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Guidelines for Installing A Rainwater Collection and Utilization System
CONTRIBUTIONS: Grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance provided to the successful compilation of this guideline by the following: Architect and Special Projects Department Kuala Lumpur City Hall Local Government Department Ministry of Housing and Local Government Drainage and Irrigation Department Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Vector Borne Disease Control Division Ministry of Health Water Resources Management Division National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM) Association of Consulting Engineer’s Malaysia (ACEM) Institute of Engineer’s Malaysia (IEM) Association of Architect Malaysia Real Estate and Housing Developers Association (REDHA) Perbadanan Kemajuan Negeri Selangor Majlis Perbandaran Pulau Pinang Majlis Perbandaran Sandakan Syarikat Bekalan Air Selangor (SYABAS) Persatuan Pengurusan Kompleks Malaysia
THE COMMITTEE FOR THE GUIDELINES FOR RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION SYSTEM Advisor Y.B.Dato’ Azmi Bin Khalid Timbalan Menteri II Kementerian Perumahan Dan Kerajaan Tempatan Encik Hassan bin Haji Hamzah Pengarah Jabatan Arkitek dan Projek Khas Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur Ir.Hooi Yoke Meng Timbalan Pengarah Jabatan Arkitek dan Projek Khas Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur Ir.Fong Tian Yong Pengarah Unit Kawalan Bangunan Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan Encik Nordin bin Mohd Salleh Jabatan Kerajaan Tempatan Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan Encik Hew See Seng Jabatan Arkitek dan Projek Khas Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur Ir.Hj.Abdul Hamid bin Md.Kassim Bahagian Saliran Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Kementerian Pertanian Ir.Cheng Pek Siang Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran (Wilayah Persekutuan) Kementerian Pertanian Encik Tee Sing Tiat Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran (Wilayah Persekutuan) Kementerian Pertanian Encik K.Nantakumar Jabatan Saliran dan Pengurusan Sungai Dewan Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur
Guidelines for Installing A Rainwater Collection and Utilization System
Wherever the country or city experiences a severe water shortage,is inclined to construct more dams upstream.The development of giant dams upstream however devours vast tracts of forest and the cost of such projects are enormous.Moreover the demand of water supply in urban areas is likely to increase due to a rapid concentration of population and increase in industries. The country is endowed with far more rainfall than the amount of water demand.Rainwater harvesting could be and effective tool for helping to reduce the use of treated water and provides a convenient buffer in times of emergency or a shortfall in public water supply. Rainwater harvesting from rooftop catchments and cistern storage is not new.It has been an important source of water supply for domestic purposes in many rural areas in the past. The need to promote rainwater collection and utilization can lead to the comprehensive resolution of water resources problems and the environmental problems in urban areas. The proposal to build tens of thousands of “mini dams” (rainwater tanks) in urban areas instead of continuing to build giant dams upstream not only contribute to treated water conservation but also helps to control urban floods by storing rainwater from roofs and the ground surface.The stored water can be used for non-drinking purposes and as a back-up water supply.
Guidelines for Installing A Rainwater Collection and Utilization System
CONTENTS Acknowledgements Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. PURPOSE OF GUIDELINES SCOPE THE GUIDELINES HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES ELEMENTS OF RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION SYSTEM 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3. Collection Area Conveyance Area Storage Facility Distribution System 4 4 4 4 1 1, 2 2 PAGE
QUALITY OF RAINWATER & USAGE OF RAINWATER 3.1 3.2 3.3 General Rainwater and Roof Collection Recommended Usage of Rainwater 6 6 6
TECHNOLOGIES FOR RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Collection rainwater from Roof Eliminating Contaminated first Flash Rainwater Draining Excess Rainwater in Heavy Rain Protecting Rainwater Utilization Facilities from Heavy Rain Intercepting Obstacles Using Filters, Strainers and Nets Storing Rainwater in Tank Supplying Rainwater to Place of Use Using Treated Water in Times of Shortage Prevention of Mosquito Breeding 8 10 10 12 12, 14 16 18 18
2 6. Definition Rainwater Collection and Utilization Roof Catchments Collection Rainwater Rainwater Storage Tank/Facility Usage of Rainwater Eliminating Contaminated First Flash Rainwater Rainwater for Toilet Flushing Material of Elevated Rainwater Tank Using Treated Water in Time of Rainwater Shortage Grit Chamber & Sedimentation Tank Technical Points to be considered for Large Rainwater Storage Tank PAGE 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 24 24 MAINTENANCE OF RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION 6.2 5.7 5. Rainwater Tank Using Columns or brick Piers Rainwater Tank Using Partition Wall Fencing Rainwater Tank as an Landscape Element Rainwater Tank as an Architectural Feature 28.5 5.3 5.2 General Creative Design APPENDIX A.4 5. 3.1 5. 29 30 31 32 .8 5. CREATIVE DESIGN OF RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES 7. 2.10 5.5 Catchments Area Sedimentation Tank Filter/Screen Rainwater Storage Tank Rainwater Supply Equipment 26 26 26 26 26 27 7.4 6.1 6.12 6. MULTI-STOREYED BUILDING 5.CONTENTS 5.6 5.3 6.1 7. 4.11 5. EXAMPLES OF CREATIVE DESIGNS OF RAINWATER STORAGE FACILITY 1.9 5.
Average PH of Rainwater in Kuala Lumpur And Petaling Jaya for 1998 Recommended Storage Capacity Plan to Maintain Rainwater Utilization Facilities FIGURES 3 13 25 1. 8. 9. 15. Pumping & Roof Tank Gravity Supply TABLES 33 34 35 1. 3. 2. Elements of a Rainwater Collection and Utilization System Device to Cut First Flash Rainwater (I)-Using Separation Pipe Device to Cut First Flash Rainwater (II)-Using Separation Tank Device to Deal with Heavy Flash Rainwater Net at Roof Drain Net at Gutter Filter in Rainwater Down pipe 11 Strainer in Rainwater Down pipe Details at Storage Tank Roof Top/Tank (Gravity Supply) Underground Tank (Pumped Supply) Ground Level Tank (Pumped Supply) Prevention of Mosquito Breeding: Using Insert Proof Net Separate Down pipe for Rainwater Collection and Discharge from Cooling Tower and Elevated Tank Water Supply from Elevated Rainwater Tank Rainwater Tank with Electrode Rod Control Grit Chamber Ground Level Sedimentation Tank Sedimentation Tank Incorporated in Rainwater Storage Tank 3 7 9 9 11 11 11 13 15 15 15 17 17 19 21 21 23 23 . 2. 5. 2. 14. 12. TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION Tank at First Level with Gravity Supply Tank on Ground Level . 7. 4. 11. 3. 19. 17. 6. 1. 16. 13.Pumping & Roof Tank Gravity Supply Tank Underground. 3.CONTENTS PAGE B. 18. 10.
the rationale behind the techniques of rainwater collection and utilization system suggested. • Section Three This section provides some information of the quality of rainwater and recommended usage of rainwater.2 SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES The Guideline is divided into the following sections and appendices:• Section Two This section briefly explains the elements or components of the rainwater collection and utilization system.e.1.0 1. The Guidelines:• • Is intended as an “ideas manual” for references for those who wants to install a rainwater collection and utilization system. Is intended to provide some information on the quality of rainwater. • Section Four This section explains the technologies for rainwater collection and utilization system i. It provides a selection of alternative design elements which maybe appropriate in a given context. more functional.It also include the menthod of preventing the breeding of mosquito.1 RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION PURPOSE OF GUIDELINES The guideline for rainwater collection and utilization has been prepared to document some of the ways in which rainwater can be collected from roofs of the buildings and the practical utilization of the rainwater. • 1. system to collect. aesthetically pleasing) and adaptable to his needs. . store and use. Is aimed at encouraging the owner to think and adopt wherever possible appropriate innovative alternatives which offer real advantages (cheaper to the owner.
the principles and designs for other buildings are similar.• Section Five This section outlines some principles of installing a rainwater collection and utilization for multi-storeyed buildings that differs from the system for singles/double terrace or stand-alone buildings. -some food for thought. • Section Six This section gives a recommended maintenance plan of the rainwater collection and utilization system for the use of clean rainwater.recommendations set up for ‘large installation system’is refered to multi-storey building or where rainwater usage is big and ‘small installation’ is refered to single /double storey terrace or stand alone building or where the rainwater usage is small. Storage facility can be designed with the greatest potential as pieces of architecture.3 HOW TO USE THE GUIDELINES The guidelines set out recommendations for the general principles. multi-storeyed buildings in housing complexes. commercial buildings and school. Although the emphasis in on housing and domestic uses. • Appendix A This appendix explores and gives some creative designs of rainwater storage facility in place of storage tank that is aesthetically pleasing. layout and installation of a rainwater collection utilization system. .For this purpose. 1. designs. • Appendix B This Appendix provides examples of typical rainwater collection and utilization system for terrace house and bungalows. The scopes described are likely to meet the needs in terrace houses. landscape and aesthetically to blend with the surrounding environment. bungalows. • Section Seven This section makes suggestion that rainwater storage facility may not necessarily be ready-made tanks.
If there is constraints in budget. .difficulty in renovation of pipes in existing buildings to supply rainwater for toilet flushing. This uses the recommendations to suit the individual needs.space requirement .The system consists of a ‘collection system’and the ‘utilization system’.with a tap outlet attached to the rainwater storage tank and supply to places of use can be from a bucket or watering can be directly or through a hose connected to it.the owner can install only a collection system.
Individual rooftop of house or building. 2.2 Conveyance System 1.3 Storage Facility 1. 2. 3. Storage tanks or storage facility of creative design.1.2. Communal catchments -directly from the sky . Constructed as part of a house or building.surface run-off from large paved area. The plumbing system (including pumps if necessary) supplying rainwater to the place of use.0 ELEMENTS OF THE RAINWATER COLLECTION AND UTILIZATION SYSTEM The main components and elements in the rainwater collection system are:2. Basic element of a rainwater collection and utilization system with storage facility is shown in Fig. Constructed / installed separately on the ground or under the ground. . Series of gutters that carry the rainwater from the collection area to the cistern / storage tank. 2. 2.1 The Collection Area 1. 2.4 The Distribution System 1.
4 to 4. soot. (Refer to 4. Rain washes off suspended particles in the air while falling. The quality of rainwater is determined by the collecting source.8. leaves and excreta of cats and birds are deposited on or attached to roofs causing contamination. 2.Contamination is especially heavy with the first raindrops after a long dry spell. and acid rain is the result of these in the air. Rainwater collected should therefore be used for the following purposes:i) ii) iii) iv) Flushing toilets Watering plants Washing vehicles General cleaning .3 and 4. Dirt. The first flush rainwater must be eliminated from the catchments before it is collected. the pH value of the rain is between 4.2).1 QUALITY OF RAINWATER GENERAL 1.4).3 RECOMMENDED USAGE OF RAINWATER 1.collected in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya for 1998.and lower the number. Rain in urban areas contains harmful substances such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides discharges from cars and factories.Rainwater collected from roofs of buildings should not be used for drinking and cooking purposes. The quality of rainwater depends on the air quality. 3. 2.2 RAINWATER AND ROOF COLLECTION 1. The parameter ‘pH’ is used for measure of the acidity in rainwater. 2.the more acidic the water) 3.0 3.(pH 7 = neutral.(table 1) 3. The Interim National Water Quality Standards For Malaysia and Water Quality Category and uses (Refer to 4. From record of rain stations. The quality of rainwater collected from the roof of buildings depends on the condition of the roof. 3.3.
Draining excess rainwater in heavy rain. 3.2 Roof Surfaces Roof surfaces should be chemically inert materials. 5. . 6. Bungalows 2. 4.store and use. Collecting rainwater from roof.Ensure the largest possible area for rainwater catchments.1.1 4.1. Multi-Storeyed building 4. 4. 2. Cutting off contaminated rainwater when rain starts.4. Using treated water in times of shortage. Terrace house 3. Storing rainwater in tanks.1 COLLECTING RAINWATER FROM ROOF Roof The roof of buildings resources for rainwater catchments. • This chapter mainly deals with crucial point of each functional technique in rainwater utilization for:1. Supplying rain water to the place of use.1. galvanized iron… in order to avoid adverse effects on water quality. The technology to operate a rainwater collection and utilization system is made of the following functional techniques:1.in order to avoid adverse effects on water quality.such as concrete tiles. 4.metal deck….3 Rainwater Down-Pipe Down pipes should be of chemically inert materials such as UPVC.0 TECHNOLOGIES FOR RAINWATER UTILIZATION • System to collect.
2.2. 4.3. 4.4 Gutters Gutters should be of chemically inert materials such as UPVC. . Rain washes off suspended particles in the air while falling. Another method to separate first flush rainwater using separation pipe is shown in Fig.1 DRAINING EXCESS RAINWATER IN HEAVY RAIN General 1.4. Thus first flush rainwater for 5 to 10 minutes must be eliminated from catchments. Rainwater flows into the small tank first and when the tank is full.2 4. 4.1. 4. Install a small first flush separation tank at the down pipe as shown in Fig.3 4.2. 2.a float valve installed in the small tank closes the inlet of the tank and the running rainwater flows into the main rainwater storage tank. Contamination is especially heavy with the first raindrops after a long dry spell. 2. 3.soil and sand accumulated at the bottom are stirred up and this can cause equipment trouble. galvanized iron… in order to avoid adverse effects on water quality. 3.1 ELIMINATING CONTAMINATED FIRST FLUSH RAINWATER General 1.2 Device to separate first flush rainwater. 1. Rains in urban areas contain harmful substances such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emitted from cars and factories. 5. When the great amount of rainwater gushes into a storage tank through a rainwater collecting pipe in heavy rain.3. Empty the first flush separation tank before the next rainfall. 4. Dirt and soot containing harmful substances deposited on or attached to roofs causing contamination.
2 Leaves.AND NETS.4.4 INTERCEPTING OBSTACLES USING FILTERS STRAINERS.1 General 1. 3. Frequent cleaning is not practical for this uppermost part of the house or Building. Cartridge-Filters. Strainer should be made of rust proof material to prevent the deterioration of water quality and be designed to be easily removable. dirt or sand coming together into the downpipe and into the rainwater tank:1. Ordinary net mesh or stainless mesh can be used at roof drain and gutter. An overflow pipe shall be installed in the tank. 4. Cartridge filters should be replaced regularly.(Fig.(Fig. A short pipe for relieving the pressure of the collecting pipe should be attached to the vertical part of the collecting pipe to prevent abnormal pressure from being produced inside. 6.3. 4. Protecting rainwater utilization facilities during heavy rain.4) 1.4.2 2. dirt or sand gathering around roof or gutter pollute rainwater. 4. Install a ready-made cartridge filter or strainer just before the rainwater enters the storage tank. 3. The diameter of the overflow pipe should be larger than that of the rainwater inlet pipe. The excess water during heavy rain will also overflow. 4.4. . A net or screen mesh of 2-3 to 10mm is suitable. Strainer And Nets To prevent leaves. 2. A strainer or a cartridge filter installed just before the rainwater enters the storage tank makes removal of obstacles easier. 2. 2.6) 5.5 & Fig.
Ready-made rainwater tanks in markets can be used. 3. .1 STORING RAINWATER IN TANKS Storage Tank Any vessel or container used as a rainwater storage tank shall comply with following conditions:1.9) All rainwater tank should include as an minimum requirement :1.5.thus contaminating it and that is sunproof to prevent algae from growing. 4. A overflow pipe larger in diameter than the incoming rainwater supply pipe.(Fig. An extraction system e. A solid secure cover 2. Tank material can be hot dipped galvanized steel. 2. 4.5. Recommended minimum storage capacity for building category given in Table 2. 2. 4.reinforced concrete and polyethylene. 1. washing vehicles and general cleaning. The minimum storage capacity is based on use of rainwater usage for toilet flushing.4. Made of material that contains no ingredients that could dissolve in rainwater.3 Design Of Storage Tank. It must have a lid to prevent dirt and vapourization and is designed so that the inside can be easily cleaned. 3.glassfibre reinforced plastic.5.(Refer to Table 2) 4.4 Recommended Storage Capacity. watering plants.2 Material of Storage Tank.5 4.g taps or pumps. 5. It is based on the location having rain once every 4 days on the average. 1. 3.stainless steel.5. No leakage 2. A scour pipe and valve for drainage. A device to indicate the water level in the tank (optional).
4.6.The structure of the building needs to be checked to ensure that it is sufficiently adequate to take the weight of the water. 4.6 Pumps .in the garden or underground. Existing structures may have difficult to ensure a place for large rainwater storage tank.11 & 12) 4.5 Rainwater Plumbing System 1.4.2 Rooftops (Balconies or Roof-Terrace) Rainwater storage tanks / facility installed either in roof tops (including balconies or roof-terrace).6.(Fig.it is possible to supply the water to toilets by gravity.6. The rainwater pipe supplying to place of use should be a separate piping system from the treated water piping system to prevent contamination of the treated water.6 SUPPLYING RAINWATER TO PLACE OF USE 4. 4.There maybe a restriction on the tank size due to space. 2.it is necessary to pump water to supply it to upper levels/floors.3 Under The Roof (Above the Ceiling).6. The simple purpose of collecting and utilizing rainwater is to install the storage facility/tank under the roof and it is possible to supply water to lower level/floors by gravity.10) 4.6.1 General The system of supplying rainwater to place of use depends on the place of installation of tank or storage facility.6. Paint the rainwater supply pipe for easy identification. For tanks installed at:4. 5.4 Ground Level And Underground Level It the storage tank is installed to the ground level.(Fig. A larger storage tank is not necessarily beneficial as shortage of rainwater can be supplemented by treated water.
(Fig. 5.0 5. 4. the following are recommended:1.It is necessary to use treated water from the treated water supply system.1.the remaining stagnant water should be drained out completely. .7.1 MULTI-STOREY BUILDING Definition 1. Use the rainwater instead of treated water wherever rainwater is available.Recommended dosage shuld be 10gm ‘Abate-1SG’ for every 90 litre of water. For small installations. (Refer to Table 3) 4. 2. The rainwater is recommended to be used regularly and replenished often as mosquito larvae will not hatch in tank if it is used regularly.However for large installations centrifugal pumps or end section pumps may be used. the rainwater tank will be empty.Putting a net over the outlet of and overflow pipe will prevent their invasion. Consult an experienced plumber or an engineer for advice if in doubt before installing the pumping system. The overflow pipe only has water running through it during rainfall and it can be a route for mosquitoes to enter the rainwater storage tank. If the rainwater is kept for several days. 4.13) 5. During period of dry weather.7 USING TREATED WATER IN TIMES OF RAINWATER SHORTAGE 4. when there is no rain. Multi-storey buildings refer to buildings other than single /double storey terrace building or bungalows. pneumatic pumps may suffice. toilets become unusable when the rainwater tank runs out of water.it is advisable to use ‘Abate-1-SG’ to prevent the breeding of mosquitoes. 3. 2.8 PREVENTION OF MOSQUITO BREEDING To prevent the breeding of mosquitoes.1 General When rainwater is used for flushing.
the rainwater collected is not recommended for toilet flushing. rainwater can be used for car washing.2 Rainwater Collection And Utilization 1. storage places and storage capacity if no so designed for. underground or under the floor of the lowest level because of its large facility.(Fig. Generally the technology of rainwater collection and utilization is similar to single/double storey terrace house and bungalows. Ensure that during and after cleaning. 2.5 Rainwater Storage Tank / Facility The rainwater storage tank / facility is normally installed on the ground. Multi-storey buildings maybe an office-block. 5. 5. 5. the waste water from the cooling tower or elevated water tank is drained through a separate drainage downpipe or else.3 Roof Catchment 1.garbage collection area cleaning.7 Eliminating Contaminated First Flash Rainwater . The cooling tower discharges salt-rich water into the rainwater downpipe and the water drained from the elevated tank into the rainwater downpipe (if there is no separate drainage downpipe from the tank) is contaminated by cleaning chemicals.an institutional building or a medium/high rise housing complex. 2. 5. 5. For flat-roof.2.4 Collecting Rainwater The simplest and the most reasonable method for collection of rainwater is from the bottom of a nearby rainwater downpipe into a storage tank installed where rainwater is used. 5.a commercial complex. renovation of pipes and pipe system is not easy and costly.14) 3.and plant watering. Rainwater collection and utilization in these buildings usually have limited catchment areas.check if there is a cooling tower or an elevated tank on the building rooftop.6 Usage Of Rainwater For existing buildings.
They are designed to use only the clear layer at the top of the water by settling soil and sand in the grit chamber and suspended particles in the sedimentation tank by gravity. 5. 2. Rainwater is then supplied to toilet facility at each floor by an elevated rainwater tank by gravity.11 Grit Chamber & sedimentation Tank (Optional) 1.The storage facility in multi-storey building can store a large amount of rainwater. A grit chamber is installed before a sedimentation tank.storage places. 3.17) .10 Using Treated Water In Times Of Shortage It is necessary to use treated water from the treated water supply in times of shortage of rainwater or when there is no rain. Rainwater is pumped from the rainwater tank on the ground /underground to an elevated tank. Install a pressure-reducing valve on the rainwater supply pipe if the water pressure is too strong. 5.15 shows a typical water supply from an elevated rainwater tank.first flash rainwater can be left in the storage tank. 4. Rainwater for toilet flushing is feasible for new buildings where the roof area. For large rainwater tank.8 Rainwater For Toilet Flushing 1. Fig. 6.storage capacity and the rainfall plumbing system are designed for.(Fig.first flash rainwater represent only a small portion. 5. 5.(Fig.a grit chamber and a sedimental tank are often incorporated into a rainwater storage system to remove soil and sand from rainwater. 3.is generally designed to retain rainwater for 30 to 60 seconds. A float valve or an electrode rod is installed to start or stop the pump when the level in the rainwater tank at the ground or in the elevated rainwater tank falls below a certain point or when the level in the elevated tank is full.9 Material Of Elevated Rainwater Tank The material and structure are basically the same as those for treated water. 2.16) 5.In such installations.
use grit chamber and sedimentation tank.4 Rainwater Storage Tank . 5. (Fig.18 shows a typical ground level sedimentation tank. For a rainwater tank capacity less then 10 m3 only a sedimentation tank is required. sedimentation tanks should be cleaned completely. sediment is removed from the drain pipe at the bottom of the tank.4.For ground level rainwater tanks. 2. storage and use of clean water.12 Technical Points to Be Considered For Large Rainwater Storage Tank 1. Prevention of pumping up sediment.19 shows a typical sedimentation tank incorporated in a rainwater tank. 5. 4.0 MAINTENANCE OF THE RAINWATER UTILIZATION FACILITIES Maintenance of the rainwater utilization equipment is very important for the collection. Removal of sediment. Fig. use barrier wall. Fig. Prevention of trash from flowing into tanks.3 Filter/Screen Sand and trash caught by filters/screen should be removed and cleaned regularly.1 Catchment area Trash and animal excreta in catchment area including roof must be cleaned off regularly to prevent downpipe clogging. The storage time for suspended particles to settle slowly is generally 2 to 3 hours depending on the kind of suspended particles. 6. use a drain pipe with valve at the bottom of tank. 6. 6. 6. The following areas should be carried out during the periodic cleaning of the system.18) 6. have a bumper made of an artificial turf-like material just below the rainwater inlet. 5. Prevention of sediment diffusion. use screen. 3. catch pit and access.2 Sedimentation Tank In the off-rainy season. sloping the bottom of the tank. Prevention of rainwater I heavy rain from gushing in and stirring sediment.
In existing houses. sedimentation tank/filter/screen can reduce the frequency of inside cleaning.1 CREATIVE DESIGN OF RAINWATER STORAGE FACILITY General 1. 7.6.0 7. creative and innovative ideas in designing rainwater storage facility as a ‘work of art’. Table 3 : shows a recommended plan to maintain the Rainwater Utilization Facilities. Appendix ‘A’ gives some examples of creative designs of rainwater storage facility in place of storage tank that is aesthetically pleasing. Rainwater storage facility can be designed (using architectural techniques) as a architectural feature or landscape feature aesthetically to blend with the surrounding environment. 2. .Through maintenance of the catchment areas. 7.buying a ready-made rainwater tank and place it in the gardens or on the side of house entrance or the back often is objectionable to the owners as it is not aesthecally pleasing. 3.5 Inside check should be conducted when sediment is removed. Rainwater Supply Equipment Make sure that mechanical devices such as pumps are working normally by checking at least every three months.2 Creative Design 1.The inside should be cleaned. These ideas are to encourage owners as well as architects to spawn new. 2. One of the difficult problems in promoting rainwater collecting and utilization at single / double storey terrace house is securing rainwater storage space for a large volume of rainwater. practical.Other devices should undergo a check about every six month and maintained in the same way as treated water equipment.
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