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Why Monopulse as azimuth evaluation method? Monopulse is essential as for Mode S single target reply is used.
Sliding Window Technique
Disadvantages: Azimuth accuracy strongly depending on PRF, antenna turn time, beamwidth Missing hits cause azimuth errors, split targets, association problems Azimuth target resolution physically limited to ½ beamwidth and two targets
Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 24. February 2011
Advantages: Azimuth accuracy only depending on antenna Monopulse characteristics (Phase-/Amplitude relation between 7 and () Azimuth is evaluated for every pulse, averaging improves azimuth quality Azimuth target resolution physically limited to two undisturbed hits, typically below 1r Two hits sufficient for safe target detection and azimuth evaluation
How Mode S(elective) ?
No Mode S (MkXA: Mode 1,2,3/A,C)
with Mode S ÄAWACS 2 answer now!³
ÄEverybody listening, Answer!³
ÄFighter 1 answer now!³
Every Mode S capable aircraft acquired, tracked and selectively interrogated by MSSR 2000 I autonomously
Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN - All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 3
All rights reserved 24. addressed interrogations by the MSSR 2000 I Azimuth/Range Target Resolution with Mode S As replies do not overlap. misses. February 2011 Page 4 . azimuth position errors Azimuth/Range Target Resolution with MkXA Range resolution depends on sampling frequency Azimuth resolution depends on antenna pattern Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . target resolution of Range 0m and Azimuth 0r is always possible Overlapping replies cause false codes.Why Mode S for Air Defence Systems? Garbling with MkXA Garbling with Mode S Overlapping of replies is prevented by selective.
10. S. February 2011 Page 5 Source: DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH FPSFPS-1. Halle.Necessity Mode S Usage European Mode S usage (impl. 2005-2007) Mode S Conspicuity Code 1000 3700 1000 FL 100 1000 2711 4711 3711 Mode 3/A GND ASR ASR ASR Mode 3A flightpath complete Mode S flightpath Conspicuity Code 3/A Group Code Mode 3A/ Mode S flightpath 3/A Group Code Conspicuity Code For safe identification of aircrafts Mode S necessary Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24.2000 . 19.
25µs) ± as Mode S SLS pulse P5 is sent.All rights reserved 24.25 or 30.25 µs) with DPSK Modulation containing the Mode S message (56 or 112 Bits) with 4 Mbit/s rate (chips each 0.01MHz Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) Modulation The interrogation signal consists of ± 2 Pulses in distance of 2 µs (P1 and P2) with equal power conventional Mark X ±Transponder do not reply (see old Side Lobe Suppression (SLS) principle) ± long P6 pulse (16. parallel to P6 second independent transmitter chain at full power rate mandatory!! Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .Mode S Interrogation Frequency 1030MHz s 0. February 2011 Page 6 .
aircraft velocity. aircrafts GPS position Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .| DF17: Mode S extended squitter / ADS-B delivers spontaneously (no interrogation) Mode S address.All rights reserved 24.Mode S Interrogation What can be interrogated / which replies can be received? Mode S interrogation is o be differentiated into several Uplink and Downlink Formats (UF | DF): UF11 | DF11: delivers Mode S address UF04 | DF04: delivers barometric altitude (like Mode C) but with 25ft resolution UF05 | DF05: delivers Mode 3/A code (but Mode S error corrected and without Garbling) UF04 | DF20: delivers altitude and any BDS register UF05 | DF21: delivers Mode 3/A code and any BDS register ------. February 2011 Page 7 . Mode S Aircraft ID (BDS 20).
Mode S Interrogation Mode S Enhanced Surveillance ± What data can be retrieved? BDS Registers are aircraft data containing ³memory cells´ in the aircrafts transponder that are permanently updated by the aircraft and can be read by the Mode S secondary radar on the ground.«) BDS 60: delivers Handling and Speed report (true airspeed.All rights reserved 24. DLH4711) correlatable with flight plans BDS 40: delivers Aircraft Intention (intended altitude. February 2011 Page 8 . heading. local air pressure for QNH) BDS 50: delivers Track and Turn report (aircraft measured roll angle. BDS 10: delivers aircrafts basic capability BDS 17: delivers aircrafts enhanced capability BDS 20: delivers Aircraft ID (eg.«) All automatically extracted from capable aircrafts as frequent as possible! Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
Mode S Interrogation Summe Control Intermode A/C/S All Call Summe Control Summe Control Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 9 .All rights reserved 24.
All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 10 .6 µs Mode A/C only all-call0.8 µs * µs *Mode A/C/S all-call 1.8 Qs 2.Mode S Interrogation Intermode A/C/S All Call ± NOT MODE S!! Intermode Interrogation Pulse Sequence P1-P3 Pulse Distance depending on interrogation mode Mode 3/A Mode C : 8 µs : 21 µs 2 µs Sum-Signal P1 P3 P4 0.8 µs P2 0.8 µs Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .0 Qs Control-Signal 0.
20.Mode S Interrogation All Call + Roll Call (UF 11.All rights reserved 24. 5. February 2011 Page 11 . 21) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . UF 4.
All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 12 .Mode S Interrogation Side Lobe Suppression P1 P2 P6 (UF11) P1 P2 P5 SLS Impuls P5 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
All rights reserved 24.6µs 0. February 2011 Page 13 .8 µs ) Intermode Interrogation Reply Receive Time Mode S Interrogation P1 P2 P6 Reply Receive Time P5 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .Mode S Interrogation In Comparison Interrogation Mk X P1 P2 P3 Reply Receive Time P1 P2 P3 P4 long or short (1.
All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 14 .Mode S Interrogation Combined Mode ± combining SSR and Mode S All Call) (Mode S UF11 + Intermode 3/A oder C mit P4 short) Synchronisation of interrogation using long Mode S reply delay to receive replies of Mode S and MkX transponders at the correct range Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
February 2011 Page 15 .Mode S Reply reply is pulsmodulated.All rights reserved 24. not DPSK 4 Preamble pulses Mode S Messag (56 or 112 Bits) with 1 Mbit/s Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
21 Interrogations and istening Period CM : P1 P2 P6 P1 P M : istening Period MS DF11: istening Period M1: P1 P M1: istening Period M1 M |MS MC Roll Call Period M1 M |MS Interrog ation Period n MSSR 2000 I correlates all replies on different Modes to a single plot based on detection time.Mode S Interrogation Typical Military Mode Interlace Pattern for Surveillance Mode Interlace Pattern : M1 CM : P1 P2 P6 P1 P P4 M : istening Period MS DF11: istening Period M1: P1 P M1: istening Period CM short MCo Roll Call ¡ £ ¢ ¡ ¡ Addressed Selectoive Scheduled Mode S F 4. 20. range and azimuth and in case of multiple replies based on code comparison selective and addressed Mode S interrogations in Roll Call are only executed on a target (on the target expectation window) until the first valid reply is received in the beam Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 16 Interrog ation Period n 1 ¦ ¡ ¢ MC: P1 P P4 short MC: istening Period ¢ ¥ ¤ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ £ ¢ ¢ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¢ Antennendrehzeit . .
always correct code information Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .Mode S Interrogation Scheduling ± Dynamic planning of selective interrogations Selective Interrogations are planned (scheduled). so that Replies are received gap free Necessity of Tracker inside Mode S MSSR .All rights reserved 24. Tolerances Each interrogation contains individual Mode S Address and is only replied by a target with this particular address No Garbling. February 2011 Page 17 .
Mode S Lockout ± Same II/SI Code BC PA BC lockout PA lockout All Call Mode S Roll Call © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 18 .All rights reserved 24.
MICoG#25. cycle 11 Oct 2010 (Total 232 radars) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . IC Aloc.All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 19 .Different II/SI Codes in Europe? Impossible without EUROCONTROL coordination! © Copyright EUROCONTROL MICoG. Jérôme Bodart.
g. II=13 © Copyright EUROCONTROL MICoG. Jérôme Bodart. IC Aloc. cycle 11 Oct 2010 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24. 1st German Air Force RAMOS Mode S Cluster. MICoG#25. February 2011 Page 20 .Different II/SI Codes in Europe? e.
cycle 11 Oct 2010 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . MICoG#25. Jérôme Bodart. February 2011 Page 21 . IC Aloc.All rights reserved 24.Different II/SI Codes in Europe? Mode S radars in Croatia II Code 05 ± Cycle 11 ± Surveillance and Lockout Coverage Croatia Control Kozjak operating II-Code 05 © Copyright EUROCONTROL MICoG.
SI 54 ± Cycle 11 ± Lockout Coverage Croatia Control Pleso operating II-Code 06 © Copyright EUROCONTROL MICoG. Jérôme Bodart. IC Aloc. February 2011 Page 22 .All rights reserved 24. SI 06.Different II/SI Codes in Europe? Mode S radars in Croatia II 06 vs. MICoG#25. cycle 11 Oct 2010 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . SI 38. SI 22.
Jérôme Bodart. MICoG#25.Different II/SI Codes in Europe? Mode S radars in Croatia II Code 09 ± Cycle 11 ± Surveillance and Lockout Coverage Croatia Control Psunj operating II-Code 09 © Copyright EUROCONTROL MICoG. February 2011 Page 23 . cycle 11 Oct 2010 Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . IC Aloc.All rights reserved 24.
All rights reserved 24.EUROCONTROL Mode S Clustering ÄOn one slide³ Example: 3 Mode S Radars with overlapping coverage No problem with different II/SI-Codes! But: only 16 II-Codes (effectively 13). February 2011 Page 24 . 63 SI-Codes available German Air Force today 1x II-Code. 1x SI-Code Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
g.All rights reserved 24. Mode S Clustering Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 25 .EUROCONTROL Mode S Clustering ÄOn one slide³ Example: 3 Mode S Radars with overlapping coverage Overlapping operation with the same II/SI-Code does not work without pre-cautions e.
EUROCONTROL Mode S Clustering ÄOn one slide³ Example: 3 Mode S Radars with overlapping coverage Aircraft is only replying to selective interrogations after acquisition and lockout and can not be acquired by other radars.All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 26 . Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
EUROCONTROL Mode S Clustering ÄOn one slide³ Example: 3 Mode S Radars with overlapping coverage Solution Mode S Clustering: Handover of detected and acquired aircrafts via ground data link (standardized protocol ASTERIX Cat017) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 27 .All rights reserved 24.
Mode S Betrieb mit Cluster Mode S Clustering ± Distributed Mode BC Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved BC lockout PA lockout All Call Roll Call Cat017 PA 24. February 2011 Page 28 .
EUROCONTROL Mode S Clustering ÄOn one slide³ Simplifications not explained here: Mode S Coverage Map handling and meaning ± Surveillance Map ± Lockout Map ± Data Link Map Mode S Clustering Automatic Solution Selection Mode S Clustering Distributed vs. Central Mode Handling of Combined Radar Data Cluster State Machine and Control Redundancy and Solution Switching Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 29 .
All rights reserved 24.Mode S Betrieb mit Cluster Mode S Clustering ± Distributed Mode SCF ASTERIX Cat017 besteht aus NMP ± Network Monitoring Protocol NNCOP ± New Node Change Over Protocol TASP ± Track Acquisition and Support Protocol ± Akquisition ± Track Support ± Track Drop Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 30 .
February 2011 Page 31 .Mode S Coverage Maps Surveillance Map (in ROSA) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24.
08. Arber RRP -117 SCF Konzept .Version 1. Node 5 G r.Stephan Zils .01.All rights reserved Page 32 .Mode S Operation in Distributed Cluster NMP ± Network Monitoring Protocol Single TCP-Connection between each two nodes.06 .0 (S IC 16) © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
February 2011 Page 33 .All rights reserved 24.Mode S Operation in Distributed Cluster Node Availability defines Network State 25 + Ref Name On / OFF 5 GA 1 4 EK 0 3 DB 0 22 + 21 2 DÖ 1 1 EL 1 0 BZ 0 Binär 100110 Hex 26 = 38 Dezimal 38 see document RAMOS Cluster Coverage Map Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .
February 2011 Page 34 .Mode S Operation in Distributed Cluster Which solution is active and why? Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24.
Mode S Operation in Distributed Cluster TASP ± First Detection and Track Support (incoming) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 35 .
Mode S Operation in Distributed Cluster TASP ± First Detection and Track Support (outgoing) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24. February 2011 Page 36 .
sensor network) Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN .All rights reserved 24.Where does Mode S Clustering help? What s the dawback to single Mode S radars? Pro Mode S Clustering: Only 1(+1 fallback) II/SI code needed for up to 6 Mode S secondary radars! Failsafe Minimization of 1030/1090MHz interrogation and replies! Increasing air traffic control safety by mutual radar neighbour support (Äwhere have you seen the target last scan?³ ± track support)! Fastest Mode S acquisition possible by neighbouring radars enabled by autonomous target handover! Mode S Cluster network acts as complete autonomous system rather than individual sensors Contra Mode S Clustering: IP network infrastructure is mandatory operator have to adapt their way of thinking (single sensor vs. February 2011 Page 37 .
Flightlevel. Aircraft ID. Aircraft Measured Heading«) is carefully to be handled as II/SI code (mis-)assignments can cause aircraft detection loss must be coordinated with EUROCONTROL and ATC in operational usage Mode S Clustering creates a failsafe autonomous sensor Mode S sensor network allows easier II/SI Code assignments with EUROCONTROL requires operator mindset change Mode S © 2010 CASSIDIAN . February 2011 Page 38 .Summary Mode S provides unlimited resolution (0r. Rollangle.All rights reserved 24. 0m) with nearly perfect undisturbed and unique identification and tactical data (Mode S address. Mode 3/A.Mode S .