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OUTLINE
OF
THEORY AND PROBLEMS
OF
FINITE MATHEMATICS
•
BY
SEYMOUR LIPSCHUTZ, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Mathematics Temple University
•
SCHAUM~S OUTLINE SERIES
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY
New York, St. Louis, San Francisco, Toronto, Sydney
Copyright
©
1966 by McGrawHill, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Printed in the
United States of America. No part of this pub lication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
37!Jt:7
678910
SH SH 7 5 4 3 2 1 0
Preface
Finite mathematics has in recent years become an integral part of the mathematical background necessary for such diverse fields as biology, chemistry, economics, psychology, sociology, education, political science, business and engineering. This book, in presenting the more essential material, is designed for use as a supplement to all current standard texts or as a textbook for a formal course in finite mathematics. The material has been divided into twentyfive chapters, since the logical arrangement is thereby not disturbed while the usefulness as a text and reference book on any of several levels is greatly increased. The basic areas covered are: logic; set theory; vectors and matrices; counting  permutations, combinations and partitions; probability and Markov chains; linear programming and game theory. The area on vectors and matrices includes a chapter on systems of linear equations; it is in this context that the important concept of linear dependence and independence is introduced. The area on linear programming and game theory includes a chapter on inequalities and one on points, lines and hyperplanes; this is done to make this section selfcontained. Furthermore, the simplex method is given for solving linear programming problems with more than two unknowns and for solving relatively large games. In using the book it is possible to change the order of many later chapters or even to omit certain chapters without difficulty and without loss of continuity. Each chapter begins with a clear statement of pertinent definitions, principles and theorems together with illustrative and other descriptive material. This is followed by graded sets of solved and supplementary problems. The solved problems serve to illustrate and amplify the theory, bring into sharp focus those fine points without which the student continually feels himself on unsafe ground, and provide the repetition of basic principles so vital to effective learning. Proofs of theorems and derivations of basic results are included among the solved problems. The supplementary problems serve as a complete review of the material in each chapter. More material has been included here than can be covered in most first courses. This has been done to make the book more flexible, to provide a more useful book of reference and to stimulate further interest in the topics. I wish to thank many of my friends and colleagues, especially P. Hagis, J. Landman, B. Lide and T. Slook, for invaluable suggestions and critical review of the manuscript. I also wish to express my gratitude to the staff of the Schaum Publishing Company, particularly to N. Monti, for their unfailing cooperation.
S.
Temple University June, 1966
LIPSCHUTZ
CONTENTS
Page Chapter
1
PROPOSITIONS
AND TRUTH TABLES
p /\ q.
.
Disjunction,
p v q.
1
Statements. Compound statements. Conjunction, Negation, po Propositions and truth tables.
Chapter
2
ALGEBRA
OF PROPOSITIONS
Logical equivalence.
.
Algebra of propositions.
Tautologies and contradictions.
10
Chapter
3 4
5
CONDITIONAL
STATEMENTS
18
Conditional, p '> q. Biconditional, p ~ q. Conditional statements and variations.
Chapter
ARGUMENTS,
Arguments.
LOGICAL IMPLICATION
and statements. Logical implication.
, ..
26
Arguments
Chapter
SET THEORY
Sets and elements. Finite and infinite sets. Subsets. Set operations. Arguments and Venn diagrams.
.
Universal and null sets.
35
Chapter
6 7
PRODUCT
SETS
.
50
Ordered pairs. Product sets. Product sets in general. Truth sets of propositions.
Chapter
RELATIONS
Relations. relations.
,
.
Equivalence
58
Relations as sets of ordered pairs. Inverse relation. Partitions. Equivalence relations and partitions.
Chapter
8
FUNCTIONS
Definition of a function. Graph of a function. Composition function. and onto functions. Inverse and identity functions.
.
Oneone
66
Chapter
9
VECTORS
Column vectors. Vector addition. Scalar multiplication. plication of a row vector and a column vector. Row vectors.
,.
Multi
81
Chapter
10
MATRICES
Matrices. Matrix addition. Scalar multiplication. Matrix Square matrices. Algebra of square matrices. Transpose. multiplication.
.
90
CONTENTS
Page Chapter
11
LINEAR
EQUATIONS........................................
104
Linear equation in two unknowns. Two linear equations in two unknowns. General linear equation. General system of linear equations. Homogeneous systems of linear equations.
Chapter
12
DETERMINANTS
OF ORDER TWO AND THREE
,
127
Introduction. Determinants of order one. Determinants of order two. Linear equations in two unknowns and determinants. Determinants of order three. Linear equations in three unknowns and determinants. Invertible matrices. Invertible matrices and determinants.
Chapter
13
THE BINOMIAL
Factorial notation. angle. Multinomial
COEFFICIENTS
Binomial coefficients. coefficients.
AND THEOREM..........
Binomial theorem. Pascal's tri
141
Chapter
14
PERMUTATIONS,
ORDERED
SAMPLES
Permutations. Permutations with repe
152
Fundamental principle of counting. titions. Ordered samples.
Chapter
15 16 17
COMBINATIONS,
Combinations.
ORDERED
PARTITIONS
Ordered partitions.
161
Partitions
and crosspartitions.
Chapter
TREE DIAGRAMS
Tree diagrams.
176
Chapter
PROBABILITY
Introduction. Sample space and events. Finite probability spaces. Equiprobable spaces. Theorems on finite probability spaces. Classical birthday problem.
184
Chapter
18
CONDITIONAL
PROBABILITY.
INDEPENDENCE
probability.
199
Conditional probability. Multiplication theorem for conditional Finite stochastic processes and tree diagrams. Independence.
Chapter
19
INDEPENDENT
TRIALS,
RANDOM
VARIABLES...........
216
Independent or repeated trials. Repeated trials with two outcomes. Random variables. Probability space and distribution of a random variable. Expected value. Gambling games.
Chapter
20
MARKOV
CHAINS
233
Probability vectors. Stochastic and regular stochastic matrices. Fixed points of square matrices. Fixed points and regular stochastic matrices. Markov chains. Higher transition probabilities. Stationary distribution of regular Markov chains. Absorbing states.
Chapter
21
INEQUALITIES
The real line. Positive numbers. Order. (Finite) Intervals. Linear inequalities in one unknown. Absolute value. Infinite intervals.
257
. Dual problems.. Recessive rows and columns. Summary. Algorithm of the simplex method... Pointslope form. Chapter 24 LINEAR PROGRAMMING 300 Linear programming problems. Distance between points. Distance between a point and a hyperplane. Chapter 23 CONVEX SETS AND LINEAR INEQUALITIES 281 Line segments and convex sets. Initial simplex tableau. Slopeintercept form.. Chapter 25 THEORY OF GAMES Introduction to matrix games. Hyperplanes. Interpreting the terminal tableau. Strategies. Polyhedral convex sets and extreme points.... Linear inequalities. Lines and linear equations.. Euclidean 'Inspace. Distance between a point and a line... 2 X 'In and 'In X 2 matrix games. Inclination and slope of a line. Linear functions on polyhedral convex sets. 2 X 2 matrix games.... Pivot entry of a simplex tableau. Introduction to the simplex method.... 321 INDEX 337 . LINES AND HYPERPLANES.CONTENTS Page Chapter 22 POINTS. Parallel lines... Bounded sets. Calculating the new simplex tableau. Polygonal convex sets and convex polygons.. Parallel hyperplanes. Optimum strategies and the value of a game.. Strictly determined games. Matrix notation. 266 Cartesian plane.. Solution of a matrix game by the simplex method.
.
(iii) Where are you going? (iv) Put the homework on the blackboard. implicitly.1: of a statement (i) r. the conjunction statement is true. p q 1\ Any two statements can be combined by the word "and" to form a compound statement called the conjunction of the original statements. Symbolically. q. that is. Such composite statements are called comExample 2. Consider the following expressions: Paris is in England. otherwise. of two statements is true only in the case when each sub 1 . read "p and q". but not both. Statements will usually be denoted by the letters The truth or falsity Example 1.. and let q be "The sun is shining". a compound statement sub statements "He is intelligent" and "He studies every night". pl\q denotes the conjunction Example 3. is false. The expressions (iii) and (iv) are not statements since neither is either true or false. COMPOUND STATEMENTS pound statements.Chapter 1 Propositions and Truth Tables STATEMENTS A statement (or verbal assertion) is any collection of symbols (or sounds) which is either true or false. p 1\ The truth [TIl value of the compound 1\ statement q q satisfies p 1\ the following q property: If p is true and q is true. is called its truth value.. In other words. We begin with a study of some of these connectives. Some statements are composite. Let p be "It is raining" Then p 1\ q denotes the statement "It is raining and the sun is shining".1: of the statements p and q.1: "Roses are red and violets are blue" is a compound statement "Roses are red" and "Violets are blue". then p is true. with substatements Example 2. composed of sub statements and various logical connectives which we discuss subsequently. p. with The fundamental property of a compound statement is that its truth value is completely determined by the truth values of its substatements together with the way in which they are connected to form the compound statement. (ii) 2 +2 = 4 The expressions (i) and (11) are statements.2: "He is intelligent or studies every night" is. CONJUNCTION. the first is false and the second is true. .
satisfies the following property: If p is true or q is true or both p and q are true. pvq denotes the disjunction of the statements p and q and is read "p or q". which we regard as defining p v q: p q pvq T T F F Example 4. the disjunction of two statements is false only when both substatements are false. Each of the other statements is false since at least one of its substatements is false. 1 Consider the following four statements: (i) (ii) Paris is in France and Paris is in France and 2+2 = 4. otherwise p v q Accordingly. 2 + 2 = 5. Each of the other statements least one of its sub statements is true. The property lTzJ can also be written in the form of the table below. By property [T2].1: Let p be "Marc studied French at the university". Symbolically. is true since at . (iv) Paris is in England and By property [Ttl. pvq Any two statements can be combined by the word "or" (in the sense of "and/or") to form a new statement which is called the disjunction of the original two statements. (iii) Paris is in England and 2 +2 = 4.2: PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES [CHAP. Example 4. only the first statement is true. (iv) Paris is in England Or 2 + 2 = 5. (ii) (iii) Paris is in England or 2 + 2 = 4. DISJUNCTION. We regard this table as defining precisely the truth value of the compound statement p (\ q as a function of the truth values of p and of q. pvq The truth value of the compound statement [T2] is false. then p v q is true. The other lines have analogous meaning. only (iv) is false. 2+ 2 = 5.2 Example 3.2: T F T F T T T F Consider the following four statements: (i) Paris is in France or Paris is in France or 2 + 2 = 4. the first line is a short way of saying that if p is true and q is true then p (\ q is true. 2+ 2 = 5. A convenient way to state property [T1J is by means of a table as follows: p q T F T F P(\q T F F F T T F F Here. and let q be "Marc lived in France". Then p v q is the statement "Marc studied French at the university or (Marc) lived in France".
Symbolically. PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES By repetitive use of the logical connectives (1\.q) is constructed as follows: . Now the truth value of a proposition depends exclusively upon the truth values of its variables. " before p or. .1.2: Consider the following statements: (i) (ii) 2 +2 = 5 It is false that 2+2 5. Observe that (i) is false and (ii) and (iii). For example. each its negation. . as above. each its negation. v. for example. denotes the negation of p (read "not p"). Example 5. we can construct compound statements that are more involved. Example 5. Then (ii) and (iii) are each the negation of (i). q.. Consider the statements in Example 5. Sometimes it is used in the sense of "p or q or both". A simple concise way to show this relationship is through a truth table. exactly one of the two alternatives occurs.. In the case where the substatements p. and sometimes it is used in the sense of "p or q but not both". q. called the negation of p. are false.. called the exclusive disjunction. Given any statement p. at least one of the two alternates occurs._. ) are variables. .and others discussed subsequently). by inserting in p the word "not". "or" shall be used in the former sense. i. This discussion points out the precision we gain from our symbolic language: p v q is defined by its truth table and always means "p and/or q". p NEGATION. . are true..2.. The truth value of the negation of a statement [T3] satisfies the following property: is true: If p is true.1: Consider the following three statements: (i) (ii) Paris is in France. can be formed by writing "It is false that. The defining property [T31 of the connective can also be written in the form of a table: Example 5. . if p is false. then p Thus the truth value of the negation of any statement is always the opposite of the truth value of the original statement.pis false..4: Consider the statements in Example 5. It is false that Paris is in France. the sentence "He will go to Harvard or to Yale" uses "or" in the latter sense. we call the compound statement a proposition. that is. then .CHAP. (iii) 2 + 2 "'" 5 Then (ii) and (iii) are each the negation of (i). 11 PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES 3 Remark: The English word "or" is commonly used in two distinct ways.. the truth value of a proposition is known once the truth values of its variables are known. (iii) Paris is not in France.e. another statement.e. Observe that (i) is true and (ii) and (iii). of a compound statement Pip. i.. The truth table.3: Example 5. of the proposition t» 1\ . if possible. Unless otherwise stated.
2" rows are required. in general. Remark: The truth table of the above proposition consists precisely of the columns under the variables and the column under the proposition: p T T F F q T F T F (p A q) T F T T The other columns were merely used in the construction Another way to construct the above truth table for construct the following table: p of the truth is as follows. as above. and. 8 rows are necessary. the truth value at each step being determined from the previous stages by the definitions of the connectives A. and that there is a column under each variable or connective in the proposition. v.. the last step. q. for n variables. r«. which appears in the last column. and that there are enough rows in the table to allow for all possible combinations of T and F for these variables. 4 rows are necessary. .. table.4 PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES [CHAP. Finally we obtain the truth value of the proposition.) There is then a column for each "elementary" stage of the construction of the proposition. for 3 variables. First (p q) A q) q T F T F Step  (p A  T T F F Observe that the proposition is written on the top row to the right of its variables. (For 2 variables. . i. 1 p T T F F q T F T F ~q F T F T P A =« ~(p A q) F T F F T F T T Observe that the first columns of the table are for the variables p. Truth values are then entered into the truth table in various steps as follows: p q T F T F  (p A  q) T F T F 1 p T T F F Step q T F T F  (p T T F F 1 (b) A F T F T 2 q) T F T F 1 T T F F Step T T F F 1 (a) p q T F T  (p T T F F 1 (c) A F T q) p T T F F Step q T F T F T F T T 4 (p T T A F T F T 2 q) T T F T T F T F 1 F T F F 3 T F T F 1 F F Step F F 3 F T 2 F F 1 F (d) The truth table of the proposition then consists of the original columns under the variables and the last column entered into the table.e.
(iii) False. (5) p 1\ q. Hence: (i) True. 1. (6) It is not true that he is short or not handsome. v and ~ to read "and".4. 1. (6) It is not true that it is not raining.3. . (3) It is false that he is short or handsome." Give a simple verbal sentence which describes each of the following statements: (1) p. (1) He is tall and handsome. = 8. (5) He is tall. (ii) False. Paris is in France or 2 + 1 = 6.e. (iii) False. (4) He is neither tall nor handsome. OF COMPOUND STATEMENTS Determine the truth value of each of the following statements.. "or" and "It is false that" or "not". (4) It is raining or it is not cold. or he is short and handsome. (3) It is cold or it is raining. (2) p 1\ q. (i) 3 + 2 = 7 and 4 + 4 1 + 1 = 3. respectively. and then simplify the English sentence. (ii) True. (6) ." statements in symbolic form using p and q. the compound statement Hence: (i) False. the truth value of the negation of p is the opposite of the truth value of p. (3) p v q.1.2. 1] PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES 5 Solved Problems STATEMENTS 1. In each case. Determine the truth value of each of the following statements. (iii) 6 + 4 = 10 and By property [Td. Let p be "It is cold" and let q be "It is raining. (i) (ii) (iii) = 7. (5) It is not cold and it is not raining. i. "p and q" is true only when p and q are both true. (ii) It is not true that London is in England. Paris is in England or 3 + 4 "p or q" is false only when p and q are both false. translate 1\.) (1) (2) p p 1\ 1\ Write each of the following q (3) (4) ~(~p ~p 1\ v q) (5) (6) p v (p (p 1\ q) =« =« v ~q) TRUTH VALUES 1.CHAP. 1. (1) It is not cold. (Assume that "He is short" means "He is not tall". (ii) True. Determine the truth value of each of the following statements. By property [T2]. (i) It is not true that London is in France. ~p.5. the compound statement Hence: (i) True. By property [T3]. (2) It is cold and raining.q. (2) He is tall but not handsome. (4) q v p. (ii) 2 + 1 = 3 and 7 + 2 = 9. Let p be "He is tall" and let q be "He is handsome. London is in France or 5 + 2 = 3.
4. (i) It is false that 2+2 = 4 and 1+ 1 = 5. (ii) (iii) The disjunctive statements "2 +2 statement "2 + 2 = 4 or London is in France" is true since one of its sub= 4" is true.6 1.7. is false. "Copenhagen is in Denmark" and "1 + 1 = 5 or 2 + 2 = 4". (i) p 23 1\ (q v r). Accordingly its negation. (ii) Copenhagen is in Denmark. Find the truth table of (p p T T F F q T F T F pvq T T T F v q). (p v q) F F F T p T T F F Step q F F F T 3 (p T T F F 1 v q) T F T F T T T F 2 T F T F 1 Method 1 Method 2 1. The conjunctive statement "2 + 2 = 4 and 1 + 1 = 5" is false since one of its sub statements "1 + 1 = 5" is false.10. Accordingly its negation. OF PROPOSITIONS 1\ Find the truth table of p P q p q. (p v q) F F T F p T T F F Step q q T F T F q F T F T pv =« F F T F 4 (p T T F F 1 v F T F T 2 q) T T F F T T F T T F T F T T F T 3 T F T F 1 Method 1 Method 2 1. is true. The disjunctive statement "1 + 1 = 5 or 2 + 2 = 4" is true since one of its sub statements "2 + 2 = 4" is true.8. TRUTH TABLES 1. Find the truth table of (p p v q). Find the truth table of the following: Since there are three variables. 8 rows (ii) (p 1\ q) V (p 1\ r).6.9. 1 Determine the truth value of each of the following statements. . the given statement. Hence the given statement is true since it is the conjunction of two true statements. p 1\ q p q T F T F Step F F T T 2 P T T F F 1 1\ q T F T F 1 T T F F T F T F F F T T F F T F T T F F F F T F 3 Method 1 Method 2 1. we will need = in the truth table. the given statement. and (iii) It is false that (i) 1 + 1 = 5 or 2 + 2 2 + 2 ::::4 or London is in France. PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES [CHAP.
Let p be "Marc is rich" and let q be "Marc is happy".12. (v) NAANpq1' (vi) ANpAqN1' NApq (iii) ApNq (iv) ApAq1' 1\ (ii) ANpq NApq ANpq NAANpqr 1\ q) = (p q) (iii) ApNq (iv) ApAqr 1\ 1\ = Ap(q) Ap(q 1\ 1\ A(p)q = p 1\ q = = 1') 1\ P 1\ q 1\ = P (q 1\ r) q) 1\ = NAA(p)q1' = ANpAq(r) = NA(p = ANp(q q)r 1') = N[(p = A(p)(q q) 1\ 1'] = [(p 1\ 1\ r] (vi) ANpAqNr r) = p (q 1\ 1') Notice that the propositions involving A and N are unraveled from right to left. MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS denote po (iii) +p 1\ 1.13. 1. Rewrite the following propositions (i) (i) (ii) (v) N(p using 1\ and instead of A and N. Problems Write each of the following in symbolic form. In fact. 1] PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES 7 pl\r (p 1\ p q r qvr p 1\ (q V r) p q r pl\q q) V (p 1\ r) T T T T F F F F T T F F T F T F T T F F T F T F T T T F T T T F (i) T T T F F F F F T T T T F F F F T T F F T F T T F F F F F F T F T F T F F F F F (ii) T T T F F F F F T T F F T F T F Observe that both propositions have the same truth table. Let Apq denote p 1\ q and let Np using A and N instead of 1\ and (i) (i) (ii) =P 1\ 1\ 1\ Rewrite 1\ the following propositions r'. p 1\ q (q q) 1\ 1') (ii) (p P 1\ q) (iv) (p 1\ 1\ t« 1\ 1') q 1\ Nq = ApNq 1\ (p q) = (Np 1\ 1\ q) = (ANpq) 1\ = NANpq 1\ (iii) p (iv) (p 1\ (q q) r) (q = Np 1\ (Nq 1\ r) = Np 1\ (ANqr) = ANpANqr = (NApNq) 1\ 1') = (ApNq) (ANqNr) (ANqN1') = ANApNqANqNr A Observe that there are no parentheses in the final answer when A and N are used instead of and .11. (iii) Marc is either rich or unhappy. (i) (ii) Marc is poor but happy. (iv) Marc is poor or else he is both rich and unhappy. Supplementary STATEMENTS 1. . it has been proved that parentheses are never needed in any proposition using and N. Marc is neither rich nor happy.CHAP.
using 1\ instead of A and N. PROPOSITIONS AND TRUTH TABLES [CHAP. (iv) (p v q) 1\ (p v r). (iv) (p v q). (iii) (p v r) 1\ (q v r). 1 Let p be "Erik reads Newsweek". 1. Erik reads Newsweek Erik reads Newsweek or Life. 1. but not Danish. . let q be "Erik Write each of the following in symbolic form. but not Time.16. 1 + 2 = 3. (i i) p 1\ q. q (iv) p v rq (vi) (p q) Determine the truth value of each of the following statements. and 1 It is not true that 3 + 3 = 6 or (iii) It is true that +2 oF 4 +2 = 3. (ii) rp v (q 1\ r). (i) (ii) reads Life" and let r be "Erik reads Time".15. (i) pvq 1\ speaks Danish". (vi) It is not true that Audrey speaks neither French nor Danish. It is not true that Audrey does not speak French. 1\ r).) (iv) (p and 1\ Let Apq denote p 1\ q and let Np denote p. Find the truth table of each of the following. and Danish. q) 1\ r. (ii) ANApqNr. q) (iv) p v (p (iii) (p 1\ q) (iv) [(r v q) p] (i) (p v q) (i) (ii) 1\ (ii) (p V i» 1\ r). 1. and Time. 1. or he does not read Newsweek but not Time. Answers to Supplementary Problems 1.8 l. (iii) Audrey speaks French (v) (iv) Audrey does not speak French or she does not speak Danish. (ii) p 1\ =«. Find the truth table of each of the following. (iii) (p 1\ q). and Life.15.17. (i) p 1\ q.20. Let p be "Audrey speaks French" and let q be "Audrey sentence which describes each of the following. Rewrite the following propositions (i) NApNq. 1. MISCELLANEOUS 1. (i) (p 1\ q) V r. (ii) p =r. 1\ Audrey speaks French Audrey speaks French or Danish. (i) (ii) 3 +3 = 6 and 1+2 2 = 5.14.19. PROBLEMS (See Problem 1.11. using A and N instead of 1\ and r«. (iv) ANANpANqrNp. (v) Give a simple verbal (iii) p 1\ =« <r:» 1\ (ii) p 1. (iii) It is not true that Erik reads Newsweek (iv) It is not true that Erik reads Time or Life but not Newsweek. (iii) (p 1\ q). TRUTH TABLES OF PROPOSITIONS 1.13. (i) p v q. Rewrite the following propositions (i) p 1\ q.14.18. 1\ (iii) p v q. 1\ =«. (iii) AApNrAqNp. (iv) It is not true that 3 + 3 oF 6 or 1 + 2 oF 5.
(iv) F AND TRUTH TABLES 9 (i) p q pv >« p 1\ =« (p 1\ q) (p v q) T T F F 1. 1. T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T F T T T F T F F T F F T T T T T T F T F T F T F F F F T T F F (i) ANpq.[p (q 1')] 1\ p 1.19. (ii) F. (ii) i» 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ 1\ .17.18. (iii) NApNq. (iv) AANpqNl' q) 1\ 1'. (i) (p 1\ q). (iii) (p 1') (q 1\ p). (iii) F.CHAP. p T F T F q l' T T F T (i) (ii) F F F T (iii) (iv) T T F T T F F F T T T T F F F F 1. (iv) . 1] 1. (ii) ANpNq.20. PROPOSITIONS F.16.
. Theorem 2. . and let Pl(p...1: The truth tables of ~(p p q pl\q 1\ q) and ~p v ~q follow: ~(p 1\ q) P q p F F T T q F T F ~p v ~q F T T F F T F T F T F F F F T T T ~(p ~(p 1\ 1\ T T F F q) and ~p v q q) T F T F T T T T Accordingly. is a contradiction. i. q. ) is a tautology.. are true for any truth values of their variables.. ) are said to be logically simply equivalent or equal. .. .... q.e.2 (Principle of Substitution): If Ptp.e. a proposition Pip. . i. In other words: Theorem 2.. q. P2. denoted by Ptp. i. ••• •••• ) LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE equivalent.. ) is called a contradiction if it contains only F in the last column of its truth table. q. Pz for q. . Now let Pip.. i. q. is a tautology and the proposition "» and not p". q.. the negation of a tautology is always false.. .e. .Chapter Algebra of Propositions TAUTOLOGIES AND CONTRADICTIONS 2 Some propositions Ptp. we can substitute PI for 1).. ) and Q(p. is a contradiction. . . q... ). Similarly. q.e... . p 1\ ~p. q. Since Pip. . ) contain only T in the last column of their truth tables. ) is a tautology then ~ Ptp.. ) be a tautology. This is verified by constructing their truth tables: p ~p p v ~p p T ~p P 1\ ~p T F F T T T F F T F F Since a tautology is always true. ). . That is. ) if they have identical truth tables. q..e.. '" in the tautology P(p. q. p v ~p. q. i. is false for any truth values of its variables. q. q. ) and still have a tautology... P2(p. Example 2. '" be any propositions. then P(PI. Example 1. and conversely..1: The proposition "p or not p".. ) does not depend upon the particular truth values of its variables p. .. . is a tautology for any propositions PI' P2. . or Two propositions Pip. ) == Q(p. ) is a contradiction. q..1: If Pip.. the propositions are logically equivalent: == ~p v ~q 10 . .. Such propositions are called tautologies. and vice versa.
to the truth values . 2] ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS 11 Example 2. t and f denote variables which are restricted true and false. By the preceding example. pvp p Laws lb. we formally state: Theorem 2. p v p ~ ~p t p r 1\ p ~ . Complement Laws 7b. Sb. p v (q 1\ Laws 4b. p 1\ 3a. (p 1\ q) is logically equivalent to p v q. the given statement is equivalent to the statement "Either roses are not red or violets are not blue. pv pv 1 t p t p 6b. 6a. I == t 9a.1 below. (p v q) (p 1\ q) p vq Table 2. Sa.CHAP. that is. respectively. under the relation of logical equivalence.1. (p 1\ 2a. p 1\ p p Associative Laws 2b.3: Propositions satisfy the laws of Table 2. satisfy various laws or identities which are listed in Table 2. De Morgan's Laws 9b. LAWS OF THE ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS Idempotent la.p t~ I.2: The statement "It is false that roses are red and violets are blue" can be written in the form i» 1\ q) where p is "Roses are red" and q is "Violets are blue". pvq qvp q q 1\ P Distributive 4a." ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS Propositions.1 In the above table. In fact. 1 1 f 7a. p p 1\ 1\ r)  (p v q) 1\ (p V r) p 1\ (q V r) (p 1\ q) V (p 1\ r) Identity 5a. (p v q) v r p v (q v r) Commutative q) 1\ r P 1\ (q 1\ r) Laws 3b. Laws 5b.
12 ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS [CHAP. it is a tautology. Construct the required truth tables: over conjunction.1. it is a contradiction.4. /\ q): (p /\ q) p v (p P/\q q p v (p T T T /\ q) T T T F T T T F F F T F F F F T T Since the truth value of p v (p /\ q) is T for all values of p and q. Construct AND CONTRADICTIONS p v Verify that the proposition the truth table of p (p /\ q) is a tautology. LOGICAL EQUIVALENCE 2. Prove the Associative Law: Construct the required p q (p /\ q) /\ r == p /\ (q /\ r). prove the Distributive . Prove that disjunction distributes Law: pv(ql\r) == (pvq)l\(pvr).2. 2 Solved Problems TAUTOLOGIES 2. that is. 2. tables: P/\q (p /\ q) /\ r ql\r p 1\ truth r (q 1\ r) T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T F F F F F F T F F F F F F F T F F F T F F F T F F F F F F F t t Since the truth tables are identical.3. Verify that the proposition Construct the truth p (p /\ q) /\ (p (p /\ q) /\ (p pvq V V q) is a contradiction. the propositions are equivalent. q): (p V table of q P/\q q) (p /\ q) /\ (p V q) T T F F Since the truth value of T F T F T F F F (p /\ q) /\ (p V T T T F q) F F F T F F F F is F for all values of p and q. 2.
7. t 2. Prove that the operation of disjunction can be written in terms of the operations of conjunction and negation.CHAP. 2. the propositions are equivalent. Specifically.6. P2(p) = p. Observe that p ~p p v ~p P 1\ ~p T F Hence Pj(p) . there are 24 = 16 nonequivalent propositions of two variables . Construct the required p q truth tables: ~p ~p 1\ r pvq q ~(~p 1\ ~q) T T F F T F T F T T T F F F T T F T F T F F F T T T T F + Since the truth tables are identical. p v q == (p 1\ q). the truth tables of such propositions follow: p P1(p) P2(p) P3(p) P4(p) T F T T T F F T F F Find four such propositions. There are exactly four nonequivalent propositions of one variable. 22 = 4 lines.5. P4(p) F F p 1\ ».pv F T P3(P) T T ~p. the propositions are equivalent. PIO Pll In each line T or F can P12 PI3 P14 PI5 PI6 q T F T F PI P2 P3 P4 P5 Ps T F T F P1 P8 P9 T T F F T T T T T T T F T T F T T T F F T F T T T F F T T F F F F T T T F T T F F T F T F T F F F F T T F F T F p and q. q) will contain p and q. Determine the number of nonequivalent propositions of two variables The truth table of a proposition appear as follows: p P(p. F F F T F F F F In other words. 2. ~p. 21 p q r ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS 13 pvJ' (p V q) 1\ ql\r p v (q 1\ r) pvq (p V r) T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T F F F T F F F T T T T T F F T T T T T T F F T T T T T F T F T T T T T F F F r ~q t Since the truth tables are identical.
. The truth table of a proposition P(Pl' . p T F p F T t j 2. Hence the given statement is logically equivalent to the statement "His mother is not English and his father is not French". q The truth table of a proposition P(p. Verify: . tables. q <p v 1\ (ii) (p v q) the required truth q) p >« T T F F T F T F T F F F F T T T F F T T F T F T F T T T t t (ii) p q pvq (p v q) p q p 1\ =« T T F F T F T F T T T F F F F T F F T T F T F T F F F t t =>» T F 2. (ii) It is not true that he studies physics but not mathematics. Pn) will contain 2n lines. Since in each line T or F can appear..10. there are 28 == 256 nonequivalent propositions of three variables. (i) Let p denote "His mother is English" and let q denote "His father is French". Pn• (i) (ii) propositions of: (i) three variables p.9. 2 Determine the number of nonequivalent and r. there are 22n nonequivalent propositions of n variables. NEGATION 2. (ii) n variables Pl' P2' ••• . r) will contain 23 == 8 lines.p "'" p. hence. as above. Simplify each of the following statements. Prove De Morgan's Laws: In each case construct (i) P q pl\q (p (i) ~(p /\ q) "'" P v q.8. (iii) (p p 1\ v q). (iii) It is not true that sales are decreasing and prices are rising. ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS [CHAP.11. (iv) It is not true that it is not cold or it is raining. Use the results of the preceding problems to simplify each of the following propositions: (i) (i) (p v q). (p v q) (p 1\ q q q (ii) (iii) q) == ==  p v q p 1\  p v q i» v q) == P 1\ q 2. But (p v q) == p 1\ q. == (ii) (p p 1\  1\ q). . Then the given statement is t» v q). .12.14 2. (i) It is not true that his mother is English or his father is French. q.
statement is logically is logically equivalent equivalent to the to the statement Since ~(p v q) . Hence the given statement is logically equivalent to the statement "He does not study physics or he studies mathematics". p '! q. (1) (2) (3) (4) p v (p 1\ p v (p 1\ q) by using the laws of the algebra of propositions Reason Statement q) (p p p p 1\ t) v (p 1\ q) (1) (2) (3) (4) Identity law Distributive Identity law Identity law law 1\ 1\ (t v q) t 2. Statement v t» 1\ q) by using the laws of the algebra Reason of (1) (2) (3) (4) (p v q) v (p 1\ q) t» 1\ q) p p p 1\ 1\ v (p q) 1\ q) (1) (2) (3) (4) De Morgan's law Distributive Identity law law Complement law (qv t MISCELLANEOUS 2. the given "It is cold and it is not raining". Simplify the proposition listed on Page 11. hence the truth p q p'!q T T F F T F T F F T T F . (iii) Since "Sales t» 1\ q)  +p » q. PROBLEMS '! The propositional connective "p or q but not both".13. P'! q is read (i) Construct a truth table for (ii) Prove: P'! q == (p v q) 1\ (p 1\ q). (i) p '! q is as follows: v Accordingly and r«. Simplify the proposition (p v q) propositions listed on Page 11.P 1\ q. are increasing the given statement or prices are falling".15.16. OF PROPOSITIONS (p v Simplify the proposition listed on Page 11.14. Then the given statement is t» 1\ ~q).q == p v q.» 1\ 1\ q) Complement law (4)  q 2. But t» 1\ ~q) == p v . 2] ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS 15 (ii) Let p denote "He studies physics" and let q denote "He studies mathematics". (1) (2) (pv q) I\P  q) 1\ p by using the laws of the algebra of propositions Reason Statement :» 1\ (p V (p fv p 1\ q) (p 1\ (1) q) (2) (3) (4) Commutative Distributive Identity law law law  p) V (3) t. the original three connectives 1\. ALGEBRA 2. is called the exclusive disjunction.CHAP. '! can be written in terms of table of Now P'! q is true if p is true or if q is true but not if both are true.
The propositional nor q". v. 1\ and . Now p q is true only in the case that p is not true and q is not true. (b) pl\q t a. as follows: (p T T F F 1 F T T T 3 (p T T F F 1 1\ 1\ q) T F T F T T T F 2 T F T F 1 pyq F T T F 4 T F F F 2 T F T F 1 q) are identical.may be expressed in terms of the (c) pvq == (ptp)t(qtq).16 (ii) We construct the truth p T T F F ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS [CHAP. == (ptq)t(ptq). hence the truth table of p q is the following: q p ptq t t T T F F (ii) Construct the appropriate p p T F T F F F F T truth tables: p T T F F q T F T F pl\q T F F F ptp F F T T qtq F T F T (p (a) p tp F (b) !p) !(q !q) T F F T F F T t T t t t (0) p T T F F q T F T F pvq T T T F ptq F F F T (p !q) !(p t q) T T T t t . 1\ by the second method. p tq is read "Neither p Construct a truth table for p The three connectives connective t as follows: == ptp. 2 table of q (p v q) v 1\ (p q) 1\ q).17. hence Step Observe that the truth p y q == (p v q) 1\ (p 1\ q). tables of and (p v q) (p 1\ 2. (i) (ii) Prove: (a) p (i) connective t is called the joint denial.
(iii) p v q.15).23. (iv) He lost his job or he did not go to work today. (iii) (p 1\ q). (ii) p 1\ +q. 2.18. 2.26. .13). NEGATION 2. (i) p (p q) Spanish nor French. 2. 2.20. (ii) p 1\ q = (p v q).19.23.24. the appropriate truth Express v in terms of 1\ and (ii) Express in terms of v and . EQUIVALENCE law for disjunction: distributes 1\ Problems V Prove the associative Prove that Prove Prove Prove (i) conjunction 1\ (p v q) r =P p 1\ V (q r) V 1'). OF PROPOSITIONS listed on Page 11: Prove the following equivalences by using the laws of the algebra of propositions (i) p 1\ (p V q) = p. but not German. Answers to Supplementary 2. 1\ V = (p v f) 1\ V = pv (11\ q) = Pv 1 = p. (i) p v q Problems = (p 1\ q). 2. (i) p v q.26. He has blond hair or blue eyes. 2] ALGEBRA OF PROPOSITIONS 17 Supplementary LOGICAL 2. (iii) He is neither rich nor happy.14). tables (see Problem 2. (see Problem 2.24.CHAP. 2. (vi) Audrey speaks German but neither (p q) (iii) He is rich or happy. (vi) Audrey speaks Spanish or French. Write the negation (i) (ii) of each of the following statements as simply as possible.25. 1\ = p by constructing q) the appropriate (p v q) v (p 1\ = 1\ p by constructing r«. over disjunction: (q V 1\ V 1\ (p v q) p v (p p q) = p q by constructing the appropriate truth truth tables tables (see Problem 2.22. ALGEBRA 2. 2. (ii) (p v q). 2. (v) Neither Marc nor Erik is unhappy.21. (ii) (p 1\ q) V p = p v q. (iii) p 1\ (p v q) = P /\ q. He is tall but handsome. =" (p q) (q r). Simplify: (i) (p 1\ q). 2.25.
It is a statement of the type: If monkeys are human.. Now consider the truth table of the proposition p q p ""'p v q: p v q T T F T F T F F T T F T F F T T Observe that the above truth table is identical to the truth is logically equivalent to the proposition . The truth table of the conditional statement follows: T T T F T F F T T F Example 1. then the earth is flat.. 18 . by definition. (iv) is a true statement even though its substatements "Paris is in England" and "2 + 2 = 5" are false... p~ q 3 Such Many statements...p v q: p ~ q == . particularly in mathematics.. We may regard p ~ q as an abbreviation for an oftrecurring statement. By the property [T4]. the conditional statement "If p then q" is logically equivalent to the statement "Not p or q" which only involves the connectives v and . 2 + 2 = 5. then If Paris is in France. are of the form "If p then q". then = 5. We emphasize that. only (ii) is a false statement.Chapter Conditional Statements CONDITIONAL. statements are called conditional statements and are denoted by p~q The conditional p ~ q can also be read: (i) (ii) [T41 The conditional p p implies only if q q (iii) 1) is sufficient for q (iv) q is necessary for p.1: F T 2 + 2 = 4. (iii) If Paris is in England.p v table of p ~ q.and thus was already a part of our language. the others are true.. then 2 + 2 = 4. 2+2 Consider the following statements: (i) (ii) If Paris is in France. The truth value of p ~ q satisfies: p~ q is true except in the case that p is true and q is false. then (iv) If Paris is in England. Hence p ~ q q In other words.
. the statements (i) and (iv) are true. In other words. the above truth table establishes Theorem 3. p q p called respectively the converse. but then.. . p '> q and its contrapositive q '> p are logically . then p ~ q is true. Theorem 3. if p and q have opposite truth values. then p ~ q is false. ) is always true. By property [Tol. the composite proposition P(p. .. q.. ... by property [T5].e. ) and Q(p.q. simply.. P(p. 2 + 2 = 5.. p~ q Another common statement Such statements. ) are logically equivalent if and only if they have the same truth table.2: A conditional statement equivalent. ) == Q(p.. . On the other hand. ) ~ Q(p. ) ~ Q(p. satisfies the following property: [To] The truth value of the biconditional statement p~ q If p and q have the same truth value. ) CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS AND VARIATIONS p '> '> Consider the conditional proposition tions which contain p and q: q '> q and the other simple conditional proposiand q '> p. Recall that propositions Ptp. inverse.1: Ptp. q. and (ii) and (iii) are false..CHAP. q. The truth table of the biconditional follows: p q p~ q T T F F Example 2. . is a tautology. . . of these four propositions follow: Conditional p q p>q and contmpositive Converse q>p propositions.. (ii) (iii) Paris is in England if and only if 2 + 2 = 4..q. "p iff q". are called biconditional statements. q. Contra positive q The truth tables Inverse ~p +r:« T +>» T F T T T T T T T T F T F T F F T T T F F F T Observe first that a conditional statement and its converse or inverse are not logically equivalent. q.. denoted by is of the form p~q "v if and only if q" or. (iv) Paris is in England if and only if 2 + 2 = 5.. q.... i.1: T F T F T F F T Consider the following statements: (i) Paris is in France if and only if Paris is in France if and only if 2 + 2 = 4. 3] CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS 19 BICONDITIONAL. ) if and only if the proposition is a tautology.
Let p denote "It is cold" and let in symbolic form. p.2. "p is sufficient for q" or "a is necessary for p". q . p is false.p "Whenever it rains it is cold" is equivalent to "If it rains then it is cold". but q . Note that p . A sufficient condition for it to be cold is that it rain. (iv) Now the statement That is. to "If it is cold then it does not 3. (i) q. q is true. Recall that "If p then q" is equivalent to "Not p or q".q (iii) q. Since the contra positive statement q .1. It never rains when it is cold. 3 Consider the following statements p . then A is equilateral. If A is isosceles.3. the original conditional statement p > q is also true. "If x is even then x2 is even". (v) The statement "It never rains when it is cold" is equivalent rain". then A is isosceles. (i) If it is cold. (ii) If productivity increases.2: Prove: (p > q) If x2 is odd then x is odd. Whenever it rains it is cold.20 Example 3. Rewrite the following statements without using the conditional. he wears a hat. +q.p (ii) p. (i) It is not cold or he wears a hat. then x == 2n where n is an integer. We show that the contrapositive q > =».1: CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS [CHAP. Productivity does not increase or wages rise. (ii) 3. Determine the truth table of (p p T T q T > q) > (p pAq A q). (p > p>q T q) > (p A q) T T T F T F T T F F F F F F F F . q can be read "p only if q". Recall that p . p: about a triangle A: If A is equilateral. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) It rains only if it is cold. p . That is. is true. q denote "It rains". Let x be even. Hence x2 == (2n)(2n) == 2(2n2) is also even. then wages rise. Solved Problems CONDITIONAL 3. Write the following statements A necessary condition for it to be cold is that it rain. q: q .p is true. Example 3.
7. (p ~ q) 1\ (q ~ p) == p ~ q.8. p q p~q p"q q"p (p " q) (q " p) T T . Show that "p implies q and q implies p" is logically equivalent to the biconditional "1) if and only if q". (i) 2+2 4 iff 3 + 6 2 iff 3 + 2 = = 9 2 8 (ii) 2+2 (iii) 1 + 1 (iv) 1+2 7 if and only if 5+1 5 if and only if 3 + 1 = 4 Now p ~ q is true whenever p and q have the same truth value.6. q pl\q pvq (p 1\ q) " (p v q) T T F F T F T F T F F F T T T F T T T T 3. (Observe that (ii) is a true statement by definition of the conditional. even though both sub statements 2+2 7 and 5 + 1 2 are false. Prove that the conditional operation distributes p ~ (q p q r ql\r 1\ over conjunction: 1\ r) == (p ~ q) 1\ (p ~ r) p>r (p " q) 1\ p " (q r) p"q (p " r) T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T T F F F T T F F F T T T T T T F F T T T T F T T F T F T T T T T F F F T T T F T F F F F t f 1\ BICONDITION AL 3. Verify that (p 1\ q) ~ (p p v q) is a tautology. hence (i) and (ii) are true statements.CHAP. but (iii) and (iv) are false. Determine the truth table of '_p~(q~p).F F T F T F T F F T T F T T T T F T T F F T t i 3. Determine the truth value of each statement. that is.) = = . p q p q"p p " (q " p) T T F T T T F F F T F F T T T F T T F T 3.5. 3] CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS 21 3.4.
Determine the truth value of p T T q (p > > q) q) v (p ~ q). Now p > q "" p v q and p~q q > p "" cq v p.11. (i) p q p>q (p > q) q P 1\ q T T T T F T F T T F F F F T F F F T F T F T t F F t (ii) p q p~q (p ~ q) p v e+« F T T q p~q T T T T F T T F F F T F F F T F F T T F T F T T F T F t F t F t Remark: Since p > q  p v q.22 3.10.12. v (p T T T (p T T ~ F T T F T q) T T T T T F T F T T 2 F T F T T 5 F F Step F F F 1 F F T 4 F T F 1 F F 1 F T 2 F 3 F 1 3. Verify by truth tables that the negation of the conditional and biconditional are as follows: (i) (p > q) == P 1\ +«. (ii) t» ~ q) == p ~ q = p ~ q. p~ q can be written in terms of the original three 3. CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS [CHAP.7.9. 1\ and r'. 3 Show that the biconditional connectives v. Determine the truth p value of q q (p ~ q) ~ (q q>p > p). hence by Problem == (p>q)1\ (q>p) = (pvq)I\(qvp) 3. (p ~ q) ~ (q > p) » e+>« F T T T T T F T F T T T F T F F F T F T Method 1 q) F F F F p q (p ~ F T T F T ~ F T (q > p) T T T T T T T T T T T F T F T F T F F Step F F F 1 F T 2 Method F 3 F 1 2 F F 4 F T 2 F 1 F F 1 NEGATION 3. (p we could have > q) = used v q) (p = De Morgan's p 1\ q = law to verify P 1\ q (i) as follows: .
then he will not pass the test. (ii) He swims if and only if the water is warm. . Write the negation of each statement in as simple a sentence as possible. hence the negation of (ii) is either of the following: He swims if and only if the water is not warm. CONDITIONAL 3.14. (i) If it is cold. ~q) (ii) ~(~lJ p~q p~q ~ q).13. statement can be written as p > (q 1\ ~r"). 3] CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS 23 > 3. Write the negation of each statement as simply as possible. (i) By Problem 3. t» > q) =: P 1\ r q. 3. (iii) It is necessary to have snow in order for Eric to ski. then he is poor. (iii) Note that ~(p > ~q) == P 1\ ~ ~q == P 1\ q. He does not swim if and only if the water is warm. STATEMENTS AND VARIATIONS of each statement. Hence the If Marc does not study. then x is not positive. hence the negation of (i) is He studies and he will not pass the exam. then he wears a coat but no sweater. (iii) If it snows. then he studied". then he will go to college or to art school.12. (i) Let p be "It is cold". (i i) The given statement is equivalent contra positive of (ii) is to "If Marc passes the test. ~(p ~ q) =' p ~ =« =0 ~p ~ q.12. (ii) The given statement is of the form ~[p > (q v ~')I p > (q v ~'). he will pass the exam. Hence the negation of (iii) is It snows and he drives the car. (i) If he studies. then he does not drive the car. q be "He wears a coat" and r be "He wears a sweater". (iii) ~(~lJ ~q). Simplify: (i) (ii) ~(p ~ (i) ~(p ~ ~q).15. p 1\ But V == ~(q r) P 1\ ~q 1\ +r Thus the negation of (ii) is He studies and he does not go to college or to art school. ~(~p ~ q) 3. (ii) By Problem 3.CHAP. Now ~[p > Then the given (q 1\ ~r)] == p 1\ ~(q 1\ ~r") == P 1\ t« V r) Hence the negation of (i) is It is cold and he wears a sweater or no coat. (iv) If x is less than zero.16. Determine the contrapositive (i) If John is a poet. (i) The contra positive of p > q is ~q > +p. (ii) If he studies. then he is not a poet. Hence the contra positive of (i) is If John is not poor. (ii) Only if Marc studies will he pass the test.
If it did not snow.. then = 4.. .. po Hence the contra positive of (iv) is If x is positive.. 1+1 2 iff 3 + 4 == 5.. 5 + 5 = 10.. It is not true that (iii) A necessary condition that (iv) It is not true that (v) If 3 < 5. The contrapositive of p ...... The contra positive of p . then 3 < 5. He is poor or else he is both rich and happy. then 3 + 3 == 5 or 2 + 1 = 3 and 1 + 1 == 2...q. Being rich is a sufficient condition to being happy. q. Assume "He is poor" is equivalent to po Determine the truth value of each statement. 3.q is == q ..18. Problems Write each statement in symbolic form Let p denote "He is rich" and let q denote "He is happy". then 3 1 + 1 = 5 iff 3+3=1. of p . of q . (vii) One is never happy when one is rich.rp... q. Determine (i) (ii) the truth 3 is that 4+4 4. which is the inverse . q. (ix) (x) To be rich means the same as to be happy.. (i) (ii) If 5 < 3.q .q is q . Being rich is a necessary condition to being happy. 0) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) If he is rich then he is unhappy.p is . then Eric will not ski. < 5.20. value of each statement..17. then it snowed".. and the conditional and contrapositive are contrapositives of each other! Supplementary STATEMENTS 3... then x is not less than zero....p is p . which is the original conditional The contrapositive proposition..... q... 3. It is not true that if If 2 + 2 = 4.q.. He is neither rich nor happy.19.. p Hence the contrapositive == q .. Find and simplify: (i) Contrapositive of the contrapositive of p . p ... then it is not true that 3 + 3 == 7 iff 1 + 1 (iii) If 2 + 2 = 4... (ii) Contrapositive of the converse of p . 1+2 (vi) A sufficient condition that 3.... using p and q..q is .q The converse of p .p.p (iii) The inverse of p .q ...p..q is rp which is the converse of p q.p . (viii) He is poor only if he is happy..q is q .. the inverse and converse are contra positives of each other.. It is necessary to be poor in order to be happy. 2 + 2 == 4.24 (iii) The given statement of (iii) is (iv) The contrapositive CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS [CHAP. To be poor is to be unhappy. (iii) Contrapositive of the inverse of p q. 1+2 = 3 is that 4+4 4. 3 is equivalent to "If Eric skis. r of q ... Note.. In other words.. (i) (ii) The contrapositive of p . ....
(ii) [q ~ (r> p)] V [(q> p) ~rl. then unemployment rises. 3. Find the truth table of each proposition: (i) [p /\ (q> p)]/\ [(p ~ q) > (q v p)]. (i) FTFF.22. Betty smokes Kent or Salem. Prove: (i) (p /\ q) > r 3. (iii) Contra positive of the converse of p > q. 3. (i) (ii) p > q p /\ q Problems (vii) p > q (viii) p > q (ix) p ~ q (x) p v (p /\ q) (iii) q > p (iv) p ~q (v) p > q > p (vi) q 3.27. then he reads neither Life nor Time. (iii) Only if he does not tire will he win. (ii) FFFT (ii) FTFT (ii) TTTFTTFT the appropriate truth tables. (ii) Contrapositive of p > q. If he tires. then he does not have courage. (i) T. 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Construct 3. Write the negation of each statement in as simple a sentence as possible.25. Mary speaks Spanish or French if and only if she speaks Italian. > q. 3. (ii) p > (q > r) == (p /\ r) CONDITIONAL AND VARIATIONS 3. then he is not a sailor. (i) If stock prices fall. If Marc is rich. Find: (i) Contra positive of p > +q. (ii) F. (ii) T.23.24. 3. then both Eric and Audrey are happy.21. If it is not a rectangle. (iv) F.19. John reads Newsweek. Find the truth table of each proposition: (i) t» v q) > p. and Life or Time. 3] CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS 25 3. Mary speaks Spanish or French. (ii) (q v p) ~ (q > pl. == (p > r) v (q > r).CHAP. Marc is rich and Eric or Audrey is unhappy. (i) TTFF.27. (iii) T (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Stock prices fall and unemployment does not rise.23. (vi) T (i) F. Hint. If he is not strong. 3.18. then he will not win. (vi) If John reads Newsweek TRUTH TABLES 3.24. Answers to Supplementary 3.22.26.26. (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) He has blond hair if and only if he has blue eyes. (iii) p (iv) p > q . then it is not a square. (ii) q ~ (q /\ pl. If he does not win. Determine the contra positive of each statement.21. Find the truth table of each proposition: (i) (p ~ q) > (p /\ q). (ii) It is necessary to be strong in order to be a sailor. (iv) Converse of the contra positive of p > q. and Camels. (v) F. (i) If he has courage he will win. > q. (i) TFTT.25. 3. (i) q > p. (iii) F. (ii) rq > p. Betty smokes Kent or Salem only if she doesn't smoke Camels. He has blond hair but does not have blue eyes. but not Italian. 3. 3. (iv) It is sufficient for it to be a square in order to be a rectangle. 3.20.
then p implies r" that is. 3 and 4.P2. ••• .2: is valid. Pn are true simultaneously if and only if the proposition P1/\P21\'" I\Pn is true.P2.». yields (has as a consequence) another proposition Q. If an argument is true it is called a valid argument.Q 4 called Such Logical Implication . otherwise the argument is false.Q is true if Q is true whenever all the premises P l' P2. Thus the argument P1. and p > q is true in Cases 1.P For p > q and q are both true in Case (line) 3 in the above truth this Case p is false. P2.Chapter Arguments. Thus an argument is a statement. p q p>q T T F F T F T F T F T T For p is true in Cases (lines) 1 and 2.1: The argument P1.1: The following argument is valid: I p. if the proposition (P1I\P21\'" I\Pn) > Q is a tautology.e. A fundamental principle of logical reasoning "If p implies q and q implies Example 1. the following argument p > q. p > q q (Law of Detachment) The proof of this rule follows from the following truth table. but in The following argument p > q. has a truth value. The truth value of an argument is determined as follows: [Ts] An argument P1. q I. P2. Pn I. ••• . ••• . ARGUMENTS An argument is an assertion that a given set of propositions P l' P 2' ••. i.> 26 . Theorem 4. P n' premises. the argument Example 1. •• '.. called the conclusion. if an argument is false it is called a fallacy. q > is valid: I r p > r (Law of Syllogism) This fact is verified by the following truth table which shows that the proposition [(p > q) 1\ (q > r)] > (p r) is a tautology: .3: states: r.Pn I. Example 1. an argument is denoted by Pl'P2. Now the propositions P1.Q is valid if and only if Q is true whenever P11\ P2 1\ ••• 1\ P n is true or.Q is valid if and only if the proposition (P1I\P21\ •• 'I\PJ > Q is a tautology.·· I. hence p and p > q are true simultaneously in Case 1. We state this result formally. is a fallacy: table. . equivalently. Since in this Case q is true. •• "Pn I. P n are true.
ARGUMENTS AND STATEMENTS We now apply the theory of the preceding section to arguments involving specific statements. the argument is a fallacy since. (3) q > p (4) is true. We emphasize that the validity of an argument does not depend upon the truth values nor the content of the statements appearing in the argument. q > r f p > r where p is "He is a bachelor". p T T F F q T F T F [(p is a fallacy: p > q. q is "He is unhappy" and r is "He dies young". Here the statement 8 below the line denotes the conclusion of the argument. but upon the particular form of the argument.CHAP.5: We prove that the argument Statement p > q.3 this argument (Law of Syllogism) is valid. p > f q q) 1\ p] > q is not a tautology. Example 2. he is unhappy. and the statements 81 and 82 above the line denote the premises. We claim that the argument 81.82 f. q r p is valid: Reason (1) (2) q is true. p > q and p are true but q is false. p p >  (1) Given (2) Given (3) Contra positive of (2) (4) Law of Detachment using (1) and (3) (Example 1. 4] ARGUMENTS. Bachelors die young. in Case (line) 3 of the truth table.1: Consider the following argument: 81: If a man is a bachelor.1) q is true. This is illustrated in the following examples. and by Example 1. LOGICAL IMPLICATION 27 (p T T T T F F F F 1 > p T T T T F F F F Step Example 1. An argument can also be shown to be valid by using previous results as illustrated in the next example. . as seen in the truth 1\ p>q T F T T p F F T T (p > q) F F T T p q F T F T [(p > q) 1\ p] > q T T F T Equivalently. For the argument is of the form p > q. he dies young. Example 1. is true. 82: 8: If a man is unhappy.8 is valid.4: q T T F F T T F F r [(p T T T T F F F F 1 > q) T T F F T T F F 1 1\ (q T T F F T T F F 1 > r)] > r) T F T F T F T F T T F F T T T T 2 T F F F T F T T 3 T F T T T F T T 2 T F T F T F T F 1 T T T T T T T T 4 T F T F T T T T 2 T F T F T F T F 1 The following argument For the proposition table below.
then 5 does not divide 15.p where p is "5 is a prime number" and q is "5 divides 15".4 this argument is a fallacy. . g. ) if q pvq We claim that p logically implies p v q. S2: 7 is not less than 4. For the argument is of the form p ? q. ) is true. p f.. the argument P f. Observe that p is true in Cases (lines) 1 and 2. and by Example 1. a tautology. . then the argument Pt». then the opposite angles are equal. ) is true whenever Pip. ) f.3: We claim that the following argument is valid: SI: If 5 is a prime number. q. LOGICAL IMPLICATION [CHAP..5. p f q T F T F F T F T F T T T F F T T The argument is a fallacy since in Case (line) 4 of the adjacent truth table. q. ) is valid. p ? q and p are true but q is false. Furthermore. S2: 5 divides 15..Q is valid if and only if the conditional statement p? Q is always true.Q(p. Then the argument is of the form p ? T T F F q. We remark that although the conclusion here is obviously a false statement.. LOGICAL IMPLICATION Q(p.. We state this result formally. S: The opposite angles are not equal.. ) is said to logically «. the above argument does not constitute such a proof since the argument is a fallacy. q. For the argument is of the form p? q. and in these Cases pv q is also true. Example 2. . p q q P ?q p We translate the argument into symbolic form. and conversely. In other words. where p is "Two sides of a triangle are equal" and q is "The opposite angles are equal". the argument as given is still valid. The fact that the conclusion of the argument happens to be a true statement is irrelevant to the fact that the argument is a fallacy. q. Example 3.. . S: 7 is a prime number. Let p be "7 is less than 4" and q be "7 is a prime number". . g.. ) is true. ) is true whenever P(p.4: Determine the validity of the following argument: SI: If 7 is less than 4. . S: 5 is not a prime number. .. . q f. For consider the truth tables of p and p v q in the adjacent table. Example 2... p logically implies pv q..1: imply a proposition p Q(p. T T F F T F T T T F T F Now if Q(p.q.2: ARGUMENTS. 4 We claim that the following argument is not valid: S 1: If two sides of a triangle are equal. S2: Two sides of a triangle are not equal.. i. It is because of the false premise SI that we can logically arrive at the false conclusion.e. A proposition P(p.28 Example 2... a. . Although the conclusion S does follow from S2 and axioms of Euclidean geometry.. then 7 is not a prime number. and we proved this argument is valid in Example 1.
. of course. 4.2.. Thus the argument p ~ q. Solved Problems ARGUMENTS 4. . Construct the truth p is valid: p ~ q. q. q. q I p. Construct the truth table on the right.. ... Method 2. Show that the following argument Method 1. 4..3. ) I Q(lJ. Determine the validity of the argument Construct the truth table of [(p+ q) A p 7 ? q. . Now p ~ q is true in Cases (lines) 1 and 4.. These two distinct concepts seen in the above Theorem 4.. .. q I. q. ) is valid ? (ii) the proposition Remark: Ptp. P I rq. p] q: . Determine the validity of the argument Construct the truth p p > A ? q.P is valid... and so they dis. hence p ~ q and q are true simultaneously only in Case 1 where p is also true. P(]J. q I po table of q T F T F [(p [(p+ q) + A q] p: q) F T F T 2 q] T + F F T T 2 P T T F F Step Since the proposition T T F F 1 A T F T T 2 7 T F T F 1 p F F F T 3 T T T T 4 T T F F 1 F T F 1 [(p> q) q] is a tautology. q. ) is a tautology. ) Theorem 4. intimately related as logicians and many texts use the word use "logically implies". equivalently.. 4] ARGUMENTS. LOGICAL IMPLICATION 29 Q(]J. and q is true in Cases 1 and 3. .1. p q p~q T T F T F T F F T T F F table of q [(p ~ p~q q) A q] + p: A (p~q) q [(p ~ q) A q] + P T T F F Since [(p ~ q) A T F T F T F F T T F F F the argument is valid. . T T T T q] > P is a tautology. ) Q(lJ..CHAP..2. q. ) logically implies the proposition P(]J. a.2: The proposition if and only if (i) the argument or. the given argument is valid. The reader should be warned that "implies" in the same sense as we tinguish between "implies" and "if are. then".
1'~ q. q is true. is true. using (1) and (3) (5) Contrapositive (6) Given (7) (6) r is true.4.2. ARGUMENTS 4. 4. Reason (1) Given (2) Given (3) (1) p ~ q l' ) is true. hence table for the proposition [(p~q) 1\ (r>q) 1\ r] ~ p It will be a tautology. Prove that the following argument Method 1. Erik will be sick. r I po »=>« F F T T T T T T r~q p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 T T T T F F F F T T T F T T T F F F F T T F F T T T F T F T F T F F T T T T F F Now p ~ +q.4.q F T F 1\ Since the proposition is a fallacy. q ~ rr is true. where p is also true. Method 3. q f p where p is "It rains" and q is "Erik is sick". 1. Erik will be sick. p q (ii) By Example p ) q. by . is true. Method 2. the argument (i) is a fallacy. AND STATEMENTS (ii) If it rains. Observe that p ~ q and p are both true in Case (line) 1 but in this Case q is false. It did not rain. ProbJem 4. 4 p p ~ q (p~q) 1\ P q [(p~q) 1\ p] ~ q T T T F F T T [(p ~ q) F T F T T T F F T T F F q F T F T T T the argument p ~ q. p] ~ is not a tautology. (4) Law of Syllogism. P f. the argument (ii) is valid. r ~ q and r are true simultaneously the given argument is valid. Construct the following truth p q is valid: tables: r p ~ q. into symbolic form: f Test the validity of each argument: (i) If it rains.30 p q ARGUMENTS. Erik was not sick. Erik was not sick. (7) Hence p Law of Detachment.5. (2) (3) and so the given argument Statement is valid. LOGICAL IMPLICATION [CHAP. It did not rain. Contra positive of (2) of (4) using (5) and (6) (4) p ) r (5) r ) p is true. Construct the truth only in Case (line) 5. First translate the arguments (i) p ) q.
But 6 is even. p p q p q p > q T T F F T F T F F F T T F T F T T T F T of the r q Now in the adjacent truth table. . p > q and p are both true in Case (line) 2. Therefore.8. then I do not like mathematics.6. If I fail. and r be "I fail". then I will not fail mathematics. Either I study or I fail. Translate the argument into symbolic form. hence the argument is a fallacy. then I will study. then 5 is not prime. q v r r. But I failed mathematics. does not affect the fact that the argument 4. 4. First translate the argument into symbolic form. Test the validity of the following argument: If I study. Hence the argument is a fallacy. LOGICAL IMPLICATION 31 4." Then the argument is of the form p > q. then I will study. Test the validity of the following argument: If 6 is not even. If I do not play basketball. I played basketball. Let p be "6 is even" and let q be "5 is prime. Test the validity of the following argument: If I like mathematics. Then the given argument is of the form p To test the validity p > q. Therefore 5 is prime. but in this Case q is false. r p>q construct qvr truth tables of the propositions r > p T T T T F F F F T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T F F T T T T T T T F T T T F F F F F T T T T F T F T T T T T Recall that an argument is valid if the conclusion is true whenever the premises are true.r > p the p of the q argument. Now in Case (line) 1 of the above truth table.7. q v rand r > p : p > q be "I study" q. 4] ARGUMENTS. The fact that the conclusion is a true statement is a fallacy. The argument can also be shown to be a fallacy by constructing the truth table proposition [(p> q) I\pJ > q and observing that the proposition is not a tautology.CHAP. Let p be "I like mathematics". the premises p > q and q v r are both true but the conclusion r > p is false.
32
ARGUMENTS,
LOGICAL IMPLICATION
[CHAP. 4
and
First translate the argument into symbolic form. Let p be "I study", q be "I fail mathematics" j be "I play basketball". Then the given argument is as follows:
p >
=«. ~r
> p,
q
I
r
tables
<
r:
To test the validity rq, =r:" », q and r':
of the argument,
p q
construct
p > ~q
the truth ~r F T F T F T F T
of the given
propositions
r
T F T F T F T F
~q
r ..... p T T T T T F T F
T T T T F F F F
T T F F T T F F
F F T T F F T T
F F T T T T T T
Now the premises p > ~q, ~r > p and q are true simultaneously only in Case (line) 5, and in that case the conclusion r is also true; hence the argument is valid.
LOGICAL IMPLICATION 4.9. Show that
p
A
q
logically implies
table for
p
p ~ q.
>
Construct
the truth
(p A q)
(p ~
q) :
q
T
pAq T
p~q
(p
A
q) > (p ~ T
q)
T T F F Since (p
A
T F F T
A
F T F
F F F
p
T T T implies p ~ q.
q) _, (p ~
q) is a tautology,
q logically
4.10.
Show that 1)~
q
logically implies
p
p
>
q.
Consider the truth
tables of p ~ q and p _, q :
q p~q p>q
T T F F
T F T F
T F F T
T F T T
e
Now p ~ q is true in lines 1 and 4, and in these cases p implies 11..... . q
q is also true.
Hence p ~ q logically
4.11. Prove:
P1,P2,···,
Let Pip, q, ... ) logically imply Q(p, q, ... ). P(Pl'P2,···) logically implies Q(P1,P2, •••
Then for
).
any propositions
By Theorem 4.2, if P(p, q, ... ) logically implies Q(p, q, ... ) then the proposition P(p, q, ... ) ...... Q(p, q, ... ) is a tautology. By the Principle of Substitution (Theorem 2.2), the proposition P(PbPZ"") ..... Q(Pl'P2",,) is also a tautology. Accordingly, P(P1,P2, ••• ) logically implies Q(Pl'P2", .).
CHAP.
41
ARGUMENTS,
LOGICAL
IMPLICATION
33
4.12.
Determine the number of nonequivalent the proposition 1)B q.
Consider the adjacent truth table of p B q. plies p B q if p B q is true whenever Pi p, q) is only in Cases (lines) 1 and 4; hence P(p, q) cannot There are four such propositions which are listed
l' I
propositions
P(p, q) which logically imply
p
q
pBq
Now P(p, q) logically imtrue. But p B q is true be true in Cases 2 and 3. below:
T
T
F
T
F T
T F
F
1'2
T F F F
P3
1'4
T F F T
pBq
F
F
T
F F F F
F F F T
T F F T
4.13.
Show that 1)B q does not logically imply 1J~ q.
Method 1. Construct the truth tables of p
p q
B q
and p..c, q :
P Bq p..c,q
q
T T F F
T F T F
F T F T
F T T F
T F T T
Recall that p B q logically implies p ~ q if p ~ q is true whenever p B q is true. But p Bq is true in Case (line) 2 in the above table, and in that Case p > q is false. Hence p B q does not logically imply p ~ q. Method 2. Construct the truth table of the proposition (p B q) ..c, (p..c, q). tautology; hence, by Theorem 4.2, p B q does not logically imply p..c, q. It will not be a
Supplementary Problems
ARGUMENTS 4.14. 4.15. 4.16. Test the validity Test the validity Test the validity of each argument: of each argument: of each argument: (i) p ~ q, P
I+
q; (ii) p ~ q, q
I1'..c,
I
p.
1' ~
(i) p ~ q, l' > q (i) p~
q,
1'~
p;
(ii) p ~ q, (ii) p..c, q,
TV
q
I
I
P~
1'.
p, q
I
1';
q,
1'
po
ARGUMENTS AND STATEMENTS 4.17. Test the validity But Paris Therefore, 4.18. Test the validity of the argument: then Paris is not in France. If London is not in Denmark, is in France. London is in Denmark. of the argument:
If I study, then I will not fail mathematics. I did not study. I failed mathematics.
34
4.19. Translate
(a)
ARGUMENTS,
LOGICAL IMPLICATION
[CHAP. 4
into symbolic form and test the validity
of the argument:
If 6 is even, then 2 does not divide 7. Either 5 is not prime or 2 divides 7. But 5 is prime. Therefore, 6 is odd (not even).
(b)
On my wife's birthday, I bring her flowers. Either it's my wife's birthday or I work late.
r
did not bring my wife flowers today. today I worked late.
Therefore,
(e)
If I work, I cannot study. Either r work, or I pass mathematics. r passed mathematics. Therefore, I studied.
(el)
If r work, r cannot study. Either I study, or I pass mathematics. r worked. Therefore, I passed mathematics.
LOGICAL IMPLICATION 4.20. 4.21. 4.22. 4.23. 4.24. Show that Show that (i) p
1\
q logically
implies p,
>
(ii) p v q does not logically imply p. (ii) p
1\
(i ) q logically
r. (q V r)
implies p
q,
logically implies p
>
q.
Show that p
logically implies (p
q)
V
r.
Determine those propositions
which logically imply
(i) a tautology,
(ii) a contradiction.
p
Determine the number of nonequivalent propositions Pip, q) which logically imply the proposition > q, and construct truth tables for such propositions (see Problem 4.12).
Answers to Supplementary Problems
4.14. 4.15. 4.16. 4.17. 4.18. 4.19.
(i) fallacy, (i) valid, (ii) valid
(ii) fallacy (ii) valid
(i) valid, valid fallacy
(a) p
>
q, r v q, r pv r, q
f p; f r;
valid.
(c) p>q,pyr,r
f q; f
fallacy.
(b) 4.23. 4.24.
tr+«,
valid.
(d) p > q, q v r, p
r; valid.
logically implies a
(i) Every proposition contradiction.
logically implies a tautology.
(ii) Only a contradiction
There are eight such propositions: p T T
q
PI T
P2
T
P3
T
P4
T
P5
P6
F F
T
P7
F F F
T
Pg
F F F F
p>q
T
F
T
F
T T
F
T
F F
F F
T
F
F
F F F
F F
T T
T
F
T T
F
Chapter 5
Set Theory
SETS AND ELEMENTS The concept of a set appears in all branches of mathematics. Intuitively, a set is any welldefined list or collection of objects, and will be denoted by capital letters A, B, X, Y, .... The objects comprising the set are called its elements or members and will be denoted by lower case letters a, b, x, y, . . . The statement tip is an element of A" or, equivalently, tip belongs to A" is written The negation of pEA is written
p
e: A.
A
pEA
There are essentially two ways to specify a particular is to list its members. For example,
set.
One way, if it is possible,
=
{a,e,i,o,u}
denotes the set A whose elements are the letters a, e, i, 0, u. Note that the elements are separated by commas and enclosed in braces { }. The second way is to state those properties which characterize the elements in the set. For example, B
=
{x:
x is an integer,
x> O}
which reads "B is the set of x such that x is an integer and x is greater than zero," denotes the set B whose elements are the positive integers. A letter, usually x, is used to denote a typical member of the set; the colon is read as "such that" and the comma as "and".
Example 1.1: The set B above can also be written as B Observe that Example 1.2: 6
e: B,
3 E Band
7T
e: B.
=
{l, 2, 3, ... }.
The set A above can also be written as A
=
{x: b
x is a letter in the English alphabet, x is a vowel}
Observe that Example 1.3:
e: A,
eEA
and p
e: A.
Let E = {x: x2  3x + 2 = O}. In other words, E consists of those numbers which are solutions of the equation x2  3x + 2 = 0, sometimes called the solution set of the given equation. Since the solutions of the equation are 1 and 2, we could also write E {1,2}.
=
Two sets A and B are equal, written A = B, if they consist of the same elements, i.e, if each member of A belongs to B and each member of B belongs to A. The negation of A =B is written A #B.
Example 1.4: Let E
=
{x:
Then E F G. Observe that a set does not depend on the way in which its elements are displayed. A set remains the same if its elements are repeated or rearranged.
==
x2

3x
+2 =
O},
F
=
{2,1}
and
G
=
{1, 2, 2, 1, 6/3}.
35
36 FINITE AND INFINITE SETS
SET THEORY
[CHAP. 5
Sets can be finite or infinite. A set is finite if it consists of exactly n different elements, where n is some positive integer; otherwise it is infinite.
Example 2.1: Let M be the set of the days of the week. M In other words, Sunday}
=
{Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday,
Then M is finite. Example 2.2: Example 2.3: Let Y = {2, 4, 6, 8, ... }. Then Y is infinite.
Let P {x : x is a river on the earth}. Although it may be difficult to count the number of rivers on the earth, P is a finite set.
=
SUBSETS
A set A is a subset of a set B or, equivalently, B is a superset A of A, written
cB
or
B => A
iff each element in A also belongs to B; that is, x E A implies x E B. We also say that A is contained in B or B contains A. The negation of A c B is written A ¢ B or B fJ A and states that there is an x E A such that x tl B.
Example 3.1: Consider the sets A
=
{1, 3, 5, 7, ... }, xisprime,
B x>2}
=
{5, 10, 15, 20, = {3,5,7,11, than 2 is odd.
} } On the other hand,
C = {x:
Then C c A since every prime number greater B ¢. A since 10 E B but 10 El A. Example 3.2:
Let N denote the set of positive integers, Z denote the set of integers, Q denote the set of rational numbers and R denote the set of real numbers. Then
NeZ
Example 3.3:
cQcR
The set E {2, 4, 6} is a subset of the set F {6, 2, 4}, since each number 2,4 and 6 belonging to E also belongs to F. In fact, E = F. In a similar manner it can be shown that every set is a subset of itself.
=
=
I Definition: I
As noted in the preceding example, A c B does not exclude the possibility that A In fact, we may restate the definition of equality of sets as follows: Two sets A and B are equal if A
= B.
c Band Be A.
In the case that A c B but A =1= B, we say that A is a proper subset of B or B contains A properly. The reader should be warned that some authors use the symbol C for a subset and the symbol c only for a proper subset. The following theorem is a consequence of the preceding definitions:
Theorem 5.1:
Let A, Band C be sets. Then: A = B; and (iii) if A c Band
(i) A c A; (ii) if A c Band B c C, then A c C.
Be A, then
UNIVERSAL AND NULL SETS
In any application of the theory of sets, all sets under investigation are regarded as subsets of a fixed set. We call this set the universal set or universe of discourse and denote it (in this chapter) by U.
Example 4.1: Example 4.2: In plane geometry, the universal In human population world. set consists of all the points in the plane. set consists of all the people in the
studies, the universal
CHAP. 5]
SET THEORY
37
It is also convenient to introduce the concept of the empty or null set, that is, a set which contains no elements. This set, denoted by 0, is considered finite and a subset of every other set. Thus, for any set A, 0 cAe U.
Example 4.3: Example 4.4: Let A
=
{x:
x2
= 4,
x is odd}.
Then A is empty, i.e. A
= 0.
According
Let B be the set of people in the world who are older than 200 years. to known statistics, B is the null set.
CLASS, COLLECTION, F AMIL Y
Frequently, the members of a set are sets themselves. For example, each line in a set of lines is a set of points. To help clarify these situations, other words, such as "class", "collection" and "family" are used. Usually we use class or collection for a set of sets, and family for a set of classes. The words subclass, subcollection and subfamily have meanings analogous to subset.
Example 5.1: Example 5.2: The members of the class {{2, 3}, {2}, {5,6}} are the sets {2,3}, {2} and {5,6}.
Consider any set A. The power set of A, denoted by P(A) or 2A, is the class of all subsets of A. In particular, if A {a, b, c}, then
=
P(A)
=
{A, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a}, {b}, {e}, 0}
In general, if A is finite and has n elements, then P(A) will have 2n elements.
SET OPERATIONS The union of two sets A and B, denoted by A u B, is the set of all elements which belong to A or to B: AuB {x: x E A or x E B} Here "or" is used in the sense of and/or. The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A n B, is the set of elements which belong to both A and B: AnB {x: x E A and x E B} If A n B = 0, that is, if A and B do not have any elements in common, then A and B are said to be disjoint or nonintersecting. The relative complement of a set B with respect to a set A or, simply, the difference of A and B, denoted by A "' B, is the set of elements which belong to A but which do not belong to B: A "'B = {x: x E A, x tl B} Observe that A "'B and B are disjoint, i.e. (A "'B)
n
B=
0.
The absolute complement or, simply, complement of a set A, denoted by Ac, is the set of elements which do not belong to A: Ac
=
{x:
x E U, x tl A}
That is, Ac is the difference of the universal set U and A.
Example 6.1: The following diagrams, called Venn diagrams, illustrate the above set operations. Here sets are represented by simple plane areas and U, the universal set, by the area in the entire rectangle.
38
SET THEORY
[CHAP. 5
A u B is shaded.
A n B is shaded.
A ".B is shaded.
Example 6.2: Let A
A c is shaded.
=
{I, 2, 3, 4} and A
U
B
=
{3, 4, 5, 6} where
U
=
{I, 2, 3, ... }.
Then:
B
{I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
A n B = {3, 4} Ac
A".B
=
{1,2}
=
{5,6,7,
... }
Sets under the above operations satisfy various laws or identities which are listed in Table 5.1 below. In fact we state: Theorem 5.2: Sets satisfy the laws in Table 5.1.
LAWS OF THE ALGEBRA OF SETS Idempotent A Laws lb. AnA
la.
AuA
=
=
A
2a.
(AUB)UC
=
BuA
Associative AU(BUC) Commutative
Laws 2b. Laws 3b. AnB (AnB)nC
=
BnA
An(BnC)
3a.
AuB
=
=
Distributive 4a. Au(BnC)
Laws 4b. An(BuC) = (AnB)u(AnC)
=
A U
(AuB)n(AuC) Identity
Laws 5b. 6b. AnU An0
5a. 6a.
Au0 AuU
=
=
=
=
A
0 0
U
7a. Sa.
AuAc
=
=
Complement U
Laws 7b. Sb. AnAc U»
= =
(Ac)c = A De Morgan's
= 0, 0c =
Laws 9b. (A n B)c
9a.
(A uB)c
AcnBc Table 5.1
A c u Be
Remark:
Each of the above laws follows from the analogous logical law in Table 2.1, Page 11. For example, A
nB
=
{x:
x E A and x E B}
{x:
x E B and x E A}
B
nA
the set of babies is disjoint from the set of people who can manage crocodiles.3: q is logically between set inclusion and the above set operations: Each of the following conditions is equivalent to A (i) A c B: (v) B U n B A B (iii) Be cAe (iv) A n Be Ae U (ii) A u B =0 ARGUMENTS AND VENN DIAGRAMS Many verbal statements can be translated into equivalent statements about sets which can be described by Venn diagrams. or "Babies cannot manage crocodiles" is a consequence of Sl' S2 and S3. (The above argument is adapted from Lewis Carroll.) Now by S1> the set of babies is a subset of the set of illogical people: illogical people By S3' the set of illogical people is contained in the set of despised people: Furthermore. the set of despised people and the set of people who can manage a crocodile are disjoint: But by the above Venn diagram. by S2. s. is valid.CHAP. Symbolic Logic. he is also the author of Alice in Wonderland.1: Consider the following argument: Sl: Babies are illogical. Lastly we state the relationship Theorem 5. Thus the above argument. then p equivalent to q A p: P A q == q A p. Hence Venn diagrams are very often used to determine the validity of an argument. 5] SET THEORY 39 A Here we use the fact that if p is x E A and q is x E B. S: Babies cannot manage crocodiles. Example 7. S2' S3 f S . S2: Nobody is despised who can manage a crocodile. S3: Illogical people are despised.
I(iii): If A c Band B C C.4.5. 2. Z is not the empty set SUBSETS 5. Hence P(S) Note that there are 23 = {S. 2. . {l. Determine whether or not each set is the null set: (i) X (i) (ii) = {x: X2 = 9.2}. i. We have shown that x E A implies x E C. . X = ~. ~} = 8 subsets of S. {r.3. Z"#~. 4. (iii) Z = {x: x +8 = 8}. some texts define the null ~ == {x: x"# x} Z (iii) The number zero satisfies since it contains O.t. {s. .1.r. {t. That x +8 8..s. these are {l}.s}. 3} . The set ~ contains no elements. {2}. Now 3 E A and. hence X is empty.3}. } (iii) The number of people living on the earth. that is.s. The number 2 belongs to A. {s. Let A = {X: 3x = 6}. Each is different from the other. 5. since B consists of even numbers. 2. The set {O} contains one element. {O}. 5. set as follows: In fact. 99. 2x = 4}. Now A c B implies x E B. so Y is also empty.6.r. {l. 3}. the number zero. then A C C.r}. We assume that any object is itself. {l. {3}. {l}. 5. The power set P(S) of S is the class of all subsets of S. The first three sets are finite. hence A is not a subset of B. 3 ~ B. that is. Which of the following sets are finite? (iv) {x: x is an even number} (i) The months of the year. A = {2}. (ii) {I. 100} (v) {I. hence x E C.s}.40 SET THEORY [CHAP.t. 5 Solved Problems SETS. It is necessary to show that at least one element in A does not belong to B..t. 5. the last two sets are infinite.e.2}. {2. ELEMENTS 5. Determine which of the following sets are equal: 0. {l. {l. that A c C. {2}. it is the empty set.3. (ii) Y = {x: x # x}. it does not equal A. Does A = 2? A is the set which consists of the single element 2. 3. 5} is not a subset of B = {x: x is even} .3}.2. 5. Prove that A = {2. 3}. There is no number which satisfies both x2 = 9 and 2x = 4.8. Prove Theorem 5. 3.. {2.. But Be C. hence is. Which of these sets are equal: They are all equal. 2. Let x E A.t}? Order and repetition do not change a set. We must show that each element in A also belongs to C. Find the power set P(S) of the set S = {l. the null set. Accordingly. {OJ. 5. The set {~} also contains one element. = = {O}. 3}. . There is a basic difference between an element p and the singleton set {p}.7. {3} and the empty set~.
Let V={d}. Y c X is true.11.4}. A = n {I. 8. hence We Y is false. (iv) V is not a subset of X since d E V but d <l X. by hypothesis.CHAP. (i) A u B consists of those elements which belong to A or B (or both).d}. An C = {3. (iii) Z::J V.9.8. hence = {2. Since each element in Y is a member Now a E Z but a <l W. = are not in An C. hence V C X is false. Determine 5. 8} and Ac C = {3. A The null set hence A 0. (v) B"" C. (i) (ii) X={a. 0c A. 9}. (iii) The only element in V is d and it also belongs to Z. W={c. 8. 6. 2.. 2. hence = {5. hence An C = {3. (ii) W =/. hence X = W is false. 4}. 5. (ii) A n C. 5] SET THEORY 41 and Z={a. 6. whether each statement (i) Y eX. then A = 0. SET OPERATIONS 5. 3. (ii) A n B.8}. (iii) (A B.c}. 6. hence W # Z is true. = 0 is a subset of every set. 5. Find: (i) A c. But. (iv) A U = {2. B". 4. 9}. Let (i) (ii) U = {1. 7.b} is true or false: of X.b. 4. 7. Ac consists of the elements in U that are not in A. (vi) We Y. hence Z:) V is true.b.d}. shade: (i) A U B. 6}. hence shade the area in A and in B as follows: • (ii) A u B is shaded. 8}.10. In each Venn diagram below.. (v) Now a E X but a <l W. 6.Z. Y={a. 4. . (vi) W is not a subset of Y since c E W but c <l Y. as follows: Then A n B consists of the crosshatched •• area which is shaded • . A with strokes slanting upward to the right (!///) and then downward to the right (\ \ \ \).4} and (iii) (A n C)c consists of the elements in U that so (A n C)c {l. hence (iv) A uB consists of the elements in A or B (or both): (v) B '" C consists of the elements A uB = {l. 9}.12.2. (iv) V c X. • To compute A n B. 5. Now by (ii). (v) X = W. Prove: If A is a subset of the empty set 0. in particular. 5. C in B which are not in C. first shade shade B with strokes slanting below: A n B consists of the area that is common to both A and B. c 0. B C)C. An C consists of the elements in both A and C. . 2. 3.
(ii) (AUB)C. 5. 5 A n B is shaded. (iv) AenBc.AY. AnB AnB = B if BcA. (B" A)c is shaded. (iii) First B"A: shade B" (A u BY is shaded. (i) Be consists of the elements which do not belong to B. then (A U B)c is the area outside Au B: Au B is shaded. then (B" A B "A is shaded. In the Venn diagram below. hence shade the area outside B as follows: B Be is shaded. and then shade Be with strokes slanting downward to the right (\\\\). shade: (i) Be. the area in B which does not lie in A. then AcnBc is the crosshatched area: . with strokes slanting upward to the right (/111). the area outside of A.13. =A if AcB.42 SET THEORY [CHAP. A)e is the area outside A. (ii) First shade Au B. (iii) (B". Observe the following: (a) A nB is empty (b) (e) if A and B are disjoint. (iv) First shade Ac.
CHAP. A en Bc is shaded. = (AnB)u(AnC).x(lA} = {x: xEB. as expected by De Morgan's law. Notice that An(BuC) (A n B) u (A n C) is shaded. 5. A n (B u C) is shaded.xEAc} BnAc . and then shade An C with downward slanted strokes. B"A in = {x: xEB. 5. First shade An B with upward slanted strokes. as expected by the distributive law. (ii) (AnB)U(AnC). shade (i) An(BUC). Prove: B '" A = B n A c.15. and then shade B u C with downward strokes.5J SET THEORY 43 A C and Bs are shaded. now An (B u C) is the crosshatched area: slanted A and B (ii) UC are shaded. now (A n B) u (A n C) is the total area shaded: A n B and A n C are shaded. Observe that (A uB)c = AcnBc.14. Thus the set operation of difference can be written terms of the operations of intersection and complementation. (i) First shade A with upward slanted strokes. In the Venn diagram below.
x E C} xEAnB nC) or xEAnC} (A nB)u(A Observe that in the third step above we used the analogous logical law p 1\ (q V r) == (p 1\ q) V (p 1\ r) 5. (AuB)C {x: {x: x fl A uB} x fl A.17. 5. A c B. by Theorem 5. Suppose AcB. x E AnB. then x E A or x E B. Prove De Morgan's Law: (A UB)c = AcnBc. Prove: For any sets A and B. Accordingly. Let xEA. Thus AnB::::: A. Then in particular.e. Consider the following Venn diagram: . Hence A c A uB. A nB c A. c B. A cAn B. A c AnB. = (A n B) u (A n C). xEB.e. Some students are males. An(BuC) xEBuC} x E A. On the other hand. 5. i. Since xEAnB implies xEA. Let xEAnB.xEB} x E A. All males are lazy. x E A uB. But it is always true that ARGUMENTS AND VENN DIAGRAMS a Venn diagram in 5.3(i): A cB if and only if A nB = A. or x E A. then xEA and xEB.16. x fl B. (A "B) nB {x: {x: xEA"B. AnB Now suppose that AnB::::: A.20. it is always true (Problem 5.18. x E B.1. i. AnB cAe AUB. if x E A. Thus A c AnB c B and so. x fl B} {x: x E Ac. xEA.19) that An B cA. 5 An (B u C) ::::: {x: {x: ::::: {x: ::::: {x: xEA. In particular. Prove the Distributive Law: SET THEORY [CHAP. Furthermore. x E B} o The last step follows from the fact that there is no element X satisfying x E B and x fl B. Prove: (A '" B) n B = y). Show that the following argument is not valid by constructing which the premises hold but the conclusion does not hold: Some students are lazy. Prove Theorem 5.44 5. then by hypothesis.19. Hence xEA and xEB. In other words. x E B or x E C} x E A.21. AnB c A c AuB. x E Bc} AcnBc Observe that in the second step above we used the analogous (p v q) logical law == p 1\ =« 5.
S3: No temperamental person is wealthy. Since the diagram represents a case in which the conclusion is false. even though the premises are true. S2: Poets are temperamental. the argument is false. For an argument to be valid. Consider the following Venn diagram: wealthy people Now the premises hold in the above diagram. find a conclusion such that the argument is valid: Sl: All lawyers are wealthy. hence the argument 5. Nobody who is wealthy is a student.CHAP. Lazy people are not wealthy. the set of wealthy people and the set of temperamental people are disjoint. Thus . S: ___ By 81. but the conclusion does not hold. but the conclusion does not hold. the set of lawyers is a subset of the set of wealthy people. Show that the following argument is not valid: All students are lazy. It is possible to construct a Venn diagram in which the premises and conclusion hold. 5] SET THEORY 45 Notice that both premises hold. the conclusion must always be true whenever the premises are true. and by 83. For the following set of premises.22.23. such as 5. is not valid.
6. 4 and the set {4. 3. Which statements (i) 5 E A. (iii) {5} c A. == 'P(8) == {8. {4. {2. subset of an infinite set is infinite.28.e.3.5} C A. The elements of A are 2. (iii) X cA but X 1.46 SET THEORY [CHAP.24. 2. Therefore (ii) is correct. {3}.5}} cA.9}. Furthermore. . Find the power set 'P(S) of the set 22 S = {3.5} and E Let A {1.4}. Let A = {2. (ii) {4.4}}. hence (i) and (ii) are incorrect. (ii) XeD but X = = = {3.5}. 4}.5. are also valid MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 5. The elements of A are 2. 5. the set of poets is a subset of the set of temperamental people. 5}. .2. so (iii) is also incorrect. A. Let A = {2. State whether each statement is true or false: (U) Every (i) Every subset of a finite set is finite. Which statements are incorrect and why? (i) {4. 4}}. (ii) {5} E A.4.5} which belongs to A is a subset of A. 5. 1. 5. 4}. Find the power set 'P(A) of A = {I. are incorrect and why? Each statement is incorrect. but (i) is an incorrect statement. 4} and the power set P(B) of B = {l. Note first that 8 contains two elements. and the two singleton sets which contain the elements 3 and {1. hence Thus the statement conclusion. 0} Supplementary SETS. {1. D Which sets can equal X if we are given the following information? (i) X and B are disjoint. 5}.4}}.25. Problems = = {3.9}. B {2. 5. i. C. 5 By 82. C {1. (iii) {{4. "No poet is a lawyer" or equivalently "No lawyer is a poet" is temperamental" is a valid The statements "No poet is wealthy" and "No lawyer conclusions which do not make use of all the premises.5} E A.27.4} respectively. {4..8}. In other words. {{1. 4}. (iv) X cC but X 1. There are eight subsets of A and {5} is not one of them.. (iii) is also a correct statement since the set consisting of the single element {4.26. 5}. Therefore 'P(8) contains 4 elements: 8 itself.4. 4 and the set {4.29.7. the empty set 0.8. SUBSETS 5. 5}. . B. 3 and the set {1. {3} and {{l. 3}.
(A "'Be)e Find: (iii) G"'B (iv) BeuG below. 1} 0c {{4}} = {a. 3.e. In the Venn diagrams w"' V (ii) Veu W (a) 5.31. (iv) The set of animals living on the earth.40.35.d./. 1} (iv) {4} E {{4}} (v) (vi) {4} c {{4}} (ii) {1.3(ii): Prove: If AnB=0. 3} (iii) {1.39. X27 + 26x18  17xll + 7x3  10 o..0).We. Band G so that A. Prove: (i) (ii) AcB implies Au(B"'A) An (B" G) = B.(A u G). in terms of the operations of intersection and complement. (v) The set of numbers which are solutions of the equation the origin (0.41.CHAP. shade (i) (vi) (A . 3} = {3. (b) Draw a Venn diagram of three nonempty sets A. G¢B.B = A nBc defines the difference operation in terms of the operations of intersection and complement. Au (B" G) # (A u B) "'. Let U = {2. State (i) (ii) whether each set is finite or infinite: to the x axis. Determine the validity of each argument for each proposed conclusion. A cB then if and only if A uB AcBe.c. 1.y}. Prove Theorem 5.(A n G).33.. 1. (i) Some poets are college professors. 4. BcG.37. Some poets are wealthy. 2.2} SET OPERATIONS 5. 2} c {1.34.b. 1. (vi) The set of circles through 5. AnG # G have the following 0 (iv) Ac(BnG). Band properties: (iii) AcG. 5. 2. Give an example to show that ARGUMENTS AND VENN DIAGRAMS 5. Au B. cv (vii) (viii) (A nAe)e (iii) Vn We (iv) Ve". (ii) Some poets are not college professors. 3.32. 2. The formula A "'. . B = (v) {a. in the English The set of lines parallel The set of letters (iii) The set of numbers which are multiples of 5. State whether each statement (i) is true or false: {1.36.e. 4. 5.c.30./. 5. No college professor is wealthy.d. A#G 5. GcB. AnG = 0 (ii) AcB.c. = B.e. 5. 5] SET THEORY 47 5.BnG=0 (i) AcB.y}.A#G. alphabet. Find a formula that defines the union of two sets.y} GenA and G = {b. 5. Prove: = (A n B) .e}. G#B. (i) AuG (ii) BnA A = {a.b.
{l. Some interesting (iii) Some teachers are not interesting (iv) Some mathematicians (v) Some teachers are not mathematicians.3}}. e.. 5 of each argument for each proposed conclusion. (i) C and E.4}. from college. Answers to Supplementary 5. people. then he is not a poet.g} (A". (vi) If Eric is a mathematician. {2.44. 5.43. one must graduate No college graduate (i) is poor.3}. (i) T. t. (a) = {a.48 5.e} = {b. All mathematicians Only uninteresting (i) (ii) Insurance are interesting Some teachers sell insurance. g} (A ".e. are teachers.31. 0} (ii) finite. (v) F.c.C)c = {b. people become insurance salesmen.f} = {b. Teachers are not poor. 4}.42. (iv) T. (iv) finite. (vi) T (v) (vi) (vii) CenA (vi) infinite 5. {{2... (iii) T. {l}.33./. person.29. people. All poets are interesting Audrey is an interesting (i) Audrey is a poet. (i) infinite.Be)e = {b.28.27. {4}. salesmen are not mathematicians. All poets are poor. Determine the validity of the argument for each proposed conclusion. c. Determine the validity of the argument for each proposed conclusion. Determine the validity SET THEORY [CHAP. (iv) None (i) T. (v) finite.32. In order to be a teacher. {1. 5.g} = {a. Band D.. (iii) infinite.d. people. 5. Problems (ii) D and E./. 5..V V VcuW VnWc .d. (ii) F 'P(B) = {B. (ii) Audrey is not a poet.B (iv) BcuC 5. (iii) A. Poets are not teachers. 5.30. (ii) (iii) If Marc is a college graduate. people are not teachers. {{2. then he does not sell insurance. d} = C» (viii) (A nAe)c = U (]I W".3}}. 5. (ii) T. (i) (ii) AuC= BnA U (iii) C".
.34. (iv) fallacy. 5. (ii) valid (ii) fallacy (ii) valid.C) is shaded. (A u B) ". 5.(A u C) is shaded. (iii) (ii) (iv) 5. (ii) A u (B ". (i) VcuW = U and VnWc =0 in case (b) where VcW. (v) valid.41. (i) valid.42. 5. 5. (iii) valid (iii) valid.CHAP. (ii) fallacy..40. (i) fallacy.5J (b) SET THEORY 49 v VnWc Observe that 5. (i) fallacy.44. The following Venn diagrams show why (ii) and (iv) are fallacies: (ii) (iv) .43. (vi) valid (i) valid.
say A Example 2. d) are equal if and only if a Example 1.3: Example 1. such as (1. b) where a E A and bE B: AxB The product of a set with itself. 61 below represent The set {2. b) Two ordered pairs (a. the vertical line through P meets the x axis at a. the fundamental property of ordered proven: (a. b) and (c. (4. b): a E A. say a.1: {(a. d) if and only if a = c and b = d PRODUCT SETS pairs can be Let A and B be two sets. Such an ordered pair is written (a. The reader is familiar with the Cartesian plane R2 ::::R X R (Fig. and the horizontal line through P meets the y axis at b. b} From this definition.1: Example 1. say a and b. 61 below). 2) are different. bE B} X A. Ordered pairs can have the same first and second elements. is sometimes denoted by A2. b) = (c.3) and (3. b) can be defined rigorously (a. 61 Fig. 62 50 . consists of all ordered pairs (a. Remark: An ordered pair (a. in which one of them. plane in Fig. {a.Chapter 6 Product Sets ORDERED PAIRS An ordered pair consists of two elements.4) and (5.2: Example 1.3} is not an ordered pair since the elements 2 and 3 are not distinguished. {a} = as follows: a as the {{a}. b) of real numbers and vice versa. Here each point P represents an ordered pair (a.4: =c and b = d. b) the key here being that first element. b}} which we use to distinguish c {a.1).5). written A x B. The points in the Cartesian real numbers. is designated as the first element and the other as the second element. The product set (or Cartesian product) of A and B. h 1 0 P 2 2 3 B hr~~P~ab++~ 8 2 a 1 2 8 ~~~~A 2 3 Fig. ordered pairs of The ordered pairs (2.
. TFF. (2. the Cartesian product of n sets AI' A2. it is possible to represent A X B by a coordinate diagram as shown in Fig. y). 1. y). its ycomponent and its zcomponent. denoted by A x B x C. c) where a E A. (3. 2. The Cartesian product of sets A. Here the vertical lines through the points of A and the horizontal lines through the points of B meet in 6 points which represent A X B in the obvious way. x). TTT for (T. then A x B is also infinite. c E C} X . 3.· Example 3. 1. B = {I. (2. say.2: Let A = {I. TFT. The point P is the ordered pair (2. x). 3. etc. bE Band c E C: A X B X C {(a. then A x B has s times t elements. 1. . 2. consists of all ordered triplets (a. an E An} Here an ordered ntuple has the obvious intuitive meaning. PRODUCT SETS IN GENERAL The concept of a product set can be extended to more than two sets in a natural way. 3} and B = {a. (a.·· . x). AXB Then = {(I. y). FTF. b). Let A Example 3.1: •• . consists of all ordered ntuples (aI' a2. Furthermore. if a finite set A has s elements and a finite set B has t elements. b. y). (b. b). in which one of them is designated as the first element. Lastly. that is. (b. 3. 62 above. x). a). value to each of the eight cases below: p p. (1. c): a E A. y}. 3. q and r. bn) iff al = bI. ••• . 2. (a. ••• . (b. . 3} and C = = {x.an) = (bl.. 1. If either A or B is empty. it consists of n elements. an) where Al X al al An' denoted by Al X A2 E AI' . an E An: E An' A2 X '" X An {(aI. In general. B. T. (a. a).) convenience . FFT. b E B. C. Then: A XBXC {(a. x). (3. ••• . T). (b. b). x). FFF} we have written. (b. 2. TTF. another as the second element. FTT.. y)} TRUTH SETS OF PROPOSITIONS say. 2. (a. 2. b}.6J PRODUCT SETS 51 Example 2. b)} Since A and B do not contain many elements. if either A or B is infinite. assigns a truth T T T T T T F F T F T F F F F F Let U denote the set consisting U (For notational T T F F T F T F in the table above: of the eight 3tuples appearing = {TTT. (a. b}. b. (aI. a). (b. y). and the other is not empty.2: = {a.an): AI' .. then A x B is empty.CHAP. three variables q r Recall that any proposition P containing. not necessarily distinct. an = bn an ordered triplet: In three dimensional Euclidean geometry each point represents its xcomponent.• X Analogously.
(John. Jim. (i) (ii) T(P T(P 1\ Q) Q) n T(Q) v T(P) U T(Q) (T(P»C C T(Q) (iii) T(P) (iv) P logically implies Q if and only if T(P) The proof of this theorem follows directly from the definitions of the logical connectives and the set operations. Mary). T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F set of T T F F T T T T (p > q) > 1\ T F T T T F T T (q > r) T F F F T F T T is the truth 'T«p > q) 1\ (q r» = {TTT. by the fundamental of ordered pairs. FFT. FTT.52 [ Definition: PRODUCT SETS [CHAP. . (Tom.y). Mary)} 6.y The solution of these simultaneous equations is givenby x:=. Betty). Mary). Betty). Theorem 6.1: table of r (p > q) p>q 1\ (q > r): q"r (p > q) 1\ (q > r) T T T T F F F F Accordingly. (Jim. FFF} The next theorem logical connectives. Following is the truth p q T(P). {(John. x (x + y. then. x Find x and y. 1) = (3. consists of those elements Example 4.1. {John. Suppose If + y. y:=. 1) = (3. 6 I The truth set of a proposition P.y) (x . wx WxV V consists of all ordered (a. Let PAIRS W = :=.1: shows the intimate relationship Then: T(P) between the set operations and the Let P and Q be propositions. Betty). property :=. +y = 3 and 1 x. Find W xV. b) where a E Wand bE V. 1. (Jim.2. 2. Tom} and let pairs V = {Betty. written of U for which the proposition P is true. Solved Problems ORDERED 6. x . (Tom. Hence. Mary}.
6] PRODUCT SETS 53 B 6.3.4.4} and C X = {3. listed to the right of the "tree".2). P.3). (a. f} and B = {a.2. (a. 3). Let A = {a. 5}.3). P2:::: (a.2. Similarly. 2.3) (1.4. (b.3).4.CHAP.5) The "tree" is constructed from the left to the right. (a. 3). d. (b. 3. u}.4.4. e.2.4) (3. 4).4) (2. i.2). (ii) (A x B) u (A x C). Let A = {l.3} and C = {3.3). 4). 3)} . (b.4. Determine the ordered pairs corresponding to the points PI' P 2' P 3 and P4 which appear in the coordinate diagram of Ax B on the right.3) (3. 2). 0. B = {2.4.4) (2. (b.5) (1. (a.2. (b. b}.4) (1. from (i) and (ii). Let A = {a. that A X (B u G) :::: (A X B) (iii) First compute BnG:::: u (A X G) {3}.4}.3) (1. 3)} {(a. 4)} Then compute the union of the two sets: (A X B) u (A X G) = {(a.2.2.5) (2.2. 3}. u o i P3 PI e a P.2.3) (2.4. (b. shown below: A convenient method of finding A B X C is through the socalled "tree diagram" (1. abcde/ A PRODUCT SETS 6. A X B X G consists of the ordered triples 6. 4}.5) (3. e. c.4) (3. (a. 2).4)} (ii) First find A X B and A X G: A XB A XG = = {(a. u) and P4 = (e.5) (2. A X (BUG) Then :::: {(a. P3:::: (d.3) (2. The vertical line through PI crosses the A axis at b and the horizontal line through PI crosses the B axis at i.3).4)} Observe.5) (3. (b. 2). (iii) A x (B (i) First compute BuG:::: n C). (b. B = {2.4) (1.4.4. e). (a. a). b.3) (3.4). (b.4. Find A x B x C. Find: (i) A x (B U C).2).2. Then A X (BnG) {(a. i). {2. (b. hence PI corresponds to the ordered pair (b.5. 3). (b. (iv) (A x B) n (A x C).
Prove: A X (B n C) = (A x B) n (A x C).5.3.2. 3)} B) n (A = (A X C) 6. 3). and so (S X W) n (S X V) = S X (Wn V) = {(a.y)EAxC} x E A.54 PRODUCT SETS [CHAP. 3). X C) B) n (A 6. yEBnC} (x.8.b}.7.y)EAXB.9. table of p 1\ q: p the truth q T F T F q F T F T P 1\ q T T F F Note that p 1\ F T F F q is true only in the case that p is true and q is false. TRUTH SETS OF PROPOSITIONS 6. hence T(p > q) = {TT. Prove: Let A C Band C C D. (x.6. y) belongs to B X D. A cB and CcD. 6 (iv) Now A X B and A X C were computed above. By hypothesis.5). (b. Ax(BnC) = {(x.5. W = {1.10. hence x E Band y E D. hence T(p 1\ q) = {TF} 6. (a. Now WnV={3.y): {(x. then (A x C) c (B X D).5}. Find the truth set of p ~ q. y E C} (x.5)} 6. The product set (S X W) n (S X V) can be found by first computing S X Wand S X V. y): {(x.6} and V = {3. First construct the truth table of p ~ q: p T T F q T F T p p~q F F T T r T T F F F Now p ~ q is true in the first three cases.7. then x E A and y E C. and then computing the intersection of these sets. The intersection those ordered pairs which belong to both sets: (A Observe from (iii) and (iv) that A X X of A X B and A X C consists of B) n (A (B n C) X C) = X {(a. TF. Find the truth set of p First construct 1\ q. y) be any arbitrary element in A X C. (SxW)n(SxV) = Sx(WnV). Let S = {a. y E B.y): (A X xEA. by the preceding problem.9}. On the other hand. FT} . (b. We have shown that (x. y) E A X C implies (x. y) E B X D. Let (x. Accordingly. hence (A X C) c (B X D).4. (b.3). Find (S x W) n (S x V).
.. set 'T(P) of the proposition P. ) logically implies the proposition Show that the truth sets 'T(P) and 'T(Q) are disjoint. 6] PRODUCT SETS 55 r. Find the truth set of the proposition First construct the truth table of p q r (p 1\ v q) 1\ (p v q) r: r pvq T T T T F F F F Now the proposition (p v q) 1\ T T F F T T F F T F T F T F T F T T T T T T F F T F T F T F F F Hence r is true only in the first.. (p v q) 1\ 6. 6.. by Theorem 6.3. q. q. ::: T(P) Since P logically implies Q. . T((p v q) 1\ r) = {TTT.. q.. c T(Q) is equivalent to T(P) n (T(Q»c Hence ::: 0 Furthermore..1(i). Show that the truth sets 'T(P) and 'T(Q) are disjoint.1(iii). 0 6.13. then its truth set is empty: T(P) n T(Q) ::: T(P 1\ T(P Q) ::: 1\ Q) ::= 0. ) is a tautology. q. Let P = P(p..CHAP.. P is false for any truth values of its variables. q. third and fifth cases. i. by Theorem 6. (T(Q»c ::: T(Q). then P is true for any truth of P is the universal set: T(P) = U. ) be propositions such that P contradiction. T(P) n T(Q) 0 . ) and Q = Q(p. Hence. Determine the truth If P is a contradiction. But by Theorem 5.11. Hence the truth set of P is empty: T(P)::: 0. values of its variables. Determine the truth Hence the truth set set If P is a tautology. = Pip. Suppose that Q = Q(p. . Suppose the proposition P 'T(P) of the proposition P.. ). then there is no case in which P is true. If P 1\ 1\ Q is a Q is a contradiction. ) is a contradiction. . q. Suppose the proposition P = Pip. the proposition P = Pip.12. . T(P) is a subset of T(Q)... FTT} 6. 6.. .14.15.e. TFT.
(David. Eric). Let W = {Mark. Paul)} W X V {(Mark. Find: 6. = = {b. Find x and y.. {Eric. Wand Z have 3. Let A = B n C. ) logically imply the proposition Q the union of the truth sets T(P) and T(Q) is the universal set: T(P) = = U Q(p. Show that T(Q) = U. Suppose that the sets V.29. (Eric. Construct the tree diagram of S X T X Wand 6.. Eric).1S. 6. ) be propositions such that P v Q is a tautology.2). 6.1. Let S {a. 6. {(Eric. TRUTH SETS OF PROPOSITIONS 6.2S. (Eric. P3 and P4 which appear coordinate diagram of {I. (Eric. Paul). Pi (i) (ii) = (1. Find the truth set of (p v q) Find the truth set of (p > > 1\ r. PRODUCT SETS 6. = = = Show 6. in Problem 6. (ii) Z X V X W. 4} X {2. 6 Supplementary Problems ORDERED PAIRS. below in the Find the ordered pairs corresponding to the points Pi' P2.17. 2. . d} and W = {a..17. David)} (Paul. (iii) W X Z X V. = Determine if either statement (ii) A X A (B X B) n (C X C). q. and then find A X B X C. 3. d}. (Mark.19. y = 3. 4 and 5 elements respectively.4). (David.2. Find the truth set of p v <q. 2 4 2 s8 6 r.1. 6. b.. . y + 2). Eric).4. x = 2.. (Eric. = = = Construct the "tree diagram" of Ax B X C. (p ~ r). Paul} and let (i) W X V.56 PRODUCT SETS [CHAP.27. David}.25. 6. Answers to Supplementary Problems 6.22. Find the truth set of p ~ q.6) and P4 = (3. Mark). c. = is true: (B X C) n (C X B).2.23. (Paul. David). B {I. (Eric.26. q. 2x + 1) = (x . Let A {2. 4. 6. (iii) V2 = V X V V. . ). (David. 6. ) and Q Q(p. VX W (iii) VX V . as 6. Prove: A X (B u C) = (A X B) u (A X C). q. Pz = (2.16. 8}. David)} (David. c}. (David. Let the proposition P Pip. P3 = (4. Eric). David).3}. 3.. {(Eric. David). Eric. of elements in (i) V X W X Z. Suppose (y . that the union of the truth sets T(P) and T(Q) is the universal set: T(P) U T(Q) U. T then find S X T X W.21.8). 6.4}. (i) A X A Determine the number 6. q) Let P Pip.16. q. . Mark). Eric).. PI P. 5} and C {3. (ii) V X W.. Eric). 6. 1 234 6. Eric).20.1S.
(b. (b.3. (A X B) u (A X G) Observe that the logical law 6.26.3) (3. {(x.1. d) b. yE B or y E G} {(x. FFF} 6. aLe <:::::::::: ~ ~ d b<::::::::::a <:::::::::: d a (a. 6. 61 PRODUCT SETS 57 (2.20. a) c. > ~r) = 1')) {TTF. FFT. p 1\ (q V r) _ (p 1\ q) V (p 1\ r) was used in the third step above. FTF.CHAP.24. a) c.22. d) e.3. The elements of S X T X Ware Each has 60 elements. a) d. Both are true: A X (BuG) the ordered triplets listed to the right of the tree diagram. FT} {TF. 5<:::::::! 5C:::::::::! The elements of A X B X G are the ordered triplets to the right of the tree diagram b. TFF. > 1\ (p ~ = {TTT.1. (c. (a.5. a) d. d) d. v ~q) v q) q) 6. d) b. FT.4) above. (a. (c.y) y E B.3. a) c. FFF} . 3~:~. (b.19. d) d. (c.23.1. y) : x E A. 6. A.y): (x. or x E A. (b. d) c. FTF. 6.4) (3. d) d. a) d. T(p ~ T(~p T«p T«p ~q) = = {TF.25. y): xEA. y E G} or (x. (a.4) (3. d) c. 6.21.1.3) (2. (a. (c.5.4) (2.27.y) E A X G} E A X B.3) (2.3) (3.4) (3.3) (3. (c.y): {(x. FF} 6.3) (2. d) 6. (a.5. (c. A X A = (B X B) n (G X G) {(x. 2~:~. a) b. a) b.4) (2. (b. a) b. (b.yEBuG} xE (B X G) n (G X B).3.5.
For. written aRb (ii) "a is not related to b". we redefine a relation by Definition: I A relation R from A to B is a subset of Ax Let R be the following relation from B={a. c). symbolized by "< ". 3} Then 1 R a. either m is married to w or m is not married to w.2: Set inclusion is a relation in any class of sets. c). the sentence "x is less than y". given any pair of sets A and B. b) in A x B exactly one of the following statements: (i) "a is related to b". simply. b). is a relation in any set of real numbers. given any ordered pair (a. any subset R* of Ax B defines a relation R from A to B as follows: aRb iff (a. b. 3 R a.2: Let R be the following relation R Then a in W * = * an 1 2 3 = {a. a). relation R from a set A to a set B assigns to each pair (a. either AcB or A¢B.Chapter Relations RELATIONS 7 A binary relation or. Example 1. eRe * 58 .1: Example 1. Marriage is a relation from the set M of men to the set W of women. either a is perpendicular to b or a is not perpendicular to b. (3. b). (a. For. For. Order. = {(a. c}: * a. (c. either a<b or a<t:b Perpendicularity is a relation in the set of lines in the plane.b}: R {(1. b) E R* In view of the correspondence between relations R from A to B and subsets of A x B. 2 b. or. The relation R is displayed on the coordinate diagram of AX B on the right. Example 2. b) : aRb} On the other hand. B. b): a is related to b} = {(a. to Example 2. b) of real numbers.1: A = {I. (c. b)} and c a. and 3 b.4: RELATIONS AS SETS OF ORDERED PAIRS Now any relation R from a set A to a set B uniquely defines a subset R* of Ax B as follows: R* = {(a. given any pair of lines a and b. 2. written a$b A relation from a set A to the same set A is called a relation in A. (1. Example 1. For. aRb. equivalently.3: Example 1. given any man mE M and any woman w E W.
e. R is an equivalence relation if R is (i) reflexive. < b.2: (i) if whenever aRb then bRa.e. c) E R implies (a. b) E R implies (b. b) E R} Consider the relation in A = = = b {(I.3).1: (i) R. denoted by ~ or pairs in A X A with equal coordinates: ~A is the set of all = {(a.3). (3. 7] RELATIONS 59 ~A' Example 2. (ii) The relation R of perpendicularity of lines in the plane is not transitive. b) E R < and (a.1). then f3 is similar to a. 3}. A relation (iii) transitive. A relation R in a set A is called symmetric (a. then a is parallel and not perpendicular to e. 3)} {(2. Then (ii) Let R be the relation < in any set of real numbers. For if triangle (ii) The relation R = {(1. 2). for every a E A. Example 4. iff a < and > (a.3). a) E R. c) E R. (2. (a. = {1. The identity relation in A. i. symmetric and transitive. INVERSE RELATION Let R be a relation from A to B. (1. (3. if (a. a is The relation R of similarity of triangles is transitive since if triangle similar to f3 and f3 is similar to y. (3. (2. a) E A relation R in a set A is called reflexive Example 4.2)} to the relations iff a> b {I. i. respectively. Since if line a is perpendicular to line b and line b is perpendicular to line c.1: = Then {(b. Example 4. I)} in A since (2. Rand Observe that in A. and is an Example 4.e. i. 2) ~ R.. 2. b) E R iff a Then R is not reflexive since a <t: a for any real number a.3) E R but (3. Let R be the relation of similarity in the set of triangles in the plane.3: Let A be any set. similar to triangle f3.1). 3} is not symmetric A relation R in a set A is called transitive if whenever i. The inverse of R.2). denoted by R::'. a): R Rl (a. .2: The inverses of the relations are respectively defined by and and "x is the husband of y" "x is the wife of y" "x is taller than y" "x is shorter than y" EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS if aRa. a): a E A} The identity relation is also called the diagonal by virtue of its position in a coordinate diagram of Ax A. b) E Rand (b. i. if a is The relation R of similarity of triangles is symmetric.e. R is reflexive since every triangle is similar to itself. (2.e. then a is similar to y.4: By the three preceding examples. the relation R of similarity of triangles equivalence relation since it is reflexive. (ii) symmetric.CHAP. (a.3: (i) aRb and b R c then aRc. is the relation from B to A which consists of those ordered pairs which when reversed belong to R: R:! Example 3. b) E Rl Example 3. 2. R=! are identical.
{2. 3. 5}. 5}. x == y (mod 5) which reads "x is congruent to y modulo 5" and which means that the difference x . (i) (ii) Then the quotient set A I R a E raj. i. is called the quotient {raj : a E A} property of a quotient set is contained in the following theorem. (ii) is not a partition of X since 5 E X and 5 belongs to both {I. {7. 14. such that each a E X belongs to one and only one of the subsets..1: {x: (a.1: Consider the following classes of subsets of X (i) (ii) (iii) = {I.. (iii) is a partition of X since each element of X belongs to exactly one cell. . = = { 5..60 PARTITIONS RELATIONS [CHAP. {5... 9}] [{I. 5}. 4. .2. 4. (i) X ••• . 9.. 4. 7.. 3. . denoted by A I R. Example 5.. 8. for every a E A. 9}: [{I. 9. 3.. Furthermore. called the equivalence class of A. 6}.e. } · . . 7 A partition of a set X is a subdivision of X into subsets which are disjoint and whose union is X. 7. · . be the set of elements to which a is related: [aj AIR The fundamental Theorem 7..} 2. 5. Thus the collection {Al' A2. 4. [aj = [b] if and only if (a. let raj. . = {. Then R5 is an equivalence relation in Z. 3. (iii) if [aJ Example 6. 11.} = Observe that each integer x which is uniquely expressible in the form x 5q + r where 0"" r < 5 is a member of the equivalence AT where r is the remainder. 5} and {5.1: Let R5 be the relation [b]. 12. is a partition of A.8. 8. 9}. . · . Am} of subsets of X is a partition (ii) for any Ai. On the other hand. 7. the set of integers. { . {2. for each a E A. 13.} · ... Let R be an equivalence relation in a set A.y is divisible by 5. {2. 9}] Then (i) is not a partition of X since 7 E X but 7 does not belong to any of the cells. 10. The subsets in a partition are called cells.Aj' either Ai=Aj of X iff: or AinAj=~ = A1UA2U···UAm. {4. 8}. 3.. 1. = { . 0.. 6. .. 3. } · . 6.. 6. 7. 9}] [{I. then [aJ and [bJ are disjoint. 8}. Specifically. 8. b) =1= E R. . 2. defined by in Z. There are exactly five distinct equivalence classes in Z / R5: Ao Al A2 As A4 = {. 10. 6. Note that the equivalence classes are pairwise disjoint and that Z = Ao U Al U A2 U Ag U A4 . EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS AND PARTITIONS Let R be an equivalence relation in a set A and. 1. x) E R} of A by R: The collection of equivalence classes of A..
{x: (d. c). (2.5). 7. (3. (a.2). write the elements of R but in reverse order: Rl 3rr~f+++2 3 4 5 = {(6. d).2). (3. (d. 1). b). d} and let R be the relation in M consisting of those points which are displayed on the coordinate diagram of M X M on the right. b)} n! = {(b. then R = {(2. (c. (b. b). (3.. i.. (5. d).5).1. a). (i) Find all the elements in M which are related to b. 5)} (ii) R is sketched on the coordinate shown in the figure. Let R be the relation from E = {2. (5. (6.10)} (ii) R is sketched on the coordinate shown in the figure.+a t++I+ (ii) Find all those elements in M to which d is related. diagram of Ax B as 3r'~+~ lr~+r'_2 (iii) The inverse of R consists of the same pairs as are in R but in the reverse order.f.4} to B f1. b. hence pairs (a. (2. b).3.5). (10. (3.3. (b.6. (5. b). (10. < from A = {1. b). (d. (b. (b.2. 5} to F = {3. diagram of Ex F as 71+++f+6r . 5}. a). Hence the desired set is {a. b). (5. defined by (i) Write R as a set of ordered pairs. (ii) Plot R on a coordinate diagram of Ax B. 3). (ii) Plot R on a coordinate diagram of Ex F. b). that is. Let M = {a. b. (a. c). that is. b} is the desired set. b).3).e. (iii) Find the inverse relation R: '.10).e. as the second The vertical line through d contains all the points of R in which d appears as the first element: (d. b) and (d.3). 5)} 7. Hence {a.. (b. 4)} is the relation 3 4 Observe that Rl greater than y". (3. Let R be the relation "x is less than y".1).3).3). (iii) Find the inverse relation R:». hence u! = {(3. (c. (2. (i) Choose from the sixteen ordered pairs in Ex F those in which the first element divides the second. (iii) Find the inverse relation R: '. (4. b) E R}. (b. and then write the pairs R (iii) First in reverse order: {(a. a) and (d.2. (i) R consists of those ordered which a < b.+~ CI+r.2). d)} . d}. 4. c.CHAP.>. (1. 3. (5. 10} defined by "x divides y". defined by "x is 7. write R as a set of ordered pairs. {x: (x.3). i.2). (i) Write R as a set of ordered pairs._+r (iii) To find the inverse of R. a). dt+.. b) E A X B for R = {(1. 7] RELATIONS 61 Solved Problems RELATIONS 7. (i) (ii) a b C d The horizontal line through b contains all points of R in which b appears element: (a. x) E R}.3.6). . (d. 6).
e. Thus Rl c R. Hence (a. Thus R is reflexive iff (a. 2).3). 4}. (a.62 EQUIVALENCE 7. Now a relation R is not symmetric if there exists an ordered pair (a. R3 is transitive.t R since (4. (2. b) E R:». (3. . then (b. and so R C R:». = Let (a. b) E R. then (b. 3 "" 5 but 5/= 3. (iii) transitive. since if a since if a (ii) II f3 then and f3 II a f311 a. b) E Rand but (a.) (i) R is reflexive since. 7 Let R be the relation ~ in N = {I. (ii) symmetric.3) E Rl and (3. if the line a is parallel to the line f3 then f3 is (iii) R is transitive II f3 II y then a II y.2) E R2 and (2.3) f. Determine whether R is (i) reflexive. then (b. b) E R. a): Suppose R is symmetric. not necessarily distinct. b) E R iff a ~ b. and so R Rr». R = Rl. (i) R is reflexive iff ~ (i) (ii) Recall that A A Show that: (ii) R is symmetric iff R = R::'. such (a. (2.4. c) f. i. (4. Let (a. (3. a) e: R. = {(a. Let R be a relation in A. Let W {I. On the other hand.. symmetric 7.3) E R3 but (3.6. (iv) an equivalence relation. (ii) A relation R is not transitive that Hence Rj is not transitive if there exist elements a. c) E R c. such that whether each relation is (i) symmetric. but (4. (iv) an equivalence relation. R3 is not symmetric since On the other hand. for example. 2. (iii) transitive. band (b. (3. R is not symmetric since since.. (i) R is reflexive since a"" a for every a E N. (ii) symmetric.1) f. b) E Rr ).2). i.2)} {(1.4) f.3) f.t R2 (3. c R.1) f. R2 is symmetric. Now suppose symmetric. Furthermore. Determine whether R is (i) reflexive.t R3. R2 is not transitive since but (3. and transitive. a E A}. b) E R (b.e. by assumption. (2. b) E R.t Rl.3)} (ii) transitive. Consider the following relations in W: s. RELATIONS RELATIONS [CHAP. let (a. a) E R for every a E A iff c R. (iv) R is not an equivalence relation since it is not symmetric.t n. (ii) (iii) R is transitive a"" band b "" c implies a"" c. 7.5) E R but (5. 3. I)} {(2.7. R is symmetric parallel to a. (Assume that every line is parallel to itself. Hence: Rl is not symmetric since (4. Accordingly R is . 7.3) E R2 On the other hand.5. 2. by symmetry. Let R be the relation II (parallel) in the set of lines in the plane.3). R2 R3 Determine (i) {(1.1) E ti. (a.2).3. i. a) E R and.e.1). (iv) R is an equivalence relation since it is reflexive.3) E Rl but (3. }. (1. a) E Rl = R. a) E R by symmetry. a for every line a.t R.
f) be.g}. Suppose (a. and so R is symmetric. (ii) symmetric.d) Then and ad = = ba. b) "" (a. C3={d. To prove that [aJ c [bJ. Then the quotient Since R is reflexive. x) E Rand E R. 3}.a)ER for every aEA and therefore aE[aJ. [aJ = [bJ.e. 3)} (3. b) E R. . (a. for every a E A. {Dl} X since fEX Which of are partitions of X? (i) {Al>A2. by (i). A3 = {d.e. 7] RELATIONS 63 7. Consider the relation R = {(I. {Cl. A3}. By symmetry.g}. (a.g}. C3} is a partition of X X = Cl U C2 U C3 and the sets (iv) {Dl} is a partition of X.e. Specifically. Thus [bJc[aJ.x)ER. B3 = {b. and transitive. = {a.g}. Consequently. and so R is transitive. then. {Bl. are pairwise disjoint. (iii) if [a] # [b]. Let N = {I.c. be. that (b. relation. or A3• X since eEX belongs to both Bl and B3• since each element in X belongs to exactly one cell. (c. Rr ) = {(1. But by hypothesis (a.f}. 1). then [a] and [b] are disjoint. b) since Suppose (a.b)ER. b) ° [aJ = [bJ x E [aJ n [bJ.d)~(e. (ii) ra] = [b] if and only if (a. A2.d.9. (iii) transitive. R is. ~ = ~ iff ad = be. by cancelling from both sides.1: Let R be an equivalence relation in a set A. but f does not belong to either Aj. 7.11. then hence (a.2)} in X = {I.g}.10. (i) a E [a].3).e}.b.j. i.8.b. i.e. Hence cf=de. bE Proof of (iii). statement: We prove the equivalent if contrapositive # [aJ n [bJ If (b. Accordingly. {AI' A2. d) ~ (a. (3. B2.B2.. set A / R is a partition of A. and let: Al = {a.0.B3} is not a partition of (iii) {Cl. Let (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) X = {a. by transitivity.b. a) E R. b) E R implies. we obtain [aJc[bJ. b) is written ~. Then by a similar argument. Determine whether or not R is (i) r fiexive. d). (i) (ii) R is not reflex ve since R is symmetric since 2 E X but (2. but (3. (x.j. then (b. B2 = {c. . Let xE[bJ. A2 = {b}. we observe that (a.e.2) il R. then there exists an element x E A with E R.2).c.2) E Rand (2. On the other hand. eb Prove that R is an equivalence relation. (2. b) E N X N.b)~(e. Proof Proof of (i). d) iff ab ad = be hence R is reflexive. Cl={a. Accordingly xE[aJ.f). b) E R and by transitivity. Ca}. Dl = {a. }.d. the usual definition of equality between fractions. C2.f}. Since R is reflexive. C2. Prove Theorem 7. x) [aJ n [bJ #. 2.b)ER and so. (a. 3.3) E R = R.b)ER.. B. (3. B3}. (a. b) "" (e. symmetric af = = (bc)(de) (a.x)ER.CHAP. (iii) R is not transitive since 7. if [aJ = [bJ. by symmetry. b) ~ (c. which implies that Then ad=be = da. [aJ = [bJ. R is an equivalence as a fraction Observe that if the ordered pair (a. C2={c}. then the above relation in fact. PARTITIONS 7. [bJ = raj. 1). We want to show that [aJ = [bJ.e. 2.d}.A3} is not a partition of (ii) {BI. For every (a. Hence (a. b) ~ (c. (ad)(ef) and and. b) Thus (e. (2.3) il R. of (ii). Consequently by (Ii). and let R be the relation ~ in N x N defined by (a. Now suppose (a.e.c.
1). 3). e: (d) x R 5}. {c.c.16.12. 3. (2.c}].b. {b. 7. {b.c}].b}] {b}. c. 5} and let R be the relation following coordinate diagram of C X C: = 3~1+~~+ 2 3 4 5 (i) (ii) State whether each is true or false: (a) 1 R 4. i.14. {b. 5} defined by "x and yare common divisor of x and y is I". of Ax A. 2. b}. Consider the following relations in W: {(1. {d}. (i) Write R as a set of ordered pairs. {d}. {d}] of X. 2.17.. d}]. {b}. {c}. [{a. 1). 3. or 4 distinct sets. either 1. x {(x. b. 3.64 RELATIONS [CHAP. (3) [{a}. c. {a.. } and let R be the relation R = in N defined by x. d} . c}] [{a}. I)} {(I. 7. (b) 2 R 5. [{a}. {c}. [{a. Let N = {I. Problems relatively diagram x 8} Let R be the relation in A = {2. The partitions of X contains [{b}. Find all the partitions of X Note first that each partition are as follows: (1) [{a. {a. (b) {x: (4. d}]. (4) [{a}. 4.d}]. < and =: in N = {I. {c. (3. 2. }. {a. [{c}. (c) 3 * {x: 1. d}] (2) [{a}.13. [{b}. 7 7. 2. (d) 5 t 3. 3.. [{d}. (c) {x: (x. {d}. (1. (2.. = {a. c}]. (ii) Find RI. . yEN.15.b. (4. {a. b. Find the elements of each of the following subsets of C: (a) {x: 3 R x}. [{b}. . There are fifteen different partitions Supplementary RELATIONS 7. in C consisting of the points displayed in the Let C {I.1). {b. 2.c. [{a. Consider the relations diagonal relation. WXW o or not each relation . d}.e. i. (ii) Plot R on a coordinate prime". c}. 4. {c}.2) R}. x) E R}. Let RELATIONS W = {I. 2)} R4 = = {(I.3). pairs.e. 4}. Show that < U Il = =: where Il is the EQUIVALENCE 7..d}].3)} RI R2 R3 Determine whether {(I. 3. d}]. {a. 8. 3. y): + 2y = + 2y = (i) Write R as a set of ordered 7.4)} is reflexive. (2. d}].d}]. "the only (iii) Find RI.2). {a. {b. [{c}.d}].
5).3}].2}] and . (iii) no. {1. Determine R is (i) reflexive. 2. 2.15. (5. 71 Determine Determine whether or not each relation whether or not each relation RELATIONS 65 7. (4.. [{3}.L of perpendicularity in the set of lines in the plane. R5 and R6 are the only symmetric All the relations (i) no.4).b): {(a. T.7). 5}.6)} (b) (i) T. i.bEN} = {(1.3}]. (5.4. 2. {1. = {I. {2. (2. F.3}j. d) iff +d =b +c class of (2. [{I}. (iii) transitive. 7. Show that if relations Rand reflexive and symmetric. ••• .19. b) (i) Prove == (c. then R S is also 7.3). 5}.5)].23. (2.17.20. in Problem 7.CHAP.2).4). I)}. } [(2. (6. {2}. 7. Let N 7.22. (d) {3} R5 is the only reflexive relation.e.19.j=I. Find Let all partitions [A"A2.3).. {2.4}. a a+5=b+2. (ii) relations. .21.4). R4. {3.18.B2. == is an equivalence relation. (4. (ii) Find the equivalence relations in a set X. (ii) R (i) no. 6}. } and let == be the relation in N X N defined by a (a.5).20.17 is symmetric. whether Let R be the relation .2). [(2. 3. Prove: relation (i) (ii) If Rand in X. a. {3}] [{1. (ii) symmetric.m. [B1. 7.5). 4.23. {2}.. (3. 5. (iv) an equivalence relation.25. (ii) (a) {1. 7. 7. 5}. 3.l3. of X. F.. (4. Give an example of transitive S are relations each Rand reflexive and U S for which R u S is not transitive. [{2}. (iv) yes [{I}.3). are transitive. (2. 6}] is a partition of W: [{I. (iii) yes. (called the cross pat'tition) Answers to Supplementary Problems 7. (3... 3.. {4}.2).2)} and S = (ii) no. 6}1 I{l. {3.Am] and .24.24.2. PARTITIONS 7. 7. . {3.3).4}.5). u! = {(3. (4. 6}] 7. ••• (iii) [{I. (1. 7. 7. S are equivalence R n S is also an equivalence symmetric. . (3. then 7.5)] + 3): a E N} {(2.25. .6}] of V = {I.4)} R {(2. 5. 7. R R :» = {(2. (3.2). 3)} 7. (i) (ii) Determine whether each of the following (iv) [{I. 0. (ii) yes.14. Let W {I.17 is transitive. = {(1. {2}. 2. . 3.3. 4. (c) {2.n] Show that the collection of sets [AinBj: is also a partition .21. 7. 7. (5. 5}.Bn] be partitions i=l. 3}. {I. (iv) no {(a.5).5}..26.6). of a set X.18. 7. in Problem 7.
of such assignments is called a function (or mapping) from (or on) A into B and is written f:A ~ B or A_!_"B The unique element in B assigned to a E A by I is denoted by I(a). and to each irrational number the number 1. that is. Here I(a) = b. d} A > E. c c and d > b define a function 1 from A into E. the codomain B. y. The domain of I is A. c}.. The following diagram defines a function Here I(a) = y. I(b) = c. Thus I(x) I if x is rational { 1 if x is irrational The range of 1 consists of 1 and 1: I[R] = {I. c. for every real number x let 2• Then the image of 3 is 9 and so we may write 1(3) 9 or I: 3 > 9. I: = and B = {x. b. Here the domain of 1 is the set of countries in the world. that is.1: Let I(x) = {f(a): a E A} I =x assign to each real number its square. and called the image of a under I or the value of f at a. c. that is. that is. t. the range 66 . d} and B a Example 1. I(France) = Paris. Let A = {a. I[A] Example 1. b > c.c}. b.5: Let A {a. the collection. and the codomain are identical. = Example 1. I(c) = z and I(d) = y. denoted by f[A] is the set of images. and let I: R > R assign to each rational number the number 1. I[A] {b.3: == > {a. Example 1.e. I(b) = x. Also I[A] = E. = = b. The assignments > b. z}. I(c) = c and I(d) The range of I is {b.4: Let R be the set of real numbers. b.Chapter 8 Functions DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION Suppose that to each element of a set A there is assigned a unique element of a set B.c}. The range of I. i.I}.2: Let 1 assign to each country in the world its capital city. Example 1. The image of France is Paris. the codomain is the list of cities of the world.
CHAP.1. 3). we do not distinguish between a function and its graph. is the graph of f as shown in the diagram.3: = f: R . (2. that is..1: in exactly one ordered pair (a. 1) and (2. If h is to be a function it cannot assign both 3 and 2 to the element 1 EA./(a» the relation in A X B given by : a E A} We call this set the graph of f. f(2) 3 and f(3) 1. (0.3). written 1= g. then I(a) = b. if I(a) = g(a) for every a E A. I)} = {(I.1 . b) in in Example 1. Let i :A > B be the function defined by the diagram graph of f is the relation {(a. For example. (b. (3. A realvalued function f(x) = = = Example 2. 3}: f o h {(1. a relation from A to B. 6 2 o 5 1 3 2 Graph of f(x) = 2x . (3. y)} Then the Example 2.2). its graph is a line in the Cartesian plane R2. is a function if it possesses the following Each a E A appears as the first coordinate Accordingly. i. (c. The graph of a linear function can be obtained by plotting (at least) two of its points.8J FUNCTIONS 67 GRAPH OF A FUNCTION To each function I: A 7 B there corresponds {(a. (1.. Also h is not a function from A into A since 1 E A appears as the first coordinate of two distinct ordered pairs in h.3). x). to obtain the graph of f(x) = 2x . (2.2: Consider the following relations in A = {I. (1. Example 2. (2. The line through these points. (3.2).. I)} f is a function from A into A since each member of A appears as the first coordi nate in exactly one ordered pair in i: here f(l) 3. 5). if (a.R of the form ax + b (or: defined by y = ax + b) x f(x) is called a linear function. set up a table with at least two values of x and the corresponding values of f(x) as in the adjoining table. f. The negation of 1= g is written 1# g and is the statement: there exists an a E A for which I(a) A subset property: [F] # g(a) I of Ax B. b) E I.5. I)} = {(1. y). Two functions f: A 7 Band g: A 7 B are defined to be equal. if they have the same graph.e.1). z). Accordingly.2). 2. g is not a function from A into A since 2 E A is not the first coordinate of any pair in g and so {j does not assign any image to 2. (d.3) and (1.3).
Consider. The graph of such a function is sketched by plotting various points and drawing a smooth continuous curve through them.3.4: A realvalued f(x) function FUNCTIONS [CHAP. for example. g(f(a)).2x . by definition. (g 0 f)(a) Example 3. the function f(x) = x2 . the domain of g. Hence we can find the image of f(a) under the function g..1: Let f: A > = g(!(a)) C be defined by the following diagrams: Band A g: B > f B g C We compute (g 0 f) : A > C by its definition: (g (g (g 0 0 f)(a) f)(b) f)(c) g(f(a)) g(f(b)) g(f(c)) g(y) g(z) r to "following the arrows" 0 g(y) Notice that the composition function go f is equivalent from A to C in the diagrams of the functions f and g. then its image f(a) is in B.e.68 Example 2. . Set up a table of values for X and then find the corresponding values for f(x) as in the adjoining table.. i. 8 f: R > R of the form x f(x) 5 0 = aoxn + alXn1 + . The diagram shows these points and the sketch of the graph.3 COMPOSITION FUNCTION f: A '> Consider now functions Band g: B '> C illustrated below: Let a E A. The function from A into C which assigns to each a E A the element g(!(a)) E C is called the composition or product of f and g and is denoted by go f. + anIX + an 2 1 0 1 is called a polynomial function. Hence. y 2 3 4 3 4 3 0 5 Graph of f(x) = x2  2x .
.. h is oneone since the elements in the domain.CHAP. y and z. Hence I: A> B is onto iff the range of I is the entire codomain. since 2 E B is not the image of any element in the domain A. x. g and h in the preceding example. Let R be the set of real numbers and let defined as follows: I(x) Then I is not onto On the other hand. I[A 1 = B. i. g: R h(x) > Rand x2 h: R > R be = 2x. Example 4. Equivalently. We compute a general formula for these functions: (f 0 g)(x) (g o/)(x) I(g(x)) g(f(x)) I(x + 3) = (x + 3)2 = x2 + 6x + 9 g(x2) = x2 +3 ONEONE AND ONTO FUNCTIONS A function I: A > B is said to be onetoone (or: oneone or 11) if different elements in the domain have distinct images. C and g D defined by the followh D f B C Now 1 is not oneone since the two elements a and c in its domain have the same image 1. 8] FUNCTIONS 69 I: R > Example 3. g: B. A function I: A > B is said to be onto (or: I is a function from A onto B or I maps A onto B) if every b E B is the image of some a E A.2: Let R be the set of real numbers. both g and h are onto functions. On the other hand.e.3: I: x R > R. and let follows: and I(x) x2 Rand g: R > R be defined as = g(x) = x +3 25 7 Then (f 0 g)(2) (g 0/)(2) = = l(g(2)) g(l(2)) = = 1(5) g(4) = = Observe that the product functions log and go 1 are not the same function. g(x) = x3  and = The graphs of these functions follow: I(x) = 2x g(x) =x 3 X h(x) = x2 .. Also. g is not oneone since 1 and 3 have the same image y.1: = I(a') I: implies A > a = a' h: C > Consider the functions ing diagram: A B..2: Consider the functions I. I: A > B is oneone if I(a) Example 4. have distinct images. Example 4.
which assigns to each element in A itself. then fI is a function from B onto A and is called the inverse function. Note that the identity function 1A is the same as the diagonal relation: 1A = ~A' The identity function satisfies the following properties: Theorem 8. the inverse relation t:' of a function f c A x B need not be a function. s. 8 The function I is oneone. then fIOf 1A and fofl 1B = = The converse of the previous theorem is also true: Theorem 8. this means that each horizontal line contains at least one point of g. II can be obtained from the diagram of I by revers For any set A. the two elements 2 and 2 have the same image 4. and so has an inverse function t:' :B ~ A. geometrically. seen by the following diagram of f: Hence the inverse relation II is a function from B into A.e. Example 5. if f is both oneone and onto. The function g is onto. = = INVERSE AND IDENTITY FUNCTIONS In general. Theorem 8. is called the identity function on A and is usually denoted by 1A or simply 1. b. a).2: If f: A ~ B is both oneone and onto. (r. r)} This can easily be I = is a function from A into B which is both oneone and onto. i. for h(2) h(2) 4. b). this means that each horizontal line does not contain more than one point of I. for example.1: For any function f: A ~ B. = {(s. fog = 1B . (e. the function f: A ~ A defined by f(x) = x. t).e. e)} The diagram of II follows: Observe that the diagram of ing the arrows. Then {(a. (t. t}. However. and h[R] is a proper subset of R.1: Let A = {a. and g = i:'. geometrically. s). i. (b. 16 tl h[R].70 FUNCTIONS [CHAP.3: Let f: A ~ Band g: B ~ A satisfy gof = 1A and Then f is both oneone and onto. The function h is neither oneone or onto. c} and B = {r.
Find: (i) t(4). x and z. g and h be the functions of the preceding problem. . On the other hand. (ii) No. /(2) /(3) == 5.2. and to each nonpositive number number 4. write f as a set of ordered pairs. form the graph of f. 5} and let [: A 4 A be the function defined in the diagram: (i) Find the range of (ii) Find the graph of (i) (Ii) f. 2.Y.4. State whether B {x. i.4.z}. (iii) h(4).b. g(O). (ii) g(4).1. then h(x) 4. 1(4) == 2 and /(5) == 3. where a E A. t(2). (iii) Yes.3. or not each diagram defines a function from A [a. 3. 8.3)}. hence /[A] == {2. h(O). == 0. h(2). Two elements. as the image of any elements of A. (4. hence / == {(1. 8] FUNCTIONS 71 Solved Problems FUNCTIONS 8. 8.c} into (i) (ii) (iii) (i) No. 3 and 5 appear The range ![A] of the function / consists of all the image points. then (iii) If == > 0. if /(0) x == 03 == O. == x3• (i) Since / assigns to any number x its cube x3.2).3). let g assign the number 5. Now only 2.CHAP. g(2). There is nothing assigned to the element bE A. /(4) == 5. (3. == 4 hence h(4) == 42 and h(O) == 4. 1 can be defined by I(x) (ii) Since g assigns 5 to any number x./(a)).5). Rewrite (i) To (ii) To (iii) To let each of the each number each number each positive h assign the following functions using a formula: let t assign its cube. are assigned to c E A. Let t. == 16. Let A = {l. 3. == 5.e. t(O). (i) (ii) Now I(x) Since x h(x) g(x) == x3 for every number x. we can define g by g(x) == 5. 43 == 64. (2. t. 5}. == 5. (5. Now /(1) == 3. number let h assign its square. thus h(2) == X2. hence 5 for every number x. /(2) g(2) == (2)3 g(O) == g(4) == == 5 and == 8. (iii) Two different rules are used to define h as follows: h(x) X2 { if x> 0 4 if x == 0 8. The ordered pairs (a.5).
(4. Find the geometric conditions under which a set f of points on the coordinate diagram of Ax B defines a function f: A > B. 2 and find the corresponding values of I(x): 1(2) == 3(2) .7. 8.4). 8 Let X = {I. two different ordered pairs (b. 1). as (iii) Yes. 0. Although 2 E X appears as the first coordinate in two ordered pairs in h. 3.8. d}.4)} (1. (iii) h Determine whether or not each relation is a function from (2.5. ordered pairs are equal. The element 2 E X does not appear as the first coordinate in any ordered pair (iii) Yes.3). d c b a a b (i) (i) (ii) d d c b a c b a c d a b (ii) c d a b c d (iii) No. x 2 f(x) 8 2 4 (2. (1. (i) f {(3.2 2. say. c.2).4) o 2 (2. i. b) and (b.1). x == 2.3) and (2.2).6.e. c E W does not appear the first element in any ordered pair. The vertical line through c contains no point of the set. GRAPHS OF REALVALUED 8.2 == 8.8) . (3. Set up a table with three values of x. 1). el) contain the same first element b. these two Recall that a subset 1 of X X X is a function I: X > X if and only if each a E as the first coordinate in exactly one ordered pair in I. Let W = {a. Each vertical line contains exactly one point of the set. Sketch the graph of f(x) This is a linear function. 8. only two points (three as a check) are needed to sketch its graph. {(2. I)} (1. Determine whether the set of points in each coordinate diagram of W x W is a function from W into W.4)} X appears their first in g. FUNCTIONS [CHAP. i. Two different ordered pairs (2. 4}.72 8. No.e. The vertical line through b contains two points of the set. f(O) == 3(0) . b. 2.4). (2.1).1) in 1 have the same number 2 as coordinate.4). (ii) No. FUNCTIONS = 3x . The requirement that each a E A appear as the first coordinate in exactly one ordered pair in 1 is equivalent to the geometric condition that each vertical line contains exactly one point in f. (i) No. (ii) g {(2. f(2) == 3(2)  2 == 4 Draw the line through these points as in the diagram. (4. (3.2. (4. X into X.
Consider the functions f g {(1. (4.5).2)} {(1.10. (i) Determine the composition functions go f and fog. OF FUNCTIONS f: A ~ Band f Let the functions A g: B ~ C be defined by the diagram B c (i) Find the composition (i) function (g (g (g a a 0 go f: A ~ C. (2. t} Note that the ranges of g and go f are different. 5} into X. hence range of g = {r.3). (2. hence range of go f = {s. In each case.4).3)} the range of f and of g.1).CHAP.2).11. COMPOSITION 8. (5. t} range of f = {x.9. (3. 8. set up a table of values for x and then find the corresponding values of fix). 2. By the diagram. from X = {I. We use the definition of the composition function f)(a) f)(b) f)(c) g(f(a)) = = g(f(b)) g(f(e)) = = g(x) g(y) = = s t Note that we arrive at the same answer if we "follow the arrows" a > y > t. the images under the composition function are t and s. 3. s. (4. and then draw a smooth continuous curve through the points: (i) x fix) (ii) x 4 3 2 1 0 1 6 0 2 1 0 1 15 0 4 6 6 4 0 3 0 2 3 2 3 4 3 0 15 4 6 Graph of f. b > x > s. Plot the points in a coordinate diagram. (ii) Find . y} and By (i). 8] FUNCTIONS 73 8. 4. g and go f. (5. (ii) g(x) = g(x) x3  3x2  X + 3.3). (ii) Find the ranges of to compute: g(y) t.1). (3. C > Y > t (ii) in the diagram: T. Graph of g. and the images under g are sand t. Sketch the graph of (i) f(x) = X2 +X  6. the images under the function f are x and y.1).
12.2 1  2 + 4x Observe that the same answer can be found by writing y and then eliminating = z f(x) = + 1 (2x = =  g(y) 4x2 2) = + 4x y from both equations: y2 .5). 2.2 = (f + 1)2  2 f(x2 (ii) Compute fog Note that as follows: fog =1= gof.13. 0 g)(x) f(g(x» = = 2(x2 2) +1 2X2  3.3)} 8. {(l. 0 0 A'?B'?C'?D 0 f 9 h For every a E A. Compute go f as follows: (g 0 f)(x) = 2x g(f(x» = and g(2x + 1) = z (2x + 1)2y2 . 1). (5. the set of second coordinates. i. e}. «h (h g) 0 f)(a) 0 (g 0 f»(a) Hence (h 0 g) 0 f h 0 (g 0 f). 1.1).4). (3.1. = = = (h 0 g)(f(a» 0 h«g f)(a» = = h(g(f(a») h(g(f(a») Accordingly. and range of g = {4. since they each assign the same image to every a E A.3). functions t. (3.e. Prove the associative law for composition of functions: then (h 0 if g) 0 f = h (g I).3). 1. 2} (ii) Use the definition of the composition function (g (g (g (g (g 0 and compute: (f (f (f (f (f 0 f)(1) f)(2) f)(3) f)(4) f)(5) g(f(1)) g(f(2)) g(/(3) g(f(4» g(f(5» gof fog g(3) g(5) g(3) g(1) g(2) 1 3 1 4 1 g)(1) g)(2) g)(3) g)(4) g)(5) f(g(1)) f(g(2» f(g(3) f(g(4» f(g(5» f(4) f(1) f(1) f(2) f(3) 1 3 3 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 In other words. (4. c. Let A = {a. d.14. b. and let B be the set of letters in the alphabet. (2. 5.74 (i) The range of a function FUNCTIONS [CHAP. Let the functions f and g be defined by f(x) = 2x formulas defining the composition functions (i) got (i) +1 and and g(x) (ii) fog. 3} hence range of f = {3. (4. we may simply write the composition function without parentheses: hog 0 f. 8 is the set of image values. Observe that go f =1= fog. = = x2 4x2  2. 1)} {(1. ONEONE AND ONTO FUNCTIONS 8. (5.3). 8. 1). Find . (2. g and h from A into B be defined as follows: f 9 Let the h a '? r b'?a C '? S a '? z b'?y C '? X a b '? a e '3> C C '3> d'3>r e '? e d'3>Y e '? z (ii) d'3>r e '3> S (i) Are any of these functions oneone? (iii) .
(ii) To each country in the world assign the latitude and longitude of its capital. Determine if each function is oneone. . Since 9 is onto. B is not onto since 3 E B is not the image of any element in A. 0 0 8. (i) (Ii) No. h: C > D is onto since each element in D is the image of some element of C. c h D (i) Determine (i) The function The function The function (ii) Now if each function is onto. Accordingly. ~ C is also onto. then the composition function go f : A ~ C is also oneone. there exists abE Since f is onto. f == {(a.CHAP. Let c be any arbitrary element of C. No. Hence each c E C is the image of some element a E A. (i) (ii) No. Accordingly. For h assigns distinct (iii) Yes.f(a) == g(b) == c go f is an onto function. (iv) Yes. Prove: gof:A If f: A ~ Band g: B ~ C are onto functions. 8. Different countries in the world have different prime ministers.4)}. Many people in the world have the same age. Yes.e. There are different books with the same author. c > 2 > x > 4. (iii) To each book written by only one author assign the author. Let (g f) (a) == (g f)(a'). (c. b > 1 > y > 6. 8.16. For 9 assigns z to both a and e. go f is also oneone. g: B ~ C and f B 9 h: C ~ D be defined by the diagram. assign its prime (iii) No. i. f: A > (ii) Find the composition function hog 0 f. Hence hog 0 a > 2 > x > 4. a == a' since f is oneone. But then (g 0 f)(a) == g(. there exists an a E A such that f(a) == b. 8. g(f(a» == g(f(a'».17.4). (iv) To each country in the world which has a prime minister minister. 6). (b. For a function is oneone if it assigns f assigns r to both a and d.15. Let the functions A f: A ~ B. g: B > C is not onto since z E C is not the image of any element in B. Furthermore. (i) To each person on the earth assign the number which corresponds to his age. then the composition function B such that g(b) == c. Then f(a) = f(a') since 9 is oneone. images to different elements in the domain. 8] FUNCTIONS 75 distinct image values to distinct elements in Recall that the domain. Prove: If f : A ~ Band g: B ~ C are oneone functions.18.
(a. (b. c)} is a oneone.3(y . (e. Now I is oneone and onto.3(y) (a2)2 (x2)2  + 2 = y2 2) + 2 = a4 3(a 3(x2) (I) (g) I(y . simply write each ordered pair = {(b. 8 I: W ~ W. onto function from A into A.1(4) (I) I(y . d}. Let I: R ~ R be defined by I(x) = 2x . +9+2 = +2 3a2 + 2 20 1(4) 3y  = (4)2 . hence I has an inverse function 11• Find a formula for 11• Let y be the image of x under the function y I: = I(x) = 2x  3 Consequently. Find the inverse function 11• To find the inverse function in reverse order: 11.3(2) +2 = + 2 = 0.z) I(x = = +2 = 3(x (y . has an inverse function. 5} and let the following diagrams: FUNCTIONS [CHAP. d)} MISCELLANEOUS 8.19. 2. Then I = {(a. (c. g: W ~ Wand h: W ~ W be defined by Determine whether each function has an inverse function.20. (a) 1(3) = (3)2 .3.3(3) (b) 1(2) (e) (d) (e) (2)2 . Let W = {1.76 INVERSE FUNCTIONS 8. (d. e). b). 8. c. 4.3(4) +2 = 30.z)2 . oneone and onto. hence h. 11 which is the inverse relation. the function must be both Only h is oneone and onto.21. a).3) (k) l(x (l) 2 + 1)) I(x) I(x)llh 1(2) .30 = 30 (y)2 .22.3y + 3z + 2 + h) + 2 = x2 + 2xh + h2 .2yz + Z2 . x will be the image of y under the inverse function in the above equation: x (y + 3)/2 11• Solve for x in terms of y = Then is a formula defining the inverse 1 1 (y) = (y + 3)/2 function. b.z) (x + h)2  3x2 + 2 + 2 = y2 . d). Let A = {a. a). Then 1(2) .z) (h) I(x (c) I(y) l(a 2) + h) + 3) 9 3x + I(x + 3) + 2) (n) I(x (0) + h) [I(x + h)  1(I(x)) The function assigns to any element the square of the element minus 3 times the element plus 2.3x . b). Find: (m) 1(I(x I(X2) I(x (i) 1(2x3) (j) 1(2x .1(4) I(y) l(a2) l(x2) = = = + h) = 0 . 8. (d. and only h. 3. In order for a function to have an inverse.3h + 2 x4  . Let the function (a) 1(3) (b) (d) PROBLEMS I: R ~ R be defined by I(x) (e) (g) =  x2  3x + 2.
3x . b. b)} (iv) {(a.f(x) = (x2 + 2xh + h2 .6x3 + 10x2 .1: Let a be any arbitrary (lB 0 For any function element in A.x)2 . (c.CHAP.3x + 2) = X4 .2x3 . Let W = {a. (iii) f(y . (d. Supplementary FUNCTIONS 8. (ii) g(O). 8. d}.26. a). Find (i) f(4).3) + 2 = 4x2 . Define each function (i) (ii) by a formula: To each number let f assign its square plus 3. 8. a). (b. (c. (c. (c.15x + 22 f(x2 . {(b. To each number let g assign its cube plus twice the number. Determine the number of different be defined by f(x) functions from {a.3) 3(x  + 3) + 2 = (x2 + 6x + 9) . 8] FUNCTIONS 77  (h) (i) (j) + 3) = (x + 3)2 f(2x . a). a).(X2 . Let g: R > R = ={x x2  + 3.3h + 2) . we have [f(x 3h (0) + h)  f(x))lh = (2xh + h2  3h)lh = 2x +h  3 8.18x + 20) + (x2 + 3x + 2) = 5x2 .18x + 20 9 Using (h) and (i). 8. (a.29.3x + 2) + 2 = X4 . 5.3x . b} into {1. (iii) g( 2). b).2x). c.3x f(f(x + 1)) = f([(x + 1)2 .3(x2 .3x + 2) = (x2 . d)} (ii) {(d. then f: A ~ B.6x3 + 10x2 . 8. 4x Let f: R > R (iv) f(x . 3} into {4. Prove Theorem 8.27. (ii) f(3).28. (a. (d. b). 2. IB 0 f = f = f and f(a) (f 1A)(a) 0 I A • f)(a) 0 Hence 1B 0 f =f = = 1B(f(a)) = f(a) 0 = f(lA(a)) = f(a) f 1A since they each assign to every element a E A.3h + 2. (a. d). Hence f(x + h) . 3}. b).3)2 f(x f(2x . (i) Determine whether each set of ordered pairs is a function from W into W. d). (b.23. b)} .3x + 2)2 . be defined by X2  g(x) +2 3x if x '== 2 if x < 2· Find (i) g(5). (c.2).3(x + 1) + 2]) = f([x2 + 2x + 1 . a).25.3) = (2x . b).2X2 + 3x + 2 By (g).3(x2 .3x .3x 3(2x .3x f(f(x)) = f(x2 . 2. State whether each diagram defines a function Problems from {1.24.3x + 2) = 2xh + h2 Using (n). we have (k) (l) (m) (n) + f(x + 3) = (4x2 .x) = (x2 . and to each (iii) To each number greater than or equal to 3 let h assign number less than 3 let h assign the number 2. d). d)} (iii) {(a.x) + 2 = x4 .12x + 9 + 2 = x2 + 3x + 2 6x + 9 + 2 = 4x2 . the number squared.3 + 2]) = f(x2 . f(x + h) = x2 + 2xh + h2 . (d. 8. b). 6}.
8. g and h. (iv) Got. (ii) g(x) = ix .3. (i) (ii) Find the ranges of t. (v) go h. (vii) hoG 0 g. write g as a set of ordered pairs. == x3  3x + 2. 4} and let g: 8. gog.36. (vi) F 0 h. 4} into itself. Find the graph of g.34. (ii) hot. 3.78 8. Determine is a function from V into V. g: B > A. i. 8 Let the function g assign to each name in the set {Betty. 2. i.10x2 + == 0 9. 4}. Rebecca} the number of different letters needed to spell the name. (iii) F 0 t.35. Let W {1. OF FUNCTIONS The functions below.e. (1) fog. FUNCTIONS [CHAP. Find the composition functions . g and h which map the set {1. 8. f :A > B. Let V = {1. The following diagrams define functions i. Alan. pairs. (iii) h(x) Sketch the graph (i) t(x) of each function: == 2X2  4x .s G. David. (ii) Plot g on the coordinate diagram of W X W. 3. F: B > C. h: C > B. if x 8.30.31. W > W be defined by the diagram (i) Write g as a set of ordered the range of g. G: A > C are pictured in the diagram Determine whether each of the following defines a product function and if it does. 2. (iii) Find whether the set of points in each coordinate diagram of V X V ~m~mliE 18 1234 1234 1234 1234 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) GRAPHS OF REALVALUED 8.33.e. (ii) g(x) == x4 .32. FUNCTIONS Sketch the graph of each function: (i) t(x) = 2.1. find its domain and codomain: (i) got. Martin. (iii) h(x) if x =1= 0 COMPOSITION 8. 2. (viii) h. 3. (2) h 0 t. (3) g2.
0 g(x) = 2x . g (ii) No. (iii) Yes.36 is oneone. 1} 8.) # I(b) 8.33. then 8.38 Let I: X . 8.26. 8.41. 8. (i) (ii) 3 x g(x) 2 +23 2 1 1 12 3 o 2 1 4 2 0 2 2 3 4 Graph off Graph of g .24. Let f: R > Rand g: R . (i) (ii) 8. for the inverse function for the inverse function /1: R gl: > > I: R be defined by fix) = 3x .43. (iii) No (ii) g(x) = x2 + 3.37. R.6). Find formulas ONEONE.42. then f is oneone and g is onto. = {(Betty. (Ii) go ONTO AND INVERSE FUNCTIONS I. (3. State whether State whether or not each function or not each function If (ii) in Problem 8.27. (i) 3.7.39. (iii) y2 .30. g: R R be defined by g(x) = x3 + 2. Which conditions (i) f(al (ii) a = = feb) define a oneone function: 1(0. (4. 4y (iii) hex) 12 (iv) x2  fx 2 if x '= 3 if x < 3 Nine. Find a formula Find a formula R. 3.44. (ii) 24. in Problem 8. I Prove Theorem 8. 8. = x3 + 2x. (iii) g(2) (iv) No (David. 8.) implies b implies = a = b (iii) f(a) (iv) 0. 8. (i) No.4).40.3: Let f: A is oneone and onto. (Rebecca.# b I(b) b implies 1(0. (ii) No.3. 8.> I: t=t:' = g: B > A > B is oneone and onto.36 is onto. the equivalence class of a.29. (Alan. + 4x2  + 8x + 3. 2).3). The function '" from A into the quotient set AIR is defined by ". = + + 1 1. 8.4). 8.> 11• Band g: B > A satisfy go f = 1A and log = lB' Then Answers to Supplementary Problems 8. R Let R be an equivalence relation in a nonempty set A.25.4xy (i) g(5) 8.(a) = [a 1. 8.CHAP.28. 8. Band A satisfy go f = lA.3). function Prove Theorem 8.3)}.45.> Y. and so has an inverse lll. (iv) No (iii) {2.5)} (i) g {(1. 8x + 15 = 10. (2.32. Show that '" is an onto function. (ii) g(O) = 2. (iv) 8. 8.# # f(b) implies 0. fix) (ii) Yes.2: (i) tv=! = 1A and Prove: Let Let If i : A R > > . (i) (i) No.31. 8] FUNCTIONS 79 x2 3x 1 and (iii) gog. = 0 (i) Yes.1). i:'. (Martin. (iii) Yes.> R be defined by l(x) defining the product functions (i) fog. and g = .
(i) ~1 "2 0 1 t 4 ~2 ~l ~17 ~~ 2 Graph of h (ii) > B. 8 15 12 ~2 ~1 0 1 2 3 8. (ii) (iii) (iv) = = 4x2 2X2 ~ 6x + 6x 6x3 +1 ~1 ho Gog:B hoG:A>B 0 = 4x ~ 9 range range x of f = {I. of g = {I. 13 3 ~3 ~5 ~3 3 f(x) 6 Graph of h (i) x ~3 ~2 ~1 0 1 2 3 (ii) x ~16 0 4 2 0 4 20 g(x) 4 3 Graph of f ~4 ~3 ~2 ~1 0 1 2 3 4 (iii) x 105 0 ~15 0 9 0 ~15 0 105 Graph of g h(x) 4 4 4 2 1 11 2 4 0 t ~1~l ~2 ~4 8. h : C > 8. A.35.80 (iii) x h(x) FCNCTIONS [CHAP. No. range (f 0 (f 0 = x4 No.39. (iv) Yes (ii) g)(x) (h 0 f)(x) g2(x) 1 2 3 4 1 4 2 1 3 1 1 3 4 3 2 1 (i) Only g is oneone. 4}.34. (i) go f: A (iv) No. (viii) (iii) F (vi) F 0 f: A > C.36. i:' (x) = (x + 7)/3 g1(x)={!x~2 . 8. 3. + + 14x2 + 15x +5 of h = {1. (iii) No. (i) (f (g (g 0 0 g)(x) f)(x) g)(x) f)(x) (ii) (v) go h: C > A.38. 2. (i) Yes. 8.37.42. (ii) Only g is onto. 2. 8. 4}. 0 C. (vii) 8.43.3} 8.
y = 1. by definition of equality of column vectors.U) and (:t) The first two vectors have two components.2: Let x+y  y) 4 z1 x.). is the column vector obtained by adding corresponding components: 81 . Example 1.1: of the vector u. Two column vectors u and v are equal. if they have the same number of components and if corresponding components are equal. un written in a column: ul u2 u The numbers ui are called the components Example 1. whereas the last two vectors have three components. (_. The vectors mm and X ( are not equal since corresponding elements are not equal. (~) and z = 4. The following are column vectors: (:).y x Then. ADDITION Let u and v be column vectors with the same number of components. + v. written u = v. +y = z 1 = 2 3 x = 3. denoted by u. Solving the above system of equations gives Remark: VECTOR In this chapter we shall frequently refer to numbers as scalars. The sum of u and v.Chapter 9 Vectors COLUMN VECTORS A column vector u is a set of numbers ul' u2' ••• .
u have the same number of components. (D H) 1 The main properties of the column vectors under the operations scalar multiplication are contained in the following theorem: of vector addition and . Example 2.82 VECTORS [CHAP.. The next Example shows that the zero vector is similar to th€ number zero in that.1: The sum of two vectors (0 CO + The sum + ( 1 + 4) 2 5 36 CD Example 2. . is not defined since the vectors have different A column vector whose components are all zero is called a zero vector and is also denoted by o. u = l'u Example 3. for any vector u. with different numbers of components is not defined. denoted by k .1: 4 We also define: and uv u + (v) o (D (~D.(l) CD (0 m.u. is the column vector obtained by multiplying each component of u by k: u1 u2 k·u le leu I leu2 Observe that u and k. or simply leu. Example 2.2: (:) + U) numbers of components. u + 0 = u.3: u SCALAR MULTIPLICATION The product of a scalar Ic and a column vector u. 9 u+ V Note that u + v has the same number of components as u and v.
then their product. 7. denoted by U· v or simply uni.9J VECTORS 9. and let u. 4.u or simply ku. The sum of two row vectors 'U and with the same number of components. the theorem can be restated as follows: Theorem 9. u + v.1: (1. 3. v. i. Then: ll (i) (ii) + v) + io = u + (v + w). is the scalar obtained by multiplying corresponding elements and adding the resulting products: .2: The set of all ncomponent row vectors under the operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication satisfies the properties listed in Theorem 9. 4) + (0. k' be scalars. Two row vectors are equal if they have the ~ame number of components and if corresponding components are equal. i. . that is. Accordingly. (u u (iii) (iv) (v) +0 u k( u (vi) (k + k')u = leu + k'u. 4) We also have a theorem for row vectors which corresponds to Theorem 9. 5. addition is associative. addition is commutative. = 0 +u = u. 3. 7) :::: (5. OF A ROW VECTOR AND A COLUMN VECTOR MULTIPLICATION If a row vector u and a column vector v have the same number of components.e. is a vector space. 3.15. = 0. a row vector u is a set of numbers u1' u2.1: 83 Theorem Let V be the set of all ncomponent column vectors.1: The set of all ncomponent column vectors under the operations addition and scalar multiplication is a vector space. 20) 5· (1. 2.. denoted by k.. ku n ) _ We also define u = l·u and u. Observe that a row vector is simply an ordered ntuple of numbers. Example 4.1. (vii) (kk')u == 1c(k'u). The properties listed in the above theorem are those which are used to define an abstract mathematical system called a lineal' space or vector space. . ku. wE Vn and let k. u + v = v + u. un written in a row: The numbers u.CHAP. ••• .v = u + (v) as we did for column vectors. is the row vector obtained by multiplying each component of u by k: (leul. 10.. 2. 11) :::: (1. Theorem 9. + (u) = (u) + U + v) = ku + kv.l..e. of vector ROW VECTORS Analogously. (viii) lu = u. are called the components of the vector u. denoted by is the row vector obtained by adding corresponding components from u and v: '1) u +v The product of a scalar 1c and a row vector u.
Find: (i) u + v. 5.5(0. Multiply corresponding components and add: (2. 0. MULTIPLICATION 9. 4 Set corresponding components equal to each other to obtain the system of equations 2x 3 Then x:::: 2. 9 = (3.4) and w (0. 5) (!). 1) + y(2. 2) + (9. y) := (x + 2y.5w 2(2. y and z if (2x. 6) ( n. 14. 2z). 9.0.5.21.a. 54) 9. 7.0. 8) (4. 8). (iv) Multiply each component of w by 1.y Solve the system of equaticns to find x:::: == == 1 4 3 and y:=1.48) 3u =: =: (3. Add corresponding components: u + v == (2. 1. 1) + (3. 1) = (1. (4 . 25.21. 14 + ° 12) + (0.4) Now set corresponding components equal to each other to obtain x + 2y x. 1) 1) + y(2.e. (iii) (3. Compute: (i) OF A ROW VECTOR AND A COLUMN VECTOR (i) (2.0+5.6. 7.8. First multiply by the scalars x and y and then add: := (x. 7. z:::: 1 and x+z 2z u= y 2. First perform the scalar multiplication (i) (ii) 3u4v 2u =: Find (i) 3u .4):::: + 3v . 1)( _~) .0. (ii) v + w. Let u. 2.5w.1)4(3.10.13) 3(2. y) = (4. 8) 9. 8) =: (3+0. 4) =: (2 . 40) 25. 4) . 1). x .5. 7. 3. (6.y) (1. 39.7.7.0. Find x. 5. x) + (2y. Find x and y if x(l. 1) + 3(3.4).0. x(l. change the sign of each component: w ::::(0. 0. x + z. 8) :::: (0. v and w be the row vectors of the preceding problem.4v.5.5. 1) (6. 7. (ii) (1.3.9. v (iii) 3u.86 ROW VECTORS 9.5) (ii) Add corresponding components: v + w == (3. 3). 1 + 4) (1. (iv) w.4) + (0. =: 4) (iii) Multiply each component of u by the scalar 3: 3(2. 7 + 0.9 + 0. (ii) 2u + 3v . and then the vector addition. (i) VECTORS [CHAP.3)+(12. 3. i.16):::: (18. 0.6)(J) ~ 2'8 + (3)'2 + 6·(3) 16  6 18 8 .21. 5.2 + 12 + 40) :::: (5. Let u = (2.
+ tc'iu.e. are the ith components of the vectors leu. 1) ~l) and components and add: 3'4 + (5)'1 + 2'(2) + 1·5 12 . Let . Let ui be the ith component of u. that is. Vi and Wi are numbers for which the associative law holds. On the other hand. Prove Theorem 9. (ii) The product is not defined since the vectors have different numbers (iii) Multiply corresponding (3. Vi + Wi is the ith component of v + wand so u. v and W respectively. v and w.. + (5)'k Determine k so that u» v = O. Show that. k' and Hi are numbers. for each i Accordingly. +u~ .14.15.5k o The solution to the equation 10 . is the ith component of the vector ku. respectively. Vi and Wi be the ith components of 'U. and k'u. hence (k Thus (k + k'vu. Ou = e. Method 2: We use Theorem 9. = ku. un) is defined by Ilull = vui+u~+ .= (1.. ku. + k'u: But k.12. be the ith component of u.11. + (v + w). But 'Ui.+ k'u. i. Let 0 be the number zero and Method 1: e the zero vector.. The norm Ilull of a vector u = (u u 1' 2' ••• .1(vi): + k')u = ku + k'u. 9.1(i): Let ui. 3) v = (n.13. Then 'Ui + Vi is the ith component of 'U + v and so (ui + Vi) + Wi is the ith component of (u + v) + w.1: Ou ::::: (0 Since every + O)u = + [Ou+ Ou + Ou ::::: Ou Now adding Ou to both sides gives 8 = Ou + (k (Ou) ::::: Ou (Ou)] + (J Ou 9. + v) + W ::::: U + (v + w) since all their corresponding components are equal. 5. + k')u = leu. and k'u. PROBLEMS For any vectors u. Ou is the zero vector. 3) (:) = 1'2 + (3)' 4 2 5k  12 10 . components for each i are equal. Then OUi::::: 0 is the ith component of Ou. MISCELLANEOUS 9.CHAP.5  4 + 5 8 9. On the other hand. as corresponding 9. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w). (u Prove Theorem 9. component of Ou is zero. for any vector u. and so ku.5k :::::0 is k::::: 2. 2. k. is the ith component of (k + k'vu. and k'is: Let u. Then (k + k/vu. Observe that the first plus sign refers to the addition of the two scalars k and k' whereas the second plus sign refers to the vector addition of the two vectors ku. + (Vi + Wi) is the ith component of u. + k/u. Compute U'V ~ U' v and set it equal to 0: (1.k. Ou::::: (J. 9] VECTORS 87 of components.
4. Prove: Ilkull 12) 12) II.. 3. (i) 3u. 1. Find: 2w. Find x.22... 1. Compute (i) {!) y if: + {~) (iii) '. + (4)2 for any real number k..19. 0) + y(2. 4) ( D (iii) (3.3v . 2. + u~ = IkJJJuJJ Supplementary COLUMN VECTORS Problems 9. 9.3v.. 2) (ii) x (D = (_~J..17. 3) and == (1. (Ii) u + v.) + (i) {!) . + = . Let u. 0. Compute (i) (=~) + (]) (ii) (!) (i) + (ii) {~) {~) (iii) 4 ( =!) {~) (iv) (l) {~) '. Compute Iii {./k2ui + + '" + k2u~ Yk2(ui + u~ + .4w. 2 9. (v) u + 2v  9. 1. 4.. Compute: (_!) AND A COLUMN VECTOR Iii) II.0) ~ (0· x (~) C ~ y) = = (y. = Ikiliull. == (2. . w ROW VECTORS 9. Find x and y = 4(y. II = y32 + 122 = .3).. 0.. Deterrnine zv g and.. 3). S... 2.18.16.3. + u~) = v'k2 yui + u~ + .. 0)( =~) . 1) = (1.24./(kUl)2 + (kU2)2 + .(=~) 4 (iii {~)  6 (=i) + {~) 9./9 + 16 + 144 = V169 13 Ilkull = II k(Ul' u2. as.. if 'G) + +D +. v == (1.20. II (3. 1. 2. .21. 1) s. 9 Find II (3. kun) II k2U~ = == . 1) + z(O. Determine x and '. if (iii) 2u . 2).3. MULTIPLICATION OF A ROW VECTOR (i) (2.23..I.88 (i) (ii) (i) (ii) VECTORS [CHAP. x(I.3). 1.. y and z if x(l. un) II = II (kUl' (kun)2 kU2' . Determine x and y if y (!2) . .2) (iv) 5u .
5u3v4w = (3.23. 9. (i) (]) (U) Not defined.1(vii): Find (i) v and scalar k. y = 4 2u3v 3u = (6. then U is the zero vector.11.29.26. k'.1.3.19. 11(3.26. For any vector u and scalars k. ~!) = = = (Ii) (=. k(u + v) = ku + kv. 3) (D = o.1. u+2v2w = (2. u+v = (3.CHAP.18.. 2. 9. Prove: If u = (Ul' . 9.1(v): Prove Theorem 9.5) x = 6.. (ii) 165 .2. 9.0). 6.[2. 3.0..20.30. y 0. v = 0 for every column vector v with 9. = 1. 9.7. k. . y 3.22.2. 9.) (=:~) CD (iv) 9.25. 4) II.24.30.5. 9. 9. Determine k so that (1. II (2.14.) 17 (ii) x (i) x = 2. Prove Theorem 9.9). y = 3/2 = = 2.21.27. (U. 9. 9. (i) ( 13 9. y = 3/2 x = (1.16.28. Answers to Supplementary Problems 9. 9] VECTORS 89 9. (ii) (kk')U = k(k'u).32). un) is a row vector such that n components.15). z == 2 0 or x = 2. y x x 4 = 1. y = 1. PROBLEMS For any vectors u and U' MISCELLANEOUS 9. z = 2 (iii) 0 (i) 7 k = 4 (ii) Not defined (i) 5 .4) II.3.
and (_:). capital letters A.. and a matrix with one column is simply a column vector. one for each pair of elements.2) and its columns are In this chapter.. written A = B.e. Remark: A matrix with one row is simply a row vector.Chapter Matrices MATRICES 10 A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. o 3 5 4) 2 .. denote numbers.w The solution of the system of equations is x 2. written A + B. the same number of rows and the same number of columns.. . and if corresponding elements are equal. denote matrices whereas lower case letters a. Hence the equality of two m x n matrices is equivalent to a system of mn equalities.2: The statement X ( +y xy 2z + zw w) is equivalent to the system of equations x+y xy { 2z 3 1 5 4 +w = z. (~). Hence vectors are a special case of matrices. The sum of A and B. i.2 ••• '" Um2 ••••• : •• ~~n. if they have the same shape.1: Consider the 2 X 3 matrix (1 Note that the row and column of the element respectively.e.j) ~2. Its rows are (1. (~). y = 1. w = 1.5. ••• am! (aij)m.3. Example 1. Two matrices A and B are equal. b. B. z = 3. is the matrix obtained by adding corresponding elements from A and B: 90 . which we call scalars. i. .4) and (0.n arn3 We denote such a matrix by or simply and call it an m X n matrix (read "m by n"). aij is indicated by its first and second subscript Example 1. ADDITION MATRIX Let A and B be two matrices with the same shape. the general form of a matrix with m rows and n columns is all " ( ••• a12 a13 a1n) amn (a. the same number of rows and of columns.
10] MATRICES 91 all +b ll al2 .e.::: ami am2 '" ::: \ + (~:: amn) ::: ~:: ) bm1 bm2 bmn ( ~~l.2: The sum (1 2) 3 4 + (0 5 2) 1 3 1 is not defined since the matrices have different shapes. Example 2. ~2~ •. The sum of two matrices with different shapes is not defined. (v) and = (A) OA = 0 (lei + le2)A + lelB = lelA + le A 2 A + (A) +A = O. + b« '" al n + bin) + bmn ( ::: .' •• aln ~~~ ) ami am2 .2: For any scalars k and le2 and any matrices A and B (with the same shape)..1: 34 (1 2 0) 35 3·0 3· (5) ) == We also introduce the following notation: A = (l)A and A. addition is associative. ~. Example 3. Part (iii) of the following theorem shows the similarity between the zero matrix and the scalar zero.•• + i. Theorem 10. Theorem 10.1: For matrices A.' . written leA or Ale. + B = B + A. addition is commutative. ': ~~2. ~.• : : : •• ~~n. i.CHAP. (A A (iii) A + B) + C = A + (B + C). is the matrix obtained by multiplying each element of A by Ic: all le ( ~~l ••• al2 ~2~ ••• ' . + 0 = 0 + A = A. amn (~::: learn I 3· (2) 3·3 ~~ leam2 '" leamn ~::) Note that A and kA have the same shape. Band (i) (ii) C (with the same shape). j (i) (ii) (iii) (klk2)A kl(A +B) = lel(le2A) = lelA (iv) 1· A = A.B = A + (B) The next theorem follows directly from the above definition of scalar multiplication. A matrix whose elements are all zero is called a zero matrix and is also denoted by O. ~2~ • ami + bm1 am2 amn Note that A + B has the same shape as A and B. SCALAR MULTIPLICATION The product of a scalar Ic and a matrix A. i.e. ~.1: 1+3 ( 0+2 4 + (3) 2+0 3+(6)) 5+ 1 Example 2.. .
+ aipbpj. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION Let A and B be matrices such that the number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.. Then the product of A and B. satisfy the following properties: (AB)C = A(BC) (ii) A(B (iii) (B + C) AB BA + C)A + AC + CA where k is a scalar.3: (i) G !)O D !) C'1+2'0 3·1+4'0 1'1+2'2) 3'1 + 4'2 1'2+1'4) 0'2 + 2'4 n 1n C'1+1'3 0'1+2'3 (: ~) We see by the preceding example that matrices under the operation of matrix multiplication do not satisfy the commutative law. if A = (aij) is an m x p matrix and AB = (Cij) is the m x n matrix for which If the number of columns of A is not equal to the number of rows of B.. say A is m x and B is q X n where p =F q. then the product AB is not defined. then In other words. however. (r s) U p Example 4. .j) is a p x n matrix.2: (~ ~)G Matrix multiplication Theorem 10. we also have that A +A = 2A. B = (b. is the matrix with the same number of rows as A and of columns as B and whose element in the ith row and jth column is obtained by multiplying the ith row of A by the jth column of B: e ( where Cij = ailblj H e. i. 10 Using (iii) and (iv) above.1: t (al bl a2 b2 ag) bg (ral + sbl tal + UbI ra2 + sb2 ta2 + ub2 rag + Sbg) tag + ub3 Example 4. Remark: In the special case where one of the factors of AB is a vector. the products AB and BA of matrices need not be equal. does..") Cmn Cml +a i2 2j b + . then the product is also a vector: . written AB..92 MATRICES [CHAP.e. (iv) k(AB) = (kA)B = A(kB). We assume that the sums and products in the above theorem are defined. A +A +A 3A.
10] MATRICES 93 (::: ::: .. 10) U D(.D The numbers along the main diagonal are 1. or simply diagonal. G =: . such as + 2y 5x .4: For any square matrix A. Specifically..6y . Theorem 10. The unit matrix I plays the same role in matrix multiplication as the number 1 does in the usual multiplication of numbers.3: (2.ann• Example 5.1: Th. and SQUARE MATRICES A matrix with the same number of rows as columns is called a square matrix.4: A system of linear equations. of a square matrix A = (aij) is the numbers all. AI IA A (~ 1 oo o o1 oo . 2 D (2'1 + (3)' 5 + 4· (2). A square matrix with n rows and n columns is said to be of order n.a22. is also a solution to the matrix equation.) X { ( 1' (1) 5'(1) + (3)' + 0'2 2) (2)'(1) + 4'2 Example 4.3z 4 8 + 8z is equivalent to the matrix equation That is.g. The nsquare matrix with l's along the main diagonal and O's elsewhere. 4) ( . The main diagonal. ••• . 2' (3) + (3)' 0 + 4' 4) (21.CHAP. aml am2 ~:)~:) ( ••• amp bp Example 4. 3. e. and is called an nsquare matrix. any solution to the system of equations vice versa. matrix is a square matrix of order 3. is called the unit matrix and will be denoted by I. 4 and 2.
However.5: operation on matrices satisfies the following properties. + anxn we define f(A) to be the matrix f(A) ao! alA a2A2 anAn In the case that f(A) nomial f(x). f(x) ao That is. Example 6. for k a scalar (iv) (AB)t = B' At. if we only consider square matrices of some given order n. Example 7. any n x n matrix can be added to or multiplied by another n x n matrix. an b« '" ~:) c« Note that if A is an m x n matrix..'. if g(A) = + 3x n = ( 16 18) 61 27 10 Thus A is a zero of the polynomial g(x).. A3=A2A..3n x2 2) 4  + then 5C 0 On the other hand. CI C2 • •• Cn (~:~: . + + . in order. .1: The transpose Theorem 10. then A2 3x + 5. then At is an n X m matrix. In particular. and the result is again an n X n matrix.1: is the zero matrix. we can form powers of A: A2=AA. . TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix A. as columns: al ( a2 an)t ~~ ~~ •• ~2 . or multiplied by a scalar. (i) (A + B)t = At + B' (ii) (At)t (iii) (kA)t =A = kAt. if A is any nsquare matrix. . is the matrix obtained by writing the rows of A. then A is said to be a zero or root of the poly Let If A=G f(x) ~) = 2X2  ... for any polynomial + + alx + + a2x2 + . written At. then this inconvenience disappears. 10 Recall that not every two matrices can be added or multiplied... Specifically. then f(A) 2( 9 g(x) 6) 22 . and AO=! We can also form polynomials in A. 7 (~6) 22 .94 ALGEBRA OF SQUARE MATRICES MATRICES [CHAP.
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