x = −p and for y = q.2) ∪ (2.5)x+3 − 0. domain and range 2. What is the equation of the horizontal asymptote of the graph of y = 3(0. f (x) = ab(x+p) + q. Therefore the range is {g(x) : g(x) ∈ (−∞. the graph of the function of form y = ab(x+p) + q does not have any xintercepts.2 CHAPTER 28. the domain of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 is {x : x ∈ R. 2.28. From this we deduce that the asymptotes are at x = −1 and y = 2. For example. 2 28.75.∞)}. the xintercept of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 is given by setting x = 0 to get: y 0 = 3 · 2x+1 + 2 = 3 · 2xint +1 + 2 −2 = 3 · 2xint +1 −2 2xint +1 = 2 which has no real solution. Give the x.
GRADE 11 3. sketch the graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2.3 End of Chapter Exercises 1.3 We have determined the domain to be {x : x ∈ R} and the range to be {g(x) : g(x) ∈ [5. B Explain whre a solution of 3x = 5 can be read oﬀ the graph. 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 4 Figure 28. 339 .2: Graph of g(x) = 3 · 2x+1 + 2. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 28. Match a graph to a column. y = ax+1 and y = ax + 1. Exercise: Sketching Graphs 1.CHAPTER 28. The yintercept is yint = 8 and there are no xintercepts. Mark the intercepts. 28. A B C D y y y y = bx + 2 = bx+2 = 2bx = 2bx+2 + 2 A Draw the graph of f (x) = 3x . The following table of values has columns giving the yvalues for the graph y = ax . xintercept For example.∞)}. Draw the graphs of the following on the same set of axes. Label the horizontal aymptotes and yintercepts clearly.
5 1 0. C Determine.4 0.5 2 1. A Determine the value of a.16 B 6.3 CHAPTER 28. 0.064 2. The graph of f (x) = a. if P (x.25 3. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS .25 2.GRADE 11 x 2 1 0 1 2 A 7. the value of f (13).28.75. calculate the value of a. D If the graph of f is shifted 2 units to the right to give the function h. 3.144) on f . The graph of f (x) = 1 + a. write down the equation of h. B Determine the value of f (−15) correct to FIVE decimal places.4 1. D Describe the transformation of the curve of f to h if h(x) = f (−x). 340 .16 C 2. B Hence write down the equation of f .4 0.bx (a = 0) has the point P(2.16 0.2x (a is a constant) passes through the origin.5) lies on the graph of f . C Determine the value of x.5 1 0. correct to TWO decimal places. A If b = 0.
A(3. Complete the table below by calculating the ycoordinates of point A for the given xcoordinates and then calculate the average gradient between points A and B. The position of point A varies. 29.1: The average gradient between two points on a curve is the gradient of the straight line that passes through the points. and are introduced to the idea of a gradient of a curve at a point. What happens to the gradient if we ﬁx the position of one point and move the second point closer to the ﬁxed point? Activity :: Investigation : Gradient at a Single Point on a Curve The curve shown is deﬁned by y = −2x2 − 5.1 Introduction In Grade 10.Chapter 29 Gradient at a Point . In Grade 11. we further look at the idea of average gradient.Grade 11 29. 341 .7) y C(1.1) x Figure 29. we investigated the idea of average gradient and saw that the gradient of some functions varied over diﬀerent intervals.2 Average Gradient We saw that the average gradient between two points on a curve is the gradient of the straight line passing through the two points.5). Point B is ﬁxed at coordinates (0.
Such a line is known as a tangent to the curve.GRADE 11 y B x A What happens to the average gradient as A moves towards B? What happens to the average gradient as A away from B? What is the average gradient when A overlaps with B? In Figure 29.5 2 yA average gradient CHAPTER 29. At the point when A and C overlap.2 xA 2 1.2: The gradient of the straight line between A and C changes as the point A moves along the curve towards C. Then ﬁnd the average gradient between P(2. the straight line only passes through one point on the curve. At this point the line is a tangent to the curve. g(a)) and Q(a + h. The gradient at a point on a curve is simply the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point. Worked Example 122: Average Gradient Question: Find the average gradient between two points P(a. A y (a) y (b) A C x C x (c) y y (d) C A x C A x Figure 29.2. g(a+h)) on a curve g(x) = x2 .5 1 1.5 1 0. g(2)) 342 . GRADIENT AT A POINT .5 0 0.29. the gradient of the straight line that passes through points A and C changes as A moves closer to C. There comes a point when A and C overlap (as shown in (c)). We therefore introduce the idea of a gradient at a single point on a curve.
If we have a curve deﬁned by f (x) then for two points P and Q with P(a. g(4)) We can use the result in (29.1). which gives h = 2. We now see that we can write the equation to calculate average gradient in a slightly diﬀerent manner.CHAPTER 29. we can determine: y1 = g(a) = a2 y2 = g(a + h) = (a + h)2 = a2 + 2ah + h2 Step 3 : Calculate average gradient y2 − y1 x2 − x1 (a2 + 2ah + h2 ) − (a2 ) (a + h) − (a) 2 a + 2ah + h2 − a2 a+h−a 2ah + h2 h h(2a + h) h 2a + h 29. 343 .. g(a+ h)) on the curve g(x) = x2 is 2a + h. f (a)) and Q(a + h. then the average gradient between P and Q on f (x) is: y2 − y1 x2 − x1 = = f (a + h) − f (a) (a + h) − (a) f (a + h) − f (a) h This result is important for calculating the gradient at a point on a curve and will be explored in greater detail in Grade 12.GRADE 11 and Q(4. Answer Step 1 : Label x points x1 = a x2 = a + h Step 2 : Determine y coordinates Using the function g(x) = x2 . GRADIENT AT A POINT .1) The average gradient between P(a. but we have to determine what is a and h. h gets smaller. When point P moves closer to point Q. We do this by looking at the deﬁnitions of P and Q. g(a)) and Q(a+ h. f (a + h)). The x coordinate of P is a and the x coordinate of Q is a + h therefore if we assume that a = 2 then if a + h = 4.2 = = = = = (29. g(2)) and Q(4. Finally. explain what happens to the average gradient if P moves closer to Q. When the point Q overlaps with the point P h = 0 and the average gradient is given by 2a. Then the average gradient is: 2a + h = 2(2) + (2) = 6 Step 5 : When P moves closer to Q. Step 4 : Calculate the average gradient between P(2.. This means that the average gradient also gets smaller. g(4)).
29.3
CHAPTER 29. GRADIENT AT A POINT  GRADE 11
29.3
1.
End of Chapter Exercises
A Determine the average gradient of the curve f (x) = x(x + 3) between x = 5 and x = 3. B Hence, state what you can deduce about the function f between x = 5 and x = 3.
2. A(1;3) is a point on f (x) = 3x2 . A Determine the gradient of the curve at point A. B Hence, determine the equation of the tangent line at A. 3. Given: f (x) = 2x2 . A Determine the average gradient of the curve between x = −2 and x = 1. B Determine the gradient of the curve of f where x = 2.
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Chapter 30
Linear Programming  Grade 11
30.1 Introduction
In everyday life people are interested in knowing the most eﬃcient way of carrying out a task or achieving a goal. For example, a farmer might want to know how many crops to plant during a season in order to maximise yield (produce) or a stock broker might want to know how much to invest in stocks in order to maximise proﬁt. These are examples of optimisation problems, where by optimising we mean ﬁnding the maxima or minima of a function. We have seen optimisation problems of one variable in Chapter 40, where there were no restrictions to the answer. You were then required to ﬁnd the highest (maximum) or lowest (minimum) possible value of some function. In this chapter we look at optimisation problems with two variables and where the possible solutions are restricted.
30.2
Terminology
There are some basic terms which you need to become familiar with for the linear programming chapters.
30.2.1
Decision Variables
The aim of an optimisation problem is to ﬁnd the values of the decision variables. These values are unknown at the beginning of the problem. Decision variables usually represent things that can be changed, for example the rate at which water is consumed or the number of birds living in a certain park.
30.2.2
Objective Function
The objective function is a mathematical combination of the decision variables and represents the function that we want to optimise (i.e. maximise or minimise) is called the objective function. We will only be looking at objective functions which are functions of two variables. For example, in the case of the farmer, the objective function is the yield and it is dependent on the amount of crops planted. If the farmer has two crops then the objective function f (x,y) is the yield, where x represents the amount of the ﬁrst crop planted and y represents the amount of the second crop planted. For the stock broker, assuming that there are two stocks to invest in, the objective function f (x,y) is the amount of proﬁt earned by investing x rand in the ﬁrst stock and y rand in the second. 345
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CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11
30.2.3
Constraints
Constraints, or restrictions, are often placed on the variables being optimised. For the example of the farmer, he cannot plant a negative number of crops, therefore the constraints would be: x≥0
y ≥ 0. Other constraints might be that the farmer cannot plant more of the second crop than the ﬁrst crop and that no more than 20 units of the ﬁrst crop can be planted. These constraints can be written as: x≥y
x ≤ 20 Constraints that have the form ax + by ≤ c or ax + by = c are called linear constraints. Examples of linear constraints are: x+y ≤0 −2x = 7 √ y≤ 2
30.2.4
Feasible Region and Points
Constraints mean that we cannot just take any x and y when looking for the x and y that optimise our objective function. If we think of the variables x and y as a point (x,y) in the xyplane then we call the set of all points in the xyplane that satisfy our constraints the feasible region. Any point in the feasible region is called a feasible point. For example, the constraints x≥0
y ≥ 0. mean that only values of x and y that are positive are allowed. Similarly, the constraint x≥y means that only values of x that are greater than or equal to the y values are allowed. x ≤ 20 means that only x values which are less than or equal to 20 are allowed.
Important: The constraints are used to create bounds of the solution.
30.2.5
The Solution
Important: Points that satisfy the constraints are called feasible solutions.
Once we have determined the feasible region the solution of our problem will be the feasible point where the objective function is a maximum / minimum. Sometimes there will be more 346
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than one feasible point where the objective function is a maximum/minimum — in this case we have more than one solution.
30.3
Example of a Problem
A simple problem that can be solved with linear programming involves Mrs. Nkosi and her farm. Mrs Nkosi grows mielies and potatoes on a farm of 100 m2 . She has accepted orders that will need her to grow at least 40 m2 of mielies and at least 30 m2 of potatoes. Market research shows that the demand this year will be at least twice as much for mielies as for potatoes and so she wants to use at least twice as much area for mielies as for potatoes. She expects to make a proﬁt of R650 per m2 for her mielies and R1 500 per m2 on her sorgum. How should she divide her land so that she can earn the most proﬁt? Let m represent the area of mielies grown and let p be the area of potatoes grown. We shall see how we can solve this problem.
30.4
Method of Linear Programming
Method: Linear Programming 1. Identify the decision variables in the problem. 2. Write constraint equations 3. Write objective function as an equation 4. Solve the problem
30.5
30.5.1
Skills you will need
Writing Constraint Equations
You will need to be comfortable with converting a word description to a mathematical description for linear programming. Some of the words that are used is summarised in Table 30.1. Table 30.1: Phrases and mathematical equivalents. Words Mathematical description x equals a x=a x is greater than a x>a x is greater than or equal to a x≥a x is less than a x<a x is less than or equal to a x≤a x must be at least a x≥a x must be at most b x≤a
Worked Example 123: Writing constraints as equations Question: Mrs Nkosi grows mielies and potatoes on a farm of 100 m2 . She has accepted orders that will need her to grow at least 40 m2 of mielies and at least 347
30.5
CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11 30 m2 of potatoes. Market research shows that the demand this year will be at least twice as much for mielies as for potatoes and so she wants to use at least twice as much area for mielies as for potatoes. Answer Step 1 : Identify the decision variables There are two decision variables: the area used to plant mielies (m) and the area used to plant potatoes (p). Step 2 : Identify the phrases that constrain the decision variables • grow at least 40 m2 of mielies • area of farm is 100 m2
• grow at least 30 m2 of potatoes • demand is twice as much for mielies as for potatoes
Step 3 : For each phrase, write a constraint • m ≥ 40
• m + p ≤ 100 • m ≥ 2p
• p ≥ 30
Exercise: constraints as equation Write the following constraints as equations: 1. Michael is registering for courses at university. Michael needs to register for at least 4 courses. 2. Joyce is also registering for courses at university. She cannot register for more than 7 courses. 3. In a geography test, Simon is allowed to choose 4 questions from each section. 4. A baker can bake at most 50 chocolate cakes in 1 day. 5. Megan and Katja can carry at most 400 koeksisters.
30.5.2
Writing the Objective Function
If the objective function is not given to you as an equation, you will need to be able to convert a word description to an equation to get the objective function. You will need to look for words like: • most proﬁt • least cost • largest area 348
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Worked Example 124: Writing the objective function Question: The cost of hiring a small trailer is R500 per day and the cost of hiring a big trailer is R800 per day. Write down the objective function that can be used to ﬁnd the cheapest cost for hiring trailers for 1 day. Answer Step 1 : Identify the decision variables There are two decision variables: the number of big trailers (nb ) and the number of small trailers (ns ). Step 2 : Write the purpose of the objective function The purpose of the objective function is to minimise cost. Step 3 : Write the objective function The cost of hiring ns small trailers for 1 day is: 500 × ns The cost of hiring nb big trailers for 1 day is: 800 × nb Therefore the objective function, which is the total cost of hiring ns small trailers and nb big trailers for 1 day is: 500 × ns + 800 × nb
Worked Example 125: Writing the objective function Question: Mrs Nkosi expects to make a proﬁt of R650 per m2 for her mielies and R1 500 per m2 on her potatoes. How should she divide her land so that she can earn the most proﬁt? Answer Step 1 : Identify the decision variables There are two decision variables: the area used to plant mielies (m) and the area used to plant potatoes (p). Step 2 : Write the purpose of the objective function The purpose of the objective function is to maximise proﬁt. Step 3 : Write the objective function The proﬁt of planting m m2 of mielies is: 650 × m The proﬁt of planting p m2 of potatoes is: 1500 × p Therefore the objective function, which is the total proﬁt of planting mielies and potatoes is: 650 × m + 1500 × p
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CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11
Exercise: Writing the objective function 1. The EduFurn furniture factory manufactures school chairs and school desks. They make a proﬁt of R50 on each chair sold and of R60 on each desk sold. Write an equation that will show how much proﬁt they will make by selling the chairs and desks? 2. A manufacturer makes small screen GPS’s and wide screen GPS’s. If the proﬁt on small screen GPS’s is R500 and the proﬁt on wide screen GPS’s is R250, write an equation that will show the possible maximum proﬁt.
30.5.3
Solving the Problem
The numerical method involves using the points along the boundary of the feasible region, and determining which point has the optimises the objective function.
Activity :: Investigation : Numerical Method Use the objective function 650 × m + 1500 × p to calculate Mrs. Nkosi’s proﬁt for the following feasible solutions: m 60 65 70 2 66 3 p 30 30 30 1 33 3 Proﬁt
The question is How do you ﬁnd the feasible region? We will use the graphical method of solving a system of linear equations to determine the feasible. We draw all constraints as graphs and mark the area that satisﬁes all constraints. This is shown in Figure 30.1 for Mrs. Nkosi’s farm. Now we can use the methods we learnt previously to ﬁnd the points at the vertices of the feasible region. In Figure 30.1, vertex A is at the intersection of p = 30 and m = 2p. Therefore, the coordinates of A are (30,60). Similarly vertex B is at the intersection of p = 30 and m = 100−p. Therefore the coordinates of B are (30,70). Vertex C is at the intersection of m = 100 − p and 1 2 m = 2p, which gives (33 3 ,66 3 ) for the coordinates of C. If we now substitute these points into the objective function, we get the following: m 60 70 2 66 3 p 30 30 1 33 3 Proﬁt 81 000 87 000 89 997
2 2 Therefore Mrs. Nkosi makes the most proﬁt if she plants 66 3 m2 of mielies and 66 3 m2 of potatoes. Her proﬁt is R89 997. 350
CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11 m 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 p 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B A C
30.5
Figure 30.1: Graph of the feasible region
Worked Example 126: Prizes! Question: As part of their opening specials, a furniture store has promised to give away at least 40 prizes with a total value of at least R2 000. The prizes are kettles and toasters. 1. If the company decides that there will be at least 10 of each prize, write down two more inequalities from these constraints. 2. If the cost of manufacturing a kettle is R60 and a toaster is R50, write down an objective function C which can be used to determine the cost to the company of both kettles and toasters. 3. Sketch the graph of the feasibility region that can be used to determine all the possible combinations of kettles and toasters that honour the promises of the company. 4. How many of each prize will represent the cheapest option for the company? 5. How much will this combination of kettles and toasters cost? Answer Step 1 : Identify the decision variables Let the number of kettles be xk and the number of toasters be yt and write down two constraints apart from xk ≥ 0 and yt ≥ 0 that must be adhered to. Step 2 : Write constraint equations Since there will be at least 10 of each prize we can write: xk ≥ 10 and yt ≥ 10 Also the store has promised to give away at least 40 prizes in total. Therefore: xk + yt ≥ 40 Step 3 : Write the objective function 351
30.6
CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11 The cost of manufacturing a kettle is R60 and a toaster is R50. Therefore the cost the total cost C is: C = 60xk + 50yt Step 4 : Sketch the graph of the feasible region yt 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 A xk 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B
Step 5 : Determine vertices of feasible region From the graph, the coordinates of vertex A is (3,1) and the coordinates of vertex B are (1,3). Step 6 : Calculate cost at each vertex At vertex A, the cost is: C = = = = At vertex B, the cost is: C = = = = 60xk + 50yt 60(10) + 50(30) 600 + 1500 2100 60xk + 50yt 60(30) + 50(10) 1800 + 500 2300
Step 7 : Write the ﬁnal answer The cheapest combination of prizes is 10 kettles and 30 toasters, costing the company R2 100.
30.6
End of Chapter Exercises
1. You are given a test consisting of two sections. The ﬁrst section is on Algebra and the second section is on Geometry. You are not allowed to answer more than 10 questions from any section, but you have to answer at least 4 Algebra questions. The time allowed 352
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30.6
is not more than 30 minutes. An Algebra problem will take 2 minutes and a Geometry problem will take 3 minutes each to solve. If you answer xA Algebra questions and yG Geometry questions, A Formulate the constraints which satisfy the above constraints. B The Algebra questions carry 5 marks each and the Geometry questions carry 10 marks each. If T is the total marks, write down an expression for T . 2. A local clinic wants to produce a guide to healthy living. The clinic intends to produce the guide in two formats: a short video and a printed book. The clinic needs to decide how many of each format to produce for sale. Estimates show that no more than 10 000 copies of both items together will be sold. At least 4 000 copies of the video and at least 2 000 copies of the book could be sold, although sales of the book are not expected to exceed 4 000 copies. Let xv be the number of videos sold, and yb the number of printed books sold. A Write down the constraint inequalities that can be deduced from the given information. B Represent these inequalities graphically and indicate the feasible region clearly. C The clinic is seeking to maximise the income, I, earned from the sales of the two products. Each video will sell for R50 and each book for R30. Write down the objective function for the income. D Determine graphically, by using a search line, the number of videos and books that ought to be sold to maximise the income. E What maximum income will be generated by the two guides? 3. A patient in a hospital needs at least 18 grams of protein, 0,006 grams of vitamin C and 0,005 grams of iron per meal, which consists of two types of food, A and B. Type A contains 9 grams of protein, 0,002 grams of vitamin C and no iron per serving. Type B contains 3 grams of protein, 0,002 grams of vitamin C and 0,005 grams of iron per serving. The energy value of A is 800 kilojoules and the of B 400 kilojoules per mass unit. A patient is not allowed to have more than 4 servings of A and 5 servings of B. There are xA servings of A and yB servings of B on the patients plate. A Write down in terms of xA and yB i. The mathematical constraints which must be satisﬁed. ii. The kilojoule intake per meal. B Represent the constraints graphically on graph paper. Use the scale 1 unit = 20mm on both axes. Shade the feasible region. C Deduce from the graphs, the values of xA and yB which will give the minimum kilojoule intake per meal for the patient. 4. A certain motorcycle manufacturer produces two basic models, the ’Super X’ and the ’Super Y’. These motorcycles are sold to dealers at a proﬁt of R20 000 per ’Super X’ and R10 000 per ’Super Y’. A ’Super X’ requires 150 hours for assembly, 50 hours for painting and ﬁnishing and 10 hours for checking and testing. The ’Super Y’ requires 60 hours for assembly, 40 hours for painting and ﬁnishing and 20 hours for checking and testing. The total number of hours available per month is: 30 000 in the assembly department, 13 000 in the painting and ﬁnishing department and 5 000 in the checking and testing department. The above information can be summarised by the following table: Department Assembley Painting and Finishing Checking and Testing Hours for ‘Super X’ 150 50 10 Hours for Super ‘Y’ 60 40 20 Maximum hours available per month 30 000 13 000 5 000
Let x be the number of ’Super X’ and y be the number of ’Super Y’ models manufactured per month. 353
30.6
CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 11 A Write down the set of constraint inequalities. B Use the graph paper provided to represent the constraint inequalities. C Shade the feasible region on the graph paper. D Write down the proﬁt generated in terms of x and y. E How many motorcycles of each model must be produced in order to maximise the monthly proﬁt? F What is the maximum monthly proﬁt?
5. A group of students plan to sell x hamburgers and y chicken burgers at a rugby match. They have meat for at most 300 hamburgers and at most 400 chicken burgers. Each burger of both types is sold in a packet. There are 500 packets available. The demand is likely to be such that the number of chicken burgers sold is at least half the number of hamburgers sold. A Write the constraint inequalities. B Two constraint inequalities are shown on the graph paper provided. Represent the remaining constraint inequalities on the graph paper. C Shade the feasible region on the graph paper. D A proﬁt of R3 is made on each hamburger sold and R2 on each chicken burger sold. Write the equation which represents the total proﬁt, P, in terms of x and y. E The objective is to maximise proﬁt. How many, of each type of burger, should be sold to maximise proﬁt? 6. Fashioncards is a small company that makes two types of cards, type X and type Y. With the available labour and material, the company can make not more than 150 cards of type X and not more than 120 cards of type Y per week. Altogether they cannot make more than 200 cards per week. There is an order for at least 40 type X cards and 10 type Y cards per week. Fashioncards makes a proﬁt of R5 for each type X card sold and R10 for each type Y card. Let the number of type X cards be x and the number of type Y cards be y, manufactured per week. A One of the constraint inequalities which represents the restrictions above is x ≤ 150. Write the other constraint inequalities. B Represent the constraints graphically and shade the feasible region. C Write the equation that represents the proﬁt P (the objective function), in terms of x and y. D Calculate the maximum weekly proﬁt. 7. To meet the requirements of a specialised diet a meal is prepared by mixing two types of cereal, Vuka and Molo. The mixture must contain x packets of Vuka cereal and y packets of Molo cereal. The meal requires at least 15 g of protein and at least 72 g of carbohydrates. Each packet of Vuka cereal contains 4 g of protein and 16 g of carbohydrates. Each packet of Molo cereal contains 3 g of protein and 24 g of carbohydrates. There are at most 5 packets of cereal available. The feasible region is shaded on the attached graph paper. A Write down the constraint inequalities. B If Vuka cereal costs R6 per packet and Molo cereal also costs R6 per packet, use the graph to determine how many packets of each cereal must be used for the mixture to satisfy the above constraints in each of the following cases: i. The total cost is a minimum. ii. The total cost is a maximum (give all possibilities). 354
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6 6 Number of packets of Molo 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0
00
11 22 33 44 55 Number of packets of Vuka
66
8. A bicycle manufacturer makes two diﬀerent models of bicycles, namely mountain bikes and speed bikes. The bicycle manufacturer works under the following constraints: No more than 5 mountain bicycles can be assembled daily. No more than 3 speed bicycles can be assembled daily. It takes one man to assemble a mountain bicycle, two men to assemble a speed bicycle and there are 8 men working at the bicycle manufacturer. Let x represent the number of mountain bicycles and let y represent the number of speed bicycles. A Determine algebraically the constraints that apply to this problem. B Represent the constraints graphically on the graph paper. C By means of shading, clearly indicate the feasible region on the graph. D The proﬁt on a mountain bicycle is R200 and the proﬁt on a speed bicycle is R600. Write down an expression to represent the proﬁt on the bicycles. E Determine the number of each model bicycle that would maximise the proﬁt to the manufacturer.
355
GRADE 11 356 .30.6 CHAPTER 30. LINEAR PROGRAMMING .
a triangular pyramid and a cone.1500) A Thabit ibn Qurra B Omar Khayyam C Sharafeddin Tusi 2.1500) 31. The works of the following people or cultures can be investigated: 1.Grade 11 31.1: Examples of a square pyramid. 357 .Chapter 31 Geometry . Figure 31. Method: Surface Area of a Pyramid The surface area of a pyramid is calculated by adding the area of each face together.1 Introduction Activity :: Extension : History of Geometry Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the development of geometry in the last 1500 years. Islamic geometry (c.2 Right Pyramids. Right Cones and Spheres A pyramid is a geometric solid that has a polygon base and the base is joined to an apex. Describe the various stages of development and how diﬀerent cultures used geometry to improve their lives. 700 .20th centuries (c. Examples of pyramids are shown in Figure 31. 700 .1. Geometry in the 17th .
show that the surface √ area is πr2 + πr r2 + h2 .GRADE 11 Question: If a cone has a height of h and a base of radius r. 358 .31. Therefore: a= r 2 + h2 Step 4 : Calculate the area of the circular base Ab = πr2 Step 5 : Calculate the area of the curved walls Aw = πra = πr Step 6 : Calculate surface area A A = = Ab + Aw πr2 + πr r 2 + h2 r 2 + h2 Method: Volume of a Pyramid The volume of a pyramid is found by: V = 1 A·h 3 where A is the area of the base and h is the height. The base is a circle of radius r and the walls can be opened out to a sector of a circle. GEOMETRY . a 2πr = circumference This curved surface can be cut into many thin triangles with height close to a (a is called a slant height). Answer Step 1 : Draw a picture h a h r r Step 2 : Identify the faces that make up the cone The cone has two faces: the base and the walls.2 Worked Example 127: Surface Area CHAPTER 31. The area of these triangles will add up to 1 ×base×height 2 which is 1 × 2πr × a = πra 2 Step 3 : Calculate a a can be calculated by using the Theorem of Pythagoras.
Surface area = Volume = 4πr2 4 3 πr 3 Exercise: Surface Area and Volume 359 . so the volume of a cone is given by V = A square pyramid has volume V = where a is the side length. 3 3cm 2cm 2cm Step 2 : Substitute the given values 1 ·2·2·3 3 1 · 12 3 4 cm3 = = = We accept the following formulae for volume and surface area of a sphere (ball). 3 1 2 a h 3 31.CHAPTER 31. GEOMETRY . 3 which for a square base means V = 1 a · a · h. 1 2 πr h.GRADE 11 A cone is a pyramid.2 Worked Example 128: Volume of a Pyramid Question: What is the volume of a square pyramid. 3cm high with a side length of 2cm? Answer Step 1 : Determine the correct formula The volume of a pyramid is 1 V = A · h.
C Find the total surface area of the object. The pyramid has a height of 12 cm. A If P E T Q B ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ 1. and has a height of 42 cm. A right triangular pyramid is placed on top of a right triangular prism. The prism has an equilateral triangle of side length 20 cm as a base. what is the total area of land (area not covered by water)? 3. A = P . ABCDE and Worked Example 129: Similarity of Polygons Question: 360 . A Find the total volume of the object. C = R. B Find the area of each face of the pyramid. 31. Calculate the volumes and surface areas of the following solids: *Hint for (e): ﬁnd the perpendicular height using Pythagoras.3 Similarity of Polygons In order for two polygons to be similar the following must be true: 1.31. Taking the radius of the Earth to be 6378 km. All corresponding angles must be congruent.GRADE 11 1. All corresponding sides must be in the same proportion to each other. ˆ=T ˆ E and 2. 2.3 CHAPTER 31. Water covers approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface. a) b) c) d) 3 6 4 14 5 13 e) 24 7 a sphere a hemisphere a cone a hemisphere on top of a cone 24 a pyramid with a square base 2. GEOMETRY . B = Q. AB PQ = BC QR = CD RS = DE ST = EA TP S D R C then the polygons PQRST are similar. D = S.
1 Triangle Geometry Proportion Two line segments are divided in the same proportion if the ratios between their parts are equal. 361 . PQ PR ∴ = TU SU 3 1 3 9 x = x + (3 − x) x = ∴ 3 ∴x = 31. P U 3 T 1 S Answer Step 1 : Identify corresponding sides Since the polygons are similar. the following also hold 1.4.CHAPTER 31.GRADE 11 R Q 31.4 31. Find the value of x. 3. 4. AC · F E = CB · DF 2. AB x kx DE = = = BC y ky EF ∴ the line segments are in the same proportion C B x y D kx E ky If the line segments are proportional. GEOMETRY .4 x 3 x Polygons PQTU and PRSU are similar. CB AC AB BC AB AC A F = = = FE DF DE FE DE DF and and BC AB AC AB = = FE DE DF DE • Triangles with equal heights have areas which are in the same proportion to each other as the bases of the triangles.
GRADE 11 h1 area △ABC ∴ area △DEF = h2 1 BC × h1 BC = = 2 1 EF EF × h2 2 A D h1 h2 B C E F • A special case of this happens when the bases of the triangles are equal: Triangles with equal bases between the same parallel lines have the same area. lie between parallel lines. If area △ ABC = area △ BDC. with equal areas. E A A A h1 h2 D D B D C E 362 E B C B C .31. then AD A BC. Proportion Theorem:A line drawn parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two sides proportionally. area △ABC = A 1 · h · BC = area △DBC 2 D h B C • Triangles on the same side of the same base.4 CHAPTER 31. GEOMETRY . D B C Theorem 1.
Proof: This is a special case of the Proportionality Theorem (Theorem 1). B C D E Theorem 3.T. Draw BE and CD.: Theorem 2.: BC AD AE = DB EC 31. area △ADE area △BDE = = 1 2 AD · h1 1 2 DB · h1 1 2 AE · h2 1 2 EC · h2 = = AD DB AE EC but area △BDE = area △ADE ∴ = area △BDE AD = ∴ DB ∴ DE divides AB and AC proportionally. C = F 363 . A If AB = BD and AC = AE. A D G H E B C F ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Given:△ABC and △DEF with A = D. AD AB AB BD = = area △ADE area △CED area △CED (equal base and height) area △ADE area △CED AE EC AE AC AC CE Following from Theorem 1. we can prove the midpoint theorem. Similarly. then DE BC and BC = 2DE. Similarity Theorem 1:Equiangular triangles have their sides in proportion and are therefore similar. and h2 from D perpendicular to AE. GEOMETRY .P.4 Proof: Draw h1 from E perpendicular to AD. B = E.GRADE 11 Given:△ABC with line DE R.CHAPTER 31. Midpoint Theorem: A line joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and equal to half the length of the third side.
364 .T.: CHAPTER 31. A h1 h2 D E B C Given:△ABC with line DE such that AD AE = DB EC R. AH = DF ˆ ˆ A=D ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ∴ ˆ ˆ ˆ AGH = E = B GH BC AH AG = AB AC DF DE = AB AC △ABC  △DEF △AGH ≡ △DEF (const. Draw BE and CD. and h2 from D perpendicular to AE.P.) (given) (SAS) (corres. △ADE  △ABC Draw h1 from E perpendicular to AD. Similarity Theorem 2:Triangles with sides in proportion are equiangular and therefore similar.4 R.P.T. so that AH = DF Proof: In △’s AGH and DEF AG = DE. so that AG = DE H on AC. ∠’s equal) (proportion theorem) (AG = DE.GRADE 11 AB AC = DE DF Construct: G on AB. AH = DF) Important:  means “is similar to” Theorem 4. GEOMETRY .:DE Proof: BC.31.
GJ LK and 365 JK KI 5 = 3 . .:BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 Proof: ˆ Let C ˆ ∴ A2 ˆ ∴ A1 ˆ B ˆ D1 = x = 90◦ − x (∠ ’s of a △ ) = x = 90◦ − x (∠ ’s of a △ ) ˆ ˆ = D2 = A = 90◦ ∴ △ABD △CBA and △CAD △ CBA (AAA) ∴ AB BD = = CB BA AD CA and CA CD = = CB CA AD BA ∴ AB 2 = CB × BD and AC 2 = CB × CD ∴ AB 2 + AC 2 = = = = CB(BD + CD) CB(CB) CB 2 AB 2 + AC 2 i. GEOMETRY .GRADE 11 area △ADE area △BDE = = = = = 1 2 AD · h1 1 2 DB · h1 1 2 AE · h2 1 2 EC · h2 31.4 = = AD DB AE EC area △ADE area △CED AD but DB area △ADE ∴ area △BDE ∴ area △BDE ∴ DE BC ˆ ∴ ADE ˆ and AED (same side of equal base DE. Pythagoras’ Theorem:The square on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.CHAPTER 31.T. ˆ Given:△ ABC with A = 90◦ A 1 2 ∴ △ADE  △ABC (AAA) B 1 2 C R. BC 2 Worked Example 130: Triangle Geometry 1 Question: In △ GHI. GH LJ. same area) ˆ = ABC (corres ∠’s) ˆ = ACB AE (given) EC area △ADE area △CED area △CED ∴ △ADE and △ABC are equiangular Theorem 5.e.P. Determine HJ KI .
GRADE 11 I K J H Answer Step 1 : Identify similar triangles ˆ LIJ ˆ J LI ∴ △LIJ ˆ LIK ˆ K LI ∴ △LIK = ˆ GIH ˆ H GI =  △GIH ˆ GIJ ˆ J GI (Corres. Prove that PT · TR = ST · TQ. GEOMETRY . with PQ P 1 2 1 2 RS. ∠s) (Equiangular △s) Step 2 : Use proportional sides HJ JI GL and LI HJ JI GL LI JK KI 5 3 5 3 = = = (△LIJ  △GIH) (△LIK  △GIJ) ∴ = Step 3 : Rearrange to ﬁnd the required ratio HJ KI HJ JI × JI KI 5 8 × 3 3 40 9 = = = Worked Example 131: Triangle Geometry 2 Question: PQRS is a trapezium.31. ∠s) (Equiangular △s) = =  △GIJ (Corres. Q T 2 1 R 2 1 S 366 .4 G L CHAPTER 31.
and ED = 9 cm. CB YB = 2 . AB = 4 cm. C A E D B 4. D A S X Z C Y B 3. JL = 9 m and HJ = 32 m. ∠s) (Equiangular △s) 31. Calculate SV S 10 V 20 U 35 T 2. ﬁnd AE. Find 3 DS SB . GEOMETRY .4 = ∴ △P T Q  △ST R Step 2 : Use proportional sides PT = TQ ∴ PT · TR = ST TR ST · T Q (△ PTQ  △ STR) Exercise: Triangle Geometry 1. ﬁnd IJ and KJ. HI = 26 m. Given the following ﬁgure with the following lengths.GRADE 11 Answer Step 1 : Identify similar triangles ˆ P1 ˆ Q1 = ˆ S1 ˆ R1 (Alt. EC and BE. BC = 15 cm. Using the following ﬁgure and lengths. 367 . ∠s) (Alt. KL = 13 m.CHAPTER 31. CD = 18 cm.
y2 ).5. GEOMETRY . DF = 18m. AD = 9 m. CE and EF.5 K CHAPTER 31. CF. CD. y1 ) and (x2 . and ﬁnd the ratio A DE AC . Assume that the two points are (x1 .31. E 36 42 D G 21 F H 6. calculate y. J 2 L y M 7 I K y2 31. If LM JK. BF = 25 m.5 31. when two points are given. D B C E F 7.1 Coordinate Geometry Equation of a Line between Two Points There are many diﬀerent methods of specifying the requirements for determining the equation of a straight line. Calculate the lengths of BC.GRADE 11 J H L I 5. AB = 13 m. One option is to ﬁnd the equation of a straight line. and we know that the general form of the equation for a straight line is: 368 . Find FH in the following ﬁgure.
5) (31. Subtract (31. 3 y2 − y1 x2 − x1 2−1 2 − (−1) 1 3 369 . m and c. to make things a bit easier to remember. y1 ) are the coordinates of either given point. Important: If you are asked to calculate the equation of a line passing through two points.11) to calculate m and then use: to determine the equation.3) (31. to determine the equation of the line passing through our two points.6) (31. GEOMETRY . Extension: Finding the second equation for a straight line This is an example of a set of simultaneous equations.3) from (31.3) to obtain c m y1 c = mx2 − mx1 y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 = mx1 + c = y1 − mx1 (31. the equation of the straight line passing through (−1. because we can write: y1 y2 = = mx1 + c mx2 + c (31.1) So.1): y which can be rearranged to: y − y1 = = = mx + c mx + (y1 − mx1 ) m(x − x1 ) (31.7) into (31. with two unknowns.7) (31. use: y2 − y1 m= x2 − x1 y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) For example.9) (31.GRADE 11 31. we need to determine values for m (the gradient of the line) and c (the yintercept of the line).4) We now have two equations.8) Now.4) y2 − y1 ∴ Rearrange (31. The resulting equation is y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) (31.10) (31.2) where (x1 .5 y = mx + c (31. substitute (31. 1) and (2.CHAPTER 31. 2) is given by ﬁrst calculating m m = = = and then substituting this value into y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) to obtain y − y1 = 1 (x − x1 ).
2: The equation of the line passing through (−1. y2 ) = Step 2 : Calculate the gradient (−3.GRADE 11 = = = 1 (x − (−1)) 3 1 1 x+ 3 3 1 1 x+ +1 3 3 1 4 x+ 3 3 passes through (−1. GEOMETRY . 3 (2.1) 1 1 y = 3x + 4 3 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 Figure 31. 2). 2) and (5. 8) m = = = = = y2 − y1 x2 − x1 8−2 5 − (−3) 6 5+3 6 8 3 4 Step 3 : Determine the equation of the line 370 . 1) and (2. 1) and (2. 3 3 Worked Example 132: Equation of Straight Line Question: Find the equation of the straight line passing through (−3. 2) is y = 1 x + 4 . 1) to obtain y − (1) = y−1 y y So. 2) (5. y = 1 x + 3 4 3 CHAPTER 31. 8).5 Then substitute (−1.31. Answer Step 1 : Label the points (x1 . y1 ) = (x2 .2) 2 (1.
GRADE 11 31.13) Once we have determined a value for m. then m If the lines are perpendicular. 1) into: y − y1 y−1 = m(x − x1 ) = 2(x − (−1) = 2(x + 1) = 2x + 2 y−1 y−1 y y = 2x + 2 + 1 = 2x + 3 31.5 y − y1 = y − (2) = y = = = = m(x − x1 ) 3 (x − (−3)) 4 3 (x + 3) + 2 4 3 3 x+ ·3+2 4 4 9 8 3 x+ + 4 4 4 17 3 x+ 4 4 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The equation of the straight line that passes through (−3. 371 . Since the line we are looking for is parallel to y = 2x − 1. For example. GEOMETRY . we see that the line makes an angle θ with the xaxis.2 Equation of a Line through One Point and Parallel or Perpendicular to Another Line Another method of determining the equation of a straightline is to be given one point. then m × m0 = m0 = −1 (31. and to be told that the line is parallel or perpendicular to another line. 2) and (5.12) (31. (x1 .3 Inclination of a Line In Figure 31. we can then use the given point together with: y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) to determine the equation of the line. y1 ). m=2 The equation is found by substituting m and (−1.CHAPTER 31. If the equation of the unknown line is y = mx + c and the equation of the second line is y = m0 x + c0 .5. This angle is known as the inclination of the line and it is sometimes interesting to know what the value of θ is. 8) is y = 3 17 4x + 4 . First we determine m.4(a). 1).5. ﬁnd the equation of the line that is parallel to y = 2x − 1 and that passes through (−1. 31. then we know the following: If the lines are parallel.
31.4: (a) A line makes an angle θ with the xaxis. You can test this by using your ruler and measuring the distance between the lines at diﬀerent points. 372 . GEOMETRY . 1) and parallel to y = 2x − 1 is y = 2x + 3. (b) The angle is dependent on the gradient. It can be seen that the lines are parallel to each other.GRADE 11 3 2 (1.1) 1 y = 2x − 1 1 −1 −2 2 3 y = 2x + 3 −3 −2 −1 Figure 31.3: The equation of the line passing through (−1.5 CHAPTER 31. If the gradient of f is mf and the gradient of g is mg then mf > mg and θf > θg . f (x) = 4x − 4 3 2 1 θ 1 (a) 2 3 1 ∆y 3 2 1 θg θf 2 (b) 3 4 g(x) = 2x − 2 ∆x Figure 31.
2) perpendicular to 2y + x = 6 passing through the origin y = 2x − 3 y = 1x − 7 3 4y = 3x + 8 y = − 2 x + 3 (Hint: if m is negative θ must be in the second quadrant) 3 3y + x − 3 = 0 2. 3) 1 perpendicular to y = − 2 x + 3 passing through (−1. (Hint: Show that the inclination of this line is 90◦ . GEOMETRY . Show that the line x = k for any constant k is parallel to the yaxis.4(b)). we know m = 1 ∴ tan θ ∴θ = = 1 45◦ Exercise: Coordinate Geometry 1.) 4. so we suspect that the inclination of a line is related to the gradient.6 31. (Hint: Show that the inclination of this line is 0◦ . we say that it is rotated. −3) and (0. then the value of θ changes (Figure 31. in Figure 31. Find the equations of the following lines A B C D E A B C D E through points (−1.6 Firstly.GRADE 11 31.6.) 31. Show that the line y = k for any constant k is parallel to the xaxis. we note that if the gradient changes.CHAPTER 31.4(a) we see that tan θ ∴m = = ∆y ∆x tan θ ∆y ∆x For example. We know that the gradient is a ratio of a change in the ydirection to a change in the xdirection. What happens to the coordinates of a point that is rotated by 90◦ or 180◦ around the origin? Activity :: Investigation : Rotation of a Point by 90◦ 373 . to ﬁnd the inclination of the line y = x. 4) 1 parallel to y = 2 x + 3 passing through (−1.1 Transformations Rotation of a Point When something is moved around a ﬁxed point. 3) and (1. Find the inclination of the following lines 3. 4) through points (7. m= But.
if it was rotated to the position of point E? What about point F rotated to the position of B? C B A F G H D E From these activities you should have come to the following conclusions: 374 .GRADE 11 Complete the table. Point xcoordinate ycoordinate A B C D E F G H What do you notice about the xcoordinates? What do you notice about the ycoordinates? What would happen to the coordinates of point A. by ﬁlling in the coordinates of the points shown in the ﬁgure.31.6 CHAPTER 31. GEOMETRY . by ﬁlling in the coordinates of the points shown in the ﬁgure. if it was rotated to the position of point C? What about point B rotated to the position of D? D E F C B A H G Activity :: Investigation : Rotation of a Point by 180◦ Complete the table. Point xcoordinate ycoordinate A B C D E F G H What do you notice about the xcoordinates? What do you notice about the ycoordinates? What would happen to the coordinates of point A.
CHAPTER 31. −y). x). x) y P(x. y) → (−y. A Rotate ∆XYZ anticlockwise through an angle of 90◦ about the origin to give ∆X′ Y′ Z′ . y) • 180◦ rotation: The image of a point P(x. y) rotated anticlockwise through 90◦ around the origin is P’(−y. Y′′ and Z′′ .4) 2. Give the coordinates of X′ . 375 .2) C OC is rotated to OC′ with C(1. For each of the following rotations about the origin: (i) Write down the rule. y) 31. x P”(y. Copy ∆XYZ onto squared paper.4) and C′ (1.6 • 90◦ clockwise rotation: The image of a point P(x. y) Exercise: Rotation 1. y) rotated clockwise through 90◦ around the origin is P’(y. y) rotated through 180◦ around the origin is P’(−x.GRADE 11 y P(x. y) → (y. −y). The coordinates are given on the picture. x) x y P(x. A OA is rotated to OA′ with A(4. Give the coordinates of X′′ .2) and A′ (2. −x). x P”’(x.5) and B′ (5. We write the rotation as (x. P’(y. We write the rotation as (x. We write the rotation as (x.4) B OB is rotated to OB′ with B(2. −x). GEOMETRY . x). y) → (−x. B Rotate ∆XYZ through 180◦ about the origin to give ∆X′′ Y′′ Z′′ . Y′ and Z′ . (ii) Draw a diagram showing the direction of rotation. y) • 90◦ anticlockwise rotation: The image of a point P(x.
2 Enlargement of a Polygon 1 When something is made larger. What happens to the coordinates of a polygon that is enlarged by a factor k? Activity :: Investigation : Enlargement of a Polygon Complete the table.4) 31. we say that it is enlarged. if the square ABCD was enlarged by a factor 2? F 1 B −1 C −1 G A 1 D H E Activity :: Investigation : Enlargement of a Polygon 2 376 .GRADE 11 X(4. Point xcoordinate ycoordinate A B C D E F G H What do you notice about the xcoordinates? What do you notice about the ycoordinates? What would happen to the coordinates of point A.4) Z(4. GEOMETRY .31. by ﬁlling in the coordinates of the points shown in the ﬁgure.1) Y(1.6 CHAPTER 31.6.
U’(cx3 . Complete the following table. U(x3 .GRADE 11 7 31. GEOMETRY .CHAPTER 31. T(x2 .6 6 I’ 5 4 H’ I H K’ J’ 3 2 1 K 0 0 1 2 3 J 4 5 6 7 8 9 In the ﬁgure quadrilateral HIJK has been enlarged by a factor of 2 through the origin to become H’I’J’K’.) K’ + (. the coordinates 2.) I’ = (. c c • The vertices of △S’T’U’ are S’(cx1 . the lengths when we enlarge by a factor of 2? We conclude as follows: Let the vertices of a triangle have coordinates S(x1 . OT’ = cOT and OU’ = cOU.cy3 ). • The distances from the origin are OS’ = cOS.) J = (. • △STU is a reduction of △S’T’U’ by a factor of c.cy2 ). 9 8 T’ 7 6 5 4 S’ T 3 2 U’ S U 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 377 .) Length OH = OI = OJ = OK = Length’ OH’ = OI’ = OJ’ = OK’ = What conclusions can you draw about 1. cy1 ). (Note that a reduction by 1 is the same as an enlargement by c). y1 ). T’(cx2 . y3 ). y2 ).) J’ = (. Coordinate H = (.) K = (.) Coordinate’ H’ = (.) I = (. • △S’T’U’ can alternatively be seen as an reduction through the origin of △STU by a factor of 1 . △S’T’U’ is an enlargement through the origin of △STU by a factor of c (c > 0).
Label it S’T’U’V’.6 CHAPTER 31. △ABC is an enlargement of △A’B’C’ by a constant factor of k through the origin. 1) Copy polygon STUV onto squared paper and then answer the following questions. what is m? 5 A 4 3 A’ 2 B B’ 1 0 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 2 C’ 3 4 C 5 378 . calculate the value of k. 3 2 S T 1 0 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 V 2 U 3 A What are the coordinates of polygon STUV? B Enlarge the polygon through the origin by a constant factor of c = 2. A What are the coordinates of the vertices of △ABC and △A’B’C’ ? B Giving reasons. Draw this on the same grid.31. GEOMETRY . C What are the coordinates of the vertices of S’T’U’V’ ? 2. C If the area of △ABC is m times the area of △A’B’C’.GRADE 11 Exercise: Transformations 1.
379 . 2 A What are the coordinates of the vertices of polygon MNPQ? B Enlarge the polygon through the origin by using a constant factor of c = 3. GEOMETRY . Draw this on the same set of axes. obtaining polygon M’N’P’Q’.CHAPTER 31. C What are the coordinates of the new vertices? D Now draw M”N”P”Q” which is an anticlockwise rotation of MNPQ by 90◦ around the origin.6 4 M 3 2 P 1 N Q 0 2 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3.GRADE 11 5 31. E Find the inclination of OM”.
GEOMETRY .6 CHAPTER 31.GRADE 11 380 .31.
1 Graphs of Trigonometric Functions Functions of the form y = sin(kθ) In the equation. plot the following graphs: 1.5θ 381 .2. Exercise: Functions of the Form y = sin(kθ) On the same set of axes. Cultures A Ancient Egyptians B Mesopotamians C Ancient Indians of the Indus Valley 2. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32. Describe the various stages of development and how diﬀerent cultures used trigonometry to improve their lives. The works of the following people or cultures can be investigated: 1. k is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function.Grade 11 32. y = sin(kθ). People A Lagadha (circa 13501200 BC) B Hipparchus (circa 150 BC) C Ptolemy (circa 100) D Aryabhata (circa 499) E Omar Khayyam (10481131) F Bhaskara (circa 1150) G Nasir alDin (13th century) H alKashi and Ulugh Beg (14th century) I Bartholemaeus Pitiscus (1595) 32. a(θ) = sin 0.1 History of Trigonometry Work in pairs or groups and investigate the history of the development of trigonometry.2 32.Chapter 32 Trigonometry .1 for the function f (θ) = sin(2θ).
b(θ) = sin 1θ 3. The range of f (θ) = sin(kθ) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [−1.1: Graph of f (θ) = sin(2θ) with the graph of g(θ) = sin(θ) superimposed in gray. k These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32.2 CHAPTER 32. e(θ) = sin 2.GRADE 11 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 32. TRIGONOMETRY . Notice that in ◦ the case of the sine graph. the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned. You should have found that the value of k aﬀects the periodicity of the graph. Intercepts For functions of the form. Table 32. There are many xintercepts.1: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = sin(kx). the period (length of one wave) is given by 360 . k>0 k<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = sin(kθ). d(θ) = sin 2θ 5.32. c(θ) = sin 1. The yintercept is calculated by setting θ = 0: y yint = sin(kθ) = sin(0) = 0 382 . y = sin(kθ).5θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of k.5θ 4. the details of calculating the intercepts with the y axis are given. 2. The curve y = sin(x) is shown in gray.1]}.1.
d(θ) = cos 2θ 5. plot the following graphs: 1.1]}.2. Exercise: Functions of the Form y = cos(kθ) On the same set of axes. The range of f (θ) = cos(kθ) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [−1. k These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32.5θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of k. Table 32. y = cos(kθ).5θ 2. a(θ) = cos 0.2 for the function f (θ) = cos(2θ).2: Graph of f (θ) = cos(2θ) with the graph of g(θ) = cos(θ) superimposed in gray. You should have found that the value of k aﬀects the periodicity of the graph.2. e(θ) = cos 2.GRADE 11 32. the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned.5θ 4. b(θ) = cos 1θ 3. c(θ) = cos 1. The curve y = cos(x) is shown in gray.2: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = cos(kx). k is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32. TRIGONOMETRY .CHAPTER 32. The period of ◦ the cosine graph is given by 360 . k>0 k<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = cos(kθ). 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 32.2 32.2 Functions of the form y = cos(kθ) In the equation. 383 .
the details of calculating the intercepts with the y axis are given. The asymptotes are shown as dashed lines.2 Intercepts CHAPTER 32.∞)}.5θ Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of k. k These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32. 5 −360 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 360 −5 Figure 32. 384 ◦ ◦ . The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = cos(kθ) = cos(0) = 1 32. the value of k aﬀects the periodicity of the graph. c(θ) = tan 1.2. 90 )} because the function is k k ◦ ◦ undeﬁned for θ = 90 and θ = 90 .5θ 2. k k The range of f (θ) = tan(kθ) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ (−∞. Domain and Range For f (θ) = tan(kθ). b(θ) = tan 1θ 3. y = tan(kθ). As k increases.3. e(θ) = tan 2. a(θ) = tan 0. k is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. y = cos(kθ).32.5θ 4. You should have found that. once again. plot the following graphs: 1.3: The graph of tan(2θ) superimposed on the graph of g(θ) = tan(θ) (in gray). the domain of one branch is {θ : θ ∈ (− 90 . the graph is more tightly packed. As k decreases. the graph is more spread out. TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 11 For functions of the form. d(θ) = tan 2θ 5. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32. Exercise: Functions of the Form y = tan(kθ) On the same set of axes. The ◦ period of the tan graph is given by 180 .3 Functions of the form y = tan(kθ) In the equation.3 for the function f (θ) = tan(2θ).
a(θ) = sin(θ − 90◦ ) 3.2. 385 . y = tan(kθ). b(θ) = sin(θ − 60◦ ) 1.4 Functions of the form y = sin(θ + p) In the equation. each one is halfway between the asymptotes.GRADE 11 32. k>0 k<0 Intercepts For functions of the form. the details of calculating the intercepts with the x and y axis are given. tan(kθ) tan(0) 0 32.2 Table 32.CHAPTER 32. e(θ) = sin(θ + 180◦ ) Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of p. tan kθ approaches inﬁnity. 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 32. In other words. there is no deﬁned value of the function at the asymptote values. c(θ) = sin θ 4. y = sin(θ + p). d(θ) = sin(θ + 90◦ ) 5.3: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = tan(kθ). The yintercept is calculated as follows: y yint = = = Asymptotes The graph of tan kθ has asymptotes because as kθ approaches 90◦ .4: Graph of f (θ) = sin(θ + 30◦ ) with the graph of g(θ) = sin(θ) in gray. plot the following graphs: 2. There are many xintercepts.4 for the function f (θ) = sin(θ + 30◦ ). Exercise: Functions of the Form y = sin(θ + p) On the same set of axes. p is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. TRIGONOMETRY . The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32.
TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 11 You should have found that the value of p aﬀects the yintercept and phase shift of the graph.2 CHAPTER 32. 1 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 −1 Figure 32. Intercepts For functions of the form. The p value shifts the graph horizontally.2.4: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = sin(θ + p).4.5 Functions of the form y = cos(θ + p) In the equation. Table 32. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32.1]}.5 for the function f (θ) = cos(θ + 30◦ ).5: Graph of f (θ) = cos(θ + 30◦ ) with the graph of g(θ) = cos(θ) shown in gray. y = sin(θ + p). These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32. plot the following graphs: 386 . Exercise: Functions of the Form y = cos(θ + p) On the same set of axes.32. y = cos(θ + p). the details of calculating the intercept with the y axis are given. p is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function. the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned. the graph shifts left and if p is negative tha graph shifts right. The yintercept is calculated as follows: set θ = 0◦ y yint = sin(θ + p) = sin(0 + p) = sin(p) 32. If p is positive. The range of f (θ) = sin(θ + p) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [−1. p>0 p<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = sin(θ + p).
5: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = cos(θ + p). a(θ) = cos(θ − 90◦ ) 32. Intercepts For functions of the form. a(θ) = tan(θ − 90◦ ) 387 .6 Functions of the form y = tan(θ + p) In the equation. the details of calculating the intercept with the y axis are given. TRIGONOMETRY . the domain is {θ : θ ∈ R} because there is no value of θ ∈ R for which f (θ) is undeﬁned. As in the case of the sine graph. y = cos(θ + p). p>0 p<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = cos(θ + p).1]}. The curve y = cos θ is shown in gray.2. You should have found that the value of p aﬀects the yintercept and phase shift of the graph.5. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32. e(θ) = cos(θ + 180◦ ) Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of p.6 for the function f (θ) = tan(θ + 30◦ ).CHAPTER 32. c(θ) = cos θ 2.GRADE 11 1. d(θ) = cos(θ + 90◦ ) 5. plot the following graphs: 1. positive values of p shift the cosine graph left while negative p values shift the graph right. Exercise: Functions of the Form y = tan(θ + p) On the same set of axes. b(θ) = cos(θ − 60◦ ) 4. The yintercept is calculated as follows: set θ = 0◦ y yint = = = cos(θ + p) cos(0 + p) cos(p) 32. The general shape of the graph of functions of this form is shown in Figure 32.2 3. The range of f (θ) = cos(θ + p) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ [−1. Table 32. y = tan(θ + p). p is a constant and has diﬀerent eﬀects on the graph of the function.
3. There is a horizontal shift to the left if p is positive and to the right if p is negative. tan(θ + p) approaches inﬁnity.∞)}. These diﬀerent properties are summarised in Table 32. d(θ) = tan(θ + 60◦ ) 5. Intercepts For functions of the form. the domain for one branch is {θ : θ ∈ (−90◦ − p.GRADE 11 5 −360 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 360 −5 Figure 32.2 CHAPTER 32. The yintercept is calculated as follows: set θ = 0◦ y yint Asymptotes The graph of tan(θ + p) has asymptotes because as θ + p approaches 90◦ . TRIGONOMETRY .90◦ − p} because the function is undeﬁned for θ = −90◦ − p and θ = 90◦ − p. y = tan(θ + p).6: Table summarising general shapes and positions of graphs of functions of the form y = tan(θ + p). k>0 k<0 Domain and Range For f (θ) = tan(θ + p). The range of f (θ) = tan(θ + p) is {f (θ) : f (θ) ∈ (−∞.32. You should have found that the value of p once again aﬀects the yintercept and phase shift of the graph. Thus.6: The graph of tan(θ + 30◦ ) with the graph of g(θ) = tan(θ) shown in gray. e(θ) = tan(θ + 180◦ ) Use your results to deduce the eﬀect of p. the details of calculating the intercepts with the y axis are given. c(θ) = tan θ 2. b(θ) = tan(θ − 60◦ ) 4. 388 = tan(θ + p) = tan(p) .6. there is no deﬁned value of the function at the asymptote values. Table 32.
the third angle is also 45◦ . because one angle is 90◦ . C 45◦ A B Figure 32.3 32. Take any rightangled triangle with one angle 45◦ . y = sin 3x 3. 1.GRADE 11 32. So we have an isosceles rightangled triangle as shown in Figure 32. 45◦ and 60◦ . y = 2 sin 2x 6. y = − cos 2x 4. h. If the two equal sides are of length a.CHAPTER 32. y = sin(x − 45◦ ) 5. We shall start with 45◦ as this is the easiest.1 Trigonometric Identities Deriving Values of Trigonometric Functions for 30◦ . TRIGONOMETRY . y = cos(x + 45◦ ) 7.7: An isosceles right angled triangle. we can derive values of trigonometric functions for 30◦ . Then. we have: sin(45◦ ) opposite(45◦ ) hypotenuse a = √ 2a 1 = √ 2 389 = h = a2 + a2 = 2a2 √ = 2a .3.3 Exercise: Functions of various form Using your knowledge of the eﬀects of p and k draw a rough sketch of the following graphs without a table of values. 45◦ and 60◦ Keeping in mind that trigonometric functions apply only to rightangled triangles.7. then the hypotenuse. can be calculated as: h2 ∴ So. y = tan 1 x 2 2. y = sin(x + 30◦ ) + 1 32. y = tan(x − 45◦ ) 8.
can be calculated as: v2 = = = ∴ v = 1 a2 − ( a)2 2 1 a2 − a2 4 3 2 a 4 √ 3 a 2 So.32.8: An equilateral triangle with one angle bisected. we have: 390 . then the base is 2 a and the length of the vertical side. TRIGONOMETRY .3 CHAPTER 32.8. with one angle of 30◦ and one angle of 60◦ .GRADE 11 cos(45◦ ) = = = adjacent(45◦ ) hypotenuse a √ 2a 1 √ 2 tan(45◦ ) opposite(45◦ ) adjacent(45◦ ) a = a = 1 = We can try something similar for 30◦ and 60◦ . We start with an equilateral triangle and we bisect one angle as shown in Figure 32. v. B 30◦ 60◦ C A D Figure 32. This gives us the rightangled triangle that we need. 1 If the equal sides are of length a.
3.2 Alternate Deﬁnition for tan θ opposite adjacent We know that tan θ is deﬁned as: tan θ = This can be written as: tan θ = = opposite hypotenuse × adjacent hypotenuse hypotenuse opposite × hypotenuse adjacent But.GRADE 11 opposite(30◦ ) hypotenuse a 2 32.CHAPTER 32. TRIGONOMETRY . we also know that sin θ is deﬁned as: sin θ = and that cos θ is deﬁned as: cos θ = opposite hypotenuse adjacent hypotenuse 391 .3 sin(30◦ ) = = = sin(60◦ ) = = = opposite(60◦ ) hypotenuse √ 3 2 a a 1 2 adjacent(30◦ ) hypotenuse √ 3 2 a √a 3 2 adjacent(60◦ ) hypotenuse a 2 cos(30◦ ) = = = cos(60◦ ) = = = √a 3 2 opposite(30◦ ) adjacent(30◦ ) a √2 3 2 a a 1 2 opposite(60◦ ) adjacent(60◦ ) √ 3 2 a a 2 tan(30◦ ) = = = tan(60◦ ) = = = 1 √ 3 √ 3 You do not have to memorise these identities if you know how to work them out. Important: Two useful triangles to remember 2 30 ◦ 60◦ 1 √ 2 45 ◦ 45◦ 1 √ 3 1 32.
BC We also know from the Theorem of Pythagoras that: AB 2 + AC 2 = BC 2 .3. C θ A We see that: sin θ = and cos θ = B AC BC AB . Similarly.32. we can write tan θ = = = CHAPTER 32. we shall show that: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 We shall start by considering △ABC. So we can write: sin2 θ + cos2 θ = = = = = AB AC + BC BC AB 2 AC 2 + BC 2 BC 2 AC 2 + AB 2 BC 2 BC 2 (from Pythagoras) BC 2 1 392 2 2 .3 Therefore. We have seen that tan θ can be written in terms of sin θ and cos θ.GRADE 11 opposite hypotenuse × hypotenuse adjacent 1 sin θ × cos θ sin θ cos θ Important: tan θ can also be deﬁned as: tan θ = sin θ cos θ 32. TRIGONOMETRY .3 A Trigonometric Identity One of the most useful results of the trigonometric functions is that they are related to each other.
GRADE 11 32.3 Worked Example 133: Trigonometric Identities A Question: Simplify using identities: 2.CHAPTER 32. TRIGONOMETRY . 1. tan2 θ · cos2 θ 1 cos2 θ Answer Step 1 : Use known identities to replace tan θ = = = tan2 θ · cos2 θ sin2 θ · cos2 θ cos2 θ sin2 θ − tan2 θ Step 2 : Use known identities to replace tan θ 1 − tan2 θ cos2 θ sin2 θ 1 − cos2 θ cos2 θ 1 − sin2 θ cos2 θ cos2 θ =1 cos2 θ = = = = Worked Example 134: Trigonometric Identities B Question: Prove: Answer 1−sin x cos x = cos x 1+sin x LHS = = = = = 1 − sin x cos x 1 − sin x 1 + sin x × cos x 1 + sin x 2 1 − sin x cos x(1 + sin x) cos2 x cos x(1 + sin x) cos x = RHS 1 + sin x Exercise: Trigonometric identities 393 .
For example. Prove the following: A C D E F B sin θ + (cos θ − tan θ)(cos θ + tan θ) = 1 − tan2 θ (2 cos2 θ−1) 1 1+sin θ cos θ 2 = + 1 (1+tan2 θ) = 1−tan2 θ 1+tan2 θ 1 cos θ tan2 θ =1 cos θ − 1 2 sin θ cos θ 1 sin θ+cos θ = sin θ + cos θ − sin θ+cos θ 1 cos θ sin θ + tan θ · cos θ = sin θ 32. TRIGONOMETRY .4 Reduction Formula Any trigonometric function whose argument is 90◦ ± θ.3 CHAPTER 32. tan2 θ + tan2 θ.3. Function values of (180◦ + θ) . 180◦ ± θ. cos θ. you may have noticed that the cosine graph is identical to the sine graph except for a phase shift of 90◦ . cos(180◦ − θ) and tan(180◦ − θ). cos θ and tan θ. From this we may expect that sin(90◦ + θ) = cos θ. sin2 θ − cos2 θ cos θ 1−sin θ 2. Simplify the following using the fundamental trigonometric identities: A B cos θ. P thus has coordinates √ ( 3.32. 1). If P’ is the reﬂection of P about the yaxis (or the line x = 0). Function Values of (180◦ − θ) A In the ﬁgure P and P’ lie on the circle with radius 2. (d) From your results try and determine a relationship between the function values of (180◦ − θ) and θ. use symmetry to write down the coordinates of P’. sin2 θ D 1 − sin θ. 270◦ ± θ and 360◦ ± θ (hence −θ) can be written simply in terms of θ. Function Values of 180◦ ± θ Activity :: Investigation : Reduction Formulae for Function Values of 180◦ ± θ 1.GRADE 11 1. OP makes an angle θ = 30◦ with the xaxis. 394 y P’ 2 θ 180◦ − θ P 2 θ x 0 2. B Write down values for sin θ. tan θ E 1 − sin2 θ F 1−cos2 θ cos2 θ cos θ tan θ 2 C 1 − tan2 θ. C Using the coordinates for P’ determine sin(180◦ − θ).
1). P’ is the inversion of P through the origin (reﬂection about both the x. 1). B Using the coordinates for P’ determine sin(360◦ − θ). C From your results try and determine a relationship between the function values of (360◦ − θ) and θ. C From your results try and determine a relationship between the function values of (180◦ + θ) and θ. Write down the coordinates of P’. OP makes an angle θ = 30◦ with the xaxis. OP makes an angle θ = 30◦ with the xaxis. P’ is the reﬂection of P about the xaxis or the line y = 0. We get the following results: sin(360◦ + θ) = cos(360 + θ) = tan(360◦ + θ) = Note also. then sin(360◦ · k + θ) = ◦ ◦ sin θ cos θ tan θ sin θ cos θ tan θ cos(360 · k + θ) = tan(360◦ · k + θ) = 395 .CHAPTER 32.GRADE 11 A In the ﬁgure P and P’ lie on the circle with radius 2.3 180◦ + θ 2 θ 0 2 P’ P x B Using the coordinates for P’ determine sin(180◦ + θ). P thus has co√ ordinates ( 3. y 360◦ − θ 0 P 2 θ θ 2 P’ x It is possible to have an angle which is larger than 360◦ . cos(360◦ − θ) and tan(360◦ − θ). Function values of (360◦ − θ) A In the ﬁgure P and P’ lie on the circle with radius 2. The angle completes one revolution to give 360◦ and then continues to give the required angle. θ y 32. write down the coordinates of P’. TRIGONOMETRY . P thus has coordinates √ ( 3. that if k is any integer. Using symmetry. cos(180◦ + θ) and tan(180◦ + θ). Activity :: Investigation : Reduction Formulae for Function Values of 360◦ ± θ 1.and yaxes) and lies at an angle of 180◦ + θ with the xaxis.
.32. Answer We note that 293◦ = 360◦ − 67◦ thus sin 293◦ = = − sin 67◦ sin(360◦ − 67◦ ) where we used the fact that sin(360◦ − θ) = − sin θ. using your calculator. Write these equations as a function of θ only: A B C D E F sin(180◦ − θ) cos(180◦ − θ) cos(360◦ − θ) cos(360◦ + θ) tan(180◦ − θ) cos(360◦ + θ) 2. Check. Question: Evaluate without using a calculator: tan2 210◦ − (1 + cos 120◦) sin2 225◦ Answer tan2 210◦ − (1 + cos 120◦ ) sin2 225◦ = [tan(180◦ + 30◦ )]2 − [1 + cos(180◦ − 60◦ )] · [sin(180◦ + 45◦ )]2 = (tan 30◦ )2 − [1 + (− cos 60◦ )] · (− sin 45◦ )2 = = = 1 √ 3 2 − 1− 1 2 1 · −√ 2 2 1 1 1 − 3 2 2 1 1 1 − = 3 4 12 Exercise: Reduction Formulae 1. then ﬁnd the actual angle with your calculator: A sin 163◦ 396 .. that these values are in fact equal: sin 293◦ − sin 67◦ = = −0. TRIGONOMETRY .3 CHAPTER 32. Write the following trig functions as a function of an acute angle.GRADE 11 Worked Example 135: Basic use of a reduction formula Question: Write sin 293◦ as the function of an acute angle.92 · · · Worked Example 136: More complicated.92 · · · −0.
1). cos(90◦ −θ) and tan(90◦ −θ). Function values of (90◦ − θ) y P’ θ 90◦ − θ 2 2 θ 0 x P A In the ﬁgure P and P’ lie on the circle with radius 2. tan 420◦ 32. 397 . B Using the coordinates for P’ determine sin(90◦ −θ). TRIGONOMETRY . write down the coordinates of P’. Using symmetry. Thus for sine and cosine sin(−θ) = sin(360◦ − θ) = − sin θ cos(−θ) = cos(360◦ − θ) = cos θ Function Values of 90◦ ± θ Activity :: Investigation : Reduction Formulae for Function Values of 90◦ ± θ 1. P thus has coordinates √ ( 3. cos 120◦ (1 − cos 30◦ )(1 − sin 210◦ ) cos 780◦ + sin 315◦. sin 30◦ + cos 330◦ tan 300◦.CHAPTER 32. Do not use a calculator: A B C D E F G H I J K L cos 300◦ sin 135◦ cos 150◦ tan 330◦ sin 120◦ tan2 225◦ cos 315◦ sin2 420◦ tan 405◦ cos 1020◦ tan2 135◦ 1 − sin2 210◦ Function Values of (−θ) When the argument of a trigonometric function is (−θ) we can add 360◦ without changing the result. C From your results try and determine a relationship between the function values of (90◦ − θ) and θ. P’ is the reﬂection of P about the line y = x. OP makes an angle θ = 30◦ with the xaxis.3 4. Determine the following without the use of a calculator: A B C D tan 150◦. Determine the following by reducing to an acute angle and using special angles.GRADE 11 B cos 327◦ C tan 248◦ D cos 213◦ 3.
OP makes an angle θ = 30◦ with the xaxis. These results may be proved as follows: sin(θ − 90◦ ) = − cos θ and likewise for cos(θ − 90◦ ) = sin θ 398 = sin[−(90◦ − θ)] = − sin(90◦ − θ) . Thus for sine and cosine we have sin(90◦ − θ) cos(90◦ − θ) = cos θ = sin θ Worked Example 137: Coco rule Question: Write each of the following in terms of 40◦ using sin(90◦ − θ) = cos θ and cos(90◦ − θ) = sin θ. Using symmetry. cos 230◦ Answer 1. 1). cos(90◦ +θ) and tan(90◦ +θ). and tangent and cotangent.GRADE 11 2. sin 320◦ 3. cos 50◦ 2.g. The function value of an angle is equal to the cofunction of its complement (the coco rule). P’ is the rotation of P through 90◦ . cos 230◦ = cos(180◦ + 50◦ ) = − cos 50◦ = − cos(90◦ − 40◦ ) = − sin 40◦ Function Values of (θ − 90◦ ) sin(θ − 90◦ ) = − cos θ and cos(θ − 90◦ ) = sin θ. 20◦ and 70◦ are complementary angles. 1. sin 320◦ = sin(360◦ − 40◦ ) = − sin 40◦ 3. e. TRIGONOMETRY . P thus has coordinates √ ( 3. The other cofunctions are secant and cosecant.32. cos 50◦ = cos(90◦ − 40◦ ) = sin 40◦ 2. (Hint: consider P’ as the reﬂection of P about the line y = x followed by a reﬂection about the yaxis) B Using the coordinates for P’ determine sin(90◦ +θ). write down the coordinates of P’. Function values of (90◦ + θ) A In the ﬁgure P and P’ lie on the circle with radius 2. y P’ θ 2 90◦ + θ 2 θ 0 P x Complementary angles are positive acute angles that add up to 90◦ . C From your results try and determine a relationship between the function values of (90◦ + θ) and θ.3 CHAPTER 32. Sine and cosine are known as cofunctions.
TRIGONOMETRY . 2. When determining function values of 180◦ ± θ. In this section.4 Solving Trigonometric Equations Chapters ?? and ?? focussed on the solution of algebraic equations and excluded equations that dealt with trigonometric functions (i. trigonometric identities will be used to simplify equations. the solution of trigonometric equations will be discussed. These reduction formulae hold for any angle θ. 3.5 (32.GRADE 11 Summary The following summary may be made second quadrant (180◦ − θ) or (90◦ + θ) sin(180◦ − θ) = + sin θ cos(180◦ − θ) = − cos θ tan(180◦ − θ) = − tan θ sin(90◦ + θ) = + cos θ cos(90◦ + θ) = − sin θ third quadrant (180◦ + θ) sin(180◦ + θ) = − sin θ cos(180◦ + θ) = − cos θ tan(180◦ + θ) = + tan θ ﬁrst quadrant (θ) or (90◦ − θ) all trig functions are positive sin(360◦ + θ) = sin θ cos(360◦ + θ) = cos θ tan(360◦ + θ) = tan θ sin(90◦ − θ) = sin θ cos(90◦ − θ) = cos θ fourth quadrant (360◦ − θ) sin(360◦ − θ) = − sin θ cos(360◦ − θ) = + cos θ tan(360◦ − θ) = − tan θ 32.CHAPTER 32. we usually work with θ as if it is acute. 0◦ < θ < 90◦ . sin and cos). before ﬁnding the ﬁnal solution. The ﬁnal solution can be found either graphically or using inverse trigonometric functions.e. In most cases. 360◦ ± θ and −θ the functions never change. consider sin θ = 0. When determining function values of 90◦ ± θ and θ − 90◦ the functions changes to its cofunction (coco rule). For convenience.e. to introduce the methods of solving trigonometric equations. i.4.1 is obtained by examining the intersecting points of the graphs of: y y = sin θ = 0.1) As explained in Chapters ?? and ??.5 399 . The methods described in Chapters ?? and ?? also apply here. We get third quadrant (270◦ − θ) sin(270◦ − θ) = − cos θ cos(270◦ − θ) = − sin θ fourth quadrant (270◦ + θ) sin(270◦ + θ) = − cos θ cos(270◦ + θ) = + sin θ 32.1 Graphical Solution As an example. 32. Extension: Function Values of (270◦ ± θ) Angles in the third and fourth quadrants may be written as 270◦ ± θ with θ an acute angle. the solution of Equation 32.4 Important: 1. Similar rules to the above apply.
9 and the intersection points of the graphs are shown by the dots.e. y = tan θ 1 0 −1 y=1 45 90 The graphs intersect at θ = 45◦ . are shown in Figure 32.5 = 1.5. 30◦ .5 showing the points of intersection. there are 8 possible solutions for the equation sin θ = 0. These are θ = [−690◦. for −720◦ < θ < 720◦. over the required domain and identify the intersection point. 150◦. y y = = tan θ 1 Step 3 : Draw graphs of both functions. θ) are on one side of the equation.32.5. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation so that all the terms with the unknown quantity (i.5.5 1 Step 2 : Identify the two functions which are intersecting.GRADE 11 Both graphs. tan θ + 0.5 = tan θ = 1. In the domain for θ of −720◦ < θ < 720◦. y = sin θ 1 y = 0.9: Plot of y = sin θ and y = 0. with 0◦ < θ < 90◦ . −570◦. 510◦] Worked Example 138: Question: Find θ. 390◦ . Determine the solution graphically. if tan θ + 0. hence the solutions to the equation sin θ = 0. −210◦. TRIGONOMETRY . −330◦.4 CHAPTER 32. 400 .5 −720 −630 −540 −450 −360 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 360 450 540 630 720 −1 Figure 32.
The dotted line represents y = 0. y 1 x −360 −180 180 −1 360 Figure 32. if tan θ + 0.CHAPTER 32. thus four solutions to sin θ = 0.5 = arcsin 0.7.5 = tan θ = ∴ θ = = 1.5 = 30◦ Worked Example 139: Question: Find θ.e. it does not tell the whole story. If we were to extend the range of the sine graph to inﬁnity we would in fact see that there are an inﬁnite number of solutions to this equation! This diﬃculty (which is caused by the periodicity of the sine function) makes solving trigonometric equations much harder than they may seem to be. there are four possible angles with a sine of 0. Answer Step 1 : Write the equation so that all the terms with the unknown quantity (i. Determine the solution using inverse trigonometric functions.10.7 between −360◦ and 360◦. with 0◦ < θ < 90◦ . Consider solving the equation sin θ = 0. These are shown as second functions on most calculators: sin−1 . tan θ + 0.5 1 arctan 1 45◦ Trigonometric equations often look very simple.10: The sine graph.2 Algebraic Solution The inverse trigonometric functions arcsin. We can take the inverse sine of both sides to ﬁnd that θ = sin−1 (0. There are four points of intersection on this interval. θ) are on one side of the equation.7) = 44. the equation sin θ = 0.7). TRIGONOMETRY .42◦ . however. cos−1 and tan−1 .5 = 1.7. arccos and arctan can also be used to solve trigonometric equations. Then solve for the angle using the inverse function.7.4.4 32. Using inverse trigonometric functions.GRADE 11 32. This is true. If we put this into a calculator we ﬁnd that sin−1 (0. 401 .5.5 is solved as sin θ ∴ θ = 0. As you can see from ﬁgure 32.
5.4 CHAPTER 32.4) (32. y 1 x −360 −180 180 −1 360 Step 2 : Notice that this line touches the graph four times.e. sin x 2 x 2 x 2 = = = 0.32. of course. 2 Answer Because we are told that x is an acute angle. TRIGONOMETRY . 402 . Worked Example 141: Question: For what values of x does sin x = 0.5. 30◦ and 150◦.2) (32. Your calculator will always give you the smallest answer (i. The ﬁrst is the equation itself and the second is the range in which your answers must lie. Worked Example 140: Question: Find the values of x for which sin x = 0.5 on the interval [−360◦. the one that lies between −90◦ and 90◦ for tangent and sine and one between 0◦ and 180◦ for cosine). −210◦.5 arcsin 0. when −360◦ ≤ x ≤ 360◦ ? Answer Step 1 : Draw the graph We take a look at the graph of sin x = 0. This means that there are four solutions to the equation.5 30◦ 60◦ (32. Bearing this in mind we can already solve trigonometric equations within these ranges. so we draw in a line at y = 0. we can simply apply an inverse trigonometric function to both sides. We want to know when the y value of the graph is 0.3) (32. Step 3 : Read oﬀ the x values of those intercepts from the graph as x = −330◦.5) ⇒ ⇒ ∴x = We can. solve trigonometric equations in any range by drawing the graph.GRADE 11 Any problem on trigonometric equations will require two pieces of information to solve.5 if it is given that x < 90◦ .5. 360◦ ]. The hard part is making sure you ﬁnd all of the possible answers within the range.
only tangent in the 3rd and only cosine in the 4th .4. TRIGONOMETRY . only sine is positive in the 2nd . 1st +VE +VE +VE 2nd +VE VE VE 3rd VE VE +VE 4th VE +VE VE sin cos tan Table 32. We shall now look at how to solve these problems algebraically. All of this can be summed up in two ways. We notice from ﬁgure 32. In ﬁgure 32. We express 403 . We call them quadrants because they correspond to the four quadrants of the unit circle.11: The graph and unit circle showing the sign of the sine function.7 shows which trigonometric functions are positive and which are negative in each quadrant.7: The signs of the three basic trigonometric functions in each quadrant. Figure 32.12 shows similar graphs for cosine and tangent. y 1 x −360 −270 −180 −90 90 180 270 360 −1 This method can be time consuming and inexact. each 90◦ wide.4 1 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 90◦ 2nd +VE 1st +VE 0◦ /360◦ 3rd VE 4th VE 270◦ 0 90 ◦ 180 ◦ 270 ◦ 360 ◦ 180◦ −1 +VE +VE VE VE Figure 32.11 we have split the sine graph into four quadrants. A more convenient way of writing this is to note that all functions are positive in the 1st quadrant. 32. We shall do this for the sine function ﬁrst and do the same for the cosine and tangent.CHAPTER 32.3 Solution using CAST diagrams The Sign of the Trigonometric Function The ﬁrst step to ﬁnding the trigonometry of any angle is to determine the sign of the ratio for a given angle.GRADE 11 32. Table 32.11 that the sine graph is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants and negative in the 3rd and 4th .
Magnitude of the trigonometric functions Now that we know in which quadrants our solutions lie. Another useful diagram shown in ﬁgure 32. To add multiples of the period we use 360◦ · n (where n is an integer) for sine and cosine and 180◦ · n.4 CHAPTER 32. The ‘A’ in the 1st quadrant stands for all (meaning sine. this using the CAST diagram (ﬁgure 32.3 we can apply the inverse sine function to both sides of the equation to ﬁnd– θ = = arcsin 0. 404 . read CAST. for the tangent. stand for sine. we need to know which angles in these quadrants satisfy our equation.GRADE 11 1 0 −1 8 6 4 2 0 90◦ 180◦ 270◦ 360◦ −2 −4 −6 −8 +VE +VE VE VE 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 90 ◦ 180 ◦ 270 ◦ 360 ◦ +VE VE +VE VE Figure 32.46◦ However.3 17.13 gives the formulae to use in each quadrant when solving a trigonometric equation. cosine and tangent are all positive in this quadrant). cosine and tangent. We get the rest of the answers by ﬁnding relationships between this small angle. The letter in each quadrant tells us which trigonometric functions are positive in that quadrant. ‘S’. For example. θ. The diagram is shown in two forms.12: Graphs showing the sign of the cosine and tangent functions.32. TRIGONOMETRY . The version on the left shows the CAST diagram including the unit circle. This version is useful for equations which lie in large or negative ranges. remembering that sine. and answers in other quadrants.of course. if we wish to solve sin θ = 0. Calculators give us the smallest possible answer (sometimes negative) which satisﬁes the equation.13: The two forms of the CAST diagram and the formulae in each quadrant. We then look at the sign of the trigonometric function in order to decide in which quadrants we need to work (using the CAST diagram) and add multiples of the period to each. we know that this is just one of inﬁnitely many possible answers. ‘C’ and ‘T’ . cosine and tangent are periodic (repeating) functions.13). taken anticlockwise from the bottom right. This diagram is known as a CAST diagram as the letters. n ∈ Z. The simpler version on the right is useful for ranges between 0◦ and 360◦ . To do this we use our small angle θ as a reference angle. 90◦ S 180 ◦ A 0 /360 ◦ ◦ S T A C 180◦ − θ 180◦ + θ θ 360◦ − θ T 270◦ C Figure 32.
We want solutions for positive tangent so using our CAST diagram we know to look in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.4 Worked Example 142: Question: Solve for θ: sin θ = 0.GRADE 11 32. −197. 2.3 17.5) = 68. 162. So to ﬁnd the general solution we proceed as follows: tan(2x − 10◦ ) = I : 2x − 10◦ = 2x = x = 2. sin θ is given as a positive amount (0. θ = 17. If n = 0.3). This is also divided by 2 in the last step to keep the equation balanced.54◦ If n = 1. has been θ. Notice that we added 180◦ · n because the tangent has a period of 180◦ . θ = 377.46◦ 180◦ − θ 180◦ + θ θ 360◦ − θ S T A C Step 3 : Determine the general solution Our solution lies in quadrants I and II. TRIGONOMETRY .54◦ If n = −1.CHAPTER 32. Step 2 : Determine the reference angle The small angle θ is the angle returned by the calculator: sin θ ⇒θ ⇒θ = = = 0. the θ in cos θ or the (2x − 7) in tan(2x − 7)). . .g.54◦ + 360◦ · n. e.0. θ = −342. I: θ II : θ = 180◦ − 17.2◦. n ∈ Z This is called the general solution. Notice that we added the 10◦ and divided by 2 only at the end. . Let us try to solve tan(2x − 10◦ ) = 2. and add the 360◦ · n for the periodicity of sine.54◦.46◦ + 360◦ · n.5 [68.4 General Solution Using Periodicity Up until now we have only solved trigonometric equations where the argument (the bit after the function. n ∈ Z = 162. We therefore use θ and 180◦ − θ. n ∈ Z This is the general solution. This is our reference angle.4.46◦ We can ﬁnd as many as we like or ﬁnd speciﬁc solutions in a given interval by choosing more values for n. Step 4 : Find the speciﬁc solutions We can then ﬁnd all the values of θ by substituting n = . 522.2◦ + 180◦ · n 39. Our calculator tells us that arctan(2. 1. For example.2◦ + 180◦ · n 78. . If there is anything more complicated than this we need to be a little more careful.46◦ .2◦ ] 68.46◦ + 360◦ · n. n ∈ Z = 17. . We chose quadrants I and III because tan 405 . − 1.1◦ + 90◦ · n.5 in the range −360◦ ≤ x ≤ 360◦ . .3 arcsin 0. 32.46◦.etc. Reference to the CAST diagram shows that sine is positive in the ﬁrst and second quadrants.3 Answer Step 1 : Determine in which quadrants the solution lies We look at the sign of the trigonometric function.
1◦ • n = −2.2◦ + 360◦ · n.1◦ 32. 129.9◦ • n = −3.9◦.583 III : θ − 15◦ θ = 180◦ − 58. [58.9◦. n ∈ Z = −0. TRIGONOMETRY .2◦ + 360◦ · n. x = 219.9◦ • n = −4. 399.1◦.. solving trigonometric equations can become a lot more complicated.583 = −1.32.1◦ • n = 2.5 √ = ± 0.8◦ + 360◦ · n. Worked Example 143: Question: Write down the general solution isf 3 cos(θ − 15◦ ) − 1 = −2.1◦ (too big!) • n = −1.9◦.4. −230◦.GRADE 11 was positive and we used the formulae θ in quadrant I and (180◦ + θ) in quadrant III.1◦.6 Quadratic and Higher Order Trigonometric Equations The simplest quadratic trigonometric equation is of the form sin2 x − 2 = −1. x = −320.5 406 . 219.4. 219.4 CHAPTER 32.9◦. You should solve these just like normal equations to isolate a single trigonometric ratio. −50. To ﬁnd solutions where −360◦ < x < 360◦ we substitue integers for n: • n = 0. n ∈ Z 32.1◦ .1◦ . Then you follow the strategy outlined in the previous section. x = −50.1◦.2◦ ] = 180◦ + 58.9◦.1◦.5 This type of equation can be easily solved by rearranging to get a more familiar linear equation sin2 x ⇒ sin x = 0.2◦ + 360◦ · n.1◦ • n = 3.1◦. x = 39. −140. n ∈ Z = 253. −50.5276. x = 129. −230.1◦ and 309. −140. 39..9◦ Solution: x = −320. 309.583 Answer 3 cos(θ − 15◦ ) − 1 3 cos(θ − 15◦ ) II : θ − 15◦ θ cos(θ − 15◦ ) = −2. x = −230.5 Linear Trigonometric Equations Just like with regular equations without trigonometric functions. 39.9◦.1◦ • n = 1. x = 309. 129. x = −140. n ∈ Z = 136.
7 More Complex Trigonometric Equations Here are two examples on the level of the hardest trigonometric equations you are likely to encounter.4 This gives two linear trigonometric equations. Only solutions to the ﬁrst equation will be valid. TRIGONOMETRY . It is much easier in this case to use temporary variables.5 or cos x = 1 Both equations are valid (i. reject the second equation. For example consider the same equation with cosines instead of tangents cos2 (2x + 1) + 3 cos (2x + 1) + 2 = 0 Using the same method we ﬁnd that cos (2x + 1) = −1 or cos (2x + 1) = −2 The second solution cannot be valid as cosine must lie between −1 and 1.e. you should be able to solve anything! Worked Example 144: Question: Solve 2 cos2 x − cos x − 1 = 0 for x ∈ [−180◦. So. therefore. let y = cos x. 32. The next level of complexity comes when we need to solve a trinomial which contains trigonometric functions. hence we let y = tan(2x + 1) and rewrite: y 2 + 3y + 2 = 0 That should look rather more familiar.5 or y=1 Step 1 : Substitute back and solve the two resulting equations We thus get cos x = −0.CHAPTER 32. Be careful: sometimes one of the two solutions will be outside the range of the trigonometric function. The solutions to either of these equations will satisfy the original quadratic. In that case you need to discard that solution. We can immediately write down the factorised form and the solutions: (y + 1)(y + 2) = 0 ⇒ y = −1 OR y = −2 Next we just substitute back for the temporary variable: tan (2x + 1) = −1 or tan (2x + 1) = −2 And then we are left with two linear trigonometric equations. 360◦ ] Answer Step 1 : Use a temporary variable We note that cos x occurs twice in the equation. We must.GRADE 11 32. lie in the range of cosine). If you can solve these. Step 2 : Solve the quadratic equation Factorising yields (2y + 1)(y − 1) = 0 ∴ y = −0. General solution: 407 . Consider solving tan2 (2x + 1) + 3 tan (2x + 1) + 2 = 0 Here we notice that tan(2x + 1) occurs twice in the equation. They require using everything that you have learnt in this chapter.4. Then we have 2y 2 − y − 1 = 0 Note that with practice you may be able to leave out this step.
n ∈ Z = 240◦ + 360◦ · n.5 [60◦ ] cos x I.327 ii. 120◦. IV : x = = 1 [90◦ ] 0◦ + 360◦ · n.57◦] ∴ x = 180◦ · n.25◦. 206.375 iv. 240◦ . 360◦ ].GRADE 11 cos x II : x III : x = 180◦ + 60◦ + 360◦ · n. n ∈ Z Now we ﬁnd the speciﬁc solutions in the interval [−180◦. Give answers to one decimal place. −206. 360◦ Exercise: Solving Trigonometric Equations 1. 360◦ ]: 2 sin2 − sin x cos x = 0 Answer Step 2 : Factorise Factorising yields sin x(2 sin x − cos x) = 0 which gives two equations sin x = 0 2 sin x 2 sin x cos x 2 tan x tan x Step 3 : Solve the two trigonometric equations General solution: sin x = 0 [0◦ ] tan x = I.57◦. 360◦ ]. tan θ = −1. 0◦ . sin θ = −0.57◦ + 180◦ · n. n ∈ Z x = −360◦ .439 408 . n ∈ Z Worked Example 145: Question: Solve for x in the interval [−360◦. Appropriate values of n yield x = −120◦. n ∈ Z = 360◦ · n. n ∈ Z = 120◦ + 360◦ · n. 360◦ = 180◦ − 60◦ + 360◦ · n.57◦.4 CHAPTER 32. 360◦ ]: 26. cos θ = 0. B Find all solutions in the interval θ ∈ [−180◦.231 iii. III : x = 1 2 = cos x cos x = cos x = 1 = 1 2 [26. −26. n ∈ Z Speciﬁc solution in the interval [−360◦. 180◦ .32. −180◦. 0◦ . i. 26. TRIGONOMETRY . sin θ = 2. n ∈ Z = −0.57◦. A Find the general solution of each of the following equations.
A Find the general solution of each of the following equations. 4.5 Sine and Cosine Identities There are a few identities relating to the trigonometric functions that make working with triangles easier.5 sin θ = 0 B Write down the values of θ ∈ [0◦ . These are: 1. B Find all solutions in the interval θ ∈ [0◦ . 5 cos θ = −2 vi. b is the side opposite B and c is the side opposite C. 32. the cosine rule 3.7 A Write down the general solution for x if tan x = −1. 6.53 B Write down the values of A∈ [0◦ .1 The Sine Rule Deﬁnition: The Sine Rule The sine rule applies to any triangle: ˆ ˆ ˆ sin B sin C sin A = = a b c ˆ ˆ ˆ where a is the side opposite A.61. A Solve for A if sin(A + 20◦ ) = 0. cos θ = 0 √ ii. 360◦ ] A Solve for x if cos(x + 30◦ ) = 0.5. B Hence determine values of x ∈ [−180◦ .CHAPTER 32. A Write down the general solution for θ if sin θ = −0. 409 . 2 cos θ − 3 = 0 iv. i. TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 11 2. 2 cos θ + 1. 3 sin θ = −1. 720◦]. Give answers to one decimal place. 32. Consider △ABC.32 B Write down the values of x ∈ [−180◦. B Hence determine values of θ ∈ [0◦ .5 3. tan θ = −1 v. 360◦ ] A Solve for θ if sin2 (θ) + 0. 5.12. 7. the sine rule 2.3 = 0 viii. sin θ = 23 √ iii.5 = 1. 360◦ ] 32. 180◦].5 tan θ + 2. the area rule and will be described and applied in this section.5 vii. 360◦]. 0.
GRADE 11 C b h a A c B The area of △ABC can be written as: area △ABC = ˆ ˆ However. The lighthouses tell how close a boat is by taking bearings to the boat (remember – a bearing is an angle measured clockwise from north). by drawing the perpendicular between point B and line AC we can show that: 1 ˆ 1 ˆ c · b · sin A = a · b · sin C 2 2 Therefore the area of △ABC is: 1 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ c · b · sin A = c · a · sin B = a · b · sin C 2 2 2 If we divide through by 1 a · b · c. These bearings are shown. 410 . we get: 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ sin B sin C sin A = = a b c This is known as the sine rule and applies to any triangle.5 CHAPTER 32.67 km apart and one is exactly due east of the other. TRIGONOMETRY . h can be calculated in terms of A or B as: ˆ sin A = ∴ and ˆ sin B ∴ Therefore the area of △ABC is: 1 1 ˆ 1 ˆ c · h = c · b · sin A = c · a · sin B 2 2 2 Similarly.32. h = = h a ˆ a · sin B h h b ˆ = b · sin A 1 c · h. The two lighthouses are 0. Use the sine rule to calculate how far the boat is from each lighthouse. one on either side of a beach. 2 Worked Example 146: Lighthouses Question: There is a coastline with two lighthouses.
67 km 15 ◦ B C We need to know the lengths of the two sides AC and BC.67km) sin(37◦ ) = sin(128◦ ) = 0.51 km AC ˆ sin B AC = = = = AB ˆ sin C ˆ AB · sin B ˆ sin C (0.CHAPTER 32. A 37◦ 128◦ 0. BC ˆ sin A BC AB ˆ sin C = = ˆ AB · sin A ˆ sin C (0.67km) sin(15◦ ) sin(128◦ ) 0.22 km Exercise: Sine Rule 1.5 A 127◦ B 255◦ C Answer We can see that the two lighthouses and the boat form a triangle. the distance of the boat from the two lighthouses. We can use the sine rule to ﬁnd our missing lengths. Show that ˆ ˆ ˆ sin A sin B sin C = = a b c 411 . TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 11 32. Since we know the distance between the lighthouses and we have two angles we can use trigonometry to ﬁnd the remaining two sides of the triangle.
C = 70.5. ˆ ˆ ˆ sin A sin B sin C Note: either of these two forms can be used. Find the length of the side ST. R = 24◦ and r = 3.32.5◦ and a = 52. C b h a A d D c cd B In △DCB: from the theorem of Pythagoras. TRIGONOMETRY . In △KMS. In △ABC. 2. ˆ = 43◦ .5 is equivalent to: CHAPTER 32. M = 50◦ and m = 1 ˆ B △KLM in which K ◦ ˆ ˆ C △ABC in which A = 32.2 The Cosine Rule Deﬁnition: The Cosine Rule The cosine rule applies to any triangle and states that: a2 b2 c2 = = = ˆ b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A 2 2 ˆ c + a − 2ca cos B 2 2 ˆ a + b − 2ab cos C ˆ ˆ ˆ where a is the side opposite A. S = 30◦ and RT = 120 km. ˆ ˆ 5.7 . a2 = (c − d)2 + h2 (32. The cosine rule relates the length of a side of a triangle to the angle opposite it and the lengths of the other two sides.3 ˆ = 56◦ . Z = 40◦ and x = 50 ˆ D △XYZ in which X a ˆ ˆ 3. K = 20◦ . Find the length of the side AB. b is the side opposite B and c is the side opposite C. Find the length of the side m. In △RST. A = 116◦. 32. C = 32◦ and AC = 23 m.7) .GRADE 11 b c = = . ˆ ˆ 4.6) b2 = d2 + h2 412 (32. R = 19◦ . In △ACD: from the theorem of Pythagoras. Find all the unknown sides and angles of the following triangles: ˆ ˆ A △PQR in which Q = 64◦ . Consider △ABC which we will use to show that: ˆ a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A. M = 100◦ and s = 23 cm.
x = 2 and y = 3 C △RST in which RS= 2. LM= 10 and KM= 7 413 .6) and (32. ﬁnd all unknown sides and angles ˆ A △ABC in which A = 70◦ .5 a2 b2 + c2 − 2cd b2 + (c2 − 2cd + d2 ) − d2 b2 + c2 − 2cd + d2 − d2 (32. Substituting this into (32. (32. Solve the following triangles i.9) ˆ d = b cos A.GRADE 11 We can eliminate h2 from (32. ST= 3 and RT= 5 D △KLM in which KL= 5. we get: ˆ a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A The other cases can be proved in an identical manner.CHAPTER 32.7) to get: b2 − d2 = = = = a2 − (c − d)2 32. Worked Example 147: ˆ Question: Find A: A 8 5 B Answer Applying the cosine rule: a2 ∴ = ˆ b2 + c2 − 2bd cos A 2 2 2 b +c −a 2bc 82 + 52 − 72 2·8·5 0. where we have: ˆ d cos A = .5 = 60◦ 7 C ˆ cos A = = ∴ = ˆ = A Exercise: The Cosine Rule 1.e.8) In order to eliminate d we look at △ACD. b = 4 and c = 9 ˆ B △XYZ in which Y = 112◦ .5 arccos 0. b So.8). TRIGONOMETRY .
HK= 4 and JK= 3 B △PQR where p = 50. h can be written in terms of A ˆ h = b sin A So. Find the length of the third side of the △XYZ where: ˆ A X = 71. 2 ˆ as: However. the area is given by: A= 1 1 1 ˆ ˆ ˆ DE · EF sin E = EF · F D sin F = F D · DE sin D 2 2 2 F E D In order show that this is true for all triangles.5. C b h a A c B The area of any triangle is half the product of the base and the perpendicular height. the area rule can be shown for the other two angles.8◦ and z = 44.4◦ . TRIGONOMETRY . the area of △ABC is: 1 ˆ c · b sin A. Determine the largest angle in: A △JHK in which JH= 6. For △ABC. 2 A= Using an identical method.42 km and z = 4.32.5 CHAPTER 32. 414 . q = 70 and r = 60 32. Y = 20. That means that in the △DEF . x = 103.59 cm 3.03 km ˆ B . this is: 1 A = c · h. consider △ABC.2 cm. e = 5 and f = 7 2. y = 3. JH= 13 and HK= 8 F △DEF in which d = 4.3 The Area Rule Deﬁnition: The Area Rule The area rule applies to any triangle and states that the area of a triangle is given by half the product of any two sides with the sine of the angle between them.GRADE 11 ˆ E △JHK in which H = 130◦.
therefore AB=AC= 7 and C = B = 50◦ . what are the ˆ two possible sizes of C? 415 .13 Exercise: The Area Rule Draw sketches of the ﬁgures you use in this exercise. 1. 4. Now we can use the area rule to ﬁnd the area: A = = = 1 ˆ cb sin A 2 1 · 7 · 7 · sin 80◦ 2 24. XZ= 7 cm and Z = 28◦ ˆ B △PQR with PR= 52 cm.CHAPTER 32.5 Worked Example 148: The Area Rule Question: Find the area of △ABC: A 50◦ B C Answer ˆ ˆ ˆ △ABC is isosceles. Find the area of △PQR in which: ˆ A P = 40◦ . p = 8 and q = 9 2.5 cm.9 cm and G = 125◦ 3. Determine the area of a parallelogram in which two adjacent sides are 10 cm and 13 cm and the angle between them is 55◦ . TRIGONOMETRY . r = 10 and p = 7 ˆ C R = 110◦ . EG= 7.GRADE 11 32.9◦ ˆ C △EFG with FG= 2. q = 9 and r = 25 ˆ B Q = 30◦ . If the area of △ABC is 5000 m2 with a = 150 m and b = 70 m. Find the area of: ˆ A △XYZ with XY= 6 cm. PQ= 29 cm and P = 58. Hence A = 180◦ − 50◦ − 50◦ = 80◦ .
e. On a ﬂight from Johannesburg to Cape Town. R is a ˆ ˆ lighthouse on the coast such that P = Q = 50◦ . WXYZ is a trapezium (WX XZ) with WX= 3 m. Determine. ABCD is a trapezium (i. to the plane’s heading (or direction). b and c. Find an expression for the length of CD in terms of x. At this point the plane is 500 km from Johannesburg. Determine: A the distance QR B the shortest distance from the lighthouse to the line joining the two ships (PQ). B The correction. AB= x.32. AB CD). A x a B 4. TRIGONOMETRY . to the nearest km: A The distance the plane has to travel to get to Cape Town and hence the extra distance that the plane has had to travel due to the pilot’s error. 416 c D b C .5 m. ˆ ˆ ˆ BAD = a.GRADE 11 Summary of the Trigonometric Rules and Identities Pythagorean Identity cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 Odd/Even Identities sin(−θ) = − sin θ cos(−θ) = cos θ Sine Rule sin A a sin B b sin C c Ratio Identity tan θ = sin θ cos θ Periodicity Identities sin(θ ± 360◦ ) = sin θ cos(θ ± 360◦ ) = cos θ Area Rule 1 Area = 2 bc cos A 1 Area = 2 ac cos B 1 Area = 2 ab cos C Cofunction Identities sin(90◦ − θ) = cos θ cos(90◦ − θ) = sin θ Cosine Rule a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A b2 = a2 + c2 − 2ac cos B c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C = = 32. the pilot discovers that he has been ﬂying 3◦ oﬀ course. The direct distance between Cape Town and Johannesburg airports is 1 552 km. YZ= 1. a. BCD = b and BDC = c. Q is a ship at a point 10 km due South of another ship P.6 CHAPTER 32.5 m 3m Y X 3.Z = ˆ 120◦ and W = 30◦ A Determine the distances XZ and XY ˆ B Find the angle C Z 120◦ 1. 10 km ˆ 2.6 Exercises P 50 R 50◦ Q W 30◦ ◦ 1. to one hundredth of a degree.
From a point Y which is equidistant from X ˆ and Z. Find the area of WXYZ (to two decimal places): X 3.5 W 120◦ 32. α. A surveyor is trying to determine the distance between points X and Z. However the distance cannot be determined directly as a ridge lies between the two points. θ and φ: A x φ B θ E D β α C 417 . Find the area of the shaded triangle in terms of x.GRADE 11 5. TRIGONOMETRY . show that XZ= X x 2(1 − cos θ) B Calculate XZ (to the nearest kilometre) if x = 240 km and θ = 132◦ 6. β.6 x Y θ Z 3 Z 4 Y 7. he measures the angle XYZ ˆ A If XY= x and XYZ = θ.CHAPTER 32.
32. TRIGONOMETRY .6 CHAPTER 32.GRADE 11 418 .
the activities involving probability will be familiar to most of you . The graph represents the results of 100 tosses of a fair coin. The average of these two squared distances gives the variance. median and mode) and dispersion (range.x2 . organising. with mean x (read as ”x bar”).Chapter 33 Statistics . 419 . you have played dice games or card games even before you came to school. . is the average of the square of the distance of each data value from the mean value. you will end up mastering further methods of collecting.1. semiinterquartile range.for example. quartiles. The mean of the results is 50. . percentiles. . ranges) provide information on the data values at the centre of the data set and provide information on the spread of the data.g. 33. which is 1 (25 + 25) = 25.Grade 11 33. The ¯ variance of the population. denoted by σ 2 .1 Variance The variance of a data set is the average squared distance between the mean of the data set and each data value. median and mode) and measures of dispersion (quartiles. and not always to accept the data at face value.1 Introduction This chapter gives you an opportunity to build on what you have learned in previous Grades about data handling and probility. Of course. interquartile.2. A method of determining the spread of data is by calculating a measure of the possible distances between the data and the mean. The work done will be mostly of a practical nature. The squared distance between the heads value and the mean is (45 − 50)2 = 25 and the squared distance between the tails value and the mean is (55 − 50)2 = 25. Through problem solving and activities.xn }. 33. variance and standard deviation) will be investigated. An example of what this means is shown in Figure 33. You will also learn how to interpret data. percentiles. Measures of central tendency (mean. the end points for range and data points that divide the data set into 4 equal groups for the quartiles. The two important measures that are used are called the variance and the standard deviation of the data set. 2 Population Variance Let the population consist of n elements {x1 . displaying and analysing data. e. Your basic understanding of probability and chance gained so far will be deepened to enable you to come to a better understanding of how chance and uncertainty can be measured and understood. The behaviour of the entire data set is therefore not examined. which resulted in 45 heads and 55 tails.2 Standard Deviation and Variance The measures of central tendency (mean. . The information on the spread of the data is however based on data values at speciﬁc points in the data set. because data are sometimes unscrupulously misused and abused in order to try to prove or support a viewpoint.
n (33. denoted by s2 . For example. . we can conclude that it is never negative because the squares are positive or zero.2) Since the sample variance is squared. taken from the population. Properties of Variance If the variance is deﬁned. n−1 (33. .2 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 CHAPTER 33. of a whole population and the variance.GRADE 11 TailsMean HeadsMean Frequency (%) Heads Tails Face of Coin Figure 33.x2 . the 420 .xn }. The diﬀerence between the mean value and each data value is shown.1: The graph shows the results of 100 tosses of a fair coin. it would be counterproductive if those distances factored each other out. . The mean value of the tosses is shown as a vertical dotted line. with 45 heads and 55 tails. . Diﬀerence between Population Variance and Sample Variance As seen a distinction is made between the variance. with mean x.33. since the variance is looking for distance. a parameter which helps to describe the population. it is also not directly comparable with the mean and the data themselves. σ 2 . The unit of variance is the square of the unit of observation. A common question at this point is ”Why is the numerator squared?” One answer is: to get rid of the negative signs. The variance of the sample. s2 of a sample extracted from the population. Its value is only of interest as an estimate for the population variance. is the average of the squared deviations from the ¯ sample mean: s2 = (x − x)2 ¯ . STATISTICS . Numbers are going to fall above and below the mean and. Sample Variance Let the sample consist of the n elements {x1 . σ2 = ( (x − x))2 ¯ . When dealing with a sample from the population the (sample) variance varies from sample to sample. When dealing with the complete population the (population) variance is a constant.1) Since the population variance is squared. it is not directly comparable with the mean and the data themselves.
50. as a summary of dispersion. is the square root of the average of the squared deviations from the sample mean: (x − x)2 ¯ n−1 s= (33. with mean x.2. is the square root of the average of the square of the distance of each data value from the mean value. Standard deviation measures how spread out the values in a data set are. then the standard deviation will be low (closer to zero). . The standard deviation ¯ of the population.2 variance of a set of heights measured in centimeters will be given in square centimeters. denoted by σ. It is therefore more useful to have a quantity which is the square root of the variance. denoted by s. 421 . . 33.x2 . ¯ The standard deviation of the sample. . This quantity is known as the standard deviation. . the standard deviation is the most common measure of statistical dispersion. with mean x. 66. 58.x2 .3) Sample Standard Deviation Let the sample consist of n elements {x1 . 65. In statistics. taken from the population.CHAPTER 33. If the data values are all similar. . 53. the standard deviation will also be measured in metres.4) It is often useful to set your data out in a table so that you can apply the formulae easily. it cannot be directly compared to the data values or the mean value of a data set. If the data values are highly variable. 48. . STATISTICS . 51. For example. (x − x)2 ¯ n σ= (33. This fact is inconvenient and has motivated many statisticians to instead use the square root of the variance. For example to calculate the standard deviation of 57.2 Standard Deviation Since the variance is a squared quantity. you could set it out in the following way: sum of items number of items x n 448 6 56 mean = = = = Note: To get the deviations. known as the standard deviation. . . it is a measure of the average distance between the values of the data in the set.xn }. The standard deviation is always a positive number and is always measured in the same units as the original data. then the standard variation is high (further from zero).GRADE 11 33. subtract each number from the mean. More precisely. Population Standard Deviation Let the population consist of n elements {x1 .xn }. if the data are distance measurements in metres.
Take the square root of the variance to obtain the standard deviation. ¯ 2. Find the average of the squared diﬀerences. Calculate the mean value x. This always happens.σ. Calculate the squares of these diﬀerences. Variance = ¯ (X − X)2 n 320 = 8 = 40 Standard deviation = = = = = √ variance ¯ (X − X)2 n 320 8 √ 40 6. Why is this? Find out. ¯ ¯ 3. In other words. When dealing with the complete population the (population) standard deviation is a constant. σ 2 . there is a distinction between the standard deviation. of a whole population and the standard deviation. that ¯ is (X − X) = 0. Calculate the variance (add the squared results together and divide this total by the number of items). σ. For each data value xi calculate the diﬀerence xi − x between xi and the mean value x. for any set of data. Worked Example 149: Variance and Standard Deviation 422 . of sample extracted from the population. 4. 5. This quantity is the variance.33. s. When dealing with a sample from the population the (sample) standard deviation varies from sample to sample. STATISTICS .32 Diﬀerence between Population Variance and Sample Variance As with variance. the standard deviation can be calculated as follows: 1.GRADE 11 ¯ Deviation squared (X − X)2 1 9 4 81 64 36 100 25 ¯ (X − X)2 = 320 Note: The sum of the deviations of scores about their mean is zero.2 ¯ X 57 53 58 65 48 50 66 51 X = 448 ¯ Deviation (X − X) 1 3 2 9 8 6 10 5 x=0 CHAPTER 33. a parameter which helps to describe the population.
33. 8.25 + 0.5 1.5 0. the population consists of 6 possible outcomes. The value of the standard deviation can be considered ’large’ or ’small’ only in relation to the sample that is being measured. The data set is therefore x = {1. 14). The third set has a much smaller standard deviation than the other two because its values are all close to 7. a standard deviation of 7 might be considered small.5 0. For example. 8) has a mean of 7.5 Step 5 : Calculate the standard deviation The (population) standard deviation is calculated by: σ = = 2. STATISTICS .25) 6 2.25 2.25 6.5 2. and (6.25 ¯ (X − X)2 = 17.GRADE 11 Question: What is the variance and standard deviation of the population of possibilities associated with rolling a fair die? Answer Step 1 : Determine how many outcomes make up the population When rolling a fair die. Standard deviation may be thought of as a measure of uncertainty. 6.5 x=0 ¯ (X − X)2 6. Step 2 : Calculate the population mean The population mean is calculated by: x = ¯ = 1 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) 6 3.708.917 1.3.4. 0. 14.25 + 2. (0. When deciding whether measurements agree with a theoretical prediction.25 + 0. In physical science for example.25 + 2.917 Step 4 : Alternately the population variance is calculated by: ¯ X 1 2 3 4 5 6 X = 21 ¯ (X − X) 2.5 1. Notice how this standard deviation is somewhere in between the possible deviations. Their standard deviations are 7.2. 8. the standard deviation of those measurements is of crucial importance: if the mean of the measurements is too far away from the prediction (with the distance measured in standard 423 .25 0. In this case. the reported standard deviation of a group of repeated measurements should give the precision of those measurements. 5 and 1. a standard deviation of 7 may be considered large.2. respectively. each of the three samples (0.25 0.25 2.5 33.3 Interpretation and Application A large standard deviation indicates that the data values are far from the mean and a small standard deviation indicates that they are clustered closely around the mean.6}.2 Step 3 : Calculate the population variance The population variance is calculated by: σ2 = = = (x − x)2 ¯ n 1 (6. and n=6. 6.5.CHAPTER 33. 14).25 + 6. Given a diﬀerent sample.
A When is the data seen as a population? B When is the data seen as a sample? 4. the standard deviation is a ”natural” measure of statistical dispersion if the center of the data is measured about the mean. mode) and the measures of dispersion (range.3. 80. A When is the data seen as a population? B When is the data seen as a sample? 33. STATISTICS . in rands per litre.69 3. 33. 200. This is because the standard deviation from the mean is smaller than from any other point. interquartile range) are numerical methods of summarising data.3 Graphical Representation of Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion The measures of central tendency (mean. This section presents methods of representing the summarised data using graphs.76 3. The following data represents the pocket money of a sample of teenagers. D Giving reasons which city has the more consistently priced petrol? 2. What is the standard deviation? 3. The raw data.00 3. 33. Consider a set of data that gives the weights of 50 cats at a cat show.GRADE 11 deviations).91 4. 500. 250.08 3. then we consider the measurements as contradicting the prediction. 270. See prediction interval. 320.33. are given below: Cape Town Durban 3. percentiles. semiinterquartile range. C Assuming the data is a sample ﬁnd the standard deviation of each city’s prices. B Assuming that the data is a population ﬁnd the standard deviation of each city’s prices. Exercise: Means and standard deviations 1.4 Relationship between Standard Deviation and the Mean The mean and the standard deviation of a set of data are usually reported together.88 3.52 3.1 Five Number Summary One method of summarising a data set is to present a ﬁve number summary. quartiles. This makes sense since they fall outside the range of values that could reasonably be expected to occur if the prediction were correct and the standard deviation appropriately quantiﬁed. Consider a set of data that gives the results of 20 pupils in a class. 110. The ﬁve numbers are: minimum.97 3. 140.68 A Find the mean price in each city and then state which city has the lowest mean.2. 220. Bridget surveyed the price of petrol at petrol stations in Cape Town and Durban. 150.81 4. median. 130. third quartile and maximum.96 3.3 CHAPTER 33. 700.72 3. 420. In a certain sense. ﬁrst quartile. median. 300. 424 .
maximum and quartiles.95.5) = 2.95.25.775.65 2 Data value between 9 and 10 = 1 (4. a star or asterix is placed at the mean value.3 33.25.75 + 4.8) = 4.2: Main features of a box and whisker diagram Worked Example 150: Box and Whisker Diagram Question: Draw a box and whisker diagram for the data set x = {1. 4.GRADE 11 33. The whiskers which extend to the sides reach the minimum and maximum values. with the median shown with a vertical line dividing the box into two. 2. centered in the box in the vertical direction. STATISTICS . 2.5. 4.3.1) = 3.5.775 2 The ﬁve number summary is therefore: 1.65. 4. as there is no yaxis. ﬁrst quartile median third quartile minimum 1 2 3 4 Data Values maximum 5 425 . Additionally.2 + 4.95 Position of ﬁrst quartile = between 3 and 4 Position of second quartile = between 6 and 7 Position of third quartile = between 9 and 10 Data value between 3 and 4 = 1 (2. graphically.2. Answer Step 1 : Determine the ﬁve number summary Minimum = 1.8. The main features of the box and whisker diagram are shown in Figure 33.5. the left edge of the box is placed at the ﬁrst quartile and the right edge of the box is placed at the third quartile.75. 4. 3. 3. The height of the box is arbitrary. 5.5.5 2 Data value between 6 and 7 = 1 (3. 2.2 Box and Whisker Diagrams A box and whisker diagram is a method of depicting the ﬁve number summary.1}. The box can lie horizontally (as shown) or vertically. Inside the box there is some representation of central tendency.1.25 Maximum = 4. ﬁrst quartile minimum data value 4 2 0 Data Values 2 median third quartile maximum data value 4 Figure 33. 3. 4. 4. For a horizonatal diagram. 1.5 + 2.1. 4. Step 2 : Draw a box and whisker diagram and mark the positions of the minimum.25.2.CHAPTER 33.
19. 3. 12. 5. 5. The number of rugby matches attended by 36 season ticket holders is as follows: 15. 16 Give a ﬁve number summary and a box and whisker plot of his sales. 6. 2 25. 45. etc have been plotted. 34. The cumulative frequency is plotted at the upper limit of the interval. Using an appropriate graphical method (give reasons) represent the data. Calculate the ﬁve number summary and make a box and whisker plot.2 and is drawn in Figure 33. 2. 7. 35. so the points (30. Where are 95% of the results expected to lie? 4. 11. This is diﬀerent from the frequency polygon where we plot frequencies at the midpoints of the intervals. 39. 43.2) (97. are a plot of cumulative frequency and are used to determine how many data values lie above or below a particular value in a data set. The data below show how much she sells each month. 17 14. Notice the frequencies plotted at the upper limit of the intervals. 3. 12. 5. She keeps a record of the number of sales she makes each month. 13. The cumulative frequency is calculated from a frequency table. 3. since all frequencies will already have been added to the previous total. 60. 2. The last value for the cumulative frequency will always be equal to the total number of data values. the cumulative frequencies for Data Set 2 are shown in Table 33. Exercise: Intervals 426 . STATISTICS . 3.3. Find the median. 18. 1. 2. 2. 22. 17.3 Cumulative Histograms Cumulative histograms. 65. 31. 45. 9. also known as ogives. What is the variance and standard deviation? Comment on the data’s spread. 8. 43. 8. 24.33. 11. 15. 54. 23. 26. 49. Lisa works as a telesales person.3 Exercise: Box and whisker plots CHAPTER 33. He sells the following number of computers each month: 27. For example. mode and mean. 5. 12.3. by adding each frequency to the total of the frequencies of all data values before it in the data set. 12 Give a ﬁve number summary and a box and whisker plot of her sales. 16. 13. 15. 11. 9 12.GRADE 11 1.3). 22. Rose has worked in a ﬂorists shop for nine months. 19. 3. 48. 20. 14. 7 A What is the ﬁvenumber summary of the data? B Since there is an odd number of data points what do you observe when calculating the ﬁvenumbers? 33. 1. She sold the following number of wedding bouquets: 16. 27. 40 A B C D E F G Sum the data. 23. 6. Jason is working in a computer store.1) (62.
15. 1. 43. 56 A B C D Using an interval width of 8 construct a cumulative frequency distribution How many are below 30? How many are below 60? Giving an explanation state below what value the bottom 50% of the ages fall E Below what value do the bottom 40% fall? F Construct a frequency polygon and an ogive. 2. 54. 58. 49.1. 22.GRADE 11 Intervals Frequency Cumulative Frequency 0 < n≤1 30 30 1 < n≤2 32 30 + 32 2 < n≤3 35 30 + 32 + 35 3 < n≤4 34 30 + 32 + 35 + 34 4 < n≤5 37 30 + 32 + 35 + 34 + 37 168 5 < n≤6 32 30 + 32 + 35 + 34 + 37 + 32 200 33.9. 54. 45. STATISTICS .CHAPTER 33. 29. 37. 45.3. 23. 43. 160 120 f 80 40 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Intervals Figure 33. 31.5 60. 63.1.1.1.3: Example of a cumulative histogram for Data Set 2.2. 17. 38 4.1 A B C D E F G Decide on an interval width and state what you observe about your choice.4.4. 5.5. 40.3. 76. 35. 28. Use the following data of peoples ages to answer the questions. G Compare these two plots 2. 45. 49. 55.1: Cumulative Frequencies for Data Set 2. Give your lowest interval. 50. Below what value do 53% of the cases fall? Below what value fo 60% of the cases fall? 427 .2. 80. 48.6. 53. Give your highest interval.2. 43. 34. 5. 5. 65. 34. 36.3.4. 73.5. Construct a cumultative frequency graph and a frequency polygon. 1. Compare the cumulative frequency graph and frequency polygon. 63.3 30 62 97 131 Table 33. The weights of bags of sand in grams is given below (rounded to the nearest tenth): 50.3.
STATISTICS . and Mode The relationship of the mean. and mode are approximately equal to each other.median) < 0 then the data is negatively skewed (skewed to the left). A Make a stem and leaf plot for each set.4 33. Exercise: Distribution of Data 1.median) > 0 then the data is positively skewed (skewed to the right). C For each of the classes ﬁnd the diﬀerence between the mean and the median and then use that to make box and whisker plots on the same set of axes.2 Relationship of the Mean. It can be skewed right or skewed left. Use the given data to answer the following questions.median) ≈ 0 then the data is symmetrical • (mean . and mode to each other can provide some information about the relative shape of the data distribution. 428 . median. It does not have to be exactly equal to be symmetric • Skewed data is spread out on one side more than on the other. • Symmetrical data sets are balanced on either side of the median.GRADE 11 33. skewed right skewed left 33.4.4. If the mean.33. median. This means that the median is close to the start of the data set. • (mean . B For each of the sets calculate the mean and the ﬁve number summary. This means that the median is close to the end of the data set. the distribution can be assumed to be approximately symmetrical. Deﬁnition: Shape of a data set This describes how the data is distributed relative to the mean and median. With both the mean and median known the following can be concluded: • (mean .1 Distribution of Data Symmetric and Skewed Data The shape of a data set is important to know. The test was out of 50. Three sets of 12 pupils each had test score recorded.4 CHAPTER 33. Median.
6 2.GRADE 11 Set 1 25 47 15 17 16 26 24 27 22 24 12 31 Set 2 32 34 35 32 25 16 38 47 43 29 18 25 Set 3 43 47 16 43 38 44 42 50 50 44 43 42 33.9 3.6 0.4 1.3.4.2 2.8 1.2 2 1 1 3. STATISTICS .7 3. or we could have current on the horizontal axis and voltage on the vertical axis.9 1.6 1 4 2.2 1.6 0.5 When we plot this data as points. Sketch the box and whisker plots and then invent data (6 points in each set) that meets the requirements. we get the data points as shown in Table 33.4 3.8 2.9 0.4 1. E Is set A skewed or symmetrical? F Is set C symmetrical? Why or why not? 2. we could have mass on the horizontal axis (ﬁrst variable) and height on the second axis (second variable).5 Scatter Plots A scatterplot is a graph that shows the relationship between two variables. 33.2: Cumulative Frequencies for Data Set 2. Ohm’s Law is an important relationship in physics.4 0.1 1.5 2.4 0. we would have to say that a straight line best describes this data.3 2. 429 .4 0. Current Voltage Current Voltage 0 0.1 1.2 0.6 3 1. Table 33.8 0. We say this is bivariate data and we plot the data from two diﬀerent sets using ordered pairs.3: Values of current and voltage measured in a wire.4 2.4 1.6 2. we get the scatter plot shown in Figure 33.1 4.3 4. Ohm’s law describes the relationship between current and voltage in a conductor. but one is skewed right and the other is skewed left.4 2.6 1.8 1.2 0. If we are to come up with a function that best describes the data.4 2 1.6 2.1 4.9 0. For example.CHAPTER 33. D State which of the three are skewed (either right or left). Two data sets have the same range and interquartile range. like a piece of wire. When we measure the voltage (dependent variable) that results from a certain current (independent variable) in a wire.5 Table 33.
x 5 4.5 160 180 59 72 163 183 60 74 165 61 1. The type of function can either be quadratic or exponential.5 152 173 54 66 y 11.2 151.5 27.5 3 x 5 4.5 1 1.5 5 150 170 53 64 x 2.5 155 175 56 68 x 2.9 8.5 1 1.5 4 4.9 y 5 3.3 68.5 3 3.8 14.5 3 3.GRADE 11 Voltage 2 1 1 2 3 Current 4 Figure 33.4 117.5 4 4.5 53 43.4 y 7.5 2 1. 2.9 6.5 2 147 168 52 63 y 14.5 x 2.5 1 0.5 y 75 63. Height (cm) 3. We will restrict ourselves to the forms already studied.5 41.5 1 0. quadratic or exponential.5 21 27. linear.9 88. Plot the following sets of data as scatter plots and deduce the type of function that best describes the data.2 22.5 35 x 0 0. Activity :: Research Project : Scatter Plot The function that best describes a set of data can take any form. that is.5 2 1.5 21.5 x 2.9 7.4 7.4 y 27. current is known as the resistance of the conductor.6 7.33.5 3 y 9.5 11 7.5 21 15. STATISTICS .5 htb CHAPTER 33.5 3 3.4: Example of a scatter plot Extension: Ohm’s Law Ohm’s Law describes the relationship between current and voltage in a conductor. Weight (kg) Deﬁnition: outlier A point on a scatter plot which is widely separated from the other points or a result diﬀering greatly from others in the same sample is called an outlier.5 4 3.5 11 15.5 157 178 57 70 y 49.2 7.5 4 3.8 4. 430 . The gradient of the graph of voltage vs.5 2 x 0 0.
B What pattern or trend do you observe? 3.CHAPTER 33. The rankings of eight tennis players is given along with the time they spend practising. B State with reasons. STATISTICS . What trend do you observe? 431 .GRADE 11 Exercise: Scatter Plots 1. the cause or independent variable and the eﬀect or dependent variable. The data is given in the following table.5 A Draw a diagram labelling horizontal and vertical axes. Practice time (min) 154 390 130 70 240 280 175 103 Ranking 5 1 6 8 3 2 4 7 A Construct a scatter plot and explain how you chose the dependent (cause) and independent (eﬀect) variables. C Plot the data pairs D What do you observe about the plot? E Is there any pattern emerging? 2. The results are given below.5 3 2 5 8 What is the dependent (cause) variable? What is the independent (eﬀect) variable? Construct a scatter plot of the data.5 8 8. Score (percent) 67 55 70 90 45 75 50 60 84 30 66 96 Time spent studying (minutes) 100 85 150 180 70 160 80 90 110 60 96 200 33. Eight childrens sweet consumption and sleep habits were recorded. A class’s results for a test were recorded along with the amount of time spent studying for it. Number of sweets (per week) 15 12 5 3 18 23 11 4 A B C D Average sleeping time (per day) 4 4.
6 CHAPTER 33.33. Omissions and biased selection of data 3.GRADE 11 33. 16 14 12 10 earnings 8 6 4 2 0 2002 2003 2004 432 . Focus on particular research questions 4. STATISTICS . Examine the following graphs and comment on the eﬀects of changing scale.6 Misuse of Statistics Statistics can be manipulated in many ways that can be misleading. Graphs need to be carefully analysed and questions must always be asked about ’the story behind the ﬁgures. Changing the scale to change the appearence of a graph 2. Selection of groups Activity :: Investigation : Misuse of statistics 1.’ Common manipulations are: 1.
6 80 70 60 50 earnings 40 30 20 10 0 2002 2003 2004 year 2. Hint: What is wrong with the data and what is missing from the bar and pie charts? Activity Sleep Sports School Visit friend Watch TV Studying 433 Hours 8 2 7 1 2 3 . Examine the following three plots and comment on omission. selection and bias.CHAPTER 33.GRADE 11 33. STATISTICS .
434 school watch TV studying sports school sleep sleep stu d yin g TV ch wat visit friend sports .33. STATISTICS .GRADE 11 visit friend Exercise: Misuse of Statistics The bar graph below shows the results of a study that looked at the cost of food compared to the income of a household in 1994.6 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 CHAPTER 33.
Speed (km/h) 60 < x ≤ 70 70 < x ≤ 80 80 < x ≤ 90 90 < x ≤ 100 100 < x ≤ 110 110 < x ≤ 120 120 < x ≤ 130 130 < x ≤ 140 140 < x ≤ 150 150 < x ≤ 160 435 Frequency 3 2 6 40 50 30 15 12 3 2 . What conclusions can be drawn? 5. What conclusion can you make about this variable? Why? Does this make sense? 3. Construct this bar graph using a table.7 12 10 8 6 4 1. A study was done to see if speeding was a factor in the high accident rate.7 End of Chapter Exercises 1. STATISTICS . Why do the two graphs diﬀer despite showing the same information? 6.GRADE 11 33.CHAPTER 33. Use the results given to answer the following questions. What is the dependent variable? Why? 2. What would happen if the graph was changed from food bill in thousands of rands to percentage of income? 4. What else is observed? Does this aﬀect the fairness of the results? Food bill (in thousands of rands) 2 0 ¡5 1520 1015 3040 2030 4050 Income in 1994(in thousands of rands) Income (thousands of rands) <5 510 1015 1520 2030 3040 4050 >50 Food bill (thousands of rands) 2 2 4 4 8 6 10 12 510 ¿50 33. Many accidents occur during the holidays between Durban and Johannesburg.
R15 000. A What is the mean income and the standard deviation? B How many of the salaries are within one standard deviation of the mean? C If each teacher gets a bonus of R500 added to their pay what is the new mean and standard deviation? D If each teacher gets a bonus of 10% on their salary what is the new mean and standard deviation? E Determine for both of the above.00 R100 R100 R100 R200. R12 900.00 3. R12 140. B Use your graph to ﬁnd the median speed and the interquartile range. R11 990. how many salaries are within one standard deviation of the mean. C What percent of cars travel more than 120km/h on this road? D Do cars generally exceed the speed limit? 2. The following two diagrams (showing two schools contribution to charity) have been exaggerated. 436 . F Using the above information work out which bonus is more beneﬁcial for the teachers. STATISTICS .GRADE 11 A Draw a graph to illustrate this information. R14 300. Explain how they are misleading and redraw them so that they are not misleading. R13 800. R200.33. R9 800.7 CHAPTER 33. The monthly income of eight teachers are given as follows: R10 050.
For example. This chapter describes the diﬀerences and how each type of event is worked with.1 Introduction In probability theory an event is either independent or dependent. Since the outcome of the ﬁrst event does not aﬀect the outcome of the second event. Deﬁnition: Independent Events Two events A and B are independent if when one of them happens.2 Deﬁnitions Two events are independent if knowing something about the value of one event does not give any information about the value of the second event. Step 2 : Determine the probability of the speciﬁc outcomes occurring. the events are independent.1 to determine the probability of the two events occurring together. 34.Grade 11 34. 437 . The probability of two independent events occurring.Chapter 34 Independent and Dependent Events . 6 6 Therefore. is given by: P (A ∩ B) = P (A) × P (B) (34. P (A) = 1 and P (B) = 1 . 6 6 Step 3 : Use equation 34. P (A ∩ B). it doesn’t aﬀect the other one happening or not. for each event The probability of rolling a 1 is 1 and the probability of rolling a 6 is 1 .1) Worked Example 151: Independent Events Question: What is the probability of rolling a 1 and then rolling a 6 on a fair die? Answer Step 1 : Identify the two events and determine whether the events are independent or not Event A is rolling a 1 and event B is rolling a 6. the event of getting a ”1” when a die is rolled and the event of getting a ”1” the second time it is thrown are independent.
1 Therefore. Since the outcome of the ﬁrst event aﬀects the outcome of the second event (because there are less coins to choose from after the ﬁrst coin has been selected).2 CHAPTER 34. 2 R2 coins and 1 R5 coin.2. 438 . P (A ∩ B) = P (A) × P (B) 1 2 = × 4 3 2 = 12 1 = 6 1 The probability of ﬁrst selecting a R1 coin followed by selecting a R2 coin is 6 .34. P (A) = 4 and P (B) = 2 . for each event The probability of ﬁrst selecting a R1 coin is 1 and the probability of next selecting 4 a R2 coin is 2 (because after the R1 coin has been selected.1 Identiﬁcation of Independent and Dependent Events Use of a Contingency Table A twoway contingency table (studied in an earlier grade) can be used to determine whether events are independent or dependent. but the probabilities are calculated diﬀerently. Worked Example 152: Dependent Events Question: A cloth bag has 4 coins. What is the probability of ﬁrst selecting a R1 coin followed by selecting a R2 coin? Answer Step 1 : Identify the two events and determine whether the events are independent or not Event A is selecting a R1 coin and event B is next selecting a R2.1 to determine the probability of the two events occurring together. two events are dependent if the outcome of the ﬁrst event aﬀects the outcome of the second event. 1 R1 coin. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS . The probability of rolling a 1 and then rolling a 6 on a fair die is Consequently. the events are dependent. Step 2 : Determine the probability of the speciﬁc outcomes occurring. The same equation as for independent events are used. 3 Step 3 : Use equation 34.GRADE 11 P (A ∩ B) = P (A) × P (B) 1 1 = × 6 6 1 = 36 1 36 . there are only three 3 coins to choose from). 34.
2. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS . where P(A/C) represents the probability of event A after event C has occured.P(positive result)= 210 = 0. 439 .CHAPTER 34.57 90 P(female). So there is no evidence that the medications success is independent of gender. Answer Step 1 : Draw a contingency table Male 50 70 120 Female 40 50 90 Totals 90 120 210 Positive result No Positive result Totals Step 2 : Work out probabilities 120 P(male). So P(A/C)=P(A). This leads to the following table: Positive result No Positive result Totals Male 22 98 120 Female 68 22 90 Totals 90 120 210 Use of a Venn Diagram We can also use Venn diagrams to check whether events are dependent or independent. Step 4 : Genderindependent results To get gender independence we need the positve results in the same ratio as the gender. The gender ratio is: 120:90.43 50 P(male and positive result)= 210 = 0. For example we can draw and analyse a twoway contingency table to solve the following problem. Worked Example 153: Contingency Tables Question: A medical trial into the eﬀectiveness of a new medication was carried out.24 Step 3 : Draw conclusion P(male and positive result) is the observed probability and P(male).GRADE 11 34. These two are quite diﬀerent. Give a table for the independent of gender results. or 4:3. Out of these 50 males and 40 females responded positively to the medication. so the number in the male and positive column would have to be 4 of the total number of patients responding positively 7 which gives 22.P(positive result)= 210 = 0. 120 males and 90 females responded.P(positive result) is the expected probability. Was the medication’s succes independent of gender? Explain. Deﬁnition: Independent events Events are said to be independent if the result or outcome of the event does not aﬀect the result or outcome of another event.2 Deﬁnition: twoway contingency table A twoway contingency table is used to represent possible outcomes when two events are combined in a statistical analysis. 1.
440 .55 0.4 0. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS .6 Totals 0.55 = 0. P(Both)=0.4. 40% of the school wanted beige.15 0.2 CHAPTER 34.15.20 Probability of choosing beige after blue is: P (Beige ∩ Blue) P (Blue) 0. P(Neither)=0.34.2 Step 2 : Draw up a contingency table Blue Not Blue Totals Beige 0. P(Beige)=0. we can draw a Venn diagram and a contingency table to illustrate and analyse the following example.27 P (Beige/Blue) = Step 4 : Solve the problem Since P (Beige/Blue) = P (Beige) the events are statistically independent. 55% wanted blue and 15% said a combination would be ﬁne.25 0.40 Not Beige 0.2 0.15 = 0.25 0. The colours on oﬀer were beige or blue or beige and blue.GRADE 11 Deﬁnition: Dependent events If the outcome of one event is aﬀected by the outcome of another event such that P (A/C) = P (A) (A∩C) Also note that P (A/C) = P P (C) For example. Worked Example 154: Venn diagrams and events Question: A school decided that it’s uniform needed upgrading.55.15 0.35 1 Step 3 : Work out the probabilities P(Blue)=0. Are the two events independent? Answer Step 1 : Draw a Venn diagram S Beige Blue 0.4 0.
e. and signals other traders of that opinion. Use a Venn diagram and a contingency table to show the information and decide if the events are independent. 441 . Another signiﬁcant application of probability theory in everyday life is reliability. The theory of behavioral ﬁnance emerged to describe the eﬀect of such groupthink on pricing. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS . on policy. less likely sends prices up or down. the probabilities are not assessed independently nor necessarily very rationally.25 of meeting their quota late. 34.4 of meeting their quota on time and a probability of 0.3 End of Chapter Exercises 1. A law of small numbers tends to apply to all such choices and perception of the eﬀect of such choices. In each of the following contingency tables give the expected numbers for the events to be perfectly independent and decide if the events are independent or dependent. The probability of failure is also closely associated with the product’s warranty. Accordingly. An assessment by a commodity trade that a war is more likely vs. it may be of some importance to most citizens to understand how odds and probability assessments are made. such as automobiles and consumer electronics. A good example is the eﬀect of the perceived probability of any widespread Middle East conﬂict on oil prices . as typically the assessments of risk are onetime and thus require more fundamental probability models. and how they contribute to reputations and to decisions.which have ripple eﬀects in the economy as a whole.g.GRADE 11 Extension: Applications of Probability Theory Two major applications of probability theory in everyday life are in risk assessment and in trade on commodity markets. and on peace and conﬂict. and are often measuring wellbeing using methods that are stochastic in nature. which makes probability measures a political matter. Many consumer products. itself based strictly on probability. to the Cold War and the mutual assured destruction doctrine. Accordingly. Also there is a 0. and choosing projects to undertake based on statistical analyses of their probable eﬀect on the population as a whole.10 chance of not meeting their quota on time. utilize reliability theory in the design of the product in order to reduce the probability of failure. especially in a democracy.3 34. A company has a probability of 0.CHAPTER 34. Black hair Red hair Totals Brown eyes 50 70 120 Not Brown eyes 30 80 110 Point B 40 20 60 Totals 80 150 230 Totals 55 35 100 Totals 160 340 500 Totals 700 260 960 A B Busses left late Busses left on time Totals Point A 15 25 40 Durban 130 140 270 C Liked living there Did not like living there Totals Bloemfontein 30 200 230 D Improvement in health No improvement in health Totals Multivitamin A 400 140 540 Multivitamin B 300 120 420 2. It can reasonably be said that the discovery of rigorous methods to assess and combine probability assessments has had a profound eﬀect on modern society. ”the probability of another 9/11”. Governments typically apply probability methods in environmental regulation where it is called ”pathway analysis”. It is not correct to say that statistics are involved in the modelling itself. A good example is the application of game theory.
All those doing Computer Science do English.34. ﬁnd P(F). Using a Venn diagram calculate the probability that a pupil drawn at random will take: A English. 300 do English and 50 do Typing. The last ten letters of the alphabet were placed in a hat and people were asked to pick one of them.10.GRADE 11 3. 270 do Computer Science.94. C What is the probability of stealing either model A or model B? D What is the probability of stealing both model A and model B? 7.3 and P(D or F)=0. Jane invested in the stock market.32. A car sales person has pink. Calculate the following probabilities: A P(F’) B P(F or D) C P(neither E nor F) D P(D and E) E P(E and F) F P(E and D’) 10.39 and P(H and J)=0. 5. Event Y’s probability is 0. P(H)=0. INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EVENTS . 25% owned a Toyota and 60% owned a Volkswagen. A study was undertaken to see how many people in Port Elizabeth owned either a Volkswagen or a Toyota. What is the probability that she will lose all her money? Explain. P(J)=0. 20 take Computer Science and Typing and 35 take English and Typing. orange and multicolour models of car B. The probability that she will not lose all her money is 1.43. 4. 3% owned both.31.24. limegreen and purple models of car A and purple. A What is the experiment and sample space? B Draw a Venn diagram to show this. 6.3 CHAPTER 34. If D and F are mutually exclusive events. but not Typing or Computer Science B English but not Typing C English and Typing but not Computer Science D English or Typing 442 . What is the probability that X or Y will occur (this inculdes X and Y occuring simultaneously)? 8. One dark night a thief steals a car. The probability of both occuring together is 0. Event E is picking a consonant and Evetn F is picking the last four letters. Event D is picking a vowel. Draw a contingency table to show all events and decide if car ownership is independent. At Dawnview High there are 400 Grade 12’s. Calculate: A P(H’) B P(H or J) C P(H’ or J’) D P(H’ or J) E P(H’ and J’) 9. Event X’s probability is 0. with P(D’)=0.62.
Part IV Grade 12 443 .
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Chapter 35 Logarithms . exponentials and logarithms are related. 3.1 Deﬁnition of Logarithms The logarithm of a number is the index to which the base must be raised to give that number. Logarithms. From the ﬁrst example of the activity log2 (4) (read log to the base 2 of 4) means the power of 2 that will give 4. 5. log2 (4) = 2 (35. We saw that addition and subtraction are related and that multiplication and division are related. commonly referred to as logs. in the equation ab = x the “question” is “what is a raised to the power b. Activity :: Logarithm Symbols : Write the following out in words.” The answer is “x. The logarithm of a number x in the base a is deﬁned as the number n such that an = x. log2 (4) is log to the base 2 of 4 log10 (14) log16 (4) logx (8) logy (x) 35. So. 1. For example. Therefore.” The mathematical symbol for logarithm is loga (x) and it is read “log to the base a of x”. if an = x.Grade 12 In mathematics many ideas are related. log10 (100) is “log to the base 10 of 100”. 2. Similarly. 4. The ﬁrst one is done for you.2) The indexform is then 22 = 4 and the logarithmicform is log2 4 = 2. For example. 445 .” The inverse function would be loga x = b or “by what power must we raise a to obtain x. then: loga (x) = n (35.1) Extension: Inverse Function When we say “inverse function” we mean that the answer becomes the question and the question becomes the answer. are the inverse of exponentials.” The answer is “b.
2 CHAPTER 35.35.2 Logarithm Bases Logarithms. While the notation log10 (x) and loge (x) may be used. It is often necessary or convenient to convert a log from one base to another. log10 1 000 35. log4 1 64 4. Normally a and b are known. therefore logb a is normally a known. We generally use the “common” base. The number e is an irrational number between 2.71828183.71 and 2. by using the change of base formula: loga x = logb x logb a (35. The natural logarithm is to the base e which is approximately 2. but for now suﬃce it to say that it is one of the two common bases. it means log10 . It comes up surprisingly often in Mathematics. if you see the log symbol without a base.. also have a base and log2 (2) is not the same as log10 (2). where a > 0.. or the natural base. Activity :: Applying the deﬁnition : Find the value of: 1. a = 1 and x > 0. So. change log2 12 in base 10 is: log2 12 = log10 12 log10 2 446 . e is like π and is another example of an irrational number. An engineer might need an approximate solution to a log in a base for which he does not have a table or calculator function. log7 343 Reasoning : 73 = 343 theref ore. or it may be algebraically convenient to have two logs in the same base. Extension: Natural Logarithm The natural logarithm (symbol ln) is widely used in the sciences.. 10. log7 343 = 3 2. if irrational. LOGARITHMS .72. then: loga (x) = n. log2 8 3. e. like exponentials.3) where b is any base you ﬁnd convenient. number. Logarithms can be changed from one base to another. log10 (x) is often written log(x) in Science and loge (x) is normally written as ln(x) in both Science and Mathematics. For example.GRADE 12 Deﬁnition: Logarithms If an = x.
9) 35.3 Laws of Logarithms Just as for the exponents. logarithms have some laws which make working with them easier. logx (8) to base y 5.6) (35.1 loga (1) = = For example. logy (x) to base x 35. 3 × log16 (1) logy (1) x 2. log16 (4) to base 10 4.GRADE 12 Activity :: Change of Base : Change the following to the indicated base: 1.4) (35. log2 1 = 0 and log2 51 = 0 Activity :: Logarithm Law 1: loga 1 = 0 : Simplify the following: 1. log2 (1) + 5 3.8) (35. log10 (14) to base 2 3. log10 (1) × 100 4. loga (1) = loga (a) = loga (x · y) = x = loga y loga (xb ) = √ loga b x = 0 1 loga (x) + loga (y) loga (x) − loga (y) b loga (x) loga (x) b (35.4 Logarithm Law 1: loga 1 = 0 Since Then. log2 (4) to base 8 2. 447 . These laws are based on the exponential laws and are summarised ﬁrst and then explained in detail. logx (1) + 2xy 5.3 35. a0 = 1 loga (a0 ) 0 by deﬁnition of logarithm in Equation 35.CHAPTER 35.5) (35.7) (35. LOGARITHMS .
logx (x) + 2xy 5. log 10 = 1 3. Then from Equation 35.1 448 loga (a loga (x) + loga (y) loga (x)+loga (y) .4 ) From Equation 35.10) (35. From the work done up to now.11 From Equation 35.5 CHAPTER 35. = a loga (a1 ) 1 by deﬁnition of logarithm in Equation 35.1 loga (a) = = For example. log10 (10) × 100 4. log 1 = 0 2.GRADE 12 35. log 100 = 2 4. 3 × log16 (16) Important: Useful to know and remember When the base is 10.35. LOGARITHMS .11) Exponential Law Equation 4. So. log 1000 = 3 35. assume that x = am and y = an .5 Logarithm Law 2: loga (a) = 1 Since a1 Then. logy (y) x 3. Firstly. we have that: loga (x) and This means that we can write: loga (x · y) = = = = loga (am · an ) loga (am+n ) loga (y) = m = n (35.10 and Equation 35. we need to relate x and y to the base a.1.6 Logarithm Law 3: loga (x · y) = loga (x) + loga (y) The derivation of this law is a bit trickier than the ﬁrst two. log2 2 = 1 and log25 25 = 1 Activity :: Logarithm Law 2: loga (a) = 1 : Simplify the following: 1. it is also useful to summarise the following facts: 1. log2 (2) + 5 2. we do not need to state it.
7 For example. log16 ( x ) y 449 x y = loga (x) − loga (y) : Write as . Therefore. Activity :: Logarithm Law 4: loga seperate logs: 1.CHAPTER 35. 10 For example. Therefore. Start with calculating the left hand side: log( 10 ) = 100 = = 1 ) 10 log(10−1 ) −1 log( The right hand side: log 10 − log 100 = = 1−2 −1 10 Both sides are equal. log8 (10 × 10) 4. logz (2xy) 35. show that log( 100 ) = log 10 − log 100. LOGARITHMS .7 Logarithm Law 4: loga x y = loga (x) − loga (y) The derivation of this law is identical to the derivation of Logarithm Law 3 and is left as an exercise. log8 ( 100 ) 3 3. log2 (8 × 4) 3.GRADE 12 35. Activity :: Logarithm Law 3: loga (x · y) = loga (x) + loga (y) : Write as seperate logs: 1. show that log(10 · 100) = log 10 + log 100. log16 (xy) 5. Start with calculating the left hand side: log(10 · 100) = log(1000) = log(103 ) = 3 The right hand side: log 10 + log 100 = = 1+2 3 Both sides are equal. log(10 · 100) = log 10 + log 100. log2 ( 8 ) 5 2. logx (y 2 ) 2. log( 100 ) = log 10 − log 100.
8 4. we let x = am .GRADE 12 35. m = loga (xb ) = = loga ((am )b ) loga (am·b ) (Exponential Law in Equation 4. log2 (53 ) = log( 5 · 5 · 5) (∵ loga (x · y) = loga (am · an )) = log2 5 + log2 5 + log2 5 = 3 log2 5 Therefore. we need to relate x to the base a. logx ( y ) 2 CHAPTER 35. log8 (1010 ) 3. √ 3 log2 ( 5) = log( 5 3 ) 1 log2 5 (∵ loga (xb ) = b loga (x)) = 3 log2 5 = 3 1 √ Therefore. √ log 5 For example. So. Activity :: Logarithm Law 5: loga (xb ) = b loga (x) : Simplify the following: 1.8) loga (x) (Assumption that x = am ) loga (ab·loga (x) ) b · loga (x) (Deﬁnition of logarithm in Equation 35.8 Logarithm Law 5: loga (xb) = b loga (x) loga (xb ) = = ∴ But.1) Once again. logx (y 2x ) 35. Then.9 √ Logarithm Law 6: loga ( b x) = loga (x) b The derivation of this law is identical to the derivation of Logarithm Law 5 and is left as an exercise. LOGARITHMS . logz (y x ) 5. log2 (53 ) = 3 log2 (5). we can show that log2 (53 ) = 3 log2 (5). log2 (84 ) 2. For example. log2 ( 3 5) = log2 5 3 . logz ( 2 ) y 5. 450 .35. we can show that log2 ( 3 5) = 32 . log16 (xy ) 4.
log16 ( y x) √ 4. logz ( x y) √ 5. logx ( 2x y) loga (x) b 35. Step 2 : Simplify 3 log 2 + log 125 = = 3 log 2 + log 53 3 log 2 + 3 log 5 ∵ loga (xb ) = b loga (x) The ﬁnal answer does not have to be that simple. without use of a calculator: 8 3 + log2 32 Answer Step 1 : Try to write any quantities as exponents 8 can be written as 23 . Step 3 : Final Answer We cannot simplify any further. log2 ( 4 8) √ 2.CHAPTER 35. 451 2 2 2 2 2 . Step 2 : Rewrite the question using the exponential forms of the numbers 8 3 + log2 32 = (23 ) 3 + log2 25 Step 3 : Determine which laws can be used. 32 can be written as 25 . We can use: loga (xb ) = b loga (x) Step 4 : Apply log laws to simplify (23 ) 3 + log2 25 = (2)3 3 + 5 log2 2 Step 5 : Determine which laws can be used.9 : Simplify the following: Worked Example 155: Simpliﬁcation of Logs Question: Simplify. LOGARITHMS . log8 ( 10 10) √ 3.GRADE 12 √ Activity :: Logarithm Law 6: loga ( b x) = √ 1. without use of a calculator: 3 log 2 + log 125 Answer Step 1 : Try to write any quantities as exponents 125 can be written as 53 . The ﬁnal answer is: 3 log 2 + 3 log 5 Worked Example 156: Simpliﬁcation of Logs Question: Simplify.
10 We can now use loga a = 1 Step 6 : Apply log laws to simplify CHAPTER 35. By applying Law 5. Worked Example 158: Solving Log equations Question: Solve for x: 25x = 50 correct to two decimal places.22 452 . Answer Step 1 : Reverse law 5 2 log 3 + log 2 − log 5 = log 32 + log 2 − log 5 Step 2 : Apply laws 3 and 4 = log 32 × 2 ÷ 5 Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer = log 3.6 35.. For example to solve x in 25x = 50 correct to two decimal places you simply apply the following reasoning. you will be able to use your calculator to solve for x. Now it is much easier to solve these equations by using logarithms.21533.10 Solving simple log equations In grade 10 you solved some exponential equations by trial and error. Answer Step 1 : Taking the log of both sides log 25x = log 50 Step 2 : Use Law 5 x log 25 = log 50 Step 3 : Solve for x x = log 50 ÷ log 25 x = 1. because you did not know the great power of logarithms yet. Step 4 : Round oﬀ to required decimal place x = 1.. LOGARITHMS .35. If the LHS = RHS then the logarithm of the LHS must be equal to the logarithm of the RHS.GRADE 12 (2)3 3 + 5 log2 2 = (2)2 + 5(1) = 4 + 5 = 9 Step 7 : Final Answer The ﬁnal answer is: 2 8 3 + log2 32 = 9 2 Worked Example 157: Simplify to one log Question: Write 2 log 3 + log 2 − log 5 as the logarithm of a single number..
x) the subject of the equation. For example.10 In general. the equation 2(x+2) = 1 is solved by moving all terms with the unknown to one side of the equation and taking all constants to the other side of the equation 2x · 22 2 x = 1 1 = 22 Then. divide both sides of the equation by 7 to give: 5(3x+3) = 5 Step 3 : Take the logarithm of both sides log(5(3x+3) ) = log(5) Step 4 : Apply the log laws to make x the subject of the equation.GRADE 12 35. 453 . Step 2 : Eliminate the base with no x In order to eliminate 7. yields 2−2+2 = 20 = 1 Similarly. take the logarithm of each side. yields 9(1−2( −1 2 )) = 9(1+1) = 32(2) = 34 Worked Example 159: Exponential Equation Question: Solve for x in 7 · 5(3x+3) = 35 Answer Step 1 : Identify the base with x as an exponent There are two possible bases: 5 and 7. 9(1−2x) = 34 is solved as follows: 9(1−2x) 3 32 3−4x 2(1−2x) = = = = = 34 34 34 34 · 3−2 32 take the logarithm of both sides log(32 ) 2 log(3) 2 − 1 2 divide both sides by log(3) 3−4x 3−4x log(3−4x ) = −4x log(3) = −4x = ∴x = Substituting into the original equation.CHAPTER 35. log (2x ) = x log (2) = x log (2) = ∴ x = 1 ) 22 − log (22 ) log ( −2 log (2) Divide both sides by log (2) −2 Substituting into the original equation. LOGARITHMS . Then the aim is to make the unknown quantity (i. x is an exponent of 5.e. the exponential equation should be simpliﬁed as much as possible.
logs are used to solve the particular equation.GRADE 12 (3x + 3) log(5) = 3x + 3 = 3x = x = log(5) divide both sides of the equation by log(5) 1 −2 2 − 3 Step 5 : Substitute into the original equation to check answer. then A = 3x.1 Solve for x: Exercises 1.35.034 n Step 3 : Final answer So it will take approximately 45 years for the population to triple in size. Worked Example 160: Using the growth formula Question: A city grows 5% every 2 years. and pHlevels to mention a few. 10log27 = x 3. 454 .11 Logarithmic applications in the Real World Logarithms are part of a number of formulae used in the Physical Sciences. LOGARITHMS .05) 2 n × log 1. How long will it take for the city to triple its size? Answer Step 1 : Use the formula A = P (1 + i)n Assume P = x.11 CHAPTER 35. therefore the n is halved for this purpose. with sound. There are formulae that deal with earthquakes. Step 2 : Substitute information given into formula 3 log 3 n n = = = = (1. 7 · 5(−3 3 +3) = 7 · 5(−2+3) = 7 · 51 = 35 2 35. To work out time periods is growth or decay.05 (usinglaw5) 2 2 log 3 ÷ log 1.10. log3 x = 2 2.05 45. For this example n represents a period of 2 years. 32x−1 = 272x−1 35.
I need the money to grow to at least R30 000. You can aﬀord to save R 300 per month.5 ÷ log 1.12 35.13n n n > > > 12 000(1 + 0. Without using a calculator show that: log 75 5 32 − 2 log + log = log 2 16 9 243 4. If it is invested at a compound interest rate of 13% per annum.5 log 2. how long will it take for the population to reach 100 000 ? 2.GRADE 12 35... How long will it take you to save up R 20 000 ? (Answer to the nearest rand) Worked Example 161: Logs in Compound Interest Question: I have R12 000 to invest. Show that 2. Given that 5n = x and n = log2 y A Write y in terms of n B Express log8 4y in terms of n C Express 50n+1 in terms of x and y 5. LOGARITHMS . Plus Bank is oﬀering a savings account with an interest rate if 10 % per annum compounded monthly. 35. Simplify. The population of a certain bacteria is expected to grow exponentially at a rate of 15 % every hour.. The investment need to stay in the bank for at least 8 years.13 > Step 3 : Determine the ﬁnal answer In this case we round up. for how long (in full years) does my investment need to grow ? Answer Step 1 : The formula to use A = P (1 + i)n Step 2 : Substitute and solve for n 30 000 < 1.12 End of Chapter Exercises loga x y = loga (x) − loga (y) √ loga (x) b x = b 1. Show that loga 3.1 Exercises 1.11. without the use of a calculator: 455 .13)n 5 2 log 2. because 7 years will not yet deliver the required R 30 000. n log 1. If the initial population is 5 000.13 7.4972.CHAPTER 35.
without use of a calculator: A log5 125 + log 32 − log 8 log 8 B log 3 − log 0. √ 14.) 456 . Given: M = log2 (x + 3) + log2 (x − 3) A Determine the values of x for which M is deﬁned. Find the value of (log27 3)3 without the use of a calculator. or otherwise. 16.12 A 8 3 + log2 32 B log3 9 − log5 C 4−1 5 − 9−1 2 CHAPTER 35. determine.4 11. Calculate: 52006 − 52004 + 24 52004 + 1 17. Given: A Express log3 2 in terms of a. B Hence.) 13.7. Write log 4500 in terms of a and b if 2 = 10a and 9 = 10b . LOGARITHMS .35.12 6. B Solve for x if M = 4. Simplify By using a calculator: log4 8 + 2 log3 27 15. √ Solve the following equation for x without the use of a calculator and using the fact that 10 ≈ 3. log x 12.3 log3 6 = a and log6 5 = b 7.GRADE 12 √ 5 1 2 + log3 92. Solve: x3 = 10x2 (Answer(s) may be left in surd form. 8.16 : 6 2 log(x + 1) = −1 log(x + 1) 18. Simplify to a single number. Evaluate without using a calculator: (log7 49)5 + log5 10. ﬁnd log3 10 in terms of a and b. If log 5 = 0. Given: Prove: pq k = qp−1 k = 1 − 2 logq p 1 125 − 13 log9 1 9. if necessary. Solve the following equation for x: 66x = 66 (Give answer correct to 2 decimal places. without using a calculator: A log2 5 B 10−1.
. 1.10.1 Introduction In this chapter we extend the arithmetic and quadratic sequences studied in earlier grades.10. . 4. 3. . − 6.22.1.18. 2.32. We also look at series. . . . 1. is an arithmetic sequence because you add 1 to the current term to get the next term: ﬁrst term: second term: third term: . 1. −1. − 12.13. . − 1.2 Arithmetic Sequences The simplest type of numerical sequence is an arithmetic sequence.6.16. .3.21.Grade 12 36. nth term: 1 2=1+1 3=2+1 n = (n − 1) + 1 Activity :: Common Diﬀerence : Find the constant value that is added to get the following sequences and write out the next 5 terms.6.43. 457 . − 3. 36.14. .54. 3. . 2. . .10. − 3. .0.Chapter 36 Sequences and Series .2.4. . . . Deﬁnition: Arithmetic Sequence An arithmetic (or linear ) sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each new term is calculated by adding a constant value to the previous term For example. − 9. .3.7. to geometric sequences.4.5. 5. . . which is the summing of the terms in a sequence. −5. .
GRADE 12 36.. called the common diﬀerence. n results in: 458 . the equation for the nth term will be: an = a1 + d · (n − 1) (36. Deﬁnition: Arithmetic Sequence An arithmetic (or linear ) sequence is a sequence of numbers in which each new term is calculated by adding a constant value to the previous term: an = an−1 + d where • an represents the new term. d.1 General Equation for the nth term of an Arithmetic Sequence More formally. • an−1 represents the previous term.2 CHAPTER 36.1) Given a1 and the common diﬀerence. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . and the diﬀerence between each successive term is denoted d. the (n − 1)th term. • d represents some constant. the number we start out with is called a1 (the ﬁrst term). If this condition does not hold.2. The general arithmetic sequence looks like: a1 a2 a3 a4 . and is the deﬁnitive test for an arithmetic sequence. the nth term. the entire set of numbers belonging to an arithmetic sequence can be generated. (36. an = a1 = a1 + d = a2 + d = (a1 + d) + d = a1 + 2d = a3 + d = (a1 + 2d) + d = a1 + 3d = a1 + d · (n − 1) Thus. plotting an vs. For an arithmetic sequence.. the sequence is not an arithmetic sequence.2) Important: Arithmetic Sequences A simple test for an arithmetic sequence is to check that the diﬀerence between consecutive terms is constant: a2 − a1 = a3 − a2 = an − an−1 = d (36.36.3) This is quite an important equation. Extension: Plotting a graph of terms in an arithmetic sequence Plotting a graph of the terms of sequence sometimes helps in determining the type of sequence involved. that is calculated.
3 a9 a8 a7 Term. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . They leave.1 Example .3.CHAPTER 36. which infects the respiratory tract (nose. multiplied by a constant number. 36. It is good practise to cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze so as not to infect others around you when you have the ﬂu. we can represent these events in the following manner: Again we can tabulate the events and formulate an equation for the general case: 459 . The main way that the inﬂuenza virus is spread is from person to person in respiratory droplets of coughs and sneezes.3 Geometric Sequences Deﬁnition: Geometric Sequences A geometric sequence is a sequence in which every number in the sequence is equal to the previous number in the sequence. lungs).GRADE 12 36. It can cause mild to severe illness that most of us get during winter time. Assuming this pattern continues and each sick person infects 2 other friends. and you forgot to cover your mouth when two friends came to visit while you were sick in bed. Assume that you have the ﬂu virus. and the next day they also have the ﬂu. (This is called “droplet spread”. This means that the ratio between consecutive numbers in the geometric sequence is a constant. a1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Index.A Flu Epidemic Extension: What is inﬂuenza? Inﬂuenza (commonly called “the ﬂu”) is caused by the inﬂuenza virus. up to a metre) through the air and deposited on the mouth or nose of people nearby.) This can happen when droplets from a cough or sneeze of an infected person are propelled (generally. throat. We will explain what we mean by ratio after looking at the following example. n an = a1 + d(n − 1) gradient d 7 8 9 36. Let’s assume that they in turn spread the virus to two of their friends by the same droplet spread the following day. an a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 yintercept.
4. . 32. Day. = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × . . more general.1: Each person infects two more people with the ﬂu virus. . . 18. 8. 460 .8. . an =r an−1 (36. 16. These events can be written as a geometric sequence: 2. . . 5. .GRADE 12 Figure 36. 2. n Number of newlyinfected people 2 =2 4 = 2 × 2 = 2 × 21 8 = 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 22 16 = 2 × 8 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 23 32 = 2 × 16 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 2 × 24 . and 8 people are infected.4. . The next day. 80. by a3 a2 = =r a1 a2 Or. 112.36. . 3. 4. 2. 1 1 1 2.4) (36. each one then infects 2 of their friends. . . × 2 = 2 × 2n−1 The above table represents the number of newlyinfected people after n days since you ﬁrst infected your 2 friends. . 40. You sneeze and the virus is carried over to 2 people who start the chain (a1 = 2). . 448.5) Activity :: Common Factor of Geometric Sequence : Determine the common factor for the following geometric sequences: 1. . . and so on. 54. 10. 7. Now 4 people are newlyinfected.3 CHAPTER 36. n 1 2 3 4 5 . Note the common factor (2) between the events. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . Recall from the linear arithmetic sequence how the common diﬀerence between terms were established. Each of them infects 2 people the third day. . 28. r. . 6. . . . In the geometric sequence we can determine the common ratio. 20.
. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . . 30. 54.CHAPTER 36. 20.3. 3000. . Activity :: General Equation of Geometric Sequence : Determine the formula for the following geometric sequences: 1.4. . . Thus.3 36. −3. 28.8. we need to work out a10 : an a10 = = = = = a1 · rn−1 2 × 210−1 2 × 29 2 × 512 1024 (36. . 2.3 Exercises 1.GRADE 12 5. 3. after 10 days. 3000. 18. 30. . . . 40. Or. 10. and we have seen from the table that the nth term is given by an = 2 × 2n−1 . 1 1 1 2. −300. .2 General Equation for the nth term of a Geometric Sequence From the above example we know a1 = 2 and r = 2. . 80. if we want to know how many people are newlyinfected after 10 days. . 2. in general. −3. 448. −300.3. . there are 1 024 newlyinfected people. . 5. . how many days would pass before 16 384 people become newly infected with the ﬂu virus? an = a1 · rn−1 16 384 = 2 × 2n−1 16 384 ÷ 2 = 2n−1 8 192 = 2n−1 213 = 2n−1 13 = n − 1 n = 14 That is. 5. 4. . 6. 36. What is the important characteristic of an arithmetic sequence? 461 . . 36. 7.6) That is. 14 days pass before 16 384 people are newlyinfected. So. . an = a1 · rn−1 where a1 is the ﬁrst term and r is called the common ratio. 112.
y is an arithmetic sequence and 81.7) where one can directly calculate the nth term of an arithmetic sequence without knowing previous terms. x. we noticed that the diﬀerence between two consecutive terms in the sequence could be written in a general way. Write down how you would go about ﬁnding the formula for the nth term of an arithmetic sequence? 3. d: an = an−1 + d The above equation is an example of a recursive equation since we can calculate the nth term only by considering the previous term in the sequence.4 Recursive Formulae for Sequences When discussing arithmetic and quadratic sequences. Compare this with equation (36. 5. D. Determine: A the ﬁrst term B the common diﬀerence C the formula for the general term D how many matchsticks are in a row of 25 squares 4. an = a1 + d · (n − 1) (36.9) (36. Two squares in a row needs 7 matchsticks and 3 squares in a row needs 10 matchsticks. where a new term is calculated by taking the previous term and adding a constant value.4 CHAPTER 36. For quadratic sequences. we rewrite the equation as an = an−1 + D · (n − 2) + d Using (36.1). As you can see from the examples above. Calculate the values of x and y. 462 . the recursive equation for a geometric sequence is: an = r · an−1 (36. y is a geometric sequence. A single square is made from 4 matchsticks. x. 36. All terms in the sequences are integers. we noticed the diﬀerence between consecutive terms is given by (??): an − an−1 = D · (n − 2) + d Therefore.36. working out an using the previous term an−1 can be a much simpler computation than working out an from scratch using a general formula. Recursive equations are extremely powerful: you can work out every term in the series just by knowing previous terms. This means that using a recursive formula when using a computer to work out a sequence would mean the computer would ﬁnish its calculations signiﬁcantly quicker. SEQUENCES AND SERIES .8) which is then a recursive equation for a quadratic sequence with common second diﬀerence. For an arithmetic sequence.GRADE 12 2.5).
a1 = 2 n−1 36. an }: S n = a1 + a2 + a3 + . a1 = 1 2. 1. (36. . if we have the following sequence of numbers 1. 25. 1.5 Series In this section we simply work on the concept of adding up the numbers belonging to arithmetic and geometric sequences. the number of terms is unknown and simply increases to ∞. . . . We use the symbol Sn to mean the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a sequence {a1 . .11) 36. we get an inﬁnite series: S ∞ = a1 + a2 + a3 + . (36. 8.1 Some Basics If we add up the terms of a sequence. 463 . 5. 36. an = 2an−1 + 3. 4. . 3.2 Sigma Notation In this section we introduce a notation that will make our lives a little easier. If we only sum a ﬁnite amount of terms. we get a ﬁnite series. a1 = 11 3. . we obtain what is called a series. 36. We call the sum of any sequence of numbers a series. given their recursive formulae: 1. If we sum inﬁnitely many terms of a sequence. . 2. 34.10) The above sequence is called the Fibonacci sequence. 49. a3 .GRADE 12 Activity :: Recursive Formula : Write the ﬁrst 5 terms of the following sequences. we can write down the recursive equation: an = an−1 + an−2 (36. Each new term is calculated by adding the previous two terms. 21. then we write S4 = 1 + 4 + 9 + 25 = 39 The above is an example of a ﬁnite series since we are only summing 4 terms. . .5.CHAPTER 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . + an For example.12) In the case of an inﬁnite series.5 Extension: The Fibonacci Sequence Consider the following sequence: 0. 9. . . an = an−1 . . an = 2a2 . 36. 13. .13) (36. Hence. a2 .5. and we wish to ﬁnd the sum of the ﬁrst 4 terms.
which is the capital letter “S” in the Greek alphabet. The index i is increased from m to n in steps of 1.or notation since they mean the same thing: n Sn = i=1 ai = a1 + a2 + .15) For example. . . • n is the upper bound (or end index). then we can use either Sn . • m is the lower bound (or start index). . shown below the summation symbol. • ai are the terms of a sequence.GRADE 12 A sum may be written out using the summation symbol . n n n (ai + bi ) = i=1 i=1 ai + i=1 bi (36. + an (36. 6 2i i=1 = = = 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 126 2.14) where • i is the index of the sum. ai and bi . .5 CHAPTER 36. . . This symbol is sigma.16) 464 . 10 (3xi ) = 3x3 + 3x4 + . in the following sum. + an−1 + an i=m (36. Some Basic Rules for Sigma Notation 1. If we are summing from n = 1 (which implies summing from the ﬁrst term in a sequence). SEQUENCES AND SERIES . shown above the summation symbol. 5 i i=1 we have to add together all the terms in the sequence ai = i from i = 1 up until i = 5: 5 i = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 15 i=1 Examples 1. + 3x9 + 3x10 i=3 for any value x.36. It indicates that you must sum the expression to the right of it: n ai = am + am+1 + . Given two sequences.
Determine i=−1 5 i. n i=1 36.CHAPTER 36.6 Finite Arithmetic Series Remember that an arithmetic sequence is a set of numbers.6 c · ai = c · a1 + c · a2 + c · a3 + . + an ) n = c i=1 ai (36. . 3. 1.. • a1 is the ﬁrst term. The simplest arithmetic sequence is when a1 = 1 and d = 0 in the general form (36. When we sum a ﬁnite number of terms in an arithmetic sequence. Expand k=0 i. • d is the common diﬀerence. Calculate the value of a if: 3 k=1 a · 2k−1 = 28 36. . .+ 1 465 (n times) . What is k=1 2? 3 2. 1. • an is the nth term of the sequence. we would write ai = i=1 i=1 1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + . 1. . .18) = {ai } = n n 1 {1. SEQUENCES AND SERIES .} If we wish to sum this sequence from i = 1 to any positive integer n. we get a ﬁnite arithmetic series.GRADE 12 2. called the constant diﬀerence: an = a1 + d (n − 1) where • n is the index of the sequence. + c · an = c (a1 + a2 + a3 + . 4. such that the diﬀerence between any term and the previous term is a constant number.17) Exercises 4 1. .18).. in other words all the terms in the sequence are 1: ai = = a1 + d (i − 1) 1 + 0 · (i − 1) (36. . 1. For any constant c. d. which is any variable not dependent on the index i.
. we would write i = 1 + 2 + 3 + . it means that if we sum to n we will be adding nnumber of 1’s together.} If we wish to sum this sequence from i = 1 to any positive integer n.. 5050. + (n − 1) + n We then write the same sum but with the terms in descending order: Sn = n + (n − 1) + . 5. His teacher had decided to give his class a problem which would distract them for the entire day by asking them to add all the numbers from 1 to 100.6. 2. and by simplifying we arrive at the ﬁnal result: 2 Sn Sn n = = n (n + 1) n (n + 1) 2 n (n + 1) 2 (36. Karl Friedrich Gauss. We will now determine the general formula to evaluate a ﬁnite arithmetic series. .21) We then add corresponding pairs of terms from equations (36..23) We then have nnumber of (n + 1)terms. . there is no need to work it out termforterm.GRADE 12 Since all the terms are equal to 1. and we ﬁnd that the sum for each pair is the same. (n + 1): 2 Sn = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + . . which is simply equal to n: n 1=n i=1 (36.19) Another simple arithmetic sequence is when a1 = 1 and d = 1. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . . discovered this proof when he was only Interesting Fact Fact 8 years old.22) (36. 3. . We ﬁrst write Sn as a sum of terms in ascending order: Sn = 1 + 2 + .20) This is an equation with a very important solution as it gives the answer to the sum of positive integers. We start with the 466 .6 CHAPTER 36.+ n i=1 (36.22).21) and (36. + 2 + 1 (36. Young Karl realised how to do this almost instantaneously and shocked the teacher with the correct answer. .36. + (n + 1) + (n + 1) (36. teresting Mathematician. 4.24) Sn = i=1 i= 36. . which is the sequence of positive integers: ai = = = {ai } = n a1 + d (i − 1) 1 + 1 · (i − 1) i {1.1 General Formula for a Finite Arithmetic Series If we wish to sum any arithmetic sequence. .
while the last term is 9 times the ﬁrst term.25) For example. we could either calculate each term individually and sum them: 20 S20 = i=1 [3 + 7 (i − 1)] = 3 + 10 + 17 + 24 + 31 + 38 + 45 + 52 + 59 + 66 + 73 + 80 + 87 + 94 + 101 + 108 + 115 + 122 + 129 + 136 = 1390 or. d = 7 and n = 20 so that 20 S20 = = = i=1 20 2 [2 [3 + 7 (i − 1)] · 3 + 7 (20 − 1)] 1390 In this example. the general formula for determining an arithmetic series is given by n Sn = i=1 [ a1 + d (i − 1) ] = n [ 2a1 + d (n − 1) ] 2 (36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . we could use equation (36. 2 1. more sensibly. Calculate the number of terms in the series if the ﬁrst term is not equal to zero. it is clear that using equation (36. 2.GRADE 12 36.2 Exercises n (7n + 15).6 general formula for an arithmetic sequence and sum it from i = 1 to any positive integer n: n n ai i=1 = i=1 n [a1 + d (i − 1)] (a1 + di − d) [(a1 − d) + di] n = i=1 n = i=1 n = i=1 n (a1 − d) + (di) i=1 n = i=1 (a1 − d) + d i i=1 = = = = (a1 − d) n + n (2a1 − 2d + dn + d) 2 n (2a1 + dn − d) 2 n [ 2a1 + d (n − 1) ] 2 dn (n + 1) 2 So. 36.CHAPTER 36.25) noting that a1 = 3. if we wish to know the series S20 for the arithmetic sequence ai = 3 + 7 (i − 1). The sum to n terms of an arithmetic series is Sn = A How many terms of the series must be added to give a sum of 425? B Determine the 6th term of the series. The sum of an arithmetic series is 100 times its ﬁrst term. 467 .25) is beneﬁcial.6.
The general form of a quadratic series is quite complicated.36. and the sum of the ﬁrst n terms is 975. 4. 32 . The third term of an arithmetic sequence is 7 and the 7t h term is 9.} n If we wish to sum this sequence and create a series. Calculate the values of n for which the nth term of the series is 93. in general. 7. 42 . Determine the common diﬀerence. 22 .7 CHAPTER 36. . + n2 which can be written. 36. .GRADE 12 3. then we write Sn = i=1 i 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + . The sum of an arithmetic series is 100 times the value of its ﬁrst term. 36. + n2 3 We start oﬀ with the expansion of (k + 1) . 62 . Determine the sum of the ﬁrst 51 terms of the sequence. . The common diﬀerence of an arithmetic series is 3. 6. . . .} {1. (k + 1)3 (k + 1)3 − k 3 = k 3 + 3k 2 + 3k + 1 = 3k 2 + 3k + 1 468 . 5. we get a ﬁnite quadratic series. This is the sequence of squares of the integers: ai {ai } = = = i2 {12 . Calculate the sum of the arithmetic series 4 + 7 + 10 + · · · + 901.7 Finite Squared Series When we sum a ﬁnite number of terms in a quadratic sequence. 52 . 25. 8. 9. Calculate the values of n for which the nth term of the series is 93 and the sum of the ﬁrst n terms is 975. . The sum of n terms of an arithmetic series is 5n2 − 11n for all values of n. . SEQUENCES AND SERIES . 16.26) The proof for equation (36. 4. while the last term is 9 times the ﬁrst term. so we will only look at the simple case when D = 2 and d = (a2 − a1 ) = 3 in the general form (???). as n Sn = i=1 i2 = n (2n + 1)(n + 1) 6 (36. .26) can be found under the Advanced block that follows: Extension: Derivation of the Finite Squared Series We will now prove the formula for the ﬁnite squared series: n Sn = i=1 i 2 = 1 + 4 + 9 + . The common diﬀerence of an arithmetic series is 3. . Calculate the number of terms in the series if the ﬁrst term is not equal to zero.
8 Finite Geometric Series When we sum a known number of terms in a geometric sequence. • a1 is the ﬁrst term. . + a1 rn−2 + a1 rn−1 We may multiply the above equation by r on both sides. we arrive at (n + 1) − 1 = n3 + 3n2 + 3n + 1 − 1 = n3 + 3n2 + 3n = n 3 (3i2 + 3i + 1) i=1 n n n 3 i=1 n i2 + 3 i=1 i+ i=1 1 3 i=1 i2 + 3n (n + 1) + n 2 i2 i=1 = = = = 1 3 3n [n + 3n2 + 3n − (n + 1) − n] 3 2 3 3 1 3 (n + 3n2 + 3n − n2 − n − n) 3 2 2 1 3 3 2 1 (n + n + n) 3 2 2 n (2n2 + 3n + 1) 6 n (2n + 1)(n + 1) 6 Therefore. .27) where • n is the index of the sequence. we are actually writing out the series Sn = a1 + a1 r + a1 r2 + . By simply adding together the ﬁrst n terms. + a1 rn−1 + a1 rn 469 (36. . .GRADE 12 k=1 : k=2 : k=3 : . • r is the common ratio (the ratio of any term to the previous term). giving us rSn = a1 r + a1 r2 + a1 r3 + .29) (36. we get a ﬁnite geometric series. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . We know from (??) that we can write out each term of a geometric sequence in the general form: an = a1 · rn−1 (36. k=n : 23 − 13 = 3(1)2 + 3(1) + 1 33 − 23 = 3(2)2 + 3(2) + 1 43 − 33 = 3(3)2 + 3(3) + 1 (n + 1)3 − n3 = 3n2 + 3n + 1 n 36.28) • an is the nth term of the sequence. .CHAPTER 36.8 If we add all the terms on the right and left. . n i2 = i=1 36. .
Find the sum of the ﬁrst 7 terms.28) and (36. . −3.. Prove that 2.. If we subtract (36. 6. determine: A The 8th term of the sequence B The sum of the ﬁrst 8 terms of the sequence. 9. Show that the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of the geometric series 1 54 + 18 + 6 + .28) from (36.36.1 Exercises a + ar + ar2 + .. 7. D Determine ∞ n=9 2 · 56−n correct to two decimal places using previously calculated results. . The eighth term of a geometric sequence is 640. 4. is given by 81 − 34−n . Solve for n: t=1 3 1 8 ( 2 )t = 15 4 . correct to two decimal places. 9.8. n 5. + 5 ( 3 )n−1 + 3 4 + .29) are the same. The ratio between the sum of the ﬁrst three terms of a geometric series and the sum of the 4th . we are left with just rSn − Sn = a1 rn − a1 Sn (r − 1) = a1 (rn − 1) Dividing by (r − 1) on both sides.. Determine the common ratio and the ﬁrst 2 terms if the third term is 8. Given the geometric sequence 1. A Show that the series converges B Calculate the sum to inﬁnity of the series C Calculate the sum of the ﬁrst 8 terms of the series. except the ﬁrst and last terms. . Determine: 4 n=1 3 · 2n−1 470 .8 CHAPTER 36. + arn−1 = a (1 − rn ) (1 − r) 3 2 1.30) 36. . 5th − and 6th terms of the same series is 8 : 27.GRADE 12 You may notice that all the terms on the right side of (36. Given the geometric series: 2 · (5)5 + 2 · (5)4 + 2 · (5)3 + . SEQUENCES AND SERIES .. The third term is 20. Find the sum of the ﬁrst 11 terms of the geometric series 6 + 3 + 3.29). we arrive at the general form of a geometric series: n Sn = i=1 a1 · ri−1 = a1 (rn − 1) r−1 (36.. . 8.
There is also a formula for working out what the series converges to.surely the answer will be ∞ when one sums inﬁnitely many numbers. the common ratio.GRADE 12 36. otherwise it will diverge. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . You might think that if you keep adding more and more terms you will eventually get larger and larger numbers.30) for the ﬁnite geometric series: n Sn = i=1 a1 · ri−1 = a1 (rn − 1) r−1 Now we will investigate the value of rn for −1 1 Take r = 2 : n = 1 : rn = r1 = ( 1 )1 = 2 n = 2 : rn = r2 = ( 1 )2 = 2 n = 3 : rn = r3 = ( 1 )3 = 2 Since r is a fractional value in the range −1 Therefore. Let’s start oﬀ with formula (36. we consider what happens when we add inﬁnitely many terms together.9 36. When r. If a series does not converge. we only considered the sum of the ﬁrst n terms. but in some cases one will get a ﬁnite answer. If you don’t believe this.9 Inﬁnite Series Thus far we have been working only with ﬁnite sums. is strictly between 1 and 1. 36.1 Inﬁnite Geometric Series There is a simple test for knowing instantly which geometric series converges and which diverges.9. try doing the following sum.e. . and the answer we get after each summation gets closer and closer to some number. meaning that whenever we determined the sum of a series. In this section. but in fact you won’t even get past 1 . . i. −1 < r < 1. You might think that this is a silly question . no matter how small they are? The surprising answer is that in some cases one will reach ∞ (like when you try to add all the positive integers together). on your calculator or computer: 1 1 1 1 1 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + .CHAPTER 36. the inﬁnite series will converge. a geometric series. Sn S∞ = = = = a1 (rn − 1) r−1 a1 (0 − 1) r−1 −a1 r−1 a1 1−r 471 1 2 1 2 1 2 · · 1 2 1 2 = · 1 2 1 4 < 1 8 1 2 = < 1 4 for − 1 < r < 1 . then we say that it diverges.try it and see for yourself! We denote the sum of an inﬁnite number of terms of a sequence by S∞ = ∞ i=1 ai When we sum the terms of a series. we say that the series converges.
. 7.10 End of Chapter Exercises 1. Calculate 6 1 3 (3) k=2 k+2 3. + 5 ( 3 )n−1 calculate the smallest value of n for which the sum of the ﬁrst n terms is greater than 80.. 2 · 5(6−n) correct to TWO decimal places. The sum to inﬁnity of a geometric series with positive terms is 4 6 and the sum of the ﬁrst 2 two terms is 2 3 . A Calculate the total number of matches to be played in the competition. 1 54 + 18 + 6 + .. B Calculate the sum of the ﬁrst 8 terms of the series. (x + 1) + 2 9 (x + 1)2 + .10 CHAPTER 36.36. and r. 2x − 5 are the ﬁrst 3 terms of a convergent geometric series. x − 1. . the geometric series 2+ will converge. For the geometric series. Given the geometric series: 2 · 55 + 2 · 54 + 2 · 53 + . A new soccer competition requires each of 8 teams to play every other team once. SEQUENCES AND SERIES .2 Exercises 2 1. Determine for which values of x.99.ri−1 = a1 1−r for −1 (36. D Use your answer to 5c above to determine ∞ n=9 3 2 3 4 + + . the common ratio between consecutive terms.31) where a1 is the ﬁrst term of the series and r is the common ratio. Find a. What does ( 5 )n approach as n tends towards ∞? 2. 8. an example of a ﬁnite series or an inﬁnite series? 2. the ﬁrst term. B Sum to inﬁnity of the series. ... Write the sum of the ﬁrst 20 terms of the series 6 + 3 + 5. 6.. Is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + . correct to TWO decimal places. 36. 472 . C Calculate the sum to inﬁnity of the series.9. If x + 1. 36. Find the sum to inﬁnity of the geometric series 3 + 1 + 3. in notation.GRADE 12 The sum of an inﬁnite geometric series is given by the formula S∞ = ∞ i=1 a1 . 4. . 2 3 1 3 + 1 9 + . calculate the: A Value of x. 1 4. Determine the value of ∞ k=1 1 12( 5 )k−1 . A Show that the series converges... .
Show that the plant will never reach a height of more than 150 mm.CHAPTER 36.500? B His initial annual expenditure is R2.600 and increases at a rate of R400 per year. In each successive year. he decides to donate an amount of money on the following basis. an exlearner of the school and a successful politician. Calculate the sum of the areas of all the squares so formed.) After how many days did she have enough money to buy the book? 11.500 for the ﬁrst time? 15. (k + 1). the school will receive 1 cent. On 1 February she saved R1.GRADE 12 36. Calculate (Give your answer to the nearest Rand) A The amount of money that the school will receive for the correct answer to the 20th question. . A ii.800 in the ﬁrst year.10 B If each of n teams played each other once.60. form a geometric sequence. The donations 1. 14. A man was injured in an accident at work. 4. The Cape Town High School wants to build a school hall and is busy with fundraising.. A What is the annual increase if. 2. and the last three a geometric sequence. and saves everyday 30 cents more than she saved the previous day. Manuel. The ﬁrst term of a geometric sequence is 9. . Consider the geometric series: 5 + 21 + 11 + . she saved R1. the height increases by 12 mm. Find k and m if both are positive. m.90. 17. B The total amount of money that the school will receive if all 20 questions are answered correctly. Mr. A certain plant reaches a height of 118 mm after one year under ideal conditions in a greenhouse. Michael saved R400 during the ﬁrst month of his working life.50. 10. After how many years does his expenses exceed his income? 16. oﬀers to donate money to the school. (k − 4). 9. (So. and so on. he saved 10% more than what he had saved in the previous month. write down the value of: i. on the second day. Having enjoyed mathematics at school. determine a formula for the total number of matches in terms of n.. This grant increases with a ﬁxed amount each year. the school will receive 2 cents. Calculate the value of n if a=1 (20 − 4a) = −20. and so on. n 13. and the ratio of the sum of the ﬁrst eight terms to the sum of the ﬁrst four terms is 97 : 81. In each subsequent month. 473 . Thembi worked parttime to buy a Mathematics book which cost R29. He sets a mathematical quiz with 20 questions. 5k is a set of numbers. 2 4 A If A is the sum to inﬁnity and B is the sum of the ﬁrst n terms. During the next year. He receives a disability grant of R4. the ﬁrst three of which form an arithmetic sequence. for a correct answer to the second question. A How much did he save in the 7th working month? B How much did he save all together in his ﬁrst 12 working months? C In which month of his working life did he save more than R1. B in terms of n. . Find the ﬁrst three terms of the sequence. The midpoints of the sides of square with length equal to 4 units are joined to form a new square. For the correct answer to the ﬁrst question (any learner may answer). B For which values of n is (A − B) < 1 24 ? 12. The process is repeated indeﬁnitely. if it is given that all the terms are positive. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . 18. over 20 years. he would have received a total of R143. 5 the height increases by 8 of the previous year’s growth.
. 5 21. 2. 29. 15 + p is geometric. − 1000 26. 2000 Find the sum of remaining integers. Find the integer that is the closest approximation to: 102001 + 102003 102002 + 102002 25. C Determine the 10th term of this sequence correct to one decimal place. 30. Find p if: 27pk = (24 − 3t) 24. he powers of 2 are removed from the set of positive integers 1. + 677 − 678 + . . The second and fourth terms of a convergent geometric series are 36 and 16. if it exists. 3. 5. Find the pattern and hence calculate: 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 − 6 . 1998. Find the second term. 1999. 5 B Show that the common ratio is 4 . . Find the 10th term. Sn = 4n2 + 1 represents the sum of the ﬁrst n terms of a particular series. . .GRADE 12 19. Calculate: ∞ i=1 5 · 4−i 28. . A Determine p. The sum of the ﬁrst p terms of a sequence is p (p + 1). Evaluate: k=2 k(k + 1) 2 22. Given: The sequence 6 + p . 4. Observe the pattern below: 474 . if all its terms are positive. Determine ∞ (x + 2)p .10 CHAPTER 36. respectively. when p=1 A x=− 5 2 B x = −5 27. 20. . 6.36. ∞ k=1 12 t=1 23. Find the sum to inﬁnity of this series. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . 10 + p . .
.10 E D C B A B B C C C C D D D D D D E E E E E E E E A If the pattern continues.GRADE 12 36. 31. Determine A x=− (x + 2)p . if it exists. B If the total number of letters in the pattern is 361. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . + 677 − 678 + .CHAPTER 36.) 32. ﬁnd the number of letters in the column containing M’s. Here are some of the students’ answers: A Megansaid the answer is 42005 . C Nina thinks it is 22006 . The following question was asked in a test: Find the value of 22005 + 22005 . which letter will the last column consist of. . . − 1000 ∞ 33. Find the pattern and hence calculate: 1 − 2 + 3 − 4 + 5 − 6 . D Annatte gave the answer 22005×2005 . Calculate: ∞ i=1 5 · 4−i 475 . B Stefan wrote down 24010 . . when p=1 5 2 B x = −5 34. Who is correct? (“None of them” is also a possibility.
476 . 5. The powers of 2 are removed from the set of positive integers 1. At the end of the ﬁrst year. . 1998. 2. 6. 36. SEQUENCES AND SERIES . Find the 10th term. . Show that the height of the shrub will never exceed 130 cm. the growth of the shrub each year is half of its growth in the previous year.36. 4. . A shrub of height 110 cm is planted.10 CHAPTER 36. Thereafter. The sum of the ﬁrst p terms of a sequence is p (p + 1).GRADE 12 35. 2000 Find the sum of remaining integers. . the shrub is 120 cm tall. 3. 37. 1999.
Since this chapter expands on earlier work. Solving for n: A = (1 + i)n = log((1 + i)n ) = n log(1 + i) = n = P (1 + i)n (A/P ) log(A/P ) log(A/P ) log(A/P )/ log(1 + i) Remember. deciding what you need. then you should deﬁnitely revise the work from Chapters 8 and 21. It is simply a matter of writing down what you have. and if we know what interest rate applies . P . It is very easy to derive any time you need it. this chapter will provide you with the fundamental concepts you will need to conﬁdently manage your ﬁnances and with some successful investing. that you have learnt about logarithms. it would be best if you revised the work done in Chapters 8 and 21. and solving for that variable. we used the formula A = P (1 + i)n to determine the term of the investment or loan. if we know what the starting sum of money is and what it grows to.2 Finding the Length of the Investment or Loan In Grade 11. go to Chapter 35 (on page 445). In other words.Grade 12 37. Indeed. together with the concept of depreciation.1 Introduction In earlier grades simple interest and compound interest were studied. 477 . by trial and error. sit back on your yacht and enjoy the millionaire lifestyle. 37. Nominal and eﬀective interest rates were also described. If you need to remind yourself how logarithms work.then we can work out how long the money needs to be invested for all those other numbers to tie up. If you master the techniques in this chapter. And when you are looking at applying for a bond from a bank to buy a home. Now. you are ready to work out the proper algebraic solution. you do not have to memorise this formula. you will conﬁdently be able to get out the calculator and work out with amazement how much you could actually save by making additional repayments. The basic ﬁnance equation is: A = P · (1 + i)n If you don’t know what A. i and n represent.Chapter 37 Finance . when you start working and earning you will be able to apply the techniques in this chapter to critically assess how to invest your money.
5%) 2. if you put R2486..85 into a 10% bank account now. R1 000 a year after that. how much do I need to put into a bank account earning 10% p..5% • A=R4 044.10)−3 = R751.Logarithms Question: If we invested R3 500 into a savings account which pays 7.0909).3148). You can check this as follows: 478 .69 We are required to ﬁnd n. FINANCE . how much do I need to invest now at 10% ?” But what if we extend this as follows: If I want R1 000 next year and R1 000 the year after that and R1 000 after three years . you know how to do calculations such as ”If I want R1 000 in 3 years’ time.GRADE 12 Worked Example 162: Term of Investment . How long did we invest the money? How does this compare with the trial and error answer from Chapters 21. right now to be able to aﬀord that?” The obvious way of working that out is to work out how much you need now to aﬀord the payments individually and sum them. 37. You would have had exactly the right amount of money to do that (obviously!).5% compound interest for an unknown period of time.37.and your bank account will come down to R0. Add these together gives you the amount needed to aﬀord all three payments and you get R2486.69. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: A = (1 + i)n = log((1 + i)n ) = n log(1 + i) = n Step 3 : Solve the problem n = = = log(A/P )/ log(1 + i) log( R4 044.3 CHAPTER 37. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required • P =R3 500 • i=7. you will be able to draw out R1 000 in a year.3 A Series of Payments By this stage. the amount needed now for the following year’s R1 000 (= R1 000 × (1.69 ) R3 500 log(1 + 7.a.0 = P (1 + i)n (A/P ) log(A/P ) log(A/P ) log(A/P )/ log(1 + i) Step 4 : Write ﬁnal answer The R3 500 was invested for 2 years.10)−1 = R909.4463) and the amount needed now for the R1 000 after 3 years (= R1 000 × (1. and R1 000 a year after that .85. So. at the end of which our account is worth R4 044.10)−2 = R826. We’ll work out how much is needed now to aﬀord the payment of R1 000 in a year (= R1 000 × (1.
• bond repayments .54 .1 000 Perfect! Of course. and we can represent these payments on a time line as: 479 .an accounting term for cash set aside for a particular purpose and invested so that the correct amount of money will be available when it is needed. At the end of the 20 years the bank would have received back the total amount you borrowed together with all the interest they have earned from lending you the money.2 Present Values of a series of Payments So having reviewed the mathematics of Sequences and Series..e. + arn−1 = a[1 + r + r2 + . you need to go back and read Chapter 36 (from page 457) to revise sequences and series.54 R1735.09 R1 000 R0 37.a ﬁxed sum payable each year or each month either to provide a predetermined sum at the end of a number of years or months (referred to as a future value annuity) or a ﬁxed amount paid each year or each month to repay (amortise) a loan (referred to as a present value annuity).1 000 1735. if you have a series of n terms in total which looks like this: a + ar + ar2 + . to be able to aﬀord R100 a month for the next 15 years.rn−1 ] this can be simpliﬁed as: a(rn − 1) r−1 a(1 − rn ) 1−r useful when r > 1 useful when 0 ≤ r < 1 37. • sinking funds . you would be right to guess that there must be some ﬁnancial use to all this Here is an example which happens in many people’s lives . for only three years.09 .85 R2735.3..54 R1909. and M is the amount of the mortgage bond you will be taking out. You would obviously want to work out what the annual repayment is going to be! Let X be the annual repayment.I’m sure you guessed . Time lines are particularly useful tools for visualizing the series of payments for calculations. The bank wants it to be repaid by annually payments for the next 20 years.85(1+10%) 2735. This is an example of a present value annuity.. FINANCE .54(1+10%) R1909. But what if I asked you how much you needed to put into a bank account now. a year later) after the R1 000 at Time 2 (i. but it would take you weeks! There is .1 000 909.e. i is the interest rate.1 Sequences and Series Before we progress.so you know you are learning something practical Let us say you would like to buy a property for R300 000.GRADE 12 Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount at Time 0 (i. a year later) after the R1 000 = = = = = = = R2486. a year later) after the R1 000 at Time 3 (i.3. you might be wondering how this is meant to have any practical purpose! Given that we are in the ﬁnance section.e. In summary.09 R909.. This is an example of a future value annuity 37. so you go to the bank to apply for a mortgage bond.e.an easier way! This section will focus on describing how to work with: • annuities . If you used the above approach you would still get the right answer. that was not too bad. Now) at Time 1 (i.09(1+10%) 1 000 . They will charge you 15% per annum.a ﬁxed sum payable at regular intervals to pay oﬀ a loan.CHAPTER 37.3 = = = = = = 2486. starting at end of this year.
which is 20 diﬀerent calculations. and the bank is going to 480 . + X(1 + i)−20 The painful way of solving this problem would be to do the calculation for each of the terms above .GRADE 12 X 0 1 X 2 X 18 X 19 X 20 Cash Flows Time Figure 37. + v n−1 ) 1 − vn ) = v( 1−v 1 − vn = 1/v − 1 1 − (1 + i)−n = i Note that we took out a common factor of v before using the formula for the geometric sequence. or if you know how big a repayment you can aﬀord and want to see what property you can buy.to show you are a real ﬁnancial whizz . this formula is useful if you know the amount of the mortgage bond you need and want to work out the repayment. The present value of all the payments (which includes interest) must equate to the (present) value of the mortgage loan amount..which can be quite confusing! As an exercise . you can write this as: M = X(1 + i)−1 + X(1 + i)−2 + X(1 + i)−3 + . It is actually quite easy.. + v 20 ) where v = (1 + i)−1 = 1/(1 + i) Of course.1: Time Line for an annuity (in arrears) of X for n periods. We just ﬁnd this a useful method because you can get rid of the negative exponents . This can be rewritten as follows. So we can write: M = X[ This can be rewritten: X= (1 − (1 + i)−n ) ] i M −n [ (1−(1+i) ) ] i So. the item in square brackets is the sum of a geometric sequence.try to solve this without substitution.. FINANCE . but you are also likely to make a mistake.. Not only would you probably get bored along the way.37. as discussion in section 36. Naturally.. using what we know from Chapter 36 of this text book: v 1 + v 2 + v 3 + .. if I want to buy a house for R300 000 over 20 years. you do not have to use the method of substitution to solve this... Mathematically. For example. Now.3 CHAPTER 37. + v n = v(1 + v + v 2 + . there is a simpler way of doing this! You can rewrite the above equation as follows: M = X(v 1 + v 2 + v 3 + .
The annual interest rate is 11%.15)−20 ) ] = R30 000[ 0. Worked Example 163: Monthly mortgage repayments Question: Sam is looking to buy his ﬁrst ﬂat. He will be taking out a 30 year mortgage with monthly repayments. The bad news is that R187 800 does not come close to the R300 000 you wanted to buy! The good news is that you do not have to memorise this formula. M = = R250 000 − R15 000 R235 000 481 . for R30 000 a year for 20 years. which is the purchase price of property less the deposit which Sam pays upfront.15 = R47 928. showing that it is the sum of a geometric sequence. deriving the answer. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We know that: M X = (1−(1+i)−n ) ] [ i .15 = R187 779. you will be expected to start from the beginning .writing out the opening equation in full. then the annual repayment is: X = = M −n [ (1−(1+i) ) ] i 37.44 per year before I have paid oﬀ the mortgage bond.90 = X[ So. i = 11% We are required to ﬁnd the monthly repayment for a 30year mortgage.. then how big a house can I buy? That is easy . and has R15 000 in cash savings which he will use as a deposit. the amount of the mortgage bond. if I know I will only have R30 000 a year to repay my bond.GRADE 12 charge me 15% per annum..15) ) ] 0. I need to pay the bank R47 928. On the other hand.CHAPTER 37. when you answer questions like this in an exam. each year for the next 20 years. we need to calculate M . Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is needed The following is given: • Deposit amount = R15 000 • Price of ﬂat = R250 000 • interest rate. In fact .44 This means. I can aﬀord to buy a house of R187 800 (rounded to the nearest hundred). He has viewed a ﬂat which is on the market for R250 000. and then coming up with the correct numerical answer. and he would like to work out how much the monthly repayments would be.3 R300 000 −20 [ (1−(1. M (1 − (1 + i)−n ) ] i (1 − (1. In order to use this equation. FINANCE ..
i12.8. but do not forget that you can always deduce the formula from ﬁrst principles as well! M −n [ (1−(1+i) ) ] i X = = = R235 000 −360 ) ] [ (1−(1.39. which is the purchase price of property less the deposit which Sam pays upfront. we are ready to do the calculations! First we need to calculate M . after Sam pays a R15 000 deposit.75% per month.008734594 R2 146. Step 3 : Solve the problem Now it is easy. we need to convert this to a monthly interest rate. Once we have converted 20 years into 240 months.) (1 + i12)12 12 = (1 + i) 1. he will make repayments to the bank each month for the next 30 years equal to R2 146.873459% (1 + i12) = i12 = We know that the mortgage bond is for 30 years.3 CHAPTER 37. You have savings of R10 000 which you intend to use for a deposit. i = 9% We are required to ﬁnd the monthly repayment for a 20year mortgage. FINANCE . we can just plug the numbers in the formula. How much would your monthly mortgage payment be if you were considering a mortgage over 20 years.GRADE 12 Now because we are considering monthly repayments. but we have been given an annual interest rate. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is given and what is required The following is given: • Deposit amount = R10 000 • Price of ﬂat = R200 000 • interest rate. which equates to 360 months. Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem We are consider monthly mortgage repayments.37. the amount of the mortgage bond. go back and revise section 21.11 0.39 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer That means that to buy a house for R300 000. (If you are not clear on this. so it makes sense to use months as our time period. The interest rate was quoted as 9% per annum payable monthly. M = R200 000 − R10 000 = R190 000 482 .00876459) 0. which means that the monthly eﬀective rate = 9%/12 = 0. Worked Example 164: Monthly mortgage repayments Question: You are considering purchasing a ﬂat for R200 000 and the bank’s mortgage rate is currently 9% per annum payable monthly.
48 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer So to repay a R190 000 mortgage over 20 years. So our payment is now R2 000. X.CHAPTER 37..75%] −1.74.75%)−n ]/0.8 months 13.75% = 1 − (1 + 0. It can be done for less than R300 extra every month.75%) = −n × 0.75%)−1 X × (1 + 0. The interest rate is still 9% per annum payable monthly (0.48 × 240).8 months.007472 = n = = log[(1 − (R190 000/R2 000) × 0.75% X × 111.48 mortgage payment every month knowing that half the money you are paying are going toward interest.75% per month). you should know that this amount is somewhat meaningless. But there is a way to avoid those heavy interest charges. at 9% interest payable monthly. you will have saved R76 675. will cost you R1 709..75%] = = −n × log(1 + 0.14495 = X = X× R190 000 R190 000 R1 709. how long will it take to pay oﬀ the mortgage? The present value of the stream of payments must be equal to R190 000 (the present value of the borrowed amount).8× R2 000 = R333 600.75%) log(1 + 0. Can you see what is happened? Making regular payments of R2 000 instead of the required R1.. so X × (1 + 0. The value of money is dependant on its timing.20 (=R1 709.709. For example.75%)−239 + X × (1 + 0.48. you can work out some surprising ﬁgures.75%)−240 = 0.9 years So the mortgage will be completely repaid in less than 14 years. must equate to the mortgage amount that we borrow today. now that you’ve studied the eﬀects of time (and interest) on money.R333 600) in interest.3 X × (1 + 0.20 (= R410 275.GRADE 12 The present value of our mortgage payments.20 .75% log[(1 − (R190 000/R2 000) × 0.75%)−n −n R190 000 (R190 000/2 000) × 0.75%)−2 + + + + .48 per month for 240 month makes for a total of R410 275.2465 166.75%)−4 But it is clearly much easier to use our formula that work out 240 factors and add them all up! Step 3 : Solve the problem 1 − (1 + 0.75%)−3 X × (1 + 0. you might not be particularly happy to sit back for 20 years making your R1 709. However. Nonetheless..75%)−240 X × (1 + 0.52 for 166. So we need to solve for n in: R2 000 × [1 − (1 + 0. Show me the money Now that you’ve done the calculations for the worked example and know what the monthly repayments are. FINANCE . That is more than double the amount that you borrowed! This seems like a lot. and our principal amount borrowed is R190 000. or R48 458. R1 709. You surely 483 . 37. and yet you have only paid an additional amount of R290. and you would have made a total payment of 166. Making this higher repayment amount every month.48 per month for 240 months.
. . Can you see the diﬀerence between this example and the ones at the start of the chapter where we were only making a single payment into the bank account . FINANCE . . and then again each month for 2 years.we can also do that when we have a series of payments. You need to work out how much to put into your bank account now. P is how much you need to pay into the bank account each month. If you draw a timeline you will see that the time between the ﬁrst payment and when you buy the car is 24 months.whereas now we are making a series of payments into the same account? This is a sinking fund. because we are doing future values. In the above section.you can see from the equation what the obvious choice of X should be. 3.. You have a savings account which pays interest of 12% per annum. + X 24 ] = P · X[1 + X + X 2 + . looking at the timeline. . .3 CHAPTER 37. Maybe you want to save up for a car.20 interest that you have saved is attributable to. yes. .and you would like to buy it in 2 years time. Make sure you agree how we come up with this. 4. Always check that you have got the right number of payments in the equation. (Careful . Because we are making monthly payments. we can calculate a present value or a future value . Check back to the start of the chapter is this is not obvious to you by now. everything needs to be in months. we had a few payments. So let A be the closing balance you need to buy a car.74 that you have paid and the R76 675. which will cost R45 000 . So. now that we have the right starting point. + X 1 ] using X = (1 + i12) Note that this time X has a positive exponent not a negative exponent. Again. which is why we use 24 in the ﬁrst exponent. We are calculating future values. compound interest! 37. you have got it.. you can see that the 24th payment is being made one month before you buy the car . and i12 is the monthly interest rate.which is why the last exponent is a 1. So.because 12% is the annual interest rate. which as you know can be simpliﬁed as: A = = P · X[X n − 1]/((1 + i12) − 1) P · X[X n − 1]/i12 484 . .3. using our usual notation. let us simplify this equation: A = = P [(1 + i12)24 + (1 + i12)23 + . Check right now that you agree that there are 24 terms in the formula above. Let us reorder the terms: A = P [X 1 + X 2 + . so we will need to work out later what the month interest rate is!) A = P (1 + i12)24 + P (1 + i12)23 + .37.3 Future Value of a series of Payments In the same way that when we have a single payment.so we calculated present values. This is not a rule you have to memorise . But the other possible situation is that we want to look at the future value of a series of payments.GRADE 12 know by now that the diﬀerence between the additional R48 458. . + P (1 + i12)1 Here are some important points to remember when deriving this formula: 1. + (1 + i12)1 ] P [X 24 + X 23 + . let us write out the answer. + X 2 3] This is just another sum of a geometric sequence. so in this example we use (1 + i12)n and not (1 + i12)−n . and we wanted to know what they are worth now . until you are ready to buy the car. 2.
There is another way of looking at this too . 45 000 = P = P (1. How much money must be invested now to obtain regular annuity payments of R 5 500 per month for ﬁve years ? The money is invested at 11. compounded monthly. (Answer to the nearest hundred rand) 37. You have taken out a mortgage bond for R875 000 to buy a ﬂat. and at a monthly interest rate of 0. we could have paid oﬀ our loan in less than 14 years instead of 20 years.0094888)[(1. the present value of this amount is R35 873. we know that A = R45 000.0094888 = 0.1% p. you should understand the mathematical theory behind compound interest.67 = M/[(1 − (1 + i)−n )/i] 37.4 Exercises .it is just like the mortgage questions! So let us go ahead and see if we get to the same answer P = R35 873. so there are 24 months involved) and i = 12% per annum. So we can show that i12 = 0.72449? We have seen this before . At this stage.in terms of present values.67 This means you need to invest R1 662. Do not forget that the trick is to keep the time periods and the interest rates in the same units . you should be well equipped to perform calculations with compound interest. For an extra payment of R290. 37.52 a month. n=24 (because we are looking at monthly payments.so if we have monthly payments.CHAPTER 37.0094888 1662. 485 .a.94888%. This section aims to allow you to use these valuable skills to critically analyse investment and load options that you will come across in your later life.Present and Future Values 1. Therefore.3.72449. We are not considering the repayments individually. The bond is for 30 years and the interest rate is 12% per annum payable monthly.72449[(1 − (1.GRADE 12 37. we’ll aim to explain the reason for drastic deduction in times it takes to repay the loan. Recall the example in section ??FIXTHIS.94888% interest over 24 month has a present value of R35 873.67 each month into that bank account to be able to pay for your car in 2 years time. FINANCE . we know that (1 + i) = (1 + i12)12 . the numerical implications of compound interest is often subtle and far from obvious. However. We know that we need an amount of R45 000 in 24 months time. you will be able to make informed decisions on options presented to you.0094888)24 − 1]/0.4. This way.8. This provides a good illustration of the long term eﬀect of compound interest that is often surprising.4 So if we want to use our numbers.4 Investments and Loans By now.0094888)−24)/0.94888%.. In the following section. A What is the monthly repayment on the bond? B How much interest will be paid in total over the 30 years? 2. make sure you use a monthly interest rate! Using the formula from Section 21.1 Loan Schedules So far. Now the question is what monthly amount at 0.0094888] = R1 662. BUT (and it is a big but) we need a monthly interest rate. we have been working out loan repayment amounts by taking all the payments and discounting them back to the present time.
We calls this the interest component of the repayment.52 . This 486 .48 one month into the loan. we can break each of our repayments down into an interest part and the part that goes towards paying oﬀ the loan.R1 420.75% R1 425 We are paying them R1 425 in interest. We will continue to use the example from section ??FIXTHIS. even a small incread in repayment amounts can signiﬁcantly increase the speed at which we are paying oﬀ the capital. The capital component of the repayment is now R1 709.61. we can work out how much interest we owe the bank at this moment.84. Note that when we are paying oﬀ R2 000 a month as compared to R1 709.52.48 of what we owe! This is called the capital component. we owe R1 425 in interest in interest. this column more than doubles? In the beginning of paying oﬀ a loan. By the end of the second month.R1 422. but how much less? We know that we’ll be paying interest on the money we still owe the bank.37. the interest owed is R1 420.e. However. look at the amount we are still owing after one year (i. Consider the ﬁrst payment of R1 709. Let’s see what happens at end of the second month.87 = R286.61 = R189 428.1 is a table showing the breakdown of the ﬁrst 12 payments. This reduces the amount outstanding to R188 845.48 . let’s see the same thing again. However. There are numerous questions that could be raised: how much do you still owe them? Since you are paying oﬀ the loan. Whatsmore.4 CHAPTER 37. This way. This is a simple and repetitive process. That means we still owe R190 000 .R286. We borrowed R190 000 a month ago. surely you must owe them less money. We are paying it oﬀ over 20 years at an interest of 9% per annum payable monthly.69. at time 12). After one month. That leaves R575 that goes towards paying oﬀ the capital outstanding.87 Since we don’t owe the bank as much as we did last time. if we increase the repayments to R2 000 a month. we also owe a little less interest. FINANCE .48 a month.75% R1 422. When exactly do we pay interest? How much interest are we paying? The answer to these questions lie in something called the load schedule. we still owe R186 441.14. First. reducing it to R189 425. Table 37. When we were paying R1 709.91.GRADE 12 Think about the time you make a repayment to the bank. This means we would have paid oﬀ over R7 000 in our ﬁrst year instead of less than R4 000. This is called the capital outstanding. how much will they change by? As before. The capital outstanding will be R189 715. The important numbers to notice is the “Capital Component” column. Now. We worked out that the repayments should be R1 709.31. We expect the numbers to change. However. Our R2 000 pays for that interest. We are only paying oﬀ R1 709. I = = = M × i12 R189 715. This is called a loan schedule. we are paying R2 000 this time. the amount outstanding decreases by over R3 000 to R182 808.48 . There is a loan amount of R190 000.69 = R579. so we should owe: I = = = M × i12 R190 000 × 0. The amount of interest we need to pay is the interest on the capital outstanding. very little of our money is used to pay oﬀ the captital outstanding.48. Therefore.48 = R189 715.R284.R1 425 = R284. and reduces the capital amount owed by R2 000 .69 (That’s R189 425×i12). Doing the same calculations as before yields a new loan schedule shown in Table 37.48 a month.52 × 0. but with R2 000 being repaid each year.2.
45 596.88 610.48 per month.79 R 187 963.03 R 187 674.00 000.96 409.00 000.55 403.2: A loan schedule with repayments of R2 000 per month.21 R 188 556.42 615.48 709.63 394.00 422.91 R 189 140.00 Capital Outstanding R 190 000.00 304.48 709.00 619.74 Capital Component R R R R R R R R R R R R 575.66 R 185 883.26 R R R R R R R R R R R R 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 000.00 R 184 052.00 000.00 000.72 418.00 579.4 Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Repayment Interest Component R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 425.48 709.31 297.00 000.48 286.48 709.10 R 188 260.69 416.11 398.39 R 182 808.76 302.48 709.51 R 187 361.61 288.00 R 189 715.42 R 184 667.CHAPTER 37.00 R 188 845.00 380.93 293.69 R 188 262.31 583.34 411.21 402.00 R 187 081.66 588.39 375.17 411.27 R 187 663.27 306.48 Capital Outstanding R 190 000.37 605.76 290.24 R 186 750.00 000.1: A loan schedule with repayments of R1 709.51 R 187 057.00 000.00 000.97 407.30 R 185 277.48 405.00 000.00 420.00 R 189 425.14 Table 37.48 709.11 295.52 R 189 428.12 389. 487 .61 624.03 592.55 R 186 484.89 601.00 R 183 432.58 385.55 308. Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Repayment Interest Component R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 425.69 R 186 441. FINANCE .48 709.55 416.48 709.48 709.63 Capital Component R R R R R R R R R R R R 284.84 Table 37.37 414.00 000.87 420.GRADE 12 37.72 407.93 400.14 R 188 849.52 299.48 709.85 R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 709.00 000.48 709.
00625 Step 3 : Solve the problem x[1 − (1 + 0. This way. FINANCE . the changes involved appear big.4 CHAPTER 37. Worked Example 165: Monthly Payments Question: Stefan and Marna want to buy a house that costs R 1 200 000.46 x[1 − (1 + i)−n ] i R960 000 = = x = Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The monthly repayments = R6 712. it doesn’t aﬀect their proﬁt margins one bit! Remember that a bank calculates repayment amount using the same methods as we’ve been learning. However.5%. by paying slightly more than what the bank would ask you to pay. To a bank. Banks generally use a 20 year repayment period by default. Note however.46 488 . Banks provide a service to us in return for a fee. you can pay oﬀ a loan a lot quicker. Therefore.017 627 3) R6 712. For us. It’s a simple matter of less money now or more money later. compounded monthly ? Answer Step 1 : Determine how much money they need to borrow R1 200 00 − R240 000 = R960 000 Step 2 : Determine how to approach the problem Use the formula: P = Where P = 960 000 n = 30 × 12 = 360months i = 0. They need to get a moratage for the balance. however. We are paying oﬀ our loan 6 years earlier by paying just a bit more a month. Their parents oﬀer to put down a 20% payment towards the cost of the house. The central issue here is one of scale. which amount is repaid does generally make a bank more or less money.00625 x(143. As a result.37. the eﬀect of paying R2 000 instead of R1 709. you can decide what’s best for you. Learning about ﬁnancial mathematics enables you to duplicate these calculations for yourself. A bank wouldn’t care much either way.GRADE 12 increased speed at which we are paying oﬀ the capital portion of the loan is what allows us to pay oﬀ the whole load in around 14 years instead of the original 20. they are correct amounts for given interest rates and terms. In all likelihoxod. You can decide how much you want to repay each month and you’ll know of its eﬀects. so they are out to make a proﬁt.48 is more signiﬁcant in be beginning of the loan than near the end of the loan.00625)−360] 0. so you should pick something that suits you. it doesn’t matter much either way. they need to be careful not to cheat their customers for fear that they’ll simply use another bank. What are their monthly repayments if the term of the home loan is 30 years and the interest is 7. It is noted that in this instance.075 ÷ 12 = 0. The natural question to ask here is: why are banks asking us to pay the lower amount for much longer then? Are they trying to cheat us out of our money? There is no simple answer to this.
48 each. calculate the amount of each instalment. here are the key formulae that we derived and used during this chapter. we rounded to the nearest cents and arrived at R1 709. there is a signiﬁcant disadvantage to this method: it is very time consuming. the rounding oﬀ error was carried through. Recall the case where we were trying to repay a loan of R200 000 over 20 years.4. 37. the monthly repayment is R1 709. We also know that Y is the amount that we are still going to pay oﬀ. In other words. This is the prospective method for calculating capital outstanding.1. we won’t be owing anything. this is largely unavoidable. What do we know about Y ? We know that using the loan schedule. but that is a lot of repetitive work.84. but not quite. That’s why the two ﬁgures don’t match exactly. we can see that after 12 month. FINANCE . 2. compounded annually. However. However. the amount outstanding is R186 441. Remember that when we worked out the monthly repayments.GRADE 12 37. Financial 489 . there is still 19 × 12 = 228 repayments left of R1 709.48 × R186 441. In table 37. A loan of R 4 200 is to be returned in two equal annual instalments.48. this is in fact not a mistake. A property costs R1 800 000.48. At an interested rate of 9% compounded monthly. We should have got R186 441.0075 Oops! This seems to be almost right. Therefore. in order to calculate how much capital is still outstanding at time 12 using the loan schedule. Let’s return to a previous example. While memorising them is nice (there are not many). there is an easier method.5 Formulae Sheet As an easy reference. This was because one cannot make a payment for a fraction of a cent. In ﬁnancial mathematics. the present value of all outstanding future payments equal the present amount outstanding.2 Exercises . After time 12. Calculate the monthly repayments if the interest rate is 14% p.5 37. Let’s try to work this out using the the prospective method. If the rate of interest os 10% per annum. This is already quite a bit more work than we’d like to do. Prospective method for Capital Outstanding Let’s say that after a certain number of years.4.CHAPTER 37. all the repayments we are still going to make in the future will exactly pay oﬀ Y . We are 8 cents out. just after we made a repayment. it is not immediately why this works.a. We also saw how we can calculate this using loan schedules. This is true because in the end. Therefore. so let’s take some time to examine the concept.1.92 1 − 1. after all the repayments. Can you imagine calculating the amount outstanding after 10 years (time 120)? Fortunately. we can calculate what it equals to. However.84. The present value is: n = i = Y = = 228 0.75% R1 709. compounded monthly and the loan must be paid of in 20 years time. Capital outstanding is the amount we still owe the people we borrowed money from at a given moment in time.Investments and Loans 1. we’ll have to ﬁrst calculate how much capital is outstanding at time 1 through to 11 as well.3 Calculating Capital Outstanding As deﬁned in Section 37. it is the application that is useful.4. 37. we still owe amount Y .0075−228 0. For example.
490 .5% per annum is R3 650. 37. their investments are equal. Thabo is about to invest his R8 500 bonus in a special banking product which will pay 1% per annum for 1 month. 3. After 7 months after an initial deposit.05. and why? 5. How much can he expect to get back at the end of the period? 2. Calculate the opening balance required to generate a closing balance of R5 000 after 2 years.6 End of Chapter Exercises 1. Suppose Lungelo makes a deposit of X today at interest rate of i for six years.81. normally the eﬀective rate per annum period for which the investment is made the interest rate paid T times per annum. Calculate the opening balance required to generate a closing balance of R5 000 after 2 years. A diﬀerent bank account pays compound interest of 8% per annum.compound Future Value .simple Solve for i Solve for n = P (1 + i · n) Present Value . you invested the accumulation you received at the same interest rate too. iT = Nominal Interest Rate T 37. If P represents the present value (R500).1 P i n iT Deﬁnitions Principal (the amount of money at the starting point of the calculation) interest rate.e. they are paid a salary to use the right methods to solve ﬁnancial problems.5. if the sum of their investment is R20 000. What was the value of the initial deposit? 6. 37. Thabani made his deposit 3 years after Lungelo made his ﬁrst deposit.simple Future Value . The are going to charge him R100 to set up the account. Suppose you invest R500 this year compounded at interest rate i for a year in Bank T. both in years. then 3% per annum for the next 3 months. the value of a bank account which pays compound interest of 7. use X you got to ﬁnd out how much Thabani got in 6 years. Thabani and Lungelo are both using UKZN Bank for their saving.6 CHAPTER 37. In the following year you invest the accumulation that you received for another year at the same interest rate and on the third year.5. i.compound Solve for i Solve for n = P (1 + i)n Important: Always keep the interest and the time period in the same units of time (e. or both in months etc.g. Thabani makes a deposit of 3X at an interest rate of 0. If after 6 years. ﬁnd a pattern for this investment. FINANCE . [Hint: ﬁnd a formula] 7. then 2% per annum for the next 2 months.GRADE 12 experts are not paid a salary in order to recite formulae. A special bank account pays simple interest of 8% per annum. 4% per annum for the next 4 months. calculate the value of i and ﬁnd X. Which of the two answers above is lower.). 4. and 0% for the rest of the year.2 Equations Present Value .37.
if the interest rate is equal to the percentage that Thoko invested (NOT the money but the percentage). Moira deposits R20 000 in her saving account for 2 years at an interest rate of 0. but. at the same interest rate. in years. 11. Sipho invests R500 at an interest rate of log(1. she invested her accumulation for which she got for another 2 years at an interest rate of 5 %. Andr´ and Thoko.8%. After 4 years. Themba’s accumulation equals Sipho’s. Her husband. ﬁnd a pattern for Moira’s investment? B How Moira’s investment diﬀer from Robert’s? 10. After 2 years. So. decided to invest their winnings (amounting to R10 000) from their e science project. Find how much each will get after 7 years. FINANCE . is 21% per annum. she invested her accumulation for another 2 years. After 6 years she choose to buy a car which costs R26 000. 491 . Calculate the real cost of a loan of R10 000 for 5 years at 5% capitalised monthly and half yearly.6 8.CHAPTER 37. They both decided to take whatever value was there and split it according to their initial investment(in terms of percentages). e They planned to invest their money for 20 years .12) for 5 years. Thoko had 25 % and Andr´ had 75 % share. Sipho’s sister invested R200 at interest rate i for 10 years on the same date that her brother made his ﬁrst deposit. based on the reducingbalance method. Robert invested the same amount at interest rate of 5 % for 6 years. Andr´ got 65. it will take for the value of a motor vehicle to decrease to 25% of its original value if the rate of depreciation. Thoko decided to invest only 0. 12. When they calculated how e much each contributed in the investment. Themba.2 % of the e winnings and Thoko got 34. Determine how long. If after 5 years.05.5 % of the share of his sum. as a result of Thoko ﬁnding a job in Australia 7 years after their initial investment. A Without using any numbers. They decided to divide their winnings according to the following: Because Andr was the head of the project and he spent more time on it.5 % of the share of her sum and Andr´decided to invest 1. 9. ﬁnd the interest rate i and ﬁnd out whether Themba will be able to buy her favorite cell phone after 10 years which costs R2 000.GRADE 12 37.
GRADE 12 492 .37. FINANCE .6 CHAPTER 37.
Or. (x − a) is a factor of f (x). b So if f (− a ) = 0. f (1) must be 0. Worked Example 166: Factor Theorem Question: Use the Factor Theorem to determine whether y − 1 is a factor of f (y) = 2y 4 + 3y 2 − 5y + 7. more concisely: f (x) = q(x) x−a is a polynomial. then (ax + b) is a factor of f (x). Most of the solutions. Step 2 : Calculate f (1) f (y) = ∴ f (1) = = = 2y 4 + 3y 2 − 5y + 7 2(1)4 + 3(1)2 − 5(1) + 7 2+3−5+7 7 493 . In other words: If the remainder when dividing f (x) by (x − a) is zero. relied on being able to factorise some expression and the factorisation of quadratics was studied in detail.Chapter 38 Factorising Cubic Polynomials Grade 12 38. you learnt how to solve diﬀerent types of equations.1 Introduction In grades 10 and 11. f (x).2 The Factor Theorem The factor theorem describes the relationship between the root of a polynomial and a factor of the polynomial. Answer Step 1 : Determine how to approach the problem In order for y − 1 to be a factor. then (ax + b) is a factor of f (x). This chapter focusses on the factorisation of cubic polynomials. that is expressions with the highest power equal to 3. Deﬁnition: Factor Theorem For any polynomial. for all values of a which satisfy f (a) = 0. 38.
38. There are many methods of factorising a cubic polynomial. then A = C = E = 1. verify that y + 4 is a factor of g(y) = 5y 4 + 16y 3 − 15y 2 + 8y + 16. ﬁnd the factors of: x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6. Step 2 : Calculate f (1) g(y) = 5y 4 + 16y 3 − 15y 2 + 8y + 16 ∴ g(−4) = 5(−4)4 + 16(−4)3 − 15(−4)2 + 8(−4) + 16 = 5(256) + 16(−64) − 15(16) + 8(−4) + 16 = 1280 − 1024 − 240 − 32 + 16 = 0 Step 3 : Conclusion Since g(−4) = 0. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . For example. Worked Example 167: Factor Theorem Question: Using the Factor Theorem.GRADE 12 Step 3 : Conclusion Since f (1) = 0. g(−4) must be 0. The general method is similar to that used to factorise quadratic equations. This means that there should be at least 3 factors.: (x + y)(x2 − xy + y 2 ) = x3 + y 3 and (x − y)(x2 + xy + y 2 ) = x3 − y 3 We also saw that the quadratic terms do not have rational roots. If you have a cubic polynomial of the form: f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d then you should expect factors of the form: (Ax + B)(Cx + D)(Ex + F ). We have seen in Grade 10 that the sum and diﬀerence of cubes is factorised as follows. y + 4 is a factor of g(y) = 5y 4 + 16y 3 − 15y 2 + 8y + 16. y − 1 is not a factor of f (y) = 2y 4 + 3y 2 − 5y + 7. 38.1) We will deal with simplest case ﬁrst. and you only have to determine B. (38.3 Factorisation of Cubic Polynomials Cubic expressions have a highest power of 3 on the unknown variable. D and F . When a = 1. Answer Step 1 : Determine how to approach the problem In order for y + 4 to be a factor.3 CHAPTER 38. In this case we have a b = 1 = −2 c = −5 d = 6 494 .
1). Now divide f (x) by (x + 1) using division by inspection: Write x3 + x2 − 9x − 9 = (x + 1)( ) The ﬁrst term in the second bracket must be x2 to give x3 if one works backwards. Worked Example 168: Factorisation of Cubic Polynomials Question: Factorise f (x) = x3 + x2 − 9x − 9 into three linear factors. We can then use values for a. However. Now. because f (−1) = 0. Step 2 : Factorise fully x2 − 9 can be further factorised to (x − 3)(x + 3). D and F are factors of 6 because BDF = 6. This can become a very tedious method. D and F . you can apply the standard methods to factorise the quadratic. Use the factor theorem to conﬁrm that the guess is a root. you ﬁnd one factor by trial and error.4) This is a set of three equations in three unknowns. For example the factors of x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6 can be found as follows: There are three factors which we can write as (x − a)(x − b)(x − c). So f (x) = (x + 1)(x2 − 9). the coeﬃcient of the xterm must be 0. Answer Step 1 : By trial and error using the factor theorem to ﬁnd a factor Try f (1) = (1)3 + (1)2 − 9(1) − 9 = 1 + 1 − 9 − 9 = −16 Therefore (x − 1) is not a factor Try f (−1) = (−1)3 + (−1)2 9(−1)9 = 1 + 1 + 99 = 0 Thus (x + 1) is a factor. So. Once you have the quadratic. If we multiply this out we get: (x + B)(x + D)(x + F ) = (x + B)(x2 + Dx + F x + DF ) = x3 + Dx2 + F x2 + Bx2 + DF x + BDx + BF x + BDF = x3 + (D + F + B)x2 + (DF + BD + BF )x + BDF We can therefore write: b c d = −2 = D + F + B = −5 = DF + BD + BF = 6 = BDF.1) with A = C = E = 1 as: (x + B)(x + D)(x + F ). c and d to determine values for B. b. So we have x3 + x2 − 9x − 9 = (x + 1)(x2 ?x − 9). Then divide the cubic polynomial by the factor to obtain a quadratic.GRADE 12 38. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . and we are now left with f (x) = (x + 1)(x − 3)(x + 3) In general. The last term in the second bracket must be −9 because +1 × −9 = −9. 495 . with A = C = E = 1. We can rewrite (38. D and F . Therefore we can use a trial and error method to ﬁnd B.2) (38.3 The factors will have the general form shown in (38. (+1)(x2 ) gives x2 . (38. we know that B. therefore the Factor Theorem can be used to ﬁnd the factors of cubic polynomials. to factorise a cubic polynomial.3) (38. we must ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of the middelterm (x).CHAPTER 38.
38.5 Solving Cubic Equations Once you know how to factorise cubic polynomials. Complete: If f (x) is a polynomial and p is a number such that f (p) = 0.Using Factor Theorem 1. So f (x) = (x − 1)(x2 − x − 6).. 38. The last term in the second bracket must be −6 because −1 × −6 = +6. B Factorise f (x) completely 4. Answer Step 1 : Find one factor using the Factor Theorem Try f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1)2 − 5(1) + 6 = 1 − 2 − 5 + 6 = 0 Therefore (x − 1) is a factor. it is also easy to solve cubic equations of the kind ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 496 . So we have x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6 = (x − 1)(x2 ?x − 6).GRADE 12 Worked Example 169: Factorisation of Cubic Polynomials Question: Use the Factor Theorem to factorise x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6.4 Exercises . 2. Find the remainder when 4x3 − 4x2 + x − 5 is divided by (x + 1). and we are now left with x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6 = (x − 1)(x − 3)(x + 2) 38.4 CHAPTER 38. we must ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of the middelterm (x). Use the factor theorem to factorise x3 − 3x2 + 4 completely. So... Now. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . then (x − p) is . (−1)(x2 ) gives −x2 . Use the Factor Theorem to determine all the factors of the following expression: x3 + x2 − 17x + 15 5. the coeﬃcient of the xterm must be −1. Step 2 : Division by expection x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6 = (x − 1)( ) The ﬁrst term in the second bracket must be x2 to give x3 if one works backwards. 3. f (x) = 2x3 + x2 − 5x + 2 A Find f (1). Step 3 : Factorise fully x2 − x − 6 can be further factorised to (x − 3)(x + 2)..
CHAPTER 38. − 3 2 (x − 2)(2x + 3)(3x − 1) = 0 Sometimes it is not possible to factorise the trinomial (”second bracket”). and we are now left with x3 − 2x2 − 5x + 6 = (x − 2)(2x + 3)(3x − 1) Step 4 : Solve the equation 6x3 − 5x2 − 17x + 6 x = 0 1 3 = 2. This is when the quadratic formula √ −b ± b2 − 4ac x= 2a can be used to solve the cubic equation fully. Now. . Answer Step 1 : Find one factor using the Factor Theorem Try f (1) = 6(1)3 − 5(1)2 − 17(1) + 6 = 6 − 5 − 17 + 6 = −10 Therefore (x − 1) is NOT a factor. The last term in the second bracket must be −3 because −2 × −3 = +6. Step 3 : Factorise fully 6x2 + 7x − 3 can be further factorised to (2x + 3)(3x − 1). we must ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of the middelterm (x). Try f (2) = (2)3 − 2(2)2 − 6(2) + 4 = 8 − 8 − 12 + 4 = −8 497 . For example: Worked Example 171: Solution of Cubic Equations Question: Solve for x: x3 − 2x2 − 6x + 4 = 0.GRADE 12 38. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . So. the coeﬃcient of the xterm must be 7. So we have 6x3 − 5x2 − 17x + 6 = (x − 2)(6x2 ?x − 3).5 Worked Example 170: Solution of Cubic Equations Question: Solve 6x3 − 5x2 − 17x + 6 = 0. (−2)(6x2 ) gives −12x2 . 6x3 − 5x2 − 17x + 6 = (x − 2)(6x2 + 7x − 3). Answer Step 1 : Find one factor using the Factor Theorem Try f (1) = (1)3 − 2(1)2 − 6(1) + 4 = 3 − 2 − 6 + 4 = −1 Therefore (x − 1) is NOT a factor. So. Try f (2) = 6(2)3 − 5(2)2 − 17(2) + 6 = 48 − 20 − 34 + 6 = 0 Therefore (x − 2) IS a factor. Step 2 : Division by expection 6x3 − 5x2 − 17x + 6 = (x − 2)( ) The ﬁrst term in the second bracket must be 6x2 to give 6x3 if one works backwards.
5. So we have x3 − 2x2 − 6x + 4 = (x + 2)(x2 ?x + 2).1 Exercises . Solve for x: x3 − x2 = 3(3x + 2) Important: : Remove brackets and write as an equation equal to zero.38. x2 − 4x + 2 cannot be factorised any futher and we are now left with (x + 2)(x2 − 4x + 2) = 0 Step 3 : Solve the equation (x + 2)(x2 − 4x + 2) (x + 2) = 0 = or 0 (x2 − 4x + 2) = 0 Step 4 : Apply the quadratic formula for the second bracket Always write down the formula ﬁrst and then substitute the values of a. √ −b ± b2 − 4ac x = 2a −(−4) ± (−4)2 − 4(1)(2) = 2(1) √ 4± 8 = 2√ = 2± 2 Step 5 : Final solutions √ x = −2 or x = 2 ± 2 38. Solve for m: m3 − m2 − 4m − 4 = 0 4.GRADE 12 Therefore (x − 2) is NOT a factor. the coeﬃcient of the xterm must be −4. Solve for x: x3 + x2 − 5x + 3 = 0 2. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . we must ﬁnd the coeﬃcient of the middelterm (x). Solve for x if 2x3 − 3x2 − 8x = 3 38. f (−2) = (−2)3 − 2(−2)2 − 6(−2) + 4 = −8 − 8 + 12 + 4 = 0 Therefore (x + 2) IS a factor. Solve for y: y 3 − 3y 2 − 16y − 12 = 0 3. (2x2 −4x2 = −2x2 ) So x3 − 2x2 − 6x + 4 = (x + 2)(x2 − 4x + 2).Solving of Cubic Equations 1. Solve for x: 16(x + 1) = x2 (x + 1) . So. Step 2 : Division by expection x3 − 2x2 − 6x + 4 = (x + 2)( ) The ﬁrst term in the second bracket must be x2 to give x3 .6 End of Chapter Exercises 498 1.6 CHAPTER 38. Now. The last term in the second bracket must be 2 because 2 × 2 = +4. 5. (2)(x2 ) gives 2x2 . b and c.
or otherwise.GRADE 12 2. What is the value of R? 4. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS . A challenge: Determine the values of p for which the function f (x) = 3p3 − (3p − 7)x2 + 5x − 3 leaves a remainder of 9 when it is divided by (x − p). A Show that x − 2 is a factor of 3x3 − 11x2 + 12x − 4 3x3 − 11x2 + 12x − 4 = 0 38. by factorising completely. solve for x: 23x+3 + 7 · 22x + 2 = 17 · 2x 5.CHAPTER 38.(2x − 1) + R for all values of x. solve the equation 3. 2x3 − x2 − 2x + 2 = Q(x). A Use the factor theorem to solve the following equation for m: 8m3 + 7m2 − 17m + 2 = 0 B Hence. 499 .6 B Hence.
6 CHAPTER 38.38. FACTORISING CUBIC POLYNOMIALS .GRADE 12 500 .
then the relation is not a function.Grade 12 39. as in ﬁgure 39. This deﬁnition makes complete sense when compared to our real world examples — each person has only one height. We see that we can draw a vertical line. by looking at its graph. This relation describes a circle of radius 2 centred at the origin. for example the dotted line in the drawing. This test is called the vertical line test. which cuts the circle more than once. then the intersections correspond to multiple values of y for a single value of x. consider the relation x2 + y 2 = 4. in particular the inverses of: y = ax + q y = ax2 y = ax.Chapter 39 Functions and Graphs . Since there are two y values which are possible for the same x value.1 Introduction In grades 10 and 11 you have learnt about linear functions and quadratic functions as well as the hyperbolic functions and exponential functions and many more. State whether each of the following equations are functions or not: A x+y =4 501 . which is notation meaning ’y is a function of x’. Therefore this is not a function. However. we see that y 2 = 4 and thus either y = 2 or y = −2. We sometimes write y = f (x). there is only one average temperature. 39. In grade 12 you are expected to demonstrate the ability to work with various types of functions and relations including the inverses of some functions and generate graphs of the inverse relations of functions.1. If we let x = 0. For example. on each day. a > 0 . some very common mathematical constructions are not functions. If more than one intersection point exists. in a speciﬁc town. so height is a function of people. We can see this with our previous example of the circle by looking at its graph again in Figure 39. the relation x2 + y 2 = 4 is not a function. There is a simple test to check if a relation is a function.1. 39. If it is possible to draw any vertical line (a line of constant x) which crosses the relation more than once.1 Exercises 1.2.2 Deﬁnition of a Function A function is a relation for which there is only one value of y corresponding to any value of x.
An inverse function is a function which ”does the reverse” of a given function. y is called the dependent variable. because the value of y depends on what you choose as x.3 CHAPTER 39. we will consider inverse functions. d. u d 1 22500 2 22000 3 21500 4 21000 39. if the function x → 3x + 2 is given. you studied various types of functions and understood the eﬀect of various parameters in the general equation. then f −1 is its inverse function if and only if for every x ∈ X we have: f −1 (f (x)) = f (f −1 (x)) = x (39. If f (x) = 3x − 5 and you are ask to determine f (3). then its inverse function is x → is usually written as: f f −1 : : x → 3x + 2 (x − 2) x→ 3 502 (x − 2) . in a region of the country as a function of the percent unemployed.2) (39. then you have to work out the value for f (x) when x = 3. if f is a function with domain X.GRADE 12 2 1 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 Figure 39. In a function y = f (x). Write down the equation to show that income is a function of the persent unemployed.39. then t is the independent variable and g is the function name. In this section. Similarly if g(t) = 2t + 1. u. We say x is the independent variable. This 3 (39.1: Graph of y 2 + x2 = 4 B y=x 4 C y = 2x D x2 + y 2 = 4 2.1) For example.4 Graphs of Inverse Functions In earlier grades. More formally. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . For example.3) . since we can choose x to be any number. f (x) = f (3) = = 3x − 5 3(3) − 5 4 39. The table gives the average per capita income.3 Notation used for Functions In grade 10 you were introduced to the notation used to ”name” a function.
It can be seen that the two graphs are reﬂections of each other across the line y = x.4 If f is a realvalued function.5) (39.4.GRADE 12 The superscript ”1” is not an exponent. 503 . FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 3 2 f −1 (x) = 1 x + 2 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 −3 2 3 f (x) = 2x − 3 3 Figure 39.2. and then exchanging y and x to get y = f −1 (x) 39.7) q 1 Therefore the inverse of y = ax + q is y = a x − a . that is a horizontal line y = k placed anywhere on the graph of f must pass through f exactly once for all real k. If a function f has an inverse then f is said to be invertible.CHAPTER 39. then the graph of f −1 is the reﬂection of the graph of f across the line y = x. y = 1 3 2 x + 2 . Algebraically. the straight line equation given by y = 2x − 3 has as inverse the function. one computes the inverse function of f by solving the equation y = f (x) for x. It is possible to work around this condition. by deﬁning a multivalued function as an inverse. For example.1 Inverse Function of y = ax + q The inverse function of y = ax + q is determined by solving for x as: y = ax = x = = ax + q y−q y−q a 1 q y− a a (39.6) (39.2: The function f (x) = 2x − 3 and its inverse f −1 (x) = 1 x + 2 . If one represents the function f graphically in a xycoordinate system.4) (39. The line y = x is 2 shown as a dashed line. The graphs of these functions are shown in Figure 39. The inverse function of a straight line is also a straight line. then for f to have a valid inverse. it must pass the horizontal line test. 39.
q By setting x = 0 we have that the yintercept is yint = − a . Find the equation of f . The inverse of f can be found by witing f (y) = x. A Is the relation a function? B Identify the domain and range.39.2 Exercises 1. Intercepts q 1 The general form of the inverse function of the form y = ax + q is y = a x − a . Given f (x) = 2x − 3. Then x = y2 = y = −y 2 + 9 9−x √ ± 9−x √ √ If x ≥ 0.4 Exercises 1. Since the inverse function of a straight line is also a straight line.9) (39. 3. the line intersects the graph more than once.8) (39. what is the function f (x)? 39. ﬁnd f −1 (x) 2. the inverse function will have the same domain and range as the original function. then f −1 (x) = a x − a and the yintercept of −1 f (x) is the xintercept of f (x) and the xintercept of f (x) is the yintercept of f −1 (x).4.4. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . (Do not simplify your answer) 504 . 39. The inverse of a function is f −1 (x) = 2x − 4. Consider the function f (x) = 3x − 7. 4. If we draw a vertical line through the graph of f −1 (x) = ± x. 39.10) We see that the inverse function of y = ax2 is not a function because it fails the vertical line √ test. Consider the function f (x) = −x2 + 9. q 1 It is interesting to note that if f (x) = ax + q. given that the graph of f is a parabola. by setting y = 0 we have that the xintercept is xint = q. then 9 − x is a function.4 Domain and Range CHAPTER 39.4. Sketch the graph of the function f (x) = 3x − 1 and its inverse on the same set of axes.3 Inverse Function of y = ax2 The inverse function of y = ax2 is determined by solving for x as: y x 2 x = ax2 y = a y = a (39. If the restriction on the domain of f is x ≤ 0 then − 9 − x would be a function. The graph of f −1 is shown.GRADE 12 We have seen that the domain of a function of the form y = ax + q is {x : x ∈ R} and the range is {y : y ∈ R}. Similarly. There has to be a restriction on the domain of a parabola for the inverse to also be a function.
B Find f −1 and state the domain and range.CHAPTER 39. A Draw the graph of f and state its domain and range. ﬁnd the inverse of g(x) in the form g −1 (x). √ C Now sketch the y = x. . The line y = x is shown as a dashed line.3: The function f (x) = x2 and its inverse f −1 (x) = ± x. so that f −1 is a function ? 3. f (x) = 2x2 . Given: g(x) = −1 + √ x. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 5. 4. A Sketch the graph of y = x2 labelling a point other than the origin on your graph. f −1 (3. √ D The tangent to the graph of y = x at the point A(9..GRADE 12 f (x) = x2 39.3) intersects the xaxis at B. Label a point on the graph other than the intercepts with the axes. 0) 2. 1) (1. . C What must the domain of f be. 505 . Find the equation of this tangent and hence or otherwise prove that the yaxis bisects the straight line AB.4 3 2 1 f −1 (x) = √ x −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 −3 2 3 √ f −1 (x) = − x √ Figure 39. Sketch the graph of x = − 10 − y 2 . B Find the equation of the inverse of the above graph in the form y = .
The domain of the function is equal to the range of the inverse.4: The function f (x) = 10x and its inverse f −1 (x) = log(x). FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 3) intersects the xaxis at B. . √ Now. √ 3.6 Exercises 1 1. then f −1 = logx.39.11) (39. 2. and hence. the graph of the one is the graph of the other. B Write f −1 in the form y = .5 Inverse Function of y = ax The inverse function of y = ax2 is determined by solving for x as: y = ax log(a ) x log(a) log(y) log(a) x (39. The exponential function and the logarithmic function are inverses of each other. The line y = x is shown as a dashed line. 4. Find the equation of this tangent.4. f (x) = 10x 3 2 1 f −1 (x) = log(x) 1 2 3 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 Figure 39. The range of the function is equal to the domain of the inverse. 506 . A B C D Sketch the graph of y = x2 . . reﬂected in the line y = x. sketch y = x. . √ The tangent to the graph of y = x at the point A(9. . Therefore.4 CHAPTER 39. . or otherwise. Given that f (x) = 4−x . sketch the graphs of f and f −1 on the same system of axes indicating a point on each graph (other than the intercepts) and showing clearly which is f and which is f −1 . 39. . Given g(x) = −1 + x. labeling a point other than the origin on your graph.14) log(y) = = ∴ x = The inverse of y = 10x is x = 10y .GRADE 12 39.12) (39. Find the equation of the inverse of the above graph in the form y = . if f (x) = 10x . Given that f (x) = [ 5 ]x .4.13) (39. which we write as y = logx. prove that the yaxis bisects the straight line AB.. A Sketch the graphs of f and f −1 on the same system of axes indicating a point on each graph (other than the intercepts) and showing clearly which is f and which is f −1 . ﬁnd the inverse of g(x) in the form g −1 (x) = .
Graph 1 y Graph 2 y Graph 3 y x x x A y = log3 x B y = − log3 x D y = 3−x E y = 3x Write the equation that best describes each graph. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Sketch the graph of x = − 2. The graph of y = f (x) is shown in the diagram below. Is this graph a function ? Verify your answer. Below.GRADE 12 39.5 End of Chapter Exercises 10 − y 2 . 507 . 3. C y = log3 (−x) y f (x) 2 x −2 A Find the value of x such that f (x) = 0. you are given 3 graphs and 5 equations.5 39. 1 . f (x) = A determine the yintercept of f (x) B determine x if f (x) = −1. x−5 1. 4.CHAPTER 39. B Evaluate f (3) + f (−1).
3) intersects the xaxis at B. and hence. A Sketch the graph of y = x2 . C For which values of x is h−1 (x) undeﬁned ? 7. ﬁnd the inverse of g(x) in the form g −1 (x) = .39. or otherwise.. B Find the equation of the inverse of the above graph in the form y = . . .. . √ D The tangent to the graph of y = x at the point A(9. Given the equation h(x) = 3x A Write down the inverse in the form h−1 (x) = .GRADE 12 √ x. 6. √ C Now. . Given g(x) = −1 + CHAPTER 39. labelling the intercepts with the axes. B Sketch the graphs of h(x) and h−1 (x) on teh same set of axes. labelling a point other than the origin on your graph. Find the equation of this tangent. sketch y = x. FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . 508 .5 5. prove that the yaxis bisects the straight line AB.
Newton would claim that Leibniz 509 . it was only some time after Leibniz published in 1684 that Newton published. It deals with quantities that approach other quantities. such as areas under a curve. Newton was the ﬁrst to apply calculus to general physics. However. It is concerned with change and motion. or more precisely. Extension: Integral Calculus Integral calculus is concerned with the accumulation of quantities. ﬁnding the amount of water pumped by a pump with a set power input but varying conditions of pumping losses and pressure and ﬁnding the amount of rain that fell in a certain area if the rain fell at a speciﬁc rate. Calculus is fundamentally diﬀerent from the mathematics that you have studied previously. which will be discussed in this chapter. Examples of typical integral calculus problems include ﬁnding areas and volumes. When Newton and Leibniz ﬁrst published their results. how water ﬂows. Calculus is built on the concept of limits. Diﬀerential and integral calculus act inversely to each other. Calculus consists of two complementary ideas: diﬀerential calculus and integral calculus. other human activities such as economics are also made easier with calculus. how light travels. While Newton derived his results years before Leibniz. linear distance traveled.Chapter 40 Diﬀerential Calculus .1 Why do I have to learn this stuﬀ? Calculus is one of the central branches of mathematics and was developed from algebra and geometry. This can be illustrated by the slope of a function’s graph. Only diﬀerential calculus will be studied. Calculus is a tool to understand many natural phenomena like how the wind blows. Diﬀerential calculus is concerned with the instantaneous rate of change of quantities with respect to other quantities. For that reason it may be useful to have an overview of the subject before beginning its intensive study. Germany)) are credited with the ‘invention’ of calculus. teresting Both Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) and Gottfried Liebnitz Interesting Fact Fact (1 July 1646 – 14 November 1716 (Hanover. while Liebnitz developed most of the notation that is still in use today. Examples of typical diﬀerential calculus problems include: ﬁnding the acceleration and velocity of a freefalling body at a particular moment and ﬁnding the optimal number of units a company should produce to maximize its proﬁt. In this section we give a glimpse of some of the main ideas of calculus by showing how limits arise when we attempt to solve a variety of problems. Calculus is more dynamic and less static. there was some controversy over whether Leibniz’s work was independent of Newton’s. or volume displaced. Later. the local behaviour of functions. how sound travels and how the planets move.Grade 12 40.
2. Achilles agrees to give the tortoise a 1 000 m head start.2) If we assume that Achilles runs at 2 m·s−1 and the tortoise runs at 0.1) (40.40. however examination of the papers of Leibniz and Newton show they arrived at their results independently.circa 430 BC) was a preSocratic Greek philosopher of Interesting Fact Fact southern Italy who is famous for his paradoxes. but the tortoise is unhappy because Achilles is very fast. Does Achilles overtake the tortoise? We know how to solve this problem. This controversy between Leibniz and Newton divided Englishspeaking mathematicians from those in Europe for many years. We start by writing: xA xt where xA vA t xt vt distance covered by Achilles Achilles’ speed time taken by Achilles to overtake tortoise distance covered by the tortoise the tortoise’s speed = = vA t 1000 m + vt t (40. So.GRADE 12 got the idea from Newton’s notes on the subject. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .1 Limits A Tale of Achilles and the Tortoise teresting Zeno (circa 490 BC . who is credited with giving the new discipline the name it is known by today: ”calculus”. 40. the tortoise asks Achilles for a headstart. both Newton and Leibniz are given credit for independently developing calculus. One of Zeno’s paradoxes can be summarised by: Achilles and a tortoise agree to a race. Newton’s name for it was ”the science of ﬂuxions”.2 40. with Leibniz starting ﬁrst with integration and Newton with diﬀerentiation. which slowed the development of mathematical analysis. Today.2 CHAPTER 40. however. It is Leibniz.25 m·s−1 then Achilles will overtake the tortoise when both of them have covered the same distance. This means that 510 .
Achilles and the tortoise have to do with calculus? Well. . .25 m · s−1 )t 1000 m 1000 m 3 1 4 m · s−1 1000 m 7 −1 4 m·s (4)(1000) s 7 4000 s 7 3 571 s 7 40. Zeno saw that Achilles would always get closer but wouldn’t actually overtake the tortoise.8) (40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .5 s.ri−1 = a1 1−r for −1 where a1 is the ﬁrst term of the series and r is the common ratio. . . for the sequence an = 1 − 1 1 1 1 1.GRADE 12 Achilles overtakes the tortoise at a time calculated as: xA (2 m · s vA t −1 )t t = = = = = = = = = xt 1000 + vt t 1000 m + (0. . 2 3 4 5 which is deﬁned by the expression 1 n the terms get closer to 0 as n gets larger. Series and Functions So what does Zeno. Achilles then takes another 40. in Grades 10 and 11 you studied sequences. 2 3 4 5 which is deﬁned by the expression 1 n the terms get closer to 1 as n gets larger. 511 .10) (40.6) (40. . . .2 (40.25 m · s−1 )t However. We have also seen that the inﬁnite geometric series has a ﬁnite total.25) = 125 m.CHAPTER 40. . The inﬁnite geometric series is an = S∞ = ∞ i=1 a1 .2.4) (40. . 125 = 62.2 Sequences. .11) (2 m · s−1 − 0.7) (40. in this 500 s.625 m.5 s 2 to travel the 125 m. For the sequence 1 2 3 4 0. . . the tortoise has travelled a further x = (500)(0. the tortoise travels a further t= x = (62. Zeno (the Greek philosopher who thought up this problem) looked at it as follows: Achilles takes 1000 = 500 s t= 2 to travel the 1 000 m head start that the tortoise had.5) (40.3) (40. However. In this 62.5)(0. Similarly.9) (40. .25) = 15.
we are only able to cancel the x + 6 term if x = −6.7 5. These values are listed in Table 40.09 6. 40.1 which shows that as x gets closer to 6.08 8.3 6. However.8 5.8 7. y gets close to 8.08 6.2.5 8.01 7.GRADE 12 We see that there are some functions where the value of the function gets close to or approaches a certain value.01 5. x2 + 4x − 12 x+6 The numerator of the function can be factorised as: y= y= (x + 6)(x − 2) .5 7 6 5 The graph of this function is shown in Figure 40.4 8.6 7.3 8.9 7. If x = −6. for the function: Then we can cancel the x − 6 from numerator and denominator and we are left with: y = x − 2. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . x+6 512 .5 5 4 3 y= (x+6)(x−2) x+6 11 10 9 8.09 8.9 5.5 6. For the function y = lim x→−6 (x + 6)(x − 2) = −8.1 6. (x + 6)(x − 2) as x gets close to 6.7 7. we can write: x+6 We can now introduce a new notation.2 6. x+6 Table 40. This means that the domain of the function does not include x = −6.4 6.2 8.1: Values for the function y = x 9 8 7 6.40. x+6 Similarly.2 CHAPTER 40. But we can examine what happens to the values for y as x gets close to 6.6 5.1.3 Limits (x + 6)(x − 2) . Extension: Continuity We say that a function is continuous if there are no values of the independent variable for which the function is undeﬁned. but with a missing section at x = −6. The graph is a straight line with slope 1 and intercept 2.1 8. then the denominator becomes 0 and the function is not deﬁned.
2 4 3 2 1 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 −8 −9 1 2 3 4 Figure 40. the value of the function y =x+2 gets close to 3. Activity :: Investigation : Limits If f (x) = x + 1.GRADE 12 40.04) f(0.01) f(0.02) f(0.00) f(0.02) f(0.01) f(0. Worked Example 172: Limits Notation Question: Summarise the following situation by using limit notation: As x gets close to 1.04) f(0. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .03) f(0. 513 .1) f(0.05) f(0.1: Graph of y = (x+6)(x−2) .05) f(0.03) f(0. determine: f(0.CHAPTER 40. x+6 This is read: the limit of (x+6)(x−2) x+6 as x tends to 6 is 8.1) What do you notice about the value of f (x) as x gets close to 0.
This is written in limits notation as: 1 x approaches x→0− lim 1 = −∞ x for x approaching zero from the left and lim 1 =∞ x x→0+ for x approaching zero from the right. 1 As x → 0 from the left. An example of this is shown in Figure 40. y = x approaches −∞. Simplify the expression completely. Let x approach the a. If it is possible.GRADE 12 x→1 lim x + 2 = 3 in limit notation.2 Answer This is written as: CHAPTER 40. Method: Limits If you are required to calculate a limit like limx→a then: 1. As x → 0 from the right.2. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . y = +∞. We can also have the situation where a function has a diﬀerent value depending on whether x approaches from the left or the right.40. Worked Example 173: Limits 514 . 4 3 2 1 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 Figure 40.2: Graph of y = x . 3. cancel all common terms. You can calculate the limit of many diﬀerent functions using a set method. 2.
Step 2 : Cancel all common terms There are no terms to cancel. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Step 2 : Cancel all common terms There are no terms to cancel. Step 3 : Let x → 1 and write ﬁnal answer x→1 lim 10 = 10 Worked Example 174: Limits Question: Determine x→2 lim x Answer Step 1 : Simplify the expression There is nothing to simplify. x2 − 100 x→10 x − 10 lim (x + 10)(x − 10) x2 − 100 = x − 10 x − 10 Step 2 : Cancel all common terms x − 10 can be cancelled from the numerator and denominator.GRADE 12 Question: Determine x→1 40. (x + 10)(x − 10) = x + 10 x − 10 Step 3 : Let x → 1 and write ﬁnal answer x2 − 100 = 20 x→10 x − 10 lim 515 .CHAPTER 40.2 lim 10 Answer Step 1 : Simplify the expression There is nothing to simplify. Step 3 : Let x → 2 and write ﬁnal answer x→2 lim x = 2 Worked Example 175: Limits Question: Determine Answer Step 1 : Simplify the expression The numerator can be factorised.
This means that the average gradient of the secant approaches the gradient of the tangent to the curve at P .12) (40. The problem now is that we only have one point. h gets closer to 0.14) and we say that the gradient at point P is the limit of the average gradient as Q approaches P along the curve.2.GRADE 12 40. if the xcoordinate of Q is a − h. When h = 0. If we choose a as x2 and a − h as x1 . We can now use our knowledge of limits to write this as: gradient at P = lim h→0 f (a) − f (a − h) .13) we see that as point Q approaches point P . In Grade 11 you were introduced to the idea of a gradient at a single point on a curve. Similarly. The secant line approaches the tangent line as its limiting position. To get around the problem we ﬁrst consider a secant to the curve that passes through point P and another point on the curve Q. tangent P f (x) We know how to calculate the average gradient between two points on a curve.13) Now imagine that Q moves along the curve toward P .40. then the ycoordinate is f (a − h). We can now calculate the average gradient as: y2 − y1 x2 − x1 = = f (a) − f (a − h) a − (a − h) f (a) − f (a − h) h (40. We can now ﬁnd the average gradient of the curve between points P and Q. The average gradient between any two points on a curve is given by the gradient of the straight line that passes through both points. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . namely P . but we did not learn how to determine the gradient of the tangent.4 Average Gradient and Gradient at a Point In Grade 10 you learnt about average gradients on a curve.2 CHAPTER 40. then the ycoordinate is f (a). but we need two points. In (40. h (40. secant f (a) f (a − h) P Q f (x) a−h a If the xcoordinate of P is a. then: y1 = f (a − h) y2 = f (a). points P and Q are equal. 516 . Now let us consider the problem of trying to ﬁnd the gradient of a tangent t to a curve with equation y = f (x) at a given point P . We saw that this was the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the given point.
determine the gradient of the tangent to the curve at the point x = 2.2 Activity :: Investigation : Limits The gradient at a point x on a curve deﬁned by f (x) can also be written as: lim f (x + h) − f (x) h (40. Worked Example 176: Limits Question: For the function f (x) = 2x2 − 5x.14). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Answer Step 1 : Calculating the gradient at a point We know that the gradient at a point x is given by: lim f (x + h) − f (x) h h→0 In our case x = 2. Step 2 : Write f (x + h) and simplify f (x + h) = = = Step 3 : Calculate limit f (x + h) − f (x) h→0 h lim 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 − 5x − 5h − (2x2 − 5x) h 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 − 5x − 5h − 2x2 + 5x lim h→0 h 4xh + 2h2 − 5h lim h→0 h h(4x + 2h − 5) lim h→0 h lim 4x + 2h − 5 h→0 2(x2 + 2xh + h2 ) − 5x − 5h 2x2 + 4xh + 2h2 − 5x − 5h 2(x + h)2 − 5(x + h) = = = = = = 4x − 5 Step 4 : Calculate gradient at x = 2 4x − 5 = 4(2) − 5 = 3 Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer The gradient of the tangent to the curve f (x) = 2x2 − 5x at x = 2 is 3.15) h→0 Show that this is equivalent to (40. It is simpler to substitute x = 2 at the end of the calculation.CHAPTER 40. 517 .GRADE 12 40.
GRADE 12 Worked Example 177: Limits Question: For the function f (x) = 5x2 − 4x + 1. 3x2 − 4x x→2 3 − x lim 518 . determine the gradient of the tangent to curve at the point x = a.2 CHAPTER 40. Answer Step 1 : Calculating the gradient at a point We know that the gradient at a point x is given by: f (x + h) − f (x) h→0 h lim In our case x = a. It is simpler to substitute x = a at the end of the calculation. x→3 3. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Exercise: Limits Determine the following 1. Step 2 : Write f (x + h) and simplify f (x + h) = = = Step 3 : Calculate limit f (x + h) − f (x) h→0 h lim 5x2 + 10xh + 5h2 − 4x − 4h + 1 − (5x2 − 4x + 1) h 5x2 + 10xh + 5h2 − 4x − 4h + 1 − 5x2 + 4x − 1 lim h→0 h 2 10xh + 5h − 4h lim h→0 h h(10x + 5h − 4) lim h→0 h lim 10x + 5h − 4 h→0 5(x2 + 2xh + h2 ) − 4x − 4h + 1 5x2 + 10xh + 5h2 − 4x − 4h + 1 5(x + h)2 − 4(x + h) + 1 = = = = = = 10x − 4 Step 4 : Calculate gradient at x = a 10x − 4 = 10a − 5 Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer The gradient of the tangent to the curve f (x) = 5x2 − 4x + 1 at x = 1 is 10a − 5. x2 − 9 x→3 x + 3 lim lim x+3 x2 + 3x 2.40.
x2 − x − 12 x→4 x−4 lim x→2 lim 3x + 1 3x 40. Worked Example 178: Derivatives .3 Diﬀerentiation from First Principles The tangent problem has given rise to the branch of calculus called diﬀerential calculus and the equation: f (x + h) − f (x) lim h→0 h deﬁnes the derivative of the function f (x).16) There are a few diﬀerent notations used to refer to derivatives. dx means p diﬀerentiated with respect to x. operating on some function of x. dy Important: Though we choose to use a fractional form of representation. The ‘ dx ’ is the “operator”. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Answer Step 1 : Calculating the gradient at a point We know that the gradient at a point x is given by: g ′ (x) = lim g(x + h) − g(x) h→0 h 519 Step 2 : Write g(x + h) and simplify . dx means y diﬀerentiated with respect to dp d x. dx does not mean dy ÷ dx. which is the process of calculating a derivative.GRADE 12 4.e. then some common alternative notations for the derivative are as follows: f ′ (x) = y ′ = dy df d = = f (x) = Df (x) = Dx f (x) dx dx dx d The symbols D and dx are called diﬀerential operators because they indicate the operation of diﬀerentiation. and that you are consistent in your usage of them when answering questions. Thus.First Principles Question: Calculate the derivative of g(x) = x − 1 from ﬁrst principles. Deﬁnition: Derivative The derivative of a function f (x) is written as f ′ (x) and is deﬁned by: f ′ (x) = lim f (x + h) − f (x) h→0 h (40. It is very important that you learn to identify these diﬀerent ways of denoting the derivative. Using (40. If we use the traditional notation y = f (x) to indicate that the dependent variable is y and the independent variable is x.3 5. 40.15) to calculate the derivative is called ﬁnding the derivative from ﬁrst principles. dx is a limit and dy dy is not a fraction. i.CHAPTER 40.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .GRADE 12 g(x + h) = x + h − 1 Step 3 : Calculate limit g(x + h) − g(x) h x + h − 1 − (x − 1) lim h→0 h x+h−1−x+1 lim h→0 h h lim h→0 h lim 1 lim g ′ (x) = = = = = h→0 h→0 = 1 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The derivative g ′ (x) of g(x) = x − 1 is 1.First Principles Question: Calculate the derivative of h(x) = x2 − 1 from ﬁrst principles.40.3 CHAPTER 40. Worked Example 179: Derivatives . Answer Step 1 : Calculating the gradient at a point We know that the gradient at a point x is given by: g ′ (x) = lim g(x + h) − g(x) h→0 h Step 2 : Write g(x + h) and simplify g(x + h) = x + h − 1 Step 3 : Calculate limit g(x + h) − g(x) h x + h − 1 − (x − 1) lim h→0 h x+h−1−x+1 lim h→0 h h lim h→0 h lim 1 h→0 g ′ (x) = = = = = lim h→0 = 1 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The derivative g ′ (x) of g(x) = x − 1 is 1. 520 .
17) There are two other rules which make diﬀerentiation simpler. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . determine h→0 lim g(x + h) − g(x) h C explain the meaning of your answer in (b).GRADE 12 40. f (x) = x 3. Find the derivative of f (x) = −2x2 + 3x using ﬁrst principles. Determine the derivative of f (x) = using ﬁrst principles. Fortunately. For any two functions f (x) and g(x): d [f (x) ± g(x)] = f ′ (x) ± g ′ (x) (40. f (x) = 1/x You should have found the following: f (x) b x x2 x3 1/x = x−1 f ′ (x) 0 1 2x 3x2 −x−2 If we examine these results we see that there is a pattern. 1 3. x−2 4. which can be summarised by: d (xn ) = nxn−1 dx (40. Activity :: Investigation : Rules of Diﬀerentiation From ﬁrst principles. and it is easy to make mistakes.18) dx 521 .4 Exercise: Derivatives 1. determine the derivatives of the following: 1. 2. 40. f (x) = b 2.4 Rules of Diﬀerentiation Calculating the derivative of a function from ﬁrst principles is very long.CHAPTER 40. determine h′ (x) using ﬁrst principles. f (x) = x3 5. Given g(x) = −x2 g(x + h) − g(x) A determine h B hence. If h(x) = 4x2 − 4x. f (x) = x2 4. there are rules which make calculating the derivative simple. Determine f ′ (3) from ﬁrst principles if f (x) = −5x2 . 5.
d [k. Answer Step 1 : Identify the rules that will be needed We will apply two rules of diﬀerentiation: d (xn ) = nxn−1 dx and d d d [f (x) − g(x)] = [f (x)] − [g(x)] dx dx dx Step 2 : Determine the derivative In our case f (x) = x and g(x) = 1. √ x3 + 2 x − 3 dy 4.19) Worked Example 180: Rules of Diﬀerentiation Question: Determine the derivative of x − 1 using the rules of diﬀerentiation. x 522 .1 Summary of Diﬀerentiation Rules d dx b =0 = nxn−1 df = k dx df dx d n dx (x ) d dx (kf ) d dx (f + g) = + dg dx Exercise: Rules of Diﬀerentiation x2 − 5x + 6 . Determine dx if y = . The ﬁnal rule applies to a function f (x) that is multiplied by a constant k.4 CHAPTER 40.4. Find f ′ (z) if f (z) = (z − 1)(z + 1). DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . f ′ (x) = 1 and g ′ (x) = 0 Step 3 : Write the ﬁnal answer The derivative of x − 1 is 1 which is the same result as was obtained earlier.GRADE 12 This means that we diﬀerentiate each term separately. x−2 √ 2. Find f ′ (x) if f (x) = 3. 40. Find f ′ (y) if f (y) = y. from ﬁrst principles.40. 1.f (x)] = kf ′ (x) dx (40.
5.GRADE 12 5.1 Finding Equations of Tangents to Curves In section 40. 3x3 40. Step 2 : Diﬀerentiate the function Using our rules of diﬀerentiation we get: y ′ = 2x Step 3 : Find the gradient at the point (1. we can ﬁnd the equation of the tangent. but I am sure that you are beginning to ask. We also saw that the gradient of a function at a point is just its derivative.5 Applying Diﬀerentiation to Draw Graphs Thus far we have learnt about how to diﬀerentiate various functions. So. so we can ﬁnd the equation using: y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) from grade 11 Coordinate Geometry. Answer Step 1 : Determine what is required We are required to determine the equation of the tangent to the curve deﬁned by y = x2 at the point (1.5 40. any problems involving the calculations of gradients or rates of change can use derivatives. we substitute the xvalue into the equation for the derivative.CHAPTER 40.1).4 we saw that ﬁnding the gradient of a tangent to a curve is the same as ﬁnding the slope of the same curve at the point of the tangent. One simple application is to draw graphs of functions by ﬁrstly determine the gradients of straight lines and secondly to determine the turning points of the graph. What is the point of learning about derivatives? Well. Then we will have the gradient and one point on the line. The tangent is a straight line and we can ﬁnd the equation by using derivatives to ﬁnd the gradient of the straight line. 40. So.1).1) and draw both functions. y ′ at x = 1 is: 2(1) = 2 Step 4 : Find equation of tangent y − y1 y−1 y y = = m(x − x1 ) (2)(x − 1) = 2x − 2 + 1 = 2x − 1 523 . Since we have the gradient of the tangent and the point on the curve through which the tangent passes. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Determine the derivative of y = √ x3 + 1 . Worked Example 181: Finding the Equation of a Tangent to a Curve Question: Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2 at the point (1.1) In order to determine the gradient at the point (1. we know one important fact about a derivative: it is a gradient.2.
by helping determine the turning points.5 CHAPTER 40. Take the graph of y = x2 as an example. by calculating the points at which the derivative of a function is 0.e.2 Curve Sketching Diﬀerentiation can be used to sketch the graphs of functions. Important: If x = a is a turning point of f (x). We know that if a graph is increasing on an interval and reaches a turning point. We know that the graph of this function has a turning point at (0. Step 6 : Sketch both functions y = x2 4 3 2 1 (1. 2x = 0 x = 0 We then substitute this into the equation of the graph (i.1) −4 −3 −2 −1 1 −1 −2 2 3 4 y = 2x − 1 −3 −4 40. then: f ′ (a) = 0 This means that the derivative is 0 at a turning point.GRADE 12 Step 5 : Write the ﬁnal answer The equation of the tangent to the curve deﬁned by y = x2 at the point (1.40. We can then use this information to calculate turning points. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . The turning point is also known as a stationary point because the gradient at a turning point is 0. but we can use the derivative of the function: y ′ = 2x and set it equal to 0 to ﬁnd the xvalue for which the graph has a turning point. then the graph will start decreasing after the turning point. 524 . y = x2 ) to determine the ycoordinate of the turning point: f (0) = (0)2 = 0 This corresponds to the point that we have previously calculated.0).5.1) is y = 2x − 1.
5 Worked Example 182: Calculation of Turning Points Question: Calculate the turning points of the graph of the function f (x) = 2x3 − 9x2 + 12x − 15 . then the graph decreasing is from left to right. If a < 0. Answer Step 1 : Determine the derivative of f (x) Using the rules of diﬀerentiation we get: f ′ (x) = 6x2 − 18x + 12 Step 2 : Set f ′ (x) = 0 and calculate xcoordinate of turning point 6x2 − 18x + 12 = x − 3x + 2 = (x − 2)(x − 1) = 2 0 0 0 Therefore. so does f (x).CHAPTER 40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . f (x) decreases as x increases. and has ﬁrst a minimum and then a maximum. Use the factor theorem if necessary. then the graph is increasing from left to right.GRADE 12 40. and has a maximum and then a minimum.11) and (1. First try to eliminate constant common factors. We are now ready to sketch graphs of functions. Determine the xintercepts by factorising ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 and solving for x. 2. Step 3 : Substitute xcoordinate of turning point into f (x) to determine ycoordinates f (2) = 2(2)3 − 9(2)2 + 12(2) − 15 = 16 − 36 + 24 − 15 = −11 f (1) = 2(1)3 − 9(1)2 + 12(1) − 15 = 2 − 9 + 12 − 15 = −10 Step 4 : Write ﬁnal answer The turning points of the graph of f (x) = 2x3 − 9x2 + 12x − 15 are (2. Determine the value of the yintercept by substituting x = 0 into f (x) 3. If a > 0. 525 . As x increases. and to group like terms together so that the expression is expressed as economically as possible. Method: Sketching GraphsSuppose we are given that f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.10). the turning points are at x = 2 and x = 1. then there are ﬁve steps to be followed to sketch the graph of the function: 1.
the graph of g(x) does not have any xintercepts. 1 y coordinate of turning point is given by calculating g( 2 ). 4 ) 2 Step 5 : Draw a neat sketch 1 1 ( )2 − ( ) + 2 2 2 1 1 − +2 4 2 7 4 526 . Determine the ycoordinates of the turning points by substituting the x values obtained in the previous step. Draw a neat sketch. g(0) = (0)2 − 0 + 2 = 2 Step 2 : Determine the xintercepts The xintercepts are found by setting g(x) = 0. and solving for x. Worked Example 183: Sketching Graphs Question: Draw the graph of g(x) = x2 − x + 2 Answer Step 1 : Determine the yintercept yintercept is obtained by setting x = 0. 6. into the expression for f (x).40. into the expression for f (x). Find the turning points of the function by working out the derivative zero. and setting it to 5.GRADE 12 df dx 4. dg = 2x − 1 dx dg = dx 2x − 1 = 2x = x = 0 0 1 1 2 Step 4 : Determine the ycoordinates of the turning points by substituting the x values obtained in the previous step. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . 1 g( ) = 2 = = 7 The turning point is at ( 1 .5 CHAPTER 40. Therefore. g(x) 0 = = x2 − x + 2 x2 − x + 2 which does not have real roots. Step 3 : Find the turning points of the function dg Work out the derivative dx and set it to zero to for the x coordinate of the turning point.
0) and (3. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .4). 527 .1.75) x 1 2 3 4 40.5 Worked Example 184: Sketching Graphs Question: Sketch the graph of g(x) = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4. Answer Step 1 : Calculate the turning points Find the turning points by setting g ′ (x) = 0.5.CHAPTER 40.GRADE 12 y 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 (0. The ycoordinates of the turning points are calculated as: g(x) = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4 g(1) = = = −(1)3 + 6(1)2 − 9(1) + 4 −1 + 6 − 9 + 4 0 g(x) = g(3) = = = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4 −(3)3 + 6(3)2 − 9(3) + 4 −27 + 54 − 27 + 4 4 Therefore the turning points are: (1. If we use the rules of diﬀerentiation we get g ′ (x) = −3x2 + 12x − 9 g ′ (x) −3x2 + 12x − 9 = = 0 0 0 0 x2 − 4x + 3 = (x − 3)(x − 1) = The xcoordinates of the turning points are: x = 1 and x = 3.
then (x − 1) is a factor. 4 Step 4 : Draw a neat sketch y 9 8 7 6 5 (3. g(x) = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4 yint = g(0) = −(0)3 + 6(0)2 − 9(0) + 4 = 4 Step 3 : Determine the xintercepts We ﬁnd the xintercepts by ﬁnding the points for which the function g(x) = 0. g(x) = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4 Use the factor theorem to conﬁrm that (x − 1) is a factor. (x − 1) is a factor.5 CHAPTER 40.0) x 528 . If we divide g(x) by (x − 1) we are left with: −x2 + 5x − 4 This has factors −(x − 4)(x − 1) Therefore: g(x) = −(x − 1)(x − 1)(x − 4) The xintercepts are: xint = 1.GRADE 12 Step 2 : Determine the yintercepts We ﬁnd the yintercepts by ﬁnding the value for g(0). If g(1) = 0. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .40.0) 1 2 3 4 (4. g(x) = −x3 + 6x2 − 9x + 4 g(1) = = = −(1)3 + 6(1)2 − 9(1) + 4 −1 + 6 − 9 + 4 0 Therefore.4) 4 3 2 1 −1 −1 (1.
That means the graph always increases or always decreases. 3. 529 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .3 Local minimum.4) the local maximum.4) 4 3 2 1 −1 −1 (1.CHAPTER 40.0) x From the drawing the point (1. B Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) at x = 4. showing all intercepts with the axes and turning points. Given f (x) = x3 + x2 − 5x + 3: A Show that (x − 1) is a factor of f (x) and hence fatorise f (x) fully. A Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 − 9x2 + 24x − 20.0) 1 2 3 4 (4. the gradient of the tangent at that point is zero.GRADE 12 40. A graph has a horizontal point of inﬂexion where the derivative is zero but the sign of the sign of the gradient does not change. y 9 8 7 6 5 (3. Local maximum and Point of Inﬂextion dy If the derivative ( dx ) is zero at a point.5.0) represents a local minimum and the point (3. 40. B Find the coordinates of the intercepts with the axes and the turning points and sketch the graph 2. Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 − 4x2 − 11x+ 30 showing all the relative turning points and intercepts with the axes. It means that a turning point occurs as seen in the previous example.5 Exercise: Sketching Graphs 1.
the point (3. However. The speed at the minimum would then give the most economical speed. 60 fuel consumption (l) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 speed (km·hr−1 ) We have seen that the coordinates of the turning point can be calculated by diﬀerentiating the function and ﬁnding the xcoordinate (speed in the case of the example) for which the derivative is 0. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . For example. because the sign of the derivative stays positive.6 Using Diﬀerential Calculus to Solve Problems We have seen that diﬀerential calculus can be used to determine the stationary points of functions.20) where v is the travelling speed. we get: 3 v−6 40 If we set f ′ (v) = 0 we can calculate the speed that corresponds to the turning point.1) x From this drawing.40. what is the most economical speed (that means the speed that uses the least fuel)? If we draw the graph of this function we ﬁnd that the graph has a minimum.20).6 y CHAPTER 40. Diﬀerentiating (40.GRADE 12 (3. in order to sketch their graphs.1) is a horizontal point of inﬂexion. 40. 530 f ′ (v) = . if fuel used by a car is deﬁned by: f (v) = 3 2 v − 6v + 245 80 (40. determining stationary points also lends itself to the solution of problems that require some variable to be optimised.
Worked Example 185: Optimisation Problems Question: The sum of two positive numbers is 10. Answer Step 1 : Examine the problem and formulate the equations that are required Let the two numbers be a and b.21) to get: b = 10 − a Substitute this into (40. Then we have: a + b = 10 (40.6 f ′ (v) 0 v 3 v−6 40 3 v−6 = 40 6 × 40 = 3 = 80 = This means that the most economical speed is 80 km·hr−1 .23) (40.22) 10 − 2a 10 10 2 5 Substitute into (40. Then: P =a·b We can solve for b from (40.GRADE 12 40.24) (40. P = a(10 − a) = 10a − a2 Step 2 : Diﬀerentiate The derivative of (40. 531 .22) to write P in terms of a only. If each number is greater than 0. b = 10 − a = 10 − 5 = 5 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer The product is maximised if a and b are both equal to 5. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Call the product P . ﬁnd the numbers that make this product a maximum. One of the numbers is multiplied by the square of the other.24) is: P ′ (a) = 10 − 2a Step 3 : Find the stationary point Set P ′ (a) = 0 to ﬁnd the value of a which makes P a maximum. P ′ (a) = 0 = 2a = a a = = 10 − 2a (40.27) to solve for the width.CHAPTER 40.21) We are required to minimise the product of a and b.
This can be written as: 160 = w + l + l However.27) to solve for the width.28) to get: A′ (l) = 160 − 4l Step 3 : Find the stationary point To ﬁnd the stationary point. Calculate the width and length of the garden that corresponds to largest possible area that Michael can fence oﬀ. w = = = = 160 − 2l 160 − 2(40) 160 − 80 80 m 532 .28) (40.26) Step 2 : Diﬀerentiate Since we are interested in maximising the area.6 CHAPTER 40.25) We are also told that the fence covers only 3 sides and the three sides should add up to 160 m. A′ (l) = 0 = ∴ 4l l l = = = 160 − 4l 160 − 4l 160 160 4 40 m Substitute into (40. wall length.25) to get: A = (160 − 2l)l = 160l − 2l2 (40.40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .26) to write w in terms of l: w = 160 − 2l Substitute (40. Michael only has 160 m of fencing. so he decides to use a wall as one border of the vegetable garden. we can use (40. w Answer Step 1 : Examine the problem and formulate the equations that are required The important pieces of information given are related to the area and modiﬁed perimeter of the garden. l garden width. which he decides to fence oﬀ in the shape of a rectangle from the rest of the garden. We know that the area of the garden is: A= w·l (40.GRADE 12 Worked Example 186: Optimisation Problems Question: Michael wants to start a vegetable garden. we diﬀerentiate (40.27) (40. we set A′ (l) = 0 and solve for the value of l that maximises the area.27) into (40.
and the length of the railing must be 30 metres.GRADE 12 Step 4 : Write the ﬁnal answer A width of 80 m and a length of 40 m will yield the maximal area fenced oﬀ. 4x and 5x. x B Find the value of x for which the block will have a maximum volume. ﬁnd the values of x and y for which the verandah will have a maximum area. y C D x verandah F B A E cottage If AB = DE = x and BC = CD = y. The total surface area of the block is 3 600 cm2 . The ends are rightangled triangles having sides 3x. 40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . The sum of two positive numbers is 20. 2. 3x 4x y 300 − x2 . Find the numbers that make this products a maximum. A wooden block is made as shown in the diagram. The length of the block is y. (Volume = area of base × height.) A Show that y = 3. The diagram shows the plan for a verandah which is to be built on the corner of a cottage.6 Exercise: Solving Optimisation Problems using Diﬀerential Calculus 1. One of the numbers is multiplied by the square of the other. 533 . A railing ABCDE is to be constructed around the four edges of the verandah.CHAPTER 40.
5) = 5 ms−1 Step 3 : Zero velocity 534 . the average velocity of the ball during the ﬁrst two seconds 2. The notation commonly used for this is: v(t) = ds = s′ (t) dt Acceleration is the change in velocity for a corersponding increase in time.1 Rate of Change problems limh→0 f (x+h)−f (x) . the velocity of the ball after 1.GRADE 12 40. when the velocity is zero 4.5 seconds: v(1. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . Determine 1.6.5 seconds 3. Therefore. average velocity = average rate of change and instantaneous velocity = instantaneous rate of change = derivative. When Average rate of change is required. Velocity is one of the most common forms of rate of change. Worked Example 187: Rate of Change Question: The height (in metres) of a golf ball that is hit into the air after t seconds.5) = 20 − 10(1. is given by h(t) = 20t = 5t2 . the latter is implied. Again. Velocity refers to the increase of distance(s) for a corresponding increade in time (t). the acceleration of the ball Answer Step 1 : Average velocity h(2) − h(0) 2−0 [20(2) − 5(2)2 ] − [20(0) − 5(0)2 ] 2 40 − 20 2 10 ms−1 Ave velocity = = = = Step 2 : Instantaneous Velocity dh dt 20 − 10t v(t) = = Velocity after 1. it will be speciﬁcally refer to as average rate of change. the velocity at which the ball hits the ground 5.40. h f (b)−f (a) b−a Two concepts were discussed in this chapter: Average rate of change = and Instan taneous rate of change = When we mention rate of change.6 CHAPTER 40. acceleration is the derivative of velocity a(t) = v ′ (t) This implies that acceleration is the second derivative of the distance(s). Instantaneous rate of change is the derivative.
7 End of Chapter Exercises 1. Given: f (x) = −x2 + 3x.7 v(t) = 0 0 20 2 20 − 10t = 10t = t = Therefore the velocity is zero after 2 seconds Step 4 : Ground velocity The ball hits the ground when h(t) = 0 20t − 5t2 t=0 = = or 0 0 t=4 5t(4 − t) The ball hits the ground after 4 seconds. The velocity after 4 seconds will be: v(4) = h′ (4) = 20 − 10(4) = 20 ms−1 The ball hits the gound at a speed of 20ms−1 Step 5 : Acceleration a = v ′ (t) = −10 ms−1 40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS .CHAPTER 40. ﬁnd f ′ (x) using ﬁrst principles.GRADE 12 40. Determine A if: y = (2x)2 − 1 3x B √ 2 x−5 √ y= x 4. Given: f (x) = x3 − 3x2 + 4 A Calculate f (−1). 535 . showing the coordinates of the turning points as well as the intercepts on both axes. dx dy 3. Determine f ′ (x) from ﬁrst principles if: f (x) = x2 − 6x f (x) = 2x − x2 2. and hence solve the equationf (x) = 0 B Determine f ′ (x) C Sketch the graph of f neatly and clearly.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS . showing all intercepts with the axes and turning points.) 15. have exactly two real roots? D Determine the equation of the tangent to the graph of f (x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 4x + 3 at the point where x = 1. The xintercepts of f are: (1. travelling at an average speed of x km per hour. Given: f (x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 4x + 3. 536 .0). ﬁnd its acceleration after 2 seconds. in Rands. for a 2 000 km trip is given by: 256000 + 40x C(x) = x ii. Find f ′ (x) for each of the following: √ 5 x3 + 10 A f (x) = 3 (2x2 − 5)(3x + 2) B f (x) = x2 13.GRADE 12 D Determine the coordinates of the points on the graph of f where the gradient is 9. Calculate g ′ (2). determine dx dy 10. If xy − 5 = x3 .7 CHAPTER 40. 7. (Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity. B Hence. If the displacement s (in metres) of a particle at time t (in seconds) is governed by the 1 equation s = 2 t3 − 2t. Given: 12. as well as the coordinates of the turning points. Assume that the petrol costs R4. A Determine the coordinates of the turning points of f . Hence determine the average speed to be maintained to eﬀect a minimum cost for a 2 000 km trip. calculate the coordinates of the point at which the gradient of the tangent to the graph of f is 7.40. 1 5. Determine the minimum value of the sum of a positive number and its reciprocal. and velocity is the rate of change of displacement. 11. a transport company has determined that the rate at which petrol is consumed by one of its large carriers. Given: g(x) = (x−2 + x2 )2 . is given by: P (x) = 55 x + 2x 200 litres per kilometre i. A After doing some research. 14. B Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) at x = 4.00 per hour (travelling time). 6. Given: A Find: B Solve: f (x) = 2x − 3 f −1 (x) f −1 (x) = 3f ′ (x) 8. C. Now deduce that the total cost. Clearly indicate the coordinates of the intercepts with the axes. √ 9. C For which values of k will the equation f (x) = k .00 per litre and the driver earns R18. A Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 − 9x2 + 24x − 20. Calculate: 1 − x3 x→1 1 − x lim f (x) = 2x2 − x A Use the deﬁnition of the derivative to calculate f ′ (x).0) ( 2 . B Draw a neat sketch graph of f .0) and (3.
CHAPTER 40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS  GRADE 12
40.7
B During an experiment the temperature T (in degrees Celsius), varies with time t (in hours), according to the formula: 1 T (t) = 30 + 4t − t2 2 t ∈ [1; 10]
i. Determine an expression for the rate of change of temperature with time. ii. During which time interval was the temperature dropping? 16. The depth, d, of water in a kettle t minutes after it starts to boil, is given by d = 1 1 86 − 8 t − 4 t3 , where d is measured in millimetres. A How many millimetres of water are there in the kettle just before it starts to boil? B As the water boils, the level in the kettle drops. Find the rate at which the water level is decreasing when t = 2 minutes. C How many minutes after the kettle starts boiling will the water level be dropping at 1 a rate of 12 8 mm/minute?
537
40.7
CHAPTER 40. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS  GRADE 12
538
Chapter 41
Linear Programming  Grade 12
41.1 Introduction
In Grade 11 you were introduced to linear programming and solved problems by looking at points on the edges of the feasible region. In Grade 12 you will look at how to solve linear programming problems in a more general manner.
41.2
Terminology
Here is a recap of some of the important concepts in linear programming.
41.2.1
Feasible Region and Points
Constraints mean that we cannot just take any x and y when looking for the x and y that optimise our objective function. If we think of the variables x and y as a point (x,y) in the xyplane then we call the set of all points in the xyplane that satisfy our constraints the feasible region. Any point in the feasible region is called a feasible point. For example, the constraints x≥0 y≥0 mean that every (x,y) we can consider must lie in the ﬁrst quadrant of the xy plane. The constraint x≥y means that every (x,y) must lie on or below the line y = x and the constraint x ≤ 20 means that x must lie on or to the left of the line x = 20. We can use these constraints to draw the feasible region as shown by the shaded region in Figure 41.1.
Important: The constraints are used to create bounds of the solution.
539
41.3 y 20 15 10 5
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12
x = 20 x 15 20
5
y
10 f (x,y) = ax + by ∴ y=
Figure 41.1: The feasible region corresponding to the constraints x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, x ≥ y and x ≤ 20.
Important: ax + by = c If b = 0, feasible points must lie on the line c y = −ax + b b If b = 0, feasible points must lie on the line x = c/a If b = 0, feasible points must lie on or below the line y = − a x + c . b b If b = 0, feasible points must lie on or to the left of the line x = c/a.
ax + by ≤ c
When a constraint is linear, it means that it requires that any feasible point (x,y) lies on one side of or on a line. Interpreting constraints as graphs in the xy plane is very important since it allows us to construct the feasible region such as in Figure 41.1.
41.3
Linear Programming and the Feasible Region
If the objective function and all of the constraints are linear then we call the problem of optimising the objective function subject to these constraints a linear program. All optimisation problems we will look at will be linear programs. The major consequence of the constraints being linear is that the feasible region is always a polygon. This is evident since the constraints that deﬁne the feasible region all contribute a line segment to its boundary (see Figure 41.1). It is also always true that the feasible region is a convex polygon. The objective function being linear means that the feasible point(s) that gives the solution of a linear program always lies on one of the vertices of the feasible region. This is very important since, as we will soon see, it gives us a way of solving linear programs. We will now see why the solutions of a linear program always lie on the vertices of the feasible region. Firstly, note that if we think of f (x,y) as lying on the z axis, then the function f (x,y) = ax + by (where a and b are real numbers) is the deﬁnition of a plane. If we solve for y in the equation deﬁning the objective function then
=
f (x,y) −a x+ b b
x
(41.1)
What this means is that if we ﬁnd all the points where f (x,y) = c for any real number c (i.e. f (x,y) is constant with a value of c), then we have the equation of a line. This line we call a level line of the objective function. 540
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12
41.3
Consider again the feasible region described in Figure 41.1. Lets say that we have the objective function f (x,y) = x − 2y with this feasible region. If we consider Equation ?? corresponding to f (x,y) = −20 1 x + 10 2 which has been drawn in Figure 41.2. Level lines corresponding to y= f (x,y) = −10 or y = x +5 2 x f (x,y) = 0 or y = 2 x f (x,y) = 10 or y = − 5 2 x f (x,y) = 20 or y = − 10 2 then we get the level line
have also been drawn in. It is very important to realise that these are not the only level lines; in fact, there are inﬁnitely many of them and they are all parallel to each other. Remember that if we look at any one level line f (x,y) has the same value for every point (x,y) that lies on that line. Also, f (x,y) will always have diﬀerent values on diﬀerent level lines. y 20 15 10 5 5 10 15 20 f (x,y) = −20 f (x,y) = −10 f (x,y) = 0 f (x,y) = 10 f (x,y) = 20 x
Figure 41.2: The feasible region corresponding to the constraints x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, x ≥ y and x ≤ 20 with objective function f (x,y) = x − 2y. The dashed lines represent various level lines of f (x,y).
If a ruler is placed on the level line corresponding to f (x,y) = −20 in Figure 41.2 and moved down the page parallel to this line then it is clear that the ruler will be moving over level lines which correspond to larger values of f (x,y). So if we wanted to maximise f (x,y) then we simply move the ruler down the page until we reach the “lowest” point in the feasible region. This point will then be the feasible point that maximises f (x,y). Similarly, if we wanted to minimise f (x,y) then the “highest” feasible point will give the minimum value of f (x,y). Since our feasible region is a polygon, these points will always lie on vertices in the feasible region. The fact that the value of our objective function along the line of the ruler increases as we move it down and decreases as we move it up depends on this particular example. Some other examples might have that the function increases as we move the ruler up and decreases as we move it down. It is a general property, though, of linear objective functions that they will consistently increase or decrease as we move the ruler up or down. Knowing which direction to move the ruler in order to maximise/minimise f (x,y) = ax + by is as simple as looking at the sign of b (i.e. “is b negative, positive or zero?”). If b is positive, then f (x,y) increases as we move the ruler up and f (x,y) decreases as we move the ruler down. The opposite happens for the case when b is negative: f (x,y) decreases as we move the ruler up and f (x,y) increases as we move the ruler down. If b = 0 then we need to look at the sign of a. 541
41.3
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12
If a is positive then f (x,y) increases as we move the ruler to the right and decreases if we move the ruler to the left. Once again, the opposite happens for a negative. If we look again at the objective function mentioned earlier, f (x,y) = x − 2y with a = 1 and b = −2, then we should ﬁnd that f (x,y) increases as we move the ruler down the page since b = −2 < 0. This is exactly what we found happening in Figure 41.2. The main points about linear programming we have encountered so far are • The feasible region is always a polygon. • Solutions occur at vertices of the feasible region. • Moving a ruler parallel to the level lines of the objective function up/down to the top/bottom of the feasible region shows us which of the vertices is the solution. • The direction in which to move the ruler is determined by the sign of b and also possibly by the sign of a. These points are suﬃcient to determine a method for solving any linear program. Method: Linear Programming If we wish to maximise the objective function f (x,y) then: 1. Find the gradient of the level lines of f (x,y) (this is always going to be − a as we saw in b Equation ??) 2. Place your ruler on the xy plane, making a line with gradient − a (i.e. b units on the b xaxis and −a units on the yaxis) 3. The solution of the linear program is given by appropriately moving the ruler. Firstly we need to check whether b is negative, positive or zero. A If b > 0, move the ruler up the page, keeping the ruler parallel to the level lines all the time, until it touches the “highest” point in the feasible region. This point is then the solution. B If b < 0, move the ruler in the opposite direction to get the solution at the “lowest” point in the feasible region. C If b = 0, check the sign of a i. If a < 0 move the ruler to the “leftmost” feasible point. This point is then the solution. ii. If a > 0 move the ruler to the “rightmost” feasible point. This point is then the solution.
Worked Example 188: Prizes! Question: As part of their opening specials, a furniture store has promised to give away at least 40 prizes with a total value of at least R2 000. The prizes are kettles and toasters. 1. If the company decides that there will be at least 10 of each prize, write down two more inequalities from these constraints. 2. If the cost of manufacturing a kettle is R60 and a toaster is R50, write down an objective function C which can be used to determine the cost to the company of both kettles and toasters. 542
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12 3. Sketch the graph of the feasibility region that can be used to determine all the possible combinations of kettles and toasters that honour the promises of the company. 4. How many of each prize will represent the cheapest option for the company? 5. How much will this combination of kettles and toasters cost? Answer Step 1 : Identify the decision variables Let the number of kettles be xk and the number of toasters be yt and write down two constraints apart from xk ≥ 0 and yt ≥ 0 that must be adhered to. Step 2 : Write constraint equations Since there will be at least 10 of each prize we can write: xk ≥ 10 and yt ≥ 10 Also the store has promised to give away at least 40 prizes in total. Therefore: xk + yt ≥ 40 Step 3 : Write the objective function The cost of manufacturing a kettle is R60 and a toaster is R50. Therefore the cost the total cost C is: C = 60xk + 50yt Step 4 : Sketch the graph of the feasible region yt 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 A xk 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B
41.3
Step 5 : Determine vertices of feasible region From the graph, the coordinates of vertex A is (3,1) and the coordinates of vertex B are (1,3). Step 6 : Draw in the search line The seach line is the gradient of the objective function. That is, if the equation C = 60x + 50y is now written in the standard form y = ..., then the gradient is: 6 m=− , 5 which is shown with the broken line on the graph. 543
41.3 yt 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 10 20 A B
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12
xk 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Step 7 : Calculate cost at each vertex At vertex A, the cost is: C = = = = At vertex B, the cost is: C = = = = 60xk + 50yt 60(10) + 50(30) 600 + 1500 2100 60xk + 50yt 60(30) + 50(10) 1800 + 500 2300
Step 8 : Write the ﬁnal answer The cheapest combination of prizes is 10 kettles and 30 toasters, costing the company R2 100.
Worked Example 189: Search Line Method Question: As a production planner at a factory manufacturing lawn cutters your job will be to advise the management on how many of each model should be produced per week in order to maximise the proﬁt on the local production. The factory is producing two types of lawn cutters: Quadrant and Pentagon. Two of the production processes that the lawn cutters must go through are: bodywork and engine work. • The factory cannot operate for less than 360 hours on engine work for the lawn cutters. • The factory has a maximum capacity of 480 hours for bodywork for the lawn cutters. 544
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12 • Half an hour of engine work and half an hour of bodywork is required to produce one Quadrant. • One third of an hour of engine work andone ﬁfth of an hour of bodywork is required to produce one Pentagon. • The ratio of Pentagon lawn cutters to Quadrant lawn cutters produced per week must be at least 3:2. Let the number of Quadrant lawn cutters manufactured in a week be x. Let the number of Pentagon lawn cutters manufactured in a week be y. Two of the constraints are: x ≥ 200 3x + 2y ≥ 2 160 1. Write down the remaining constraints in terms of x and y to represent the abovementioned information. 2. Use graph paper to represent the constraints graphically. 3. Clearly indicate the feasible region by shading it. 4. If the proﬁt on one Quadrant lawn cutter is R1 200 and the proﬁt on one Pentagon lawn cutter is R400, write down an equation that will represent the proﬁt on the lawn cutters. 5. Using a search line and your graph, determine the number of Quadrant and Pentagon lawn cutters that will yield a maximum proﬁt. 6. Determine the maximum proﬁt per week. Answer Step 1 : Remaining constraints: 1 1 x + ≤ 480 2 5 3 y ≥ x 2 Step 2 : Graphical representation y 2400 • A minimum of 200 Quadrant lawn cutters must be produced per week.
41.3
1080
0 200 Step 3 : Proﬁt equation
720
960
P = 1 200x + 400y Step 4 : Maximum proﬁt P = 1 200(600) + 400(900) 545
41.4
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12 P = R1 080 000
41.4
End of Chapter Exercises
1. Polkadots is a small company that makes two types of cards, type X and type Y. With the available labour and material, the company can make not more than 150 cards of type X and not more than 120 cards of type Y per week. Altogether they cannot make more than 200 cards per week. There is an order for at least 40 type X cards and 10 type Y cards per week. Polkadots makes a proﬁt of R5 for each type X card sold and R10 for each type Y card. Let the number of type X cards be x and the number of type Y cards be y, manufactured per week. A One of the constraint inequalities which represents the restrictions above is x ≤ 150. Write the other constraint inequalities. B Represent the constraints graphically and shade the feasible region. C Write the equation that represents the proﬁt P (the objective function), in terms of x and y. D On your graph, draw a straight line which will help you to determine how many of each type must be made weekly to produce the maximum P E Calculate the maximum weekly proﬁt. 2. A brickworks produces “face bricks” and “clinkers”. Both types of bricks are produced and sold in batches of a thousand. Face bricks are sold at R150 per thousand, and clinkers at R100 per thousand, where an income of at least R9,000 per month is required to cover costs. The brickworks is able to produce at most 40,000 face bricks and 90,000 clinkers per month, and has transport facilities to deliver at most 100,000 bricks per month. The number of clinkers produced must be at least the same number of face bricks produced. Let the number of face bricks in thousands be x, and the number of clinkers in thousands be y. A List all the constraints. B Graph the feasible region. C If the sale of face bricks yields a proﬁt of R25 per thousand and clinkers R45 per thousand, use your graph to determine the maximum proﬁt. D If the proﬁt margins on face bricks and clinkers are interchanged, use your graph to determine the maximum proﬁt. 3. A small cell phone company makes two types of cell phones: Easyhear and Longtalk. Production ﬁgures are checked weekly. At most, 42 Easyhear and 60 Longtalk phones can be manufactured each week. At least 30 cell phones must be produced each week to cover costs. In order not to ﬂood the market, the number of Easyhear phones cannot be more than twice the number of Longtalk phones. It takes 2 hour to assemble an Easyhear 3 phone and 1 hour to put together a Longtalk phone. The trade unions only allow for a 2 50hour week. Let x be the number of Easyhear phones and y be the number of Longtalk phones manufactured each week. A Two of the constraints are: 0 ≤ x ≤ 42 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 60
Write down the other three constraints. 546
CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12 B Draw a graph to represent the feasible region
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C If the proﬁt on an Easyhear phone is R225 and the proﬁt on a Longtalk is R75, determine the maximum proﬁt per week. 4. Hair for Africa is a ﬁrm that specialises in making two kinds of upmarket shampoo, Glowhair and Longcurls. They must produce at least two cases of Glowhair and one case of Longcurls per day to stay in the market. Due to a limited supply of chemicals, they cannot produce more than 8 cases of Glowhair and 6 cases of Longcurls per day. It takes halfanhour to produce one case of Glowhair and one hour to produce a case of Longcurls, and due to restrictions by the unions, the plant may operate for at most 7 hours per day. The workforce at Hair for Africa, which is still in training, can only produce a maximum of 10 cases of shampoo per day. Let x be the number of cases of Glowhair and y the number of cases of Longcurls produced per day. A Write down the inequalities that represent all the constraints. B Sketch the feasible region. C If the proﬁt on a case of Glowhair is R400 and the proﬁt on a case of Longcurls is R300, determine the maximum proﬁt that Hair for Africa can make per day. 5. A transport contracter has 6 5ton trucks and 8 3ton trucks. He must deliver at least 120 tons of sand per day to a construction site, but he may not deliver more than 180 tons per day. The 5ton trucks can each make three trips per day at a cost of R30 per trip, and the 3ton trucks can each make four trips per day at a cost of R120 per trip. How must the contracter utilise his trucks so that he has minimum expense ?
547
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CHAPTER 41. LINEAR PROGRAMMING  GRADE 12
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3. is a special chord that passes through the centre of the circle. the Koch snowﬂake. 2.1 Introduction Activity :: Discussion : Discuss these Research Topics Research one of the following geometrical ideas and describe it to your group: 1. tangent A tangent is a line that makes contact with a circle at one point on the circumference. r.1 Circle Geometry Terminology The following is a recap of terms that are regularly used when referring to circles.Grade 12 42. segment A segment is the part of the circle that is cut oﬀ by a chord. radius The radius. The diameter is the straight line from a point on the circumference to another point on the circumference.2. 549 . sperical geometry. . 42. (AB is a tangent to the circle at point P . is the distance from the centre of the circle to any point on the circumference. that passes through the centre of the circle. fractals. taxicab geometry.Chapter 42 Geometry . 4. diameter The diameter. arc An arc is a part of the circumference of a circle. chord A chord is deﬁned as a straight line joining the ends of an arc. A chord divides a circle into two segments.2 42.
the following are accepted as axioms.2.3 Theorems of the Geometry of Circles A theorem is a general proposition that is not selfevident but is proved by reasoning (these proofs need not be learned for examination purposes). In △ABC.42. 42. A tangent is perpendicular to the radius. this means that AB 2 + BC 2 = AC 2 A B Figure 42. Theorem 6. drawn at the point of contact with the circle. The Theorem of Pythagoras.1: Parts of a Circle 42.2.GRADE 12 segment chord rad i us O diameter A a rc P tangent B C O P 550 B Figure 42. which states that the square on the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. 1. perpendicular to a chord. GEOMETRY . Proof: A . bisects the chord.2 Axioms An axiom is an established or accepted principle. For this section.2: A rightangled triangle 2. The line drawn from the centre of a circle.2 CHAPTER 42.
The line drawn from the centre of a circle. is perpendicular to the chord. △OAP and △OBP are rightangled triangles. GEOMETRY . OA = OB (radii) 3.GRADE 12 42. OP 2 + AP 2 ∴ AP 2 and AP This means that OP bisects AB. Draw a chord AB and draw a perpendicular line from the centre of the circle to intersect the chord at point P . 2. The aim is to prove that OP ⊥ AB In △OAP and △OBP . that bisects a chord. OP is common to both triangles. Draw a chord AB and draw a line from the centre of the circle to bisect the chord at point P . to get: OA2 OB 2 However. ∴ △OAP ≡ △OBP (SSS).2 Consider a circle. OA = OB. with centre O. Proof: = = = OP 2 + BP 2 BP 2 BP = OP 2 + AP 2 = OP 2 + BP 2 O A P B Consider a circle. ˆ OAP ˆ ˆ OAP + OBP ˆ ∴ OAP ∴ OP = = = ⊥ ˆ OBP 180◦ (AP B is a str. with centre O. OA = OB as both of these are radii and OP is common to both triangles. So.CHAPTER 42. 1. The aim is to prove that AP = BP 1. Apply the Theorem of Pythagoras to each triangle. line) ˆ OBP = 90◦ AB 551 . Theorem 7. AP = P B (given) 2.
2 CHAPTER 42. Q must be the centre of the circle. Since the centre of a circle is the only point inside a circle that has points on the circumference at an equal distance from it. AP = P B (given) 2. Draw a line P Q perpendicular to AB such that P Q bisects AB at point P . In △OAP and △OBP . The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the centre of the circle. Draw a chord AB. 1.GRADE 12 Theorem 8. QP is common to both triangles.42. The aim is to prove that Q is the centre of the circle. QA = QB. ∴ △QAP ≡ △QBP (SAS). GEOMETRY . by showing that AQ = BQ. Find the value of x: 552 . From this. Draw lines AQ and BQ. ∠QP A = ∠QP B (QP ⊥ AB) 3. Exercise: Circles I 1. Proof: Q A P B Consider a circle.
with centre O and with A and B on the circumference.GRADE 12 42. GEOMETRY .2 a) b) O x 5 Q P PR=8 x R P O 4 Q R PR=6 c) 10 O x R P Q PR=8 d) Q 2 6 P x O S 6 R e) S 5 P 8 10 O x T U R Q f) 24 T P 5 x 25 S Q R O R Theorem 9.CHAPTER 42. P AO = AP O (△AOP is an isosceles △) 553 . Draw a chord AB. angles) ˆ ˆ But. Select any point P on the circumference of the circle. Draw radii OA and OB. Draw lines P A and P B. The angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is double the size of the angle subtended by the same arc at the circumference of the circle. Draw P O and extend to R. Proof: P O A R B Consider a circle. ˆ ˆ The aim is to prove that AOB = 2 · AP B. ˆ ˆ ˆ AOR = P AO + AP O (exterior angle = sum of interior opp.
ˆ AOB = = = = CHAPTER 42. BOR = 2BP O. Draw lines P A. K O b K O c 20◦ H O K H J H 4. GEOMETRY . Select any points P and Q on the circumference of the circle. Draw a chord AB.42. Proof: Q P O A B Consider a circle. such that both P and Q are on the same side of the chord. with centre O. 554 .2 ˆ ˆ ∴ AOR = 2AP O ˆ ˆ Similarly. J a 2. The angles subtended by a chord at the circumference of a circle on the same side of the chord are equal. K 5. QA and QB. So. K O 120◦ J 100◦ O d O e H J H J f H Theorem 10.GRADE 12 ˆ ˆ AOR + BOR ˆ ˆ 2AP O + 2BP O ˆ ˆ 2(AP O + BP O) ˆ 2(AP B) Exercise: Circles II 1. Find the angles (a to f ) indicated in each diagram: 1. J 45◦ 3. K 30◦ 6. P B.
that subtends equal angles at points P and Q on the same side of AB. By contradiction. 555 . B. must be false. Assume that point P does not lie on a circle drawn through points A. Find the values of the unknown letters. Proof: Q P R A B Consider a line segment AB. B. The aim is to prove that points A. P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle. Let the circle cut AP (or AP extended) at point R. and A. B and Q. ∠ of △) ∴ the assumption that the circle does not pass through P . (Converse of Theorem 10) If a line segment subtends equal angles at two other points on the same side of the line. ˆ AQB ˆ but AQB ˆ ∴ ARB ˆ but this cannot be true since ARB ˆ = ARB ∠s on same side of chord ˆ = AP B (given) ˆB = AP ˆ ˆ = AP B + RBP (ext. Exercise: Circles III 1. 42.GRADE 12 ˆ ˆ The aim is to prove that AQB = AP B. P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle.2 ˆ AOB ˆ and AOB ˆ ∴ 2AQB ˆ ∴ AQB ˆ = 2AQB ∠ at centre = twice ∠ at circumference ˆ B ∠ at centre = twice ∠ at circumference = 2AP ˆ = 2AP B ˆ = AP B Theorem 11.CHAPTER 42. GEOMETRY . then these four points lie on a circle.
GEOMETRY .42.GRADE 12 2. Theorem 12. A a CHAPTER 42. The vertices of a cyclic quadrilateral are said to be concyclic. 35◦ W X O 12◦ e f Y V Z U Cyclic Quadrilaterals Cyclic quadrilaterals are quadrilaterals with all four vertices lying on the circumference of a circle. N b I H O K c 17◦ M Q 24◦ d L P 5. E B 21◦ F 15◦ D G C 3. T S R 45◦ 35◦ 6.2 1. J 4. The opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary. Proof: 556 .
must be false. B. Proof: Q R P A B ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Consider a quadrilateral ABP Q. Draw AO and P O.CHAPTER 42. and A. ˆ ˆ QAB + QRB ˆ ˆ but QAB + QP B ˆ ∴ QRB ˆ but this cannot be true since QRB = 180◦ opp. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The aim is to prove that ABP + AQP = 180◦ and QAB + QP B = 180◦. B. ˆ O1 ˆ O2 ˆ ˆ But. (Converse of Theorem 12) If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary.2 1 O 2 A B Consider a circle.GRADE 12 Q P 42. By contradiction. The aim is to prove that points A. with centre O. then the quadrilateral is cyclic. QAB + QP B ˆ = 2ABP ∠s at centre ˆ = 2AQP ∠s at centre = 360◦ = 360◦ = 180◦ = 180◦ Theorem 13. Let the circle cut AP (or AP extended) at point R. ∠ of △) ∴ the assumption that the circle does not pass through P . = 180◦ (given) ˆ = QP B ˆ ˆ = QP B + RBP (ext. P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle. such that ABP + AQP = 180◦ and QAB + QP B = 180◦ . Draw BR. GEOMETRY . P and Q lie on the circumference of a circle and ABP Q is a cyclic quadrilateral. ∠s of cyclic quad. 557 . Draw a cyclic quadrilateral ABP Q. Assume that point P does not lie on a circle drawn through points A. B and Q. O1 + O2 ˆ + 2AQP ˆ ∴ 2ABP ˆ ˆ ∴ ABP + AQP ˆ ˆ Similarly.
Two tangents drawn to a circle from the same point outside the circle are equal in length. Find the values of the unknown letters. GEOMETRY .2 CHAPTER 42. 1. that meet the circle at A and B. L K a 4. Draw two tangents to the circle from point P . Proof: A O P B Consider a circle. In △OAP and △OBP . Choose a point P outside the circle.42. X 106◦ 87◦ 2. 558 . Draw lines OA. OB and OP .GRADE 12 Exercise: Circles IV 1. 34 O ◦ b Q a c S U 86◦ R X H a 114◦ I J W 57◦ V Theorem 14. with centre O. The aim is to prove that AP = BP . Y P a W b Z 3.
5cm N Q Theorem 15. ∠OAP = ∠OP B = 90◦ (OA ⊥ AP and OB ⊥ BP ) 3. G 5c m J d E c D b H 4. OP is common to both triangles. is equal to the angle which the chord subtends in the alternate segment. drawn at the point of contact of the chord.CHAPTER 42. hypotenuse.2 Exercise: Circles V 1. OA = OB (radii) 2. a A AE=5cm AC=8cm CE=9cm F B 2. The angle between a tangent and a chord. side) ∴ AP = BP 42. GEOMETRY .GRADE 12 1. Proof: T Q A O P S B 559 R . △OAP ≡ △OBP (right angle. 8cm I C 3. 1. K 2c m R 3cm O 6c m e P f S M L LN=7. Find the value of the unknown lengths.
1) 560 . AQB ˆ ∴ AP B = 90◦ (T B ⊥ SR) = 90◦ (∠s at centre) = 90◦ (sum of angles in △BAT ) ˆ = ABT ˆ = AT B( angles subtended by same chord AB) ˆ = ABS = 180◦ (SBT is a str. GEOMETRY . line) = 180◦ (ABP Q is a cyclic quad. Draw a chord AB and a tangent SR to the circle at point B.) ˆ ˆ = AP B + AQB ˆ = ABS ˆ = ABR (42.1).42. with centre O. Chord AB subtends angles at points P and Q on the minor and major arcs. respectively. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ First prove that AQB = ABS as this result is needed to prove that AP B = ABR.GRADE 12 Consider a circle.2 CHAPTER 42. Draw a diameter BT and join A to T . ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ The aim is to prove that AP B = ABR and AQB = ABS. AQB ˆ ∴ AQB ˆ ˆ SBQ + QBR ˆ ˆ AP B + AQB ˆ ˆ ∴ SBQ + QBR ˆ From (42. ˆ ˆ ABS + ABT ˆ BAT ˆ ˆ ∴ ABT + AT B ˆ ∴ ABS ˆ However.
(Converse of 15) If the angle formed between a line. Proof: Q A O Y S X B 561 R .2 Exercise: Circles VI 1. and the chord. then the line is a tangent to the circle. GEOMETRY . is equal to the angle subtended by the chord in the alternate segment.CHAPTER 42.GRADE 12 42. that is drawn through the end point of a chord. P 1 O Q 33◦ 2 R d b R S c a S e Q O P 3 O 17◦ S S f Q 8◦ g P 4 4h70◦ R S R 3h S O h+50◦ 2h20◦ Q P 5 R k 6 O S j P 19 ◦ l R i O 121◦ Q R Q 7 O Q m n R 8 R Q o 34◦ 52◦ p r O q T T S O S Theorem 16. Find the values of the unknown letters.
then both XBY and SBR coincide and SBR is a tangent to the circle. with centre O and chord AB. Show that Theorem 9 also applies to the following two cases: A P O O R P R B A B 562 . Assume that SBR is not a tangent to the circle and draw XBY such that XBY is a tangent to the circle. Let line SR pass through point B.2 CHAPTER 42. ˆ ABX ˆ ABS = = = = = ˆ AQB ˆ AQB (tanchord theorem) (given) (42.42. XBS ˆ ABS ˆ ˆ ABS + XBS 0 ˆ If XBS is zero.2) can only be true if. By contradiction.GRADE 12 Consider a circle. Chord AB ˆ ˆ subtends an angle at point Q such that ABS = AQB. Exercise: Applying Theorem 9 1. ABX ˆ (42.2) ˆ ∴ ABX ˆ But since. The aim is to prove that SBR is a tangent to the circle. However. GEOMETRY .
The easiest way is to show the angles opposite to those sides to be equal. BO ⊥ AD. GEOMETRY .GRADE 12 42. OE BC = CD CO B Answer 1. Step 1 : To show a quadrilateral is cyclic. F B = BC 3. Prove that: 1.CHAPTER 42. ∴ ∴ ∴ ˆ F CB = x (∠ between tangent BD and chord CE) ˆ BF C = x (exterior ∠ to cyclic quadrilateral CF OE) BF = BC (sides opposite equal ∠’s in isosceles △BF C) 3. Step 1 : To show these two triangles similar. we are proving that triangle to be isosceles. CD2 = ED. ˆ CBF OC = = ∴ ∴ 180◦ − 2x (sum of ∠’s in △BF C) OE (radii of circle O) ˆ ECO = x (isosceles △COE) ˆ COE = 180◦ − 2x (sum of ∠’s in △COE) ˆ ˆ • COE = CBF ˆ = F CB ˆ • ECO ˆ ˆ • OEC = CF B ∴ △COE///△CBF (3 ∠’s equal) 563 .2 Worked Example 190: Circle Geometry I BD is a tangent to the circle with centre O. △COE///△CBF 4. ˆ Let OEC = x. ˆ F OE ˆ F CE = 90◦ (BO ⊥ OD) = 90◦ (∠ subtended by diameter AE) ∴ CF OE is a cyclic quadrilateral (opposite ∠’s supplementary) 2. We already have 3 of the 6 needed angles from the previous question. Step 1 : Since these two sides are part of a triangle. We need only ﬁnd the missing 3 angles. we need a pair of opposite angles to be supplementary. so lets look for that. CF OE is a cyclic quadrilateral O A E D Question: F C 2. we will need 3 equal angles.AD 5.
Lastly. Start in one of the triangles.AD 5. Step 1 : This looks like another proportionality relation with a little twist. since not all sides are contained in 2 triangles. Step 1 : This relation reminds us of a proportionality relation between similar triangles. 564 . as well as our ﬁrst observation. In △ADC ˆ ACE ˆ CAD = = ˆ ˆ 180◦ − x (sum of ∠’s ACE and ECO) ◦ 90 − x (sum of ∠’s in △CAE) Step 3 : The third equal angle is an angle both triangles have in common. In △EDC ˆ CED ˆ ECD = = 90◦ − x (complementary ∠’s) 180◦ − x (∠’s on a straight line AD) Step 2 : Now look at the angles in the other triangle.GRADE 12 4. OE = CD (△OEC is isosceles) Step 2 : With this observation we can limit ourselves to proving triangles BOC and ODC similar. we use the proportionality relation .2 CHAPTER 42. So investigate which triangles contain these sides and prove them similar. OC is a common side to both △’s. In △OCD ˆ OCD ˆ COD = = 90◦ (radius OC on tangent BD) 180◦ − 2x (sum of ∠’s in △OCE) Step 4 : Again we have a common element. Step 5 : Then. ∴ △ADC///△CDE (3 ∠’s equal) ED CD ∴ = CD AD ∴ CD2 = ED. ADC = EDC since they are the same ∠. There is a quick observation we can make about the odd side out. GEOMETRY . appropriately. Start with one triangle. In △BCO ˆ OCB ˆ CBO = = 90◦ (radius OC on tangent BD) 180◦ − 2x (sum of ∠’s in △BF C) Step 3 : Then we move on to the other one. Step 4 : Now we know that the triangles are similar and can use the proportionality relation accordingly. once we’ve shown similarity. ˆ ˆ Lastly. OE.42. In this case 3 equal angles works well.
△AF E///△CBD 3. F C.CHAPTER 42. subtended by the same chord. ∠BCD = 565 ∠F AE (above) . Let ∠F EA = y ∴ ∠F DA = y (∠’s subtended by same chord AF in cyclic quadrilateral F ADE) ∴ ∠CBD = y (corresponding ∠’s. the best way to show F ADE is a cyclic quadrilateral is to look for equal angles. F D ∴ ∠F EA = ∠CBD CB) Step 2 : We have already proved 1 pair of angles equal in the previous question.GRADE 12 42. GEOMETRY .2 ∴ ∴ ∴ △BOC///△ODC (common side and 2 equal ∠’s) CD CO = BC CO CD OE = (OE = CD isosceles △OEC) BC CO Worked Example 191: Circle Geometry II F D is drawn parallel to the tangent CB Prove that: F 1. F D CB) ∴ F ADE is a cyclic quadrilateral (chord F E subtends equal ∠’s) 2. We can use the result from the previous question. Step 1 : In this case. Step 1 : To show these 2 triangles similar we will need 3 equal angles. Let ∠BCD = x ∴ ∠CAH = x (∠ between tangent BC and chord CE) ∴ ∠F DC = x (alternate ∠.F E BD D B Answer 1.AG GH = DC. F ADE is cyclic C Question: A G E H 2.
P (x1 . So lets start there.3.3: Circle h with centre (x0 . Consider a point (x1 . This gives us another proportionality relation.AG FA = GH = ∴ Step 3 : We have 2 expressions for the side F A.42.y0 ).3 CHAPTER 42. Looking at triangle CAH we see that there is a line F G intersecting it parallel to base CH. Step 1 : This equation looks like it has to do with proportionality relation of similar triangles.y1 ) on the circumference of a circle of radius r with centre at (x0 .y0 ) O Q Figure 42. AG GH FA (F G CH splits up lines AH and AC proportionally) FC F C. Then we have proved similarity.1 Coordinate Geometry Equation of a Circle We know that every point on the circumference of a circle is the same distance away from the centre of the circle. Line f passes through the centre and point P .GRADE 12 Step 3 : Proving the last set of angles equal is simply a matter of adding up the angles in the triangles. 180◦ − x − y (∠’s in △AF E) 180◦ − x − y (∠’s in △CBD) ∠AF E ∠CBD = = ∴ △AF E///△CBD (3 ∠’s equal) 3.y1 ).y1 ) (x0 .F E = FA BD = ∴ Step 2 : Now we need to look for a hint about side F A.AG DC. g passing through point P at (x1 .3 42. GEOMETRY .F E = GH BD ∴ 42. F C. We already showed triangles AF E and CBD similar in the previous question.y0 ) has a tangent. DC BD FA FE DC. 566 .
In fact.3 In Figure 42. PQ = OQ = OP ∴ r 2 = = y1 − y0 x1 − x0 r (y1 − y0 )2 + (x1 − x0 )2 But.y1 ) and let the coordinates of Q be (x2 . Let the coordinates of the centre of the circle be (x0 . we can write: (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = r2 for a circle with centre at (x0 .0) and radius 4 is: (y − y0 )2 + (x − x0 )2 (y − 0)2 + (x − 0)2 y 2 + x2 = = = r2 42 16 (42. Therefore.3. let the coordinates of P be (x1 . the relation holds for all points P on the circumference. this same relation holds for any point P on the circumference. For example. we know that: OP 2 = P Q2 + OQ2 But.3) Worked Example 192: Equation of a Circle I Question: Find the equation of a circle (centre O) with a diameter between two points.CHAPTER 42. P 5 O −5 5 −5 Q Step 2 : Find the centre of the circle We know that the centre of a circle lies on the midpoint of a diameter. Answer Step 1 : Draw a picture Draw a picture of the situation to help you ﬁgure out what needs to be done. the equation of a circle with centre (0.5) and Q at (5. 567 .y2 ). Therefore. P at (−5. △OP Q is a rightangled triangle.GRADE 12 42. GEOMETRY . Therefore the coordinates of the centre of the circle is found by ﬁnding the midpoint of the line between P and Q. from the Theorem of Pythagoras. − 5). Then.y0 ) and radius r.y0 ).
Answer Step 1 : Change to standard form We need to rewrite the equation in the form (x − x0 ) + (y − y0 ) = r2 To do this we need to complete the square 1 1 i.42.GRADE 12 x1 + x2 2 −5 + 5 2 0 y1 + y2 2 5 + (−5) 2 0 The centre point of line P Q and therefore the centre of the circle is at (0. GEOMETRY .3 the coordinates of the midpoint are: x0 = = = y0 = = = CHAPTER 42. then the radius is half the distance between them.0). Step 3 : Find the radius of the circle If P and Q are two points on a diameter. −2) and the radius is 5 units 568 . add and subtract ( 2 cooeﬃcient of x)2 and ( 2 cooeﬃcient of y)2 Step 2 : Adding cooeﬃcients x2 − 14x + y 2 + 4y = −28 ∴ x2 − 14x + (7)2 − (7)2 + y 2 + 4y + (2)2 − (2)2 = −28 Step 3 : Complete the squares ∴ (x − 7)2 − (7)2 + (y + 2)2 − (2)2 = −28 Step 4 : Take the constants to the other side ∴ (x − 7)2 − 49 + (y + 2)2 − 4 = −28 ∴ (x − 7)2 + (y + 2)2 = −28 + 49 + 4 ∴ (x − 7)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25 Step 5 : Read the values from the equation ∴ center is (7.e. The distance between the two points is: r= 1 PQ 2 = = = = = = 1 (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 2 1 (5 − (−5))2 + (−5 − 5)2 2 1 (10)2 + (−10)2 2 1√ 100 + 100 2 200 4 √ 50 Step 4 : Write the equation of the circle x2 + y 2 = 50 Worked Example 193: Equation of a Circle II Question: Find the center and radius of the circle x2 − 14x + y 2 + 4y = −28.
GRADE 12 42. GEOMETRY . Therefore.4) The tangent (line g) is perpendicular to this line. c.4: Circle h with centre (x0 .CHAPTER 42.y0 ) is (x − x0 )2 + (y − y0 )2 = r2 .4). drawn at the point of contact with the circle. We know that the equation of the circle with centre (x0 .3. Step 2: Calculate the yintercept of the line.y1 ). mf × mg = −1 So. In this section. 2. First we need to ﬁnd the gradient of the tangent. there are two steps to determining the equation of a straight line: Step 1: Calculate the gradient of the line.y0 ) P (x1 . We start by making a list of what we know: 1. The same method is used to determine the equation of the tangent.2 Equation of a Tangent to a Circle at a Point on the Circle We are given that a tangent to a circle is drawn through a point P with coordinates (x1 . Line f passes through the centre and point P . As we have seen in earlier grades. we ﬁnd out how to determine the equation of that tangent. g passing through point P at (x1 .y0 ) has a tangent. because this line is a radius line and the tangent is perpendicular to it. mg = − 569 1 mf .y1 ) Figure 42. m. We know that a tangent is perpendicular to the radius.3 42. We do this by ﬁnding the gradient of the line that passes through the centre of the circle and point P (line f in Figure 42. mf = y1 − y0 x1 − x0 (42.y1 ). g h f (x0 .
The centre of the circle is at (0. −2) which passes through (1.GRADE 12 Now. −3) and radius 3 A Find the equation of the circle with center (2. Use y − y1 = − with (x0 .3 CHAPTER 42.42. x1 − x0 (x − x1 ) y1 − y0 y − y1 y−1 y−1 y y y = − = = = = = −x + 2 x1 − x0 (x − x1 ) y1 − y0 1−0 − (x − 1) 1−0 1 − (x − 1) 1 −(x − 1) + 1 −x + 1 + 1 Exercise: Coordinate Geometry 1. A Find the equation of the circle with center (−3.y1 ) so the equation is given by: y − y1 y − y1 y − y1 y − y1 = m(x − x1 ) 1 = − (x − x1 ) mf 1 = − y1 −y0 (x − x1 ) x1 − x0 (x − x1 ) = − y1 − y0 x1 −x0 For example. A B C D E (x − 9)2 + (y − 6)2 = 36 (x − 2)2 + (y − 9)2 = 1 (x + 5)2 + (y + 7)2 = 12 (x + 4)2 + (y + 4)2 = 23 3(x − 2)2 + 3(y + 3)2 = 12 3. 4.0). −4). ﬁnd the equation of the tangent to the circle at point (1. GEOMETRY . 1) which passes through (2. 0) and radius 4 (5. 1) which passes through (4.1). Find the equation of the cicle: A B C D E 2. 1). B Find the equation of the circle with center (3. with with with with with center center center center center (0. C Find the point where these two circles cut each other. B Where does it cut the line y = x + 1? C Draw a sketch to illustrate your answers.y0 ) = (0.y1 ) = (1.1). The equation of the circle is x2 + y 2 = 2. 5). 0) and radius 6 √ (−5.0) and (x1 . Find the center and radius of the following circles: 570 . 5) and radius 5 (2. we know that the tangent passes through (x1 . 7) and radius 18 (−2.
Find the center and radius of the following circles: 7.CHAPTER 42. Find the x− and y− intercepts of the following graphs and draw a scetch to illustrate your answer: A B C D A B C D E F A B C D (x + 7)2 + (y − 2)2 = 8 x2 + (y − 6)2 = 100 (x + 4)2 + y 2 = 16 (x − 5)2 + (y + 1)2 = 25 x2 + 6x + y 2 − 12y = −20 x2 + 4x + y 2 − 8y = 0 x2 + y 2 + 8y = 7 x2 − 6x + y 2 = 16 x2 − 5x + y 2 + 3y = − 3 4 x2 − 6nx + y 2 + 10ny = 9n2 x2 + y 2 = 17 at the point (1.GRADE 12 F x2 − 3x + 9 = y 2 + 5y + 25 = 17 5. We need to know something about polar coordinates and compound angles before we start. 5) (x − 2)2 + (y − 1)2 = 13 at the point (5.4 42. y) rectangular coordinates or P (r cos α.1 Transformations Rotation of a Point about an angle θ First we will ﬁnd a formula for the coordinates of P after a rotation of θ. Polar coordinates P r α x y Notice that : sin α = y ∴ y = r sin α r and cos α = x ∴ x = r cos α r so P can be expressed in two ways: P (x. 4) (x + 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 25 at the point (3.4 6. 4) x2 + y 2 = 25 at the point (3. r sin α) polar coordinates. 12) sin (α + β) cos (α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 571 .4. Compound angles (See derivation of formulae in Ch. GEOMETRY . Find the equations to the tangent to the circle: 42. 3) 42.
r sin α) P ′ (r cos (α + θ).4 Now consider P ′ after a rotation of θ CHAPTER 42. (y cos θ + x sin θ] √ √ (1 cos 45◦ − 3 sin 45◦ ). √ 2 2 572 . ( 3 cos 45◦ + 1 sin 45◦ √ √ 1 1 3 3 √ −√ . r sin α) θ α r sin (α + θ) r [sin α cos θ + sin θ cos α] r sin α cos θ + r cos α sin θ y cos θ + x sin θ which gives the formula P ′ = [(x cos θ − y sin θ. r sin (α + θ)) Expand the coordinates of P ′ x − coordinate of P ′ = = = = y − coordinate of P ′ = = = = r cos (α + θ) r [cos α cos θ − sin α sin θ] r cos α cos θ − r sin α sin θ x cos θ − y sin θ P′ P = (r cos α. y cos θ + x sin θ)]. √ +√ 2 2 2 2 √ √ 1− 3 3+1 √ . GEOMETRY . y) = P (r cos α. we arrive at: P′ = = = = [(x cos θ − y sin θ). √ So to ﬁnd the coordinates of P (1.42. 3) after a rotation of 45◦ .GRADE 12 P (x.
Complete the table below . 6) and C(5. and that enlargement preserves shape but not size. Using the coordinates of P and the angle α.4 Exercise: Rotations Any line OP is drawn (not necessarily in the ﬁrst quadrant). 2. reﬂections. rotations and glide reﬂections preserve shape and size.CHAPTER 42. 4. 1). if the line OP is rotated about the origin through α degrees. 42. and that enlargement preserves shape but not size.3 Characteristics of Transformations Rigid transformations like translations. −15 −10 −5 A(2. GEOMETRY .4.GRADE 12 42. B(5. P (2. 1) (2. 6) 5 C(3. reﬂections. 6) (4. The ﬁrst one has been done for you. Activity :: : Geometric Transformations 15 10 Draw a large 15×15 grid and plot △ABC with A(2. 6). 2) (5. 1. 6. 3.2 Characteristics of Transformations Rigid transformations like translations. 4) 5 C′ −5 A′ −10 y=x −15 y = −x B′ 10 15 573 . 1) (3. by drawing the images of △ABC under the given transformations. 5.4. 5) α 60◦ 30◦ 45◦ 120◦ 225◦ 150◦ O P θ 42. making an angle of θ degrees with the xaxis. calculate the coordinates of P ′ . rotations and glide reﬂections preserve shape and size. 2) (4. 6) B(5. Fill in the lines y = x and y = −x.
g. y) → (−y. y) → (y. y + 3) 574 B (x. −y) (x. DE = 4 cm. y) → (y. y) → (x + 1. the same. x) . −y) (x.5 CHAPTER 42. Which of the above transformations are rigid? 42. y) (x. −6) B ′ (5. y) → (y. rotation. Find the area of ∆X ′ Y ′ Z ′ if the points have been transformed as follows: A (x. y) → (−x. they are twice as large.GRADE 12 Transformation Description (translation. enlargement) reﬂection about the xaxis Coordinates A′ (2. −2) Lengths A′ B ′ = 3 B′C ′ = 4 A′ C ′ = 5 Angles ˆ B ′ = 90◦ ˆ tan A = 4/3 ˆ = 53◦ . C = 37◦ ˆ ∴A (x. etc. y) → (x. x + 1) A transformation that leaves lengths and angles unchanged is called a rigid transformation. solve ∆D′ E ′ F ′ 3. y) → (−x. ∆DEF is enlarged by a scale factor of 6 to form ∆D′ E ′ F ′ . y) → (x + 2. Describe the relationship between the angles and sides of ∆KLM and ∆A′ B ′ C ′ (e. ∆XY Z has an area of 6 cm2 . y) → (2x.42. x) (x. EF = 5 cm. ∆DEF has E = 30◦ . y − 2) (x. 2y) (x. A Solve ∆DEF B Hence. −6) C ′ (5. GEOMETRY .) Transformation Reﬂect Reduce by a scale factor of 3 Rotate by 90◦ Translate 4 units right Enlarge by a scale factor of 2 Sides Angles Area ˆ 2. reﬂection.. x) (x.5 Exercises 1. ∆ABC undergoes several transformations forming ∆A′ B ′ C ′ .
y) → (3x.GRADE 12 C (x. y) → (x. y) → (4x. y) → (−3x. −y) F (x.5 D (x. y) 42. GEOMETRY .CHAPTER 42. y) → (−x. y + 2) E (x. 4y) G (x. y) → (4x. −y + 3) H (x. 4y) 575 .
GEOMETRY .5 CHAPTER 42.GRADE 12 576 .42.
Grade 12 43. b) 1 (α − β) α β a 1 b O M (x.Chapter 43 Trigonometry . The two points L(a. y) L(a.1. for any angles α and β.y) are on the circle.1 43. that sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α How do we derive this identity? It is tricky. Suppose we have the unit circle shown below.1 Compound Angle Identities Derivation of sin(α + β) We have. so follow closely. y) x We can get the coordinates of L and K in terms of the angles α and β.b) and K(x. For the triangle LOK. we have that b 1 a cos β = 1 sin β = =⇒ =⇒ 577 b = sin β a = cos β . y K(x.
sin α). 578 . TRIGONOMETRY .1. Then cos(90◦ − α − β) = cos(90◦ − α) cos β + sin(90◦ − α) sin β = sin α · cos β + cos α · sin β = = 2 − 2(cos α cos β + sin α · sin β) cos α · cos β + sin α · sin β But cos(90◦ − (α + β)) = sin(α + β). we can see that the coordinates of K are (cos α. Thus sin(α + β) = sin α · cos β + cos α · sin β 43.3 Derivation of cos(α + β) sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α We can use to show that cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β We know that sin(θ) = cos(90 − θ). sin(α − β) = sin(α + (−β)) = sin α cos(−β) + sin(−β) cos α = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 43.2 Derivation of sin(α − β) sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α We can use to show that sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α We know that sin(−θ) = − sin(θ) and cos(−θ) = cos θ Therefore. we can ﬁnd KL2 . we get KL2 = = = KO2 + LO2 − 2 · KO · LO · cos(α − β) 12 + 12 − 2(1)(1) cos(α − β) 2 − 2 · cos(α − β) Equating our two values for T R2 . d = (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 or d2 = (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1 )2 ).GRADE 12 Thus the coordinates of L are (cos β. T R2 = = = = = (cos α − cos β)2 + (sin α − sin β)2 cos2 α − 2 cos α cos β + cos2 β + sin2 α − 2 sin α sin β + sin2 β (cos2 α + sin2 α) + (cos2 β + sin2 β) − 2 cos α cos β − 2 sin α sin β 1 + 1 − 2(cos α cos β + sin α sin β) 2 − 2(cos α cos β + sin α sin β) Now using the cosine rule for △KOL. The identity for cos(α − β) is now determined as follows: Using the distance formula (i.1 CHAPTER 43. sin β). In the same way as above.1.43. we have 2 − 2 · cos(α − β) =⇒ cos(α − β) Now let α → 90◦ − α.e.
1.6 Derivation of cos 2α cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β We know that When α = β. we have that sin(α + α) = = = sin α cos α + sin α cos α 2 sin α cos α sin(2α) 43.5 Derivation of sin 2α sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α We know that When α = β.4 Derivation of cos(α − β) sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α We found this identity in our derivation of the sin(α + β) identity.1. TRIGONOMETRY .GRADE 12 Therefore. we can also write cos 2α = 2cos2 α − 1 and cos 2α = 1 − 2sin2 α by using sin2 α + cos2 α = 1. we have that cos(α + α) = cos α cos α − sin α sin α = cos2 α − sin2 α = cos(2α) However. 579 . We can also use the fact that to derive that cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β As cos(θ) = sin(90 − θ).1.1 = sin((90 − α) − β)) = sin(90 − α) cos β − sin β cos(90 − α) = cos α cos β − sin β sin α 43.CHAPTER 43. we have that cos(α − β) = sin(90 − (α − β)) = sin((90 − α) + β)) = sin(90 − α) cos β + sin β cos(90 − α) = cos α cos β + sin β sin α 43. cos(α + β) = sin(90 − (α + β)) 43.
43. We can see that 75◦ = 30◦ + 45◦. You need to show that both sides are equal.).1. etc.GRADE 12 sin2 α + cos2 α = 1 to show that: cos 2α = 2 cos2 α − 1 1 − 2 sin2 α 43. 60◦ . 45◦ . A suggestion for proving identities: It is usually much easier simplifying the more complex side of an identity to get the simpler side than the other way round.7 Problemsolving Strategy for Identities The most important thing to remember when asked to prove identities is: Important: Trigonometric Identities Never assume that the left hand side is equal to the right hand side.1 Activity :: cos 2α Identity : Use CHAPTER 43. Thus we can use our doubleangle identity for sin(α + β) to express sin 75◦ in terms of known trig function values. Step 2 : Execute strategy sin 75◦ = = = = = = sin(45◦ + 30◦ ) sin(45◦ ) cos(30◦ ) + sin(30◦ ) cos(45◦ ) √ 1 1 3 1 √ · +√ · 2 2 2 2 √ 3+1 √ 2 2 √ √ 3+1 2 √ ×√ 2 2 2 √ √ 2( 3 + 1) 4 √ √ Worked Example 195: Trigonometric Identities 2 580 . Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy We only know the exact values of the trig functions for a few special angles (30◦ . TRIGONOMETRY . Worked Example 194: Trigonometric Identities 1 Question: Prove that sin 75◦ = 2( 43+1) without using a calculator.
Step 2 : Execute the strategy sin θ + 2 sin θ cos θ 1 + cos θ + (2 cos2 θ − 1) sin θ(1 + 2 cos θ) cos θ(1 + 2 cos θ) sin θ cos θ tan θ RHS LHS = = = = = We know that tan θ is undeﬁned when θ = 90◦ + 180◦n. We can also notice that the trig function on the RHS does not have a 2θ dependance. Thus the identity is also undeﬁned for these θ. and then use the doubleangle formulas for these. and hence is not valid for these angles. where n is an integer. TRIGONOMETRY . We know that tan θ is undeﬁned for some angles θ.GRADE 12 Question: Deduce a formula for tan(α + β) in terms of tan α and tan β. Thus we need to solve this equation. Thus we should try simplify the lefthand side (LHS). we might have division by zero in the LHS. The LHS is undeﬁned when 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ = 0.1 tan(α + β) = = = = + − sin β·cos α cos α·cos β sin α·sin β cos α·cos β tan α + tan β 1 − tan α · tan β Worked Example 196: Trigonometric Identities 3 Question: Prove that sin θ + sin 2θ = tan θ 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ For which values is the identity not valid? Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy The righthand side (RHS) of the identity cannot be simpliﬁed. We then manipulate the resulting expression in order to get it in terms of tan α and tan β. Hint: Use the formulae for sin(α + β) and cos(α + β) Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy We can reexpress tan(α + β) in terms of cosines and sines.CHAPTER 43. Step 2 : Execute strategy sin(α + β) cos(α + β) sin α · cos β + sin β · cos α cos α · cos β − sin α · sin β sin α·cos β cos α·cos β cos α·cos β cos α·cos β 43. for some θ. 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ =⇒ cos θ(1 + 2 cos θ) 581 = 0 = 0 . which is not allowed. Thus the identity won’t hold for these angles also. Also. Thus we will need to use the doubleangle formulas to simplify the sin 2θ and cos 2θ on the LHS.
2 43. TRIGONOMETRY . . Worked Example 197: Trigonometric Equations Question: Solve the following equation for y without using a calculator. which occurs when θ = 90◦ + 180◦n. n ∈ Z ◦ ◦ = −1 = −1 = −1 = −1 =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ 43.2. . This is true when cos θ = − 2 . 120 . . 1 − sin y − cos 2y = −1 sin 2y − cos y Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy Before we are able to solve the equation.43. Step 2 : Execute the strategy 1 − sin y − (1 − 2 sin2 y) 2 sin y cos y − cos y 2 sin2 y − sin y cos y(2 sin y − 1) sin y(2 sin y − 1) cos y(2 sin y − 1) tan y y = 135 + 180 n. . where n is an integer. the identity is not valid when θ = . 120◦ . . . Show that BC 2 = 2x2 (1 + sin θ). − 270◦. . 270◦. we are given that BC = BD = x. We do this using the doubleangle formulas. −90◦. ..1 Applications of Trigonometric Functions Problems in Two Dimensions Worked Example 198: Question: For the ﬁgure below. . 582 . −120◦ . −240◦. These are the same values when tan θ is undeﬁned. 240◦ . we ﬁrst need to simplify the lefthand side.90◦ . To summarise. It 1 also has solutions when 1 + 2 cos θ = 0.2 CHAPTER 43. .GRADE 12 The above has solutions when cos θ = 0. −120 . − 240 . and thus ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ θ = . 240 .
If we could get the angle B DC.CHAPTER 43.2 A O θ D x C x B Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy ˆ We want CB. we can 2 getBC . B Find an expression for: i. we know ADB and hence B DC. This is possible. Using the cosine rule. that any triangle circumscribed by a circle with one side going through the origin. We know this from circle geometry.GRADE 12 43. is rightangled. Step 2 : Execute the strategy ˆ ADB = 180◦ − θ − 90◦ = 90◦ − θ Thus ˆ B DC = = = Now the cosine rule gives BC 2 ˆ = CD2 + BD2 − 2 · CD · BD · cos(B DC) 2 2 2 ◦ = x + x − 2 · x · cos(90 + θ) ˆ 180◦ − ADB 180◦ − (90◦ − θ) 90◦ + θ = 2x2 (1 − sin θ) = 2x2 + 2x2 [ sin(90◦ ) cos(θ) + sin(θ) cos(90◦ )] = 2x2 + 2x2 [ 1 · cos(θ) + sin(θ) · 0] Exercise: 1. As we have two ˆ ˆ angles of △ABD. and we have CD and BD. cos θ ii. sin θ iii. ˆ A Find AOC in terms of θ. 583 B C O θ E A . For the diagram on the right. TRIGONOMETRY . then we could use the cosine rule to determine DC. sin 2θ C Using the above. as △ABD is a rightangled triangle. show that sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ. D Now do the same for cos 2θ and tan θ.
ˆ ˆ E Find the angle D using your expression for cos D. C Show that 2CA2 = CD2 + DA2 + AB 2 + BC 2 . The ﬁgure on the right shows a cyclic quadrilateral with = ˆ A Show that the area of the cyclic quadrilateral is DC · DA · sin D. CD = 15. D Suppose that BC = 10. E D θ B O C A BC CD AD AB . Find CA2 .2 CHAPTER 43. CA = r. show that b sin α sin x h= sin(x + θ) 584 .43. DA is a diameter of circle O with radius r. D C A B 43. TRIGONOMETRY . DBC = x ˆ and DCB = θ.2. DBA = α. AB = DE and DOE = θ. Its base is at C. If we have that BC = b.2 Problems in 3 dimensions Worked Example 199: Height of tower Question: D is the top of a tower of height h. Hence ﬁnd the area of ABCD. ˆ ˆ B Find expressions for cos D and cos B in terms of the quadrilateral sides.GRADE 12 ˆ 2. The triangle ABC lies on ˆ ˆ the ground (a horizontal plane). 3. 1 Show that cos θ = 4 . AD = 4 and AB = 6.
GRADE 12 D 43. But we have two angles and a length for △BCD. Considering the triangle BCD. Thus we can relate the height h with the angle α and either the length BA or BD (using sines or cosines). with C at its foot. We are also given that BA = AD = x. TRIGONOMETRY .CHAPTER 43. 585 .2 h C θ A b x B α Answer Step 1 : Identify a strategy We have that the triangle ABD is rightangled. Its angle of elevation from D is θ. Step 2 : Execute the strategy We have that h BD =⇒ h = = sin α BD sin α Now we need BD in terms of the given angles and length b. We can thus work out BD. sin θ DB =⇒ ˆ But DBC = 180◦ − α − θ. and thus can work out all the remaining lengths and angles of this triangle. The line BC represents a tall tower. we see that we can use the sine rule. and sin(180◦ − α − θ) So DB = = b sin θ ˆ sin(DBC) b sin θ sin(α + θ) = sin(α + θ) = − sin(−α − θ) DB = = ˆ sin(DBC) b b sin θ ˆ sin(DBC) Exercise: 1.
43. the Manhattan distance between the point P1 with coordinates (x1 .3.3. considered by Hermann Minkowski in the 19th century.GRADE 12 B θ α x A x D A Find the height of the tower BC in terms of x.1 Other Geometries Taxicab Geometry Taxicab geometry. is known as the Manhattan distance. TRIGONOMETRY . For example.3 C CHAPTER 43.1) Figure 43.3 43. y2 ) is x1 − x2  + y1 − y2  (43.43.2 Manhattan distance The metric in taxicab geometry. √ In each case the Manhattan distance is 12 units. tan θ and cos 2α. in the plane. between two points in an Euclidean space with ﬁxed Cartesian coordinate system as the sum of the lengths of the projections of the line segment between the points onto the coordinate axes.1: Manhattan Distance (dotted and solid) compared to Euclidean Distance (dashed). is a form of geometry in which the usual metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the (absolute) diﬀerences of their coordinates. y1 ) and the point P2 at (x2 . α = 21◦ and θ = 9◦ . B Find BC if we are given that k = 140m. 43. while the Euclidean distance is 36 586 .
the greatcircle distance is r∆σ. through a given point.GRADE 12 43. On the sphere the geodesics are the great circles. as one can generate two triangles with two sides and the angle between them the same and have them not be congruent. but all have the same length. It is an example of a nonEuclidean geometry. The equivalents of lines are not deﬁned in the usual sense of ”straight line” but in the sense of ”the shortest paths between points” which is called a geodesic. The two points separate the great circle into two arcs. so the other geometric concepts are deﬁned like in plane geometry but with lines replaced by great circles. Geodesics on the sphere are the great circles (circles on the sphere whose centers are coincident with the center of the sphere). or πr. Thus. Because spherical geometry is rather diﬀerent from ordinary Euclidean geometry. respectively. The distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a straight line from one point to the other. in which a line has two parallels. Between any two points on a sphere which are not directly opposite each other. the sum of the interior angles of a triangle exceeds 180◦). A circle in taxicab geometry consists of those points that are a ﬁxed Manhattan distance from the center. On the sphere. the equations for distance take on a diﬀerent form.λ1 . On the sphere. It is given these names because it is the shortest distance a car would drive in a city laid out in square blocks. and so have important applications in navigation. in spherical geometry angles are deﬁned between great circles.CHAPTER 43.λ2 . and an inﬁnite number of ultraparallels.3.3 Spherical Geometry Spherical geometry is the geometry of the twodimensional surface of a sphere. points are deﬁned in the usual sense. The length of the shorter arc is the greatcircle distance between the points. Because the Earth is approximately spherical (see spherical Earth). but does not depend on the translation of the coordinate system or its reﬂection with respect to a coordinate axis. TRIGONOMETRY . Then. where ∆σ is the angular diﬀerence/distance and can be determined from the spherical law of cosines as: ∆σ = arccos {sin φ1 sin φ2 + cos φ1 cos φ2 cos ∆λ} 587 . be the latitude and longitude of two points. however. if r is the greatcircle radius of the sphere. φ2 . the parallel postulate holds. Let φ1 .3 The Manhattan distance depends on the choice on the rotation of the coordinate system. Between two points which are directly opposite each other (called antipodal points) there inﬁnitely many great circles. Extension: Distance on a Sphere The greatcircle distance is the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of a sphere measured along a path on the surface of the sphere (as opposed to going through the sphere’s interior). These circles are squares whose sides make a 45◦ angle with the coordinate axes. Contrast this with hyperbolic geometry. straight lines are replaced with geodesics. Manhattan distance is also known as city block distance or taxicab distance. Let ∆λ be the longitude diﬀerence. in which a line has no parallels through a given point. equal to half the circumference of the circle. resulting in a spherical trigonometry that diﬀers from ordinary trigonometry in many respects (for example. 43. In plane geometry the basic concepts are points and line. there are no straight lines. the equations for greatcircle distance are important for ﬁnding the shortest distance between points on the surface of the Earth. Spherical geometry is the simplest model of elliptic geometry. there is a unique great circle. In nonEuclidean geometry. In particular. Spherical geometry has important practical uses in celestial navigation and astronomy. where r is the radius of the sphere. Taxicab geometry satisﬁes all of Euclid’s axioms except for the sideangleside axiom.
These objects display selfsimilar structure over an extended. The term fractal was coined in 1975 by Benot Mandelbrot. Examples include clouds.” In mathematics a fractal is a geometric object that satisﬁes a speciﬁc technical condition. mountains. Examples of this type are the Mandelbrot set.592 km at the poles. snow ﬂakes. from the Latin fractus. a shape that appears similar at all scales of magniﬁcation and is therefore often referred to as ”inﬁnitely complex. • Random fractals. HarterHeighway dragon curve. of 6335. and having an average greatcircle radius of 6372.or dendritic fractals. river networks. Peano curve.GRADE 12 Extension: Spherical Distance on the Earth The shape of the Earth more closely resembles a ﬂattened spheroid with extreme values for the radius of curvature. generated by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. The central points are then randomly moved up or down. are some examples of such fractals.795 km. TSquare. Cantor set. Using a sphere with a radius of 6372. Diﬀusion Limited Aggregation or Reaction Limited Aggregation clusters. TRIGONOMETRY . The recursive nature of the algorithm guarantees that the whole is statistically similar to each detail. and systems of blood vessels. Fractals in nature Approximate fractals are easily found in nature. resulting in 4 triangles. the Burning Ship fractal and the Lyapunov fractal.437 km at the equator (vertically) and 6399. namely having a Hausdorﬀ dimension greater than its topological dimension.43.” Three common techniques for generating fractals are: • Iterated function systems . Koch snowﬂake.3. The procedure is repeated. or arcradius. decreasing at each iteration the range by half. 43.Fractals deﬁned by a recurrence relation at each point in a space (such as the complex plane).5%. for example. but similar in nature. that is. This recursive nature is clear in these examples . • Escapetime fractals . for example. In colloquial usage. Sierpinski carpet. Sierpinski gasket. fractal landscapes.3 CHAPTER 43. The latter yields socalled mass. it denotes a shape that is recursively constructed or selfsimilar. meaning ”broken” or ”fractured.a branch from a tree or a frond from a fern is a miniature replica of the whole: not identical. but ﬁnite. 588 . Trees and ferns are fractal in nature and can be modeled on a computer using a recursive algorithm.4 Fractal Geometry The word ”fractal” has two related meanings. The surface of a mountain can be modeled on a computer using a fractal: Start with a triangle in 3D space and connect the central points of each side by line segments. Menger sponge.These have a ﬁxed geometric replacement rule.795 km thus results in an error of up to about 0. within a deﬁned range. scale range. Lvy ﬂight and the Brownian tree.
GRADE 12 43. TRIGONOMETRY .4 End of Chapter Exercises Do the following without using a calculator. Prove the following identities A sin3 θ = 3 sin θ−sin 3θ 4 589 .4 Summary of the Trigonomertic Rules and Identities Pythagorean Identity cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1 Cofuntion Identities sin(90◦ − θ) = cos θ cos(90◦ − θ) = sin θ Periodicity Identities sin(θ ± 360◦ ) = sin θ cos(θ ± 360◦) = cos θ tan(θ ± 180◦ ) = tan θ Ratio Identities tan θ = sin θ cos θ Odd/Even Identities sin(−θ) = − sin θ cos(−θ) = cos θ tan(−θ) = − tan θ Double angle Identities sin(2θ) = 2 sin θ cos θ cos (2θ) = cos2 θ − sin2 θ cos (2θ) = 2 cos2 θ − 1 2 tan θ tan (2θ) = 1−tan2 θ Cosine rule a2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A b2 = a2 + c2 − 2ac cos B c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C Addition/Subtraction Identities sin (θ + φ) = sin θ cos φ + cos θ sin φ sin (θ − φ) = sin θ cos φ − cos θ sin φ cos (θ + φ) = cos θ cos φ − sin θ sin φ cos (θ − φ) = cos θ cos φ + sin θ sin φ tan φ+tan tan (θ + φ) = 1−tan θ tanθφ tan φ−tan tan (θ − φ) = 1+tan θ tanθ φ Sine Rule sin A a sin B b sin C c Area Rule Area = 1 bc sin A 2 1 Area = 2 ab sin C 1 Area = 2 ac sin B = = 43. 4 2. If sin θ = 7 .5◦ ) 4. Work out the following: A cos 15◦ B cos 75◦ C tan 105◦ D cos 15◦ E cos 3◦ cos 42◦ − sin 3◦ sin 42◦ F 1 − 2 sin2 (22. Find cos 2θ and cos 4θ. Solve the following equations: 1 A cos 3θ · cos θ − sin 3θ · sin θ = − 2 B 3 sin θ = 2 cos2 θ C 5. Suppose cos θ = 0. 3. 1.CHAPTER 43.7. again ﬁnd cos 2θ and cos 4θ.
(Challenge question!) If a + b + c = 180◦. TRIGONOMETRY .43.GRADE 12 C 4 sin θ · cos θ · cos 2θ = sin 4θ 6.4 B cos2 α(1 − tan2 α) = cos 2α D 4 cos3 x − 3 cos x = cos 3x E tan y = sin 2y cos 2y+1 CHAPTER 43. prove that sin3 a + sin3 b + sin3 c = 3 cos(a/2) cos(b/2) cos(c/2) + cos(3a/2) cos(3b/2) cos(3c/2) 590 .
and learn how to ﬁnd a regression equation and a correlation coeﬃcient. You will work with lines of best ﬁt. 591 . median and mode are equal.Grade 12 44. Join the midpoints of the bars to form a frequency polygon. 95% within two standard deviations and 99% within three standard deviations of the mean. You will learn more about populations and selecting diﬀerent kinds of samples in order to avoid bias. median. 44. examination results. a few very low marks and most get a mark in the middle range. mode and standard deviation of a set of data to identify whether the data is normally distributed or whether it is skewed.1 Introduction In this chapter. • it is symmetric around the mean.Chapter 44 Statistics . Calculate the mean. 4. say. you will use the mean. mode and standard deviation of the data. median. 64 ≤ x < 68. If the data was. Draw a histogram of the data using intervals 60 ≤ x < 64. We say a distribution is normal if • the mean. You will analyse these measures in order to draw conclusions and make predictions. • ±68% of the sample lies within one standard deviation of the mean. a few learners usually get very high marks. 75 80 91 67 75 81 70 77 82 71 78 82 71 78 83 73 78 86 74 78 86 75 79 87 1. etc.2 A Normal Distribution Activity :: Investigation : You are given a table of data below. What percentage of the data is within one standard deviation of the mean? 3. If large numbers of data are collected from a population. 2. the graph will often have a bell shape.
or skewed right. the following scores were recorded: Test Score 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total Mean Standard Deviation A B C D E Frequency 1 7 14 21 14 6 1 64 6 1. What mark must one obtain in order to be in the top 2% of the class? Approximately 84% of the pupils passed the test. Given the pairs of normal curves below. In this case. standard deviation = 4 and Mean = 4. the mean score is shifted to the left. standard deviation = 4 and Mean = 8. then the mean tends to shift towards these scores and the curve becomes skewed. A Mean = 8. we say the distribution is positively skewed. standard deviation = 8 B Mean = 8. standard deviation = 4 C Mean = 8. If the test was very diﬃcult.44. and the mean of the distribution would be shifted to the right. standard deviation = 8 2. or skewed left. If extremely high or extremely low scores are added to a distribution. then many learners would get high scores.2 CHAPTER 44. We say the distribution is negatively skewed. An important point to remember is that the area beneath the curve corresponds to 100%. What was the pass mark? Is the distribution normal or skewed? 592 . Skewed right If it was very easy.2 Draw the histogram of the results. standard deviation = 4 and Mean = 16. sketch the graphs on the same set of axes and show any relation between them. STATISTICS . After a class test. Join the midpoints of each bar and draw a frequency polygon.GRADE 12 68% 95% 99% ¯ x − 3σ x − 2σ x − σ ¯ ¯ x ¯ x + σ x + 2σ x + 3σ ¯ ¯ ¯ What happens if the test was very easy or very diﬃcult? Then the distribution may not be symmetrical. Skewed left Exercise: Normal Distribution 1.
the more likely it is that the statistics of our sample population corresponds to the statistics of the entire population. select every hundredth person on the list. It is no good having a sample population consisting of only two people. A frequency table of the results is drawn up below. it must be representative. and then ask a computer to give us a list of random numbers.h−1 ) 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Number of cars (Frequency) 19 28 23 56 20 16 8 5 44. which means that the selection of one person has no eﬀect on the selection on another.5 km. So how does one ensure that ones sample is representative? There are a variety of methods available. If all of our sample population comes from a very rich area. But we obviously cannot conclude that no one in the country has a car! The larger the sample population size. It is unbiased and also independant. asking them whether they own a car. Every person in the country has an equal chance of being selected. Again give every person in the country a number. We could then send the questionnaire to the people corresponding to the random numbers. the speed of 175 cars was monitored along a speciﬁc stretch of highway in order to ﬁnd out whether there existed any link between high speed and the large number of accidents along the route. B Is this distribution symmetrical or skewed left or right? Give a reason fro your answer.CHAPTER 44. 593 . Secondly. then almost all will have cars. The sample population must be carefully chosen.h−1 . person with number 100 would be selected. How do we do this? First. 44. However. Speed (km. and then. for example. This smaller group of people is called the sample population. Also. the size of the sample population must be large enough. person with number 200 would be selected.3 Extracting a Sample Population Suppose you are trying to ﬁnd out what percentage of South Africa’s population owns a car. But we obviously cannot conclude from this that almost everyone in the country has a car! We need to send the questionnaire to rich as well as poor people. etc. for example. which we will look at now. STATISTICS . Both may very well not have cars. you quickly run into a problem: you cannot hope to send every person in the country a questionnaire. not everyone would reply. it would be far to expensive.3 The mean speed was determined to be around 82 km. In a road safety study. The best you can do is send it to a few people. in order to avoid biased results. Systematic Sampling. One way of doing this might be to send questionnaires to peoples homes. Random Sampling.GRADE 12 3. and then use this to estimate what percentage of the entire country own cars. see what percentage of these own a car.h−1 while the median speed was worked out to be around 84. One way of doing this would be to give each person in the country a number. So person with number 1 would be selected. A Draw a frequency polygon to visualise the data in the table above.
3. Regression analysis is a method of ﬁnding out exactly which function best ﬁts a given set of data.GRADE 12 Stratiﬁed Sampling. 66. we can divide the population into male and female. Of course these are both variations of a more familiar ˆ equation y = mx + c. Suggest a suitable sampling method that could be used to obtain information on: A passengers views on availability of a local taxi service. You count how many dishes you begin with.4 Function Fitting and Regression Analysis In Grade 11 we recorded two sets of data (bivariate data) on a scatter plot and then we drew a line of best ﬁt as close to as many of the data items as possible. The linear regression equation is written y = a + bx (we say yhat) or y = A + Bx. .44. 166. Then subscribers with numbers 16. . t 200 180 Time taken (seconds) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of dishes d 594 . or into diﬀerent income ranges. and take random samples from these. We consider diﬀerent subgroups of the population. 116. This is plotted below. 5% of a certain magazines’ subscribers is randomly selected. For example. C defects in an item made in a factory. or by using an algebraic method called “the least squared method”. we consider all the people living in one urban area. So you plot the data on a graph of time taken versus number of dishes. What kind of sampling is this? 44. We can ﬁnd out the equation of the regression line by drawing and estimating. For example. are chosen as a sample. and then ﬁnd out how long it takes to ﬁnish washing them. STATISTICS . Exercise: Sampling 1. Here the sample is concentrated in one area. . is selected. B views of learners on school meals. disadvantages and possible bias when using A systematic sampling B random sampling C cluster sampling 2. Cluster Sampling. Discuss the advantages. or we can use a calculator. Suppose you are doing an experiment with washing dishes.4 CHAPTER 44. The random number 16 out of 50. diﬀerent ages. D medical costs of employees in a large company.
and then measure the gradient of the line. 1.5 − 1.1 3. but are scattered everywhere.CHAPTER 44.5) and (0. we estimate the yintercept to be 1. How well does our line of best ﬁt really ﬁt our data? If the points on our plot don’t all lie close to the line of best ﬁt.6 5. then it looks as though t is proportional to d.9 4. where m is the constant of proportionality. But this is not terribly precise. and d the number of dishes. and our assumption that t = m · d might be incorrect. t = m · d. is to draw a line of bestﬁt through the data points.2 5.1 6. We estimate that y = 3. So we have that points (3. 3.3 Answer Step 1 : Drawing the graph The ﬁrst step is to draw the graph. How do we ﬁnd m? One way you have already learnt.8 3. using the techniques of regression analysis.0 2. we answer both of these questions.GRADE 12 44. Can we ﬁnd a quantitative measure of how well our line really ﬁts the data? In this chapter. then the ﬁt is not ’good’. Worked Example 200: Fitting by hand Question: Use the data given to draw a scatter plot and line of best ﬁt.5 3 595 . This is shown below. Is there a better way of doing it? 2. Now write down the equation of the line that best seems to ﬁt the data.5 3−0 2 3 So we ﬁnally have that the equation of the line of best ﬁt is y= 2 x + 1.6) lie on the line. m. x y 1.5 when x = 3.8 5. There are two questions that interest us now. 1.4 2. is given by m = = = y2 − y1 x2 − x1 3.0 4.5. ie. The gradient of the line. STATISTICS .4 If t is the time taken. y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x Step 2 : Calculating the equation of the line The equation of the line is y = mx + c From the graph we have drawn.5 2.
4. is distance = y1 − f (x) = y1 − (mx + c) We now square each of these distances and add them together. .44. We have data for 5 appliances.c) is minimised. The method is very simple. We also have a line f (x) = mx + c that we are trying to ﬁt to the data. we have the records of the maintenance costs in Rands. We can ﬁnd m0 and c0 using calculus. STATISTICS . Then at at every data point. but it is tricky.c). y1 ). Then the line of bestﬁt is f (x) = m0 x + c0 .c) = = i=1 (y1 − f (x1 ))2 + (y2 − f (x2 ))2 + . appliance age (x) cost (y) Answer 1 5 90 2 10 140 3 15 250 4 20 300 4 30 380 596 . Then we have that S(m. for example.yn )}. We then square each of these distances. . . If the line ﬁtted the data perfectly. Lets call this sum S(m. which is that m0 c0 = = n 1 n n n n i=1 yi i=1 xi yi − i=1 xi 2 n n n i=1 (xi )2 − ( i=1 xi ) n n m0 yi − xi = y − m0 x ¯ ¯ n i=0 i=1 Worked Example 201: Method of Least Squares Question: In the table below. compared with the age of the appliance in months. + (yn − f (xn ))2 n (yi − f (xi ))2 Thus our problem is to ﬁnd the value of m and c such that S(m. and add them all together. this distance should be zero for all the data points. Suppose we guess a line of bestﬁt. . we ﬁnd the distance between the data point and the line.1 The Method of Least Squares We now come to a more accurate method of ﬁnding the line of bestﬁt. The worse the ﬁt. y y The bestﬁt line is then the line that minimises the sum of the squared distances. (xn . and we will just give you the result. (x2 . Suppose we have a data set of n points {(x1 . y2 ). Let us call these minimising values m0 and c0 . The distance between the ﬁrst data point and the line.4 CHAPTER 44. . the larger the diﬀerences.GRADE 12 44. .
Step 2 : Entering the data Key in the data as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 (x.55x ˆ 597 .55 ∴ y = 0.75 4 3.00 2 2.5 DATA DATA DATA DATA DATA n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5 Step 3 : Getting regression results from the calculator Ask for the values of the regression coeﬃcients a and b.y) (x.75 3.y) (x. change the mode from normal to “Stat xy”.y) (x.0 3.50 Answer Step 1 : Getting your calculator ready Using your calculator. This mode enables you to type in bivariate data.9 b = 0.y) 1 2.00 5 3.4.9 + 0.y) (x.50 3 2.GRADE 12 appliance 1 2 3 4 5 Total x 10 10 15 20 30 80 y 15 140 250 300 380 1160 xy 20 1400 3750 6000 11400 23000 x2 30 100 225 400 900 1650 44.CHAPTER 44.4 b a 5 × 23000 − 80 × 1160 = 12 5 × 1650 − 802 n − ( x) 1160 12 × 80 − = 40 = y − b¯ = ¯ x 5 5 ∴ y = 40 + 12x ˆ = n x y x2 2 xy − = 44. RCL RCL a b gives gives a = 0.2 Using a calculator Worked Example 202: Using the Sharp EL531VH calculator Question: Find a regression equation for the following data: Days (x) Growth in m (y) 1 1.5 2. STATISTICS .
17x ˆ 598 . to get the slope. XˆB 2 4 6 8 A + BX ln X A . BˆX 1/X Now press [2] for linear regression. a = −5. The screen clears but the data remains stored. for the xvariable (the Chemistry marks) in the order in which they are given in the data set. STATISTICS .4 CHAPTER 44. what mark does the least squares line predict for Accounting? Answer Step 1 : Getting your calculator ready Switch on the calculator.GRADE 12 Worked Example 203: Using the CASIO fx82ES Natural Display calculator Question: Using a calculator determine the least squares line of best ﬁt for the following data set of marks. Your screen should look something like this: x 1 2 3 Step 2 : Entering the data Press [52] and then [=] to enter the ﬁrst mark under x..p. = 1. in the same way. use the following key sequence: [SHIFT][1][7][2][=].) The equation of the line of regression is thus: y = −5. 1: 3: 5: 7: Type Edit Var Reg 2: 4: 6: Data Sum MinMax Now press [SHIFT][1] to get the stats computations screen shown below.p. The following screen will appear: 1 3 5 7 1VAR + CX2 eˆX A .. Then enter the other values.07(to 2 d. 1 2 3 x 52 55 y y Then press [AC]. = −5.44. Learner 1 2 3 4 5 Chemistry (%) 52 55 86 71 45 Accounting (%) 48 64 95 79 50 For a Chemistry mark of 65%. Continue to enter the other yvalues (the Accounting marks) in order so that they pair oﬀ correctly with the corresponding xvalues.065. 1: 3: 5: A r y ˆ 2: 4: B x ˆ Step 3 : Getting regression results from the calculator a) Press [1] and [=] to get the value of the yintercept.) Finally. Then move the cursor across and up and enter 48 under y opposite 52 in the xcolumn. Press [MODE] and then select STAT by pressing [2]. Choose Regression by pressing [7].17(to 2 d.169.07 + 1. The calculator gives b = 1.
7 Positive. The table below lists the exam results for 5 students in the subjects of Science and Biology. 1] when r = −1.4 No association r=0 Negative. C Now use algebra to ﬁnd a more accurate equation. STATISTICS .. B Indentify and describe any trends shown in the scatter plot.7 We often use the correlation coeﬃcient r2 in order to work with the strength of the correlation only (no whether it is positive or negative). r.3 Correlation coeﬃcients Once we have applied regression analysis to a set of data. Footlengths and heights of 7 students are given in the table below. is a tool that tells us to what degree there is a relationship between two sets of data.6 cm. fairly strong r ≈ 0.938. fairly strong r ≈ −0. when r = 0. there is a perfect negative relationship. 2. E Use your equation to predict the footlength of a student 176 cm tall. D Use your equation to predict the height of a student with footlength 21. weak r ≈ 0. strong r ≈ 0.4 Exercise: 1. B Draw a scatter plot of the data on graph paper.GRADE 12 b) Press [AC][65][SHIFT][1][7][5][=] This gives a (predicted) Accounting mark ofˆ= 70. 3. Learner Science % Biology % 1 55 48 2 66 59 3 74 68 4 92 84 5 47 53 A Use the formulae to ﬁnd the regression equation coeﬃcients a and b. In this case: 599 . Repeat the data in question 2 and ﬁnd the regression line using a calculator 44.4. y y y y y x x x x x Positive. C Find the equation of the least squares line by using algebraic methods and draw the line on your graph.CHAPTER 44. Height (cm) Footlength (cm) 170 27 163 23 131 20 181 28 146 22 134 20 166 24 A Draw a scatter plot of the data on graph paper. = 71% 44. there is no relationship and r = 1 is a perfect positive correlation.9 Positive. A correlation coeﬃcient. we would like to have a number that tells us exactly how well the data ﬁts the function. The correlation coeﬃcient r ∈ [−1.
5 7.0 19.9 16.8 1.9 < r2 < 1 r2 = 1 CHAPTER 44. This is known as the Pearson’s product moment correlation coeﬃcient.5 24 22. Below is a list of data concerning 12 countries and their respective carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emmission levels per person and the gross domestic product (GDP . What conclusion can you reach. • sx is the standard deviation of the xvalues and • sy is the standard deviation of the yvalues.1 2. Length of right foot (cm) 25.44. Answer the questions to follow.1 23.75 < r2 < 0.5 0.0 3.5 173.9 11. STATISTICS .3 164.0 2.2 GDP per capita (y) 3 938 2 712 20 943 23 893 816 463 22 537 21 785 31 806 6 853 1 493 986 Draw a scatter plot of the data set and your estimate of a line of best ﬁt.9 0.0 9.5 < r2 < 0.a measure of products produced and services delivered within a country in a year) per person.3 .5 26.3 169. Calculate the correlation coeﬃcient r.GRADE 12 no correlation very weak weak moderate strong very strong perfect correlation The correlation coeﬃcient r can be calculated using the formula r= 1 n−1 x−x ¯ sx y−y ¯ sy • where n is the number of data points.4 156 155.3 17. 44. and go on to ﬁnd r. South Africa Thailand Italy Australia China India Canada United Kingdom United States Saudi Arabia Iran Indonesia A B C D E CO2 emmissions per capita (x) 8.7 174.4 27.9 165.75 0. Draw the regression line equation onto the graph. regarding the relationship between CO2 emission and GDP per capita for the countries in the data set? 2.25 0.6 27.25 < r2 < 0.5 Exercises 1. It is a long calculation and much easier to do on the calculator where you simply follow the procedure for the regression equation. A collection of data on the peculiar investigation into a foot size and height of students was recorded in the table below.5 0. Calculate equation of the line of regression using the method of least squares.1 600 Height (cm) 163.5 r2 = 0 0 < r2 < 0.7 26.
Learner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Test 1 (Full marks: 50) 42 32 31 42 35 23 43 23 24 15 19 13 36 29 29 25 29 17 30 28 Test 2 (Full marks: 30) 25 19 20 26 23 14 24 12 14 10 11 10 22 17 17 16 18 19 17 4. A fast food company produces hamburgers. Full marks in the ﬁrst test was 50. B One of the learners (in row 18) did not write the second test. and the marks for each were recorded in the table below. 44. STATISTICS . The number of hamburgers made. D Calculate the correlation coeﬃcient r. B If the total cost in a day is R2500. 601 . C Draw the regression line equation onto the graph.5 B Calculate equation of the line of regression using the method of least squares or your calculator. R109 000. estimate the number of hamburgers produced. and the second test was out of 30. A Is there a strong association between the marks for the ﬁrst and second test? Show why or why not. and the costs are recorded over a week. The proﬁts of a new shop are recorded over the ﬁrst 6 months. E What conclusion can you reach. R101 300. R93 000.GRADE 12 A Draw a scatter plot of the data set and your estimate of a line of best ﬁt. R99 500.CHAPTER 44. calculate the linear regression function. Hamburgers made Costs 495 R2382 550 R2442 515 R2484 500 R2400 480 R2370 530 R2448 585 R2805 A Find the linear regression function that best ﬁts the data. A For the proﬁt data. The proﬁts so far have been R90 000 . R102 000. C What is the cost of 490 hamburgers? 5. regarding the relationship between the length of the right foot and height of the students in the data set? 3. calculate an expected mark for the second test. The owner wants to predict his future sales. A class wrote two tests. Given their mark for the ﬁrst test.
602 . A company produces sweets using a machine which runs for a few hours per day.10 4. 6. Machine hours 3. The number of hours running the machine and the number of sweets produced are recorded.17 Sweets produced 275 287 291 281 286 Find the linear regression equation for the data. Estimate how many months this will take. C The owner wants a proﬁt of R130 000. STATISTICS .GRADE 12 B Give an estimate of the proﬁts for the next two months.80 4.23 4.5 CHAPTER 44.37 4.44. and estimate the machine hours needed to make 300 sweets.
5T. 2T. 3. 4H.Chapter 45 Combinations and Permutations Grade 12 45. what is the total number of possible outcomes when a die is rolled and then a coin is tossed? The roll of a die has six possible outcomes (1. buttons. but these are only practical for small numbers.1 Making a List The simplest method of counting the total number of outcomes is by making a list: 1H. 6H. 45. 2H. 2 outcomes (head or tails).2 Counting An important aspect of probability theory is the ability to determine the total number of possible outcomes when multiple events are considered. 3H. but both these methods have a lot of repetition.1 Introduction Mathematics education began with counting.2. 6T or drawing up a table. 603 . 4. 2. 5H. Counting the possible outcomes can be tedious. and pencils were used to help with counting. 5 or 6) and the toss of a coin. 1T. 3T. What happens when a large number of items must be counted? This chapter focuses on how to use mathematical techniques to count combinations of items. 4T. At the beginning. ﬁngers. beans. 45. die 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 coin H T H T H T H T H T H T Both these methods result in 12 possible outcomes. For example.
. The ﬁrst experiment has n1 possible outcomes. the ﬁrst experiment. The fundamental counting principle describes how to determine the total number of outcomes of a series of events. chicken noodle. × nm = is the multiplication equivalent of . ni i=1 Note: the order in which the experiments are done does not aﬀect the total number of possible outcomes. followed by the second experiment. Tree diagrams are a graphical method of listing all possible combinations of events from a random experiment. × 3 × 2 × 1 with the special case of 0! = 1. Each possible outcome is a branch of the tree. .GRADE 12 45.1: Example of a tree diagram.45. Worked Example 204: Lunch Special Question: A takeaway has a 4piece lunch special which consists of a sandwich. When the number of outcomes grows. and ham and lettuce Soup: tomato. coke. . Therefore. How many possible meals are there? 604 . cheese and tomato. soup. dessert and drink for R25.3. the notation n! (read n factorial) represents: n × (n − 1) × (n − 2) × . tuna. 1 2 3 die coin 4 5 6 H T H T H T T H T H T H Figure 45. and the second has n2 possible outcomes. coﬀee. 45. will have a total of n1 × n2 possible outcomes.3 CHAPTER 45.2. Suppose that two experiments take place.4 The Fundamental Counting Principle The use of lists.00. tables and tree diagrams is only feasible for events with a few outcomes. They oﬀer the following choices for : Sandwich: chicken mayonnaise. 45.1 Notation The Factorial Notation For an integer n. . COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . The factorial notation will be used often in this chapter. piece of cake Drink: tea. Fanta and Sprite.2 Tree Diagrams One method of eliminating some of the repetition is to use tree diagrams. vegetable Dessert: icecream.3 45. This idea can be generalised to m experiments as the total number of outcomes for m experiments is: m n1 × n2 × n3 × . it is not practical to list the diﬀerent possibilities and the fundamental counting principle is used.
the elements cannot be repeated in a combination (every element appears uniquely once). 1} is the same as {1} because a set is deﬁned by its elements. 6} = {6. These are represented usually with curly braces.CHAPTER 45. Combination without Repetition When the order does not matter. 4. suppose you have ﬁftytwo playing cards. Therefore.5)!) = 252 ways to choose.1 Counting Combinations Calculating the number of ways that certain patterns can be formed is the beginning of combinatorics. Combinations of k objects from this set S are subsets of S having k elements each (where the order of listing the elements does not distinguish two subsets).6}. the set of all possible unique elements. Since the order of the elements does not matter. 4. 45.5. Mathematically. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . The ﬁve cards would form a combination and would be a subset of the set of 52 cards. soup. a subset of a set. they don’t usually appear more than once. or more formally.GRADE 12 Answer Step 1 : Determine how many parts to the meal there are There are 4 parts: sandwich.5 Step 3 : Use the fundamental counting principle to determine how many diﬀerent meals are possible 4 × 3 × 2 × 5 = 120 So there are 120 possible meals. For example. Given S. 2} and {1. a combination is a subset of the elements of S.4. In a set. Also. 1. only the speciﬁc elements are of interest. {2. 45. A more complex problem is determining how many combinations there are of selecting a group of objects from a set. For example how many possible 5 card hands are there in a deck of cards with 52 cards? 52! / (5!(525)!) = 2 598 960 combinations 605 .3. and select ﬁve cards.5 Combinations The fundamental counting principle describes how to calculate the total number of outcomes when multiple independent events are performed together. the number of combinations is: n! n = r!(n − r)! r where n is the number of objects from which you can choose and r is the number to be chosen.5. dessert and drink. 4. a combination is deﬁned as an unordered collection of unique elements. Let S be a set with n objects. the study of combinations. but each object can be chosen only once. the order of the elements in the set does not matter. For example. 6} is a subset of the set {1.2. Step 2 : Identify how many choices there are for each part Meal Component Number of choices Sandwich 4 Soup 3 Dessert 2 Drink 5 45. The order of the elements in a combination is not important (two lists with the same elements in diﬀerent orders are considered to be the same combination). for example {2. if you have 10 numbers and wish to choose 5 you would have 10!/(5!(10 .
3. 2. 45. soccer.5. 2. if you have ten types of donuts to choose from and you want three donuts there are (10 + 3 .1}. then the number of combinations is: (n + r − 1)! n+r−1 n+r−1 = = r!(n − 1)! r n−1 where n is the number of objects from which you can choose and r is the number to be chosen. 5. 3 1 2. A permutation is a combination with the order of a selection from a group being important. divided by the total number of choices. or tennis. 5. For example. learners each play 2 sports. 2. 3 Probability = 15 = 1 = 0. 3 2 1. 606 . COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . 1 3 2. 4.6 Permutations The concept of a combination did not consider the order of the elements of the subset to be important. athletics.6 CHAPTER 45.4. because the elements in the set are ordered diﬀerently. 3. 2 3 1. There are 6 2 = 6!/(2!(6 − 2)!) = 15 choices.5. 3 Here is a list of all permutations of those: 1 2 3. For example. They can choose from netball. 2. perhaps missing some elements. Worked Example 205: Probability Question: At a school. soccer and basketball.3. 2. 5.2. basketball or tennis? Answer Step 1 : Identify what events we are counting We count the events: soccer and netball. This means that {1. 6} are not permutations of the set {1. 2 1 3. a permutation is an ordered list without repetitions. the combination {1. for the set {1. basketball. soccer and tennis. This gives three choices. 5. 6} and {1.2.2 Combinatorics and Probability Combinatorics is quite useful in the computation of probabilities of events.1)! / 3!(10 . as it can be used to determine exactly how many outcomes are possible in a given event. 6}.45. 4. Now suppose you have these objects: 1.3} would be identical to the combination {3. Step 3 : Calculate the probability The probability is the number of events we are counting. More formally. but these two combinations are permutations.2 5 45. swimming.1)! = 220 ways to choose. Step 2 : Calculate the total number of choices There are 6 sports to choose from and we choose 2 sports.GRADE 12 Combination with Repetition When the order does not matter and an object can be chosen more than once. What is the probability that a learner plays soccer and either netball. 4.2.6}.
3.6. 3. there are n(n − 1)(n − 2). Next. With the ﬁrst two placed. Select the ﬁrst member of all permutations out of n choices because there are n distinct elements in the set. Once its position is ﬁxed. how many ways are there for a permutation of three elements to be selected from this set? In this case.2 × 1 = n! ways of constructing an ordered sequence of n objects. Then. 5.CHAPTER 45. the second member of the permutation has (n − 1) elements to choose from the remaining set. 2.1 Counting Permutations Let S be a set with n objects..6 45. if we have a total of 5 elements. then choosing the position of the second object. 2. Permutations of k objects from this set S refer to sequences of k diﬀerent elements of S (where two sequences are considered diﬀerent if they contain the same elements but in a diﬀerent order. or if they have a diﬀerent length). Worked Example 206: Permutations Question: Show that a collection of n objects has n! permutations. until we have chosen the position of each of our n objects. r) and can be written in factorial notation as: P (n. There are only two positions to choose from for the penultimate object.r) = n! . Summarizing. and the nth object will occupy the last remaining position.5}. This number is denoted by P (n. and so on. Therefore. P (10. 607 . n = 10 and r = 3. The third member of the permutation can be ﬁlled in (n − 2) ways since 2 have been used already. 1. since one of the n elements has already been used. the integers {1. Formulas for the number of permutations and combinations are readily available and important throughout combinatorics. we can choose from (n1) possible positions for the second object. according to the multiplicative principle. It is easy to count the number of permutations of size r when chosen from a set of size n (with r ≤ n). there are (n2) remaining possible positions for the third object. (n − r)! For example. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . Answer Proof: Constructing an ordered sequence of n objects is equivalent to choosing the position occupied by the ﬁrst object. and so on. There are n ways to choose a position for the ﬁrst object. we ﬁnd that there is a total of n(n − 1)(n − 2).(n − r + 1) diﬀerent permutations of r objects.4..GRADE 12 45.. taken from a pool of n objects. This means that the last member can be ﬁlled in (n − (r − 1)) = (n − r + 1) ways. 4.3) = 10!/7! = 720. This pattern continues until there are r members on the permutation..
and that leaves only one for the ﬁnal slot. Its simplest version reads n (x + y)n = k=0 n k n−k x y k 608 . Permutation without Repetition When the order matters and each object can be chosen only once. For example. Multiplying them together gives the total. then the number of permutations is: n! (n − r)! where n is the number of objects from which you can choose and r is the number to be chosen. if you have ﬁve people and are going to choose three out of these. C. The reason for this is because you can choose from three for the initial slot.45. This is because for the ﬁrst slot you can choose any of the four values.7 CHAPTER 45. for the second slot you can choose any of the four. For example. Note that if n = r (meaning number of chosen elements is equal to number of elements to choose from) then the formula becomes n! n! = = n! (n − n)! 0! For example. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . then you are left with only two to choose from for the second slot.7 Applications Extension: The Binomial Theorem In mathematics. you will have 5!/(53)! = 60 permutations. and for the ﬁnal slot you can choose any of the four letters. Multiplying them together gives the total. 45. if you have the letters A. the binomial theorem is an important formula giving the expansion of powers of sums. B. if you have three people and you want to ﬁnd out how many ways you may arrange them it would be 3! or 3 × 2 × 1 = 6 ways.GRADE 12 Permutation with Repetition When order matters and an object can be chosen more than once then the number of permutations is: nr where n is the number of objects from which you can choose and r is the number to be chosen. and D and you wish to discover the number of ways of arranging them in three letter patterns (trigrams) you ﬁnd that there are 43 or 64 ways.
COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . the numbers n k = n! k!(n − k)! 45.7 are the binomial coeﬃcients (the coeﬃcients in front of powers). It was. here are the cases n = 2. the earlier Persian mathematician Omar Khayym in the 11th century.7. 1 Probability = 8200 000 = 40 = 0.GRADE 12 Whenever n is any positive integer. n = 3 and n = 4: (x + y)2 = x2 + 2y + y 2 (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy 2 + y 3 (x + y)4 = x4 + 4x3 y + 6x2 y 2 + 4xy 3 + y 4 1 The coeﬃcients form a triangle. For a car chosen at random. and the even earlier Indian mathematician Pingala in the 3rd century BC. where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it: 1 1 1 1 4 3 6 2 1 1 3 4 1 1 This formula. This time. minus 5 vowels and ’Q’) and 10 possible choices for each of the other digits. Worked Example 207: Number Plates Question: The number plate on a car consists of any 3 letters of the alphabet (excluding the vowels and ’Q’). what is the probability that the number plate starts with a ’Y’ and ends with an odd digit? Answer Step 1 : Identify what events are counted The number plate starts with a ’Y’. Number of events = 1 × 20 × 20 × 10 × 10 × 5 = 200 000 Step 3 : Find the number of total possible number plates Use the counting principle.9). For example. however.5. so there are 5 choices for the last digit (1. For each of the other letters. known to the Chinese mathematician Yang Hui in the 13th century. the ﬁrst letter and last digit can be anything. and ends with an even digit. Step 2 : Find the number of events Use the counting principle. there are 20 possible choices (26 in the alphabet. divided by the total number of choices. so there is only 1 choice for the ﬁrst letter. and the triangular arrangement of the binomial coeﬃcients. Total number of choices = 20 × 20 × 20 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 8 000 000 Step 4 : Calculate the probability The probability is the number of events we are counting.3. are often attributed to Blaise Pascal who described them in the 17th century.CHAPTER 45. followed by any 3 digits (0 to 9).025 000 000 Worked Example 208: Factorial 609 .
main meal. n! So (n−1)! = n n! Method 2: We know that P (n. × 2 × 1 n! = (n − 1)! (n − 1) × (n − 2) × . n! =n (n − 1)! n × (n − 1) × (n − 2) × . what is the probability that the ﬁrst match will be played between 2 girls’ teams? 6.8 Exercises 1. To choose 1 object from n objects.GRADE 12 Question: Show that Answer Method 1: Expand the factorial notation. A girl has 4 dresses. What is the probability that the word will start and end with a vowel? 610 . n! So (n−1)! = n 45. handbag and shoes) does she now have? 5. A How many matches are there in the tournament? B If there are 5 boys’ teams and 4 girls’ teams. × 2 × 1 Cancelling the common factor of (n − 1) × (n − 2) × . A How many diﬀerent choices of outﬁt (dress. Four coins are thrown. where the menu is: Starter Main Course Dessert Chicken wings Beef burger Chocolate ice cream Mushroom soup Chicken burger Strawberry ice cream Greek salad Chicken curry Apple crumble Lamb curry Chocolate mousse Vegetable lasagne A How many diﬀerent combinations (of starter. B. C. How many diﬀerent combinations can she have? 2. 2 necklaces. and then use the formula for combinations. taken from a pool of n objects. × 2 × 1 on the top and bottom leaves n. How many diﬀerent ways are there of getting three heads? First write out the possibilites. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . Tshepo and Sally go to a restaurant. and the outcomes recorded. necklace and handbag) does she have? B She now buys two pairs of shoes. and dessert) can Tshepo have? B Sally doesn’t like chicken. necklace. The letters of the word ’CHEMISTRY’ are arranged randomly to form a new word. or E.. and 3 handbags. In a soccer tournament of 9 teams. How many new words (a word is any combination of letters) can be made? 7. r = 1. How many choices of outﬁt (dress. In this case... The answers in a multiple choice test can be A.45.8 CHAPTER 45. there are n choices. how many diﬀerent ways are there of answering the test? 4... In a test of 12 questions.. 3. D.r) = (n−r)! is the number of permutations of r objects. The letters of the word ’BLUE’ are rearranged randomly. every team plays every other team.
CHAPTER 45. How many possible combinations of classes are there? 9. Repeated characters are allowed.GRADE 12 45. A secret pin number is 3 characters long. and can use any digit (0 to 9) or any letter of the alphabet. How many ways are there to choose a captain.8 8. There are 2 History classes. How many possible combinations are there? 611 . Luke wants to do all three subjects. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS . A class has 15 boys and 10 girls. A debating team of 4 boys and 6 girls must be chosen. A school netball team has 8 members. How many ways can this be done? 11. vicecaptain. 5 Accounting classes. and reserve? 10. and 4 Mathematics classes at school.
8 CHAPTER 45.45. COMBINATIONS AND PERMUTATIONS .GRADE 12 612 .
Part V Exercises 613 .
.
B Sketch the graph of y = ⌊x⌋ for 0 ≤ x ≤ 4.673)90 ? Explain your answer brieﬂy. Find any two other values of x that satisfy this equation. Nov. ⌊3. 2. 2004. Show that x = 35 is a solution to the equation: x − x2 1 2 = 10 ii. HG] How many digits are there before the decimal point in the number (2. Nov.Chapter 46 General Exercises 1.7⌋ = 3 and ⌊5⌋ = 5 A i. [IEB. For example. 615 . [IEB. HG] The notation ⌊x⌋ means the largest integer less than or equal to x. 2001.
CHAPTER 46. GENERAL EXERCISES 616 .
[IEB. 2003. HG] If f (x) = 4 − x. HG] Evaluate without using a calculator: 2x − 1 − −5x x = −1 3. [IEB. 8). or otherwise. [IEB. [IEB. Nov. [IEB.Chapter 47 Exercises . 5. HG] Solve for x: 251−2x = 54 7. 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 A Find the values of a. [IEB. ﬁnd the value of f ′ (3). 2002. C Sketch the graph of y = f (x) on a new set of axes. and P is the turning point of g. showing all intercepts with the axes and turning points. B Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) at x = 4. 617 . Nov. HG] Solve: 18 ≤ x − 3 6. 2003. 2001. HG] In the ﬁgure below. C Determine the equation of the graph that results when g(x) is reﬂected about the line x = 1. B Find the length of MN if MN is perpendicular to the yaxis and MN produced passes through the yintercept of f (x) and g(x).Not covered in Syllabus 1. 2. B Calculate the point(s) of intersection of the two curves. [IEB. 2004. HG] A Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 − 9x2 + 24x − 20. f contains the points (2. 2005. HG] A Sketch two curves which will enable you to solve x − 2 ≤ x − 1 graphically. Nov. Nov. 0) and (4. Nov. Nov. Nov. write down the solution set to the inequality above. and hence. 4. b and c. 2005. two graphs are shown: f (x) = ax2 + bx + c and g(x) = x + c given that x = −1 is the equation of the axis of symmetry of the parabola. giving coordinates of the turning points and intercepts with the axes.
NOT COVERED IN SYLLABUS 618 .CHAPTER 47. EXERCISES .
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