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of the Indian economy. FDI in India has – in a lot of ways – enabled India to achieve a certain degree of financial stability, growth and development. This money has allowed India to focus on the areas that may have needed economic attention, and address the various problems that continue to challenge the country. India has continually sought to attract FDI from the world’s major investors. In 1998 and 1999, the Indian national government announced a number of reforms designed to encourage FDI and present a favorable scenario for investors. FDI investments are permitted through financial collaborations, through private equity or preferential allotments, by way of capital markets through Euro issues, and in joint ventures. FDI is not permitted in the arms, nuclear, railway, coal & lignite or mining industries. A number of projects have been announced in areas such as electricity generation, distribution and transmission, as well as the development of roads and highways, with opportunities for foreign investors. The Indian national government also provided permission to FDIs to provide up to 100% of the financing required for the construction of bridges and tunnels, but with a limit on foreign equity of INR 1,500 crores, approximately $352.5m. Currently, FDI is allowed in financial services, including the growing credit card business. These services include the non-banking financial services sector. Foreign investors can buy up to 40% of the equity in private banks, although there is condition that stipulates that these banks must be multilateral financial organizations. Up to 45% of the shares of companies in the global mobile personal communication by satellite services (GMPCSS) sector can also be purchased. By 2004, India received $5.3 billion in FDI, big growth compared to previous years, but less than 10% of the $60.6 billion that flowed into China. Why does India, with a stable democracy and a smoother approval process, lag so far behind China in FDI amounts? Although the Chinese approval process is complex, it includes both national and regional approval in the same process. Federal democracy is perversely an impediment for India. Local authorities are not part of the approvals process and have their own rights, and this often leads to projects getting bogged down in red tape and bureaucracy. India actually receives less than half the FDI that the federal government approves.
Sectors Attracting FDI
Though the services sector in India constitutes the largest share in the Gross Domestic Product, still it has failed to some extent in attracting more funds in the forms of investments.
908 4.682 3.Important sectors of the Indian Economy attracting more investments into the country are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • Electrical Equipments (Including Computer Software & Electronic) Telecommunications (radio paging.755* 5.634 3.770 3.083 2. The Inflow of FDI into the country over various years is as follows: Year (April-March) Amount of FDI inflows (In US$ million) 1991-1992 (Aug-March) 1992-1993 1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 (Upto March 2006) 167 393 654 1.374 2. cellular mobile.222 3. basic telephone service) Transportation Industry Services Sector (financial & non-financial) Fuels (Power + Oil Refinery) Chemical (other than fertilizers) Food Processing Industries Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Cement and Gypsum Products Metallurgical Industries FDI Inflows Year-Wise Opening up of door policies adopted by the Government of India through its new economic policies has attracted more investments in to the country.134 2.141 2.549 Find below the countrywise FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) Inflows from April 2000 to April 2008: . Indian Industries have gone global and in the same direction the inflow of FDI in to the country has increased at a faster rate.439 2.
in/fdi_statistics/indian_fdi_April2008.dipp.nic.pdf) Find below sector-wise FDI Inflows from August 1991 to December 2005: .(For recent data visit: http://www.
FDI POLICIES IN INDIA: .
and have the potential to reap profits from economically viable businesses. Investors tend to look for predictable environments where they understand how decision-making processes work. significant FDI investments are injected into countries that help the domestic economy to grow. The business environment often requires work to remove onerous regulations. The formation of human capital is vital for the continued growth of FDI inflows. highly skilled personnel are necessary. These agencies promote FDI-friendly policies. These would not in any way restrict the flexibility or bind the FIPB from considering the proposals in their totality or making recommendation based on other criteria or special circumstances or features it considers relevant. identify prospective sectors and investors. and structure specific deals and incentives for major foreign investors such as multinational corporations (MNCs). The prospect of new growth opportunities and outsized profits encourages large capital inflows across a range of industry and opportunity types. reduce corruption and encourage transparency. To enable the most beneficial. A general consensus is developing in favor of certain incentives which have been proven historically to grow profits and therefore foreign investments. Different countries and regions offer various kinds of fiscal incentives. These associations are tasked with creating a positive environment for foreign direct investors and ensuring that both investors and recipient countries enjoy a favorable environment. Governments must therefore enact policies to provide training and skills upgrading to develop their workforce and meet the employment needs of foreign investors. Governments therefore are incentivized to build up a track record of rational decision making. These guidelines are issued without prejudice to the Government's right to issue fresh guidelines or change the legal provisions and policies whenever considered necessary. Besides these are in the nature of administrative Guidelines and would not in any way be legally binding in respect of any recommendation to be made by the FIPB or decisions to be taken by the Government in cases involving Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Governments are increasingly setting up promotional agencies to foster foreign direct investment.) These guidelines stand modified to the extent changes have been notified by Secretariat for Industrial Assistance from time to time. When policies are effective. GUIDELINES FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF FDI PROPOSALS BY THE FOREIGN INVESTMENT PROMOTION BOARD (FIPB) (The Guidelines are meant to assist the FIPB to consider proposals in an objective and transparent manner.The primary aim of these policies is to create a friendly business environment where foreign investors feel comfortable with the legal and financial framework of the country. Global trade associations also play a major role in some of these investment activities. with a related variance in the level of FDI investments attracted. technology and IP-driven FDI. . Governments often also seek to improve their domestic infrastructure to meet the operational needs of investors. Providing fiscal incentives for attracting FDI is a subject of controversy – analysts have argued both in favor and against the idea.
. All applications should be put up before the FIPB by the SIA (Secretariat for Industrial Assistance) within 15 days and it should be ensured that comments of the administrative ministries are placed before the Board either prior to/or in the meeting of the Board. technical collaboration/ industrial licence) for composite approval or otherwise. approval of C&IM/CCEA or rejection as the case may be).(a) the source and nature of technology sought to be transferred. FIPB should keep in mind the sectoral requirements and the sectoral policies vis-a-vis the proposal(s). In cases in which either the proposal is not cleared or further information is required. and • Whether the proposal has any previous joint venture or technology transfer/trademark agreement in the same or allied field in India. Proposals should be considered by the Board keeping in view the time frame of 30 days for communicating Government decision (i. • Whether the proposal involves any export projection and if so the items of export and the projected destinations. • In the case of Export Oriented Units (EOUs) whether the prescribed minimum value addition norms and the minimum turn over of exports are met or not. and for 100% EOUs/SEZ units). • Whether the proposal has concurrent commitment under other schemes such as EPCG Scheme etc. and proof that the new proposal would not in any way jeopardize the interest of the existing joint venture or technology/trade mark partner or other stake holders. • Whether the proposal involves any mandatory requirement for exports and if so whether the applicant is prepared to undertake such obligation (this is for items reserved for small scale sector as also for dividend balancing. The Board should examine the following while considering proposals submitted to it for consideration: • Whether the items of activity involve industrial licence or not and if so the considerations for grant of industrial licence must be gone into. • Whether the proposal has any strategic or defence related considerations.e. However. the FIPB's recommendation would relate only to the approval for foreign financial and technical collaboration and the foreign investor will need to take other prescribed clearances separately. • Whether the proposal involves technical collaboration and if so:.e. if it includes apart from foreign investment. While considering cases and making recommendations.The following Guidelines are laid-down to enable the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) to consider the proposals for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and formulate its recommendations. • Whether the proposal involves relaxation of locational restrictions stipulated in the industrial licensing policy. While considering proposals the following may be prioritised. the detailed circumstance in which it is considered necessary to set-up a new joint enture/enter into new technology transfer (including trade mark). in order to obviate delays presentation by applicant in the meeting of the FIPB should be resorted to. FIPB would consider each proposal in totality (i.
there is ban on foreign investment in real estate while it is not so for NRI investment). The following should be especially considered during the scrutiny and consideration of proposals: • • • • • • The extent of foreign equity proposed to be held (keeping in view sectoral caps if any e. Extent of equity with composition of foreign/NRI (which may include OCB)/resident Indians. Items falling in infrastructure sector. Items which have an export potential Items which have large scale employment potential and especially for rural people. Whether the activity is an industrial or a service activity or a combination of both. Extent of equity from the point of view whether the proposed project would amount to a holding company/wholly owned subsidiary/a company with dominant foreign investment (i. which result in induction of technology or infusion of capital. human resource development. Proposals. 24% for SSI units. Items.g. Whether the proposed foreign equity is for setting up a new project (joint venture or otherwise) or whether it is for enlargement of foreign/NRI equity or whether it is for fresh induction of foreign equity/NRI equity in an existing Indian company. Cases pertaining to FIPB approvals.• • • • • • • Items/activities covered under automotive route (i. In the case of induction of fresh equity in the existing Indian companies and/or enlargement of foreign equity in existing Indian companies. which have a direct or backward linkage with agro business/farm sector. 49% in basic/cellular/paging in Telecom sector etc). Whether there are any sectoral restrictions on the activity (e. which do not qualify under automatic route). or by what modality].e. 40% for air taxi/airlines operators. which involve increase in the non-resident equity within the approved percentage of non-resident equity in a joint venture company and enhancement of paid-up capital in a wholly owned subsidiary do not require FIPB approval provided the intent for increase in the amount of foreign equity is duly notified to SIA and formal documentation by way of intimation is made to SIA within 30 days of receipt of funds and allotment of shares (to non-resident shareholders). In the case of fresh induction of foreign/NRI equity and/or cases of enlargement of foreign/ NRI equity in existing Indian companies whether there is a resolution of the Board of Directors supporting the said induction/ enlargement of foreign/NRI equity and whether there is a shareholders agreement or not. life saving drugs and equipment. • • • • . Whether the item of activity involves any restriction by way of reservation for the small scale sector. Item which have greater social relevance such as hospitals. 75% or more) joint venture. whether by increase of paid up capital/authorised capital. those. the reason why the proposal has been made and the modality for induction/ enhancement [i.g. Issue/transfer/pricing of shares will be as per SEBI/RBI guidelines. transfer of shares (hostile or otherwise) whether by rights issue.e.e.
Whether the item involves only trading activity and if so whether it involves export or both export and import. FIPB may consider recommending proposals for 100 percent foreign owned holding/subsidiary companies based on the following criteria: where only "holding" operation is involved all subsequent/downstream investments to be carried out would require prior approval of the Government. For higher levels of equity up to 74 per cent the Board may consider such proposals keeping in view considerations such as the extent of capital needed for the project. • Similarly in the case of a joint venture. the Board may consider and recommend proposals permitting 100 per cent foreign equity on a temporary basis on the condition that the foreign investor would divest to the Indian parties (either individual. only the direct investment should be considered for the prescribed cap and foreign investment in an investing company should not be set • • • • . • where at least 50% of production is to be exported. other import of goods or services provided at least 75% is for procurement and sale of goods and services among the companies of the same group. In respect of the companies in the infrastructure/services sector where there is a prescribed cap for foreign investment. • where proprietary technology is sought to be protected or sophisticated technology is proposed to be brought in. In respect of trading companies. • Whether the proposal involves import of items which are either hazardous.g. • proposals for consultancy. In respect of activities to which equity caps apply. and • proposals for industrial model towns/industrial parks or estates. FIPB may consider recommending higher levels of foreign equity as compared to the prescribed caps. In special cases. joint venture partners or general public or both) at least 26 per cent of its equity within a period of 3-5 years. bulk imports with ex-port/ex-bonded warehouse sales. or also includes domestic trading and if domestic trading whether it also includes retail trading. import of plastic scrap or recycled plastics). where the Indian partner is unable to raise resources for expansion/ technological upgradation of the existing industrial activity the Board may consider and recommend increase in the proportion/percentage (up to 100 per cent) of the foreign equity in the enterprise. keeping in view the special requirements and merits of each case. • In respect of other industries/activities the Board may consider recommending 51 per cent foreign equity on examination of each individual proposal. banned or detrimental to environment (e. where the foreign investor is unable initially to identify an Indian joint venture partner. cash and carry wholesale trading. the requirements of marketing and management skills and the commitment for exports. the nature and quality of technology. 100 per cent foreign equity may be permitted in the case of the activities involving the following: exports.
. if the foreign investor(s) concerned wished to bring in additional capital on later dates keeping the investment to such approved activities. at present. the application would be considered only after "in principle" permission is obtained from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). As regards proposal for private sector banks.off against this cap provided the foreign direct investment in such investing company does not exceed 49 per cent and the management of the investing company is with the Indian owners. Also in the case of approved activities.IV and these should be kept in view while considering the proposals. Where in case of a proposal (not being 100% subsidiary) foreign direct investment has been approved up to a designated percentage of foreign equity in the joint venture company the percentage would not be reduced while permitting induction of additional capital subsequently. No condition specific to the letter of approval issued to a foreign investor would be changed or additional condition imposed subsequent to the issue of a letter of approval. are given in the annexure . This would not prohibit changes in general policies and regulations applicable to the industrial sector. The restrictions prescribed for proposals in various sectors as obtained. FIPB would recommend such cases for approval on an automatic basis.
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