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Aim: Study and verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. Scope: Useful in analysis of electrical and amplifier circuits. Equipments required:

Digital multimeter , 2 mm patch cords.

Theory:

The Maximum power transfer theorem states that when the load resistance is equal to the source's internal resistance, maximum power will be developed in the load. Since most low voltage DC power supplies have a very low internal resistance (10 ohms or less) great difficulty would result in trying to affect this condition under actual laboratory experiments. If one wire to connect a low value resistor across the terminals of a 10 volt supply, high power ratings would be required, and the resulting current would probably cause the supply's current rating to be exceeded. In this experiment, therefore, the student will simulate a higher internal resistance by purposely connecting a high value of resistance in series with the DC voltage supply's terminal. Refer to figure 1. The terminals (a & b) will be considered as the power supply's output voltage terminals. The student will use a potentiometer as a variable size of load resistance. For various settings of the potentiometer representing RL, the load current and load voltage will be measured. The power dissipated by the load resistor can then be calculated. For the condition of RL = Ri, the student will verify by measurement that maximum power is developed in the load resistor. In other words, the maximum amount of power will be dissipated by a load resistance when load resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the network supplying the power. If the load resistance is lower or higher than the Thevenin/Norton resistance of the source network, its dissipated power will be less than maximum. This is essentially what is aimed for in stereo system design, where speaker “impedance” is matched to amplifier “impedance” for maximum sound power output. Impedance, the overall opposition to AC and DC current, is very similar to resistance, and must be equal between source and load for the greatest amount of power to be transferred to the load. Load impedance that is too high will result in low power output. A load impedance that is too low will not only result in low power output, but possibly overheating of the amplifier due to the power dissipated in its internal (Thevenin or Norton) impedance.

where RL = RTH. the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem tells us that the load resistance resulting in greatest power dissipation is equal in value to the Thevenin resistance (in this case. for maximum power delivered to the load when: RL = RTH Figure 2 In figure 2.Taking our Thevenin equivalent example circuit. the dissipated power will be maximum. This theorem is used to ensure that a load receives maximum power from the source. IL = VTH/2RTH. RL should be 680W in order for the maximum power to be transferred to it from the rest of the circuit. we find that IL = VTH/(RL+RTH). . In the Thevenin example we just did.) In words. 680 W) Figure 1 With this value of load resistance. it states that a load receives maximum power when its terminal resistance is equal to the Thevenin resistance of the source. In general. (For example. transferring the maximum power from the stereo amplifier to the speakers or from the antenna to the amplifier.

In either of these cases. Sometimes it is important to maintain a voltage level. RL = VL/RL. but the voltage across the load will be only 5 volts. Also. In the last example we looked at. Other times it’s most important to maintain a given current. CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: . if you do some mathematical examples. It is only in the case when we are concerned with maximum efficiency that we need to employ the Maximum power transfer theorem principles. Always keep in mind that the power that does not reach a load is lost across the Thevenin resistance (in theform of heat) and serves no useful purpose. you will find thatmatching the load resistance to the Thevenin resistance will produce a significant loss (50%) in the voltagelevel. if we replace RL with a 680 W resistor we will get the maximumpower delivered to the load.FORMULAE: PL = IL²RL . it may be necessary to sacrifice efficiency in order to achieve a particular goal.

Also calculate RL and power for this reading. 4) Connect test point 1 & Gnd (of circuit) so as to replace source by its internal resistance (assuming it negligible). DC power supplies at their indicated position using patch cords. 6) Switch off the kit and set the value of RL less than RTH by connecting ohmmeter (multimeter) between terminals 2 and 3. It is the required value of Thevenin's equivalent resistance RTH. this is going to be second reading. 7) Now connect ammeter (multimeter) between terminals 2 and 3. 2) Measure voltage between terminals 2 & 4 using voltmeter. 10) Increase RL now it will become greater than RTH. Once again read values of VL and IL from multimeter and calculate RL and power. And measure value of VL and IL and also calculate power for this reading.PROCEDURE: 1) Connect +12V. 3) Disconnect the patch cord between terminals 1 to +12V and Gnd to Gnd. 9) Now set RL = RTH with the help of multimeter. voltmeter between terminals 3 and 4 and measure value of IL and VL. . It is the required value of Thevenin's equivalent voltage (VTH). for this connect terminal 2 to the + terminal of DC Voltmeter and 4 to –ve terminal. 5) Measure resistance between terminals 2 & 4 using multimeter. note down reading of VL and IL and calculate RL and power for this reading. 8) Now increase RL such that it should become more than what we calculated in step 7 but less than RTH.

OBSERVATION TABLE: RESULT AND CONCLUSION: . note down reading of VL and IL and calculate RL and power for this reading.11) Further Increase RL . 12) Find out value of RL at which maximum power is getting transferred to load.

The determination of internal resistance of the source network is identical in both the theorems. in the Norton equivalent circuit. 2 mm patch cords.Aim: Study and verification of the Norton’s Theorem. It consists of equivalent current source instead of equivalent voltage source as we do in Thevenin’s theorem . Circuit Diagram : Circuits used to study Norton’s theorem is shown in figure above. .. i.e. Digital multimeter. Theory: Norton’s Theorem : Norton Theorem is converse of Thevenin’s Theorem. Equipments Needed : 1. However. 2. the current generator is placed in parallel to the internal resistance unlike to that in Thevenin’s theorem where the equivalent voltage source was placed in series with the internal resistance. in final stage.

looking through the open circuited load terminals. Provide a way to find any particular voltage or current in a linear network with one. 2. We can concentrate on a specific portion of a network by replacing the remaining network with an equivalent circuit. Connect a 2mm patch cord between +5V supply and terminal 1. Procedure : 1.Statement of Norton’s Theorem : A linear active network consists of independent and dependant voltage and current sources and linear bilateral network elements can be replaced by an equivalent circuit. two. and ground to Ground. The current source being the short circuited current across the load terminal and the resistance being the internal resistance of the source network. Figure 1 The Norton’s equivalent circuit provides equivalence at the terminals only the internal construction and characteristics of the original network and the Norton equivalent are usually quite different. This theorem achieves two important objectives : 1. consisting of a current source in parallel with a resistance. . or any other number of sources.

3. Measure resistance between terminals 2 and ground using multimeter. Now set the value of RL at one fixed value in both original and norton’s equivalent network same and equal.2. Connect terminals 1 and ground so as to replace source by its internal resistance (assuming it negligible). 6. Connect an ammeter between terminals 6 and 7 to measure load current (IL) flowing through load resistance of Norton’s equivalent circuit. 5. 8. connect 2 and ground to + ve and –ve terminals of the ammeter respectively provided on the board. Connect a 2mm patch cord between terminals 1 and supply and Gnd to Gnd socket. Compare load current (IL) flowing through both of the load resistances and also with the theoretical values of IL calculated. Connect an ammeter between terminals 4 and 5 and examine the value. This current is same as IN of the Norton circuit. Disconnect the 2 mm patch cord between terminals 1 and supply. 7. 9. It is the required practical value of Norton's equivalent resistance RN. OBSERVATIONS: 1) Practical value of RN = __________ 2) Practical value of IN = __________ 3) Value of RL set in original and norton’s equivalent network = ________ 4) Practical value of IL measured from original network = ___________ 5) Practical value of IL measured from norton’s equivalent network = ___________ 6) Theoretical value of RN = ________ 7) Theoretical value of IN = ________ . 11. 4. for this. Connect an ammeter between terminals 2 and 3 to measure load current IL flowing through load resistance of original circuit. Measure current between terminals 2 and ground. It is the required practical value of Norton current IN. 10. Connect a 2 mm patch cord between terminals 4 and 5 and between terminals 8 and 9. 12.

..8) RL set = _______ 9) Theoretical value of IL = ________ Result : Theoretical value of Norton’s current IN = …………. Theoretical value of Norton’s equivalent resistance RN = ……… Practical value of Norton's equivalent resistance RN = ………….. the value of current flowing through the load resistance in both of the cases is approximately equal. _________ (Yes/No).. Hence Norton’s theorem is verified. Practical value of Norton’s current IN =…………….

or any other number of sources. Theory : Thevenin’s Theorem : This theorem is possibly the most extensively used network theorem.Aim: Verification of the Thevenin’s Theorem Equipments Needed : 1. Digital multimeter. Statement of Thevenin’s Theorem : Any two-terminal bilateral linear DC circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistor.the internal construction and characteristics of the original network and the Thevenin’s equivalent are usually quite different. It is applicable where it is desired to determine the current through or voltage across any one element in a network without going through the rigorous method of solving a set of network equations. . two. We can concentrate on a specific portion of a network by replacing the remaining network with an equivalent circuit. Figure 1 The Thevenin’s equivalent circuit provides equivalence at the terminals only . This theorem achieves two important objectives : Provide a way to find any particular voltage or current in a linear network with one. 2. 2 mm patch cords.

2. The product is required theoretical value of VTH.Procedure : 1. Determine the value of current I flowing through 511E resistor with the help of basic current laws. Multiply the current I with the resistance value 511E. 8. connect patch cords between terminals 1 to +12V terminal and Gnd to Gnd. proceed as follows: 4. Set the value of load resistance of both given circuit and its equivalent circuit equal to 700W. It is the required value of Thevenin's equivalent voltage (VTH). for this connect terminal 2 to the + terminal of DC Voltmeter and 4 to –ve terminal. 3. Measure voltage between terminals 2 & 4 using voltmeter. 9. 6. 13. To measure theoretical value of Thevenin's equivalent voltage VTH of given circuit. Measure resistance between terminals 2 & 4 using multimeter. . Compare theoretical and practical value of Thevenin’s equivalent resistance RTH and find the (Error = Theoretical value – Measured value). Connect test point 1 & Gnd (of circuit) so as to replace source by its internal resistance (assuming it negligible). Now. 7. 12. 14. Connect +12V. DC power supplies at their indicated position using patch cords. First disconnect all the connections. Compare theoretical and practical values of Thevenin’s equivalent voltage VTH. 11. It is the required value of Thevenin's equivalent resistance RTH. 5. 10. Disconnect the patch cord between terminals 1 to +12V and Gnd to Gnd. Now measure theoretical value of Thevenin’s equivalent resistance RTH between terminals 2 & 4 of the given circuit by using fundamentals of resistances in series and parallel.

16. Connect +5V DC Power Supply to terminal 5 and Gnd to Gnd which is indicated above. Connect an ammeter between terminals 2 & 3. for this connect terminal 2 to + of DC ammeter and 3 to its – terminals.15. Observe the value of current in ammeter. 19. 17. Connect an ammeter between terminals 6 & 7. which is the current flowing through the load resistance (RL). 18. Observe the value of current in ammeter. 20. . Compare current flowing through both of the load resistance and find the (Error = Theoretical value – Measured value). for this connect terminal 6 to + of DC Ammeter and 3 to its – terminals.

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