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BALOCHISTAN TOWARDS USING COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION
BY DARVESH KARIM
A dissertation submitted to the Board of Graduate Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Education (Educational Leadership and Management) Karachi !a"istan
Ma# $% &''(
TO: THE BOARD OF GRADUATE STUDIES
)he members of the *issertation E+aluation ,ommittee appointed to e-amine the dissertation of *A./ES0 KA.1M find it satisfactor# and recommend that it be accepted2
333333333333333333333333333333 Ms2 A4ra 5aseem (*issertation Super+isor)
33333333333333333333333333333333 (1nternal E-aminer)
33333333333333333333333333333333 (E-ternal E-aminer)
B.A)E )01S 89.AYE.9)0E.01E/E2 i .Y *1.) A5* !. S:!!9.DEDICATION 1 *E*1.E A5* MY .. MY 81.E52 81)09:) )0E1.E5)S MY Y9:5GE.S )01S 89.1.:L) )9 A.K )9 MY !A.K 89:L* 0A/E BEE5 /E.01L*.
of rural and urban areas of Sindh and Balochistan2 )he results sho< that the participantsA percei+ed attitude to<ards computers in education is positi+e2 9n indi+idual sub7scales participantsA percei+ed social impact of computers and their self confidence is found to be lo<er than the educational and training needs2 .orrelation anal#ses re+ealed significant associations bet<een the head teachersA attitude to<ards computers in education and the use of computers and prior training2 1n sub7scales model prior training contributes to the training needsA model <hile use of computer contributed to the self confidence model2 )he stud# has highlighted the importance of pro+iding computers to the head teachers in their offices and need for offering rele+ant training programmes for the head teachers and deput# heads from Sindh and Balochistan2 Also further research is needed to understand the relationship bet<een attitudes to<ards computers and its actual use in schools2 ii .ABSTRACT Attitudes pla# a +er# significant role in acceptance of an# idea or inno+ation2 !rior research studies ha+e established the significance of computers and the attitude of head teachers <hich can either be a hindering factor or a facilitator for computer integration in education2 )o e-plore the attitudes of the head teachers in the !a"istani conte-t this stud# <as conceptualised2 )he ma=or aim of the stud# <as to determine the attitudes of head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan to<ards the use of computers in education <hile the subsidiar# aim <as to e-plore the relationship bet<een demographic characteristics of the participants and their attitude to<ards the use of computers in education2 A sur+e# questionnaire <as adopted from !elgrum and !lump ($((>) to gather data2 )hrough this tool a sample of $?% head teachers <as assessed for their computer attitudes <ith four factors@ percei+ed educational impact percei+ed social impact training needs and self confidence2 )he sample <as dra<n from the participants of the Educational Leadership and Management (ELM) course offered as part of the Ed7Lin"s pro=ect2 )he participants comprised a mi.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .irst of all 1 than" Almight# Allah for blessing me the opportunit# health and the abilit# to complete this <or"2 M# <ords are insufficient to than" 0im for all the merc# guidance and unlimited fa+ours and blessings2 Shukr-Alhamdulil-llah ()han"s God Almight#)2 1 am highl# grateful to 0is 0ighness !rince Karim Aga Khan <ho is the B( th Spiritual Leader of 1smaili Muslims for establishing glorious educational institutions li"e Aga Khan :ni+ersit# 1nstitute for Educational *e+elopment <hich enhanced m# "no<ledge s"ills and dispositions to handle educational issues and contribute to educational de+elopment2 1 had ta"en this opportunit# of selection for M2Ed as a CGolden Dubilee GiftA of 0is 0ighness )he Aga Khan 1/ as Dul# &''E to *ecember &''? <as the Golden Dubilee #ear of his Imamat2 1t <ould be inappropriate if 1 do not appreciate and ac"no<ledge AK:71E* for helping me graduate (<hich is the dream of e+er# teacher of m# conte-t to become its graduate)2 Man# man# than"s to AK:71E* for its beautiful and peaceful campus <ith e+er# facilit# a+ailable necessar# for learning and to sharpen minds2 )he <ell furnished and equipped computer labs librar# and the classrooms <ith +er# attenti+e and caring staff members <ho made me progressi+e and curious to learn2 8hile the <orld class AK: Sports F .entre <hich <as a source of diminishing the mental e-ertion also pla#ed a +er# crucial role during this period of t<o #ears2 As the t<o #ear =ourne# of M2Ed2 ends <ith m# final dissertation as a final product 1 loo" bac" at it and <ant to sa# than" #ou to all those nice people <ho touched m# heart <ho appreciated me lo+ed me cared about me inspired me supported me encouraged me and helped me2 All m# facilitators m# fello<s and AK:71E* staff are the special people <ho helped me to learn in one <a# or the other2 )han" #ou so much for being supporti+e for me and 1 pra# that in #our life e+er# single da# brings happiness good health prosperit# success long life peace to #our li+es and #our lo+ed ones2 )han" #ou so much for being such <onderful personalities in m# life2 M# appreciation and deep hearted than"s go to the e+er7opened7doors of offices and hearts of respected *irectors AK:71E* *r2 Mohammad Memon and *r2 Sadruddin !ardhan2 You ha+e al<a#s been a source of inspiration for me2 )han" #ou +er# much2 iii .ehabilitation .
! M2Ed2 &'$' for her sisterl# beha+iour and "indness2 0er sincerit# reall# touched m# heart2 Lastl# 1 <ant to apologise in case an# of m# <ords or actions offended m# respected teachers AK:71E* staff and m# fello<s2 1 hope m# efforts ha+e been <orth<hile2 i+ .o4ina Kha<a=a Sha4ia Khaimani Sadia Shei"h :mbreen )abassum and Aafi#at 5a4ar for their social and professional support and for their caring attitude2 1 <ish all the best to .5o< 1 <ish to ac"no<ledge the direct support assistance and encouragement of a number of people <ho ha+e made this research possible2 .irst m# sincere appreciation goes to m# parents <ife children #ounger brother and the rest of m# famil# members for their continuous support and pra#ers throughout t<o #ears of m# stud#2 M# heartfelt gratitude goes to m# super+isor Ms2 A4ra 5aseem <ho +igorousl# de+oted her precious time to super+ise this <or"2 She <as so caring and supporti+e all the <a# from research proposal de+elopment and its presentation to the final <rite7up2 1 al<a#s found her feedbac" +er# constructi+e and encouraging2 )han" #ou Madam for #our "ind support and encouragement2 You are an ideal and e-emplar# mentor indeedG 1 especiall# ac"no<ledge and than" *r2 Sadia Butta <ho <as +er# much "ind and sincere to guide me through the complicated S!SS anal#sis and interpretations of the statistics2 1 <ould li"e to than" all m# research participants for their participation in the stud# as <ell as <ho participated in the pilot phase of this pro=ect2 )heir courtes# and generosit# <ith their time made this <or" en=o#able and possible2 8arm than"s to all m# friends and colleagues of M2Ed &''( in general for their intellectual social and moral support <hich reall# impro+ed m# personal as <ell as professional capacities and in particular sincere gratitude goes to m# caring friends Sultan Alam Sharifullah Baig Ali Ahmed Khan Hainul Mulu" 5isar Karim )a=ul 5issa Hohra 8a4ir Karima *amani .uba *a#oub .
ADFK AK.ederall# Administered 5orthern Areas .! !h2* S.oundation Aga Khan :ni+ersit# 1nstitute for Educational *e+elopment Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of .LIST OF ACRONYMS A1.*E 1.) 1.A5A .ommunication )echnolog# 1slamabad . AK:71E* B2A B2. S.ommunit# Support for !rimar# Education in Balochistan Standard *e+iation Social 1mpact Statistical !ac"age for Social Science Sarhad .A)A .ederall# Administered )ribal Areas .onfidence Societ# for .ural Support !rogramme + .om2 B2Ed2 B2Sc2 .ederal *irectorate of Education 1nformation and .) M M2Ed2 MS1 58.apital )erritor# Mean Master of Education Management S#stem 1nternational 5orth 8est .S! 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 American 1nstitute for research A4ad Dammu and Kashmir Aga Khan .!s *E9 E*7L15KS E1 ELM .ommerce Bachelor of Education Bachelor of Science .ourse !articipants *istrict Education 9fficer )he Lin" to learning6 Education Support to !a"istan Educational 1mpact Educational Leadership and Management .rontier !ro+ince *octor of !hilosoph# Self .S!E* S* S1 S!SS S.
)5 )..esource .entre :nited States Agenc# for 1nternational *e+elopment +i . :SA1* 6 6 6 )raining 5eeds )eachersA .
0E............................1.................................. )0E S):*Y2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222% *E................................. 15 ......................9:5* A5* .........omputer 9<nership Attitude and Self .......E*:.......................ESEA............)15G ...................A)195 9.......................................onfidence222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$? S:MMA......................................S A............ESS2222222222222222222$& .....2 METHODOLOGY...E 9.................9M!:)E....................ESEA...............................................................2 .....9.................A5..151)195 9...9LE 9....8 LITERATURE REVIEW...... )0ES1S222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222J S:MMA.....MS22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222J 9.........onfidence222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$J .......... )0E S):*Y22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222% ................S 15 E*:..............ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...SA A))1):*E )98A................................A.......................................................A)195222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222( 0EA* )EA.........0A5GE MA5AGEME5) !.. )0E 0EA* )EA.......GA51HA)195 9...............................................1 BA.TABLE OF CONTENTS DEDICATION...omputer :se )rainings and Self .......1 INTRODUCTION..............iii LIST OF ACRONYMS...................................0E............................................ KEY )E..............9M!:)E......................)9......................E2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&$ .....................v CHAPTER ONE............. :SE A5* A))1):*ES22222222222222222222222222222222222222222$B Gender 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$B Age22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$J ...Y222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222E CHAPTER TWO........................................................ .................Y2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$? CHAPTER THREE...............................9........i ABSTRACT........S 222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$' ..................*S .............0 I:ES)195222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222% S1G51.....!9SE 9..........................................8 A))1):*E2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222? 15)EG.0 *ES1G52222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&' SAM!L15G !...................................................E........KG..............9M!:)E.......A)195ALE2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222$ !:................
...............esearch Iuestion )<o2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>$ ........................ ..............!" *EM9G..........!" RESULTS............95S1*E................leaning222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&? Anal#sis222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&? Anal#sis !rocedure for ...............ES22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>E School Location222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>E E-perience as 0ead teacher222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>E Gender222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>E Age22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>E .....:ME5)22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&& *escription of the Iuestionnaire2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&> Part A: Demographic and Background Information = 10 Items.....EA):.....E*:............... ! Part B: Attitude "o#ards $omputer = 0 Items.....E222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&% *irect Administration222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&J )hrough !ost22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&E *A)A A5ALYS1S !.............9......Y2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>J CHAPTER FOUR.......9....A!01............................ESS2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&& 15S).......AL .........................A)19522222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>J S:MMA.esearch Iuestion 9ne22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&( Anal#sis !rocedure for ........................................E22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&E *ata Entr# 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&? *ata ............)195 !..Stud# Sample2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&$ A........9LLE...................EL1AB1L1)Y 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>B L1M1)A)195S 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>B Social *esirabilit#222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>B Monitoring the Ans<ers22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>% Generali4abilit#2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>% Bias .......E*:............esponses2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>% E)01............ ! :rdu )ranslation of the )ool2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&B !1L9) !0ASE222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222&B *A)A ....
omparing 9+erall Attitudes <ith *emographic /ariables22222222222222222222222222222222222222B( !erception of Educational and Social 1mpact222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%' !erception of )raining 5eeds and Self ................................................................ )0E KEY ............Sindh and Balochistan-.....Y2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222BE CHAPTER FIVE.............................................................................................................../ural and 0r1an-........ ...................A)195S222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%> .......:SS195 9...............................(3 "raining 'eeds 2odel..............................................Y 9........9MME5*A)195S222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%> .............#8 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION...........omputers in 9ffice22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>? ....ESEA....................1S9522222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>( 8hat are the attitudes of the go+ernment schoolsA head and deput# head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan to<ard the use of computers in educationK222222222222222222>( %ducational Impact.......................................................................................(4 S:MMA.............................................onfidence222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%& 1M!L1.!& Social Impact..................Iualification22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>? .........................(0 )*er all Descripti*e +indings........................(! ASS9...................omputer :se222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>? ............................................................................................................................................9M!A............................................................................0 I:ES)195S22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222B? S:MMA......15*15GS222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222B? *1S...........................................................omputer 9<nership2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>? A+ailabilit# of ..................#8 ..( $omparison Across ........(0 $omparison Across Pro*ince .....!& "raining 'eed ...............................................................................urther .................ocation .....1A)195S22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222BB 8hat are the demographic characteristics <hich contribute to the head teachersA attitude to<ards computersK22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222BB )*erall Attitude 2odel......................................omputer )raining22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222>( .....................................ecommendations for .........................esearch22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%B .(0 Self $onfidence .....................(4 Self $onfidence 2odel.........ES:L)S2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222B( ............E.....
...........82 U%/5 45$'*i())-i%$..............................................................$ Wi'$ Fi)/i)2'........................... M-i.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................E........................................................................8# C()*$)* V-.........................................................................................."" APPENDIX A2...................................................................................................87 R$'$-%83 I)9(%&-*i() S3$$*.....1 # .....................................................82 APPENDIX B!............................................1 S5:0S8-............................................................................................88 R$'$-%83 Ti&$ F%-&$...............................................................87 APPENDIX B7.E5................................................................................................i/i*6 S3$$*..........................................."" P$%&i''i() L$**$%............................8" APPENDIX C......................................................."+ APPENDIX B1...............88 APPENDIX D1.........................8" C()'$)* F(%&.....................................................................................................................................ES 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%E APPENDIX A1.................E.......8# APPENDIX B#...........................................................................................................i'3 45$'*i())-i%$.................................................................................................................95..................................%(v-......................................8 E)2......................................................+1 APPENDIX D!............................ Fi)/i)2'..............................................................................................."+ A............................................................................................8+ I*$& Wi'$ D$&(2%-..........................1 APPENDIX D#................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................L:S19522222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222%B .................8+ APPENDIX D2......................................................................................8 APPENDIX B2....... F%(& E/0Li)1' C((%/i)-*(%....3i8 Fi)/i)2'.........................+1 I*$& Wi'$ A**i*5/i)-..................
.....................................1 ..........................................................................................................................................-*i()'....-%i'()...........................................................1 " Fi)/i)2' S5&&-%6............. C(%%$...........................................................................................................1 " .....................1 # APPENDIX D7.........C(&.............................................................................................................. APPENDIX D...................................................1 ................
.....................#2 FIGURE 2 < PROVINCE WISE COMPARISON OF MEAN..............................................................................#2 FIGURE ! 0 LOCATION0WISE COMPARISON OF MEAN.......................LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 < CATEGORY0WISE MEAN SCORE..#! .
....................................................... 0 TEST STATISTICS-.....................................!8 TABLE ............... TABLE 1 0 SELF CONFIDENCE MODEL...2+ TABLE 2 0 TESTS OF NORMALITY..........................................!2 TABLE # < RELIABILITY STATISTICS .................#..............................................................................................................................................................LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 0 ITEMS IN THE 4UESTIONNAIRE.....................................................!1 TABLE ! 0 DEFINITIONS AND CODING FOR THE VARIABLES............................................................#! TABLE " 0 TEST STATISTICS-...#........................................................................................................................!# TABLE 7 < RESPONDENTS= 4UALIFICATION....... .............## TABLE 8 0 OVERALL ATTITUDE MODEL...........................#7 TABLE + 0 TRAINING NEEDS MODEL..........................
) has distinct ad+antages that transcend the classroom en+ironment2 )he +ision laid do<n b# !a"istanAs education polic# is to ha+e education for all its citi4ens and man# programme s ha+e been launched b# the pro+incial as <ell as .(:5*! &''J)2 )he 1.)) <hich are rapidl# influencing the neighbouring countries and the 8estern countries are strongl# ta"ing roots in !a"istan2 !a"istan is a de+eloping countr# <ith a population of appro-imatel# more than $J' million and it ran"ed $>Bth out of $EE countries on the &''J 0uman *e+elopment 1nde.ederal Go+ernment to achie+e these goals (5ational Education !olic# &''?)2 Yet our countr# is behind others that ha+e successfull# de+eloped CKno<ledge SocietiesA2 )he qualit# of an# s#stem is as good as its human resources2 )o impro+e education in !a"istan the needs and s"ill set of our teachers head teachers and administrators must be addressed holisticall#2 )echnolog# based teaching and learning can enhance teaching qualit# b# supporting and reinforcing the inno+ati+e usage of technolog# integrated <ith academics2 )he effecti+e use of technolog# <ill help educators to access a <ide range of materials2 Administrators <ill also benefit from 1.) sector in !a"istan is gro<ing particularl# from the educational perspecti+e2 9+er the last #ears ho<e+er pro+ision of computers has been one of the ma=or focus areas for the go+ernment2 )here is a gro<ing reali4ation among polic#7ma"ers that computers hold great potential to the e-tent that the go+ernment is encouraging the use of computers in education2 )echnolog# is the medium for teaching and learning and 1.) b# using technolog# to access management resources and tools that can strengthen their decision ma"ing process (*ra+is &''>)2 $ .CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION )his chapter discusses the bac"ground rationale research questions purpose of the stud# and its significance2 *efinitions of the terms used in this research are also gi+en2 BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE )he ne<l# emerging trends of information and communication technolog# (1.
hin &''')2 )oda#As head teachers are e-pected to not onl# manage the da# to da# acti+ities of a school but also focus on studentsA learning standards data dri+en decision ma"ing and restructuring efforts2 School leadership is in fact the "e# component in guiding the teaching7learning process necessar# for preparing students <ith the rele+ant "no<ledge and s"ills in toda#As societ# to become a producti+e citi4en of the &$st centur#2 9ne of the "e# competencies is related to the "no<ledge and s"ills of using 1.)2 Leadership can pla# a critical role to bridge the generation gap among the digital nati+es and the digital & .Before coming to the 1nstitute for Educational *e+elopment (AK:71E*) Karachi to complete the Master of Education (M2Ed) degree 1 <as <or"ing as a head teacher in the 5orthern Areas of !a"istan2 Before that 1 also <or"ed as a teacher and spent some time using computers for teaching2 As a computer teacher in the school 1 <or"ed <ith t<o to three head teachers <ho either did not ha+e an# "no<ledge or had limited "no<ledge of computers2 )he# <ere also reluctant to respond to m# concerns regarding computers in education2 1 had to struggle hard to ma"e them understand about the need and importance of computers in education2 1 obser+ed that the head teachers <ere not adequatel# prepared for their ne< role as technolog# leaders and therefore the# onl# struggled to achie+e technical resources for the school rather concentrating themsel+es or in+ol+ing teachers to use the a+ailable computers in meaningful <a#s <ith children2 After becoming the in7charge of the school for a short period 1 tried m# le+el best to encourage the staff members to use computers for classroom instruction and administration2 1 gathered opinions from all the teaching staff about their <illingness to get computer trainings and on the basis of their strong <illingness 1 arranged in7house computer trainings and the participation <as enthusiastic2 After these short in7house trainings 1 obser+ed that the teachers <ere scheduling their classes (specificall# for English and Social Studies) in the computer lab and students <ere also ta"ing interest to learn2 )his approach helped me as <ell as the teachers to start getting the benefit of using computers in their regular teaching at a small le+el2 1 also came across situations <here the teachers or student7initiated computer pro=ects ha+e been undermined due to lac" of support from the head teacher2 After coming to AK:71E* through m# readings and discussions <ith colleagues 1 learnt that head teachers ha+e a critical role in educational inno+ations (.
*E2 )here are other similar pro=ects <hich ha+e pro+ided funding to impro+e the 1.ederal Go+ernment has also stressed great emphasis on enhancing the scope and amount of computers in Education2 1n this regard a pro=ect funded b# :nited States Agenc# for 1nternational *e+elopment (:SA1*) Cthe lin"s to learning6 Education Support to !a"istan (E*7L15KS)A is also <or"ing <ith the go+ernment on the issue of the computers in education2 Apart from other acti+ities of teaching learning process E*7L15KS programme also includes up7 gradation and establishment of .obertson et al $((%)2 1n !a"istan the use of computers in education is increasing2 )he go+ernment sector is the largest pro+ider of education in !a"istan2 .or all these efforts to be fruitful it is necessar# to determine the attitudes of the school heads to<ards the use of computers in education so as to de+elop an appropriate inter+ention programme2 )he increase in computer use in the schools all o+er the <orld is underpinned b# the intention to impro+e teaching and learning (E+ans7Andris $((J)2 E+ans7Andris > .immigrants (!rens"# &''$a) b# recognising the difference and initiating the proper technolog# inter+ention plans2 According to *inham (&''%) leadership is important in de+eloping effecti+e inno+ati+e schools and in facilitating qualit# teaching and learning through computers2 )hus school leadership has a responsibilit# for initiating and implementing school change through the use of computers to facilitate decisions about integration of computer into learning and teaching (Schiller &''>)2 1n order to encourage the use of computers among the staff head teachersA o<n attitude to<ards using the technolog# matters a lot as attitudes influence not onl# head teachersA initial acceptance of computer but their future beha+iour regarding computers2 .omputer Labs in the selected go+ernment middle and secondar# schools in !a"istan2 E*7L15KS is <or"ing closel# <ith the Ministr# of Education and the .ederal *irectorate of Education (.esearchers are of the opinion that a<areness and attitudes to<ard computers constitutes a crucial criterion in the e+aluation of computer application and usage including the de+elopment of computer7based curricula (8oodro< $(($@ Ka# $((>@ .*E) for effecti+e implementation of target acti+ities in the selected schools functioning in four rural and one urban sectors of .) infrastructure in schools and also train teachers and head teachers for computer use2 .
onducting this stud# in !a"istan <as especiall# important since the integration of computers into the !a"istani educational s#stem is still not streamlined properl#2 )o the best of m# "no<ledge there has been no published research that deals <ith !a"istani head teachersA attitude to<ards the use of computers in school2 Lastl# being a computer teacher 1 ha+e obser+ed that head teachers attitude to<ard computers is mostl# affected b# age and qualification as 1 ha+e obser+ed that older head teachers usuall# ha+e a negati+e feelings or attitude to<ard computer li"e<ise it has been obser+ed that qualification mostl# <ith science bac"ground teachers also donAt gi+e that much importance to computers2 8hile different studies ha+e identified man# demographic +ariables affecting as the hindering factors for computer integration2 Among them moderatel# affecting are found to be gender age professional ran" academic bac"ground and sub=ect taught (!a#ette $(?E@ 1nch $(?E@ /a"alis $((') <hile the demographic +ariables that strongl# affect computer use include computer o<nership and trainings (.oar" $(?%@ Anderson $(?E@ 1nch $(?E@ /a"alis $(('@ Sutherlin $((')2 0ence this sur+e# <as also conceptualised to e-plore <ith a set of demographic +ariables and identif# the relationship bet<een demographic characteristics of the participants and their attitude to<ards the use of computers in education so that a B .suggested that despite the a+ailabilit# of computers and its peripherals in schools the success of the implementation of computers in schools depends on the usersA attitude2 )herefore understanding usersA attitude to<ard computers ma# help the integration of computers into the curriculum (A"#ure"oglu &''&) and dail# schooling practices2 Attitudes influence not onl# head teachersA initial acceptance of computer but their future beha+iour regarding computers2 0ead teachersA attitude in supporting long lasting computer integration is +er# much critical2 Much of the research literature has tended to o+erloo" the attitude of the principal (Michael $((?) and the head teacherAs current technolog# leadership capabilities2 )his gap in the research is unusual because man# studies relating to school effecti+eness school impro+ement and change sho< that head teachersA attitude pla# an important role in creating successful change in schools (Schiller &''>)2 1n !a"istan traditionall# head teacher is the centre of all school acti+ities so consideration of head teacherAs attitude should be integral to the efforts of educational computer usage2 .
data dri+en decision and an effecti+e and long lasting inter+ention plan could be materialised2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY )he purpose of this stud# is to determine the attitudes of the head and deput# head teachers from go+ernment schools in Sindh and Balochistan pro+inces of !a"istan to<ard computer use in education2 )he second purpose is to in+estigate possible relationships bet<een the respondentsA demographic characteristics and their attitude to<ard computers2 RESEARCH 4UESTION )his stud# is intended to ans<er certain questions based on headLdeput# head teachersA attitude to<ard the use of computers in !a"istani schools2 )he research questions are@ • 8hat are the attitudes of the head teachers and deput# head teachers of go+ernment schools from Sindh and Balochistan to<ard the use of computers in educationK • 8hat are the demographic characteristics <hich contribute to the head teachersA attitude to<ards computersK SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 1t is e-pected that the stud# is significant in the follo<ing <a#s6 $2 )his ma# be the first stud# of its "ind to be conducted in !a"istan2 )he stud#As findings <ill be significant for the polic# ma"ers curriculum planners and particularl# for the Ed7Lin"s !ro=ect )eam to plan appropriate professional de+elopment programme for the head teachers in future2 &2 )he findings might also help the AK:71E*As facult# members teaching the Educational Leadership and Management (ELM) courses to de+elop appropriate computer integration programme for the future cohorts2 >2 )he findings of the stud# also contribute to the research literature on the attitudes of schoolsA heads in !a"istan2 % .
hapter one is the introduction2 1t addresses the bac"ground for the stud# and rationale significance of the stud# the research questions and definition of "e# terms2 J .efers to ho< the respondents feel about the educational and social impact of computer use in education2 Also it includes the perception about their self confidence and training needs for computer use2 • 0se of $omputers in %ducation6 )his term refers to the use of a computer as a pedagogical or producti+it# tool to facilitate teaching learning and school administrati+e <or"2 • %5perience #ith $omputers6 1t includes the information related to computer o<nership its a+ailabilit# in school and prior training recei+ed2 ORGANI>ATION OF THESIS )his thesis contains fi+e chapters a list of references and appendices2 )he fi+e chapters include6 introduction re+ie< of the literature methodolog# results and conclusions2 .obbins F Dudge &''E p2 EB)2 Attitude to#ard $omputers6 .B2 )he tool <hich has been used in this stud# <as part of a larger stud# conducted in se+eral countries2 B# using the tool in this research 1 ha+e tested the reliabilit# and +alidit# of the tool for !a"istan2 9thers could also use the tool to determine attitudes2 %2 As a researcher the stud# <as significant for me as it enabled me to enhance m# s"ills of conducting quantitati+e stud# in educational conte-ts2 J2 )he stud# <as useful and significant for the participants to thin" and reflect on different aspects of their attitudes and practices to<ards computers in education because the# <ill be re+ie<ing their o<n attitude2 E2 )his sur+e# is li"el# to contribute to the understanding of the participants as <ell other head and deput# teachers in enacting their roles more effecti+el#2 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS • • Attitude6 Attitudes are e+aluati+e statements either positi+e or negati+e concerning ob=ects people or e+ents (.
hapter four presents the anal#sis of the results of the stud#2 ..hapter t<o pro+ides a re+ie< of the related literature2 1t e-amines studies thematicall# related to the computer use into the schools and leadership role2 .hapter fi+e pro+ides an o+erall summar# of the research findings and pro+ides a discussion and conclusion to the results2 SUMMARY Attitudes contribute to the "no<ledge and beha+iour that the change agents require to guide change efficientl#2 :nderstanding the attitudes of the school heads to<ard the use of computer in education in !a"istani go+ernment schools is li"el# to pro+ide information for future inter+ention2 )hus this stud# see"s to e-plore the attitudes of the head teachers and deput# heads from go+ernment schools in Sindh and Balochistan to<ards the use of computers in education2 E .hapter three focuses on the research methods for this stud#2 )his chapter highlights the procedures of identif#ing the population sample instrumentation pilot stud# limitations of the stud# and ethical considerations2 1t also addresses the process of data collection and anal#sis2 .
) and teachers and head teachersA attitudes role of the head teachers and finall# the impact of using 1.) in education2 )he chapter concludes <ith a summar# of the chapter2 ATTITUDE )he term attitude has been defined in a number of <a#s2 9ppenheim ($(JJ) define attitude as a state of readiness a tendenc# to act or react in a certain manner <hen confronted <ith certain stimuli2 !ett# and .CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW )his chapter presents a re+ie< of literature on topics related to m# stud#2 )he re+ie< focuses on themes such as need for stud#ing attitudes findings from prior studies around the use of 1.acioppo ($(?J) cited in Abell and Lederman (&''E) defines attitude as Ma general and enduring positi+e or negati+e feeling about some person ob=ect or issueN (p2E?)2 1n other <ords attitude is ho< <e thin" and <hether <e lean to<ard the positi+e or negati+e2 A positi+e attitude implies a <a# of thin"ing that is predominantl# positi+e and optimistic2 )he opposite inclination a negati+e attitude is predominantl# pessimistic2 )he t#pe of attitude <e hold affects the "ind of life <e li+e (Keller &''')2 According to Ai"en ($(?') attitudes are Mlearned predispositions to respond positi+el# or negati+el# to certain ob=ects situations concepts or personsN (p2 &)2 )he# can be thought of as a reflection of an indi+idualAs global perspecti+e on a topic and can be predicti+e of beha+iour2 Attitude is the <a# a person thin"s about somebod# or something and the <a# sLhe beha+es to<ards someone2 1t is herLher personal +ie< or opinion of something2 1t also describes herLhis general emotional approach to an# person or situation2 Attitude is a primar# component of our mannerism2 1t is the foundation for achie+ing and maintaining a positi+e mental outloo"2 8e see the <orld the <a# <e are or should be2 9ur beliefs about others reflect bac" at us2 A positi+e attitude is a personAs passport to a better tomorro< and a change in our attitude could lead to positi+e changes in our li+es2 Keller (&''') states that M)he greatest disco+er# of m# generation is that human beings can alter their li+es b# altering their attitudes of mindN (p2%)2 ? .
A person ma# ha+e a strong attitude for or against a certain issue and it can be e-plored through presenting the indi+idual <ith an attitude questionnaire (E+ans $(J%)2 An attitude is accompanied b# a tendenc# to act in a particular <a# in gi+en circumstances@ it is sometimes possible to infer the attitudes of an indi+idual from hisLher response to a certain e+ent or a situation (E+ans $(J%)2 INTEGRATION OF COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION .E9 .ole# $((E)2 )he effecti+e use and integration of computer into the curriculum is important but as .urthermore 9tto and Albion (&''B? reported that although computers are no< <idel# a+ailable in the schools it does not integrate full# into teaching and learning2 1n line <ith this idea Sheingold and 0adle# ($((') pointed out that integrating technolog# is not about helping people to use computers but it is about helping teachers to integrate technolog# as a tool for learning2 1n fact in the ideal teaching and learning setting computers should be as transparent tool as a pencil2 )herefore technolog# integration in classrooms is more about teaching and learning than it is about computer hard<are (Mills F )incher &''&)2 )he effecti+eness of computer implementation can be measured if educators consider that computers are onl# a means for teaching and learning2 )omei (&''&) indicates that computers are onl# a means to an end and the benefits of computers depend upon ho< teachers use them2 )he use of computers in instruction in+ol+es t<o themes6 instruction and computer use2 )herefore both instruction and the use of computers need to be effecti+e in order to achie+e the goal of enhanced teaching and learning (.omputers cannot be integrated into the classroom o+ernight2 )echnolog# integration includes different stages2 *espite the increasing presence of computer hard<are and soft<are in schools and numerous <or"shops and training the consistent integration of computers into a regular classroom is still a far cr# from realit# (.ole# ($((E) e-plains that the benefits of implementing computers as educational tools depend on the le+el and qualit# of computer implementation2 )he ( .ole ($((() indicates one must not e-pect the computer b# itself to impro+e education2 .orum &''')2 .
application of toda#As computers in schools is not limited to drill and practice2 .($((') in a stud# of the use of computers in primar# schools in London found that there <ere man# factors that influenced computer use in the schools but on the top of the list <as the attitude of the principal2 Li"e<ise based on +arious research studies a <ide range of factors ha+e been found to affect technolog# integration in the school2 9f these attitude of head $' .o.hodes and .omputer integration culti+ates the modern potential of the #outh preparing them to step into a <orld <here understanding of technolog# can help shape their success in the future2 Young people toda# are entering a global econom# <here the# are being challenged to anal#se information collaborate and communicate their ideas using e+er changing technolog#2 HEAD TEACHERS= ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMPUTERS 0ead teachersA attitude to<ard computers influences the le+el of computer integration in schools2 )he relationship bet<een the school leadership and the use of computer often pla#s an important role to encourage and facilitate the use of computers for administrati+e and managerial <or" (/isscher $((J) as <ell as for instructional acti+ities (A""er Keursten F !lomp $((&)2 .reemers ($((B) refers to the concept of educational leadership <hereb# school leaders can influence and impro+e <hat happens in the teachingLlearning process2 )he e-tent to <hich school head teachers promote the use of computers in their schools probabl# depends on the degree to <hich the# themsel+es consider the computer useful2 )heir +ie<s on this matter can be e+ident in a number of <a#s such as ho< the# incorporate computer into their o<n school tas"s and the school polic# measures that the# effect to promote the incorporation of computer into their schools2 Se+eral studies ha+e identified the important role of the school principals in promoting computers integration in the school2 .lements ($((E) notes that the benefits of using computers for teaching and learning ma# ta"e time to become apparent2 .omputers can be used for different applications such as accessing information publishing communication instruction supplements for teaching and learning <ord processing presentations dra<ing and painting and man# more (0eide F 0enderson $((B)2 0o<e+er .
esearch studies ha+e sho<n that schoolsA head teachers <ho ha+e a positi+e attitude to<ard the use of computers support teachers to use them in schools (8olf $((>) <hich could lead to a positi+e change in teachersA attitude also2 !elgrum ($((>) confirmed that the correlation of the attitude for using computers in schools bet<een teachers and head teachers is positi+e2 A""er Keursten and !elgrum ($((&) concluded that school head teachers ha+ing positi+e attitude for the computers reported a higher frequenc# of stimulation of computer use b# the school authorities than those <ho ha+e less positi+e attitudes2 0ead teachers <ith more positi+e attitude for using computers tended to emphasise the impact purposes and integration of computers in the schools and encourage teachers to use computers more2 !ruett et al2 ($((>) also found that teachers <hose head teachers or super+isors encouraged them to use computers made it possible to use them in their instruction2 )he# also pro+ided more opportunities of in7ser+ice programme for teachers2 )he tendenc# to use computers <as formed positi+el#2 Support and training of personnel <as helpful for teachersA use of computers and moti+ated them to use more and deepl# (Bec"er $((B)2 Support from head teachers and administrators are +er# important because of offering adequate training hard<are and soft<are and time to plan in order to promote and moti+ate teachers to integrate computers into curriculum2 8ilmore and Bet4 (&''') ha+e concluded that that M1nformation )echnolog# <ill onl# be successfull# implemented in schools if the head teacher acti+el# supports it learns as <ell pro+ides adequate professional de+elopment and supports hisLher staff in the process of changeN (p2$%)2 0ence head teachers are one of the "e# leaders of change at the school le+el2 )heir actions interests and attitude can ha+e a profound impact on $$ .teacher is the single most important factor affecting the successful integration of technolog# (B#rom F Bingham &''$)2 Studies sho< that head teachers pla# an important role for promoting computer use in schools and classrooms2 )heir attitude and support is highl# related to the schools ha+ing the climate and en+ironment <here teachers are able to use computers in their classrooms (*upaggne F Krendl $((&@ !elgrum $((>@ !elgrum F !lomp $(($a@ !ruett et al2 $((>@ Sherman $((?)2 .
ullan (&''>) no successful large7scale change or school reform effort has ad+anced +er# far <ithout the support of the school leaders2 Similarl# Schiller (&''>) stated that the Mprincipals ha+e a "e# role to pla# in the facilitation of educational $& .programme change and instructional practice2 )herefore effecti+e head teachers must ha+e a positi+e attitude to<ards computers and "no<ledge2 )he +ision of getting the schools read# and up to date <ith the use of educational technolog# in the classroom could not be completed <ithout the commitment and readiness of the head teachers2 Leadership is a "e# component in guiding the teaching7 learning process necessar# for preparing toda#As students <ith rele+ant "no<ledge and s"ills in toda#As societ# to become a producti+e citi4en of the &$st centur#2 According to *inham (&''%) leadership is important in de+eloping effecti+e inno+ati+e schools and in facilitating qualit# teaching and learning2 )oda#As principals must not onl# manage the da# to da# acti+ities of a school but also focus on student learning standards data dri+en decision ma"ing and restructuring efforts2 As stated abo+e the principals pla# an integral role in technolog# integration (8ilmore F Bet4 &''')2 )his role is crucial in helping teachers create toda#As ideal learning en+ironment for students2 1n line <ith this idea 8ilmore and Bet4 (&''') stated that M1nformation )echnolog# <ill onl# be successfull# implemented in schools if the principal acti+el# supports it learns as <ell pro+ides adequate professional de+elopment and supports hisLher staff in the process of changeN (p2 $%)2 As the research clarifies computer use and attitude to<ards computer is +er# much interlin"ed2 0ence principals are one of the "e# leaders of change at the school le+el2 )heir actions interests and self7 efficac# can ha+e a profound impact on programme change and instructional practice2 )herefore Stud#ing head teachersA attitude to<ards an inno+ation is important to understand the state of readiness for change2 ROLE OF THE HEAD TEACHER IN CHANGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS .hange is a natural phenomenon and the trends that are influencing the <orld are also lea+ing their impression on !a"istan2 Education is no e-ception@ <ith the beginning of computer integration in education there is a need to equip the teachers and students <ith &$st centur# s"ills required to succeed in "no<ledge based econom#2 According to .
changeN (p2 B)2 Schiller (&''>) concludes in his research that head teachers <ho ta"e an acti+e approach and attitude to inno+ation can foster an en+ironment that has greater benefits for their students and staff2 0ence head teachersA attitude a<areness and use of computer are essential for effecti+e use and integration of computers in the school (Smith $((()2 )herefore successful computer de+elopment <ithin the school <ill require the leader <ith positi+e attitude to<ards technolog#2 .decisions about integration of computer into learning and teaching (Schiller &''>)2 As it has alread# been pro+ed through different researches that in+ol+ement of head teacher in computer integrating in schools has brought better outcomes (Schiller &''>)2 Literature further clarifies that head teachers are the main sources of inter+ention in terms of computers integration2 )he stud# of Schiller ($(($) highlights the positi+e attitude of school head teachers in helping their staff in better use of computers to enhance teaching and learning and to assist <ith administration and management2 8hile another research of Allan La< and 8ong (&''>) indicate that to ensure the successful integration of computers in school cooperation bet<een school leadership and teachers is essential2 1n the age of information technolog# head teachers must be able to integrate computer into their dail# practice and to pro+ide consistent and positi+e leadership for technolog# use in the teaching7learning process2 1n fact the# must be technolog# leaders2 According to 0ope Kell# and Gu#den (&''') technolog# leadership in+ol+es both understanding the technologies and ho< the# can be applied to accomplishing tas"s2 1f head teachersA attitude to<ards computer is better then the# <ill be able to promote a school culture <hich encourages e-ploration of ne< techniques in teaching learning and management (Schiller &''>)2 )herefore schools need leaders <ho can facilitate the change process and support a learning communit# for technolog# integration2 $> .or the effecti+eness and sustainabilit# of computer integration head teachersA attitude and their a<areness in the use of technolog# is +er# much essential2 School principals ha+e a ma=or responsibilit# for initiating and implementing school change through the use of computers and therefore facilitate comple.
hua .ollo<ing is the discussion of some researches done in this regard2 • G$)/$% Gender and attitude to<ard computer use has been the focus of man# studies resulting in three t#pes of outcomes@ i2e2 no difference at all among gender difference <ith male more positi+e attitude and difference <ith female more positi+e attitude2 Dacobson and 8eller ($(?E) found an une+en correlation bet<een age and frequenc# of use2 9ld age <as found negati+el# correlated <ith computer an-iet# ho<e+er no significant correlations <ere found <ith gender of the respondents2 Li"e<ise Altun (&''?) and A"bulut (&''?) e-plored that on comparing scores of male and female the# did not found an# difference in terms of attitudes to<ard computer2 0o<e+er mostl# the research on gender and computing has often reported though not categoricall# that males ha+e more e-perience and ma"e more use of computers (Brosnan F Lee $((?@ Bal"a F Smith &''')2 )he research (!elgrum F !lomp $((>) had also suggested gi+ing some more attention to females <ho seem on the <hole to be some<hat less positi+e about the educational impact of using computers than their male colleagues2 1t is usual to consider the issue of gender in the conte-t of other user +ariables such as social impact self confidence educational impact and training needs2 .oar" $(?%@ Anderson $(?E@ 1nch $(?E@ /a"alis $(('@ Sutherlin $((')2 .FACTORS AFFECTING COMPUTER USE AND ATTITUDES 1t has been pro+ed through researches that <ithout the acti+e participation of head teacher and teachers successful integration and implementation of computer in schools <ill not happen2 Studies ha+e identified man# factors affecting the computer integration2 1n se+eral studies the demographic +ariables that moderatel# affect the proper integration of computers in education are found to be gender age professional ran" academic bac"ground and sub=ect taught (!a#ette $(?E@ 1nch $(?E@ /a"alis $((') <hile the +ariables that strongl# affect computer use include attitude computer o<nership and training (.offin and Mac"int#re (&''') in their anal#ses on the relationships bet<een computer attitudes computer self efficac# and computer e-perience stated that most findings usuall# reinforce the gender effects and $B .or e-ample .hen and 8ong ($((() and .
ampbell $((')2 1n the same line the researches of As"ar and *a+enport (&''() 1Oman and Peli"li (&''() also found that there is a significance difference bet<een males and females2 )hese studies sho<ed that males are more confident comparing to females2 Bauer (&''') e-amined female pre7ser+ice teachersA perceptions to<ard gender differences in the learning and use of computers and found that most sur+e#ed female pre7ser+ice teachers belie+e that male teachers ha+e more "no<ledge and s"ills about computers than female2 )he author also found that female teachers demonstrated frustration and lo< confidence <ith the use of computers as a tool for teaching and learning2 According to Loc"ard and Abrams (&''$) female college students sho< lo<er confidence and greater an-iet# about computers than males2 )here is much good e+idence that males and females differ both in terms of amount of computer e-posure in school and in terms of the t#pes of technolog#7based acti+ities the# t#picall# choose to underta"e2 )he third t#pe of findings <hich indicate difference <ith female more positi+e attitude2 .orcier ($((J) indicates that the stereot#pe that Math and Science are masculine sub=ects started in the $Eth centur#2 .suggested that greater le+els of computer e-perience are associated <ith lo<er computer e-perience and more positi+e computer attitudes2 .or e-ample 0out4 and Gupta (&''$) found that males and females had rated themsel+es on their abilit# to use the computer in significantl# different <a#s2 Studies ha+e suggested that the male image of the computer has deterred females from benefiting from the technolog# and this has made them less confident or more an-ious (.emales usuall# also ha+e more negati+e attitudes to<ards computers (*urndell F )hompson $((E) than males2 Some other pre+ious researches li"e Margolis and .rom that time <hen educational institutions <ere controlled b# men until the &'th centur# Math and Science <ere seen as male domains2 Bromfield et al2 (&''$) indicate that since computers ha+e been associated more <ith Mathematics and Science curricula the stereot#pe has spread into computer use as <ell2 5o< gender is often cited as an important factor in computer use2 Shell# et al2 (&''&) $% .isher (&''&) and Mar"aus"aite (&''J) found significant differences in computer attitudes b# gender2 .ulle# $(??) resulting in females holding more negati+e attitudes to computers than males (.
pro+ide reasons for femalesA in+ol+ement in computer fields is less than that of malesA therefore there are gender differences in attitudes and use of computers2 Bauer (&''') suggests that female students are not encouraged to become computer literate2 0o<e+er he indicates that research does not support the idea that female students are less capable than males to learn computer use2 According to Shell# et al2 (&''&) an M1) stud# found that female students in the computing fields are =ust as competent as males but there are more male students in those fields2 1n some studies femalesA attitudes <ere found to be less fa+ourable to<ards computer (Dacobson and 8eller $(?E@ Margolis F .isher &''&@ Mar"aus"aite &''J)2 0o<e+er 0ashim and MustaphaAs (&''B) found that female respondents <ere ha+ing statisticall# significant positi+e attitude to<ards computers than male respondents <hile the same findings <ere also e-plored b# .omputer attitudes and computer self7confidence ha+e been recognised as important factors in assisting indi+iduals integrating computer into education2 .hen ($((() also identified teachersA positi+e attitudes to<ard computers as an important $J .9 C()9i/$)8$ .anQo+iQo+R and !ro"op (&''?)2 • A2$ Yuen ($(??) found significant differences in teachersA attitude among +arious age groups2 Also prior training and the a+ailabilit# of computers <as reported to ha+e an impact on their attitude2 )hese findings <ere also confirmed b# Dacobson and 8eller ($(?E) and the# also found an une+en correlation bet<een age and frequenc# of use2 Almost all the respondents in their t<enties and forties reported frequent computer use <hile those in thirties and fifties reported less frequent computer use2 5o e-planations <ere proposed for this2 1n the same stud# the frequenc# of use b# <omen (EJ2&S) <as found nearl# equal to that of the men (E?2BS)2 9ld age <as found negati+el# correlated <ith computer an-iet#@ ho<e+er no significant correlations <ere found <ith gender of the respondents2 • C(&.or e-ample La<ton and Gerschner ($(?&) described that the successful use of computers in the classroom depends on the teachersA attitudes and self7confidence2 Yuen La< and .5*$% U'$@ T%-i)i)2' -)/ S$.
factor in fostering computer integration and the enhancement of qualit# learning and teaching using computers2 )his <as further supported b# Klue+er et al2 ($((B) as the# pointed out that teachersA attitude to<ards computers affect their instructional use of computers and probabilit# of profiting from training2 According to Ken4ie *elecourt and !o<er ($((B) computer self7confidence is predicti+e of future engagement <ith computer affecting future use onl# through their effect on self7confidence2 Also Karsten and .oth ($((?a) Langfords and .ee+es ($((?) sho<ed that higher le+els of computer self7confidence corresponded to greater achie+ement of computer competence among other things2 E+ans7Andris ($((J) identified that indi+iduals <ho lac" computer "no<ledge and s"ills ma# feel less confident about computers2 )his finding <as also confirmed b# Bo#d ($((?) as he suggests that the lac" of computer s"ills could result in increased fear of computers2 Apart from the fact that both computer attitude and self7confidence are necessar# prerequisites for computer use in schools it does seem that factors affecting them are also similar2 Summers ($((') identified lac" of "no<ledge and e-perience in the computing area as one of the most common reason for indi+idualsA negati+e attitudes to<ards computer2 )o enhance computer "no<ledge and s"ills and ultimatel# to increase the positi+e attitude to<ards computer Bor" ($(?%) has proposed si- areas of computer "no<ledge including social implications of the computer strengths and <ea"nesses of computers abilit# to learn more about computers common computer applications "no<ledge of programming and critical attitudes about computing <hile Dohndon Anderson and 0absen ($(?') also identified si- areas of computer "no<ledge6 hard<are programming soft<are and data processing applications impact and affecti+e consideration of attitudes +alues and moti+ation2 Some studies (9gletree F 8illiams $((') suggest that prior e-perience <ith computers ma# determine interest and depth of in+ol+ement <ith computing b# the time a student gets to the higher grade le+els2
C(&,5*$% OA)$%'3i,@ A**i*5/$ -)/ S$.9 C()9i/$)8$ Shields ($(?J) concluded that being an acti+e user ha+ing programming
e-perience and ha+ing used a computer before entering college <ere the most important predictors of fa+ourable attitudes to<ard computers2 Shields also identified computer o<nership as another important predictor that contributed to fa+ourable attitudes to<ard computer2 .ochelau ($((%) Le+in and Girdon ($(?() 5ichols ($((&) !er"ins ($((%) ha+e stressed that there is a strong e-istence of a relationship bet<een o<nership of computer and attitudes to<ards computer2 ;urthermore Yildir and )song (&''$) identified computers access as an important factor in computer attitudes2 )his <as further supported b# Degede and 9<olabi (&''B)2 All of these factors also appear related to computer self7confidence2 ;or e-ample Degede (&''E) identified access and computer o<nership as factors in computer self7confidence among educators2 )he relationship of computer e-perience <ith self7confidence had also been e-amined6 0arrison and .ander ($((&) obtained that people <ith prior computer e-perience <ould ha+e higher self7 confidence than those <ithout such e-perience2 )his position had earlier been supported b# 0ill Smith and Mann ($(?E)2 1t thus becomes reasonable to e-pect that positi+e relationship <ill e-ist bet<een computer attitude and self7confidence2 A substantial amount of <or" has been done in+estigating the relationship bet<een computer self7 confidence and attitude2 (1gbaria F !ersuraman $(?(@ 5ecessar# F !arish $((J)2
SUMMARY ,omputers helped the <orld a lot and it is also helpful to ta"e a large step into the future2 Education uses computer to educate students better2 8e can see ho< the computer changed toda#As societ#2 E+er#one is impacted b# this remar"able de+ice2 0o<e+er !a"istan is in the initial phase of computersA integration in education and no< it is e+ident and clear that computers are readil# becoming the part of e+er#da# li+es of our schools2 So schools and leadership should be read# to bridge the gap bet<een the <a# students are taught in the classroom and the <a# the students obtain "no<ledge in societ# at large2
1n this chapter 1 ha+e tired to present the role of computer in education through the e+idence of researches done in this regard2 1t has been e-plicitl# agreed b# researchers that computers ma# be used as a tool to sol+e problems more efficientl# or in fact it can determine ma=or changes in education2 ;or integrating computers into school it is necessar# to redefine pedagogical goals restructure the trainings to create positi+e attitude to<ards computer among teachers as <ell as the leadership2 1t is important to remember that e+en if computer use can pro+ide schools <ith the opportunit# to impro+e their education and can offer students ne< and e-citing methods of learning2 ,omputers need to be used effecti+el# in order to benefit from their capabilities2 Sherman ($((?) indicates that the most effecti+e <a# for computers to be used efficientl# is to ensure that school leadership integrates computers into the curriculum and pro+ide the necessar# support for teachers2 Keeping the current situation of !a"istani conte-t <here head teacher is the main pla#er of school and through literature it is +er# much clear that the relationship bet<een school leadership and the use of computer often pla#s an important role to encourage and facilitate the use of computers <ithin their schools for administrati+e and managerial <or" (/isscher $((J) as <ell as for instructional acti+ities (A""er Keursten F !lomp $((&)2 1t refers to the concept of educational leadership (,reemers $((B) <hereb# school leaders can influence and impro+e <hat happens in the teachingLlearning process2 1t has been identified that attitude to<ards computer has been influenced b# different factors li"e age gender use of computer computer o<nership and trainings2 Appropriate computer trainings ha+e been identified b# researchers and if change is constant in the <orld of education then building capacit# at all le+els and across all domains ma# pro+ide some of the solutions to the problems regarding computer integration in education2
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY )his chapter pro+ides an outline of the methodological approaches used in conducting the research2 1t describes the research design the sample and sampling procedure research instrument and its piloting phase entr# negotiation process data collection and anal#sis procedures and ethical considerations2 .ohen Manion F Marrison &''')2 Merchant ($((&) articulates MA questionnaires is a research instrument through <hich the research determines the e-tent to <hich the respondents had a particular attitude or perspecti+eN (p2BB)2 &' . )hus as"ing directl# from indi+iduals through an attitudinal sur+e# research method <as also the most logical method for gathering information on attitudes (Ma# &''>)2 According to .in" and Kosecoff ($((?) Msur+e# is a method of collecting information directl# from the people about their ideas feelingsT beliefs and social educationalT bac"groundN (p2$)2 )his design also allo<ed me to get information from a large number of respondents through the questionnaire method <hich is <idel# used as a useful research instrument for collecting sur+e# information and pro+ide structured and numerical data <ithin a short period of time (.eliabilit# of the stud# is also discussed2 RESEARCH DESIGN )he purpose of m# stud# <as to describe the attitudes of the head teachers to<ard the use of computers in education2 Also 1 <as interested in identif#ing the relationship if an# bet<een the attitude and the demographic characteristics2 Accordingl# 1 opted for quantitati+e approach <hich seemed to be the most practical method for this stud#2 8ithin the quantitati+e paradigm descripti+e design seemed most appropriate as it aims to identif# <hat a situation is li"e and the direction in <hich it is going (!unch $((?)2 )here <as no manipulation of +ariables required in the stud# and it onl# aimed at describing the current attitudes and e-isting relationships bet<een the +ariables2 So sur+e# design seemed most appropriate to address the research question <hich requires stud#ing attitudes2 Attitudes deal more directl# <ith the nature of peopleAs thoughts opinions perceptions BShanghness# F Hecheister $((E?.
$ )he target population for the stud# <as head and deput# head teachers of go+ernment schools from Sindh and Balochistan2 8hile it <ould ha+e been ideal to adopt a probabilit# sampling technique to ha+e a representati+e sample and increase the li"elihood of generalising from the target population (Ha""ula $((() but it <as not possible for a small scale M2Ed research dissertation2 0ence to ensure eas# access to the sample population participants <ere dra<n from the three cohorts of the 610 7eek $ertificate program for head teachers and deput8 head teachers9 at )he Aga Khan :ni+ersit# 1nstitute for Educational *e+elopment (AK:71E*) (5U&&') offered as part of the Ed7Lin"sA pro=ect2 )he choice of the sample <as based on the follo<ing6 $2 0ead and deput# head teachers participating in the Ed7Lin"s pro=ect <ere from Sindh and Balochistan@ Specificall# from Balochistan the participants came from Iilla Abdullah Iilla Saifullah !ishin Loralai Sibi Bolan Daffarabad Khu4dar A<aran !an=goor and Kech and from Sindh the participants came from Khairpur Shi"arpur Mirpur"has Su""ur *adu Damshoro Dacobabad Sanghar Kashmore 5a<abshah and )harpar"ar2 &2 Most of the respondents <ere a+ailable (%B2%BS nU$&') in AK:71E*As campus at the time of competing the questionnaire so the response rate <as e-pected better and it <as comparati+el# less resource intensi+e e-ercise to obtain data from the sample2 &$ .raen"el and 8allen (&''J) <as that it <as quic"er to conduct and cheaper to administer2 SAMPLING PROCEDURE Good sampling achie+es representati+eness (Balna+es F .ohen Manion F Marrison &''')2 An additional ad+antage of this according to .M# research required collecting data at a single point in time@ hence 1 selected a cross7sectional sur+e# as it produces a CsnapshotA of a population at a particular point in time (..aputi &''$) and considered to find <a#s to gi+e all population members an equal chance of being selected and one of these is to use the probabilit# methods for choosing a sample (Br#man &''B)2 • S*5/6 S-&.
obinson &''& p2&B&)2 • )his questionnaire <as designed not onl# for the head teachers but also for the students and teachers2 0ence the statements <ere according to the understanding le+el of an# grade in a simple language and <ith +er# clear <ordings2 • .ohen Manion F Marrison &''') and its appearance loo"ed eas# attracti+e and interesting2 && .B$)2 )he findings of the stud# confirmed the +alidit# and reliabilit# of this questionnaire2 1 found the adopted questionnaire rele+ant to the purpose of m# stud# for the follo<ing reasons6 • )he items <ere rele+ant <ith clear <ordings as Ma good questionnaires not onl# pro+ides a +alid measure of the research questions but also gets the cooperation of respondents and elicit accurate informationN (.Altogether t<o hundred t<ent# (nU&&') questionnaires <ere distributed2 )he sample comprised both male and female participants2 Although these participants recei+ed short training to use computers as part of the ELM course at AK:71E* it <as limited to the de+elopment of basic computer s"ills2 )hus "no<ledge or e-perience <ith computers <as not a criteria for selection ACCESS )o approach m# research participants 1 first obtained the permission from the .urthermore the appearance of the questionnaire is also important (.hina and 1ndia (Appendi.oordinator E*7L15KS !ro=ect at AK:71E*2 1 approached the pro=ect office <ith research details and as"ed for permission <hich <as generousl# granted2 !ermission request letter and appro+al mail from the concerned authorities are enclosed as Appendices A$ F A&2 INSTRUMENT )o e-plore the attitudes to<ards computers 1 adopted the questionnaire de+eloped b# !elgrum and !lomp ($((>) <hich <as initiall# tested and +alidated in England German# Greece and 5etherlands2 )hen the tool <as used as a part of a larger stud# in se+eral countries including .
onfidence le+elA <as fourth component composed of four items2 %2 C9thersA <as the last component <hich <as composed of one item2 &> .obb $(E$)2 )his t#pe of items forces respondents to select an ans<er from a gi+en set of options <hich facilitates data anal#sis procedures and enhances the consistenc# of the data2 • D$'8%i.aputi (&''$) 1 found the questionnaire as an CambassadorA for m# research pro=ect2 • )he items of the questionnaire for this stud# <ere restricted items ()urne# F .items2 &2 C!ercei+ed Social 1mpactA <as the second component composed of four items2 >2 C)raining needsA <as third component <ith fi+e items2 B2 CSelf .urther details on the questionnaire are pro+ided belo<2 Part A: Demographic and Background Information = 10 Items 1n this section participants <ere as"ed to pro+ide information about their <or" e-perience gender age highest le+el of education and did the# o<n a computer <hether the school is located in an urban or rural area to <hich pro+ince does their school belong do the# use a computer and ha+e the# got an# formal computer training2 All these +ariables <ere treated as independent +ariables and used for comparison and to identif# the co7relation <ith attitudinal components during data anal#sis2 Part B: Attitude Towards Computer = 20 Items )his section consists of &' items2 9f these &' items $& <ere phrased positi+el# and ? <ere phrased negati+el#2 As in the original questionnaire these statements corresponded to four main dimensions of attitude to<ard computers in education namel#@ $2 C!ercei+ed Educational 1mpactA <hich composed of si.*i() (9 *3$ 45$'*i())-i%$ )he questionnaire consisted of >' items di+ided into t<o parts2 !art A <ith ten items requested general demographic information <hile !art B <ith &' items measured the attitudes to<ard computers2 .• 5ot onl# appearance loo"ed o"a# but also the items <ere rele+ant to m# research question and in the <ords of Balna+es and .
)his tool emplo#ed a %7point Li"ert scale to e-plore the degree of attitude2 0ead teachers <ere as"ed to ran" their attitude to<ards computers ranging from $ (strongl# disagree) & (disagree) > (not sure) B (agree) and % (strongl# agree)2 • U%/5 T%-)'. )he questionnaire <as in English2 0o<e+er the school heads included in m# sample <ere from the Go+ernment schools <here mainl# :rdu is taught and understood as :rdu is the national language of !a"istan2 8hile the# also use Sindhi and Balochi as their local languages2 0o<e+er :rdu is the commonl# understood language all o+er !a"istan2 So translating the instrument for this stud# <as necessar# to ensure an eas# and clear understanding of the respondents2 1 translated the questionnaire into :rdu and as"ed some colleagues to translate it as <ell2 1 then requested some colleagues to bac"7 translate into English in order to double7chec" the accurac# of the translation2 )his <as an important step because bet<een the original language and another language there often e-ist cultural gaps (.B&) <as piloted to chec" its construct and internal +alidit# (content +alidit#) in the conte-t of !a"istan2 Also ambiguit# in the self7completion questionnaire <as identified (Br#man &''B)2 A preliminar# test of the questionnaire helped to identif# problems and benefits associated <ith the design (Balna+es F .aputi &''$) and to get a better understanding of the frame of reference rele+ant to the questionnaire and question <ordings2 &B .-*i() (9 *3$ T((.in" F Kosecoff $((?)2 According to Behling and La< (&''') the correctness of the instrumentAs translation is necessar# to maintain its +alidit# and reliabilit#2 PILOT PHASE 9ppenheim ($((&) argues M1t is essential to pilot e+er# question e+er# question sequence e+er# in+entor# and e+er# scale in #our stud#N (p2B()2 Although the tool used in the stud# had questions that appear rele+ant to the local conte-t of !a"istan@ the tool has not been used in !a"istan2 )herefore there <as a need to pilot it before going into the real research2 )he purpose of the piloting stage <as to Mget the bugs out of the instrument so that the sub=ects in the main stud# should e-perience no difficulties in completing itN (Bell $((>)2 )he translated +ersion of questionnaire (Appendi.
B>) to +erif# the statements and <ords if the# <ere ambiguous and also the amount of time the# <ould ta"e in completing the questionnaire2 After completion of the questionnaire 1 tal"ed to all ten .or :rdu translation of these <ords and phrasing the items in :rdu mainl# literar# :rdu <as used <hereas the language of dail# use is slightl# different and common understanding becomes a bit tric"#2 )his testing helped me to identif# these confusing terms and phrases as the group thought <ere difficult to ans<er2 1 modified the identified <ords and phrases in questionnaire accordingl# b# replacing the literar# :rdu <ords <ith dail# use <ords and phrases2 1t is important to point out that modifications made did not result in changes in content but onl# in the choice of <ords in :rdu <ithout disturbing its original meaning2 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE After obtaining clearance of research proposal from AK:As Ethical .!ilot testing <as done <ith ten course participant (.!s of M2Ed2 &'$' indi+iduall# for the clarification of follo<ing6 • • • • • • • the time ta"en to complete the questionnaire2 the clarit# of the instructions2 the clarit# of the questions2 <ere an# questions too personal or ob=ectionable2 <as an# ob+ious topic or question omitted2 <as the la#out of the questionnaire attracti+e and clear2 an# other comments that <ould be useful2 )he pilot testing identified a need to change the :rdu meaning of the <ords li"e C+aluable toolA Ceffecti+el#A Cachie+ementA Cproducti+it#A and Ccreati+it#A and some other <ords as <ell2 .ebruar# &E &% .!s) of the M2Ed2 programme Educational Leadership and Management (ELM) speciali4ation area (class of &'$') at AK:71E*2 1 distributed the translated questionnaire along <ith item7<ise rele+anc# chec" list (Appendi.ommittee data collection process too" place bet<een *ecember &''? and .e+ie< .
.!s in their classes in cafeteria and in the social area of AK:71E*2 After introducing m#self and m# research stud# either indi+iduall# or in groups2 1 as"ed for their +oluntar# participation in m# stud#2 1 also shared a t<o page research information sheet for more information on the pro=ect (Appendi.&''(2 A detailed )ime frame schedule is enclosed as Appendi.or all this process 1 <as personall# present throughout the &J .B%)2 )hrough frequent meetings and +erbal communication 1 <as able to e-plain to them the purpose of m# research2 )he fact that 1 <as a student li"e them seemed to put them at ease2 .inall# 1 distributed the questionnaire among all the course participants of cohort one and t<o2 1 frequentl# remained in touch <ith them during the brea"s and emphasise d that it <as not a test so there <ere no right or <rong ans<ers but the# should attempt it to pro+ide their honest opinions2 )he# <ere as"ed to indicate the le+el of their agreement <ith each statement and to ans<er as honestl# as possible2 1 requested all the participants to fill the questionnaire in their free time and return it <ithin fe< da#s2 .2 )he questionnaire <as administered in t<o <a#s6 7 direct administration 7 through post )<o hundred t<ent# questionnaires <ere distributed and $?% <ere returned <ith a response rate of ?BS altogether2 )he data collection occurred o+er a $V7month period <hich included questionnaire follo<7ups <ith late responders2 • Di%$8* A/&i)i'*%-*i() )o conduct the sur+e# deli+ering the questionnaire to respondents and as"ing them to complete the questionnaire on their o<n is a common method (Gorard &''$)2 1n another <ords a commonl# used method is to +isit each respondent e-plain them the questionnaire lea+e it <ith the respondent to be completed and then return later to pic" up the completed questionnaire and re+ie< it <ith the respondent2 )his technique offers obtaining a large amount of data quic"l# and ine-pensi+el#2 Keeping the abo+e process of direct administration in mind data generation too" place <ith the research participants of cohort one (nUJ% &(2%BS) and cohort t<o (nU%% &%S) <hen the# <ere at AK:71E* for three <ee"s of their face to face sessions2 *uring tea and lunch brea"s 1 contacted the .BB) and a consent letter (Appendi.
data collection process2 After the data collection 1 personall# than"ed for their participation2 !erhaps it <as the result of all those endea+ours that helped me to get ma-imum response rate ($''S nU$&')2 Since the respondents <ere all on campus 1 found direct administration to be a cost effecti+e <a# in terms of time and finance to gather the data2 • T3%(523 P('* )he third cohort (nU$'' B%2B%S) of m# research participants <ho <ere not accessible to me during m# data collection period at AK:71E*2 )hus 1 had to manage a mailing s#stem2 So consent forms and questionnaires <ere mailed <ith a co+ering letterLresearch information sheet e-plaining the purpose of the questionnaire and stressing the need for completing the questionnaire and the anon#mit# of replies (Ma# &''$)2 1 also enclosed a stamped addressed return en+elope for respondentsA for their con+enience in returning the completed questionnaire (.ohen Manion F Morrison &''')2 )here <ere no codes or identification mar"s on the questionnaires2 All questionnaires <ere treated confidentiall# and onl# an identification number on return <as <ritten on each questionnaire2 )he number <as used to recognise the respondents for follo<7up li"e to chec" from the respondentsA list those <ho ha+e responded and <ho ha+enAt #et then for reminders and for than"s2 .da#s of m# initial mail return of responses started2 1 <as pro+ided the full names and addresses of the research participants b# Ed7Lin"s !ro=ect office along <ith their telephoneLmobile numbers2 1 used the land line telephone to remind for the return mail and to than" the respondents <ho had alread# dispatched the questionnaires2 1 also used mobile te-t messages to than" the participants <ho had mobile contacts a+ailable2 9ut of (nU$'') respondents J% participants returned the questionnaire and the response rate remained J%S from the respondents approached through post <hich is a +er# good response rate for a mail sur+e# (0eberlein F Baumgartner $(E?)2 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 9n return of the completed questionnaire the# <ere inde-ed using a code number indicating the cohort and the number to identif# the indi+idual li"e G17$ (.irst respondent &E .ight after si.
obson &''&)2 1 carried7out data cleaning b# chec"ing the data for errors <hich could ha+e been made <hile C"e#ing inA the data2 After simple e#e7balling of the data for an# +isible +ariance 1 conducted uni+ariate anal#sis to e-plore each +ariable separatel# in m# data set and to loo" at the range as <ell as the central tendenc# of the +alues (.ohort 9ne) and as on G117$ or G1117$2 )his inde.C.E)*%6 1 created a data set b# defining the +ariables attaching labels and entering the pre7 coded responses2 )he code for missing data <as C((A and for Cin+alidA or Cnot applicableA the code <as C(?A2 • D-*.$-)i)2 After data entr# data cleaning is as important as the need to proof7read te-t for errors (.<as to be used to locate data at a later date if the need arose and specificall# for reminders2 )he nature of this stud# required descripti+e statistics as the primar# method for anal#sing the data2 )he data collected for this stud# <ere anal#se d using the latest +ersion a+ailable (+ersion $J2') of the statistical soft<are S!SS 7 (Statistical !ac"age for Social Sciences) <hich according to Gaur F Gaur (&''J) is the most reliable soft<are for anal#sing quantitati+e data for frequencies percentages cross tabulation and descripti+e statistics2 MS E-cel <as also used for the preparations of graphs to sho< the comparison among +ariables2 .of GroupL.6'i' )he process of data anal#sis in+ol+ed assigning numerical +alues to the categorical responses2 )he population +ariables of age le+el of education le+el of <or" e-perience computer use computer training gender and their localit# <as gi+en numeric +alues to add in data anal#sis2 1n this stud# before anal#sis the negati+e items <ere re+ersed coded in order that meaningful anal#ses at the sub7scale le+el could be &? .ield &''%)2 1t also helped me to describe the pattern of response to the +ariable2 • A)-.ollo<ing is the step b# step process of data anal#sis@ • D-*.
omputers ha+e become too dominant2W !ducationa" Impact $ & > B % J E ? E17$ E17& E17> E17B E17% E17J S17$ S17& S17> ( .7$ Ad+anced technical equipment has pro+ed difficult for me to get along <ith2W J $ S.6'i' P%(8$/5%$ 9(% R$'$-%83 45$'*i() O)$ )he demographic +ariables data for this stud# <as in discrete form (nominal and &( .omputers help to teach more effecti+el#2 .7> 1t <ould ta"e too much time to learn ho< to use a computer successfull#2W ? $ S.7B 1 am afraid computers are too complicated for me to handle2W ( & %ther 9thers 1 feel uneas# thin"ing of a future <ith computes and robots controlling me2W ' s W 1tem for <hich scoring is re+ersed2 • ordinal)@ therefore descripti+e statistics <as used to run for frequencies mean and standard de+iation (.omputers in school enhance studentsA creati+it#2 )he achie+ement of students can be increased <hen using computers for teaching2 8or"ing <ith computers in class distorts the social climate2W .conducted2 )able one sho<s the complete range of questions as"ed and items re+ersed are mar"ed as W (asteris"s) for anal#sis purpose2 TAB ! 1 0 ITEMS IN THE 4UESTIONNAIRE .omputers are +aluable tools for impro+ing the qualit# of a childAs education2 :sing computers in class leads to more producti+it# among students2 Students are more attenti+e <hen computers are used in class2 .omputers harm relations bet<een people2W $ S17B Social contacts are negati+el# affected b# the use of computers2W ' $ )57$ 1 tr# to "eep informed about technological changes2 $ $ )57& 1 <ould li"e to ta"e part in a computer course to learn more about computers2 & $ )57> 1n7ser+ice training courses about computers should be made compulsor#2 > $ )57B 1 <ould li"e to learn more about computers as teaching aids2 B $ )57% 1 donAt mind learning about computers2 % $ S.oa"es &''%)2 )he descripti+e anal#sis included generating mean scores frequencies percentages and graphs2 Kolmogoro+7Smirno+ test <as also #e"f Confidence Training $eeds #ocia" Impact A)-.7& 1 thin" 1 can (or could learn ho< to) <rite programmes on the computer2 E $ S.
emplo#ed to test the normalit# of the distribution for total and sub7scale scores2 )he results re+eal ()able &) that data <ere not normall# distributed at either total or sub7scale le+el2 )herefore non7parametric tests <ere used to compare the t<o groups2 >' .
2''' 2''' 2''' 2''$ .6'i' P%(8$/5%$ 9(% R$'$-%83 45$'*i() TA( )o e-plore the relationship bet<een the demographic characteristics and the attitudes a correlation matri.oa"es &''%)2 Lastl# to e-plore and identif# the significant contributing factors to<ard computer attitude multiple regression models <ere used2 )he "e# terms definitions and coding for the +ariable are defined in )able three2 >$ .onfidence2 9+erall 2$%> 2$>> 2$?> 2'(' 2'J% D9 $?B $?B $?B $?B $?% Si2.&(2(%(v0S&i%)(vS*-*i'*i8 Educational 1mpact2 Social 1mpact2 )raining 5eeds2 Self .<as produced to determine the relationship bet<een t<o +ariables in a linear fashion (.'%> Mann78hitne# test <as carried out to determine <hether there is a significant difference bet<een the attitude score of the t<o sets of mean scores i2e2 bet<een the respondents from Sindh and Balochistan and from rural and urban areas2 • A)-.TAB ! 2 0 TESTS OF NORMALITY K(.
ompleted a formal computer course2 Attitude to<ards .$%-*i()-.emale & U >$7B' #ears B U %$7J' #ears & U B2Ed2 B U M2Ed2 & U Yes & U Yes & U .V-%i-:.omputer 1tem &$ X &% (% items) Self .omputer usage .$ E-perience Gender Age TAB ! ! 0 DEFINITIONS AND CODING FOR THE VARIABLES O.omputer 1tem &J X &( (B items) 9thers Attitude to<ards .omputer 1tem % 1tem J 1tem E 1tem ? 1tem ( 1tem $' 1tem $$ X $J (J items) & U *isagree B U Agree & U *isagree B U Agree & U *isagree B U Agree & U *isagree B U Agree & U *isagree Social 1mpact Attitude to<ards . /$9i)i*i() /$9i)i*i() 5umber of #ears e-perience as 0eadL*eput# 1tem $ $ U less than $ #ear 0ead )eacher2 Se.omputer course Educational 1mpact 9<nership of a computer at home2 A+ailabilit# of a computer at office2 School is located in :rban or .omputer in 9ffice School location School situated .hronological age 1tem & 1tem > > U J7$' #ears $ U Male $ U >' #ears or less > U B$7%' #ears % U J$ #ears or o+er $ U BachelorAs *egree > U MasterAs *egree % U !h2*2 $ U 5o $ U 5o $ U :rban Area $ U Sindh $ U 5o & U Yes $ U 5o & U Yes $ U Strongl# *isagree > U 5ot Sure % U Strongl# Agree $ U Strongl# *isagree > U 5ot Sure % U Strongl# Agree $ U Strongl# *isagree > U 5ot Sure % U Strongl# Agree $ U Strongl# *isagree > U 5ot Sure % U Strongl# Agree $ U Strongl# *isagree C(/i)2 & U $7% #ears B U $$ #ears or more & U .*5-.ural Area & U Balochistan *egree 0ighest degree earned 1tem B 9<n a computer .omputer 1tem $E X &' (B items) )raining 5eed Attitude to<ards . C()8$.ural area2 School is situated in the pro+ince of Sindh or Balochistan :se of a computer .of respondent .onfidence Attitude to<ards .omputer 1tem >' >& .
/$9i)i*i() O. /$9i)i*i() ($ item) > U 5ot Sure % U Strongl# Agree C(/i)2 B U Agree >> .$%-*i()-.$ C()8$.V-%i-:.*5-.
ronbach alpha <as estimated on all four sub7scales of attitude ()abel B)2 Alpha +alues ranged from YU'2J' to YU'2?J <ith a mean of '2?' indicating that internal consistenc# of the questionnaire is approaching adequate consistenc# (George F Maller# &''>@ and *r !hilip 5ag#$ (!ersonal ..odrigues &''J)2 So the internal consistenc# using ..i*6 Sur+e#s pro+ide onl# the +erbal descriptions of <hat respondents sa# the# do or ho< the# feel about something2 .ommunication March &' &''() for an attitudinal sur+e# scale as seen in )able four6 TAB ! # < RELIABILITY STATISTICS C%():-83= ' N (9 I*$&' C-*$2(%i$' A.N( $ & > B 7 LIMITATIONS Li"e e+er# research this stud# had limitations2 1 ac"no<ledge that follo<ing <ere the limitations of this stud#2 • S(8i-.ronbachAs alpha <as estimated b# correlating performance on each item <ith o+erall score and estimating the internal consistenc# of the instrument (.eliabilit# is an important ps#chometric characteristic of measuring an instrument (!unch &''% cited in .onfidence .3'2?J J Educational 1mpact '2E' B Social 1mpact '2?$ % )raining 5eeds2 '2J' B Self .. D$'i%-:i.8 1+ Ov$%-.RELIABILITY . S.odrigues &''J)2 1t pro+ides and estimate of the e-tent to <hich studies can be replicated using a tool (8iersma $((%)2 1nternal consistenc# using .esponses cannot al<a#s be ta"en as accurate descriptions of <hat the respondents actuall# do or reall# feel about something2 1t is ob+ious that <hen <e "no< other people are <atching us@ <e tend to beha+e in a <a# <e belie+e is sociall# acceptable and desirable2 1t is a common tendenc# to repl# in a manner that <ill be +ie<ed fa+ourabl# b# others2 Some responses could ha+e been a result of this2 *uring data collection 1 tried to minimise this tendenc# through face to face meetings and through $ *r2 !hil 5ag# !rofessor Emeritus :ni+ersit# of )oronto2 >B .
rontier !ro+ince (58.detailed .!) along <ith A4ad Dammu and Kashmir (ADFK) .ederall# Administered )ribal Areas (.esearch 1nformation Sheet and b# assuring them that there is no right or <rong ans<er and strict maintenance of anon#mit# of their identification2 Secondl# some respondents <ere approached through postal sur+e#s and these respondents ma# not ha+e percei+ed themsel+es to be in a sur+e# situation and thus 1 e-pect more open and fair personal information or +ice7+ersa as the# might ha+e been more careful if 1 got their response <ith their names on the en+elope2 • M()i*(%i)2 *3$ A)'A$%' About $'' questionnaires <ere sent +ia post to the respondents2 8hile 1 pro+ided detailed information about the pro=ect and also about m# contact details it is possible that some respondents ma# not ha+e understood the questions in the manner in <hich the# <ere intended2 Also there is no possibilit# to chec" <hether the questionnaires <ere filled b# the head teachers themsel+es or b# their assistant or a computer teacher2 • G$)$%-.()'$' 1 had opted three cohorts of respondents for this stud#2 1 collected $''S data from t<o cohorts of participants through direct administration <hile for the third cohort 1 mailed the questionnaire2 )he mailed questionnaire <as the most frequentl# used method for sur+e#ing@ ho<e+er it tends to result in lo<er response rates (*illman $(E?) and thus more li"el# to obtain results that are biased in fa+our of the sample population most interested in the sur+e# topic2 >% .ederall# Administered 5orthern Areas (.A)A) and .A5A) and other areas of Sindh and Balochistan not co+ered in the stud# could be different2 • Bi-' R$'.iC-:i.i*6 )he results of this stud# could not be generalised to the entire countr#As head teachers as this research e-amined a small sample of head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan onl#2 )he attitudes of head teachers from other parts of the countr# i2e2 !un=ab 5orth 8est .
epresentati+e respondents <ere identified for a sur+e#2 A questionnaire alread# de+eloped and used in the de+eloped countries <as adopted2 1t <as translated and then piloted before using it2 .raen"el F 8allen &''J)2 )o ensure the dignit# pri+ac# and interests of the participants 1 used an anon#mous sur+e# so that respondentsA pri+ac# could be guaranteed or non7traceable (.ohen et al2 &''&)2 1 obtained the permission through the consent form2 1 informed the research participants about the purpose of the research and e-pectations2 1 pro+ided a complete information sheet to e+er# participant about the research b# clearl# stating the purpose of the stud# along <ith the consent forms2 1 also assured m# respondents that the information pro+ided b# them <ould be used for the stud# purposes onl#2 )he pri+ac# of the records <as maintained and no one other than m# research team members had an# access to the data during anal#sis and report7 <riting2 After completion of the stud# the data sets <ill remain <ith me for t<o #ears and <ill be destro#ed in accordance to the 1nstituteAs polic#2 *issemination of research findings <ould be done in accordance to the ethical considerations of not harming the personal and academic li+es of the participants in+ol+ed2 SUMMARY )he purpose of this stud# <as to e-plore the attitudes of head and deput# head teachers of Sindh and Balochistan to<ards the use of computers for educational purposes in go+ernment primar# and secondar# schools2 .ollected data <ere gathered +ia direct administration and registered mail2 )<o hundred t<ent# questionnaires <ere distributed and $?% <ere returned <ith a response rate of ?BS2 )he data collection occurred o+er a $V7month period <hich included questionnaire follo<7ups <ith late responders2 A $V7month anal#sis period follo<ed the data7collection period2 Anal#sis <as carried out using S!SS +ersion $J for each research question2 >J .ETHICAL CONSIDERATION According to Bogdan and Bi"len ($((?) MEthics in research are the principles of right and <rong that a particular group acceptsN (p2B()2 )he term research ethics indicates a moral enterprise bet<een the researcher and the research participants (/a4ir &''B) and refers to the question of right or <rong and the e-tent to <hich a research conforms to the ethical standards of conducting research (.
$%i$)8$ -' H$-/ *$-83$% 1t <as found that ma=orit# head teachers (nUEJ B$S) had one to fi+e #ears e-perience2 9+erall the data indicates that ma=orit# head teachers had less than $$ #ears e-perience2 )here <ere onl# nU%B participants (&(S) <ho had more than $$ #ears e-perience of <or"ing as head teachers2 • G$)/$% )here <ere more male participants (nU$$? J>2E?S) as compared to female participants (nUJE >J2&&S)2 • A2$ )hough the participants ha+e less e-perience as head teachers ma=orit# (nU?$ B>S) of them fell in the older age categor# (B$ to %' #ears&)2 )he pattern of age and e-perience & At least one participant mentioned that heLshe <as J'Z2 1t <as surprising as according to the Go+ernment emplo#ment rule emplo#ees t#picall# retire at the age of J'2 >E . L(8-*i() !articipants represent both urban (nU$'> %JS) and rural (nU?& BBS) areas2 )here <ere more participants from Sindh (nU$>( E%S) as compared to Balochistan (nUBJ &%S)2 9+er representation of sample from Sindh reflects the ratio of Sindh7Balochistan in the Ed7 Lin"As course from <here the participants <ere recruited for the stud#2 • ED.CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS )he ma=or aim of the stud# <as to determine the attitudes of head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan to<ards the use of computers in education2 A subsidiar# aim <as to e-plore the relationship bet<een demographic characteristics of the participants and their attitude to<ards computers in education2 )his chapter presents the results of the stud# based on the anal#sis of the data collected from $?% participants selected from schools in Sindh and Balochistan2 DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES • S83((.
5*$% U'$ )he results sho< that ma=orit# of the respondents (%JS nU$'>) <ere not using the computer at the time of data collection <hile BBS (nU?&) indicated that the# <ere using a computer2 >? .i9i8-*i() BE 0 )5&:$%? P%(9.i9i8-*i() BachelorA s *egree MasterA s *egree !h2*2 $>2%S (nU&%) ?J2%S (nU$J') 'S (nU') B2Ed2 M2Ed2 5one >$2BS (nU%?) JE2'S (nU$&B) $2JS (nU>) • C(&.urther anal#sis sho<s that ma=orit# ?'S (nUEB) of respondents from Sindh had computer in their homes and onl# &'S (nU$() respondents from Balochistan had computer at home2 Also ma=orit# head teachers from the rural areas had computer at home (nUB? %&S) as compared to the ones from the :rban areas (nUB% B?S)2 • Av-i.5*$% OA)$%'3i. 1t <as found that about %'S (nU(>) of the participants o<n a personal computer <hich could be a positi+e sign to<ard acceptance of computers2 .i9i8-*i() )he results sho< that both in academic and professional qualification ma=orit# of the head teachers had a MastersA degree2 TAB ! 7 < RESPONDENTS= 4UALIFICATION P$%8$)*-2$' B)5&:$%? A8-/$&i8 45-.suggests that before becoming a head teacher the# ser+e for a long time as a teacher in the school2 • 45-.5*$%' i) O99i8$ 1t <as found that ma=orit# of the participants (nU$$? JBS) did not ha+e a computer in their offices2 Also ma=orit# head teachers from the rural areas had not computers a+ailable in their offices (nUEB J>S) as compared to the ones from the :rban areas (nUBB >ES)2 • C(&.i*6 (9 C(&. 45-.-:i.
(83i'*-) *(A-%/ *3$ 5'$ (9 8(&.'= 3$-/ -)/ /$.5*$% T%-i)i)2 9f the $?% respondents ma=orit# (nU$B% E?S) did not attend an# formal training to use computers2 All demographic anal#sis statistics and illustrations are enclosed as Appendi.5*6 3$-/ *$-83$%' 9%(& Si)/3 -)/ B-.or this sub7categor# respondents <ere not quite positi+e2 9nl# for item number one and three <as identified as a bit to<ard agreement <hile less positi+e and not sure to<ard items number t<o and four2 )he agreement le+el for this categor# remained 2U>2$( >( .• C(&.items corresponding to the percei+ed educational impact <ere included to e-amine head teachers[ attitude to<ard computers in education2 According to the findings the respondents sho<ed high agreement to item number one as compared to other items of this sub7categor# <hile item number t<o <as less positi+e2 )he reason for a less positi+e response could be result of some confusion as the :rdu translation for the <ord C!roducti+eA <as a bit confusing for <hich 1 had chosen CSeer :asliA as 1 couldnAt find another suitable <ord2 0o<e+er o+erall findings of this sub7categor# <as opted b# the respondents as agreement or in other <ords their attitude sho<ed a strongl# fa+ouring opinion2 )his findings predicts that e+en the ma=orit# of respondents do not use computers but still the# are e-posed to the benefits of computer usage in Education <hich could be the result of gro<ing media and tele+ision through <hich probabl# these head teachers percei+ed a positi+e attitude to<ard the educational impact of computers2 )he ma=orit# (&2>BS (nU$E$) sho<ed a complete agreement to this categor#2 )he mean score 2UB2>( and SDU'2J' <as the outcome2 #ocia" Impact .*$2 COMPARISON • W3-* -%$ *3$ -**i*5/$' (9 *3$ 2(v$%)&$)* '83((.5*$%' i) $/58-*i()F )his section presents categor#7<ise and an o+erall attitude to<ards computer use in education as <ell as the differences bet<een the t<o groups2 !ducationa" Impact )he first si.
(SDU2(')2 )his could be a result of less opportunit# to the use of computer and rele+ant "no<ledge and s"ills2 Training $eed )his categor# <as the highest positi+el# mar"ed categor# of the tool as the ma=orit# of the respondents (($2$BS nU$J() <ere strongl# in agreement <ith all the items of the sub7 categor#2 )he agreement le+el remained as 2UB2B> (SDU'2J>)2 Almost e+er# respondent <as in strong fa+our of in7ser+ice training for computer use2 )his result confirms the readiness of the head teachers in using computers in schools for educational purposes2 #e"f Confidence )he findings sho< that the a+erage score <as B(2$(S (nU($) in agreement $&2$JS (nU&>) <ere not sure of their opinion <hile >E2?BS (nUE') <ere disagree <ith items2 )he a+erage mean score remained 2U>2$( (SDU'2(') <hich could be a result of less "no<ledge and s"ills in computer2 As noted earlier that more than %JS (nU$'>) respondents did not use computers and E?S (nU$B%) respondents ha+e not recei+ed an# trainings2 .espondents ha+e also sho<n their <illingness to ha+e computer trainings (($2$BS nU$J() <hich is li"el# to increase the self confidence2 Moreo+er limited computer "no<ledge and use and lac" of read# access could also lead to a lac"ing of self confidence among the respondents2 %&er a"" Descripti&e 'indings )he mean score suggests that the participants <ere more positi+e about their educational impact to<ards computers (Agree6 nU$E$ 2U(&2>BS@ 5ot Sure6 nUE 2U>2J(S@ *isagree6 nUE 2U>2E?S ) and training needs (Agree6 nU$J( 2U($2$BS@ 5ot Sure6 nUJ 2U>2BJS@ *isagree6 nU( 2UB2EJS) of computer than their attitude of the social impact (Agree6 nU?% 2UBJ2'?S@ 5ot Sure6 nU>J 2U$(2%(S@ *isagree6 nUJ& 2U>>2>?S) of the computer and their self confidence (Agree6 nU($ 2UB(2$(S@ 5ot Sure6 nU&> 2U$&2$JS@ *isagree6 nUE' 2U>E2?BS)2 )he results also suggested that participants percei+ed themsel+es to be less confident to computer so social impact of using computer <as less than its educational impact2 At the global le+el the o+erall computer attitude (Agree6 nU$&' 2U J%S@ 5ot Sure6 nU&> B' .
2U$>S@ *isagree6 nUB' 2U&&S) is +er# <ell abo+e the mid7point of the scale (2U>2(') and this indicated that participants ha+e a positi+e attitude to computer2 Ma=orit# of the respondents <ere inclined to<ard strongl# agreement <hich sho<s a total conformit# and positi+e attitude to<ard Educational 1mpact and )raining needs2 )he findings depict that most respondents are not using computers currentl# but the# are a<are of its educational benefits and computersA importance in education2 0o<e+er because of lac" of proper trainings s"ills and a<areness their percei+ed attitude to<ard social impact of computers is not much positi+e and the# seem undecided <hether computer use in education brings negati+e or positi+e social impacts2 :ltimatel# their self confidence <as natural to remain lo<2 So these findings could guide us that through appropriate trainings and other professional de+elopment opportunities short courses <hich <as the demand of head teachers and deput# head teachers self confidence could be impro+ed2 )his <ill ultimatel# lead to more positi+e attitude to<ards social impact of computers2 )he results suggest that the o+erall attitude of the head teachers is positi+e (2U>2('@ SDU'2B()2 )he mean +alue is <ell abo+e the mid7point of the scale and this indicates that the respondents ha+e a positi+e attitude to<ards computer2 A detailed anal#sis <as carried out to e-plore respondentsA attitude to<ards computer on four sub7scales including educational impact social impact training needs and self7confidence2 .igure one presents a comparati+e o+er+ie< of the respondentsA score on four sub7scales2 B$ .
50 22.214.171.124 3. Mean3o+er3all 0ence to +erif# the e-istence of an# statistical difference among the opinion of head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan Mann78hitne# test <as carried out2 According to the test there <as no e+idence of statisticall# significant ()able J) difference among the respondents as the result sho<s that Educational 1mpact pU2?(E Social 1mpact pU2>%' B& . .50 4.00 4.igure &) illustration it <as chec"ed but a clear difference could not be +isualised depicting that there is no significant difference among the opinion of head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan2 'I()*! 2 < PROVINCE WISE COMPARISON OF MEAN PROVINCE0WISE COMPARISION OF MEAN J2'' B2'' &2'' '2'' Sindh Mean3E*:31M! Mean3S9.'I()*! 1 < CATEGORY0WISE MEAN SCORE 5.00 Average score 3.50 2.00 1.31M! Mean3).urther anal#sis <as carried out to compare head teachersA attitude in the t<o pro+inces Sindh and Balochistan2 )hrough a graph (.00 2.00 Educational Impact Social Impact Tarining Needs Categories Self confidence Total Comparison Across Pro&ince +#indh and Ba"ochistan.A15G35EE*S Baluchistan Mean3SL.
onfidence pU2J&' and 9+erall pU2&>( confirming that head B> .-8* T%-i)i)2 N$$/' S$.-8* Mann78hitne# : >$%J2%'' &??>2''' >'?(2''' &E(%2''' 8ilco-on 8 $&??J2%'' >(JB2''' $&?$(2''' >?EJ2''' H 72$>' 72(>% 72>B? 7$2&$J As#mp2 Sig2 (&7tailed) 2?(E 2>%' 2E&? 2&&B a2 Grouping /ariable6 1n <hich !ro+ince #our school is situatedK Ov$%-.onfidence pU2&&B and 9+erall pU2>BB confirming that according to pro+ince the head teachers and deput# head teachers do not thin" differentl# but the# all thin" similarl# and positi+el# to<ards the usage of computer in education2 TAB ! . M ean3o+er3all )o +erif# this difference a secondl# test <as carried out to chec" <hether this slight difference sho<n in graph is staticall# significant2 Mann78hitne# test ()able E) clarified that there is no e+idence of statisticall# significant difference among the respondents from rural and urban areas2 )he result remained as Educational 1mpact pU2'%( Social 1mpact pU2(>E )raining 5eeds pU2%&B Self . S(8i-. &?((2%'' >(?'2%'' 72(BJ 2>BB Comparison Across ocation +*ura" and )r-an.)raining needs pU2E&? Self . I&. 0 TEST STATISTICSE/58-*i()-.31M! M ean3). )o compare <hether there is a difference of opinion among the respondents from rural and urban areas hence access to "no<ledge and resources might result in an# differences in attitude of the t<o groups irrespecti+e of the pro+ince t<o t#pes of anal#ses <ere carried out2 .igure >) both opinions <ere compared <here a +er# slight difference <as +isible specificall# in o+erall opinion as urban area respondents sho<ed more positi+e attitude than rural area2 'I()*! ! 0 LOCATION0WISE COMPARISON OF MEAN LOCATION0WIS E COMPARIS ION OF MEAN %2'' B2'' >2'' &2'' $2'' '2'' .ural Areas M ean3E*:31M! M ean3S9.95..3.A15G35EE*S :rban Areas M ean3SL.irst through a graph (.9 C()9i/$)8$ I&.
.*B2 ASSOCIATIONS • W3-* -%$ *3$ /$&(2%-.-8* B$B>2%'' (B((2%'' 72'E? 2(>E T%-i)i)2 N$$/' S$.is appended (Appendi.esults sho< that computer use (rU2&?B@ p\'2'$) and prior computer training (rU2&(B@ p\'2'$) are significantl# correlated <ith the o+erall attitude score2 5one of the other demographic characteristics (for e-ample gender age a+ailabilit# of the computer in the office and at home qualification and <or" e-perience) <ere associated <ith the o+erall attitudes2 Association bet<een demographic +ariables and indi+idual sub7scale scores <ere also e-plored2 Educational impact <as found to be related onl# <ith prior computer training (rU2$(E@ p\'2'$)2 Social impact did not sho< significant relationship <ith an# of the demographic +ariables2 0o<e+er training needs and self confidence e-hibited association BB .5*$%'F Spearman correlation <as used to find out the associations bet<een attitude to<ards computer and +arious demographic characteristics for e-ample age gender a+ailabilit# of computer in the office computer use and prior computer training2 A detailed correlation matri.*> and Appendi.*& <hile the comparison and sub7scale <ise statistics and illustrations are enclosed as Appendi. I&.9 C()9i/$)8$ >((%2%'' (>%$2%'' 72J>E 2%&B >((B2%'' (>%'2%'' 72B(% 2J&' Ov$%-.3i8 83-%-8*$%i'*i8' A3i83 8()*%i:5*$ *( *3$ 3$-/ *$-83$%'= -**i*5/$ *(A-%/' 8(&. >E(E2%'' ($%>2%'' 7$2$EE 2&>( a2 Grouping /ariable6 8hat area is #our school locatedK All attitudinal anal#sis statistics and illustrations are enclosed as Appendi.*%)2 .-8* Mann78hitne# : 8ilco-on 8 H As#mp2 Sig2 (&7tailed) >%BJ2''' ?('&2''' 7$2?(' 2'%( S(8i-. I&.teachers and deput# head teachers from rural and urban areas do not thin" differentl# about the use of computer in education2 TAB ! " 0 TEST STATISTICSE/58-*i()-.
$ 1t sho<s that the use of computer (] U 2&$ p U '2''E) and prior computer training (] U 2$? p U '2'&$) contribute to the o+erall attitude of the respondents to<ards computer2 0o<e+er it is e+ident that the use of computer has contributed more than prior computer training2 9+erall attitude model e-plains (2(S of the +ariance (Ad=2.28#GG !rior computer training 2&$J 2$?$ '2'&$ . 7J GG H . 1J GGG H .& U '2'(() in the total mean attitude score2 )he .<ith a number of +ariables2 )raining needs <as associated <ith gender (rU2$?$@ p\'2'%) age (rU72$($@ p\'2'$) computer use (rU2&B&@ p\'2'$) and prior computer training (rU2>$>@ p\'2'$)2 Similarl# self confidence e-hibited relationship <ith the participantsA gender (rU2$E&@ p\'2'%) a+ailabilit# of computer in the office (rU2$JJ@ p\'2'%) computer use (rU2>'E@ p\'2'$) and computer training (rU2$(B@ p\'2'$)2 Based on these associations multiple regression models <ere de+eloped to predict o+erall as <ell as sub7scales scores from +arious demographic +ariables2 A total mean attitude score as <ell as sub7scale scores <ere used as outcome +ariables2 All +ariables <hich appeared significant in bi+ariate correlation <ith the outcome +ariables <ere added in their respecti+e models2 %&era"" Attitude .onstant >2>>E 7777777777 '2'''$ 777777777 :se of computer 2&'? 2&$' '2''E . L-'* '*$.I.%$'$)*$/ i) *3$ *-:.I. . 1.7test sho<s the model has a significant linear relationship ^+(& $?B) U $$2$%? pU'2'''$_2 )he results suggest that if the head teachers use computer and has attended training programme the# are more li"el# to ha+e a positi+e attitude to<ards using computers in education2 B% .I. (9 %$2%$''i() &(/$.2+#GG G H .ode" )able eight presents the results of the last step of the multiple regression model de+eloped for total mean attitude score2 TAB ! 8 0 OVERALL ATTITUDE MODEL *emographic +ariables B ] p r .
7J GG H .1.7test sho<s the model has a significant linear relationship ^+(B $?') U B2'$> pU'2''B_2 )he results suggest that if the head teachers ha+e attended training programmes the# are more li"el# to ha+e a positi+e attitude to<ards training programmes for using computers in education2 #e"f Confidence .1+1GG :se of computer 2$>& 2$'B 2&'& .$ )able nine presents training needs model2 1t is e+ident that four +ariables sho<ed an association <ith training needs in bi+ariate correlations2 0o<e+er in a multiple regression model onl# prior computer training contributed to the outcome +ariable (score on training needs) significantl# (] U 2$?( p U '2'$?)2 9+erall attitude model e-plains J2$S of the +ariance (Ad=2. (9 %$2%$''i() &(/$.ode" )able nine presents the results of the last step of the multiple regression model de+eloped for training needs score2 TAB ! + 0 TRAINING NEEDS MODEL *emographic +ariables B ] p r .& U '2'J$) in the mean training needs score2 )he . (9 %$2%$''i() &(/$.omputer in 0 SELF CONFIDENCE MODEL B ] p $2JJ& 7777777777 '2'''$ '2>BJ 2$?J 2''? 2$%$ 2'?$ 2&J' r 777777777 .I.I. 1J GGG H .181G Age 72'J% 72'($ 2&>$ 0. 1..1+#GG G H .I.2#2GGG !rior computer training 2&($ 2$?( 2'$? . . L-'* '*$.! 1GGG !rior computer training 2$>' 2'J' 2B>( .onstant B2'&> 7777777777 '2'''$ 777777777 Gender 2'>% 2'&E 2E&$ .I.%$'$)*$/ i) *3$ *-:.Training $eeds .%$'$)*$/ i) *3$ *-:.I.G the office :se of computer 2B?& 2&J? 2''$ . L-'* '*$.I. 7J GG H .$ )able ten presents self confidence model2 1t is e+ident that four +ariables sho<ed an association <ith self confidence in bi+ariate correlations2 0o<e+er in a multiple regression model Gender (] U 2$?J p U '2''?) and :se of computer (] U 2&J? p U '2''$) retained their BJ . 1. 1J GGG H .ode" )able ten presents the results of the last step of the multiple regression model de+eloped for self confidence score2 TAB ! 1 *emographic +ariables .!1!GGG G H .1"2G . .onstant Gender A+ailabilit# of .
& U '2&&$) in the mean self confidence score2 )he .7test sho<s the model has a significant linear relationship ^+(B $E() U E2>EJ pU'2''$_2 )he results suggest that if the female head teachers ha+e a high self confidence on learning to use computers2 Also use of computers contributed to their high self confidence2 1t is e+ident from the three models that the use of computers and prior training significantl# contribute to<ards head teachersA o+erall attitude to<ards computers in education2 0o<e+er in sub7scales models prior training contributes to the training needsA model <hile use of computer contributes to the self confidence model2 SUMMARY )he chapter focused on the findings of the stud# <hich e-amined the head and deput# head teachersA attitude to<ards the use of computer in education2 *escripti+e results of demographic and attitudinal as <ell as comparison and correlations ha+e been presented2 )he results regarding the research questions strongl# indicate that the participantsA percei+ed attitude to<ard computers in education is positi+e as ma=orit# of the respondents inclined to<ard strongl# agree statement <hich sho<s a total conformit# and highl# positi+e attitude to<ard educational impact and training needs2 .orrelation anal#ses re+ealed significant associations bet<een computer use and prior training and computer attitudes2 1t is e+ident from regression anal#sis that the use of computers and prior training significantl# contribute to<ards head teachersA o+erall attitude to<ards computers in education2 Appendi.significance2 9+erall self confidence e-plains $&2&S of the +ariance (Ad=2.*J pro+ides a summar# of findings2 BE .
ural and :rban2 0ead teachers in both groups appear to be at the same position in their +ie<s on all sub scales of attitude to<ard computers in education2 .urther anal#sis re+ealed attitude to<ards educational impact to be related onl# <ith prior computer training <hile training needs and self confidence e-hibited association <ith a number of +ariables2 )raining needs <as associated <ith gender age computer use and prior computer training2 Similarl# self confidence e-hibited relationship <ith the participantsA gender a+ailabilit# of computer in the office computer use and computer training2 B? .CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION )his chapter starts <ith restating the research questions <hich is follo<ed b# a summar# of the findings2 .esults sho< that computer use and prior computer training are significantl# correlated <ith the o+erall attitude score2 .esults are discussed in light of the literature2 )he chapter concludes <ith recommendation for future studies and practice and a conclusion2 RESEARCH 4UESTIONS o 8hat are the attitudes of the head teachers and deput# head teachers of go+ernment schools from Sindh and Balochistan to<ards the use of computers in educationK o 8hat are the demographic characteristics <hich contribute to the head teachersA attitude to<ards computersK SUMMARY OF THE KEY FINDINGS )he stud# results sho< that head and deput# head teachers from Sindh and Balochistan ha+e an o+erall positi+e attitude to<ards using computers in education2 )he# e-hibit a more positi+e attitude to<ards educational impact of computers and attribute high +alue to the need for training to use computers2 )his is in contrast to their attitude to<ards the social impact of using computers and their o<n self confidence <hich has been e-plained in findings section2 1n general the results indicate the importance of the use of computer in education@ ho<e+er statisticall# significant differences <ere not obser+ed bet<een the opinions of t<o groups i2e2 respondents from Sindh and Balochistan@ and .
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS )his section discusses the ma=or results of the stud#2 1t is organised under three main headings6 a) comparing o+erall attitudes <ith demographic +ariables@ b) perception of educational and social impact@ and c) 9+erall perception of training needs and self confidence2 • C(&,-%i)2 Ov$%-.. A**i*5/$' Ai*3 D$&(2%-,3i8 V-%i-:.$' )he stud# re+eals that the head teachers irrespecti+e of their school location in terms of urbanLrural or SindhLBalochistan are positi+e to<ards educational use of computers2 )his could be a positi+e sign indicating an o+erall readiness to adopt an educational inno+ation2 So that the# can pla# their role in leading the inno+ation and change process these head teachers and deput# head teachers <ill need to understand the role and importance of computers in their <or" and also de+elop appropriate "no<ledge s"ills and attitudes to use this tool2 )he results sho< that there <as no significant difference in o+erall attitude of the head teachers <ho had a computer in their homes and those <ho did not2 )his finding also authenticates 8arschauer ($((J) findings <ho also did not find an# influence on attitude2 0o<e+er this finding is in contrast <ith Shields ($(?J) and Yuen ($(??) <ho found a significant difference of attitude among those <ho had and <ho did not ha+e computer at home2 Age did not seem to ha+e an# relationship <ith the attitude to<ard computer use in Education2 )his is consistent <ith A"bulut (&''?) <here no difference in attitude to<ard computers <as found2 1n studies <hich in+ol+ed #ounger respondents age appears as a factor affecting the attitude2 0o<e+er since in this stud# most participants belonged to the digital migrantsA group (!rens"# &''$)@ age did not appear to pla# a significant role2 0o<e+er there <as a correlation among age and trainings needs as #ounger respondents <ere more inclined to<ard getting computer trainings than older ones2 E-perience as head teachers did not seem to affect the attitude2 1n !a"istan onl# &%S head teachers are directl# recruited <hile most other senior teachers are promoted to the position of head teachers (Memon F Bana &''%)2
Gender and attitude to<ard computer use has been the focus of man# studies resulting three t#pes of outcomes@ i2e2 no difference at all among gender (Altun &''?@ A"bulut &''?) difference <ith male more positi+e attitude (Brosnan F Lee $((?@ Bal"a F Smith &'''@ !elgrum F !lomp $((>) and difference <ith female more positi+e attitude (0ashim F Mustapha &''B@ ;anQo+iQo+R F !ro"op &''?)2 )he current stud# does not support the initial t<o t#pes of findings i2e2 no difference at all among gender and difference <ith male more positi+e attitude but negates these findings of the pre+ious researches <hich ha+e sho<n the consequences that female head teachers tended to use computers less e+en <hen gi+en equal access (Muira $(?E)2 So it is an interesting stud# to "no< about the gender difference according to attitude to<ard computer in !a"istani conte-t2 )his research confirms 0ashim and MustaphaAs (&''B) finding as female respondents <ere ha+ing statisticall# significant positi+e attitude to<ard training needs and self confidence than male respondents <hile the same findings <ere also e-plored b# ;anQo+iQo+R and !ro"op2 )he results sho< that there <as no significant difference in sub scales and o+erall attitude of the head teachers according to their demographic +ariable CqualificationA <hich predicts that qualification does not ha+e an# effect on attitude to<ards computer usage2 ;or the remaining demographic +ariables li"e a+ailabilit# of computer in office and prior computer trainings are concerned it <as e+ident that the# significantl# contribute to<ards head teachersA o+erall attitude to<ards computers in education2 • P$%8$,*i() (9 E/58-*i()-. -)/ S(8i-. I&,-8* ,omputer integration process has man# barriers to o+ercome2 )r#ing to o+ercome the barriers certainl# changes must be brought in the learnersA "no<ledge s"ills attitudes and +ision2 )he pre+ious research (Serhan &''E) in the same line re+ealed that principals had positi+e attitudes to<ard the use of technolog# in teaching and their percei+ed educational impact <as positi+el# high2 SerhanAs research findings also sho<ed that not onl# <ere the principals <illing to support the use of technolog# in their schools but that the# <ere also <illing to impro+e their "no<ledge abilities and s"ills to facilitate the integration of the technolog# into the curriculum2 )hese results indicate that school principals +ie<ed technolog# as an enhancement to the classroom that <ill moti+ate students to learn in an interesting en+ironment <hich also contributes to the impro+ement of students[ achie+ement
and increase their participation and interaction <ith their teachers2 .esulting on the same lines the current research findings sho< that school principals feel comfortable using the technolog# and realise its possible applications in education then the# can help facilitate its incorporation into the curriculum2 )his attitude predicts that a positi+e attitude starting from the school leadership can spread to the teaching facult# in the school and hence to the classroom and the students2 )he respondentsA inclination to<ard educational impact of computers in education <as in strong agreement or in other <ords the head and deput# head teachersA attitude sho<ed a strongl# fa+ouring opinion2 )he findings depict that most respondents are not using computers currentl# but the# are e-posed to the benefits of computer usage in education <hich could be the result of gro<ing and easil# accessible media and tele+ision through <hich these head teachers percei+ed a positi+e attitude to<ards the educational impact of computers2 Another research has identified that head teachers ha+e to build "no<ledge based on ho< to routinel# integrate computers (Scheffler F Logan $((() from media and societ#2 )he anal#sis sho<ed that respondents <ere not quite positi+e to<ard the social impact of computers in education2 )his <as the onl# area to<ards <hich participants <ere ha+ing negati+e attitude and this seemed due to the lac" of computer s"ills and lac" of self confidence (0out4 F Gupta &''$) as the ma=orit# of respondents <ere not ha+ing an# formal computer trainings2 )his negati+e attitude might stem from t<o reasons a fear because of a lac" of computer s"ills and no prior "no<ledge about ho< to use computer in their schools (,ompeau F 0iggens $((%a)2 0o<e+er researches ha+e recommended that pro+ision of more opportunities to learn computers (8ilson 5otar F Yun"er &''>) can positi+el# enhance the attitude to<ard computers in education sociall# and educationall#2 )he negati+e attitude can be con+erted to positi+e through proper computer trainings <hich <ill ultimatel# lead to a positi+e change in perception2 0o<e+er the present stud# found there is a strong correlation bet<een attitude and lac" of computer s"ills because of this lac"ing in s"ills and a<areness the percei+ed attitude to<ard social impact of computers is not much positi+e and the# seem undecided <hether computer use in education brings negati+e or positi+e social impacts2 :ltimatel# their self confidence <as natural to remain lo<2
ompeau F 0iggens $((%a@ Mcilro# Sadler F Boo=a<on &''E)2 8hile there is a general positi+e attitude to<ards recei+ing trainings to use computers a large ma=orit# of them did not use it and lac"ed o+erall self confidence2 E+ans7 Andris ($((J) found that indi+iduals <ho lac" computer "no<ledge and s"ills ma# feel less %& .*i() (9 T%-i)i)2 N$$/' -)/ S$.• P$%8$.9 C()9i/$)8$ !rior research suggests that for a successful implementation of computers school head teachers must use computers and model their use for their staff ()iede $((&)2 1f this modelling is successful the staff ma# then model the use of computers for their students2 .esearch also suggests that <hen the head teachers do not ha+e positi+e attitude to<ard computer use or do not inspire or support a culture of computer use in education it could inhibit the computer integration process (Anderson F *e-ter &''')2 .omputerAs integration in education is on its initial phase in !a"istan and for it to become a realit# head teachers need to be trained and also use computers as part of their regular practice2 )he results of the stud# suggest a positi+e attitude to<ards training for computer use2 )his also indicates that the head teachers are a<are of the importance of learning to use computers2 0o<e+er at the same time a small number of them ha+e actuall# recei+ed trainings to use computers2 )his could be indicati+e of a situation <here these head teachers do not ha+e access to appropriate training programmes for learning to use of computers in educational management practices2 )he findings in this stud# sho<ed that le+el of self confidence in computer use is correlated <ith positi+e computer attitudes supporting pre+ious research (Shashaani $((E)2 :sing computers in home and office more frequentl# and de+eloping a +ariet# of computer related s"ills and techniques increases oneAs "no<ledge of the computer as a <hole2 )his broadens oneAs learning perspecti+e and potential that in turn promotes a positi+e feeling to<ards the computer use (0out4 F Gupta &''$)2 0o<e+er self confidence <as found significantl# high among the respondents <ho ha+e computer in their office <hich predicts that respondents ha+ing computers in their offices ha+e access to use computer and ultimatel# their confidence le+el is significantl# higher than the respondents <ho do not ha+e computers a+ailable in their offices2 Moreo+er the positi+e relationship bet<een self efficac# and the use of computers <as confirmed in man# studies and self efficac# <as accepted as a determinant of computer use (Bandura $((E@ .
learl# one shot <or"shop or a training programme ma# not be sufficient in changing head teachersA attitude and the# must be allo<ed opportunities to use computers as part of their regular practice2 0ead )eachersA successful use of computers could also encourage teachers to initiate and implement change in schools2 IMPLICATIONS !rogramme planners at AK:71E* might li"e to consider the follo<ing implications6 $2 8hile there e-ists a positi+e o+erall attitude to<ards computers attitudes seem to be affected b# the training as <ell as e-perience of using computers2 )herefore use of computers for educational purposes should be included in all head teachersA programmes2 &2 5ot onl# technical abilit# but also the head teachers need to de+elop an understanding of the social impact of using computers in education2 )hus the 1.) component in the head teachersA programmes should focus on the social impact as <ell2 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings of this research follo<ing recommendations can be made for practice2 %> .confident about using computers2 Li"e<ise this stud#As results sho< that more than %JS of the respondents did not use computer and e-hibited a lo< self confidence2 Bo#d ($((?) and )ai<o (&''() also suggest that the lac" of computer s"ills could result in increased fear of computers2 )he# identif# that effects of training on the perceptions of indi+iduals are significant2 5eed of computer trainings to increase the positi+e attitude has been identified b# *a+is ($(?()2 At the same time )or"4adeh and *#"e (&''&) did not find training as an influential factor to change usersA attitudes to<ards computers as the# found that attitudes to<ards computers seemed to ha+e changed o+er time especiall# <hen the computers are used as part of regular practice2 )herefore <hile there is a need to pro+ide the head teachers <ith opportunities to gain computer "no<ledge and s"ills the professional de+elopment programmes must e-plicitl# focus on inculcating positi+e attitudes to<ards implementing computer in schools2 .
A5A .A)A and ADFK of !a"istan2 )hen a research ma# include comparison of the results of this stud# against the larger sample using a longitudinal design to e-amine computer attitudes o+er time2 .$2 0ead teachers should be pro+ided <ith computer training opportunities that concentrate on ho< to effecti+el# integrate computer as administrati+e and instructional tool2 Such programmes should focus on "no<ledge s"ills and attitudes2 &2 0ead teachers should be gi+en opportunities to continuousl# use computers in their practice2 )his is li"el# to increase their self confidence and it ma# encourage the use of computers among teachers and students2 >2 Effecti+e use of computers in educational management and teaching and learning should be incorporated in all teacher education programmes2 • R$8(&&$)/-*i()' 9(% F5%*3$% R$'$-%83 Since this <as an e-plorator# stud# it is recommended that further studies be conducted to e-amine the impact of computer teaching and learning as there <ill be more schools pro+ided <ith computers in the future in !a"istan2 1t is recommended that same stud# should be conducted in order to e-plore and to pro+ide more information about the different attitudes b# including head teachers teachers and students as respondents2 )his stud# can also be replicated on a larger sample including head teachers from all the four pro+inces .urther studies are recommended to e-amine other +ariables than those this stud# in+estigated2 )he most significant finding of this stud# re+ealed <as that the +ast ma=orit# of the participants <ere not computer trained but e+en then most of them percei+ed the implementation of computers into classroom to be beneficial tools for teaching and learning2 So it can be in+estigated that ho< this positi+e attitude has been de+eloped and percei+ed b# head teachers2 CONCLUSION )his stud# required to e-plore and describe the attitudes of go+ernment primar# and secondar# school head and deput# head teachersA attitude to<ard the use of computers in !a"istani schools2 )his stud# concludes that o+erall the results sho<ed that in general and %B .
the head teachers are in fa+our of using computer in education2 )his positi+e attitude is an important indicator of <illingness and first step in effecti+e integration of computes in education2 Almost all of the head teachers <ere <illing and read# to participate in courses and trainings about computer usage <hich re+eals the need for professional de+elopment2 1f <e e-pect head teachers to pro+ide the +ision and understanding needed to guide the de+elopment and implementation of computers in school <e ha+e to encourage them to increase their computer competence (Bea+er $(($)2 0o<e+er <e should not forget the fact that itAs not e+er# head teacherAs attitude in the countr# toda#2 )he need for further de+elopment and use among head teachers is highl# necessar# <ith appropriate computer training inter+ention plans2 1t is necessar# that head teachers themsel+es should ta"e ad+antage of the se+eral on7going in7ser+ice training on computers b# participating <ith enthusiasm and partnering <ith organisers to e-pand the tenure of such training or <or"shops2 1t <ill not be out of place ho<e+er if the ministr# of education and local go+ernment education authorities graduall# pro+ide computers and infrastructure in all the go+ernment schools so as to encourage head teachers and teachers to use them2 )eacher training and professional de+elopment oriented policies should support computer related teaching models that encourage pla#ing an acti+e role in teachingLlearning acti+ities2 1t should be lin"ed to the de+elopment of life7long learning and professional practices that enable head teachers to "eep in touch <ith computer de+elopments ne< "no<ledge and research on teachingLlearning2 .omputer training for head teachers must include a comprehensi+e e-perience <ith practical applications2 Such trainings <ill encourage ma-imum integration of technolog# into the dail# performance of head teachers2 )hese appropriate computer training inter+ention plans <ill increase further the current positi+e attitude of head teachers2 )his paper ma# ha+e left man# questions unans<ered that pro+ide starting points for further research <hich ha+e been discussed in recommendations2 )his stud# <ill be useful for polic# ma"ers pro+iders of professional de+elopment programmes for head teachers li"e AK:71E* and Ed7Lin"s pro=ect and for s#stem le+el decision ma"ers to support mechanism and strategies to assist head teachers to de+elop their "no<ledge and s"ills2 )hus head teachers <ill understand the critical role that the# pla# in facilitating the implementation of computers in schools to impro+e teaching learning and administrati+e processes2 As the %% .
final <ord no< schools need leaders not bosses <ho help to de+elop a clearer +ision and shed light in the moments of dar" confusion2 %J .
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0olliman .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8< ?($) >>7>?2 Dacobson M2 D2 F 8eller M2 02 ($(?E)2 A portfolio of computer use among the :ni+ersit# of 1llinois humanities facult#2 . Information G 2anagement B$(&) &&E7&B$2 0uang 02 M2 F Lia< S2 S2 (&''%)2 E-ploring userAs attitudes and intentions to<ard the <eb as a sur+e# tool2 $omputers in :uman Beha*iour . London and 5e< Yor"6 .2 F Scanlon E2 (Eds2)2(&''B)2 2ediating Science .ournal/ &$(%) E&(7 EB>2 1gbaria2 M2 F !arsuraman S2 ($(?()2 A path Anal#tic stud# of 1ndi+idual .outledge .ournal of 2anagement< $%(>) >E>7>??2 1nch B2 A2 ($(?E)2 $hange triggered 18 computer technolog8: Its implications for facult8 de*elopment2 *octoral dissertation )he uni+ersit# of 8isconsin7Madison 1Oman A2 F Peli"li G2E2 (&''()2 0o< does student abilit# and self7efficac# affect the usage of .haracteristics .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8 S8stems< $J(&) ?>7 (?2 J% .SS$I .ournal of /esearch on $omputing in %ducation< >>(>) >$J7>&J2 0ua !2 D2 .2 Kell# B2 F Gu#den D2 (&''')2 "echnolog8 Standards for School Administrators: Implications for Administrator Preparation Programmes2 !aper presented at the 1nformation )echnolog# and )eacher Education Educational .earning through information and communication technolog8.lamer2 0ope 82.lar" )2 02 K2 F Ma 82 82 (&''>)2 E-amining technolog# acceptance b# school teachers6 A longitudinal stud#.onference Sand *iego2 0out4 L2 E2 F Gupta :2 G2 (&''$)2 5ebras"a high school studentsA computer s"ills and attitudes2 .omputer technolog#K "he "urkish )nline .omputer An-iet# and Attitudes to<ard Microcomputers2 .
airo Eg#pt September &7B &''E2 Degede !2 92 F 9<olabi D2 A2 (&''B)2Effects of !rofessional Status Sub=ect *iscipline and .Degede !2 92 (&''E)2 +actors in $omputer Self-%fficac8 among South-#estern 'igerian $ollege of %ducation "eachers2 !aper presented at Si-th 1nternational 1nternet Education .onference .omputer Attitudes among )eacher Educators in 5igerian .ournal< B(&) $%?7$J&2 Dohnson *2 .ournal of /esearch on $omputing In %ducation< >$($) $B7&&2 Ka# A2 ($((>)2 )he Earl# 0istor# of Smalltal"2 Proceedings of nd A$2 SIDP. :pper Saddle .olleges of Education2 Information "echnolog8 .anguages $onference< &? J(7?&2 Keller D2 (&''')2 Attitude is %*er8thing2 5e< Yor"6 Attitude is E+er#thing 15.earning #ith technolog8: a constructi*ist perspecti*e.2 Anderson .omputer )echnologies6 Attitude and self efficac# across undergraduate disciplines2 /esearch in :igher %ducation< >%(J) EB%7 EJ?2 JJ .2 ($((?a)2 .2 E2 F 0absen )2 !2 ($(?')2 .omputer self7efficac# to performance in introductor# computer literac# courses2 .omputer Access on .A' :istor8 of Programming .2 Kha"i D2 (&''%)2 %5ploring the 1eliefs and 1eha*iour of effecti*e head teacher in the Do*ernment and non-Do*ernment school in Pakistan2 :npublished doctoral dissertation :ni+ersit# of 9ntario )oronto .anada2 Kin4ie M2 *elecourt M2 F !o<ers S2 ($((B)2 .omputer literac# 7 <hat is itK 2athematics "eachers< E>(&) ($7(J2 Donassen *2 02 !ec" K2 L2 F 8ilson B2 G2 ($((()2 .2 F .i+er 5D6 !rentice 0all2 Karsten .oth .
ournal of %ducational $omputing /esearch< $$(>) &%$7&%J2 Lan D2 ($((>)2 %ducational computing at 'orthern Illinois 0ni*ersit8: Academic staff use< kno#ledge< skills< interests< attitudes< and perceptions2 :npublished doctoral dissertation2 5orthern 1llinois :ni+ersit#2 Langford M2 F .isher A2 (&''&)2 0nlocking the $lu1house: 7omen in $omputing2 .ambridge MA6 0ar+ard :ni+ersit# !ress2 Loc"ard D2 F Abrams !2 (&''$)2 $omputers for t#ent8-first centur8 educators (%th Ed2)2 5e< Yor"6 Longman2 Malim )2 F Birch A2 ($((E)2 /esearch 2ethods and Statistics2 London6 MacMillan2 Margolis D2 F .2 ($(?()2 Effects of gender and computer e-perience on attitude to<ard computers2 .ournal of $omputer Information S8stems< >?(B) B$7B%2 La<ton D2 F Gerschner /2)2 ($(?&)2 A re+ie< of literature on attitudes to<ards computer and computerise d instruction2 .ambridge MA6 )he M1) !ress2 JE .Klue+er .2 D2 Singer D2 *2 F 8illett D2 B2 ($((')2 B8 design: Planning research on higher education2 .ee+es )2E2 ($((?)2 )he relationship bet<een computer self efficac# and personal characteristics of the beginning information s#stems student2 .ournal of /esearch and De*elopment in %ducation< $J($) %'7%%2 Lederer A2 L2 Maupin *2 D2 Sena M2 !2 F Hhuang Y2 (&''')2 )he technolog# acceptance model and the 8orld 8ide 8eb2 Decision Support S8stems< &((>) &J(7&?&2 Le+in )2 F Gordon .2 et al2 ($((B)2)he computer attitude scale6 assessing changes in teachersA attitude to<ards computers2 .ournal of $omputing /esearch< %($) J(7??2 Light .
ournal of %arl8 Adolescence< E &B>7&%B2 5ational Education !olic#2 (&''?)2 Ministr# of Education Go+ernment of !a"istan2 5ecessar# D2 .2 F !arish )2 02 ($((J)2 )he .2 ($((&)2 /adical ecolog8: "he search for a li*ea1le #orld2 London6 .Mar"aus"aite L2 (&''J)2 Gender issues in pre7ser+ice teachersA training6 I$" literac8 and online learning< &&($) $7&'2 Ma# )2 (&''>)2 Social research: issues< methods and process.elationship bet<een computer usage and . (&nd Ed2)2 Buc"ingham6 9pen :ni+ersit#2 Mcilro# *2 Sadler .outledge2 Michael S2 ($((?)2 Best practices in information technolog# (1)) management6 insights from K7$& schoolsA technolog# audits2 International .arah (Ed2) "ransforming schools in Pakistan: to#ards the learning communit8.omputer7.2 F Boo=a<on 52 (&''E)2 .2 (&''')2 "echnolog8 . 9-ford6 9-ford :ni+ersit# !ress2 Merchant .elated attitudes and Beha+iours2 %ducation $$J(>) >?B7>?E2 J? .iterac8 $hallenge.etallic" F 12 .2 F )incher .ournal of %ducational 2anagement< $&(J) &EE7??2 Mills S2 .omputer phobia and computer self7 efficac#6 )heir association <ith undergraduatesA use of uni+ersit# computer facilities2 $omputers in :uman Beha*iour &>(>) $&?%7$&((2 Memon M2 F Bana H2 (&''%)2 !edagogical Leadership in !a"istan6 )<o 0ead )eachers from the 5orthern Areas2 1n D2 . :ni+ersit# of Kansas2 Kansas State *epartment of Education2 Muira L2 )2 ($(?E)2 Gender and socioeconomic status differences in middle7school computer interest and use2 .
omputing in Education 5ash+ille2 !apert S2 ($(?')2 2indstorms: $hildren< computers and po#erful ideas2 5e< Yor"6 Basic Boo"s2 !a#ette *2 L2 ($(?E)2 "he use of computer technolog8 18 senior administrators in colleges and uni*ersities2 *octoral dissertation 5e< Yor" :ni+ersit#2 !elgrum 82 F !lomp )2 ($(($)2 "he 0se of $omputers In %ducation 7orld#ide2 5e< Yor"6 !ergamon !ress2 !elgrum 82 D2 ($((>)2 Attitudes of school principals and teachers to<ards computers6 *oes it matter <hat the# thin"K Studies in %ducational %*aluation< $( $'$7$&%2 J( .2 5oss (Eds2)2 $omputers and %5plorator8 . 5e< Yor"6 Springer2 9gletree S2 M2 F 8illiams S2 82 ($((')2 Se.2 0o#les and .onference of the Association for the Ad+ancement of .ournal of %ducational $omputing /esearch< ?(B) B'E7B&$2 5oss . London :K6 !inter !ublishers2 9tto )2 L2 F Albion !2 .2 ($(($)2 $omputes as $ommodities in A2A2 di Sessa .2 (&''&)2 0nderstanding the role of school leaders in realising the potential of I$"s in education2 !aper presented at the 1nternational .earning.5ichols L2 M2 ($((&)2 )he 1nfluence of student .and se-7t#ping effects on computer attitudes and aptitude2 Se5 /oles &> E'>7E$&2 9ppenheim A2 52 ($(JJ)2 ?uestionnaire Design and attitude 2easurement2 London6 0einemann2 9ppenheim A2 52 ($((&)2 ?uestionnaire design< inter*ie#ing and attitude measurement.omputer79<nership and in home use on achie+ement in an elementar# school computer programming curriculum2 .
esults from a <orld<ide educational assessment2 $omputers and %ducation< >E $J>7$E?2 !elgrum 82 D2 F !lomp )2 ($(($a)2 "he use of computers in education #orld#ide: results from the I%A 6$omputers in %ducation: sur*e8 in 1& educational s8stems2 9-ford6 !ergamon !ress2 !er"ins2.2 (&''%)2 Introduction to Social /esearchK?uantitati*e G ?ualitati*e Approaches2 London6 Sage2 .rancisco .2.2 ($((?)2 Introduction to social research: ?uantitati*e G @ualitati*e approaches.A6 Dosse#7Bass2 E' .ai4en S2A2 Sell<ood !2 )odd .2 ($((%)2 :sing 0#permedia !rogrammes to administer tests6 Effects on An-iet# and !erformance2 .2 *ietrich A2 !2 F Smith L2 D2 ($((>)2 :tilisation of the microcomputer in the mathematics classroom2 $omputers in :uman Beha*iour< ( $E7&J2 !unch K2 .!elgrum 82 D2 (&''$)2 9bstacles to the integration of 1.) in education6 . )housand 9a"s .acioppo D2 )2 ($(?J)2 $ommunication and Persuasion: $entral and Peripheral /outes to Attitude $hange. San . 5e< Yor"6 Springer7/erlag2 !lomp )2 !elgrum 82 F Steerneman A2 ($((')2 1nfluence of computer use on schoolsA curriculum6 limited integration $omputers in %ducation< $B &7$%2 !rens"# M2 (&''$)2 *igital 5ati+es *igital 1mmigrants2 )n the :ori>on ((%) &%7>%2 !rens"# M2 (&''$a)2 *igital nati+es digital immigrants2 )n the :ori>on< &(%) $7J2 !ruett !2 L2 Morrison G 2.2 E2 F .A6 SAGE !ublications 1nc2 !unch K2.ournal of /esearch on $omputing in %ducation< &?(&) B%E7BE&2 !ett# .2*2 F /ic"ers M2 ($((%)2 "echnolog8 %ducation in the $lassroom.
ung !2 Dones A2 F 9AShea ($((%)2 ..hodes /2 F ..#ba K2 F Bro<n M2 E2 (&''')2 0o< proficient 1) teachers integrate computers into the curriculum2 .agnano .alder D2 .ournal of %ducational $omputing /esearch< &' >&(7>B>2 E$ .o.2 (&''&)2 /eal #orld research2 (&nd Ed)2 9-ford6 Blac"<ell !ublications2 .ushton (Eds2) Sharing Deographic Information (pp2&'E7&&()2 5e< Bruns<ic" 5D6 .obson . 1n 02 D2 9nsrud F G2 .obinson .M2 ($((')2 $urrent Practice and Policies for using $omputers in Primar8 Schools: implications for training2 Lancaster6 ES.anada2 Schacter D2 F .2 (&''&)2 /eal 7orld /esearch.SE1 conference Danuar#2 %7( &''$ )oronto . London6 Blac"<ell !ublishers2 .2 ($((()2 *oes computer technolog# impro+e student learning and achie+ementK 0o< <hen and under <hat conditionsK .ocheleau B2 ($((%)2 $omputers and hori>ontal information sharing in the pu1lic sector.omputer attitudes in an English secondar# school2 $omputers G %ducation< &B E>7?$2 .ournal of $omputing In "eacher %ducation< $J J7$$2 Safdar I2 (&''$)2 /eflecti*e practice as a school impro*ement tool for head teachers: An indigenous perspecti*e2 !aper read in 1.obertson S2 .utgers :ni+ersit# !ress2 .obbins S2 !2 F Dudge )2 A2 (&''E)2 )rgani>ational 1eha*iour2 ($&th Ed2)2 Engle<ood .oar" *2 *2 ($(?%)2 +actors affecting the implementation of ne# educational technolog8 in higher education2 *octoral dissertation )he :ni+ersit# of Ari4ona2 .liffs 5D6 !rentice 0all2 . 9ccasional !aper2 .
ournal of /esearch on $omputing in %ducation >$(>) >'%7>&J2 Schiller D2 ($(($)2 1mplementing computer education6 )he role of the primar# principal2 Australian .ournal of %ducational $omputing /esearch< $J >E7%$2 Shaughness# D2D2 F Hechmeister D2S2 (&''')2 /esearch 2ethods in Ps8cholog8 (%th Ed2) 5e< Yor"6 McGra<70ill2 Sheingold K2 F 0adle# M2 ($((')2 Accomplished teachers: Integrating computers into classroom practice2 5e< Yor"6 .6 Association for Educational .iche# .2 L2 F Logan D2 !2 ($((()2 .ommunications and )echnolog#2 Serhan *2 (&''E)2 School !rincipalsA Attitudes )o<ards )he :se 9f )echnolog#6 :nited Arab Emirates )echnolog# 8or"shop2 "he "urkish )nline .2 .entre for )echnolog# in Education Ban" Street .2 E2 F Gunter G2 A2 (&''&)2 Integrating technolog8 in the classroom: "eachers disco*ering computers2 (&nd Ed2)2 Boston MA6 .acilitator in 1.omputer technolog# in schools6 8hat teachers should "no< and be able to do2 . 8ashington *.) 1ntegration2 "he "echnolog8 Source< &J($) $&7&&2 Seels B2 B2 F .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8< E($) B?7J(2 Schiller D2 (&''>)2 )he Elementar# School !rincipal as a .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8< J(&) >%7%'2 Shashaani L2 ($((E)2 Gender differences in computer attitudes and use among college students2 .ourse )echnolog# a di+ision of )homson Learning2 E& .ashman .Scheffler .ollege2 Shell# G2 G2 .hange .2 ($((B)2 Instructional technolog8: "he definition and domains of the field.
urriculum *e+elopment2 .onference Brisbane2 Sorge *2 .etrie+ed .ebruar# &' &''( from <<<2ascd2org2 )eo )2 (&''J)2 Attitudes to<ard computers6 A stud# of post7secondar# students in Singapore2 .Sherman L2 ($((?)2 )he promise of technolog#2 'orth#est %ducation< > &7(2 Shields M2 ($(?J)2 .omputing at Bro<n X An ongoing stud#2 Perspecti*es In $omputing< J(&) %E7J&2 Simonson M2 .ole 9f Media 1n .eading and 2anaging .ournal of %ducational $omputing /esearch< >(&) &>$7&BE2 Smith G2 ($((()2 .2 ($((')2 A stud8 to in*estigate computer use in Arkansas secondar8 schools2 *octoral dissertation Memphis State :ni+ersit#2 )ai<o S2 (&''()2 )eachersA !erception 9f )he .ussell D2 F Sorge B2 ($((()2 Integrating technolog8 in the classroom2 .2 Maurer M2 Montag7)orardi M2 F 8hita"er M2 ($(?E)2 *e+elopment of a standardise d test of computer literac# and a computer an-iet# inde-2 .etrie+ed March &$ &''( from http6LL<<<2math2purdue2eduLhighSchoolL technolog#Linde-2html2 Summers M2 ($((')2 5e< student teachers and computers6 An in+estigation of e-periences and feelings2 %ducational /e*ie#< B&(>) &J$7&E$2 Sutherlin G2 .earning %n*ironments< $B($) $E7&B2 E> .eadership2 !ublished b# the Association for Super+ision and .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8< ?($)2 E%7 ?$2 )apscott *2 ($((()2 %ducational .onnected Learning and Learning )echnologies in Schools .lassroom )eaching 1n Secondar# Schools2 "he "urkish )nline .earning "echnologies2 !aper presented at the .
ournal of %ducational 2anagement< $&(J) >$%7>??2 )omei L2 A2 (&''&)2 "he technolog8 facade: )*ercoming 1arriers to effecti*e instructional technolog8.obb G2 !2 ($(E$)2 /esearch in %ducation: An introduction2 0insdale 1L6 )he *r#den !ress 1nc2 :5*! (:nited 5ations *e+elopment !rogramme) (&''J-.egional Education Board Atlanta GA2 .etrie+ed .)homas 82.'J7complete2pdf2 /a"alis M2 !2 ($((')2 Faria1les related to facult8 attitudes to#ards computing at 7estern 2ichigan 0ni*ersit82 *octoral dissertation 8estern Michigan :ni+ersit#2 /a4ir 52 (&''B)2 . :uman De*elopment /eport 0042 5e< Yor"6 :52 .etrie+ed on April &> &''( from <<<2hdr2undp2orgLhdr&''JLpdfsLreportL0*.ournal of Instructional 2edia< &' >>>7>BJ2 EB .esearch ethics6 significance application and obligation to the practice of research2 .eb2 $% &''( from http6LL<<<2sreb2orgL )iede L2 D2 ($((&)2 A stud# of selected elementar# school principals[ use of computers for administrati+e purposes2 International . Boston MA6 All#n F Bacon2 )or"4adeh G2 F *#"e )2 !2 /2 (&''&)2 Effects of training on 1nternet self7efficac# and computer user attitudes2 $omputers in :uman Beha*iour< $?(%) BE(XB(B2 )urne# B2 F .2 (&''$)2 %ducation technolog8:Are school administrators read8 for itJ Southern .ournal of %ducational /esearch< &%(B) &?(7>('2 8ang S2 F Sleeman !2 ($((>)2 .omputer7assisted instruction effecti+eness6 Brief re+ie< of the research2 International .ournal of %ducational /esearch< E >7$$2 /isscher AD (Eds2)2 ($((J)2 1nformation technolog# in educational management2 International .
8arschauer M2 F 0eale# *2 ($((?)2 .anguage "eaching >$(&) %E7E$ 8iersma 82 ($((%)2 /esearch 2ethods in %ducation: An Introduction2 London6 All#n F Bacon2 8iersma 82 (&''')2 /esearch methods in education: An introduction2 (Eth Ed2)2 5eedham 0eights MA6 All#n F Bacon2 8ilmore *2 F Bet4 M2 (&''')2 Information "echnolog8 and Schools: the principal9s role. Amsterdam6 19S !ress2 BB$7BB?2 E% .han 02 ($((()2 Impro*ing I" training for ser*ing teachers through e*aluation 1n G2 .ournal of $omputer Assisted .umming et al2 (Eds2)2 Ad*anced /esearch In $omputers And $ommunications In %ducation.ompetence 9f !h#sical Education )eachers 1n .2 .ournal of %ducational "echnolog8 J(B) BE7%J2 Yildir2 12 F )song Y2 (&''$)2 A $omparison of $omputer Attitudinal $haracteristics of %lementar8 School $hildren and their "eachers in "urke82 !aper presented at Si-th 1nternational 1nternet Education . %ducational "echnolog8 and Societ82 .etri+ed on March &% &''( from http6LLifets2ieee2orgLperiodicalL+ol3B3&'''L+3B3&'''2html2 8ilson D2 *2 5otar .omputer :se2 "he "urkish )nline .ournal of Instructional Ps8cholog8 >'(B) &%J7&J>2 8oodro< D2 ($(($)2 A comparison of four computer attitude scales2 .2 F Yun"er B2 (&''>)2 Elementar# in7Ser+ice teacherAs use of computers in the elementar# classroom2 .omputers and language learning6 an o+er+ie<2 .amses 0ilton .earning< E $J%7$?E2 Yaman M2 (&''E)2 )he .airo Eg#pt2 Yuen 02 K2 La< 52 F .onference on September &7B &''E .
Yuen S2. 5e< Derse#6 !rentice70all2 EJ .2 ($(??)2 0o< +ocational teachers percei+e microcomputers in +ocational education2 .ournal of /esearch on $omputers in %ducation< &'(B) >E%7>?>2 Ha""ula G2 ($((()2 %lements of Sampling "heor8 and 2ethods.
omputers in EducationN2 )his stud# <ill be a sur+e# in <hich the primar# and secondar# school head teachers and deput# head teachers of Go+ernment schools from Sindh and Baluchistan <ill be in+ol+ed to fill7up a sur+e# questionnaire2 1t must be cleared that the purpose of this stud# is to e-plore attitudes to<ard computer usage in education and not to e+aluate ho< and in <hat <a#s teachers are using computers in their teaching2 1 therefore see" the "ind permission from #our good office to please allo< me to approach the head teachers and deput# head teachers <ho ha+e been participating in ELM program at AK:71E* under the Ed7Lin"s !ro=ect2 M# research requires collecting the data o+er a period of t<o months from *ecember $% &''? to .2B2Area Karachi E%(%' *ate6 3333333333333333333 *ear Sir 1 am a student of M2Ed2 at Aga Khan :ni+ersit# X 1nstitute for Educational *e+elopment (AK:71E*) Karachi2 As part of m# studies 1 am conducting a research based on attitudes to<ard computers2 Aga Khan :ni+ersit#71nstitute for Educational *e+elopment (AK:71E*) has appro+ed to support m# intended research stud# on ME-ploring 0ead )eachers and *eput# 0ead )eachersA Attitude to<ards .APPENDIX A1 P$%&i''i() L$**$% Mr2 Muhammad Babur Senior 1nstructor F .ebruar# $% &''(2 used for the current stud# and its future publications onl#2 1 am sure that #our support and understanding <ill help me to get some concrete data and information <hich <ill pro+ide a source to understand the head teachersA attitude to<ards computers2 )his <ould be rele+ant for polic# ma"ers curriculum planners and for Ed7Lin"s !ro=ect )eam to plan professional de+elopment programs in future to impro+e the current condition of curricula so as to determine the needs and trends for computers and to suggest recommendations for changes and to ma"e some difference in the qualit# of education in !a"istan2 )he information collected from the participants <ill be "ept absolutel# confidential and <ould be EE .oordinator E*7L15KS )he Aga Khan :ni+ersit#71nstitute for Educational *e+elopment 17%LBloc" /11 .
1-4!(L414 %mail:A>ra.Loo"ing for<ard to ha+e #our positi+e response in this regard2 Sincerel# #ours D-%v$'3 K-%i& . 'o.2B area Karachi7E%(%' Mob a6 '>BJ 7 %B$(>'E Email6 dar+esh2"arimba"u2edu d"3hun4aib#ahoo2com Mi''. AC%. $7%LB7/11 !292 Bo.$>J?? Karimabad .2B area Karachi7E%(%' Ph.4!(L411 +a5: & .edu for E? .1.! M2Ed2 &''( 5ote6 You ma# contact me or Miss2 A4ra 5aseem <ho is m# super+isor for this research currentl# <or"ing as a Senior .'aseemMaku.$>J?? Karimabad .ourse !articipant M2Ed2 &''( Aga Khan :ni+ersit# 1nstitute Educational *e+elopment !*. $7%LB7/11 !292 Bo.acult# member at AK:71E* an#time during the stud# for an# clarification2 )he contact addresses are gi+en belo<@ D-%v$'3 K-%i& .N-'$$& Senior 1nstructor for Aga Khan :ni+ersit# 1nstitute Educational *e+elopment !*.: & .
. F%(& E/0Li)1' C((%/i)-*(% E( . M-i.APPENDIX A2 A.%(v-.
APPENDIX B1 E)2.i'3 45$'*i())-i%$ ?' .
APPENDIX B2 U%/5 45$'*i())-i%$ ?& .
APPENDIX B! C()*$)* V-.$v-)*12!#7A: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION N(S*-*$&$)*12!#7R$&-%1'$0o< man# #ears of e-perience do #ou ha+e as a 0ead )eacherL*eput# 0eader )eacherK&8hat is #our genderK>8hat is #our ageKB8hat is the highest degree #ou ha+e earnedK%*o #ou o<n a home computerKJ*o #ou ha+e a computer in #our officeKE8hat area is #our school locatedK?8here is #our school situatedK(*o #ou use a computerK$'0a+e #ou got an# .omputers in school enhance students[ creati+it#2J)he achie+ement of students can be increased <hen using computers for teaching2E8or"ing <ith computers in class distorts the social climate2?.i/i*6 S3$$* CONTENT VALIDITY FORM FOR HEAD TEACHER AND DEPUTY HEAD TEACHER=S ATTITUDE TOWARD COMPUTERS .omputers help to teach more effecti+el#%.omputers ha+e become too dominant2(.omputers harm relations bet<een people2$'Social contacts are negati+el# affected b# the use of computers2$$1 tr# to "eep informed about technological changes2$&1 <ould li"e to ta"e part in a computer course to learn more about computers2$>1n7ser+ice training courses about computers should be made compulsor#2$B1 <ould li"e to learn more about computers as teaching aids2$%1 don[t mind learning about computers2$JAd+anced technical equipment has pro+ed difficult for me to get along <ith2$E1 thin" 1 can (or could learn ho< to) <rite programs on the computer2$?1t <ould ta"e too much time to learn ho< to use a computer successfull#2$(1 am afraid computers are too complicated for me to handle2&'1 feel uneas# thin"ing of a future <ith computes and robots controlling me2 ?B .omputer trainingKB: ATTITUDE N(S*-*$&$)*12!#7R$&-%1'$.omputers are +aluable tools for impro+ing the qualit# of a child[s education2&:sing computers in class leads to more producti+it# among students2>Students are more attenti+e <hen computers are used in class2B.$v-)*C-)=* /$8i/$I%%$.ead each statement carefull# and decide <hether and to <hat e-tent these questions are rele+ant to e-plore the perceptions of 0ead )eachers and *eput# 0ead )eachers to<ards computers in education2 !lease rate these statements according to the scale bello<@ M('* R$.$v-)*N(* %$.$v-)*R$.
APPENDIX B# R$'$-%83 I)9(%&-*i() S3$$* ?% .
APPENDIX B7 C()'$)* F(%&
APPENDIX C R$'$-%83 Ti&$ F%-&$
SK A8*ivi*i$' $ !roposal 8riting & > B % % J E ? ( )ranslation of instrument2 !iloting the instrument Anal#sis *irect Admin2 9f sur+e# Mailing Iuestionnaire )han"s and .eminder letters ,ollection of Iuestionnaire *ata entr# F Anal#sis 8rite7up F%(& 'JL$'L&''? $'L$$L&''? &$L$$L''E '$L$&L&''? &?L$&L&''? '$L'&L&''( $%L'&L&''( &?L$&L&''? &?L'&L&''( &?L'&L&''( T( &BL$$L&''? &'L$$L&''? >'L$$L&''? &'L$&L&''? &EL'&L&''( &%L'&L&''( &'L'&L&''( $%L'>L&''( >$L'>L&''( &BL'BL&''(
APPENDIX D1 I*$& Wi'$ D$&(2%-.3i8 Fi)/i)2' RESPONDENTS= EXPERIENCE ED.ural :rban ?( .C(&.$%i$)8$ Bi) 6$-%'? Less than $ Year $ 7 % #ears J X $' Years $$ Years or more P$%8$)*-2$' B)5&:$%? ?2J% S (nU$J) B$2'?S (nUEJ) &$2'?S (nU>() &(2$(S (nU%B) RESPONDENTS= AGE A2$ Bi) 6$-%'? >' Years or less >$ X B' Years B$ X %' Years %$ X J' Years J$ Years or o+er P$%8$)*-2$' B)5&:$%? E2'>S ($>) &J2B(S(B() B>2E?S(?$) &$2J&S(B') $2'?S(&) COMPUTER OWNERSHIP D( Y(5 (A) .requenc# >' &' $' ' Sindh Balochistan Location Yes 5o .ural :rban EB $( B? B% N( J% &E %% >E E' J' %' B' .5*$%F ?' DO YOU OWN A COMPUTERF Y$' Sindh Balochistan .
omputers in school enhance studentsA creati+it#2 )he achie+ement of students can be increased <hen using computers for teaching2 8or"ing <ith computers in class distorts the social climate2 .AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTER IN OFFICE DO YOU HAVE A COMPUTER IN YOUR OFFICE (' ?' E' FRE4UENCY J' %' B' >' &' DO YOU HAVE A COMPUTER IN YOUR OFFICEF Sindh Baluchistan .omputers help to teach more effecti+el# .omputers ha+e become too dominant2 .omputers are +aluable tools for impro+ing the qualit# of a child[s education2 :sing computers in class leads to more producti+it# among students2 Students are more attenti+e <hen computers are used in class2 .ural :rban Y$' %E $' &( >? N( ?& >J EB BB $' ' Sindh Baluchistan LOCATION Yes 5o .ual :rban ITEM0WISE STATISTICAL AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF RESULTS I*$& .omputers harm relations bet<een people2 Social contacts are negati+el# affected b# the use of computers2 1 tr# to "eep informed about technological changes2 1 <ould li"e to ta"e part in a computer course to learn more about computers2 1n7ser+ice training courses about computers should be made compulsor#2 1 <ould li"e to learn more about computers as teaching aids2 1 donAt mind learning about computers2 Ad+anced technical equipment has pro+ed difficult for me to get along <ith2 1 thin" 1 can (or could learn ho< to) <rite programmes on the computer2 1t <ould ta"e too much time to learn ho< to use a computer successfull#2 1 am afraid computers are too complicated for me to handle2 1 feel uneas# thin"ing of a future <ith computes and robots controlling me2 M$-) S8(%$ B2%$ B2>' B2B& B2>E B2>J B2>E >2E' &2>> >2%> >2&& B2'? B2>E B2J> B2%& B2%> &2(? >2($ &2%? >2&( >2>& Mi)i&5& S8(%$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ M-Di&5& S8(%$ % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % S*-)/-%/ D$vi-*i() '2JE '2?E '2?> '2?$ '2E% '2?' $2&$ $2$E $2&B $2>' '2(B '2(> '2EJ '2E( '2E( $2B> $2$' $2>? $2B$ $2B$ (' .
APPENDIX D2 I*$& Wi'$ A**i*5/i)-. Fi)/i)2' COMPUTERS ARE VALUABLE TOOLS FOR IMPROVING THE 4UALITY OF A CHILD=S EDUCATION Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %J2?S (nU$'%) B'S (nUEB) $2JS (nU>) '2%S (nU$) $2$S (nU&) 'S $''S (5U$?%) USING COMPUTERS IN CLASS LEADS TO MORE PRODUCTIVITY AMONG STUDENTS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal BE2JS (nU??) B'S (nUEB) %2(S (nU$$) >2?S (nUE) $2JS (nU>) $2$S (nU&) (?2(S (nU$?>) STUDENTS ARE MORE ATTENTIVE WHEN COMPUTERS ARE USED IN CLASS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %%2ES (nU$'>) >J2?S (nUJ?) &2ES (nU%) >2&S (nUJ) $2JS (nU>) 'S $''S (5U$?%) ($ .
Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %'2?S (nU(B) B$2$S (nUEJ) >2?S (nUE) >2&S (nUJ) $2$S (nU&) 'S $''S (nU$?%) (& .COMPUTERS HELP TO TEACH MORE EFFECTIVELY Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %'2>S (nU(>) B&2&S (nUE?) B2>S (nU?) $2$S (nU&) &2&S (nUB) 'S $''S (5U$?%) COMPUTERS IN SCHOOL ENHANCE STUDENTS= CREATIVITY Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal BES (nUJE) B%2(S (nU?%) >2?S (nUE) &2&S (nUB) $2$S (nU&) 'S $''S (5U$?%) THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS CAN BE INCREASED WHEN USING COMPUTERS FOR TEACHING.
WORKING WITH COMPUTERS IN CLASS DISTORTS THE SOCIAL CLIMATE Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal >&2BS (nUJ') &ES (nU%') &B2>S (nUB%) ?2JS (nU$J) ES (nU$>) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) 2 COMPUTERS HAVE BECOME TOO DOMINANT Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %2(S (nU$$) $>S (nU&B) $%2$S (nU&?) >?2(S (nUE&) &%2(S (nUB?) $2$S (nU&) (?2(S (nU$?>) COMPUTERS HARM RELATIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal &B2>S (nUB%) >>2%S (nUJ&) $(2%S (nU>J) $&2BS (nU&>) ?2JS (nU$J) $2JS (nU>) (?2BS (nU$?&) (> .
SOCIAL CONTACTS ARE NEGATIVELY AFFECTED BY THE USE OF COMPUTERS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal $?2BS (nU>B) &(2ES (nU%%) $(2%S (nU>J) $(2%S (nU>J) $&2BS (nU&>) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) I TRY TO KEEP INFORMED ABOUT TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal >B2JS (nUJB) BE2JS (nU??) ES (nU$>) J2%S (nU$&) &2&S (nUB) &2&S (nUB) (E2?S (nU$?$) I WOULD LIKE TO TAKE PART IN A COMPUTER COURSE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT COMPUTERS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal %%2$S (nU$'&) >%2$S (nUJ%) >2&S (nUJ) &2ES (nU%) >2&S (nUJ) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) (B .
IN0SERVICE TRAINING COURSES ABOUT COMPUTERS SHOULD BE MADE COMPULSORY Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal E&2BS (nU$>B) &&2ES (nUB&) &2&S (nUB) '2%S (nU$) &2&S (nUB) 'S $''S (nU$?% I WOULD LIKE TO LEARN MORE ABOUT COMPUTERS AS TEACHING AIDS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal J>2?S (nU$$?) >'2>S (nU%J) &2ES (nU%) $2$S (nU&) &2&S (nUB) 'S $''S (nU$?%) I DON=T MIND LEARNING ABOUT COMPUTERS Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal J>2?S (nU$$?) >'2>S (nU%J) &2&S (nUB) $2$S (nU&) &2&S (nUB) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) (% .
ADVANCED TECHNICAL E4UIPMENT HAS PROVED DIFFICULT FOR ME TO GET ALONG WITH Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal &'2%S (nU>?) &$2$S (nU>() (2ES (nU$?) >'2>S (nU%J) $J2?S (nU>$) $2JS (nU>) (?2BS (nU$?&) I THINK I CAN BOR COULD LEARN HOW TO? WRITE PROGRAMMES ON THE COMPUTER Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal >%2$S (nUJ%) >J2?S (nUJ?) $%2ES (nU&() E2JS (nU$B) B2>S (nU?) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) IT WOULD TAKE TOO MUCH TIME TO LEARN HOW TO USE A COMPUTER SUCCESSFULLY Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal $$2BS (nU&$) &'2%S (nU>?) (2&S (nU$E) >$2BS (nU%?) &ES (nU%') '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) (J .
I AM AFRAID COMPUTERS ARE TOO COMPLICATED FOR ME TO HANDLE Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal &%2(S (nUB?) &%2BS (nUBE) $B2$S (nU&J) &'S (nU>E) $B2$S (nU&J) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) I FEEL UNEASY THINKING OF A FUTURE WITH COMPUTES AND ROBOTS CONTROLLING ME Strongl# Agree Agree 5ot Sure *isagree Strongl# *isagree Missing )otal &(2&S (nU%B) $E2>S (nU>&) &B2>S (nUB%) $>2%S (nU&%) $%2$S (nU&?) '2%S (nU$) ((2%S (nU$?B) (E .
issing 're2uenc1 Percent Tota" 're2uenc1 $?% $?> $?% $?% $?% $?% $?B $?> $?& $?B $?$ $?B $?% Percent $'' (?2 ( $'' $'' $'' $'' ((2 % (?2 ( (?2 B ((2 % (E2 ? ((2 % $'' $ & > B % J #ocia" Impact E ? ( $' $$ $& $> Training $eeds !ducationa" Impact .*' < F%$L5$)86 M P$%8$)*-2$ #trong"1 Disagree $ot #ure Disagree 're2uenc1 're2uenc1 're2uenc1 Percent Percent Percent #0$o #u-0 #ca"e Item Agree 're2uenc1 Percent #trong"1 Agree 're2uenc1 Percent .omputers ha+e become too dominant2 .omputers in school enhance studentsA creati+it#2 )he achie+ement of students can be increased <hen using computers for teaching2 8or"ing <ith computers in class distorts the social climate2 .S*-*i'*i8-.omputers are +aluable tools for impro+ing the qualit# of a childAs education2 :sing computers in class leads to more producti+it# among students2 Students are more attenti+e <hen computers are used in class2 .omputers harm relations bet<een people2 Social contacts are negati+el# affected b# the use of computers2 1 tr# to "eep informed about technological changes2 1 <ould li"e to ta"e part in a computer course to learn more about computers2 1n7ser+ice training courses about computers should be made compulsor#2 & > > B & & $> B? $J &> B J B $2$ $2J $2J &2& $2$ $2$ E &%2 ( ?2J $&2 B &2& >2& &2& $ E J & B J $J E& &> >J $& % $ '2% >2? >2& $2$ &2& >2& ?2J >?2 ( $&2 B $(2 % J2% &2E '2% > $$ % ? E E B% &? >J >J $> J B $2J %2( &2E B2> >2? >2? &B2> $%2$ $(2% $(2% E >2& &2& EB EB J? E? ?% EJ %' &B J& %% ?? J% B& B' B' >J2 ? B&2 & B%2 ( B$2 $ &E $> >>2 % &(2 E BE2 J >%2 $ &&2 E $' % ?? $' > (> ?E (B J' $$ B% >B JB $' & $> B %J2 ? BE2 J %%2 E %'2 > BE %'2 ? >&2 B %2( &B2 > $?2 B >B2 J %%2 $ E&2 B ' & ' ' ' ' $ & > $ B $ ' ' $2$ ' ' ' ' '2% $2$ $2J '2% &2& '2% ' (? .omputers help to teach more effecti+el# . R$'5.
issing 're2uenc1 Percent Tota" 're2uenc1 $?% $?B $?& $?B $?B $?B $?B Percent $'' ((2 % (?2 B ((2 % ((2 % ((2 % ((2 % $B $% $J $E $? $( &' %ther s 1 <ould li"e to learn more about computers as teaching aids2 1 donAt mind learning about computers2 Ad+anced technical equipment has pro+ed difficult for me to get along <ith2 1 thin" 1 can (or could learn ho< to) <rite programmes on the computer2 1t <ould ta"e too much time to learn ho< to use a computer successfull#2 1 am afraid computers are too complicated for me to handle2 1 feel uneas# thin"ing of a future <ith computes and robots controlling me2 B B >$ ? %' &J &? &2& &2& $J2 ? B2> &E $B2 $ $%2 $ & & %J $B %? >E &% $2$ $2$ >'2 > E2J >$2 B &' $>2 % % B $? &( $E &J B% &2E &2& (2E $%2E (2& $B2$ &B2> %J %J >( J? >? BE >& >'2 > >'2 > &$2 $ >J2 ? &'2 % &%2 B $E2 > $$ ? $$ ? >? J% &$ B? %B J>2 ? J>2 ? &'2 % >%2 $ $$2 B &%2 ( &(2 & ' $ > $ $ $ $ ' '2% $2J '2% '2% '2% '2% #e"f Confidence (( .S*-*i'*i8-.*' < F%$L5$)86 M P$%8$)*-2$ #trong"1 Disagree $ot #ure Disagree 're2uenc1 're2uenc1 're2uenc1 Percent Percent Percent #0$o #u-0 #ca"e Item Agree 're2uenc1 Percent #trong"1 Agree 're2uenc1 Percent . R$'5.
APPENDIX D! S5:0S8-.$ Wi'$ Fi)/i)2' OVEFR ALL ATTITUDE $'' .
00 Educational Impact Social Impact Tarining Needs Categories Self confidence Total SUB0CATEGORY WISE DATA S5:0'8-.50 Average Score 4.$' ITEM WISE MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION A2%$$&$)* N(* '5%$ Di'-2%$$&$)* F%$L..45 4. .50 3.H #.$ M$-) SD -.30 4..4 EI .15 EI .5 EI ITEMS EDUCATIONAL IMPACT Agreement 5ot Sure6 *isagreement6 .50 1.#+ .!+ (&2>BS (nU$E$) >2J(S (nUE) >2E?S (nUE) #DH ..1 EI .SUB0CATEGORY WISE STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND RELIABILITY COEFFICIENT FOR EACH SUBSCALE B$H187? N( (9 S5:'8-.8 5. 1+ !.00 4. E-2$ $E$ ?% $J( ($ ?J 12 (&2>BS BJ2'?S ($2$BS B(2$(S BJ2B(S .E *1SAG.EEME5) 59) S:.20 4.+ .25 4.35 4.50 4. E-2$ F%$L.40 4.3i*$&' Educational 1mpact J B2>( '2J' '2?J Social 1mpact B >2$( '2(' '2E' )raining 5eeds % B2B> '2J> '2?$ Self .onfidence 9thers EDUCATIONAL IMPACT Mean of Education Impact 4.EEME5) Self .50 2.00 2.7E E >J J &> B% 2! >2J(S $(2%(S >2BJS $&2$JS &B2>&S 1!E E J& ( E' %> # >2E?S P$%8$)*-2$ AVERAGE PERCENTAGE CHART $''2''S ('2''S ?'2''S E'2''S Educational 1mpact Social 1mpact )raining 5eeds Self .2 EI .onfidence 9thers A+erage6 >>2>?S B2EJS >E2?BS &?2J%S 22E J'2''S %'2''S B'2''S >'2''S &'2''S $'2''S '2''S Educational 1mpact Social 1mpact )raining 5eeds SUB0SCALES AG. E-2$ F%$L.55 4.00 Average score 3.3 EI .onfidence B >2$( '2(' '2J' Ov$% -.00 1.
+ TRAINING NEEDS Agreement6 5ot Sure6 *isagreement6 ..1+ B(2$(S (nU($) $&2$JS (nU&>) Average Scores 4.50 1.10 4.50 0. 0 4.3 S$ .50 4.3 SI .H!.1 SI .H#.00 0.00 1.00 3.00 2.2 ITEMS SI .! Average Score 4.1+ BJ2'?S (nU?%) $(2%(S (nU>J) >>2>?S (nUJ&) #DH .1 S$ .50 0.2 TN .00 1.#! ($2$BS (nU$J() >2BJS (nUJ) B2EJS (nU() #DH .00 2.00 3.!0 TN .H !.50 3.SOCIAL IMPACT Mean of Social Impact SOCIAL IMPACT Average Score 4.50 2.00 SELF CONFIDENCE Mean of Self Confidence >E2?BS (nUE') #DH .00 3.4 Agreement 5ot Sure6 *isagreement6 .4 .30 4.40 4.+ S$ .4 TN .2 ITEMS S$ .3 ITEMS TN .50 2.50 1.1 TRAINING NEED Mean of Training Need TN ."0 3.50 4.5 SELF CONFIDENCE Agreement6 5ot Sure6 *isagreement6 .50 3.00 0.#0 4.00 SI .20 4.
omputer in office2 School located !ro+ince $'B .APPENDIX D# C(&.-%i'() COMPARISON OF DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION M$-)NEDUNIMP M$-)NSOCNIMP M$-)NTRAINGNNEEDS M$-)NSLFNCONF M$-)N(v$%N-. V-%i-:.$ M$-) SD M$-) SD M$-) SD M$-) SD M$-) SD Less than $ Year B2>> '2B> &2EE $2'' B2%' '2>B >2>' '2E? >2?> '2>$ $ 7 % #ears B2B> '2JB >2&? '2?? B2B? '2JE >2$> '2?? >2(B '2%> J X $' #ears E-perience B2BB '2B> >2&J '2(' B2>J '2J$ >2$( '2(& >2($ '2B$ $$ Years or more B2>' '2E' >2$J '2(' B2>( '2JE >2&B '2(% >2?J '2%% )otal B2>( '2J' >2$( '2(' B2B> '2J> >2$( '2(' >2(' '2B( Male B2>B '2J' >2&> '2($ B2B' '2%J >2'E '2?J >2?J '2B? Gender .emale B2BE '2J$ >2$> '2?? B2B? '2E% >2B$ '2(& >2(? '2%$ )otal B2>( '2J' >2$( '2(' B2B> '2J> >2$( '2(' >2(' '2B( >' Years or Less B2BJ '2BB >2'$ $2$E B2J> '2B% >2$B '2(& >2(> '2B( >$ X B' Years B2>J '2E% >2&E '2(B B2BJ '2J( >2>E '2?' >2(% '2%( B$ X %' Years B2B& '2B( >2$> '2($ B2BE '2J$ >2&' '2($ >2(& '2B& Age %$ X J' Years B2&? '2J% >2&% '2E% B2&B '2JJ &2(J '2(E >2E? '2%$ J$ Years or more %2'' '2'' >2?? '2$? B2B' '2%E >2%' '2>% B2&( '2&J )otal B2>( '2J' >2$( '2(' B2B> '2J> >2$( '2(' >2(' '2B( BachelorAs *egree B2%E '2>> >2E% $2'( B2%& '2JE >2%> $2$' B2$J '2E% B2Ed2 B2&J '2E' >2>% $2$$ B2B% '2%? >2>( '2EE >2(> '2%$ Iualification MastersA *egree B2%E '2B? >2>& '2(' B2BE '2BB &2(> '2?( >2(B '2B> M2Ed2 B2>% '2J& >2$& '2?J B2B$ '2J( >2&& '2($ >2?? '2%$ )otal B2>( '2J' >2$( '2(' B2B> '2J> >2$( '2(' >2(' '2B( 9<nership of computer2 Yes 5o )otal Yes 5o )otal .$' S8-..ural Areas :rban Areas )otal Sindh Balochistan )otal B2B& B2>J B2>( B2BB B2>J B2>( B2>$ B2B( B2>( B2B' B2>% B2>( '2%( '2J& '2J' '2%E '2J& '2J' '2JE '2B( '2J' '2%J '2E> '2J' >2&J >2$> >2$( >2&% >2$J >2$( >2&' >2$( >2$( >2&B >2'J >2$( '2($ '2?( '2(' '2?B '2(B '2(' '2(' '2($ '2(' '2?B $2'? '2(' B2B( B2>E B2B> B2B? B2B' B2B> B2>E B2%' B2B> B2BB B2B' B2B> '2%E '2J( '2J> '2J$ '2J% '2J> '2E> '2BE '2J> '2J' '2EB '2J> >2>$ >2'E >2$( >2>? >2'? >2$( >2$J >2&> >2$( >2&> >2'E >2$( '2(' '2?? '2(' '2(' '2?? '2(' '2(> '2?J '2(' '2?( '2(& '2(' >2(J >2?B >2(' >2(( >2?% >2(' >2?% >2(J >2(' >2(& >2?> >2(' '2BE '2%$ '2B( '2BJ '2%$ '2B( '2%B '2B> '2B( '2BE '2%% '2B( .
omputer use ..omputer training2 Yes 5o )otal Yes 5o )otal B2B( B2>' B2>( B2J' B2>> B2>( '2B% '2J( '2J' '2B$ '2J> '2J' >2>& >2'( >2$( >2>( >2$B >2$( '2?J '2(> '2(' '2?$ '2(& '2(' B2%E B2>& B2B> B2E> B2>% B2B> '2%& '2J( '2J> '2>J '2JE '2J> >2%' &2(B >2$( >2%> >2$' >2$( '2?E '2?B '2(' '2?( '2?? '2(' B2'J >2EE >2(' B2$% >2?> >2(' '2>E '2%B '2B( '2>? '2%' '2B( $'% .
.000 $?B 0 . 17 '2?B> $?B .#! GG .2#"GG 0.5*$% 5'$F + 1 r .-*i()' 1 1 E/58-*i()-.APPENDIX D7 C(%%$.000 $?% $'J . I&.1+#GG . . " 8 + 1 2 ! # 7 Ov$%-.1+1GG 0.00L '2&'% *%-i)i)2F 5 $?% $?B W2 .9 C()9i/$)8$ r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 r Sig2 5 .000 ..2GG .2# GG 0. 78 '2B>E $?% .0 ( $?B .21#GG .000 $?% 2 CORRELATIONS 0 SPEARMAN=S RHO ! # 7 .181G 0. 81 '2&EB $?B .01( $?% 0.004 $?B .!"GG .1GG . . "7 '2>$& $?% ..-8* T%-i)i)2 N$$/' S$. '2&BB $?B .2!!GG .1"2G 0.171G 0.001 $?% .5*$% Sig2 0.000 $?% .+ .000 $?% .5*$% i) (99i8$F C(&.1.1# '2'%E $?% 0 .2#2GG 0.000 $?B .#"GG .78#GG . I&.001 $?% . !8 .!1!GG .G 0.00N .12" .12+ Sig2 '2'?B '2'?$ 5 $?% $?B r .001 $?B $?% $?% $?% $?% . #1 '2%?> $?% .111 '2$>B $?B .2+#GG .orrelation is significant at the '2'$ le+el (&7tailed)2 .#. #2 '2%E& $?B . 18 '2?'E $?% .2 !GG 0.0 $?B 0 ....2+#GG .00& $?% .orrelation is significant at the '2'% le+el (&7tailed)2 .121 '2$'& $?% . +# C(&. "" '2&(? $?% .-8* S(8i-.00! 0.000 $?% .12# '2'(% $?B .000 '2J'B 0.001 $?B .0(1 $?B $?% $?% $?% $?% WW2 .12# '2'(B $?% 0 ..1!7 '2'JE $?% 0.11# .28#GG .000 $?B .! "GG .1+"GG .000 '2>%> '2$&B 0. G$)/$% " A2$ 8 C(&. 8.
ocation Pro*ince %5perience: .emale 5o 5o 5o 5o $$2?(S JE2'>S >JS %'S JBS %JS E?S :rban Balochistan $ 7 % #ears BBS &%S B$2'?S $ Years or more &(2$(S >$ 7 B' Years %$ 7 J' Years &J2B(S &$2J&S ATTITUDINAL RESULTS: • • • • • %ducational Impact6 Social Impact: "raining 'eeds: Self $onfidence: )*erall: (2UB2>' SDU'2J') (2U>2$( SDU'2(') (2UB2B> SDU'2J>) (2U>2$( SDU'2(') (2U>2(' SDU'2B() Agreement :n7decided Strongl# Agree :n7decided Agreement Si2)i9i8-)* /i99$%$)8$' (ender • • "raining 'eeds6 (Male 2UB2B' SDU'2%J@ .APPENDIX D.emale6 2U>2B$ SDU'2(& pU'2&') Computer a&ai"a-i"it1 in office $'E . Fi)/i)2' S5&&-%6 DEMOGRAPHIC RESULTS School .emale 2U B2B? SDU'2E% pU'2'$B) Self $onfidence: (Male6 2U>2'E SDU'2?J@ .ural Sindh Less than $ Year J 7 $' Years Age >' Years or less B$ 7 %' Years J$ Years or o+er ?ualification: BachelorAs *egree MasterAs *egree Dender: $omputer )#nership $omputer in )ffice: $omputer 0se $omputer "rainings Male Yes Yes Yes Yes %JS E%S ?2J%S &$2'?S E2'>S B>2E?S $2'?S $2J&S $(2BJS J>S %'S >JS BBS &&S B2Ed2 M2Ed2 .
^r($?%)U2>' pU2'''_ Age • "raining 'eeds2 ^r($?%)U2$( pU2''(_ Computer7s a&ai"a-i"it1 in %ffice • Self $onfidence2 ^r($?B)U2$J pU2'&B_ Significant $orrelation at the 0.03 le*el (ender • "raining 'eeds. ^r($?B)U2&' pU2''?_ )*erall.• Self $onfidence6 (Yes6 2U>2>? SDU'2('@ 5o6 2U >2'? SDU'2?? pU'2'&%) Computer )se • • "raining 'eeds: Self $onfidence: (Yes6 2UB2%E SDU'2%& 5o6 2UB2>& SDU'2J( pU'2''$) (Yes6 2U>2%' SDU'2?E@ 5o6 2U&2(B SDU'2?B pU'2''') Computer Trainings • • • %ducational Impact: "raining 'eeds: Self $onfidence: (Yes6 2UB2J' SDU'2B$@ 5o6 2UB2>> SDU'2J> pU'2''?) (Yes6 2UB2E> SDU'2>J@ 5o6 2UB2>% SDU'2JE pU'2''') (Yes6 2U>2%> SDU'2?(@ 5o6 2U>2$' SDU'2?? pU'2''() 5o Significant difference found2 5o Significant difference found2 5o Significant difference found2 5o Significant difference found2 5o Significant difference found2 3ork !4perience Computer %wnership 5ua"ification Age oca"6Area C(%%$. C3-)2$ $'? . • • • "raining 'eeds. ^r($?%)U2$? pU2'$B_ • Self $onfidence2 ^r($?B)U2$E pU2'&'_ R$2%$''i() < P%$/i8*(%' O9 A**i*5/i)-. ^r($?%)U2&? pU2'''_ Self $onfidence. ^r($?B)U2>' pU2'''_ )*erall.-*i()' 0 Significant $orrelation at the 0.^r($?%)U2&' pU2''E_ • "raining 'eeds.01 le*el Computer Trainings Computer )se • %ducational Impact. ^r($?%)U2>$ pU2'''_ • • ^r($?%)U2&B pU2''$_ Self $onfidence.
(]U2'?$ pU'2&J) %&era"" $omputer 0se $omputer "raining (]U'2&$ pU'2''E) (]U'2$? pU'2'&$) $'( .#e"f Confidence $omputer 0se Dender pU'2''?) (]U'2&E pU'2''$) (]U'2$( Training $eeds $omputer "raining $omputer 0se Age Dender pU'2E&) (]U'2$( pU'2'$) (]U'2$' pU'2&') (]U'2'( pU'2&>) (]U'2'& $omputer "raining: (]U2'J' pU'2B>() A*aila1ilit8 of computer in office.
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