MOHI UD DIN ISLAMIC INSTITUTE OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY
By

DR. MUSSADIQ LATIF
Student of 2ND Prof PharmD

Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

PHARMACOGNOSY “Pharmacognosy is defined as the study of medicines obtained from natural sources; including, plants, animals and minerals” The American Society of Pharmacognosy has defined Pharmacognosy as “the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources." SCOPE (APPLICATIONS) OF PHARMACOGNOSY Pharmacognosy has vast applications in the Pharmaceutical Industry and therapeutics. Some of the basic applications of Pharmacognosy are listed below;

The most important application of Pharmacognosy includes the thorough knowledge on the history, cultivation, collection, standardization, transfer and storage of drugs and economic substances affecting the health of man and other animals. The drug-drug, drug-food interactions are studied in Pharmacognosy which help us avoid the untoward effects of severe interactions and hence help in obtaining the optimal therapeutic outcomes. The most sensitive classes of drugs include, the following; o Blood thinners o Protease inhibitors o Cardiac Glycosides o Imuuno Suppressant Cyclosporine

Bioassay Guided Fractionation technique helps in the extraction of the crude substance from the natural sources on the basis of their physiochemical activities as well as the biochemical activity. The extraction of medicines from various plants and parts of plants and its utilization has revolutionized the health sciences. World Health Organization has estimated that the 80% of the total world population uses the herbal medicines. Some of the common botanical sources of drugs include the following,
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Bitter Gourd (product used for lowering blood pressure) St John's Wort (product used to cure depression problems)
Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

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Garlic (extract have Lovastatin which is used for lowering cholesterol level in blood and also used for the regulation of blood pressure) Ginger (used for the cure of throat problems and also used as carminative) Gingko Biloba (the product from it is used to cure Alzheimer’s Disease) Kava Kava (Extracts used for the treatment of anxiety.

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In the pharmaceutical industry, various drugs of botanical origin are used in drug manufacture process including the following;
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Opium (Anesthetic, Analgesic) obtained from Papaver sominerum Aspirin (Antipyretic, Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic) Obtained from Spiraea Plant Digitalis (Cardiac Glycosides Digoxin, Digitoxin) obtained from Digitalis purpurea Quinine (Anti Malarial) Obtained from Cinchona Bark

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Alkaloids have effects on central nervous system. Some alkaloids are; o Caffeine has a mild effect on the central nervous system
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Datura is a severe intoxicant and can cause even death.

Phenolics including the Anthocyanines donate purple colour to grapes and Tannins that give the Tea the characteristic property of drawing the tissues together. Terpenoids obtained from plants are of great importance such as;
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Monoterpenes donate aroma to the rose and lavender Carotenoids are responsible for production of red and orange colour in Corn, Carrot and Tomatoes

Another type of drug substances is Glycosides (e.g: cyanoglycosides) which have various pharmacological effects in the body like;
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Cardiac Glycosides (e.g Digitalis, Scilla, Strophanthus)are used to cure, cardiac disorders like Congestive Cardiac Failure
Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

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Alcoholic glycosides (e.g salicin) converted into the Acetyl Salicylic Acid(aspirin) Anthraquinone glycosides obtained from Aloe Specie and is a laxative Coumarin glycosides(e.g apterin) have a vasodilator effect on coronary arteries as well as block calcium channels Other examples include, Chromone Glycosides, Cynogenic Glycosides, Flavonoid Glycosides, Phenolic Glycosides, Saponins, Steviol Glycosides and Thioglycosides

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The revolution of herbal medicine has increased the demand for research in the field of Pharmacognosy. It includes; Quality Control to assure the Identity, purity and consistency of drug substances o Efficacy to determine the therapeutical effects, indications, clinical aspects and pharmacological effects) o Safety research to study, the untoward toxic reactions, interactions, contraindications, precautions
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Following is the list of various medicinally important sources of drugs;
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Aloe Vera used for healing burns and wound healing Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) used for reduction in Cholesterol Level Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) reduces the wrinkling of skin, aging effect Boo phone (Boophone disticha) used for the treatment of mental disorders Calendula (Calendula officinalis) used for treatment of constipation and cramps Cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccos) effective in treating UT infections in women Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia) used for action against rhinovirus colds Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) used for the treatment of influenza

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Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

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Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium) used for the cure of migraine Garlic (Allium sativum) is responsible for lowering the cholesterol level Ginger (Zingiber officinale) decreases the nausea and vomiting during pregnancy Grapefruit (Naringenin) is used for the treatment of obesity German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is a famous antispasmodic Green tea (Camelia sinensis) may cure the breast cancer

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Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

References: http://pharmacognosy.com/ http://www.pharmatutor.org http://www.herbalremedies.com http://www.phcog.org/definition.html http://www.nlm.nih.gov http://www.medind.nic.in

Scope of Pharmacognosy | Dr. Mussadiq Latif

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