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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION
Let us think of education as the means of developing our greatest abilities, because in
each of us there is a private hope and dream which, fulfilled, can be translated into benefit for
everyone and greater strength for our nation.
-John F. Kennedy

The ideal career combines the dream of what a person wants to be with the reality of
finding and working at a job that leads to that aim.

Picking a career is the most important decision the average student makes. It should
involve a self-critical analysis: Where does my talent lie, How can I hone it, and what is the
reality of earning a living by using it?

Some lucky persons, definitely in the minority know exactly what they want to be-
Doctor, Lawyer, Nurse, Investment Banker, Engineer and Writer. Most people of college age to
tend to be confused, even about what major to choose, according to Dr. Edward Jennings,
President of Ohio State University.

If, after graduating, you find that the realities of the Job market require that you take a
Job you don‘t like, try to keep the vision of what you really want and love in front of you, and
over the years try to keep prepared and alert so that you can seize the opportunity if it comes.
Along the way you can find plenty of advice because career planning is a relatively new field,
growing more professional all the time.

To the Filipino, knowledge is acquired through education. And most of us generally


agree that education can be obtained inside and outside school. We believe that the primary
sources of knowledge are the schools. Thus, the higher a person achieve on the formal

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educational ladder, the more he/she attains knowledge and expectedly acquires more
employment opportunities.

The importance of education is basically for two reasons. The first is that the training of
a human mind is not complete without education. Education makes a man right thinker. It tells
man how to think and how to make decision.

The second reason for the importance of education is that only through the attainment of
education; man is enabled to receive information from the external world; to acquaint him with
past history and receive all necessary information regarding the present. Without education, man
is as though in a closed room and with education he finds himself in a room with all its windows
open towards outside world (Khan, 1989).

Most of the employer of today requires his prospective employees to be well educated.
They require expertise. So, education becomes an eligibility criterion for employment into any
sector of the industry. We are rewarded for exercising the expertise required for the field we
venture. We are weighed in the market on the basis of our educational skills and how well we
can apply them. That‘s why education is very important because it equips us with all that is
needed to make our dreams come true and open doors of brilliant career opportunities that
fetches us for better prospects in career and growth. (M. Oak, 2000)

Prepare yourself for a career that is based on the realities of your talent and the job
market, and find a job to support and educate you. But also prepare for a career to keep you
mentally stimulated. If a job does not offer both, you might consider studying for career on the
side. In that way we can combine reality with the dream. Dreams can be practical.

An important message today is that companies that traditionally had paternal


relationships with their employees now hire and fire them with much more ease and much less
conscience.

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Today‘s career beginners must understand that they probably will not spend more than a
few years in their first job or with their first company. On average they probably will change job
more than five times during a lifetime of work. Today‘s young careerist probably does not want
to think in terms of retirement when starting a job, but financial planning has become more
important than ever in today‘s insecure job market for prospective middle managers.

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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The PUP-Commonwealth Campus was established in 1998 under the administration of


ZenaidaOlonan. Prof. Doris B. Gatan has been the Director of this campus and Ms.
CleotildeServigon is its Campus Admission Officer. Its primary purpose is to provide
opportunities for the financially depressed families to develop the living condition of the people
through democratic access to education.

As one of the best extensions of the PUP, Main Campus the Polytechnic University of the
Philippines Quezon City is creating a promising and rising university across the Quezon City
which is now developing its facilities and strengthening its faculty for targeting accreditation for
the better quality education it offers.

This tracer study of PUPQC Graduates of 2005 is conducted to give significant feedback
and to reconnect graduates to their alma mater.

The researchers are conducting this study to trace the PUPQC graduates of Batch 2005,
to know the demographic profile of the employment profile of the respondents.

Tracer study is a method which is primarily intended to locate graduates of academic


institution, past recipient of scholarship grants, former participants and among other situation in
order to collect data and update information about this type of people.

Some studies track down graduates in order to seek and develop continuous feedback
from their alma mater. This kind of study is also geared to generate or influence decision making
and planning of a certain institution with regards to the development of the curriculum. It is
likewise regulating document efficiency and support on the demographic profile of a certain
institution that can be measured through the quality of graduates.

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The researchers will try to prove that Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon
City is successfully contributing to the nation‘s economy including business management
industry, teaching industry and information technology industry.

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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In this study, the researchers will try to find out if the graduates of PUPQC Batch 2005
are successful with the career they had chosen.

General Objectives:

1. What is the General profile of the respondents in terms of the following:


1.1 Sex
1.2 Civil Status
1.3 Present Location
2. What is the educational attainment of the respondents in terms of the following:
2.1 Educational Attainment
2.2 Professional
2.3 Professional Examinations Taken
2.4 Reason/s for taking Bachelor‘s Degree
2.5 Post Graduate Studies Attended after College
2.6 Trainings Attended after College
3. What is the Employment Profile of the Respondents Status in terms of the following:
3.1 Employed
3.1.1. Present Occupation
3.1.2 Name of the Company
3.1.3 Nature of Industry
3.1.4 Place/Area of work
3.2 Unemployed
3.2.1 Reason/s for not (yet) employed

4. What was the first job of the respondents in terms of the following:
4.1 First job after college
4.2 The time span stayed in the first job
4.3 Tools in finding the first job

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4.4 The interval of time landing in their first job after college
4.5 First job relation in their course
4.6 The relevant of the curriculum to the job
4.7 Reason/s for changing job

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ASSUMPTIONS
As we conduct our study entitled ―A tracer study of the Employment status of
Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City Graduates Batch 2005‖ our group land on
the following assumptions regarding the current employment status of the graduates.
First, most of the graduates are currently employed in their courses related companies.
Second, majority of the graduates are already employed. Maybe some are regular,
contractual or maybe temporary.
Third, most of the graduates had already found their jobs months after graduation and the
major problem usually they encounter on their jobs is the lack of experience.
Fourth, the reason why there are still graduates who are not employed is the lack of
opportunity.
Lastly, most of the graduates who are employed are satisfied with their job benefits and
salaries.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researchers will provide knowledge about the university graduates employability in
three different courses offered during the Academic Year 2004-2005. The study was deemed
significant for it benefit the following sectors and groups of persons:

To the Government, specifically Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to


promote gainful employment opportunities, to develop human resources, to protect workers,
promote their welfare, and to maintain industrial peace and lastly to pursue their mission which
is the ―attainment of full, decent and productive employment for every Filipino worker‖. To
Commission on Higher Education (CHED) as a key leader and effective partner in transforming
college students towards producing highly competent and productive professionals through
dynamic excellent and client oriented services.

To the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City, Administrative


Officials, this will be significant basis for initiating and implementing improvement plans its
academic curriculum, as it will provide information about the graduate‘s chosen career and this
will serve as their reference point in improving upon the current programs and in designing new
programs that are addressing the real training needs of the college. And this study could provide
contacts for the mentors in cases of holding seminars and when in need for speakers and among
others.

To the Faculty, this will serve the teachers, educators and mentors to upgrade the
standards by continuously uplifting the minds of the students to be competitive and excel in their
respective areas of specialization and by cultivating and advancing academically skilled students
who will take active participation in the globally competitive world for service and international
development acquired in the University.

To the Parents, this will serve as their guide in encouraging and motivating their college
children to be serious in whatever field they have chosen and they should also look at their

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children's long term educational career with great affirmation that at the end of the 4 year journey
in college they will end up to have a good job.

To the Students, this will serve as their motivation to study harder in pursuing their
dreams, dreams working in their chosen field that there are successful graduates.

To the future researchers, this study will surely help and serve as a reference for the
future studies.

And lastly, this tracer study will provide adequate information about the former students.

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

There are two basic theories of employment—the neoclassical and the Keynesian
developed by John Maynard Keynes. The neoclassical theory applies standard demand-and-
supply analysis to labor markets and treats unemployment as a disequilibrium phenomenon that
arises from the persistence of wages at a level higher than that which clears the labor market.
Minimum wage legislation, union bargaining, and efficiency wages (where higher wages produce
better workers or draw better workers from the employment pool) are some of the reasons that
labor markets may not adjust to full.

The Researchers also adapted the theory of Hyun H. Son which is The Role of Labor
Market in Explaining Growth and Inequality Which states that the given a rapid population
growth and the high rise in labor force participation, employment growth in the Philippines has
not been sustained at a level that is sufficient to lower the unemployment and underemployment
rate. Productivity growth has been meager and spotty. Labor productivity increased by less than
7% in the 1988-2000 periods in the Philippines, far lower than the increases of 30-50% in other
Asian countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea. Philippines has lost its
advantage as a developing country that once had a very promising future in the region to become
a highly successful, high growth economy. It is also stated that the sluggish performance in the
growth of jobs may have contributed to the unimpressive record in economic growth. Along with
low growth, the Philippines have had a persistently high level of income inequality in the past.
Labor income is the main source of people‘s income. Labor incomes are generated through
employment in the labor market. Thus, growth in income depends on the magnitude of
employment growth. Nevertheless, employment is not the only factor that explains labor income.
There are other factors that contribute to labor income. For instance, labor productivity is another
factor that is important in explaining labor income. Labor productivity differs across individuals
and similarly, their access to employment opportunities also varies. Therefore, the labor market
plays a critical role in explaining how much income people enjoy on average and how their
incomes are distributed across individuals within a country at a given point in time. The role of
the labor market is examined in the context of the Philippines.

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The main objective of his theory is to analyze economic growth and income inequality,
focusing on the role played by the labor market. It proposes a 3decomposition methodology that
explores the linkages between growth and income inequality through characteristics such as
labor force participation, employment rate, working hours and productivity. In the literature, the
linkage has often been explored using regression models. Unlike convention however, his theory
examines the direct linkage between growth, inequality and labor market using a decomposition
method.

A corollary objective of his theory is to examine how the Philippine educationalsystem


has addressed the needs of its labor market. It deems such an analysis falls within the purview of
gaining a better understanding of how the labor market has affected the Philippine‘s surreal
economic performance. It also utilizes two sources of data, both of which are denoted as micro
unit record. The data sources are Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) and Labor
Force Survey (LFS). These surveys are undertaken by the Philippine government‘s primary
statistical agency, the National Statistics Office (NSO). The surveys used in this study are for the
latest three periods, covering from 1997 to 2003. Moreover, the study uses the merged data sets
of FIES and LFS for the periods of 1997, 2000 and 2003.

His theoryaimed to analyze economic growth and income inequality in thePhilippines,


focusing on the role played by the labor market. It hypothesized that the Philippine sluggish
economic growth can be attributed to poor performance in the labor market. His micro analytical
approach, thus far, provides evidence on the enormous impact that labor incomes can have, as far
as influencing the pattern and trends of growth and inequality in the Philippines. In the
Philippines, there has been a massive expansion in the supply of qualified labor. Nevertheless,
the performance in labor productivity contrasts with the fact that the market has been endowed
with highly educated (and by implication highly skilled) labor. Moreover, the poor growth
performance of the Philippines has become even more puzzling if we consider the educational
effort that has been made. In this context, this has been an important study. There are a few
findings that are worthwhile to highlight.

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First, the study has found that higher education is an important determinant of
employment in the Philippine labor market. Employability among the primaryeducated labor
force has declined sharply over the period 1997-2003, whereas it has increased for both
secondary and tertiary levels. This indicates that those with higher education have crowded out
the less educated in terms of job opportunities. The study premised this finding on two
explanations: One is that there has been more demand for secondary and tertiary educated
individuals in the Philippine labor market. The other is that low-productivity jobs are taken over
by the more educated labor force. If the second explanation isvalid, then thefinding supports a
scenario wherein the labor productivity of educated workers declines.

The analysis has proven this argument to be true.He has found that percapita labor
productivity has fallen over the 1997-2003 period. This finding confirms theprevious conjecture
that a large expansion in the supply of qualified workers has lowered the price for skilled labor
over the period. Indeed, this is an issue of mismatch between the labor market and the education
sector. This indicates that the current education sector does not supply the right kind of skills that
are demanded by the labor market.

Second, it has found a structural change where the labor force is moving away from the
agriculture sector towards the service sector. While the share of employed persons in agriculture
has declined, it remains virtually unchanged inthe industrial sector while the share for the service
sector is on the rise. Within the service sector, there is a significant increase in the employment
of female workers over the period. This supports the view that the proportion of female college
graduates employed in finance, insurance and real estates has increased over time.

Finally, the labor mismatch is an issue that government needs to reckon with inorder to
accelerate and sustain economic growth. The major findings in this study have made it clear,
that a policy of expanding the aggregate supply of skills is not sufficient to address the decline in
labor productivity which has in turn, slowed the pace of economic growth. From a policy
perspective, going beyonduniversal coverage in education is imperative because what is required
is an expansion of the supply of the right kind of skills. For this to happen, employers,
individuals and policy-makers need robust up to date information on the real labor market value

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of different qualifications, in order to help them navigate through the increasingly complex
education system and make optimal investmentdecisions.

The researchers also adapted the general system‘s theory by Edward Deming (J. Horine,
1993) to support this study. The theory generally states that the success in any system requires
more than best efforts and hard work from the administrators.

The most serious observation is that majority of problems to Deming; roughly 95% of
problems belong to the system and the responsibility of the management while the workers are
just trying to do the best job that they can deliver within the constraints of the system.

The theory explains that a system is a series of functions or activities sub process (stages-
hereafter components) within an organization that work together for its aim. People, materials,
methods and equipments are the components that form a network in support of common
characteristics: purpose, input, process and output (J. Horine, 1993)

Purpose determines the thrust and direction of a system input, on the other hand, is
characterized as the primary element that motivates an action of a system. Meanwhile, processes
are the sequences of work stages that transform inputs to outputs. And output is what the system
produces.

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

*General Profile of the *Distribution of *The Employment


graduates in terms of Questionnaires
Status of the
the following:
a. In-person
PUPUQC Graduates
a. Demographic distribution
Batch of 2005
b. Educational b. E-mail
questionnaires
c. Employment
c. Facebook
d. Initial or First Job
messaging
after Graduation
d. Telephone Interview
e. Career plans of the
Respondents *Statistical Treatment
of Data

*Interpretation and
Analysis

FEEDBACK

Figure 1.The Paradigm of the Study

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The Figure 1 shows the Conceptual Framework of the Study.
The INPUT consists of the General Profile of the Graduates First the Demographic
Profile which includes the following variables Civil Status, Gender, and their Present Location.
Second Educational Profile which includes the following variables Degree/s and Specialization,
Professional Examination Passed, Reason/s for taking Bachelor‘s Degree and Post-Graduates
Studies Attended after College. Third, The Employment Profile which includes the following
variables Present Employment Status, Nature of Industry, Place/Area of Work, The First Job
after College, Length of time stayed in their First Job, Length of time before they land on their
First Job after College, Reason/s for staying in their First Job, Relevance of the Curriculum in to
their Jobs and Present Job Position.
The PROCESS consists of the data-gathering tool to distribute the Questionnaires to the
Respondents are the following In-person distribution, E-mail Questionnaires, Facebook
Messaging, Telephone Interview, after the distribution of the questionnaires is the Statistical
Treatment of Data and lastly in the Process is the Interpretation of Data.
For the OUTPUT, The Employment Status of the PUPQC Graduates Batch 2005 is
concluded.

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SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

This tracer study was focused on determining the General profile and Employment
profile of the PUP Quezon City graduates of batch 2005 only. It deals with the Present
Employment Status of the Respondents. The researchers will try to identify the different chosen
field of respondents and to know if their careers right now are still in line with their courses
taken.
The PUPQC Graduates Batch 2005 are the respondents of this study focusing on the three
Courses Offered way back that year the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology,
Bachelor in Business Teacher Education and the Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial
Management.

The researchers limit of the study with regards to the participants compliance to the
researchers.

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DEFINITION OF TERMS

ACADEMIC
-It refers to the nature of which is relating to schools and education.
AGRICULTURE
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating to science or occupation of farming.
AVIATION
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating to the business or practice of flying airplanes,
helicopters, etc.
BANKING and FINANCE
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating tothe business of operating a bank and
finances.
BBTE
-Bachelor in Business Teacher Education
BSIT
-Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
BSEM
-Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management
BUSINESS PROCESS OUTSOURCING
-It refers to the nature of industry which is distinct from information technology
(IT) outsourcing, which focuses on hiring a third-party company or service provider to do IT-
related activities, such as application management and application development, data center
operations, or testing and quality assurance.
CASUAL
- Present employment status of the respondents which happening at certain times but not on a
regular basis.
CHEMICALS
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating to work in chemical company.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
-The skills or activity of conveying information.

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CONSTRUCTION
-The act or process of building something (such as a house or road)
CONSULTANCY
-It refers to the nature of company that gives professional advice to other companies for a fee or
a consulting company.
CONSUMER GOODS
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating to products that people buy for personal use
or for use at home.
CONTRACTUAL
-It refers to the current present employment status of the respondents who is working with the
given contract by the company.
CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS
-It refers to the skills that have been described as purposeful reflective judgment concerning what
to believe or what to do.
DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE
-It refers to the following variables: age, gender, civil status and location of residence.
ELECTRONICS
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating to devices (such as televisions, radios, and
computers) that operate using many small electrical parts.
EMPLOYABILITY
-It refers the matching of the trainings and education given by the PUP to its graduates.
EMPLOYMENT PROFILE
-It refers to the present employment status of the respondents.
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
-It refers to the tenure, salary, incentives and benefits of the PUPQC graduates batch 2005.
ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS
- A wide range of skills are seen as entrepreneurial and useful to entrepreneurs, these include
both personal traits and skill especially management skills.
FREELANCER
-It refers to the respondents who is self-employed and is not committed to a particular employer
in long term.

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GOVERNMENT
-It refers to the nature of industry which is relating tothe group of people who control and make
decisions for a country, state, etc.
GRADUATES
-It is the term refers to the students who have been released by the school after they have
satisfactorily completed both academic and technical requirement.
HUMAN RELATION SKILLS
-Developing skills that make great leaders.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SKILLS
-Skills in theacquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and
numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing
and telecommunications.
INSURANCE
-It refers to the nature of industry which is the business of providing an agreement in which a
person makes regular payments to a company and the company promises to pay money if the
person is injured or dies, or to pay money equal to the value of something (such as a house or
car) if it is damaged, lost, or stolen.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY/COMPUTER/SOFTWARE INDUSTRY
-It refers to the industries of computer, software and information technology where respondents
are working.
LEGAL
-It refers to the industryof or relating to the law
MANUFACTURING
-It refers tothe industry or business of making products especially with machines in factories
MEDIA
-It refers to the industry or business where graduates are working in line of Media Companies
and Establishment.
MINING
-It refers to the industry of relating to the process or business of digging in mines to obtain
minerals, metals, jewels, etc.

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MACHINERY
-It refers to the industry of relating tomachines of a particular kind or machines in general
NATURE OF INDUSTRY
-The different industries where the graduates are presently working.
NEVER EMPLOYED
-It refers to the respondents who didn‘t acquire any job after graduating in college.
OIL AND GAS
-It refers to the industries or relating to oil and gas.
PACKAGING
-It refers to the industry of relating to the way something or someone is presented in order to be
more attractive or appealing
PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
-Are skills in mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem
finding and problem shaping.
PHARMACEUTICALS/MEDICAL
-Industry of or relating to the production and sale of drugs and medicine.
PETROCHEMICALS
-It refers to the industry of relating toa chemical that is made from petroleum or natural
gas.
REAL ESTATE/PROPERTY
-It refers to the business of selling land and buildings
REGULAR
-It refers to thehappening over and over again at the same time or in the same wayor occurring
every day, week, month, etc.
RETAIL
-The business of selling things directly to customers for their own use
SELF-EMPLOYED
- Present employment status of the respondents which is earning income from you‘re their own
business or profession rather than by working for someone else.

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SERVICES
-It refers toan organization, company, or system that provides something to the public
TEMPORARY
-Present employment status of the respondents which is continuing for a limited amount of time
or not permanent.
TEXTILES
-Industry relating to fabricand clothespecially a fabric that is woven or knit.
TOURISM
-The business of providing hotels, restaurants, entertainment, etc., for people who are traveling
TRACER STUDY
-It is a type of descriptive research that investigates graduates who had left the institution after
completing the course or field of specialization.
TRADE
-The activity or process of buying, selling, or exchanging goods or services.
TRANSPORT
-The industryto carry (someone or something) from one place to another.
UNEMPLOYED
-It refers to the respondents who have currently not (yet) employed.

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CHAPTER II

THE REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE


Local Literature

PUP: Continuously Giving Quality Education

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP) is a government educational


institution governed by Republic Act Number 8292 known as the Higher Education
Modernization Act of 1997, and it‘s Implementing Rules and Regulations contained in the
Commission on Higher Education Memorandum Circular No. 4, series 1997. PUP is one of the
country's highly competent educational institutions. The PUP Community is composed of the
Board of Regents, University Officials, Administrative and Academic Personnel, Students,
various Organizations, and the Alumni.

Governance of PUP is vested upon the Board of Regents, which exercises policy-making
functions to carry out the mission and programs of the University by virtue of RA 8292 granted
by the Commission on Higher Education. The University is administered by an appointed
President by virtue of RA 8292 and is assisted by five Vice-Presidents - Academic Affairs,
Student Services, Administration, Research and Development, and Finance.

This institution started as the Manila Business School (MBS), founded in October 1904
as part of the city school system under the superintendence of C.A. O‘Reilley, which responds to
the demand for training personnel for government service and the felt need to provide skills
essential for private employment. In 1908, it was renamed as Philippine School of Commerce
(PSC) and merged with the Philippine Normal School (PNS) in 1933 to 1946. By virtue of
Republic Act 778, the PSC was again changed to Philippine College of Commerce (PCC) in
1952. Subsequently, the Philippine College of Commerce (PCC) was converted into a chartered
state university, now known as the Polytechnic University of the Philippines by virtue of
Presidential Decree Number 1341 issued by the President of the Philippines on April 1, 1978.

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PUP is a public, non-sectarian, non-profit institution of higher learning primarily tasked
with harnessing the tremendous human resources potential of the nation by improving the
physical, intellectual and material well-being of the individual through higher occupational,
technical and professional instruction and training in the applied arts and sciences related to the
fields of commerce, information and communications technology and business administration.

The University promotes applied research, advanced studies and progressive leadership
in the stated fields. We also offer ladder-type higher vocational, distance learning (Open
University System), technical and professional programs in the area of business and distributive
arts, education and the social sciences related to the fields of commerce, business administration
and other polytechnic areas. Furthermore, the University takes steps to enrich the academic
program in other fields of study and adopts a polytechnic program of education designed to
provide the individual with employable skills and managerial know-how in order to make them
creative, productive and self-reliant.

PUP operates year-round with two semesters and a summer. Summer sessions depend on
the course and on the campus. The University employs 1,483 full-time and part-time faculty
members with a few of the full-time faculty holding administrative positions. There are 707
regular and casual administrative employees who provide support services to the University
population. The faculty spends two-thirds of their time in teaching and one-third in research and
extension activities.

One of the major functions of the University is research, a key component of scholarship
and teaching. During the years under review, PUP received and allotted government and private
funding to research.

With six campuses, two branches and ten extension campuses serving more than 52,000
students, the Polytechnic University of the Philippines is the largest university in terms of
student population. The main campus is named after a national hero, ApolinarioMabini and is
located in Sta. Mesa, Manila - in the middle of a busy metropolitan. But despite of this, the
environment within its perimeter is a place conducive of learning

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Majority of the students belong to the economically challenged level of society. It is the
University's commitment to give qualified and talented students access to quality and responsive
education to aid them in the achievement of their dreams and improve their lives. Being a well-
educated and skilled individual, they will not only become job seekers but job creators as well, a
force of knowledge workers and entrepreneurs.

Scholars of the Nation (Iskolarng Bayan), that is what we call our students because the
Philippine Government and other non-government institutions subsidize their tuition and other
fees. More than a hundred of the student population is foreigners from China, Singapore,
Indonesia, Cambodia, Myanmar, Tanzania, Nigeria, and Ghana. They are enrolled in business,
language, statistics, and communication and education courses in the undergraduate and graduate
levels. Students from Korea regularly visit PUP in summer to take up Intensive English courses.

The Polytechnic University of the Philippines takes pride in its capability to accommodate
the student needs because it:

 Has 18 campuses, branches and extension campuses to make education accessible to


everyone;
 Offers a wide range of courses: doctoral, master‘s, and bachelor‘s degrees as well as
technopreneurial courses available through traditional and open, flexible or distance
learning;
 Pioneered the ladderized system and the accreditation and equivalency system through
the Expanded Tertiary Education Equivalency and Accreditation Program (ETEEAP) and
the Nontraditional System Program (NTSP);
 Maintains an average size of 45-50 students per class;
 Offers an extensive selection of educational choices through more than 60 undergraduate
and graduate programs;
 Schedules weekend and evening classes;
 Brings the resources and programs of PUP not only to full-time students but also to part-
time and adult learners; and

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 Provides a long list of extension services for the community and the country.
The commitment of its leaders, faculty, staff, students, alumni and friends has formed the
cornerstone of this University that has exceeded expectations with every generation of the
graduates it has produced since its establishment.
Today, PUP is relishing its successes and its students are enjoying unprecedented academic
opportunities, an enhanced campus environment, upgraded colleges, state-of-the-art technology,
and nationally and internationally recognized programs.
PUP celebrated its centenary on October 2004. It has gone far from what it was more than a
century ago. This is mainly due to the support given by the government and the PUP Community
and its benefactors. With the combined effort, PUP will continue to be a partner in nation-
building and in poverty alleviation for the marginalized sector of society with quality,
responsive, and relevant education as a tool.

PUP: Now at 106

More than 10 decades ago, the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, which was then
known as the Manila Business School, was put up to cater the government service's training
personnel needs. But today, this school has emerged as the country's biggest and most
comprehensive state university.

The originally small building has grown into a six-storey building in its Manila Campus
in Sta. Mesa, Manila. In addition to this vast structure, it has several satellite campuses in Metro
Manila and 21 other in the provinces in Luzon.

Its scanty number of students during its infancy in 1904, has grown into teeming 65,000
students who are enrolled in 79 four-year and five-year courses, including accountancy,
computer, engineering, mass communication, nutrition and hotel restaurant management.

The Sta. Mesa-based University has been flexing its muscles as shown in its dominance
over its rivals in various government licensure examinations. In 2008, for instance, PUP

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Taguighad one of its graduates bag the No. 1 slot in the mechanical engineering board
examinations. All its graduates likewise passed the same examination.

As PUP celebrates its 106th anniversary, it proudly unveils the many improvements that
have been effected under its 10th president, the hardworking and visionary, Dr. Dante G.
Guevarra.
Today, the former vocational school whose originating purpose was primarily to provide
technical skills to its students only of whom were government clerical employees, is producing
highly respective graduates who are effectively manning industries, public and private offices,
not only in the Philippines but also abroad.(FilViduya, 2010)

A Brief History of the PUP Commonwealth Campus

The PUP-Commonwealth Campus in Quezon City was established through the generosity
and benevolence of Mr. Walter Rothlehner, a German church leader and an owner of a certain
square building situated at the Sikhay Compound, Don Fabian Street, Brgy. Commonwealth,
1119 National Government Center, Quezon City. Mr. Rothlehner donated the said property to the
Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

The 1.9 hectares of land presently occupied by the PUP-Open University, Commonwealth
Campus is donated by the SIKHAY – an association duly registered with Securities and
Exchange Commission represented by its President, Rev. Fr. Joel T. Tabora, S.J. PUP-
Commonwealth is an establishment campus of Polytechnic University of the Philippines with the
National Government Center in order to bring quality education to the urban poor communities
especially the underprivileged families of Quezon City.

The PUP Commonwealth started as a two-building campus. These two existing buildings
were donated by its owner to the Polytechnic University of the Philippines purposively used as
classrooms, library and offices for students and faculty members. Hence, the PUP through its
Open University committed to administer and maintain the described buildings and portion of
land in the interest of its students in the locality and in the nearby the vicinity.

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The PUP Commonwealth is an extension campus of PUP Sta. Mesa, Manila. It came to
exist through its formal launching held at the Misereor Hall, last July 29, 1997. It was attended
by the former PUP President, Dr. Zenaida A. Olonan, who presented the Plaque of Recognition
to the donor of the PUP-Commonwealth Campus, Mr. Walter Rothlehner. The said activity was
graced by former Congressman of the 2nd District of Quezon City, Hon. Dante V. Liban and
other special guests from the local government of Quezon City and the PUP Administration.

At present, the PUP-Commonwealth Campus has four (4) existing buildings namely, the
Rothlehner Hall, Miseor Hall, New Building through the courtesy of Cong. Magsaysay, Susano
and Villar, the Audio Visual Rooms located on the second floor of the New Building courtesy of
former Congressman Allan Francisco and the Student Multi-Purpose Hall, Library, two rooms
for keyboarding and computer laboratory having more than 20 computers, administration offices
and classroom serving almost 1600 students in the campus. Furthermore, PUP-Commonwealth is
now on its 12th year of promoting quality education and nurturing her constituents toward a rich
and meaningful life by providing them a highly technologically advance education, a continuing
quest for academic excellence, and deep commitment to serve human kind. Polytechnic
University of the Philippines Quezon City, formerly called PUP Commonwealth Campus, is an
extension of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, which caters student-residents
of Quezon City, as well as the nearby cities and towns like Caloocan, Bulacan, and Rizal.

As a member of the PUP System, the University provides education to students of


Quezon City and other localities. As of 2010, the campus offers six undergraduate programs
providing the needs of the business world.

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PUPQC OBJECTIVES
General:
To nurture and develop academically skilled students who will take active participation in the
globally competitive world for service and international development.

Specific:
To upgrade the standards for our University by continuously uplifting the minds
of the students to be competitive and excel in their respective areas of
specialization.
To maintain our good standing in the academic community by living moral and
virtues lives for we believe that our personal lives are reflected in our work and
professional behavior.
To help develop the students personal philosophy.

Baccalaureate Degrees Offered


BSIT (Bachelor of Science in Information Technology)
BSEM (Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management)
BBTE (Bachelor in Business Teacher Education)
BBA-MN (Bachelor in Business Administration – Major in Management)
BSBA HRDM (Bachelor of Science in Business Administration – Major in Human Resource
Development Management)
BSBA MM (Bachelor of Science in Business Administration – Major in Marketing
Management)

Since PUP is a state or chartered University, the students are only paying a minimal
amount of their tuition fees for every semester. Thus, students who are studying in PUP are
called, ―ISKOLAR NG BAYAN‖. Most of its students are coming from Barangay
Commonwealth which is a big Barangay. It has been separated by a Western and Eastern
portion, which is now called Westside and Eastside. As of year 1987 they have records 10,648
families on the Westside and 9, 322 families on the PUP-Commonwealth and also the nearby
barangays. Though, PUP-Commonwealth has been experiencing tremendous problems when it

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comes to its facilities and other physical development, but still it continues to exist providing
quality education for all especially for the people of Quezon City. It is still hoping that in the
coming years, PUP Commonwealth would be the center of excellence for Entrepreneurial
Development and Information Technology.

Finally, PUP Commonwealth Campus is under the directorship of the dynamic Director
Pascualito B. Gatanand the name PUP Commonwealth is now PUP Quezon City.

The Three Undergraduate Courses Offered in PUPQC during the year 2005 which is the
Main focus of this Study

Bachelor in Business Teacher Education


The College of Office Administration and Business Teacher Education formerly called
the Faculty of Secretarial and Business Education in 1954 and later called the College of
Secretarial and Business Education in 1986 is considered as the mother of all colleges in PUP. It
offers three degree programs namely; Bachelor in Office Administration, Bachelor in Business
Teacher Education and Post Baccalaureate in Teacher Education. Through accreditation by
AACCUP in its survey process it has assessed the validity of the programs in terms of current
trends and needs and extent to which the college is achieving its objectives based on analysis of
all its activities. Fortunately, BOA and BBTE programs are now accredited QUALIFIED FOR
LEVEL III after passing Phase I. In support of the program of the University to restructure its
programs in terms of vertical articulation of its graduate programs and synchronization of all
courses that may rightfully be managed by the College of Education for enhancement of quality,
efficiency and effectiveness, the existence of the College of Education was approved by the
Board of Regents of the University on its meeting in November 2009. Setting new benchmarks
for teacher education is no mean tasks. The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes
that occur in our society. In its narrow sense, curriculum is misused merely as a listing of
subjects to be taught. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals
not only in schools but in society as well.

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Latest News: COABTE turns CoEd

The College of Office Administration and Business Teachers Education (COABTE) has
existed for more than 5 decades. It offers three degree programs: Bachelor in Office
Administration (BOA), Business Teachers Education (BBTE), and Post-Baccalaureate in
Teacher Education (PBTE). However, last November 22, 2009, by virtue of the Board of
Regents, COABTE was renamed College of Education (CoEd).
Dr. Liceria D. Lorenzo, who will still serve as dean of CoEd, said that there will be
changes in the college. She stressed that the course Office Administration is now under the
College of Business under the deanship of Dr. Dominador L. Gamboa, Jr. "The course Business
Teachers Education, on the other hand, will remain in the College of Education. Also, this
coming school year 2010-2011, our college will now offer the courses Bachelor in Elementary
Education and Bachelor in Secondary Education," the dean added.
According to Dean Lorenzo, the Business Teacher Education course has two
specializations: Business Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) and Information
Technology Education (ITE). She also stressed that those students who will take Secondary
Education may choose English, Math, Filipino, or Social Studies as their major. However, Dr.
Lorenzo divulged that elementary education and secondary education are not new courses as
they have already been offered in other PUP campuses. She revealed that elementary education
is offered in Bataan, Mulanay, Cabiao, and Gen. Luna Campuses.
The Secondary Education, with Math and English as specializations are offered in
Taguig, Maragondon, Ragay, Sta. Rosa, San Pedro, Sta. Maria, and Bansud. Filipino and Social
Studies, though, are added in the Main Campus' specializations as Dean Lorenzo calls them
as "in demand courses" today.
Dean Lorenzo said that the changes in the college were brought about by the rapid
changes in the Philippine higher educational system. This educational revolution calls for a
dynamic shift in strategies to improve the quality of education in PUP, thus, enabling to keep
pace with the emerging global thrust to help the youth in the future.
CoEd envisions it to be the "center of excellence in the development of educational
leaders in the Asia-Pacific region." As its mission, the college "endeavors to create and sustain
educational programs with curriculum content and pedagogical strategies that reflect

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commitment and empowerment of graduates to meet the demands of the global workplace and to
promote the development of socially responsible and committed leadership in basic education."
Dr. Rovelina B. Jacolbia will still be the Chairperson of the Department of Business
Teacher Education while Prof. Ma. Junithesmer Rosales, who recently finished her Doctor in
Educational Management degree at the PUP Graduate School, will be the chairperson of the
Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESED).

BTE CAREER OPPORTUNITIES


TLE Teachers
Administrative Positions
Private Tutor
Stenographer
Book keeper
Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT)
The Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Computer Management and
Information Technology abbreviated as CCMIT is an academic unit of the Polytechnic
University of the Philippines that specializes in computer science and information technology.
The college is located on the third floor, south wing of the main building.
Courses being catered include a bachelor's degree in computer science and information
technology and a post-baccalaureate program in computer technology.
In 1969, the Faculty of Accountancy of the Philippine College of Commerce (the school
from which PUP evolved into) offered short term electronic data processing (EDP) courses.
In less than a decade, in 1977, these EDP courses were transferred to the newly created
Electronic Data Processing/Computer Data Processing Management (EDP/CDPM) unit now
under the Faculty of Business and Cooperatives headed by Professor Ofelia M. Carague.
After two years, in 1979, the EDP/CDPM unit began to offer its first four-year ladderized
baccalaureate course - Bachelor in Computer Data Processing Management (BCDPM.
In December 1986, by virtue of a memorandum signed by then PUP President
NemesioPrudente, the EDP/CDPM unit was transformed into a full blown college called the
College of Computer Management and Information Technology (CCMIT) with Dr. Ofelia M.
Carague as its first dean.

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A Bachelor of Science in Information Technology degree program typically lasts three to
four years. While this degree mainly based on computer subjects covering all aspects such as
software, database, and networking. In general, Computer Science degree focuses on
mathematical and theoretical foundations of computing, rather than teaching specific
technologies. The degree itself is a Bachelor of Science with institutions conferring degrees in
the fields of information technology and related fields. This degree is awarded for completing a
program of study in the field of software development, software testing, software
engineering, computer networking, web design, databases, and programming.
Many employers require software developers or programmers to have a Bachelor of
Science in Computer Science degree but employers looking to hire for positions like network
administrators or database managers would require a Bachelors of Science in Information
Technology or equivalent technical degree.Graduates in the information technology are able to
perform technology tasks with processing, storing and communication of information such that
computers, mobile phones, and PDAs. Information technology is about providing a secure way
to manage vast amounts of variable information and making it available through a wide variety
of systems both local and world-wide.

BSIT CAREER OPPORTUNITIES


Systems Administrators
Software Developers
Desktop, LAN, and Help Desk Support
Network Technicians
Database Administrators
Programmers
PHP Team Leader
CSS & HTML Specialist
Senior Java Developer/s
Application Supporter
Technical Support Representative/s

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Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management (BSEM)

The Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management (BSEM) is a four year course


offered in the College of Business, designed to provide undergraduate students an in depth
understanding and appreciation of new venture operations in small business enterprises. It aims
to equip young students with entrepreneurial spirit to realize a vibrant and developing economy
in the hands of the Filipinos and develop desirable qualities of leadership, social concern and
moral values among them.

The Department of Management and Entrepreneurship envisions the BSEM as the


instrument in the teaching of entrepreneurial management towards the effective stimulation and
enhancement of the entrepreneurial spirit among the economically challenged members of the
Philippine Society.

The program aims to produce competent and economy-based entrepreneurs ready and
able to take advantage of the opportunities brought about by a globalized world, and help the
economy and the government.

At the end of the four year course, the student should be able to develop skills for
planning and sound decision making, formulate policies and strategy for entrepreneurial
ventures, develop skills for professional careers as Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief
Operating Officer (COO), Entrepreneurs, Managers, Administrators, Researchers and Professors,
and demonstrate good human relations and Ethical Standards.

BSEM CAREER OPPORTUNITIES

Business Owner/Manager
Human Resource Manager
Business Development Officer
Sales Manger
Management Analyst

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Product Manager
Human Resources Assistant
Management Consultant
Executive Officer
Administrative Officer
First-Line Super

Here is a list of some alumni who graduates which PUPQC produced in the Philippine
Industry. These individuals are some proofs that PUPQC is one of the outstanding universities in
the country when it comes to producing responsible graduates.

Bachelor in Business Teacher Education


1. Baylon, Melissa
Data encoder/Library Assistant; Institute for Consecrated Life in Asia
TandangSoraDiliman, Quezon City
2. Calva, Nadia Aysabelle
Customer Service Representative Teleperfomance Group of Companies
11th Floor Orient Square Building, Ortigas city
3. De Lira, Jerol
Teacher; Great Abrahams Academy
San Jose Del Monte,Bulacan
4. De Villa, Sheryl
English Teacher-Eastern English School
Dangtan City, South Korea
5. Flores, Jobert
Field Supervisor; Arpel International Marketing
De Jesus St. Francisco del Monte, Quezon City
6. Maglunob, Maricel
Program Assistant of KabalikatparasaMaunladnaBuhay Inc.
D & B Royal Midway Plaza Bldg. Culiat, TandangSora, Quezon City

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7. Malabad, Gregory
Administrative Assistant, Rosales, Pangasinan
8. Nunez, Carlo
Public School Teacher, DepEd NCR Division Caloocan
Tala High School; Brgy. San Isidro, Tala, Caloocan City
9. Piad, Maria Corazon
Encoder, The Medical City
10.Unsa, Jenifer
Cutomer Interaction officer;
NEO Company; Taipan Place Bldg., Ortigas Center, Pasig City
11.Villanueva-Ecat, Normie
Special Promo Representative; Electo Smith Corp.
Norzagaray, Bulacan
12. Yap, George
BPO Associate, Cybersoft Content Services Inc.

Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management Graduates

1. Braza, Eric
Office Staff; RAJ Garments; Caloocan City
2. Buenaventura, Ivy
Bank Teller; Banco De Oro
ADB Avenue Ortigas Center, Pasig City
3. Coragas, Ardee
Encoder, National Food Authority
Visayas Ave., Quezon City
4. Curiano, Angelito
Salesman/Agent; Taguig City
5. Curiano, Anthony
Marketing Staff; CebuanaLhuiller; Makati City

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6. Curiano, Arlene
Auditor; Ricky Reyes Hair Cutter; Anonas Quezon City
7. Dalimpapas, Berna
Unemployed
8. Dalit, Mary Joy
Banking Transaction Staff; Real State Land Inc.
Binondo, Manila
9. Dela Cruz, Allan Joseph
Sales Consultant, Rustan‘s Inc.
Gil Puyat, Makati City
10. Gwon- Bueno, Josielyn
Unemployed, Korea
11. Henaldo, Evangeline
Cashier; Mandaluyong City
12. Icao, Marilyn
Credit and Collection Staff; Key Lagro Car Accessories
City Homes Kalookan City, Zabarte Road
13.Lagdaan, Maricor B.
Office Staff; GEOSTATE Development.Corp.
The Gallery Bldg., Makati City
14. Lerio, Joseph
Unemployed
15. Mendoza, Jobert
Van Salesman; Purefoods Company
Valenzuela City
16. Migullas, Roselynie
Unemployed
17. Regencia, Mylene
Never employed
18. Saludaga, Christian
Area Staff; P. J. Lhuiller Inc.; Makati City

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19. Santos, Rachelle
Call Center Agent; Rain Maker‘s
Makati City
20. Villotes, Randy
Salesman Cor Chemical
Arayat St., Mandaluyong City
21. Viloria, Rowel
Crew; Seven Eleven; Marikina City

Bachelor of Science in Information Technology


1. Alcaraz, Rosalyn
Admin Assistant; Jack India Ramos Industrial
Burgos Montalban, Rizal City
2. Aguila, Glorielyn
Web Designer
3. Balatbat, Jaypee
Technical Support; Acquire Asia Pasifi
Show Boulevard, Mandaluyong City
4. Castro-Santos, Ingrid
DEMO 1; Division of City Schools QC-ICT Team
Quezon City
5. Dizon, Vanessa
Customer Care Officer; Telecare, Manila
6. Gutano-Dingle, Gloria
Sales Executive; Ideal Bathroom Pte.Ltd.
7. Mamaril, Amor
HR Staff; Ajinomoto Philippines Corp.
Makati City
8. Rendon, Raymond
Credit Counselor; Bank of Makati
Sto. Monica Novaliches, Quezon City

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9. Reyes, Reniel
Index Develop; Financial Times Electronic Publishing Inc.
Philam Tower, Paseo de Roxas, Makati City
10. San Fernando, Maricor
Software Developer; ILFS Technologies Phils
LRA Compound Diliman, Quezon City
11. Sedamon, Martin
Documentation Associate; NYK TDG E Business Corp
Net Quad Bldg. ,Bonifacio Global City
12. Tayag, Lorely
Call Center Agent; Sicel; Ortigas
13. TolentinoJercee
IT Associate; Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants
14. Vidal, Ruzziel
Data Encoder; Nielsen Co.
Boni, Mandaluyong City
15. Villarosa Teresa
Call Center Industry- TSR; SPI Global formelyePLDTVentus
PLDT Bldg. Sampaloc, Metro Manila
16. Tabernilla, Ronnel
Unemployed

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FOREIGN LITERATURE AND STUDIES

CAREER AFTER GRADUATION- A EUROPEAN RESEARCH STUDY

The study provided a unique opportunity to examine the extent to which the relationship
between higher education and the world of work are similar or different among the Western
European countries. This became clearer through the inclusion of one country each from the
Central and Eastern European countries and one country outside Europe.

The study also helps to understand the common elements and differences between
various fields of study and occupational areas. Last not least, the study allows examining the
extent to which socio-biographic backgrounds, educational experiences and achievements as
well as transition process determine early career and links between competencies and work
assignment.

The aim of the research project ―Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe‖
was to analyze employment and work of graduates from institutions of higher education in nine
European countries during the first few years after graduation. The following objectives were
pursued.

The analysis focused on the transition from higher education to employment and on
employment and work during the first four years after graduation. As educational paths were
identified retrospectively, the study allowed examining the trajectories over a substantial period
of the life-course. The study analyzed inner dynamics the relative autonomy of the transition
process, i.e. the extent to which job search, the transitory employment and unemployment etc. on
the part of the graduates, guidance counseling and assistance in job search on the part of higher
education institutions and employment agencies, as well as recruitment policies on the part of the
employers, shape the graduates‘ early career stages.

The project, further aimed to overcome the limitations of most existing statistics and
surveys which do not allow understanding the impact of the various dimensions of higher

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education on graduate employment and work. In surveying the provisions and conditions of
higher education and key aspects of study behavior, this study aimed to provide the evidence of
different degrees of success of success or failure in preparing students for professional life. Also,
it aimed to examine the impact of different models of diversification in Europe.

On the one hand, the project provided an opportunity to examine the need for revision of
prevailing concepts in economics and sociology as regards the relationships between higher
education and employment in the light of changing technologies, values, management and
personnel policies as well as endemic uncertainties and vagueness as regards acquisition and
utilization of academic knowledge. On the other hand, the project team devoted a considerable
component of its joint efforts to the development of a genuinely comparative methodology
suitable for analyzing competencies, employment and work in Europe. Categories were chosen
or newly developed which are sufficiently neutral and polyvalent to allow for a comparative
study of employment, work and utilization of knowledge in a substantial number of European
countries.

Altogether the project aimed to provide a solid comparative account on employment and
work of graduates from institutions of higher education in Europe. Information on employment
and work of graduates from institutions of higher educated is generally relevant for decision-
making by politicians, as a valuable information base both for employers and leaders, managers
and teachers in higher education, for educational and career decision-making by students.

Given the widespread consensus on the importance of such information, it is surprising to


note how scattered and weak the available information up to now is. This study provided for the
first time reliable comparative data making use of the potentials of Comparative Study.

A Comparative Study in Europe can be more valuable than national studies in several
important respects. The study was expected to serve as a de-mystification of concepts prevailing
in individual countries-for example regarding the typical problems of certain fields of study, the
role of short-cycle higher education for employment and work, etc.-by showing contrasting
evidence from other societies; or, in contrast, to identify, macro-societal factors which play a role

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in determining graduate employment and work; to determine the position of one country in a
comparative perspective. Such ―bench-making‖ of a problem frequently mobilizes efforts for
change more readily than debates within a national context; to develop a conceptual framework
for a study which is not biased by the idiosyncrasies of individual countries of individual
countries, but allows analyzing problems in a genuinely comparative perspective.

The study gives the researchers an outline on how this tracer study will flow. This study
also provided information needed in conducting a tracer study about the graduates of PUPQC
batch 2005, their general and employment profile. This also gives information about the factors
that affect the employment of the graduates in other country.

A study entitled ―Higher Education and the Demands of Manpower Development in the
Nigerian Manufacturing Sector: An Empirical Study of Enugu and Anambra States‖ by
Ugwuonah and Omeje of the Institute for Development Studies, University of NigeriaEnugu
CampusNigeria which is a final report of Tracer Study Research Project on Higher Education
and Work on July, 1998 says that the importance of education to the national development
project cannot be over-emphasized. Since the attainment of nationalindependence in October,
1960, the successive Nigerian governments have acknowledged this fact with various measures
of policy commitment and action. Even in electioneering campaigns and national budgets,
politicians and policy makers alike have always recognized and politicized the centrality of good
education especially, higher education to national development. Hence, they have frequently laid
stress on the establishment of more universities, polytechnics and colleges of education,
expansion of existing higher education institutions by creating multi-campus arrangements,
provision of ―adequate‖ infrastructural materials, more and well qualifiedteachers and so forth.
In fact, it is sufficiently clear that a nation which fails to provide good education for her citizens
would sooner or later face the logical antithesis of sustainable development: Mass illiteracy,
obscurantism, superstition, poverty, squalor, disease, de-industrialization and low productivity.
This mainly explains why governments are highly interested in the educational system
particularly, in developing countries. To this end, the Federal Government declared in the
preamble to the National Policy on Education of 1981 (the first clear-cut education policy in
Nigeria) that: Education in Nigeria is no more a private enterprise, but a huge government

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venture that has witnessed aprogressive evolution of government‘s complete and dynamic
intervention and active participation. The federalgovernment of Nigeria has adopted education as
an instrument par excellence for effecting national development.It is only natural that
Government should clarify the philosophy and objectives that underlie its current
massiveinvestment in education and spell out in clear unequivocal terms the policies that guide
Government‘s educationaleffort. From the above preambles, it is clear that government
recognizes that for it to be quite meaningful, education has to be pertinently related to the
national development agenda. This is further illustrated in the broad objectives of education in
Nigeria formulated in the same National Policy of 1981. The objectives are the building of a free
and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united, a strong and self-reliant nation, a
great and dynamic economy, a land of bright and full opportunities for all citizens. Although
these objectives may sound too propagandistic, the emphasis on self-reliance and a dynamic
economy has non-the-less recurred in all the economic policies and National Developments
Plans in Nigeria since 1960 and therefore has to be viewed with a more serious concern. One of
the key determinants of a self-reliant and dynamic economy is the relatedness and probably
responsiveness of the educational system, in particular, high education to developments in the
manufacturing/industrial sector of the economy. It has been observed that the rapid liberalization
of the Nigerian economy which has introduced a wide variety of private initiatives, without a
corresponding liberalization of the educational system would in all probability activate only the
growth of the former thereby exacerbating the gap between education and industry. This study
problematizes the preceding observation, among others.

The main objective of this study is to investigate the adequacy or otherwise of


contemporary higher education vis-à-vis manpower development needs of manufacturing
industries. Other specific objectives of the research include how to determine the factors that
influenced the respondents (graduates and students) choice of higher institution of study
(University or Polytechnic),to ascertain the study (University or Polytechnic) conditions
obtainable in the respondents‘ institutions of study or graduation, to find out how the respondents
obtained their first employments (main employment for graduates and IT for students) as well as
any considerations that motivated them to take up such employments, to determine whether or
not the respondents specific work assignments (for graduates) are related to their fields of study,

43
to investigate the usefulness or otherwise of both the theoretical and practical aspects of the
respondents‘ education to their job performance, to ascertain the employment, wage and welfare
structures of respondents in terms of the immediacy of sideline jobs, disposable income and
fringe benefits at work place, to access the respondents perceptions and attitudes towards their
occupational characteristics, career expectations, actualization and changes and to unravel the
coping capacity of respondents vis-a-vis their working conditions, experiences and employers.

This study is considered foremost a contribution to the evolution and growth of


knowledge on the linkage between higher education and work in Nigeria. It is a universal norm
that higher education is both an instrument as well as a means for the training of specialized
manpower appropriate for different vocational purposes. One area where the links between
higher education and manpower development have perhaps produced the most far-reaching
benefits for mankind is manufacturing. This is particularly evident in view of the profound skills
and creativity provided by the linkage of education and industrial manufacturing and which
frequently find expression in scientific, technological and socio-economic development.

The changing nature of the work environment, the emergence of technology driven
processes, and the diversified needs of clientele are challenges to the ability of colleges and
universities to meet the demand for employable graduates. The role of the higher education
sector is to supply suitably skilled graduates to the workplace. However, de la Harpe, Radloff,
and Wyber, in a study conducted in 2000, suggest that there is worldwide concern that existing
undergraduate programs are not producing graduates of lifelong learning with the professional
skills they need in order to succeed. The issue of employability, as Homes (2001) says, ―Will be
a key quality issue for many years to come‖. If education is a form of a service industry then
institutions of higher learning are expected to move away from ‗mode 1‘ pure knowledge to
‗mode 2‘ knowledge with greater concern for application and practices, along with more
emphasis on economic and social relevance. This current global shift shows the need to see how
graduate surveys can help measure the impact of higher education on graduate employment and
in establishing the nexus between higher education and the world of work, particularly for
purposes of defining a clearcut set of transferable and employability skills agenda inherent to the
disciplines offered in universities. He also, advocated the use of a graduate tracer study (GTS) as

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an appropriate tool in determining institutional capability in preparing graduates to meet the
demands of the workplace. The GTS involves the determination of graduates in the job search
mode, lead time, and employment conditions, where the knowledge acquired in schools are used
at work, in promotions, and job satisfaction.
The intent of Graduate Tracer Study (GTS) is to create an empirical portrait that
describes employment and employability aspects of the graduates of a comprehensive university
in the Philippines during the years 2001-2004 to identify policy imperatives for greater relevance
of higher education curricula to industry needs and expectations. The following research
questions were addressed by this research component: (1) Which programs are most sought by
employers? (2) Which programs have the best potential for the highest initial earnings? (3)
Which types of graduates are most employable? (4) How long did it take graduates to find
employment after college? (5) What academic experiences/competencies from college did the
graduates find most useful? (6) Which factors could best determine employability from the
personal and academic backgrounds of graduates?

As the global concern for ascertaining graduate employability as an indicator of quality


education continues to grow the collective understanding should not be confused with the
ontological side of actual acquisition of a graduate job. The concern should be on the
epistemological dimension of the qualities and competencies acquired by the graduates and how
these skills are used and deployed in various contexts. The pivotal role of a graduate
employability survey as a redirecting tool cannot be underestimated in a developing country like
the Philippines where the number of higher education institutions vis-à-vis the number of
students enrolled in university programs, and where the issues of mismatch, underemployment,
and unemployment question the identity of university education. Universities should ensure that
graduates can ―hit the ground running and be capable of self-direction‖. Most of the graduates of
the institution under study pursue advanced studies and other work-related training. The
seemingly impressive employability profile of comprehensive university graduates (as evidenced
by the assignment to middle level management position particularly those representing the social
behavioral sciences, natural sciences, medical fields, engineering and technology and mass
communication) is brought about not by academic honors of the graduates. It is a result of how
capabilities such as knowledge, skills, and attitudes are used and deployed in the work place. The

45
findings of this study have structural and procedural implications. Structurally and procedurally,
there is need to develop a more functional framework for employability where the diversity of
degree field offered in universities are linked to the diversity of employment. Such framework
may only be adapted in the context of transparency between and among members of academe,
graduates, and potential employers. Developing a functional and responsive framework for
employability is a question of good practice that according to Hill, et al (2003): involves the
identification of learning outcomes consistent with the skills needed by the students and the
employers, use of appropriate learning and teaching activities, design and use of a well-planned
mode of instructional delivery, judicious use of an appropriate assessment scheme of desired
skills and competencies for students, and a systemic use of a feedback mechanism rooted in a
sound evaluation and reflection processes. These stages are valuable in meeting the demands of
employers for graduates who are easily assimilated into employment situations that require
flexible and responsive people, who can solve problems, work in teams, and under pressure
(Little, 2001). Presumably, these skills are found to be evident among the graduates of the
institution under study.
Through a constant dialogue with industry partners, universities are expected to ensure
that the curricular centerpiece operates in a setting of theoryto practice orientation. A work-
related learning continuum can help facilitate the development of skills in realistic settings in
demonstrating the relevance of subject specific skills at the workplace, in providing useful career
insights, in enhancing employability, creating job prospects, appreciating undertaken tasks, and
understanding decisions made at the workplace. Learning experiences provided for student
development should emphasize the meaningful approach to learning through which where
employable skills are continually developed, deepened, and built up. The true test of student
empowerment is the gradual acquisition of control over educational skills and processes in post-
graduation lives.
The preliminary findings of their study have painted a portrait of the employment and
employability profile of a select group of graduates in a Philippine comprehensive university. It
should be noted that the involvement of a small number of respondents though covering a period
of four years, may not substantially describe the true picture of the phenomenon, considering the
number of graduates the respondent university has every year.

46
Combining the data yielded in this research segment with the national data can describe a
better picture of the phenomenon under study. The establishment of a dynamic Philippine
database on graduate employability will facilitate planning and decision-making at both national
and institutional levels and motivate future investigations for purposes of forecasting and human
resources planning. It is suggested that succeeding attempts to ascertain the graduate
employability profile should adopt a more aggregate sample, enough to represent a wide array of
disciplines and at the same time consider the inclusion of other outcome measures for a more
panoramic understanding of student employability in the context of a developing country like the
Philippines.

47
SYNTHESIS

The series of studies and literatures written by foreign and local authors in this chapter
discusses the concepts and narrative details of relevant and related information to the study.
The literatures and studies will help the researchers to identify the different nature and
sector of jobs that is very important factor in terms of classifying the respondents according to
the category of workers.
The information from the literature gathered is also important in determining if the
graduates produced by the university were successful or not in their chosen field.
In general, the literatures and relevant issues will help the researchers to know how
important and employment is to know how important the employment is to the graduates. The
literatures provide significant information that will help the researchers in conducting the study.

48
CHAPTER III
DESIGN AND PROCEDURE

In this chapter, the methods, procedures and instrument that will be used in conducting
this tracer study of the Employment Status of PUPQC Graduates Batch 2005 is being presented.

Research Design

According to Wiit (1995), quantitative research approach is a research based on


traditional scientific methods, which generates numerical data and usually seeks to establish
casual relationships between two or more variables, using statistical methods to test the strength
and significance of the relationships. Quantitative research using methods allowing for the
measurement of variables within a collection of people or groups and resulting in numerical data
subjected to statistical analysis. It is the analysis of certain objects by means of numeric
representations and statistical analysis. The main goal of this research is to measure, define and
make a report on the correlation of certain elements. Quantitative research is usually conducted
by means of collecting statistical data in the form of surveys, questionnaires, interviews and
experiments, which are designed to determine opinion of the people or certain trends in the
society.

Quantitative research in education is very effective because its results are ―derived by
discovering exact facts and, therefore, the same research methods and the results are
generalized.‖ (Hara, 1995)

The researchers opted to use quantitative approach to collect data of The Employment
Status of PUPQC Graduates Batch 2005, the approach will also use a format instrument that is
much easier to generalize. Quantitative research provides generalized data on the objects that are
being analyzed, thus, the information is not so detailed on behavior and attitudes of the subject
matters. The researchers will make use of descriptive research design and are integrated in the
questionnaires because this research involves collecting of data in order to test the hypotheses or

49
answer questions concerning the current status of respondents. It also determines and reports the
ways things are.

Research Method Used

The researchers will make use of surveys to collect quantitative information about items
in a population. Surveys of human populations and institution are common in political polling
and government, health, social science and marketing research. A survey may focus on opinion
or factual information depending on its purpose, and many surveys involved administering
questions to individuals.

The survey is a non-experimental, descriptive research method. Survey is the collecting


of information that describes the condition, grants, opinions, or perceptions, people and
organization. (Henson and Soriano, 1999)

In this study, the researchers will use survey to know the respondents‘ profile (general
and employment status).

Samples and Sampling Technique

In this study, the researchers considered as many respondents as possible which is called
as the Convenience Sampling. To quality as respondents, they should be a PUPQC graduate of
batch 2005, including the graduates of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education, Bachelor of
Science in Information Technology and Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management.

To locate the respondents, the researchers will use the probability of sampling. It is a
method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random
selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units‘
in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen.

50
The researchers will trace PUPQC graduates Batch 2005, their demographic profile and
employment profile.

Instrumentation

The researchers will make use of survey questionnaires as the data-gathering tool for this
study. Questionnaires will be distributed to 2005 graduates of PUPQC.

In-person distribution, e-mail questionnaires, facebook messaging and telephone will be


used by the researchers to collect data. Through In-person distribution the researcher scheduled a
specific time to locate the respondents in their residences basing on the addresses which
Registrar was given. E-mail questionnaire and facebook messaging were conducted over
electronic mails sent over through computers this will be done for those respondents who were
not able to answer in-person distribution because of some reasons.

The telephone questionnaire has little to recommend beyond speed and low cost. It will
be conducted over the phone. The researchers administered survey to the respondents who are
not capable of answering through e-mail and in-person distribution (Portillo et. Al, 2003).

Questionnaires will also be give respondents time to think about the questions and their
responses, thus producing more accurate information period. It can also eliminate the problem of
geographic limitations because this can be e-mailed. The instrument will be developed based on
the objectives of the study. The instrument is composed of several parts which will help the
researchers in gathering the necessary data needed for the study.

The questionnaire will include the personal information and the contact confirmation of
the respondents. The employment profile which includes employment status and participant‘s
job information will be included.

51
The questionnaire will have close ended questions which are answerable by yes or no
selections in which the respondents could choose more than one response for the reason that the
information will be more accurate.

Data Collection Procedure

The researchers gathered the primary data on the 1st week of July. The researchers got the
list of PUPQC graduates from the Registrar Office.

The secondary data are the books, theses, newspapers, were already gathered as they visit
the National Library, The Quezon City Library and the PUPQC Library and have the data
photocopied. Articles from websites were also gathered.

The researchers started distributing the survey questionnaires on the 1st week of August
up to last week of the said month.

Statistical Formula Used

The statistical treatment of data that will be used in this study is through percentile and
frequency method. The researchers will get the frequency of the respondents‘ demographic and
employment profile. This will determine the frequency by adding all the answer of the
respondents to a certain question. (Out of 50 respondents, 44 are employed and 6 are
unemployed and never employed: the 44 respondents who are employed and 6 respondents who
are unemployed and never employed are the frequencies).

The researchers will get the percentage by dividing the frequency to the total numbers of
respondents multiplied to 100% (frequency/total respondents x 100%). e.g. 44 are employed
respondents/50 total numbers of respondents x 100%= 9%…. 88% are employed.

52
CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter includes the tables that are used to determine ―The Employment status of PUPQC
graduates batch 2005. This chapter also includes the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data that
are needed in each table.

Table 1
Frequency Distribution of the respondents according to their Civil Status
Civil Status Frequency Percentage

Single 38 76%
Married 12 24%

Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 1 show the frequency distribution of the respondents According to
their Civil Status. Out of 50 respondents, 38 or 76 percent are single and 12 or 24 percent are married.

53
Table 2
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage

Female 29 58%
Male 21 42%

Total 50 100%

Gender

Female
Male

Male 42%
Female 58%

The Table and The Chart 2 show the Frequency Distribution of the respondents According to
their Gender. These show that most of the respondents are female which has 29 or 58 percent and 21 or
42 percent are male.

54
Table 3
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Location

Location Frequency Percentage

City (NCR) 46 92%


Provinces 2 4%
Outside the Country 2 4%
Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 3 show the Frequency Distribution of the respondents According to
their Location. These show that most of the respondents are residing in the City (National Capital Region
like: Quezon City, Caloocan City, Marikina and etc.) which has 46 frequency or 92 percent and 2 or 42
percent are residing in Provinces and 2 or 4% are outside the country.

55
Table 4
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to their Degree/Specialization

Degree/Specialization Frequency Percentage

BSEM 21 42%
BSIT 17 34%
BBTE 12 24%

Total 50 100%

42%
Degree/Specialization

34%

24%

Degree/Specialization

BBTE BSEM BSIT

The Table and The Chart 4 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
their Degree/Specialization. Out of 41 respondents, 16 or 39 percent are BSEM, 14 or 34 percent are
BSIT and 11 or 27 percent are BBTE.

56
Table 5
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to the professional examinations passed

Professional Rank Frequency Percentage

Passers/Takers ( Licensure 4 8%
Examination for Teachers, Civil
service) 46 92%
Non-Passers/ Non-Takers
Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 5 show the frequency Distribution according to the professional
examinations passers. Most of the respondents are Non-Passers/Non-takers which has the frequency of
46 or 92 percent while 4 or 8 percent of the respondents are Passers/Takers.

57
Table 6
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to the reasons in taking
their Bachelor’s Degree.

Reasons for taking Bachelor’s Degree Frequency Percentage

Good grades in the subject area 2 2.60%


Good Grades in high school 3 3.90%
Influence of Parents/Relatives 8 10.39%
Peer Influence 1 1.30%
Inspired by a role model 1 1.30%
Strong passion for the profession 11 14.28%
Prospect for immediate employment 14 18.1%
Status or prestige of the profession 2 2.60%
Availability of course offering in chosen 17 22.07%
institution
Prospect of career development 9 11.69%
Affordable for the family 7 9.09%
Prospect of attractive compensation 0 0%
No particular choice/no better idea 2 2.60%
Others 0 0%

Total 77 100 %

58
Reasons for taking Bachelor's Degree
22.07%
18.18%
14.28%
11.69%
10.39% 9.09%

3.90%
2.60% 2.60%
1.30% 1.30% 0% 0%

The Table and the Chart 6 show the Frequency Distribution of the respondents according to
their reasons in taking Bachelor‘s Degree. Most of the respondents answered that the availability of the
course of the chosen institution is one of the reason of taking their bachelor‘s degree which has the
frequency of 17 or 22.07 percent. 14 or 18.18 percent of the respondents reason out that it prospects
immediate employment. Then, 11 or 14.28 percent some of them answered the reason that they had a
strong passion for the profession. Other respondents reasoned that it is the prospect of their career
development that has 9 or 11.69 percent. Then some of them answered that the influence of
parents/relatives which has the result of 8 or 10.39 percent. Other respondents said that the good grades
in the subject area, good grades in high school and no particular choice/No better idea are the reasons in
taking their bachelor‘s degree which have the frequency of 2 or 3 percent. Others, includes the reasons;
Inspired by the role models, self-choice, program of scholarship and in-demand University which has the
result of 1 or 1.30 percent.

59
Table 7
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to the Post-Studies Examinations Passers

Post-Studies Rank Frequency Percentage

Takers/Passers (MS in Public 1 2%


Administration)
Non-Takers/Non-Passers 49 98%

Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 7 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to the
Post-Examination Takers which shows that only 1 respondent or 2 percent undergo a post-studies and the
49 or 98 percentage are non-takers.

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Table 7.1
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents Reason for taking post-Graduate Studies

Reason/s for taking Post- Frequency Percentage


Graduate Studies

For promotion 0 0%
For professional Development 1 100%
Others 0 0%
Total 1 100%

The Table 7.1 shows the frequency distribution of the respondents according to their reasons for
taking post graduates studies. According to the only one respondent who pursue post-graduate studies her
reason was for professional promotion.

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Table 8
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to those who undergo training after they
attended college

Gender Frequency Percentage

Respondents who answer 0 0%


Respondents who didn‘t answer 50 100%

Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 8 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
those who undergo trainings after college. Out of 50 respondents No one or 0 or 0% answered that makes
50 0r 100 percentage of the respondents didn‘t answer.

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Table 9
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to their Present Employment Status

Present Employment Status Frequency Percentage

Regular/Permanent 30 60%
Temporary 4 8%
Casual 2 4%
Contractual 6 12%
Self-employed 1 2%
Freelancer 1 2%
Unemployed 4 8%
Never employed 2 4%

Total 50 100%

The Table and The Chart 9 show the frequency Distribution of the respondents according to
their present employment status. Out of 50 respondents, 30 or 60 percent are regular/permanent
employees; 6 or 12 percent are contractual; 4 or 8 percent are unemployed and 4 or 8 percent are
temporary. Other respondents are either never employed, self-employed and free-lancer.

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Table 9.1
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to their reasons of not (yet) employed

Reasons of not (yet) employed Frequency Percentage

No job Opportunity 0 0%
Family Concern 5 83.33%
Health-related Reasons 0 0%
Advance or further studies 0 0%
Others 1 16.67%
Total 6 100%

Reasons why not (yet) employed

The Table and The Chart 9.1 shows the Frequency Distribution of the respondents according
their reasons of not (yet) employed. Majority of the respondents answered that one of the reason was
family concern why they are not (yet) employed which has the frequency of 5 or 83.33 percent. And one
respondent specified her answer that she was waiting for the applied work in abroad which has the
percentage of 16.67.

64
Table 10
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Nature of Industry

Nature of Industry Frequency Percentage

Academic 3 6.81%
Banking/Finance 2 4.54%
Government 2 4.54%
Services 19 43.18%
Textiles 1 2.27%
Consultancy 1 2.27%
Electronics/Electrical 1 2.27%
Insurance 1 2.27%
IT/Computer/Software 2 4.54%
Telecoms/Communications 5 11.36%
Legal 1 2.27%
Trade 3 6.81%
BPO 3 6.81%

Total 44 100%

65
Nature of Industry

The Table and The Chart 10 show the respondents according to their Nature of Industries
where our respondents are employed. 19 respondents or 43.18 percent are working in service industry; 5
or 11.36 percent are working in the telecoms/communication industry; 3 or 6.81 percent working in the
trade, BPO and academic industry; and 2 or 4.54 percent are working in the IT/Computer/Software,
Banking/Finance and Government. Other answers include Legal with 1 or 2.27 %, Insurance 1 or 2.27%,
Textiles with 1 or 2.27%, Consultancy with 1 or 2.27%, Insurance with 1 or 2. 27%, Electronics with 1 or
2.27% and Textiles with 1 or 2.27%.

66
Table 11
Frequency Distribution of the respondents according to their place/area of work

Place/Area of Work Frequency Percentage

Local 42 95.5
International 2 4.5

Total 44 100

The Table and The Chart 11 show the frequency distribution according to the respondent‘s
place/area of work. With the total of 44 or 100% of the respondents that are currently working, 42 or
95.5% are working locally and only 2 or 4.5% of the total who are working internationally.

67
Table 12
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Present Job if it is their First Job
after College

Response Frequency Percentage

Yes 6 13%
No 40 87%

Total 46 100%

The Table and The Chart 12 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
their present job if it is their first job after college and it shows that 6 or 13% of the respondents answered
yes and 40 or 87% of the total respondents answered that their present job is not their first job after
college.

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Table 13
Frequency Distribution of the respondents according to the span of time they stayed in their first
job
Time they stayed in their first job Frequency Percentage

Less than a month 1 2.1%


1 year less than 2 years 7 14.6%
1-6 months 28 58.3%
2 years less than 3 years 7 14.6%
7-11 months 2 4.2%
3 years 3 6.3%

Total 48 100%

The Table and The Chart 13 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according the
span of time they stayed in their first job which shows majority or 28 or 58.3 percent of the total
respondents stayed in a span of 1 to 6 months. The 1 year less than 2 years and 2 years less than 3 years
both got the frequency of 7 or 14.6 percent. Others include less than a month, 7-11 months and 3 years.

69
Table 14
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to where they find their First Job

Find their first job Frequency Percentage

Through Newspaper Job Ads 2 4.16%


As walk-in applicant 25 52.08%
Through friends 7 14.58%
Job referral 11 22.91%
Through Job Ads Posted in PUP 0 0%
It‘s the company called me 1 2.08%
Others 2 4.16%

Total 48 100%

The Table and the Chart 14 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
where they find their first job. Out of 48 respondents, 25 or 52.08 percent as walk-in applicant, 11 or
22.91 percent are job referrals, 7 or 14.58 are through friends. Other answers include through Newspaper
Ads and it‘s the company that called him.

70
Table 15
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to the Length of Time they landed into their
First Job
Length of Time they landed in their First Job Frequency Percentage

Less than a month 8 16.67%


1 year less than 2 years 1 2.08%
1-6 months 30 62.50%
2 years less than 3 years 2 4.17%
7-11 months 4 8.33%
3 years less than 4 years 2 4.17%
Others (5 years) 1 2.08%

Total 48 100%

Length of Time the respondents landed into their First Job

The Table and The Chart 15 show the length of the time before the respondents find their jobs.
30 or 62.50 percent of the respondents said that it took 1-6 months to find jobs, 8 or 16.67 percent
answered less than a month, and 4 or 8.33 percent said it took 7-11 months. Others answers includes 2
years-3 years,3-4 years, 1 year less than 2 years and 5 years.

71
Table 16
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Reasons for Staying in their First
Job

Reason/s for staying in their first job Frequency Percentage

Salaries and benefits 14 26.92%


Career challenge 23 44.23%
Proximity to residence 3 5.77%
Related to special skills 9 17.31%
Others 3 5.77%

Total 52 100%

The Table and The Chart 16 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
their reason for staying in their first job. Majority answered career challenge which has the frequency of
23 or 44.23. Then followed by the answer salaries and benefits which has the frequency of 14 or 26.92. In
related to special skills got the frequency of 9 or 17.31, 3 or 5.77 of the respondents answered the
proximity to residence. Then others got 3 or 5.77 percent.

72
Table 17
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents according to their Job if it is related to their Course

Response Frequency Percentage

Yes 37 74%
No 10 20%
No answer 3 6%

Total 50 100%

The Table and the chart 17 above show the frequency distribution of the respondents according
to their job if it is related to their course and it reveals that among the total of 50 respondents 37 or 74
percent answered yes, 10 or 20 percent answered no that it‘s not related to their course and 3 or 6 percent
didn‘t answer.

73
Table 18
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Competencies Learned in College
that they find most useful to their job

Competencies Learned in College Frequency Percentage

Communication Skills 28 27.45%


Human Relation Skills 16 15.69%
Problem-Solving Skills 15 14.70%
Critical Skills 12 11.76%
Entrepreneurial Skills 17 16.67%
Information Technology Skills 14 13.73%

Total 102 100%

The Table and the Chart 18 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
their competencies learned in college that they find most useful in their job. 28 respondents or 27.45
percent rank highest the communication skills. The second rank is the Entrepreneurial Skills which has
the frequency distribution of 17 or 16.67. Human Relations Skills got the frequency of 16 or 15.69 that
rank as number three. Followed by Problem-Solving Skills which has the frequency of 15 or 14.70 and
the critical skills got the frequency of 12 or 11.76 that rank as the last.

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Table 19
Frequency Distribution of the respondents according to their job position

Present Job position Frequency Percentage

Top Management 2 4.5%


Middle Management 12 27.3%
Lower Management 30 68.2%

Total 44 100%

The Table and the Graph 19 show the frequency distribution and percentage at the respondents
regarding with their job position. With the total of 44 or 100 percent, majority of the respondents are in
lower management position which has 30 or 68.2 percent. The middle management position has 12 or
27.3 percent and the top management has 2 or 4.5 percent of the total respondents.

75
Table 20
Frequency Distribution According to the respondents for their Reason/s in Changing their Job

Reason/s for Changing their first job Frequency Percentage

Salaries and benefits 28 45.90%


Career challenge 27 44.26%
Proximity to residence 4 6.56%
Others 2 3.28%

Total 52 100%

The Table and the Chart 20 show the frequency Distribution of the respondents according to
their reason/s for staying in their first job. Majority of the respondents said it‘s because of the salaries and
benefits that has the frequency of 28 or 45.90. 27 or 44.26 percent of the respondents answered Career
Challenge; 4 or 6.56 answered the proximity of the residence. Others include needs to socialize more, to
expand their knowledge and skills, end of contract and Vacancy of the Job.

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Table 21
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents According to their Career Plans

Career Plans Frequency Percentage

To look for a new job abroad 16 25.80%


To look for a new job in the country 10 16.13%
To put up a business 22 35.48%
To pursue Higher Education 6 9.68%
To enroll in a Different field of study 0 0%
To take government exam 4 6.45%
No plans yet 2 3.23%
Others 2 3.23%

Total 62 100%

The Table and Chart 21 show the frequency distribution of the respondents according to
their Career Plans. Majority of the respondents answered to put a business which has the
frequency of 22 or 35.48 percent. 16 or 25.80 percent answered to look for a new job abroad.
And some respondents answered to look for a new job in the country with the frequency of 10 or
16.13 percent. Then, 6 or 9.68 percent answered to pursue higher education. Others will plan to
take government exam and some has no plans yet.

77
CHAPTER V
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter presents the summary of findings of Educational Research based on the indicated
data set forth from the statement of the problem; thus every table has an analysis and interpretation and
the conclusion were drawn for further recommendation.

Summary of Findings

This study aims to determine the general profile and the present employment status of the
respondents which are the graduates of Polytechnic University of the Philippines academic year 2004-
2005 which includes all the necessary variables like: age and gender, present location, educational
attainment , professional skills, professional examinations taken and passed, reasons for taking their
bachelor‘s degree, education and trainings attended after college, post graduate studies, what made them
pursue advance studies. The study also summarizes the employment profile of the respondents which
includes the variables: present employment status, and for those who are not yet employed the reasons
why they are not yet employed, present occupation, the company and address, the nature of industry
where they are working, place/area of work, their first job after college, how long did they stayed in their
first job, how did they find their first job, length of time did it take them to land in their first job, the
reasons for staying in their first job, the relation of their course to their present jobs, the relevance of the
curriculum in college, the competencies learned in college that they find most useful in your job, their job
position, reasons for changing job and lastly their future career plans.

78
General Profile

The study consisted of 50 respondents from the graduates of Polytechnic University of


the Philippines academic year 2004-2005 out of 119 graduated in that time. In terms of civil status out of
50 respondents, 38 or 76 percent are single and 12 or 24 percent are married. In terms of gender it shows
that most of the respondents are female which has 29 or 58 percent and 21 or 42 percent are the male. In
terms of respondent‘s location it shows that most of the respondents are residing in the City (National
Capital Region like: Quezon City, Caloocan City, Marikina and etc.) which has 46 frequencies or 92
percent and 2 or 42 percent are residing in Provinces and 2 or 4% are outside the country. In terms of
Degree/Specialization, out of 41 respondents, 16 or 39 percent are BSEM, 14 or 34 percent are BSIT and
11 or 27 percent are BBTE. In terms of their reasons in taking Bachelor‘s Degree, most of the respondents
answered that the availability of the course of the chosen institution is one of the reason of taking their
bachelor‘s degree which has the frequency of 17 or 22.07 percent. 14 or 18.18 percent of the respondents
reason out that it prospects immediate employment. Then, 11 or 14.28 percent some of them answered the
reason that they had a strong passion for the profession. Other respondents reasoned that it is the prospect
of their career development that has 9 or 11.69 percent. Then some of them answered that the influence of
parents/relatives which has the result of 8 or 10.39 percent. Other respondents said that the good grades
in the subject area, good grades in high school and no particular choice/No better idea are the reasons in
taking their bachelor‘s degree which have the frequency of 2 or 3 percent. Others, includes the reasons;
Inspired by the role models, self-choice, program of scholarship and in-demand University which has the
result of 1 or 1.30 percent. In terms of the professional examinations taken and passed, most of the
respondents are Non-Passers/Non-takers which has the frequency of 46 or 92 percent while 4 or 8 percent
of the respondents are Passers/Takers. In terms of their reasons for taking post graduates studies.
According to the only one respondent who pursue post-graduate studies her reason was for professional
promotion. In terms of to those who undergo trainings after college, out of 50 respondents no one or 0 or
0% answered that makes 50 0r 100 percent of the respondents didn‘t answer.

79
Employment Profile

In terms of their present employment status, out of 50 respondents, 30 or 60 percent are


regular/permanent employees; 6 or 12 percent are contractual; 4 or 8 percent are unemployed and 4 or 8
percent are temporary. Other respondents are either never employed, self-employed and free-lancer. In
terms of their reasons of not (yet) employed, majority of the respondents answered that one of the reason
was family concern why they are not (yet) employed which has the frequency of 5 or 83.33 percent. And
one respondent specified her answer that she was waiting for the applied work in abroad which has the
percentage of 16.67. In terms of their nature of industries in where our respondents are employed, 19
respondents or 43.18 percent are working in service industry; 5 or 11.36 percent are working in the
telecoms/communication industry; 3 or 6.81 percent working in the trade, BPO and academic industry;
and 2 or 4.54 percent are working in the IT/Computer/Software, Banking/Finance and Government.
Other answers include Legal with 1 or 2.27 %, Insurance 1 or 2.27%, Textiles with 1 or 2.27%,
Consultancy with 1 or 2.27%, Insurance with 1 or 2. 27%, Electronics with 1 or 2.27% and Textiles with
1 or2.27%. In terms of the respondent‘s place/area of work, with the total of 44 or 100% of the
respondents that are currently working, 42 or 95.5% are working locally and only 2 or 4.5% of the total
who are working internationally. In terms of respondent‘s place/area of work, with the total of 44 or
100% of the respondents that are currently working, 42 or 95.5% are working locally and only 2 or 4.5%
of the total who are working internationally. In terms of to their present job if it is their first job after
college and it shows that 6 or 13% of the respondents answered yes and 40 or 87% of the total
respondents answered that their present job is not their first job after college. In terms of the length of
time they stayed in their first job which shows majority or 28 or 58.3 percent of the total respondents
stayed in a span of 1 to 6 months. The 1 year less than 2 years and 2 years less than 3 years both got the
frequency of 7 or 14.6 percent. Others include less than a month, 7-11 months and 3 years. In terms of
where they find their first job out of 48 respondents, 25 or 52.08 percent as walk-in applicant, 11 or 22.91
percent are job referrals, 7 or 14.58 are through friends, other answers include through Newspaper Ads
and it‘s the company that called him. In terms of the length of the time before the respondents find their
jobs. 30 or 62.50 percent of the respondents said that it took 1-6 months to find jobs, 8 or 16.67 percent
answered less than a month, and 4 or 8.33 percent said it took 7-11 months. Others answers includes 2
years-3 years,3-4 years, 1 year less than 2 years and 5 years. In terms of their reason for staying in their
first job, majority answered that it is because of career challenge which has the frequency of 23 or 44.23.
Then followed by the answer salaries and benefits which has the frequency of 14 or 26.92. In related to
special skills got the frequency of 9 or 17.31, 3 or 5.77 of the respondents answered the proximity to

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residence, then others got 3 or 5.77 percent. In terms of the job relation to their course and it reveals that
among the total of 50 respondents 37 or 74 percent answered yes, 10 or 20 percent answered no that it‘s
not related to their course and 3 or 6 percent didn‘t answer. In terms their competencies learned in college
that they find most useful in their job. 28 respondents or 27.45 percent rank highest the communication
skills. The second rank is the Entrepreneurial Skills which has the frequency distribution of 17 or 16.67.
Human Relations Skills got the frequency of 16 or 15.69 that rank as number three. Followed by
Problem-Solving Skills which has the frequency of 15 or 14.70 and the critical skills got the frequency of
12 or 11.76 that rank as the last. In terms of with their job position, with the total of 44 or 100 percent,
majority of the respondents are in lower management position which has 30 or 68.2 percent. The middle
management position has 12 or 27.3 percent and the top management has 2 or 4.5 percent of the total
respondents. In terms to their reason/s for staying in their first job, majority of the respondents said it‘s
because of the salaries and benefits that has the frequency of 28 or 45.90. 27 or 44.26 percent of the
respondents answered career challenge; 4 or 6.56 answered the proximity of the residence, others include
needs to socialize more, to expand their knowledge and skills, end of contract and vacancy of the job.
And lastly, in terms of their Career Plans, majority of the respondents answered to put a business
which has the frequency of 22 or 35.48 percent 16 or 25.80 percent answered to look for a new job
abroad. And some respondents answered to look for a new job in the country with the frequency
of 10 or 16.13 percent then, 6 or 9.68 percent answered to pursue higher education. Others will
plan to take government exam and some has no plans yet.

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Conclusions
Based on the findings, the researchers arrived with the following conclusions:
1. Majority of the respondents are female.
2. The greatest number of respondents is single.
3. Most of the respondents residing in City (NCR) areas.
4. BSEM holding the highest number according to their Degree/Specialization.
5. Availability of the course offered by the institution got the highest rank for the
respondent‘s reason of taking Bachelor‘s Degree.
6. Majority of the respondents are non-takers/non-passers of Professional Examination.
7. Only one respondent pursue post-studies examination.
8. The reason of the respondent for taking post-studies examination is for professional
development.
9. All of the respondents have no response about undergoing training after they attended
college.
10. Majority of the respondents are regular/permanently employed.
11. Family concern is the majority reason of the respondents who are not (yet) employed.
12. The greatest number of respondents works in service industry.
13. Most of the respondents work inside the country.
14. Respondents who are presently employed responded that their present job is not their
first job after college.
15. Most of the respondents stayed in their first job in 1-6 months.
16. Majority of the respondents found their first job as walk-in applicant.
17. The greatest number of respondents found their first job after college in 1-6 months.
18. Career Challenge is the reason why the respondents stayed in their first job.
19. Majority of the respondents agree that their course is related to their present job.
20. Communication skills are the most useful competencies acquired in college.
21. Majority of the respondents are holding lower management position.
22. Salaries and benefits is the majority answer by respondents for their reason in
changing their job.
23. Most of the respondents plan to up a business for their career plans.

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Recommendation

1. The Government especially the Commission on Higher on Education (CHED) and the
Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) should pursue all the graduate to take
professional examinations for them to be able to land to an eligible type of job and to
heighten its mandate to regulate and supervise the practice of the professionals who
constitute the highly skilled manpower of the country and for the Department of Labor in
Employment(DOLE) in strengthening their mandates and coordination of their response to
critical issues in Philippine Employment and Job Markets.

2. The Polytechnic University of the Philippines Quezon City, Administrative Officials to


organize seminars, symposium, lectures and trainings to the graduating students of the
university focusing in finding jobs after college and through channeling to other
departments of the government and other companies for helping the graduates finding
their jobs after graduation.

3. The parents should fully support their children from studying in their bachelor‘s degree
up to finding their careers after graduation.

4. The graduates should aim for reaching higher job position in their respective jobs, for
them to be able to be honored that they are competing in the world of professionals with
excellence.

5. The future researchers of the same study should have all the drive to trace the graduates
in timely and systematically manner for them to arrive in a very satisfactory result.

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