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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

Ampalaya, scientifically known as momordica charantia, was being

used into different kinds of cooking largely in Asian countries. Different

countries formulate their own dishes and improve its cultivation for a higher

demand in the market, predominantly in China. As the years pass by, it is

extensively used in the field of science and medicine, since they are looking

forward for a more probable contribution of ampalaya to aid treatment of

different illnesses. Scientists successfully discover that ampalaya has a key

role in the rapid growth of percentage of diabetes. Continuously, ampalaya is

going through enhancement for a health and wellness involvement.

Furthermore, children do not like eating vegetables, particularly if it is

ampalaya because of its bitterness content. However, ampalaya has a unique

nutrient that gives a more healthy body and free from diseases. It is also

broadly used in medicinal science, generally used as food supplements, and

an effective cure for some diseases.

BACKROUND OF THE STUDY

Ampalaya is said to be the most bitter of all vegetables, and it is very

confusing if it is a fruit or a vegetable. Each country named it differently but it is

distinctively different from others because of its physical structure. Ampalaya


is merely known also as bitter melon or bitter gourd, and china has its wide

crop growing because of the season they have that perfectly fits on ampalaya.

The original habitat of ampalaya is unknown, but it is a native of tropical

and subtropical countries for the most parts in Asia. While in the United States,

it is not totally known by the said country. A different country in Asia, Africa

and other parts of the Carribean cultivate the ampalaya for a more or less 90

days, from month of April till September. But, the preeminent season for

ampalaya is summer season, since then it is a summer vegetable.

The proponents came up with this study to be able to create a basis for

product development of ampalaya. This study will help improve the use of

ampalaya in the field of culinary artistry and make the most of the dishes that

maybe created from it. Systematic discussions and reviews will be the basis of

the study to regenerate the use of amapalaya in the food and beverage

industry.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY

Foreign Literature

According to Oshima, the staff writer of “Taking the bitter with the

sweet”, that for a long time, however, farmers on the mainland Japan grew it

only to shade their gardens from the sun, and its usage as a foodstuff was

limited to southern Kyushu and Okinawa, where the hot summer weather

caused a lack of other locally-grown green vegetables.


Today, as tourism to Okinawa introduces travelers to famous local

dishes such as goya champuru (stir-fry of bitter gourd with tofu, egg and other

ingredients), more and more people are becoming accustomed to the

vegetable. The gourd's popularity has also been accelerated by the well-

publicized facts about its nutritional value.

One hundred grams of bitter gourd contains 120 mg of vitamin C --

much higher than many vitamin C-rich vegetables and fruits. Scientific data

has shown this extremely rich vitamin content is not lost with heating.

Okinawa is now the largest bitter-gourd-producing district in Japan.

Production has more than doubled from 2,700 tons in 1990, to 6,000 tons in

1997, most of which is shipped to the mainland. The vegetable's best season

is June to August -- the bitter flavor increases as its nutritional levels peak.

According to Yaedake, the staff writer of “Taking the bitter with sweet”

in The Japan Times Online, in an attempt to jump on the bandwagon,

Okinawan companies have put various bitter-gourd products on supermarket

shelves, including goya sherbet, goya juice and dried goya. Goya tea made by

drying and roasting sliced bitter gourd picked in its peak season, is also

popular.

To prepare bitter gourd for cooking, cut the vegetable in half

lengthwise, discard the seeds and fibrous core, and then slice into half-moons.

Do not remove the skin. A dash of salt tames the bitterness.


Although it is best known in its stir-fried form, eating bitter gourd as

tempura or in a salad with sweetened vinegar or soy sauce and dried bonito

shavings is also delicious.

According to Sue Kiyabu,the writer of the story “An Acquired Taste –

Hana Hou” in the magazine of Hawaian Airlines’ it has grown in tropical

regions around the world; it resembles a thick, mint-green, warty cucumber (a

distant cousin). The plant’s seeds, vines and leaves are edible, but the melon

itself is most often the key ingredient. At first, its bitterness may be concealed

by the richness of fried batter (heat cooking) or the saltiness of black bean

sauce or the spiciness of curry, but then it comes into its own, first at the back

and sides of the tongue and then, more lingeringly, on the palate.

Bittermelon (Momordica charantia) is known as ampalaya in the

Philippines, where it is used in pinakbet, and a traditional vegetable-based

stew from the north. In China, it is called ku gua and stuffed with pork and

steamed. In Sri Lanka, it is karawila, made into curries or chutney. In

Denmark, it is sliced thin and used as a garnish in salads. In Japan, it is often

pickled. In Okinawa, goya is a culinary jewel. It is not only a pivotal component

in the national dish champuru, which consists of pork (or Spam), tofu and

bittermelon, it’s also made into beer, chips, candy and tea. There is even a

television show, Churasan, which features a toy called “goya man.”

Humans are hard-wired to avoid bitter flavors. It is a natural defense

mechanism. Many familiar and appealing foods are inherently bitter: radicchio,

artichokes, coffee, and chocolate. An element of bitterness can help bring a


dish into balance and strengthen its character. In the case of bitter melon,

when properly prepared and in combination with the right ingredients, the

bitterness acts like a catalyst, bringing out the sweetness of other ingredients;

it can cut through greasy and fatty foods, take the sting out of hot foods and

add intensity to a sauce.

In Hawaii, bitter melon is easily grown and widely available in local

supermarkets. In 2005, twenty farms produced roughly 250,000 pounds—not

huge numbers, but still, a lot of people are eating the stuff. It seems to me that

bitter melon enthusiasts fall into three categories:

According to Taylor, the author of “Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs”,

bitter melon grows in tropical areas, including parts of the Amazon, East

Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean, and is cultivated throughout South America

as a food and medicine. It is a slender, climbing annual vine with long-stalked

leaves and yellow, solitary male and female flowers borne in the leaf axils. The

fruit looks like a warty gourd, usually oblong and resembling a small

cucumber. The young fruit is emerald green, turning to orange-yellow when

ripe. At maturity, the fruit splits into three irregular valves that curl backwards

and release numerous reddish-brown or white seeds encased in scarlet arils.

The Latin name Momordica means "to bite," referring to the jagged edges of

the leaves, which appear as if they have been bitten. All parts of the plant,

including the fruit, taste very bitter.


Local Literature

According to Dr. Galvez, the former secretary of the Department of

Health, ampalaya (the Tagalog name of Mormodica charantia) cannot cure

diabetes, but it can help control the disease. The action of ampalaya on blood

sugar is equivalent to the action of the medicine. In response to the study, the

Department of Health (DoH) has elevated the status of ampalaya from a mere

nutritional supplement to a real medicine.

People find ways to counteract the bitter taste of ampalaya by cooking it

together with other recipes. Mixing the chopped ampalaya with eggs can turn

its taste delightful to the taste buds and at the same time reaping the many

health benefits of ampalaya.

According to Galvez, ampalaya is a climbing vine with tendrils growing

up to 20 centimeters long. The leaves are heart-shaped, 5 to 10 centimeters in

diameter, cut into 5 to 7 lobes. The male and female yellow flowers are about

15 millimeters long, long-stalked with pairs of small leaf like bracts at middle or

toward base of stalk. The fruit is fleshy and green, oblong with pointed ends,

ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds. Seeds are flat

with ruminated margins.

It is a year-round vegetable growing in various places from sea level to

higher altitudes. Wild forms are found in wastelands at low and medium

altitudes. In the Philippines, both the wild (small, ovoid and bitter fruit) and the
cultivated form (with elongated and oblong fruit) are eaten. The fruit of the wild

form is usually roasted over fire and eaten with salt. That of the cultivated form

is eaten as a vegetable with shrimps or meat; sliced, mashed with salt,

and washed; it is made into salad with onions and vinegar.

Analyses of the fruit show that it is a good source of iron and calcium,

and a good source of phosphorus. The fruit and leaves are also excellent

sources of vitamin B (sometimes the tender shoots and the leaves are eaten

as a vegetable aside from the fruit). It has twice the amount of beta carotene

in broccoli and twice the calcium content of spinach. Despite its bitter taste,

extracts from plant parts has become a popular drink for boosting vigor. In

fact, the more bitter, the better, as it is believed that the bitterness is

proportionate to its potency.


Research Based Knowledge on the Unique Attributes of Ampalaya

(Momordica Charantia): Basis for a Product Development

________________________________________

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of

Hotel and Restaurant Management

Olivarez College

_______________________________________

In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the

Degree of Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management

______________________________________

By

Agapito, Jezreel Mari L.

Balane, April Jean A.

Bermudez, Daven James A.

Francisco, Edna-lyn F.

March 2011
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES

Local Literature

According to Jamon, bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) which is

sometimes called “Bitter melon” or “Balsam Pear” is a locally known

ampalaya. It is a vine that climbs on trellis or creeps on the ground. It belongs

to the family of cucurbits or cucurbitaceae.

Bitter gourd (Ampalaya) is one of the leading commercial fruit

vegetables in the country. It ranks second to the squash in total hectorage

among the cucurbits. Based on analysis concluded by Food and Nutrition

Research Institute (FNRI) in 1980, fruits and shoots have high leads of vitamin

A, B, C and calcium, phosphorous and iron. Ampalaya also has medicinal

value.

The leaves and leaf buds of the ampalaya or parya are crushed and

moistened with coconut oil. The crushed moistened leaves are wrapped with

clean cloth is the form of a nipple to be sucked by new-born babies. The folk

believe that the juice hardens the bones of the babies.

Ampalaya leaves and fruits are excellent sources of iron, calcium,

phosphorous and Vitamin B. These elements are components of Biochemical

compounds essential In teeth and bone formation and ossification, this native

practice is encouraged but care should be taken in its preparation. The leaves

should be washed thoroughly and the cloth used for wrapping the pounded

leaves should be clean and free from germs.


The juice of ampalaya leaves is also used to expel meconium and the

ripe seeds can be used as decoration taken in large quantities for a number of

days as abortive agent and checks urethral discharge. The tops, leaves and

fruits are usually eaten in raw or cooked form. The fruit can be fried with eggs

and served for breakfast. It is usually used as one of the mixtures in the known

Ilokano dish or recipes known as “Pinakbet”. In eateries and restaurants, they

are prepared or cooked with pork, beef or fish and saved as a special menu

for customers.

Aside from being used for human consumption, the leaves are also

good for the treatment of skin diseases. Like ringworm and Tina Flara. Medical

laboratories also utilize the sap in the preparation of medicines for

stomachache.

Propagating and Planting

Mainly a warm season plant, bitter gourd thrives in hot and humid

climates, Propagation is through direct seeding and transplanting. The best

medium for the seeds is a fertile, well drained soil with a pH ranging from 5.5

to 6.7, enriched with organic matter, such as compost or dried manure. But it

will tolerate any soil that provides a good drainage system. The soil must be

prepared well by adding organic matter before planting.

Two or three seeds can be sown together in a pit ½ inch deep. Water

lighty. For better results, soak the seeds in water 24 hours before sowing. The

seeds will germinate in 2-3 days. The germinated seeds can be replanted on

raised beds 18-20 inches apart. Transplants should be done in such a way as
to avoid disturbance to the root system. As the plants grow, place poles 2m

high and give wire or twine supports in rows across the poles.

Regular watering with plenty of water is essential for its growth. Flowers

will start appearing in 5-6 weeks and fruition will occur between two to four

months. Mature fruits are ready to be picked within 3 months from planting

and they will be light green and juicy with white flesh but bitter. Pick the fruits

every 2-3 days when they are still at the tender stage. Regular picking is

important as fruits will become more bitter as they mature and it can also

hamper the growth of new fruits.

Leave some fruits to reach full maturity is they have to be reserved for

subsequent crops. When fully mature, the fruits will break open on its own and

release brown or white seeds which can be collected.

Production Statistics

Total production volume in 1997 was 43,043 with the biggest growers in

Regions II & IV. These are generally two types being grown: the Sta. Rita,

which is long, dark green & less warty; and the pinakbet type, which is short,

small, warty and very bitter. The pale and white varieties popular in other

Southeast Asian countries are not preferred locally.


SYNTHESIS

The review of related literature and studies similarly discuss the

following matters:

• The narrative description and physical distinction of ampalaya and the

source of its bitterness content.

• The distinctive factor of ampalaya from the other fruits and vegetables.

• The organic compound of ampalaya that increases its concentration

that makes it bitter.

• The role bitterness that can help bring a dish into balance and

strengthen its character.

• Ways to get rid of the bitterness content of ampalaya.

• The medicinal value of ampalaya due to the presence of the substance

that makes it bitter.

• The effective use of ampalaya as herbal medicine for illnesses and

diseases.

• The nutritional value of ampalaya that is equivalent to the action of

medicine to control a disease.

The different views of the review of related literature and studies of ampalaya

are the following:

• The different ways of cooking ampalaya dishes according to the

different countries and culture of Asia.

• The cultivation of ampalaya in different Asian countries.


• The content of the studies on the medicinal value of ampalaya and its

contribution in health and science industry.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

• There is a simple concept to why the bitterness of bitter gourd is

reduced after soaking it in salt solution and the answer is osmosis.

Osmosis is the concept in which water moves from a high water

concentration to a low water concentration.

• The bitterness in bitter gourd is due to the high concentration of quinine

in it. Quinine is an alkaloid compound that produces bitter taste.

• When the bitter gourd is soaked in salt solution the salt solution will

draw out water from the bitter gourd through osmosis. Together with the

water, bitter alkaloid compound which is quinine will also be removed.

(Lori Alden 2005; Wikipedia 2009)

THE THEORY @ EXPLANATION


(1) Can be considered as bitter gourd -Lower salt concentration (hypotonic)

(2) Can be considered as the salt solution -Higher salt concentration

(hypertonic)

1. The bitter gourd has a lower concentration of dissolved salt as

compared to the salt solution.

2. This means that the bitter gourd can be considered as hypotonic and

the medium surrounding it which is the salt solution is hypertonic.

3. So the water will move due to osmosis from the hypotonic condition to

the hypertonic condition, this is because it is trying to balance the

concentration on both side.

4. Movement of water from the bitter gourd will also carry with it the bitter

alkaloid compound thus reducing the bitterness of bitter gourd. (Lori

Alden 2005; Wikipedia 2009)

* Soaking in salt solution can only reduce but not eliminate the bitterness in

bitter gourd because only a certain percentage of water will be removed from

the bitter gourd which means that only some of the bitter alkaloids compound

will be carried out together with the water.


After the soaking of the bitter gourd in salt water, the nutritional content

decreases slightly. Example is the water soluble components in vitamin C. The

decrease in nutritional composition is still at an acceptable level because the

period of soaking for the bitter gourd in the salt solution is only for a short

amount of time that is 5 minutes.(Council of Agriculture Taiwan, 2008)

The experiment was carried out three times at different locations by all the

group mates. With the bitter gourd that was not soaked with salt water as (A)

and the bitter gourd that had been pre-soaked in salt water for 5 minutes

labelled as (B). Both (A) and (B) were cooked in the same manner.
Before soaking the bitter gourd

After soaking the bitter gourd for 5 minutes in salt solution

Result: From the sensory evaluation that was carried out by all the

group mates, the result was calculated and a total of 84% agreed that the

bitterness in bitter gourd (B) had been reduced compared to bitter gourd (A).

However 16% of the panels for the sensory evaluation feel that the bitterness

for bitter gourd (A) and (B) is the same.

Consumption Criteria of Bitter Gourd

Excessive consumption of bitter gourd and bitter gourd dishes may lead

to diarrhea. Diabetic patients should consult their doctor before starting the

regular consumption of bitter gourd. Pregnant ladies should avoid excess

consumption of bitter gourd dishes or juices as it leads to uterus stimulation

and ladies can experience premature labor.


Buying and Storing Bitter Gourd

• It is always recommended to choose firm and unripe bitter gourd as ripe

fruits are much bitter than the unripe variety.

• Soft spotted and orange looking bitter gourds should be avoided.

• Bitter gourds can be easily stored in the refrigerator for up to 3-4 days.

• Room temperature storage may lead to over-ripening of the bitter

gourd.

• Leftover bitter gourd dishes can also be kept in refrigerator and should

be consumed with in 2-3 days.

Additional function of soaking bitter gourd in salt solution

Besides reducing the bitterness in bitter gourd soaking bitter gourd in

salt solution can also help for longer storage of bitter gourd. This is achieved

by prevention of browning reaction and maintaining the structure of the bitter

gourd.

Methods

An experiment on bitter gourd was conducted placed the bitter gourd for

storage.

Sliced bitter gourd that is not soaked in salt solution (A)

Sliced bitter gourd that is soaked in salt solution (B)


Results

After one day we observed that the

i) Bitter gourd (A) turns into yellowish brown in color and shrink
ii) Bitter gourd (B) however remains its structure and color.

This is because soaking in the salt water helps to inactivate enzymes

that cause browning reaction thus preventing browning in bitter gourd. The salt

also helps to preserve the bitter gourd so that it will last longer for storage

purpose.

Conceptual Paradigm

INPUT THROUGHPUT OUTPUT


Ampalaya dishes in Product fusion of The product
Asia ampalaya in a development of
brand new ampalaya
Nutritional and ampalaya dishes “Ampalaya Chips”
medicinal value of
ampalaya

Statement of the Objectives

General Objective

• The product fusion of ampalaya as regards to its unique attributes for

the basis of product development.

Specific Odjectives

• The contribution of the uniqueness of ampalaya as regards to the

following benefits:

o Medicine

o Health
o Culinary

• The scientific finding of ampalaya as regards to the following benefits:

o Medicine

o Health

o Culinary

Scope and Limitation

The study was limited to determine the contents of ampalaya that make

it bitter, the factors why people never like to eat ampalaya, and to help

understand its importance and provide the significance of this study to society.

Significance of the Study

• Students – Each olivarian undergoes the method of sharpening the

minds through research studies, thesis in relation with their chosen

degree. This study will be a great help and good as a reference for

every student who will also experience doing research on their college

degree.

• Government – As they conduct and create nutritional and healthy

programs, events and activities for their locality, they will disseminate

health significance of ampalaya through seminars.

• Health, Science & Medicine – for the last years and incoming years of

the generation, health and science moves broadly. In the field of


medicine, this study will be good as a piece of information and

contribution. Medicine is growing widely to conduct studies in enriching

the use of different plants for the better benefits and contributions.

Medicine purposes build and foundation to a much better health that is

a wealth of each individual.

Definition of Terms

Herbaceous. Not woody, lacking lignified tissues.

Pit. The soft spongy substance in the center of the stems of many plants and

trees.

Edible. That can be eaten without harm; non-toxic to humans; suitable

for consumption.

Phenotype. Any observable characteristic of an organism, such as

its morphological, developmental, biochemical or physiological properties, or

its behavior.

Momordica charantia. a plant, which produces a bitter, though edible, fruit.

the fruit of the bitter melon.

Cucurbitaceae. generally being creeping vines with tendrils and fruit

developing from a three-part inferior ovary with many seeds attached to the

outer edge of the three walls or spiraling outward there from.

Alkaloid momordicin. a chemical content

Catalyst. A substance which increases the rate of a chemical reaction without

being consumed in the process.

Momordica. a Latin name means, “to bite”


Meconium. A dark green mass, the contents of the fetal intestines during the

later stages of mammalian gestation, that forms the first faces of the newborn

Stomachache. A pain in the abdomen, often caused by indigestion. (The pain

is usually lower than the stomach and related to the intestines.)


CHAPTER 2

METHODOLOGY

This chapter contained the analysis of the principles of methods used in

gathering the data of this study. It interpreted and described the existing

conditions, phenomena or events related in this study. It specified several

processes that needed to be followed by the researchers to be able to come

up with accurate clarification to the respective statements upon the objectives.

It also illustrated the description of process of the study and included

philosophically coherent collection of theories, concepts or ideas related to the

particular field of inquiry of this study.

Research Design

The research method used was descriptive; qualitative in order for the

researcher to establish this study reutilizing the following instruments:

• Books

• Literatures and studies

• Other dissertations

• Articles

• Internet
The following research instruments aided the researchers to

gather informative and useful data. Analysis and brainstorming within

the group was the foundation of this study. Significantly, other thesis

were viewed relevant in this study due to its similarities and differences.

Research Instrument

Researchers conducted gathering of information through data collection

tools like literature and other available information. Research instruments led

to the breakthrough of answers and compliance that was justified in this study,

with the analysis and brainstorming of the proponents.

Data Gathering Procedure

Books, articles, experimental studies, theories and concept served as

the research instruments of this study. Moreover, information from the internet

also helped complete this study. The researchers had brain storming and

browsed facts and data about ampalaya and discussed it for the study.
CHAPTER 3

PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

General Objective

The best season of ampalaya is throughout the year, that’s why the

sub-tropical and tropical countries in Asia used ampalaya in a various dishes

mainly in Southeast Asia. It is also believed that the variety of ampalaya in the

Philippines is the most potent among all varieties in the different native tropics.

Dishes according to soup, entrée and other main courses and salad has been

made as the ampalaya to be the main ingredient, and this study guided the

researchers to come up with a product fusion of ampalaya into an appetizer,

snack, beverage, and another salad . The following are the recipes for the

product fusion of ampalaya and its product development: Ampalaya Chips

(Snack/Appetizer)

The ingredients will be: 2 pcs Ampalaya, 3 to 4 Eggs, half cup of Flour,

240 ml Water. 60 ml Cooking Oil, pinch of Salt and pepper, for flavoring:

Cheese powder, Barbecue Powder (*desired quantity depends on the number

of serving.)

Procedures:
1. Slice the ampalaya into lengthwise, remove the seeds, make sure the

slices of ampalaya are as thin as possible.

2. Place it on a bowl with a mix of water and salt. Leave it for about one

(1) hour. After an hour, blanch the slices of ampalaya to preserve the

texture, color and flavor. Set aside.

3. Mix the egg and flour, and then mix ampalaya. Add a pinch of salt and

pepper to improve its flavor.

4. Deep fry and add the desired flavorings.

Recipe of ampalaya coolee shake, the ingredients will be: 1 pc. Ampalaya,

2 to 3 cups water, calamnsi or dalandan, squeezed juice, sugar syrup to taste,

crushed ice.

Procedures:

• Wash and de-seed the ampalaya. Cut into thin slices. Place in a

blender with water, blend until smooth.

• Strain and squeeze out the pulp. Save the liquid.

• Put the ampalaya juice back into the blender with the calamansi or

dalandan juice, sugar syrup and ice. Blend until well mixed.

Specific Objectives

• The contribution of the uniqueness of ampalaya and its scientific

findings as regards to the following benefits:

o Medicine
Medicinal value: Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Folic Acid,

Phosphorus, Calcium, Iron, Mixture of Flavanoids and Alkaloids.

The analysis of the ampalaya (its fruit and leaves) shows that it is a

good source of: Vitamins and Minerals, good for new born babies, hardens the

bone of the babies. It contains a hypoglycemic polypeptide, has plant insulin

responsible for its blood sugar lowering effect, body detoxification (including

removal of nicotine), strengthens immune system and fertility regulation,

increases sterility of women, parasiticide, antipyretic, and purgative functions.

o Health

Ampalaya has been a folkloric cure for generations, but it has been proven

now to be an effective herbal medicine for many ailments. The effectiveness of

an ampalaya as an herbal medicine has been tried and tested by many

research clinics and laboratories worldwide. In our country, the Department of

Health has endorsed ampalaya as an alternative medicine to help alleviate the

following various ailments: Diabetes Mellitus, Liver problems, Skin diseases,

Cough, HIV. Bitter gourd contains various essential vitamins and minerals that

provide several health benefits. Some of the common health benefits obtained

from bitter gourd dishes are as follows: The juice of bitter gourd is a very

effective blood purifier. For diabetic patients, bitter gourd is a highly

appreciated ingredient due to its sugar lowering properties. Certain kind of

cancers and infections can be cured by the consumption of bitter gourd juice.

Aliments like constipation, piles and psoriasis can be effectively treated with
the use of bitter gourd. Even leaves of bitter gourd are also used in the

effective treatment of alcoholism.

o Culinary

The bitterness of ampalaya contributes the following criteria and

characteristics: Organic Compound: Alkaloid Momordicine (Increases in

concentration as the fruit ages on the vine), distinct physical structure: ribbed

and wrinkled surface, bitter compounds: it evolved in plants as a mechanism

to deter consumption by animals, the bitterness compound of ampalaya can

help bring a dish into balance and strengthen its character, its bitterness can

cut through greasy and fatty foods, it takes the sting out of hot foods. it adds

intensity to a sauce, the young shoots and leaves of ampalaya may be eaten

as greens, pure ampalaya juice can also be a nutritional drink for a boost of

vim and vigor despite of its bitter taste.

Bitter gourd may appear to be an ingredient of lesser use due to its

bitter flavor but in wide perspective it is observed to be used in various recipes

of side dishes as well as main dishes. Some appetizers and snacks are also

popularly made with bitter gourd. With crunchy and watery flesh, bitter gourd is

a highly popular ingredient in Asian salads and side dishes. Bitter gourd

dishes typically include stir-fried and soup recipes. Various bitter gourd curry

recipes are quite popular for their health benefits. Steamed bitter gourd dishes
make a popular addition to the culinary uses of the fruit. Variety of pickles are

also prepared with bitter gourd and fondly eaten as condiment. Raw slices of

this fruit are also added to some of the bitter gourd dishes such as soups and

salads. The taste enhances that are usually added to bitter gourd recipes are

onion, tomato, coriander powder and mango powder. The oblong shape and

hollow interior makes bitter gourd an excellent vegetable for stuffing purposes.

Beef, pork or even potato mixture can be stuffed to make delectable stuffed

biter gourd dishes.


CHAPTER 4

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

This study was conducted to determine the unique attributes of

ampalaya and came up with a product fusion on it to expand its capability as a

new alternative Filipino dish.

The history and the origin of bitter gourd are not known except from the

fact that this bitter fruit is a native of tropical and subtropical regions. The

cultivation of bitter gourd is widely grown is widely done in India and the Indian

subcontinent. Countries like China and Africa are also popular for the

cultivation of bitter gourd. Bitter gourd is widely grown in Caribbean and

Southeast Asian region as well.

From the different reviews in literature and studies the researchers

were able to gather the profile, history and cultivation of ampalaya in the best

season of the year, in the different native countries of Asia, its effectiveness in

a culinary dish, and its great contribution in the field of medicine and science.
This study also showed theories and concepts upon the experiments of

ampalaya that may help the readers to understand the importance of

ampalaya and it brings an important role in our health. Such theories and

experiment expanded the knowledge in using ampalaya in another culinary

form and may help the readers also to develop their own dish.

At the end of this study, aside from soup, main course, other entrees

and salads which was made from ampalaya as the main ingredient, this study

also proposed a product fusion of ampalaya, in form of snack, appetizer, and

another from of salads and beverage.

Conclusions

Therefore, it is concluded that ampalaya has the following unique

attributes, contributions in the field of health and medicine, and alternative

from as an ampalaya dish in culinary artistry.

• Medicine

Medicine value: Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Folic Acid,

Phosphorus, Calcium, Iron, Mixture of Flavanoids and Alkaloids. The analysis

of ampalaya (its fruit and leaves) showed that it is a good source of: vitamins

and minerals, good for new born babies, hardens the bone of the babies. It

contains a hypoglycemic polypeptide, plan has insulin responsible for its blood

sugar lowering effect, body detoxification (including removal of nicotine),

strengthens immune system and fertility regulation, increases sterility of

women, parasiticide, antipyretic, and purgative functions. The Philippines herb


of ampalaya gained international recommendation for its possible benefits in

the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

• Health

Ampalaya can provide different nutrients (vitamins and minerals) to

maintain one’s health. Ampalaya has been a folkloric cure for generations, but

it has been proven now to be an effective herbal medicine for many ailments.

The effectiveness of an ampalaya as an herbal medicine has been tried and

tested by many research clinics and laboratories worldwide. In our country, the

Department of Health has following various ailments; Diabetes Mellitus, Liver,

problems, Skin diseases, Cough, HIV. Bitter gourd contains various essential

vitamins and minerals that provide several health benefits. Some of the

Common health benefits obtain from bitter gourd dishes are as follows: The

juice of bitter gourd is very effective blood purifier. For diabetic patients, bitter

gourd is a highly appreciated ingredient due to its sugar lowering properties.

Certain kind of cancers and infections can be cured by the consumption of

bitter gourd juice. Ailments like constipation, piles and psoriasis can be

effectively treated with the use of bitter gourd. Even leaves of bitter gourd are

also used in the effective treatment of alcoholism. The bitter the ampalaya the

better it is in one’s health.

• Culinary

Ampalaya, has an alkaloid momordicine, its bitterness content that

makes it unique content among other edible food. Throughout the year is the

best season of ampalaya. The Filipino variety of ampalaya is the most potent

among all varieties. The bitterness of ampalaya contributes the following


criteria and characteristic: Organic Compound: Alkaloid Momordicine

(Increases in concentration as the fruits on the vine), distinct physical

structure: ribbed and wrinkled surface, bitter compounds: it evolved in plants

as mechanism to deter consumption by animals, the bitterness compound of

ampalaya can help bring a dish into balance and strengthen its character, its

bitterness can cut through greasy and fatty foods. It takes the sting out of hot

foods; it adds intensity to a sauce, the young shoots and leaves of ampalaya

may be eaten as greens, pure ampalaya juice can also be a nutritional drink

for a boost of vim and vigor despite of its bitter taste.

Bitter gourd may appear to be an ingredient of lesser use due to its

bitter flavor but in wide perspective it is observed to be used in various recipes

of side dishes as well as main dishes. Some appetizers and snacks are also

popularly made with bitter gourd. With crunchy and watery flesh, bitter gourd is

highly popular ingredients in Asian salads and side dishes. Bitter gourd dishes

typically include stir-fried and soup recipes. Various bitter gourd curry recipes

are quite popular for their health benefits. Steamed bitter gourd dishes make a

popular addition to the culinary uses of the fruit. Variety of pickles are also

prepared with bitter gourd and fondly eaten as condiment. Raw slices of this

fruit are also added to some of the bitter gourd dishes such as soup and

salads. The taste enhancers that are usually added to bitter gourd recipes are

onion, tomato, coriander powder and mango powder. The oblong shape and

hollow interior makes bitter gourd are excellent vegetable for stuffing

purposes. Beef, pork or even potato mixture can be stuffed to make delectable
stuffed bitter gourd dishes. No matter how many times you wash ampalaya,

the nutrient in it remains.

Preferred Methods of Making Bitter Gourd Dishes

Due to highly appreciated ingredients, bitter gourd has enormous ways

of cooking. Few of them are as follows:

• Stir-fried – Stir-fried bitter gourd dishes are well-liked in Chinese cuisine

as well as in Indian cuisine.

• Sautéed – Bitter gourd is best tasted when sautéed with onion,

tomatoes and other spices.

• Stuffed – The oblong shape of bitter gourd is ideal for stuffing purposes.

• Boiled – Bitter gourd is often boiled and used to make various soup

dishes.

• Curried – Curry bitter gourd recipes are quite popular in South Indian

cuisine.

Recommendations

The proponents highly recommend the benefits of this study to

everyone:

• Ampalaya has a possible product fusion as new ampalaya dish.

• Ampalaya must be recognized in our country because its potency

brings recognition in our country in the field of health and medicine.

• Its cultivation must be improved and developed in the field of culinary

artistry.
• It must also be acknowledged, its importance and contribution in our

health as it is also a part of Filipino cuisine.

• HRM students have developed a product fusion into it and explore

more of the advancement of the recipe that will lead people to the

healthier future.

• The bitter the ampalaya, the better it is as part of Filipino cuisine , it is

one’s pride of the Filipino culture and delicacy, in many ways, in

different dish.
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