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Introduction to Dyeing:
The process by which a textile material is changed physically and chemically so its looks colorful is called dyeing. It is happened between textile materials and dye solution in the dye bath.

Raw materials:
The following raw materials is used in the dyeing process Cellulosic fabric or yarn Example Cotton, Viscose Protein fabric or yarn-Example Wool, Silk Synthetic fabric or yarn-Example Polyester, Nylon etc

Dyes or Pigment:
Dyes: Dyes are colored, unsaturated organic chemical compounds capable of giving color to textile
material. The dyes contain chromospheres group, which determine the color. Mainly two types of dyes are used for dyeing .The are1. Water soluble dyes Example-Direct dyes, Acid dyes, Basic dyes, Reactive dyes 2. Water insoluble dyes Example-Vat dyes, Sulphur dyes, Azoic dyes , Disperse dyes & Mordant dyes. Pigments: Pigments are insoluble coloring matters, mostly of mineral origin, have been used from earliest times for the coloration of metals, wood, stone, and other substance as paints in association with oil or water. The pigments which are applied by means of binding agent.

Chemicals: 
         Acids Alkali Salts Oxidizing agents Reducing agents Wetting agent Levelling agent Sequestering agent Anti foaming agent Anti creasing agent

Auxiliaries:

Dyeing machines:
Mainly two types of dyeing machine are used for dyeing of the textile materials such as Yarn dyeing machines  Fabric dyeing machines Yarn dyeing machine: Yarn dyeing are used for two form of yarn

Hank form: 
   Hussong hang dyeing machine GSH hang dyeing machine Pulsator hang dyeing machine Clauder Weldon hank dyeing machine

Package form:
Cop dyeing machine: Example-Mather& plate cop dyeing m/c Cheese dyeing machine: Example-Franklin cheese dyeing m/c Warp dyeing machine: Example-Ball warp dyeing m/c P age |1

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Fabric dyeing machine: 
              Jet dyeing machine (Knitted woven) Jigger dyeing machine(woven) Winch dyeing machine(knitted) Pad dyeing machine or padding mangle dyeing machine Molten metal stand fast dyeing machine Temperature Time pH of the dye bath M:L ratio(As less as possible) Concentration of dye and chemical used Pressure etc Air Electricity Gas Compressed air

Dyeing parameters:

Utilities:

Spray Type Automatic Hang Dyeing Machine:
The GSH dyeing machine is one kind of spry type dyeing machine which is used for dyeing the hang form of yarn.

Features of GSH hang dyeing machine:
The hang poles situated at the top and bottom of the carrier frame. Have perforated tubes through which the dye liquor circulates in one direction only. Dyeing time can be reduced because of the better accessibility of the yarn to the liquor. The hang are stationary, so that they remain in excellent condition for winding. The machine is particularly suitable for acrylic yarn. The circulating system makes it possible to cool synthetic fibers. Manufacturing country Kyoto ,Japan

Advantages: 
        It is suitable for acrylic yarn It reduce the dyeing time of yarn Easy to operate and easy to enter and let out of the fabric of the machine. The fiber is not damage due to low tension Discontinuous process. This plant requires more space Difficult to maintain uniform temperature. Uneven dyeing due to folding. It process also slow and costly.

Disadvantages:

Package Dyeing Machine: Features: 
The yarn wound onto the stainless steel cones or cheese before dyeing.  The spiral spring type of cheese holder is covered with sheet of porous paper to make manipulation during winding and the removal of any residue of unwound yarn easier. P age |2

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The winding machine should yield a soft cheese so that there is not to much obstruction to be flow of the liquor.  The cheese, cones or other packages are loaded into the perforated vertical tubes of the carrier which drop into a seating in the dye vessel.  When the dye vessel is open to the atmosphere it is only practical to have circulation from inside to outside.  If the internal and external diameters of a cheese are 1.75 inch and 6 inch and the length 5.5 inch then the surface area will be 13.22 inch2 on the inside and 156.4 inch2 on the outside.  In order to obtain a two way flow the dye vessel must be closed and capable of with standing pressure of up to 20 lb/in2.Such machine designed to operate at 100

Advantages: 
It is more preferable because on amount of cones or cheese, uniform diameter, they tend to give more level dyeing.  By using package dyeing we can reduce the time consumption of dyeing.

Jet Dyeing Machine:
Jet dyeing machine is a discontinuous dyeing machine. Which is used for fabric dyeing of the textile mill. The Jet dyeing machine may be classified with respect to the means of moving the fabric. These the high temperature rope dyeing machine may be classified as follows Special high temperature winches.  Jet dyeing machine with additional winch or drive roller.  Partially flooded Jet dyeing machine.  Fully flooded Jet dyeing machine.  Machines based on over flow system with winch drive.

Features: 
Modern discontinuous dyeing machine.  Used for woven ie synthetic fabric.  Both dye liquor and fabrics are circulated.  Generally of two types, vertical and horizontal.  Time is required 6-8 hours.  Dyeing temperature 150c.  M:L ratio 120:130.  Machine capacity is normally 150kg.  Pressure up to 5.2 bar.  It is completely closed vessel dyeing machine.  The fabric dyed in rope form.  Connection 6N 3/8 . Manufacturing Company: Roaches IS 2000 Manufacturing Country: Switzerland

Throttle valve Horizontal jet Fabric

Heat exchanger

Pump to circulate liquor

Fig: Jet-dyeing machine

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Advantages: 
        Uniform dyeing is possible. Knitted fabric can be used. M:L ratio is very small and easily adjustable. No risk of long time. Easy to maintain uniform temperature through the machine. Discontinuous process. Elongation of the fabric due to tension. Crease of fabric may be damaged. Slight dark mark is found of the fabric for relax of shrinkage fabric

Disadvantages:

Mathis Laboratory Jigger Dyeing Machine:
Jigger dyeing machine is a discontinuous dyeing machine which is used for dyeing of woven fabrics. Fabric is dyed in open width in uniform tension. There are four types of Jigger dyeing machine.  Mather and plate Jigger dyeing machine.  Closed Jigger dyeing machine.  Cyclotric high performance Jigger dyeing machine.  Mather laboratory Jigger dyeing machine.

Features: 
          Discontinuous dyeing machine. Fabric is dyed in open width in uniform tension. Fabric moves but liquor does not circulate. M:L is 1:7 to 1:10. In normal atmospheric pressure and 1000C temperature fabric can be dyed. Time is required 4-10 hours for dyeing. Capacity is 5-10 yards fabric. It is used specially for woven fabric. Roller rotates clockwise and anticlockwise direction. Required voltage 2.30 V. Motor power 2KW.

Take up Roller

Manufacturing Company: Werner Mathis AG. Manufacturing Country: Switzerland. Type no: WJ8484.

Guide Roller

Advantages: 
          High speed dyeing machine. Low M:L ratio. Better dye penetration. No crease mark in fabric. Economic dyeing process. Used for cotton fabric especially for woven fabric. Uneven dyeing in fabric selvedge. Week fabric may be damaged due to more tension. Heat may be lost due to roller. FIG: Jigger Dyeing Machine Discontinuous process. Dyeing room become dirty and hazard.

Dye Liquor

Disadvantages:

Steam Pipe

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Mathis Laboratory Winch Dyeing Machine:
The fabric is immersed and pulled on from dye liquor with help of winch and guide roller. So it name winch dyeing machine. It is mainly used for knit fabric dyeing.

Features: 
Discontinuous type dyeing machine  Essentially consists of a heating container and a revolving winch.  In the machine fabric moves but liquor does not moves.  The fabric is dyed by endless chain of the two ends of the fabric.  M:L ratio 1:20 to 1:40  Winch speed is 70 to 80 m/min  Fabric moving speed is 30 to 80 m/min  Motor power is 2.2 KW  Voltage is required 230 V  Mainly used for knit fabric.  Dyeing temperature up to 950C is possible Manufacturing country- Switzerland Machine name- Werner Mathis AG Type no.-H5181

Guide Roller

Elliptical Winch

Steam Pipe

Drain Valve

Fig: Winch Dyeing Machine
Advantages: 
   Easy to enter and easy to operate and let out of the fabric of the m/c Suitable for dyeing of knitted fabric. Dyed fabric is soft and durable. Knitted fabric is not damage due to low tension.

Disadvantages: 
Difficult to maintain uniform temperature.  Due to high liquor ratio (1:40) product cost is high.  Uneven dyeing due to folding. P age |5

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Discontinuous process. More fabric can not be dyed. Dye pet Super High Temperature & Pressure Laboratory Dyeing Machine: Dye pet high temperature &pressure is a laboratory sample dyeing machine which is mainly used for the polyester and nylon fabric.

Features: 
Modern discontinuous sample dyeing machine.  Used for polyester & nylon fabric.  Have a maximum working power.  Maximum capacity 1Kg  Maximum working temperature 1400C  Hydraulic test is done of 8Kg/cm2  Motor power is 0.4 Kw  Motor voltage required 440 V  Machine heat source is steam.  M:L ratio of 1:6 possible  Easy in operations, sophisticated in technology.  Beakers available in 75 m1., L00 mI., 150 m1. & 200 ml. sizes.  Easy closing and opening of beakers. Manufacturing company- Nippon dyeing machine manufacturing co. LTD. Manufacturing country- Japan

Advantages: 
    Uniform dyeing is possible. Maximum working power. Polyester & nylon fabric can be used. Easy to maintain uniform temperature. Better dye penetration.

PADDING MANGLE:
Features:  No separate trough for padding liquor.  The space formed between 2 bowls, when under pneumatic pressure acts as a trough.  Minimum quantity of liquor required for padding a sample.  Simple operations. Maximum working width is 300 mm.  Minimum time is required for padding sample.  No time lag between dip & nip as the sample gets squeezed immediately after passing through padding liquor.  No exposure to atmospheric conditions after padding and before getting squeezed.  Substantial saving in liquor consumption thus saving on consumption of soft water, dyes, auxiliaries & chemicals. Hence very economical model.  A trough is provided below the bowls to collect liquor after padding. +

+

Two bowl padding mangle

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Padding action: The padding operation consist of two steps Dip: The fabric is immersed in to the dye liquor to achieve through impregnation is called dip. Nip: The fabric is passed between two rollers to squeeze out air and to force dye liquor inside the
material, the excess liquor being sent back along the fabric. The process is called nip.

Parts of padding mangle: 
Trough: Contain dye liquor during dyeing.  Guide roller: Guide the passage of fabric.  Squeeze roller: Remove excess solution from fabric.

Hydro extractor:
The hydro extractor is one kind of dryer which is used for hydro extraction of dyed fabric in a short time.

Features: 
Centrifuge hydro extractor rotates at very high speed which results in quick and maximum hydro extraction.  AC Inverter drive is used for soft start and dynamic braking.  For vibration free running it is provided with unique four point shock absorption system.  The machine is sturdily but and dynamically balanced to high accuracy.

LABORATORY DRYER:
Features:  Temperature range between room temperature and 200 °C.  Fast heat up due to 6 kW heating elements.  Wide heating chamber.  Simple operation.  Solid and compact table design.  Plug and play (only electrical connection needed).  Excellent price value ratio.

LABORATORY STEAMER: Features: 
Laboratory Steamer is used for fixation of color under high temperature &high pressure conditions.  Ideal for saturated steaming up to temperature of 130°C.  Samples are hooked on star frame and placed in an inner chamber.  Maximum sample size: 200 mm x 2 meters.  Electrical heating for steam generation.  Nozzle provided for external steam supply.

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Experiment name: Dyeing of cotton fabric with Reactive dye.
Theory: Reactive dyes contains reactive group and this reactive group makes covalent bond with the fibers and becomes part of the fiber. The general formula of reactive dyes can be written as followsD-X-Y Here, D= Chromospheres of dye. X= Bridge. Y=Functional group. D-X-Y + Fiber = D-X-Y-Fiber covalent bond. Instruments used:  Biker  Glass rod  Thermometer  Heater  Electric balance machine  Heating pot  Dyes and chemical used:  Cibacron orange  NaCl  Na2CO3 Dyeing curve of hot brand Reactive dye: Recipe: Cibacron orange=3%-4% NaCl=4% Na2CO3=3% M:L=1:20 Time=70 minute Temperature =800C 5 600 C 15 ½ Salt 50 C
0

30 800 C

20 Soda ash

Drop ½ Salt

Dye

Fabric

Procedures:  At first we prepared past with cold water and dye. Then prepared dye solution with hot water.  Then we heated dye bath to 500C and dye solution was added.  After this fabric was dyed about 15 minute and temperature was raised to 600 C continuously. P age |8

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Then ½ salt was added and dyed for 5 minute and after this rest of ½ salt was added to the bath and dyed for 20 minute.  After this the temperature was raised to 800 C and Soda ash was added and dyed for 30 minute.  Then washing with cold water and washing with hot water was done.  Finally soaping was done with 2gm/L detergent and then cold wash was performed. Calculation: Fabric weight= 4gm For 100gm fabric required dye = 4gm For 1gm fabric required dye = gm gm = 0.18 gm For 4.5gm fabric required dye = For 100gm fabric required NaCl = 4gm  For 4.5gm fabric required NaCl = gm = 0.18gm For 100gm fabric required Na2CO3 = 3gm For 4.5gm fabric required Na2CO3 = gm = 0.135gm After treatment: Room temperatu re x 10 Cold wash

700 C x 10 H0t wash

950 C x 10 Soaping agent=2g/L 

The material was treated with a hot water bath.  Then material was treated with cold water bath.  Finally material was treated with a 2gm/L soap solution which removes the unfixed dye from fabric surface and makes the surface clean and cold wash was performed. Result: We get deep shed and even dyed fabric. We get a acceptable result, but not get hundred per cent accurate result. Precautions:  We took the weight of fabric very carefully and took every chemicals and accurately with respect to the fabric weight.  We took the reading of temperature accurately with the help of thermometer.  We maintained the duration of time properly at every stage.  We added dye and chemicals after definite interval. Concluding remarks: We acquired the practical knowledge about the dyeing of cotton fabric with Reactive dye.

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