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Toyota taught us how to build a successful lean production system, and now it¶s teaching manufacturers what to do -- or what

NOT to do -- when faced with massive recalls. Manufacturing.net sat down with Ron Atkinson, past president of the American Society for Quality and long-time auto manufacturing expert to discuss what we can learn from Toyota¶s problems. Mnet: Toyota is now on its second attempt at trying to fix its problems with sticky gas pedals. Could they have perhaps rushed it the first time? Should manufacturers rush to find a fix right away? Atkinson: Well I don't think the two are mutually exclusive. Yes, you should always rush to immediately find out what the problem is and how you can irreversibly fix that root cause. At the same time that you're doing that as quickly as you can, you also have to make sure you do it right the first time. I have been involved with numerous recalls over the years and we found that whenever we had a recall, we rushed as quickly as we could to get a solution, but we'd make sure it was correct before we implemented it. In some cases, two or three different solutions were presented before we had one we knew would work.

Mnet: When these recalls occur, what steps in the lean manufacturing system might need to be corrected? Atkinson: There may be none. It depends on what caused the problem because if it was something that happened in the design process that no one had anticipated then you should add that to your design checks, but you wouldn't necessarily change anything in the manufacturing system. If something happened in the lean manufacturing process that caused the recall, in other words, the components were not made correctly, then what you'd do is determine what needs to be done differently and use the lean process to make those changes in your documentation and make that process part of the system. Mnet: In Toyota¶s recall of the sticky gas pedals, reports say poor design was a major factor. What impact does a design versus manufacturing-related recall present to manufacturers? Atkinson: Usually, if it's a manufacturing defect, the numbers of vehicles affected would be smaller because it's typically discovered in the manufacturing process and limited to only those vehicles already manufactured. The bigger recalls are typically design errors and really big ones fall under two areas. One is when a period of time before the problem is discovered, such as in a recent GM steering recall -- it took 20,000 to 30,000 miles before the problem appeared. So you're not going to see a problem for the first year or two the vehicles are on the road, and while those vehicles are on the road, they're still producing more vehicles. When problems are found immediately, that reduces the size of your recall. The other thing that increases the size of a recall is if they're having a problem with a component part that is seen on more than one type of vehicle. Multiple recalls using the same part heightens the number of recalls they'll have.

They told the public the vehicles are still safe and the steering will still work. it¶s important to use the lessons learned to make sure that defect never happens again on any of your vehicles. Mnet: With more quality control in place. especially now that systems are so much better. It takes a long time to build up a good reputation and that can be destroyed rapidly. there is virtually no damage to your reputation.they told the public exactly what is going on. Mnet: Toyota has admitted they grew too big. Engineers and quality specialists then work with the supplier to mold their tools and equipment and do extensive testing before the supplier can ship parts. You also need to do everything you can to ensure that your design and the testing of your design is adequate and applies to every condition. too fast and lost sight of quality. does this make it easier to find a problem. When you do a recall that way. Once they get the go ahead to ship parts. you get to the root cause. they¶ll notify people of the older vehicles because they are more likely to have the problem and then work through to the newer vehicles and will have the repair done before any major problems. they issued the recall ahead of time -. make sure that whenever you find a problem like this.Mnet: How can manufacturers ensure that they are getting quality product from their suppliers? Atkinson: Before a supplier is given a contract. it takes a long time. we now get faster responses so it allows you to react quicker to the problem. With automated systems. then you need to go back to the design to make sure it doesn¶t happen again. periodically quality people from the manufacturer come in and check to make sure everything is okay. Once the problem is fixed. but they don't have replacement parts yet. From both the manufacturing location and assembly location they are constantly evaluating parts that come in from suppliers and make sure that everything appears to be to spec. that they will recall the vehicles. Sometimes it¶s irreparable and if it is repaired. For example. engineering and quality to make sure they can produce the product in an acceptable manner for a long period of time. Mnet: When a recall does occur what can be done to improve quality reputation? How long would it take? Atkinson: It depends on how quickly the recall is handled. How can quality be ensured when business is booming? . or more difficult? Atkinson: It makes it easier to find the problem. but it might get harder to steer under 15 mph. Mnet: How can manufacturers ensure the problems doesn¶t happen again? Atkinson: First. typically they need to be evaluated by purchasing. Testing should be very stringent. and that information is communicated so everyone learns from that design or situation. and taking just as long to re-build it. If something comes up that is a potential problem. Where you damage your reputation is when it hits the front page of the paper or gets the attention of the government. As soon as GM gets parts. in GM¶s steering wheel recall mentioned earlier.

understood process in place. Dealers will also place reconfigured accelerator pedals and newly-designed floor mats on affected models to remedy floor mat pedal entrapment.Atkinson: By having a consistent. such as lean. Also. and other Toyota models. If one location finds a better way to do something. From the reported accounts of several accidents involving sudden acceleration and brake failure. the safety defects may. A good lean system minimizes waste. Generally. on Corollas. when using lean design you find the design that works the best -. Moreover. then that is contrary to the lean principle. and not include defective electronic throttle control systems (ETCS) or stirring systems. Toyota's global recalls have included Prius and Lexus hybrids. That's an excellent way to minimize the possibility. and that is the design you use from then on as much as possible until you find a better way of doing it. Camrys. and remedy the inconsistent brake feel of the anti -lock system (ABS) in 2010 Prious. Costs can be reduced by minimizing waste. Toyota Motor Corporation's product liability for unintended acceleration and braking problems. hopefully for Toyota. if you find something that can cause problems. If you're just eliminating costs and it results in more waste. Toyota dealers nationwide have reportedly begun fixing accelerator pedals on recalled vehicles by installing a precision-cut reinforcement bar into the accelerator pedal assembly to eliminate the excess friction that has caused pedals to stick on occasions. which has reportedly led to 10 million recalls and counting. would eventually be found to be manufacturing and/or design safety defects. sticking accelerator pedals. Toyota will install a brake override system that cuts the engine on simultaneous application of accelerator and brake pedals. Even as Toyota is . Indeed. you share that information with other locations to make sure they take advantage of your new information. and inconsistent anti-lock brake systems (ABS). then that information should be shared with other locations. but lean does not mean you arbitrarily minimize costs without there being consequences. which indicate that the safety defects related to unintended acceleration and braking problems are systemic in nature. and recalls are waste. be limited to accelerator-pedal trapping floor mats.not only initially but also long term.

" In one of the early Firestone cases filed by this Author in August 1999. I Products Liability Reporter. incorrect composition... or processing of raw materials or ingredients according to the product design. Santa Barbara. or defective raw materials or component parts. injuring a couple and their two minor daughters in a nonfatal accident in August 1998. per CCH. wear and environmental conditions. California to run out of control and overturn. inclusion.. friction could increase to a point. that the pedal sticks. Toyota has identified the manufacturing defect that causes sticking accelerators as the: "friction device that includes a 'shoe' that rubs against an adjoining surface during normal pedal operation. Due to the "mat erials used. with the Superior Court of Los Angeles County. a 1994 Firestone Radial ATX. it asserts that it "is confident that no defect exists in the electronic control unit (ECU)." That case exemplified the manufacturing defect of incorrect composition or defective bonding materials. had its tread along with one steel ply coming off completely all the way around the tire. Section 4745. Manufacturing Defects: The manufacturing process of a product consists of the formation. Bridgestone/Firestone Inc... faulty assembly or adjustment. the left rear tire of the injured family's Ford Explorer. settled before trial based on the expert report of Transamerican Consultant Engineers. assembly. adjustment. It caused the 1995 Ford Explorer running at 65 miles per hour on US 101 Freeway in Solvang County." these surfaces may begin to stick.implementing the brake override system. combination. Design Defects: The designing of a product consists of the selection of materials and their intended construction as to size. and arrangement of component parts. . In some cases. which concluded that: "(T)he cause of the tread separation was due to a poor bond between the steel plies due to failure of the br ass plating on the wires to completely fuse with the sulfur in the rubber during the vulcanizing process... manufacturing defects may arise from improper formation. I Products Liability Reporter. leaving the throttle potentially open. per CCH. Inc." Manufacturing Versus Design Defects: A. B. obtained by this Author. Thus. shape. Section 4785.

caused the gas tank to explode in a rear-end collision. And Toyota would be liable only for the reduction in value and loss of use of the vehicle while being fixed. The U. exemplified the design defect of inadequate p lans or specifications. For accident cases resulting in bodily injuries or deaths for sudden acceleration and failure of the brakes. Hopefully. the plaintiffs need to prove by a preponderance of the evidence either manufacturing or design or both defects through reconstruction and automotive experts. Otherwise. that is. whether manufacturing or design or both. which left a mother of two paralyzed from the waist down when the Explorer's roof caved in. the installation of a brake override system is another design safety feature. in the choice of materials for the product composition. which included $55 million in punitive d amages.Thus.6 million award to the paralyzed California women. which in a 1978 case in Orange County. Toyota Motor Corporation through their own experts will need to prove lack of defects or lack of causation for the inju ries or death. Moreover. as well as its inadequate roof strength. it may be liable also for punitive damages if it knew the defects all along. The San Diego jury found that Ford kn ew that the Explorer had design defects that increased its propensity to tip over. The placement of fuel tanks close to the rear bumpers in Ford's Pintos in the 1970's. The jury and the appeal courts in case of appeals from the jury award or defense verdict will decide the outcome. the loss of control of the Toyota vehicle was due to driver error. And its reconfiguration of the shape of the accelerator pedal and newly -designed floor mats are likewise design remedies to avoid floor mat pedal entrapment. California. Supreme Court let stand the $82. defects in design may take the forms of inadequacies in th e plans or specifications. . or in the absence of safety devices or features. Defective vehicle design was also at issue in the January 2002 roll-overs of a 1997 Ford Explorer SUV. Conclusion: A vehicle recall is an admission of a defect or defects. Toyota's installation of a precision-cut reinforcement bar into the accelerator pedal assembly is a design safety device to remedy sudden acceleration.S. the recall of Toyota vehicles would cure the defects.

S. THEORY IS EASY TO LEARN 1) Philosophy 2) Identify Muda 3) Ability to draw out ideas 4) Ability to implement solutions 5) The work force are willing to accept change 6) A Kaizen spirit from top managers T.S.P.Toyota Production System The Toyota Production System THE T.P. is difficult to implement THE SEVEN CLASSES OF MUDA 1) MUDA in excess production 2) MUDA in waiting 3) MUDA in conveyance 4) MUDA in processing 5) MUDA in inventory 6) MUDA in motion 7) MUDA in producing failures .

Takt Time daily operating time @ 100% efficiency / daily demand HEIJUNKA (levelled production) ensures a smooth production plan in terms of variety and volumes over the daily operating time.ensuring right parts available at right time. Continuous Flow Processing . THREE PRINCIPLES 1. Costs will depend on production method Typically Manpower Productivity leads to world class competitiveness. 3. in just the amount needed.eliminating waiting time 2. Manpower Productivity Is controlled by the production department Cannot be lea rned by competitors as it contained within the company.What is just in time ? Manufacturing and conveying only what is needed when it is nee ded. MECHANISATION . Pull System .IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY Material Productivity Is controlled by product design Can be viewed by competitors through buying this product Machine Productivity Is determined by Process Design Can be understood by talking to equipment suppliers. JIT .

2009 byStephan Schmidt 6 Comments 0 This post tries to explain why website/app development is Production and should use the Toyota Production System (TPS) and why classic software application development is product development and can use the Toyota Product Development System (TPDS). a limited project. a ¡ 2) SHOUJINKA Reduces manual work content to reduce num er of operators   . I would certainly make an exception ³Toyota is using waterfall!´ Or even. s It eliminates the need for the operator to watch over the proces Why the Toyota Product Development System is a thing of the past June 29. So why should we use TPS and lean in software development. Toyota today looks so much like a religion that people are willing to suddenly proclaim ³waterfall´ is agood thing if it¶s done by Toyota: I once said to myself that I did not want to waste my time as a developer on non -agile projects. But remain ca There is no lm. When you are dealing with embedded software in production hardware. They¶ll only develop requirements for a few weeks worth of work. was that they were using a waterfall model (in Ishii san¶s own words ± in reality I think it was more like the spiral model). If you have clear requirements. And as Sean tries to explain in his comment on another post: If the projects that Toyota is working on span only a couple of weeks. In the Toyota case. It is the ability of a process or machine to be stopped in the event of such problems as equipment malfunction quality defect or work delay. photo credit: drewgstephens Recently there has been a conundrum in parts of the agile and lean community: Obviously the Toyota Product Development System (TPDS) and software development uses a waterfall (or similar spiral) process : What might surprise some. a fixed feature set and a fixed deadline. conundrum. then waterfall is probably going to work fine. use waterfall. and their in-process code inventory will still be pretty small.TWO TYPES 1) SHOURYOKUKA Reduces force in order to eliminate overloading / lifting JIDOKA . a 3 month waterfall is really fast. when Toyota does Waterfall and TPDS? We¶re confused. from Mary Poppendieck. I had a feeling afterwards that I had just talked to perhaps the most skilled software development managers I have e er met! Does that sound like a v paradox? I do not think so. This is wht Toyota probably experiences.Means automation with human brain (senses) sometimes called autonomation. In spite of that.

merging production and product development. but much less effective in other locations. Marketing. Each story to be developed is the same ± consisting of web forms.M t l i t il it ill t ll i iti i l li t t i t t t itt i l t @ l i i: Mi t li t t  ¢ 4) 2(& 3 ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥ ¥2    ¢( ¨ ¢  ¢& ¥# ¥ ¢  £ ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥ ¥  ¥¨ " ¢£ ¥ § ¥ §  ! © ¦ # ¦ § ¥ ¢  ¥  ¢£ ¥ "% 6 ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥¥  ¥¨ " ¢£  ¢"  ¦£ ¦¨¥ )(& ¢) /l i t t l li ti i i Phase 1: V Phase 2: i 1 t it t t t i itt Note: You should keep the PD phase as short as possible. production layout design of toyota Tagged Articles Other production layout design of toyota Related Articles Lean Manufacturing and the Toyota Production System Success and Failure The Toyota Production System has been a roaring success at Toyota.. database code. sales). smaller stories and changing requirements. with custom colors. In webSite/app development. S qualified sources explain this disconnect. Product Development. architecture work. they all have di ect involvement into features. e. each with a one-in-a-kind motor etc. On the other hand in software app development. Backend Services and more. Controlling. Therefore software app development is much more product development (PD) heavy. but at the same time every story is different. and Scrum still hasn¶t settled for the one best practice. Think of stories as being all the same. while website/app development is much more production (P) heavy. web-service-db stories. Then it becomes clear that development in web companies is production . services. features are mainly developed by a product development department with indirect input from other deparments. more and more development will move into production style in the future. ¥  ¨¥" © ¦ © ¦¨ § !£ ¦¥ ¥  ¥ © ¦ © ¦¨ §  ¢ ¨¥  ¦  ¥¨  ¢  ¦¥ § ¦¨¥ ¢©  ¦¨ ¥ ©¨ ¥£  ¢ £¥   ¦ ¢ £  ¢  ¥ § it l tt il l l i i t i t j t t tt i ll l i l : t l t K t t t t t t t i i t t l ti li t t l t t F l tt : l t ti l E 5$  ¥ ! ¨ ' !  ¥ ¦ ¦¥ 4 ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥¥  ¥ ¨ " ¢£ ¢ ¥ ¦¨¥ ¥ ¥  ¥ ¢ 3 ¢ ¢ )2 (& ¨ # ¢ ¢ ¨ ¥# ¨ ¢ ¥# £¥£¨ § ¤ 7 ¥¨ ¥¥ § ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥¥  ¤ ¤¨ ¥   ¢   ¢ $ §© £ ¦ ¦¨ ¨ § 0 !4) (&3 ¦ ¢    ¢ ¤ ¥# ¥ ¢  C  ¤¥ © ¦  ¢ ¢" ¥ § ¢© 0 ! )(&  ¢ ¨ © ¦ ¥   ¦¨ ! # ¢ ¢  ¨ ' ¨ ¢  ¢& ¥ § © ¦ ¨¥ ¥ "% 9 ¥  ¢  4(3 ¦ ¢    ¢ ¤ ¨ ¢ " §£ £¥ ¦¨ ¤  ¢ ¨ § ¥ "% $ 42 (3 ¦¥  ¤ ¢ ¥¥     ¢ ¤ §  ¥ ¦ ¢  8 ¦ ¢ £¥ $ ¥ ¢ ¤ ¨ ¢ ¨¥ £ ¦ ¥ ¢   ¢ ¨ ¦  ¢  ¦¨ £¥  ¢  ¤ "   " #  F B AA @ 9 §© 1 ¥ £ ¦¥ £ ¦ ¨ §  ¢ " D   ¦    ¢ ¥ © ¨ ¥ § ¦ ¥ ¤ ¢¥ ¤ £ ¢ . not product development. Sales. Customer Support. Contrary to class ic software apps. An enviroment in which web companies are already. This merging is also the area where Scrum struggles: How to put design. With more direct involvement. The same will happen inside Toyota. My prediction: Over time at Toyota TPDS and TPS will merge. with it s own design. reporting etc. Websites and web appli ati ns are di erent t an your usual software appli ation development Website/app development has man y more direct stakeholders: Reporting. but hi hly customized and build-to-order for each customer (marketing. which isn¶t one.g. those stakeholders write their own (!) stories and directly contribute features. technical debt etc into development. product development. This is what Scrum tries to accomplish. when every car is build-to-order. Hope this helps clear up the ³Conundrum´.

The de . carefully considered fashion. etc. Maximum of the time. comes at a second stage. if a conflict arose in a judicial hearing where the judge and the def interests of justice. clear. Of the noteworthy observations Michels provided. will drive custom complete their purchase with your company over other alternatives. Layout Plant. By presenting a tempting display of appealing produ particularly when paired with a niche marketing strategy. but that is the last step. First define the operating characteristics of your process. The moment t involving Toyota are no longer arms length.Using Product Placement and Page Layout to Maximize Sales and Catalog ROI A catalog is a highly specialized marketing collateral piece that. Most probably this is the reason for the acceleration nightmare issue surrounding many Toyota vehicle now.´ hearings such as t has the Japanese manufacturer actually giving testimony before a competitor raises a number of red flags. Government or a competitor in charge of the Congressional hearings involv ing Toyota Today's Business Thought Leaders segment with author and industry expert Bill Michels was incredible. Plant Layout. quality experts are asking what happened and what can we learn from their mis The Toyota lesson. Plant Layout. Factory Floor Plan. What is your standpoint on cost cutting ± especially essential expenses? Be care Is the U.Plant Design. Small entrepreneurs should learn from this and make a decision on their business ethics and management principle your attitude towards this important issue might result in great success or huge losses« or even failure! writing or re-visiting their business plans. In short. Before you send out your direct marketing mailer you need to consider the design Is it CRAP? Toyota Brakes and Toyota White Gloves Toyota. Government and Toyota. or the physical organization of people. materia machines within a workplace.S. known as the king of quality must take immediate executive action regarding the reported brake problem! Catalog Design . Floor Plan. Government became a majority owner of General Motors through its $30 billion ³investment.S. and a new layout will be much easier t Why You Want Your Design Layout to Look Like CRAP! Ok you have marketing copy that sells. had a similar-type relationship to the one between the U. is at the very heart of productivity. Yes. brand. Layout Plant. Factory Layout Design. layout requires fitting workstations into a building floo and more effective when implemented. Techniques of Plant Design.S. your catalog can become one of the most powerful calls to action in your sales ar What can we learn from the Toyota crisis? Since the Toyota recalls of recent months. risk management and your business plan Small business owners need to pay attention to the disastrous decision of Toyota to ask its suppliers to cut cost by 30% o next three years. his revelation that the current Congressional hearings regarding the Toyota U. store itself serves as a products. the judge would have to step down Store Layout A Customer¶s buying decisions primarily depends on Store¶s Layout or Ambience and how well the products are placed aspects like price. when designed and produced correctly.

Qualified candidates will possess a passion for car design. which contributes innovative design concepts for a diverse vehicle lineup. These design solutions are often shared and developed in collaboration wit h other Toyota design. MI production studio. you must plan ahead. interpersonal and communication skills. competition and production design for the Toyota. engineering and manufacturing groups in Japan and the US. How Layout Affects Productivity If you truly want your productivity efforts to be enhanced. collaborative team environment. Calty Design is part of Toyota¶s global design network. problem solving. This includes properly understanding and out your companies objectives in plain sight. planning. We participate in a variety of project activities. and color and material development for advanced and production projects.the store is traditionally made in an ambience that attracts targeted customers. Ideal candidate will possess 2+ years of professional automotive studio experience with demonstrated skills and talent for developing 3D surfaces y Experienced Creative Color Designer in our Newport Beach. It also means having a realistic implementation plan. Must possess professional experience designing production cars in a studio environment. advanced. All designer candidates will possess proficiency in Photoshop and Illustrator. Calty's Ann Arbor. market data analysis. MI production studio. y Clay Modeler for our Ann Arbor. demonstrated project planning. Calty¶s primary goal is to research market trends and create innovative vehicle designs that reflect US tastes as well as other global markets. including experimental concepts. We invite you to explore career opportunities at Calty for a chance to become a part of our exciting journey. . exceptional talent and creativity with demonstrated ability to work in a diverse. Our goal at Calty is to bring passion and creativity to every aspect of our design work. Lexus and Scion brands. CA studio. Qualified candidate will possess professional studio level experience in automotive or related color and trim design with responsibilities including research and forecast of color and design trends. Michigan design studio works closely with the engineering group from Toyota's Technical Center to provide comprehensive production design development for North American vehicles. Current openings: y Experienced Creative Designer (Interior or Exterior) for our Ann Arbor.

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