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Sigmund Freud, by Max Halberstadt, 1921 Sigismund Schlomo Freud 6 May 1856 Born Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia, Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic) 23 September 1939 Died (aged 83) London, England, UK Residence Nationality Austria, UK Austrian Neurology Philosophy Psychiatry Fields Psychology Psychotherapy Psychoanalysis Literature Institutions University of Vienna
Charcot. Schopenhauer. Sophocles. Shakespeare. Kant.P. Dostoyevsky. Influences Jackson. Hartmann. Nietzsche. Darwin. Goethe.Alma mater Known for University of Vienna Psychoanalysis Breuer. J. Haeckel. was an Austrianneurologist who founded the . born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (6 May 1856 ± 23 September 1939). Jacobsen John Bowlby Viktor Frankl Anna Freud Arthur Janov Ernest Jones Influenced Carl Jung Melanie Klein Jacques Lacan Fritz Perls Otto Rank Wilhelm Reich Notable awards Goethe Prize Signature Part of a series of articles on Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud (German pronunciation: [ zi m nt f t]). Mayer.
a wool merchant. the eel life cycle was unknown and Freud spent four weeks at the Austrian zoological research station in Trieste. drawing on psychoanalysis to contribute to the history. in accordance with tradition. in terms of originality and intellectual influence. dissecting hundreds of eels in an unsuccessful search for their male reproductive organs. and had two children by a previous marriage. Due to the economic crisis of 1857. now the Czech Republic. Freud joined the medical faculty at University of Vienna to study under Darwinist Prof. Early life Freud was born on 6 May 1856. but later switched exclusively to cigars. . Freud redefined sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life. interpretation and critique of culture. After planning to study law. which the family accepted as a positive omen. his parents favored him over his siblings from the early stages of his childhood. Jacob. and a psychoanalyst. they sacrificed everything to give him a proper education. Freud was born with a caul. Amalié (née Nathansohn). and interpreted dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. and a prolific essayist. Freud's father lost his business. Freud entered the LeopoldstädterKommunal-Realgymnasium. In 1865.psychoanalyticschool of psychiatry. While many of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor or been modified by other analysts. he smoked cigarettes at first. Despite their poverty. and the family moved to Leipzig before settling in Vienna. He was the first of their eight children and. a prominent high school. to Jewish Galician parents in the Moravian town of P íbor. technically referred to as an "analysand". created the theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship. his work remains influential in clinical approaches. was 41. At that time. and in the humanities and social sciences. and for creating the clinical practice of psychoanalysis for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient. Austrian Empire. Karl Claus. His father. Freud believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work and ability to muster self-control. He was an early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy. and continued despite warnings from Wilhelm Fliess. He is considered one of the most prominent thinkers of the first half of the 20th century. was 21. Freud began smoking at 24. His mother. He was an outstanding pupil and graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors. developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association. Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the defense mechanism of repression. the second wife of Jakob. and modern advances in the field of psychology have shown flaws in some of his theories.
 Charcot specialised in the study of hysteria and susceptibility to hypnosis. Brill. Berggasse 19 Approach to Freud's consulting rooms at Berggasse In October 1885. Ernest Jones. back row: Abraham A. Freud later turned away from . G. Stanley Hall.Development of psychoanalysis Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. SándorFerenczi. Jean-Martin Charcot. Front row: Sigmund Freud. He was later to remember the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. Freud went to Paris on a traveling fellowship to study with Europe's most renowned neurologist and researcher of hypnosis. Carl Jung. which he frequently demonstrated with patients on stage in front of an audience.
he identified it to Freud using the euphemism "a bad leukoplakia" instead of the technical diagnosis epithelioma.. has been regarded by some Freudian scholars (including Peter Gay) as showing that there was a factual basis to these rumors. instead favouringfree association and dream analysis. a benign growth associated with heavy smoking. specializing in neurology. The publication in 2006 of a Swiss hotel log. Freud detected a leukoplakia. Freud considered this time of emotional difficulty to be the most creative time in his life. Charcot himself questioned his own work on hysteria towards the end of his life. who was treated by Freud's colleague Josef Breuer. 67). he came to realize a hostility he felt towards his father. Carl Jung initiated the rumor that a romantic relationship may have developed between Freud and his sister-in-law. Deutsch advised Freud to stop smoking and have the growth excised. minimizing its importance. This came to be known as the "talking cure" and the ultimate goal of this talking was to locate and release powerful emotional energy that had initially been rejected or imprisoned in the unconscious mind. Her father Berman was the son of Isaac Bernays. who was attractive. MinnaBernays. Struggle with cancer In February 1923. Freud was exploring his own dreams. In that time. chief rabbi in Hamburg. The "talking cure" is widely seen as the basis of psychoanalysis. Freud married Martha Bernays in 1886. and the dynamics of his personality development. who advised him to quit smoking but lied about the growth's seriousness. 67). but in April 1923 informed Ernest Jones. Freud often clashed with those supporters who critiqued his theories. Part of the disagreement between the two was in Jung's interest and commitment to religion. he favored treatment where the patient talked through his or her problems. However. p. The term "talking cure" was initially coined by a patient. After the publication of Freud's books in 1900 and 1905. Freud later saw Felix Deutsch. dated 13 August 1898. who saw that the growth was cancerous. Jacob Freud. who had originally supported Freud's ideas. who had moved into Freud's apartment at 19 Berggasse in 1896. Freud "had numerous psychosomatic disorders as well as exaggerated fears of dying and other phobias" (Corey 2001. He also recalled "his childhood sexual feelings for his mother. resulting in an aborted pregnancy for Miss Bernays. Freud was . even capable of causing physical retardation which he described as "psychosomatic". Freud consulted the dermatologist Maximilian Steiner. p. After experimenting with hypnosis on his neurotic patients. and he believed that it was an impediment to the normal functioning of the psyche. on his mouth. After opening his own medical practice. memories. telling him that the growth had been removed. warm. Anna O. In his 40s. interest in his theories began to grow. the most famous being Carl Jung.hypnosis as a potential cure for mental illness. During this self-analysis. Psychologist Hans Eysenck has suggested that the affair occurred. who had died in 1896. Amalia Freud. Freud called this denial of emotions "repression". which Freud saw as unscientific. and a circle of supporters developed in the following period. Freud abandoned this form of treatment as it proved ineffective for many. and protective" (Corey 2001. Freud initially kept this secret.
Deutsch saw that further surgery would be required. In June 1938. Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss.. Sauerwald had been a student of Professor Josef Herzig.S. This led to violent outbursts of anti-Semitism in Vienna. Now they are content with burning my books. while "he had made bombs for the Nazi movement. ´ Freud's four sisters perished in Nazi Concentration Camps. Finally. Freud quipped: ³ What progress we are making." ´ Sauerwald was then released from U. and Freud's books were prominent among those burned and destroyed by the Nazis." At the University of Vienna. intervened to protect Sauerwald.. Sauerwald. dismayed by a Nazi order to transform Freud's home into an institute for the study of Aryan superiority. Freud received the Goethe Prize in appreciation of his contribution to psychology and to German literary culture. a rhinologist whose competence he had previously questioned. Freud decided to go into exile "to die in freedom". Freud bled during and after the operation. he had also studied medicine. Freud left Vienna aboard the Orient Express train and settled in London. custody. . where they were hidden. a Nazi official given control over all Freud's assets in Austria. In March 1938. One year later (on 30 January 1933). who often visited Freud to play cards. was not an ordinary Nazi. Sauerwald signed Sigmund Freud's exit visa. however.. and may narrowly have escaped death. While Freud told a local newspaper that "all my money and property in Vienna is gone". Freud subsequently saw Deutsch again. he was fortuitously assisted by Anton Sauerwald. chemistry and law. [Sauerwald]. a US army officer who had had Sauerwaldarrested. In this goal. In the Middle Ages they would have burned me. Sauerwald and an accomplice smuggled them to the Austrian national library. Hajek performed an unnecessary cosmetic surgery in the his clinic's outpatient department. Sigmund Freud's daughter. When Anton Sauerwald went to trial on charges of absconding with Freud¶s secret wealth after the war.treated by Marcus Hajek. Without him we would never have got away. Escape from Austria and final years In 1932. that: ³ "[The] truth is that we really owe our lives and our freedom to . but refrained from telling Freud that he had cancer because he was worried that Freud might wish to commit suicide. Sauerwald did not disclose to his Nazi superiors that Freud had many secret bank accounts and disobeyed a Nazi directive to have Freud's books on psychoanalysis destroyed. She disclosed to Harry Freud. and Freud and his family received visits from the Gestapo. the Nazis took control of Germany. Instead. he did not mention his secret bank accounts. Anna Freud.
you remember our 'contract' not to leave me in the lurch when the time had come. London. Freud. They rest in an ancient Greek urn that Freud received as a present from Marie Bonaparte. Hampstead. "Schur. There is a statue of him at the corner of Belsize Lane and Fitzjohn's Avenue. including the author Stefan Zweig. persuaded his doctor and friend Max Schur to help him commit suicide." Anna Freud wanted to postpone Freud's death. In his philosophical writings he advocated an atheistic world view. "I thank you. who was suffering from cancer and in severe pain. Freud said." When Schur said that he had not forgotten. and on September 21 and 22 administered doses of morphine that resulted in Freud's death on 23 September 1939. he was eulogized as "'the atheist's touchstone' for the 20th century. Three days after his death. then make an end of it.After arriving in Britain. After reading Balzac's La Peau de chagrin in a single sitting. Freud's ideas Freud has been influential in two related but distinct ways: he simultaneously developed a theory of the human mind's organization and internal operations and a theory that human behavior both conditions and results from how the mind is organized. He theorized that personality is developed by a person's childhood experiences. In September 1939. Freud and his family settled in 20 Maresfield Gardens. near Swiss Cottage. After Martha Freud's death in 1951. Freud's body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium in England during a service attended by Austrian refugees. Now it is nothing but torture and makes no sense. he said." Early work ." and then "Talk it over with Anna. and which he had kept in his study in Vienna for many years. This led him to favor certain clinical techniques for trying to help cure mental illness. and if she thinks it's right. but Schur convinced her it was pointless to keep him alive. her ashes were also placed in the urn. His ashes were later placed in the crematorium's columbarium.
Another important element of psychoanalysis is lesser direct involvement on the part of the analyst. Sigmund and Anna Freud lived at 20 Maresfield Gardens. Their house is now a museum dedicated to Freud's life and work. Anna O. which was then known as "cerebral paralysis. The goal of Freudian therapy. However. North London. spent three short periods in sanatoria with the diagnosis "hysteria" with "somatic symptoms. was to bring repressed thoughts and feelings into consciousness in order to free the patient from suffering repetitive distorted emotions. the patient can discover and resolve repressed conflicts. He took nine years to complete his studies. and most of her symptoms had disappeared by April 1881. The origin of Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Josef Breuer. or psychoanalysis. near this statue. Breuer began to see his patient almost every day as the symptoms increased and became more persistent. he suggested that complications in birth were only a symptom. and showed that the disease existed long before other researchers of the period began to notice and study it. a major psychological health care institution. He found that when. specifically investigation of the sexual anatomy of eels and the physiology of the fish nervous system. and observed that she entered states of absence. with his encouragement. especially childhood conflicts involving parents. receiving his M. Freud credited Breuer with opening the way to the discovery of the psychoanalytical method by his treatment of the case of Anna O. He was also an early researcher in the field of cerebral palsy. He also suggested that William Little. Instead. due to his interest in neurophysiological research. The building behind the statue is the Tavistock Clinic. Classically." He published several medical papers on the topic. including visual disorders and paralysis and contractures of limbs. the bringing of unconscious thoughts and feelings to consciousness is brought about by encouraging a patient to talk in free association and to talk about dreams. (A contrary view has been published by Richard Skues.Sigmund Freud memorial in Hampstead. In November 1880 Breuer was called in to treat a highly intelligent 21-year-old woman (Bertha Pappenheim) for a persistent cough which he diagnosed as hysterical. Through this process.D. In the years immediately following Breuer's treatment. was wrong about lack of oxygen during birth being a cause." and some authors have challenged Breuer's published account of a cure. Freud began his study of medicine at the University of Vienna. she told fantasy stories in her evening states of absence her condition improved. which he also diagnosed as hysterical. He entered private practice in neurology for financial reasons. Breuer recorded that some of the symptoms eventually remitted spontaneously. and that full recovery was achieved by inducing her to recall events that had precipitated the occurrence of a specific symptom. the man who first identified cerebral palsy. Freud hoped that his research would provide a solid scientific basis for his therapeutic technique. which is meant to encourage the patient to project thoughts and feelings onto the analyst. He found that while nursing her dying father she had developed a number of transitory symptoms. transference. degree in 1881 at the age of 25. following the death of her father in that month her condition deteriorated again.) .
 In the first half of 1896 Freud published three papers stating that he had uncovered. Freud's clinical procedures involved analytic inference and the symbolic interpretation of symptoms to trace back to memories of infantile sexual abuse.In the early 1890s Freud used a form of treatment based on the one that Breuer had described to him. especially because this would turn out to be one of the few safe uses of cocaine. According to Freud's later accounts of this period. The patients were subjected to considerable pressure to "reproduce" infantile sexual abuse "scenes" that Freud was convinced had been repressed into the unconscious. He narrowly missed out on obtaining scientific priority for discovering its anesthetic properties of which he was aware but had not written extensively. As well as his pressure technique. whose surgery proved disastrous. Another version of events focuses on Freud's proposing that unconscious memories of infantile sexual abuse were at the root of the psychoneuroses in letters to Wilhelm Fliess in October 1895. Freud felt that cocaine would work as a panacea and wrote a well-received paper. Cocaine As a medical researcher. but then came to believe that they were fantasies. He explained these at first as having the function of "fending off" memories of infantile masturbation. Karl Koller. Freud was bruised by this. In these papers Freud recorded that his patients were not consciously aware of these memories. He reported that even after a supposed "reproduction" of sexual scenes the patients assured him emphatically of their disbelief. Freud was an early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant as well as analgesic. Fliess operated on the noses of Freud and a number of Freud's patients' whom he believed to be suffering the disorder. He believed these stories. He prescribed it to his friend Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow to help him overcome a morphine addiction acquired while treating a disease of the nervous system. His claim of one hundred percent confirmation of his theory only served to reinforce previously expressed reservations from his colleagues about the validity of findings obtained through his suggestive techniques. but in later years he wrote that they represented Oedipal fantasies. Patients were generally unconvinced that their experiences of Freud's clinical procedure indicated actual sexual abuse. modified by what he called his "pressure technique" and his newly developed analytic technique of interpretation and reconstruction. before he reported that he had actually discovered such abuse among his patients. a colleague of Freud's in Vienna. Freud's medical reputation became somewhat tarnished because of this early . as reports of addiction and overdose began to filter in from many places in the world. who recommended cocaine for the treatment of "nasal reflex neurosis". explaining its virtues. as a result of his use of this procedure most of his patients in the mid-1890s reported early childhood sexual abuse. and must therefore be present as unconscious memories if they were to result in hysterical symptoms or obsessional neurosis. deeply repressed memories of sexual abuse in early childhood. "On Coca". in all of his current patients. received that distinction in 1884 after reporting to a medical society the ways cocaine could be used in delicate eye surgery. Freud also recommended cocaine to many of his close family and friends. He wrote several articles on the antidepressant qualities of the drug and he was influenced by friend and confidant Wilhelm Fliess. including Emma Eckstein.
ambition. William James. Thus. wrote The Psychology of Suggestion: A Research into the Subconscious Nature of Man and Society in 1898. One key factor in the operation of the unconscious is "repression". However. Freud's friend Fleischl-Marxow developed an acute case of "cocaine psychosis" as a result of Freud's prescriptions and died a few years later. He managed to move on although some speculate that he continued to use cocaine after this event. Some critics have suggested that most of Freud's psychoanalytical theory was a byproduct of his cocaine use. The descriptive unconscious referred to all those features of mental life of which people are not subjectively aware. . examined the way Schopenhauer. Freud believed that many people "repress" painful memories deep into their unconscious mind. and studied under William James. as psychologist Jacques Van Rillaer pointed out. such as condensation and displacement. they become organized by principles different from those of the conscious mind. in Principles of Psychology his monumental treatise on psychology.Boris Sidis. Freud distinguished between three concepts of the unconscious: the descriptive unconscious. when psychoanalysis was still unheard of. In 1890. referred to mental processes and contents that are defensively removed from consciousness as a result of conflicting attitudes. a Russian Jew who emigrated to the United States of America in 1887. The system unconscious denoted the idea that when mental processes are repressed. he also observed that repression varies among individual patients. von Hartmann. Later." Freud's advance was not to uncover the unconscious but to devise a method for systematically studying it. Furthermore. followed by ten or more works over the next twenty five years on similar topics to the works of Freud. the dynamic unconscious. its contents could be accessed with a little effort. and the system unconscious. This meant that dreams illustrate the "logic" of the unconscious mind. The Unconscious Perhaps the most significant contribution Freud made to Western thought were his arguments concerning the importance of the unconscious mind in understanding conscious thought and behavior. people are unaware of the fact that they have buried memories or traumatic experiences. Binet and others had used the term 'unconscious' and 'subconscious'". Janet. Freud felt great regret over these events. a more specific construct. The dynamic unconscious. "contrary to what most people believe. Freud also argued that the act of repression did not take place within a person's consciousness. dubbed by later biographers as "The Cocaine Incident". Freud developed his first topology of the psyche in The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) in which he proposed that the unconscious exists and described a method for gaining access to it. the unconscious was not discovered by Freud. Historian of psychology Mark Altschule concluded. Although Freud later attempted to find patterns of repression among his patients in order to derive a general model of the mind. Freud called dreams the "royal road to the unconscious". The preconscious was described as a layer between conscious and unconscious thought. "It is difficult²or perhaps impossible²to find a nineteenth-century psychologist or psychiatrist who did not recognize unconscious cerebration as not only real but of the highest importance.
Males are afraid of losing their masculinity. Freud always recognized that some neurotics had in fact been sexually abused by their fathers. although Freud did not advocate its use. the unconscious desires the phallus (penis). During the late 1890s Freud. (The term 'Electra complex' is sometimes used to refer to such a fixation on the father. then in the anal stage (exemplified by a toddler's pleasure in evacuating his or her bowels). they become fixated on different and specific objects through their stages of development²first in the oral stage (exemplified by an infant's pleasure in nursing). He noted finding many cases in which apparent memories of childhood sexual abuse were based more on imagination than on real events. Psychosexual development Main article: Psychosexual development Freud hoped to prove that his model was universally valid and thus turned to ancient mythology and contemporary ethnography for comparative material. Throughout his career. This is because. who never abandoned his belief in the sexual etiology of neuroses. Freud originally posited childhood sexual abuse as a general explanation for the origin of neuroses. Freud named his new theory the Oedipus complex after the famous Greek tragedyOedipus Rex by Sophocles. Despite this change in his explanatory model. then in the phallic stage. symbolized . Freud's views have sometimes been called phallocentric. for Freud. and jealousy of my father. but he abandoned this so-called "seduction theory" as insufficiently explanatory. I now consider this to be a universal event in childhood." Freud said. He argued that humans are born "polymorphously perverse". Freud argued that children then passed through a stage in which they fixated on the mother as a sexual object (known as the Oedipus Complex) but that the child eventually overcame and repressed this desire because of its taboo nature. Freud also believed that the libido developed in individuals by changing its object. and id.Eventually. He further argued that. a process codified by the concept of sublimation. as humans develop. characterized by a strong ego and the ability to delay gratification (cf. Freud sought to anchor this pattern of development in the dynamics of the mind. super-ego. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality). he retained the descriptive and dynamic conceptions of the unconscious. He used the Oedipus conflict to point out how much he believed that people desire incest and must repress that desire. replacing it with the concept of the ego. Each stage is a progression into adult sexual maturity. He also turned to anthropological studies of totemism and argued that totemism reflected a ritualized enactment of a tribal Oedipal conflict.) The repressive or dormant latency stage of psychosexual development preceded the sexually mature genital stage of psychosexual development. began to emphasize fantasies built around the Oedipus complex as the primary cause of hysteria and other neurotic symptoms. He explicitly discussed several patients whom he knew to have been abused. meaning that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. Freud abandoned the idea of the system unconscious. "I found in myself a constant love for my mother. The Oedipus conflict was described as a state of psychosexual development and awareness. however.
When overburdened or threatened by its tasks. whose energy is known as anticathexis. which takes into account no special circumstances in which the morally right thing may not be right for a given situation. and preconscious).e. Females always desire to have a phallus²an unfulfillable desire. Freud discussed this model in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle. unpleasure refers to stimulus that the body receives. The super-ego is the moral component of the psyche.) .. The rational ego attempts to exact a balance between the impractical hedonism of the id and the equally impractical moralism of the super-ego. The theory of ego defense mechanisms has received empirical validation. it may employ defense mechanisms including denial. ego. the bombardment of visual stimuli amidst rush hour traffic produces anxiety. According to Freud. Id.. and sex) and the death drive (Thanatos). Thus boys resent their fathers (fear of castration) and girls desire theirs. lifeproducing drives. Freud recognized the death drive only in his later years and developed his theory of it in Beyond the Pleasure Principle. and super-ego In his later work. propagation. Benjamin Franklin (1706± 1790) described the game of chess as a way to ". Life and death drives Freud believed that humans were driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (libido/Eros) (survival. in which he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (i. unconscious.by the phallus. ego. in particular. Freud proposed that the human psyche could be divided into three parts: Id.keep the mind fit and the ego in check". excessive friction on the skin's surface produces a burning sensation. and super-ego Main article: Id. conscious. The term ego entered the English language in the late 18th century. included all creative. and displacement. and super-ego. as early as 1898. (For example. thirst. whose energy is known as libido. to another male. ego. The death drive (or death instinct). and the nature of repression. Freud's description of Cathexis. became one of the more fiercely debated areas of psychology in the 1990s. in which it is attributed to William James. and fully elaborated upon it in The Ego and the Id (1923). it is the part of the psyche that is usually reflected most directly in a person's actions. hunger. represented an urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm: in other words. Freud approached the paradox between the life drives and the death drives by defining pleasure and unpleasure. an inorganic or dead state. The id is the impulsive. child-like portion of the psyche that operates on the "pleasure principle" and only takes into account what it wants and disregards all consequences. or. Freud acknowledged that his use of the term Id (das Es. "the It") derives from the writings of Georg Groddeck.. repression. The term Id appears in the earliest writing of Boris Sidis.
the body. which leads to death. pleasure is a result of a decrease in stimuli (for example. Freud's concept of penis envy²and his definition of female as a . or deaden. This compulsion to repeat unpleasurable experiences explains why traumatic nightmares occur in dreams. One influential post-Freudian psychotherapy has been the primal therapy of the American psychologist Arthur Janov. fraudulently misrepresented case histories and that "what is true in Freud is not new and what is new in Freud is not true". These ideas resemble aspects of the philosophies of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche. Similarly. However. On the other hand. consistently mis-diagnosed his patients. Critics include H. as nightmares seem to contradict Freud's earlier conception of dreams purely as a site of pleasure. said in 1975 that psychoanalysis is the "most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century". The tension between life drive and death drive represented a revolution in his manner of thinking. the life drives promote survival by avoiding extreme unpleasure and any threat to life. the life drive clearly parallels much of Nietzsche's concept of the Dionysian in The Birth of Tragedy. However. He and psychoanalysis have been criticized in very extreme terms. expounded in The World as Will and Representation. the death drive functions simultaneously toward extreme pleasure. describes a renunciation of the will to live that corresponds on many levels with Freud's Death Drive. who wrote that Freud 'set psychiatry back one hundred years'. Freud's legacy Psychotherapy Freud's theories and research methods have always been controversial. Freud's contributions to psychotherapy have been extensively criticized and defended by many scholars and historians. Given this proposition. J. a Nobel Prize winning immunologist. Eysenck. in his discussions on masochism and sadomasochism. Peter Medawar.Conversely. even if they reject his theories. Freud acknowledged the tendency for the unconscious to repeat unpleasurable experiences in order to desensitize. Many psychotherapists follow Freud's approach to an extent. then the ultimate experience of pleasure for Freud would be zero stimulus. Freud has had a tremendous impact on psychotherapy. Betty Friedan also criticised Freud and his Victorian slant on women in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. as well as sex/life and death. a calm environment the body enters after having been subjected to a hectic environment). Schopenhauer's pessimistic philosophy. For an often-quoted example. fantasy. On the one hand. and desire. or death. Freud denied having been acquainted with their writings before he formulated the groundwork of his own ideas. Freud addressed the conceptual dualities of pleasure and unpleasure. If pleasure increases as stimuli decreases.
he disguised fragments of his self-analysis as µobjective¶ cases. that he slandered his opponents. and to a certain extent it makes use of the same methods. "The truth is that Freud knew from the very start that Fleischl. David Stafford-Clark summed up criticism of Freud: "Psychoanalysis was and will always be Freud's original creation.. as told by its adherents.. still less to invoke it 'without too much of Freud'. Philosophy Freud did not consider himself a philosopher. who was one of the main supporters of the ideas of the unconscious and empathy. as well as Theodor Lipps. that he concealed his sources. "The story of Freud and the creation of psychodynamic therapy. Anna O. and yet he did not hesitate to build grand theories on these non-existent foundations."It's like supporting the theory of evolution 'without too much of Darwin'. If psychoanalysis is to be treated seriously at all. and then to cure. Freud's theories have had a . psychoanalysis involved "self-discovery" and even social criticism. It is manifest injustice. although he greatly admired Franz Brentano.negative²was attacked by Kate Millett. Its discovery. is a self-serving myth". For Lacan. both seriously and with equal objectivity. Ethan Watters and Richard Ofshe wrote. and it succeeded insofar as it provided emancipatory self-awareness. and his 18 patients were not cured. that he conveniently antedated some of his analyses. that he inflated his therapeutic successes. that he sometimes attributed to his patients µfree associations¶ that he himself made up. In his 1932 lecture on psychoanalysis as "a philosophy of life" Freud commented on the distinction between science and philosophy: Philosophy is not opposed to science. it behaves itself as if it were a science." Jacques Lacan saw attempts to locate pathology in. MikkelBorch-Jacobsen wrote in a review of Han Israëls's book Der Fall Freud published in The London Review of Books that. as well as wantonly insulting. known for his theory of perception. which was a key element of much modern philosophy. one must take into account. Its methodological error lies in the fact that it over-estimates the epistemological value of our logical operations. to commend psychoanalysis. but it parts company with science. and constant revision formed his life's work. exploration. whose 1970 book Sexual Politics explained confusion and oversights in his work. the individual as more characteristic of American ego psychology than of proper psychoanalysis. though in fact that picture must needs fall to pieces with every new advance in our knowledge. in that it clings to the illusion that it can produce a complete and coherent picture of the universe. the original theories of Sigmund Freud. such as intuition. Freud's model of the mind is often considered a challenge to the enlightenment model of rational agency. and to a certain extent admits the validity of other sources of knowledge. investigation.Naomi Weisstein wrote that Freud and his followers erroneously thought that his "years of intensive clinical experience" added up to scientific rigor.
Little Hans (Herbert Graf.Fräulein Katharina (Aurelia Kronich). 1887± . (Ilona Weiss). being regarded instead as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.JaakPanksepp. (Bertha Pappenheim. and repression. Recently.neuro-psychoanalysis has received contributions from researchers including Oliver Sacks. Freud once openly admitted to avoiding the work of Nietzsche. and despite also 'diagnosing' the death of a God. Cäcilie M. (Anna von Lieben). Dora (Ida Bauer. Founded by South African neuroscientist Mark Solms. Some patients known by pseudonyms were Anna O. however. 1878±1914). vociferously rejected the conjecture of 'scientific' men. Still other clinical researchers have recently found empirical support for more specific hypotheses of Freud such as that of the "repetition compulsion" in relation to psychological trauma. chose instead to embrace the animal desires (or 'Dionysian energies') the humanist Freud sought to reject through positivism. and Wolf Man (Sergei Pankejeff. according to a recent APA study. Following the "return to Freud" of the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan.. Patients Freud's couch used during psychoanalytic sessions Freud used pseudonyms in his case histories. LeDoux. (Fanny Moser). Science Austrian-British philosopher Karl Popper argued that Freud's psychoanalytic theories were presented in untestable form.tremendous effect on the Frankfurt school and critical theory. pointing out brain structures relating to Freudian concepts such as libido. researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis have argued for Freud's theories. Fräulein Lucy R. 1859±1936). 1903±1973). however. AntónioDamásio.Eric Kandel. 1882±1945). Fräulein Elisabeth von R. drives. and Joseph E. Many of the people identified only by pseudonyms were traced to their true identities by Peter Swales. the unconscious. and Freudian theory has been marginalized. Douglas Watt. "whose guesses and intuitions often agree in the most astonishing way with the laborious findings of psychoanalysis". Frau Emmy von N. Rat Man (Ernst Lanzer. Psychology departments in American universities today are scientifically oriented. Nietzsche. Freud had an incisive influence on some French philosophers.
Moses and Monotheism. Leonardo da Vinci. extended consultation. but who were not patients. with whom Freud had only a single. among all his patients.1979). They believed that his ideas could do more for the treatment of neurotic patients than any other method. analyzed in Freud's book. and started a system he called Individual psychology. Leonardo da Vinci. Freud was "unable to document a single unambiguously efficacious treatment". Emma Eckstein (1865±1924). Followers Alfred Adler Freud spent most of his life in Vienna. Gustav Mahler (1860±1911). included Daniel Paul Schreber (1842±1911). where a brilliant group of followers formed around him. on whom Freud co-authored an analysis with primary writer William Bullitt. Critics of Freud argue that. and Princess Marie Bonaparte. Woodrow Wilson (1856±1924). People on whom psychoanalytic observations were published. in Freud's paper. . Giordano Bruno. and Josef Popper-Lynkeus. The most famous of these are Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung. These people spread their ideas throughout Europe and America. whom Freud analyzed in his essay. Moses. Michelangelo. in Freud's book. Some of them subsequently withdrew from the original psychoanalytic society and founded their own divergent schools. Adler eventually realized that his views were different from Freud's.D. A Memory of His Childhood. (1886±1961). Other famous patients included H. "The Moses of Michelangelo". Around 1910. Alfred Adler began to pay attention to some of the conscious personality factors and gradually deviated from Freud's basic ideas. "Josef Popper-Lynkeus and the Theory of Dreams". including the perceptions of the importance of infant hunger for life and the driving force of unconscious cruelty.
1887±1904. Horney is now considered a Neo-Freudian. Publisher: Belknap Press. the patient is able to continue the analysis without the supervision of the doctor.Carl Jung In 1912 Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (published in English in 1916 as Psychology of the Unconscious) and it became clear that his views were taking a direction quite different from those of Freud. JensensGradiva. 1986. She claimed that some people can achieve a clear understanding of their unconscious stress without the supervision of experienced analysts. Jung called it analytical psychology. 1905) Delusion and Dream in Jensen's Gradiva (Der Wahn und die Träume in W. 24 volumes. 1907) Totem and Taboo (Totem und Tabu. Major works by Freud y y y y y y y y y The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. one of whose primary contributions was to introduce a new method of psychoanalysis²introspection. 1905) Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious (Der Witz und seine BeziehungzumUnbewußten. 1899 ) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (ZurPsychopathologie des Alltagslebens. Horney believed that in some cases. in accordance with the Life+70 law of copyright. the works of Sigmund Freud passed into the Public Domain. In collaboration with Anna Freud. To distinguish his system from psychoanalysis. 1901) Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (DreiAbhandlungenzurSexualtheorie. 1895) The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess. Bibliography On 1 January 2010. Assisted by Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson. translated from the German under the General Editorship of James Strachey. if he has already mastered the technique. 1999 Studies on Hysteria (with Josef Breuer) (StudienüberHysterie. ISBN 0-674-15421-5 The Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung. Vintage. 1913) . Another follower of Freud was Karen Horney.
1908-1939. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-674-17418-6 The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and SándorFerenczi. Freud: Biologist of the Mind (1979) Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson. 1914) Introduction to Psychoanalysis (VorlesungenzurEinführung in die Psychoanalyse. (New York: W. letters. 2000. Publisher: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-674-15420-7 The Sigmund Freud Carl Gustav Jung Letters. W. Publisher: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. 1985. 1887±1904. ISBN 0-674-17419-4 The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and SándorFerenczi. 1920) The Ego and the Id (Das Ich und das Es. ISBN 0-345-45279-8 Peter Gay. Harvard University Press. 1917) Beyond the Pleasure Principle (Jenseits des Lustprinzips. ISBN 0-674-15424-X The Sigmund Freud Ludwig Binswanger Letters. Publisher: New York: Basic Books. 1995. (1953±1958) Frank Sulloway. Harvard University Press. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. ISBN 0-674-00297-0 The Letters of Sigmund Freud to Eduard Silberstein. 2000. ISBN 0-8147-2585-6 Letters of Sigmund Freud . 1927) Civilization and Its Discontents (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur. Harvard University Press. Volume 2. Harvard University Press. Volume 1. 1939) An Outline of Psycho-Analysis (Abriß der Psychoanalyse. Belknap Press. ISBN 1-85575-051-1 The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones. 1987. 1996. 1907-1925. Freud: His Life and His Mind (1947) Ernest Jones. 1972. Publisher: Open Gate Press. (editor and translator Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson). 1994. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-471-07858-6 . Abr edition . Belknap Press. Freud: Darkness in the Midst of Vision. 1908-1914. 1988) Louis Breger. (New York: Wiley. 3 vols. Publisher: New York University Press. 1994. 1871-1881. 2002. 2000). Ballantine Books (November 2003). Belknap Press. Volume 3. ISBN 0-486-27105-6 Biographies y y y y y y Helen Walker Puner. 1940) Correspondence y y y y y y y y y y y y The Complete Letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess. ISBN 0-15-133490-0 The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Arnold Zweig. Belknap Press. ISBN 1-871871-45-X The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and SándorFerenczi. 1923) The Future of an Illusion (Die Zukunfteiner Illusion. ISBN 0-691-03643-8 The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham. 1960. 1930) Moses and Monotheism (Der Mann Moses und die monotheistische Religion.y y y y y y y y On Narcissism (ZurEinführung des Narzißmus. 1914-1919. The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory. 1920-1933. Publisher: Karnac Books. ISBN 0-674-52828-X Sigmund Freud and Lou Andreas-Salome. Harvard University Press.. Freud: A Life for Our Time.selected and edited by Ernst Ludwig Freud.
1917-1985. eds. Paul. Frank. 1989. Ellenberger.: The MIT Press. Nathan G. New York: Oxford University Press. Freud. Henri. Ricoeur. Oxford: The Orwell Press. Jr. New York University Press.. Beyond the Unconscious: Essays of Henri F. Derrida. Ellenberger in the History of Psychiatry. 1960) Further reading y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Cioffi.. London: Hogarth Press. 2007. Freud and Philosophy. For What Tomorrow. Lear. Hale. New York: Continuum. London: Cape. Paul. Killing Freud: Twentieth-Century Culture and the Death of Psychoanalysis. 1982. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. Peru. Carl Gustav. Henri. Science and Psychoanalysis. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Freud: Conflict and Culture. IL: Open Court. Elisabeth. Roazen. 2005. Roth. G. 1969. 1980. Hale. 1993.. 1961. 1971. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Jr. Wollheim. Elisabeth. Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin. ed. Richard. The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States: Freud and the Americans. Mass. Richard. 1970. Hirschmüller.y Philip Rieff. Dufresne. Greatness and Limitations of Freud's Thought. Freud and His Followers. New York: Knopf. Roazen. 1998. Paul. Against Freud: Critics Talk Back. Jung Volume 4: Freud and Psychoanalysis. Todd. 1995. Philosophical Essays on Freud. Cambridge. Fromm.. 1997. Todd. Freud: The Mind of the Moralist. Albrecht. ed. Webster. Roudinesco. New York: Vintage. 1970. New York and London: Routledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Freud: Political and Social Thought. Freud Evaluated: The Completed Arc. Malcolm. . New York: Vintage. Jonathan. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. Fontana. Ellenberger. Why Psychoanalysis? New York: Columbia University Press. 2005. 1999. New Haven: Yale University Press. New York: Basic Books. Secrets of the Soul: A Social and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis. The Life and Work of Josef Breuer. Jacques &Roudinesco. 2004.Routledge&Kegan Paul Ltd. Michael. Freud. Eli. (Victor Gollancz. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Freud and the Americans: The Beginnings of Psychoanalysis in the United States. The Collected Works of C. 1975. Erich. 1876-1917. Freud and the Question of Pseudoscience. Zaretsky. and James Hopkins. Jung. 2003. Dufresne. 1971. 2003. Wollheim. Richard. 2005. Macmillan. Nathan G.
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