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Shastri’s Introduction To
Indian Coin Forgeries, 2
Shastri JC Philip, PhD (Physics), DSc (Alt Medicine), ThD (Apologetics), PhD (Archeology and Numismatics)
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Forging copies of these monetary units is common. coined) are forged. forgery started here almost 3000 years ago. which confirms that forgery did exist right from ancient times. it has a substantial buying power. While all kinds of money (electronic. or under the imprimatur of the ruling authority. In the chapter The Duties Of The Chamberlain. Many ancient Indian writers have mentioned counterfeit money. printed. Consider a 500 rupee printed Figure 1: Moulds that were used for making Roman Coin note for example. in this book are concerned only with the forging of coins. services. Forgery Of Indian Money Forgery of money has always existed in all countries. he says: • • He shall receive only such gold coins as have been declared to be pure by the examiner of coins. printed currency. In his Economics. 3 . the net “worth” of any given unit of money is always more than the actual worth of the monetary unit. printed notes. Kautilya mentions it. Since Indians started using money by around BC 1000.Chapter 1 Coin Forgeries: Introduction Money (coins. The actual forgeries worth or the intrinsic worth of that piece of paper is practically nothing. electronic currency) is an object that using which one can buy things. Whether it is in the form of gold or silver coins. But since it has been issued by a ruling authority. Counterfeit coins shall be cut into pieces. or electronic currency. and a host of other non material things.
pincers. When a person causes a counterfeit coin to be manufactured. also known as Chanakya (a modern rendering of his picture) Manufacturers of counterfeit coins shall also be treated similarly. or exchanges it. In his chapter on the duties of the State Goldsmith he says: • Spurious stones and counterfeit gold and silver may be substituted for real ones in compact and hollow pieces (ghanasushira). on proclamation of his guilt as the manufacturer of false coins. Whoever is suspected of manufacturing counterfeit coins in that he often purchases various kinds of metals. and hammers. Hence (the state goldsmith) shall have a thorough knowledge of the species. he shall be fined 12 panas. colour. 4 .• Whoever brings in counterfeit coins shall be punished with the first amercement. stove. (Vyájí) of five percent on the coin having been duly paid. When the examiner of coins misappropriates a másha from a current coin of a pana. pearls. cutting. he shall be fined 1. such person. he who enters a counterfeit coin into the treasury shall be put to death. scratching and rubbing. This explains the proportional increase of fines. or possesses such other accessory instruments as are necessary for this illegal manufacture. or accepts it. he shall be fined 12 panas. shall be banished. and formation (pudgala-lakshana) of diamonds. precious stones (mani). and being gradually betrayed by the spy. There are four ways of deception perpetrated when examining new pieces or repairing old ones: they are hammering.000 panas.] In the chapter on Suppression Of Wicked Living By Foul Means he lays down punishment for various crimes. He says: • When the examiner of coins declares an unacceptable current coin to be worthy of being entered into the treasury or rejects an acceptable current coin. may be requested by a spy to take the latter as an apprentice. bellows. has his hands and cloths dirty with ashes and smoke. weight. • • Kautilya also prescribed the methods to deal with counterfeits and some of these in the chapter The Removal Of Thorns. They are detected by hammering the pieces when red hot---so much for confounding (pinka). characteristics. and then says: • • Figure 2: The Great Indian Economiststrategist Kautilya. the tax. alkalis. corals and coins (rúpa). crucibles. charcoal.
mainly because the margin of profit is too low for such an activity. However. forgery of paper-currency is so frequent a crime that everyone is aware of one or more newspaper reports. but very few of them are booked because the small volume of counterfeits helps them to escape detection. or deal with counterfeit gold (suvarna = coin ?) Forgery must have been a large-enough activity in ancient India for it to be mentioned in so many places in an important treatise on Economics. forgeries of slightly older Republic of Indian coins has started recently. Pic: A Highly enlarged picture of a recent forgery. Forgery of coins takes place at a much smaller volume in current coins. being sold to coin-collectors because this coin sell in the market for as much as ten times the cost of production. This is a criminal activity. Most of them also have read advertisement posted in newspapers by the government about how to detect fake notes. aimed mostly at numismatic collectors. These coins will be mentioned and illustrated in the appropriate section of this book.• Similar steps may be taken against those who lower the quality of gold by mixing it with an alloy. Coming to modern India. Look at the inner rim at the bottom to see marks left from the imperfect casting-mould 5 .
It will no longer remain a legal tender for financial exchange. the actual value of the coin or paper currency Is much more than the intrinsic value that it commands. in a five hundred or one thousand rupee note. the intrinsic value of the coin or printed note does not match the intrinsic value of the material purchased. which one gets for an entity. If the paper is burnt. For example. when it comes to money for material. However. This minimum value. can be called its intrinsic value. as mentioned before. Thus it is called the extrinsic value of that financial instrument. This is another form of stealing where instead of taking away money from someone else. less than which its value would never go. Obviously. whereas if a gold coin is melted one gets at least the market value of the gold. one does not get anything in lieu of the ashes. but it still will get the owner the cost of the gold or silver which is substantial. can be called its intrinsic value. This value resided in the nature of the material (metal value) and that is why it is called “intrinsic” to the substance. come what may.Why Is Money Forged The buying power of monetary units. now it is the imprinted or attributed value of the financial instrument (coin or note) that is used to buy a material or serviced. is always more than their actual value. It is this buying power that attracts people to make counterfeits of money. For example. On the contrary. Extrinsic Value: In the barter system. The Motivation For Forgery: Since the extrinsic value of a coin is often many times the inherent or intrinsic value of the coin or note or financial instrument. if one takes a gold or silver coin and mutiliates or melts it out of shape. 6 . Intrinsic Value: The basic value of a substance. forgers reckon that for a small investment (for forgery and circulation). people always exchange with each other items that they deem to be of equal or equivalent intrinsic value. the value attributed to the note by the monetary authority might be thousands or even tens of thousands of the intrinsic value of the material out of which the financial instrument is made. they can get a huge extrinsic value. they simply manufacture extrinsic money (or worth) which they do not own. Thus in the case of printed notes. it would be good to look at the intrinsic and extrinsic value of monetary units. To understand this more clearly. but rather is IMPOSED or ATTRIBUTED to it by the monetary authority. That value is known as extrinsic value. This imprinted value if often many times the intrinsic value of the material out of which money is made. the paper on which it is printed (though it costs substantially to produce it) is practically worthless when the intrinsic value of the paper or ink is considered. This extra value does not come intrinsically.
This coin is being sold by many coin-sellers because there is a demand for it. Look at the left edge (position 7 to 12) to see the unusually clear marks of casting. the selling-price is much higher than cost of production. and because ignorance is very high among new coin collectors whose numbers are only going to increase. this coin has been plated to make it look authentic. 7 . Look at position 3 for a small bulge from casting.Pic: Cast in a brass-like material (probably an alloy that is common in South India).
The only danger. they reckon is that. Others made coins with copper core and thick silver cladding. However. 1. and since counterfeiting can be done in the privacy of one’s basement or attic. and also electronic currency. and it would be good to see them separately. the counterfeiter reckons that compared to stealing this is a safe way to apprehend riches that do not honestly belong to him. he reckons. since one does not have to watch against the bite of the watchdog. The moment paper currency came into existence. but which were either of lower weight or of inferior quality (debased) of gold and silver. and the most lucrative reason for forging financial instruments. unlike a thief. 8 . In all these cases they saved on gold and silver that did not go into the coin. More so wherever precious metals (gold and silver) coins were part of the currency. since no housebreak is involved. Forgery For Using It As Money: This is by far the most common reason. Uses Of Forged Money While coin-collectors often think only of forged coins that are sold in coin-shops. Forged money has always existed during all periods of history and in all cultures. comes if he is caught.Pic: Obverse and reverse of the coin shown earlier in a highly enlarged form The biggest advantage. This includes the forgery of coins. printed notes. many forgers made coins that were identical in appearance with regular coins. During periods when gold and silver coins were used. forged money is used for more than one purpose and a brief overview of these would be useful. forging them became more attractive because technological developments made it lucrative for people to counterfeit paper currency. a forger does not have to put his life and limbs at risk in this act. Within the forgery of money one can see more than one motivating factor.
because practically no government goes after people who counterfeit defunct coins because such coins never enter the current money-stream. coin collectors and numismatists are interested both in what is current as well as in what is now defunct as currency. Forgery For Selling To Numismatists And Tourists: Coin collection and Numismatics has become a popular hobby worldwide in the last two centuries. Even today counterfeiting of larger denomination metallic coins does take place. though they are still minted. Tourists who visit ancient historical places often love to collect souvenirs for themselves and also for their friends. Counterfeiting lower denomination coins is not very attractive as the margin between the sales price and cost of production is much higher here. This is the most enduring historical evidence that counterfeiting of silver coins using a core of inferior metals was a common practice. Some coins have multiple test punches. made either by the same shroff or by multiple shroffs at different periods of time. the margin of profit in paper-counterfeits is hundreds of times more than the margin of profit in coin counterfeits. Second. but the volume of production is much lower than the volume at which modern paper currency is counterfeited. Thus there is a flood of paper-currency among which the counterfeits can be hidden. Counterfeiting of paper currency is much more profitable than counterfeiting modern coins first because the bulk of transaction even in ordinary life takes place via paper currency.Still other made copper coins with heavy silver plating on them and this increased their profit margin to higher degree than coins made of debased gold or silver. and therefore it is practically impossible to conceal large-denomination coin counterfeits – which require a large flow of coins to hide among them. What is more. since there is an ever-growing number of coin-collectors and 9 . There is practically no circulation of large-denomination metallic coins in the markets these days. Today practically 60 to 80% of silver coins from Mugal and Princely States come with testcuts or test punches. Thus when they spot what is claimed as “a two thousand year old coin from this very historical spot” they are tempted to buy these coins. This opens up a very large market to the counterfeiter. While the average person is interested only in currency that is current. 2. None even one among ten thousand tourists will have the expertise to recognize a fake ancient coin of that country. even if it is executed very crudely – because it is reckoned that ancient hand-made coins were crude compared to today’s machine-made coins.
These look like Tokens on one side and coins on the others. Pic: Forgery for selling to coin-collectors. Finally he was able to sell it to someone for Rs. the prices these coins command are often very high. 10 can easily fetch anywhere between Rs. 2500 was recently offered on the market for Rs. was also minted in Zinc!!! He labels it as OMS or Off Metal Strike. 100. 200 to 500. he came down to Rs.tourists. then these coins are taken back if the buyer finds out that they are fakes. What is more. A silver coin set of Tipu with silver content of less than Rs. Thus forging “ancient” coins is a highly profitable business for those who have sales outlets in tourist centers and also among coin-collectors. If the buyer knows the seller. this is an ever-expanding market.000 by a seller known to me. 25. which has become a technical Euphemism for milking coin collectors. 10. The seller falsely claims that this half rupee coin.000. Since I knew the set was fake. The most interesting thing is that this seller was able to cheat many other sellers to buy several “OMS” coins from him! Thus a Mysore Tipu Sultan copper coin fabricated for less than Rs. Forgers who sell in numismatic markets also forge what is called Tokoins. in addition to being minted in silver. Since what are engraved on both the sides are 10 . Thus only big-time buyers who form long-term relations with sellers really get to return fakes to the sellers. But this happens only rarely because most small collectors (who are responsible for the bulk of the buying) usually buy in coin exhibitions and never meet the seller again.000.
still gets buyers because most coin-collectors (maybe around 60%) do not even know that forgeries are being peddled. make of lead. On Ebay these Tokoins are often sold as genuine monetary coins and most new collectors do not realize that they are being cheated. This guy was able to sell this coin to another coin-seller who was a newcomer and implicitly trusted the more senior coin-seller. and executed in an imperfect manner. adding to the false belief of the buyer that these real coins. Pic: Some numismatic sellers have become so bold that they are selling forgeries of Republic of India coins by labeling them as Off Metal Strike coins. The above coin.familiar scenes for collectors they simply buy them thinking that these are genuine monetary coins. 11 . Sellers usually describe them using ambiguous terms.
they should still know about this channel of forgery. Or a spy. Coin Forgery In India As mentioned earlier. The fact that counterfeit money can destabilize the economy is now used by many countries when they forge the currency of enemy country and fill the markets of that country with this forged currency. under the garb of a goldsmith. Forgery For Political Reasons: The science of economics has shown that there has to be a delicate balance between the money that circulates. may mix counterfeit coins with the wages (he has received from his master). the volume of commerce. and the price of commodities in any country. While forgery for political reasons does not directly concern coin-collectors. Upsetting this balance (mostly with the help of counterfeit currency) can totally destabilize the finances of a country. markets. and gather in his employer's house such instruments as are necessary to manufacture counterfeit coins. While the exact details and the delicate balance of currency. Kautilya says: • • Or a spy. India is no exception. It will be good to look at coin forgery in India based upon a classification as given below: 12 . One does not know when this information will become handy in this hobby – such as in detecting fake currency in the collection of hobbyists. coin-forgery (and later printed currency forgery) has always existed wherever official money has existed. and pave the way for his arrest.3. may undertake to do some work in the house of a seditious person. many ancient people knew about this. bringing the government to partial or total collapse. and also how to protect one’s own sovereign country from counterfeits. In Replenishment Of The Treasury in Arthashastra. The great Indian Economist-strategist Kautilya is one of the persons who centuries ago understood this precarious balance. Thus in his Economics he explains how one can destabilize the enemy kingdom with forged money. and commodities became clear only in modern times. under the garb of a servant of a seditious person.
They then claim that since the OMS were very few in numbers. though brilliant. Perhaps hundreds of thousands of these coins were forged before the Emperor stopped this currency and bought all forged currency with coins of stable value. Another trick. Nobody knows how many of these forgeries exist even today among the coins that are reckoned as his. and he was one of the first to try a fiduciary system of money – a system which is somewhat similar to the extrinsic value that is imprinted on Indian paper currency. He also mentions the methods for discovering counterfeits. and disastrous. have always enjoyed great demand and they are being forged now with a vengeance in Karnataka. fortunately. or nickel. These are labeled as OMS or Off Metal Strikes. He mentions forgery that is aimed at financial gain. Forgery In Modern Times: While India was relatively free of coin-forgery till the 1990s. a few coins were also minted in “off metal” zinc and lead. Some of the ancient counterfeits have.1. that is highly successful. The bulk of them are sold to tourists. forgery of coins took place in India the 14th century when Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351) ruled. He based this experiment when he came across Chinese paper currency where the extrinsic value depends upon the trust that people place on the issuing authority. but gradually they are permeating into numismatic markets also. Forgery In Ancient Times: Coin forgery did exist in ancient India. this inflated value immediately tempted people to forge coins for the huge gains they were likely from the inflated value of these coins – made in metals that were easily available at that time. The sellers assure buyers that while the original coin was minted in. and also the one that is aimed at political destabilizing of enemy nations. Thus he issued a range of coins in brass and copper with inscriptions such as 'Sealed as a tanka of fifty ganis'. and though most of the forgeries were of paper currency. The most massive. survived and they give a glimpse to the modern student of numismatics. He was an eccentric. However. and that is why Kautilya devotes considerable attention to this topic. Counterfeiting of coins started in the ancient world because gold and silver coins were abundant. the fast-growing numismatic and tourist market has resulted in a boom for counterfeiters also. counterfeiters. they have become “rare” collectors item 13 . 2. is to mint coins using lead and brass-like alloys and then selling them as they are or with silvery coating. and the counterfeiter was able to use metals of less intrinsic value for counterfeiting the coins of gold and silver. and the punishment that is to be meted out to them. He appealed people to trust the inflated value of this currency because it was issued by the ruler. both copper as well as silver. brass. Coins of Tipu Sultan. say bronze.
(Older Ramatankas made of gold and silver are also available in private collections. Since these are neither Temple Tokens. The popularity of Ramatankas or Hindu Religious Tokens (a para numismatic item) and fully numismatic items motivated some people in Bombay to fabricate a cross between religious tokens and numismatic coins.indiannumismatics. and then distribute them as religious souvenirs to their friends. get them blessed and anointed by the priest. but seldom do they reach the market these days). nor coins. Tokoins That Are Sold As Numismatic Coins: Tokens with the pictures of gods and goddesses upon them have been fairly common in India.com 14 . they are rightly labeled as Tokoins (token+coin). Pilgrims who visit temples often buy these tokens in bulk. he believes the seller and gets duped. Tokoins available in the market these days have no numismatic history behind them as they come to the numismatic market straight from the Tokoin forgers.now. 3. Almost all of them place these tokens in their private sanctuary for worshipping. These are commonly called Ramatankas and authentic Ramatankas that are available today have a 100 to 200 years of history. Since the average collector does not have access to coin catalogs. Pic: An authentic Ramatanka or Hindu Religious Token which might have been produced in the 1800s (as judged from the style and also from the characteristics of the Nagari script) Used With Permission of www.
Pic: A recent Tokoin in the market that is being sold as “East India Company Coin from 1616” which is a totally false information. thus their sales within India is not widespread yet. The picture of a sample set is reproduced below: 15 . On Ebay a large number of sellers based throughout India sell them with the claim that these are “old EIC coins” which is a totally false claim. In India they would be labeled as an attempt to forge coins similar to legal currency and would be arrested. Unwary coin collectors in South India by these Tokoin by the thousands every year and display them to other unwary collectors as “prized catches”. 4. Fantasy Coins. This is a case Tokoin that goes from the fabricator to the seller without any connection either with EIC or with any temple Tokoins need to be included in any introduction to Coin Forgery because a good number of them are sold these days (at least in the whole of South India) by numismatic sellers under the pretext that they are numismatic coins. That Look Like Genuine Modern Indian Coins: Of late some sellers have started minting what have been labeled by some non Indian collectors as Fantasy Coins.
However. and the name of an Indian state) that possession and sales of these tokens are a criminal offense in India. the use of the word rupee or paise. Some sellers publish a disclaimer on their site that these are “unofficial” issues. Such disclaimers (that are not on the coin itself) are of no legal value if anyone is discovered with these coins within the Republic of India Unless these “coins” contain a clear Indication on them that they are not Indian money (such as removal of the numbers and words related to Indian money) these coins come very close to definition of forgery of Indian money 16 . such euphemisms does not change the fact that selling/possessing these coins in India is a criminal offense. year of minting. Both the seller as well as the owner can be arrested as there is nothing on the tokens that indicates to an average person that these are NOT legally issued currency Some numismatists have labeled the above “coins” as Fantasy Coins.Picture: Tokens forged with so many similarities with Republic of India coins that (such as the denomination.
Iindian Coincollectors should not take risk by buying them. What is more. Adopt the following strategies if you plan to be seriously into coins: 1. Keep reading Photographs of forged coins are given at the end of this Ebook 17 . Summary Eternal vigilance is the cost to be paid if you do not wish to be duped! Do not fall for anything and everything that is sold in the numismatic market today. Invest money in comprehensive catalogs 2. is a criminal offense in India. By only from sellers who are ready to take the coin back if a coin turns out to be fake 3. they should also realize that these “coins” have no numismatic value whatsoever.Holding and selling these fantasy Coins that imitate current Republic of India coins to a level that can confuse people into thinking that they are monetary coins. and which have no indication on their body that they are not coins.
coin-collectors. I am grateful to all of them. except SACG) : • South Asia Coins Group: SACG is the premier group of numismatists and coin-collectors who are devoted to the study and promotion of South Asian coins. Girish Bambani: Helped me to obtain more than on ancient forgeries Jagdish Agarwal: Brought an important even from the history of forgery to my attention. They do not wish to be named for obvious reasons. As a member I am thankful to the Group for allowing me to air my views. Some were (obviously) reluctant to allow me to photograph the coins. England): Helped with a strong critique to me evaluate my work Dr. and I added to in the 2nd edition of this book Lalitha Ramabadran: Helped me with many scans and a good amount of input Mrugendra Kuntala: Gave me suggestion about historical review and bibliography Raghunadh Raju: Has helped me through voluminous inputs to grow in this field. These include (alphabetically first-name. Sunil Sood: Helped me with a good amount of input and has been tutoring me in numismatics Several coin-sellers who allowed me to examine and scan fake coins. questions. and coin sellers helped me to bring this project to fruition. and queries.Acknowledgements Many numismatists. and that is why I could not get better pictures of some coins that look very dark. • • • • • • • • 18 . He also examined a large number of the fake coins that I showed him and was able to identify 49 fakes out of a set of 50 though some of these fakes had easily fooled coin-sellers Robert (Chesterfield.
is given on the next page 19 . The remaining two coins.Forged Coins: Pictures Most Pictures Have Been Enlarged To Give A Clear View Of Defects Tipu Sultan Silver Coin Forgeries Pic: This is a set of four “silver” coins of Tipu Sultan. and additional information.
10. The forgers are producing an endless number of sets that are purchased/sold mostly by coin-sellers who know that these are forged coins.000 per set. The asking price can vary from Rs. The lower price being for people like me who recognized the set as forgery. Originally these coins were offered in mint condition but. it is offered in soiled condition as shown above.000 to Rs.Forgery Of Tipu Sultan Silver Coins: Contd Pic: The above four forgeries of Tipu Sultan have been made in Kernataka. The average price on which Indian buyers settle is around Rs. 25.000. but the price at which foreign tourists settle the bargain is anybody’s guess. The sound they produce on being dropped on a solid surface is are different from that of normal silver coins. 100. The coin looks like silver. now that they have become smarter. 20 . but it is a mixture of silver and other metals and one can feel that if one has handled hundreds of silver coins.
Notice the word RARE on the label! 21 . making them very “rare” and worth a buy/investment by coin-enthusiasts 1940 Zinc Zinc OMS Fraud/Forgery 1940 Copper OMS Fraud/Forgery More OMS frauds on the next pages: Those who peddle these “OMS” coins have successfully been able to fool other sellers. These are then sold as OMS with the claim that the “government” had minted a small number of coins as OMS. let alone average customers who know nothing about the forgeries.The Off Metal Strike Fraud/Forgeries EIC/British India And Republic of India coins are forged in metals different from the metal in which the original coins were issue. using the trust factor.
1942 Brass OMS Fraud/Forgery 1943 OMS Brass OMS Fraud/Forgery 1950 OMS One Anna Copper OMS Fraud/Forgery 22 .
1925 Two Anna Zinc OMS Fraud/Forgery 1925 Two Anna Zinc OMS Fraud/Forgery 1968 Two Anna White-metal OMS Fraud/Forgery (The original coin is in yellow-metal) 23 .
IndianCoins. The Official Guide to Coin Grading and Counterfeit Detection. The amount of publications is very less compared to the gravity of the problem. 2nd Edition. Such techniques are not common in India. mainly for selling them to numismatic hobbyist and tourist. Vol. Shamasastri. 20. Numismatic Digest. 2009 John W. Larson . Kautilya’s Arthashastra. 1999-2000 (A very useful. BiblioLife. PDF Copy available from http://www. Zyrus Press. Numismatic Forgery. ButterworthHeinemann. 2009 R. 1996 (Illustrated paper on large-scale forgeries of Maharathi and other coins that fooled even some experts) Paul Craddock (Editor). Numismatic Digest. from Counterfeit. Coins and Medals. Some of the best articles and books are: • • • SK Bose. 2004 [A highly illustrated volume that gives pictures and explains every step in a highly sophisticated forgery operation. An Essay on the Means of Distinguishing Antique. Some of the key books related to this are listed below: • • Guillaume Beauvais. illustrated. Scientific Investigation of Copies. 23-24. but can make an entry if counterfeiting is not exposed in time] • Michael Mitchiner. Fakes and Forgeries. All students of Indology should definitely read this book) • • Forgery Of Non Indian Coin: Coin forgery for selling to numismatic fraternity has been going all over the world at a high level. Forged Coins Of North-east India: Highlights. Currency Wars: How Forged Money is the New Weapon of Mass Destruction. Vol.Bibliography Forgery Of Indian Coins: Forgery of Indian coin is an old practice. 2008 Charles M. 2004 24 .org (A highly readable translation. Skyhorse Publishing . Forgeries Of Ancient Lead Coins Of Karnataka. House of Collectibles. but of late the volume and range of forgeries has increased much. paper on the increasing counterfeits in North East) John K. Cooley . Dannreuther.
1986 25 . Sayles . Provias Ltd. Amphora. and B. Coin Forgeries and Replicas. 2007 Wayne G. January 2001 Jeffrey Watson & Don Thomas. I. 1997 David Hendin . Prokopov. Sofia. Heads I Win: The True Story of David Gee. Krause Publications. Australia's Most Audacious Coin Forger. Not Kosher: Forgeries of Ancient Jewish and Biblical Coins. Forgeries and Reproductions of Ancient Coins. Kolev .• • • • • D. HarperCollins Publishers (Australia) Pty. Classical Deception: Counterfeits. Modern Forgeries of Greek and Roman Coins. 2005 Ilya Prokopov. Dimitrov.
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