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173 KO Disaster Relief Advantage

173 KO Disaster Relief Advantage

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

SOLVENCY
SOLAR SATELLITES ARE KEY TO DISASTER RELIEF TerraDaily Staff Writers, 7-17-08 terradaily.com/reports/Exercise_For_Rapid_Disaster_Relief_With_Space_Based_Technologies_999.html [JWu] The rapid access to such information is necessary because, after disasters like the earthquake in China or the cyclone in Myanmar, rescue teams need to find out as soon as possible what type of aid is needed where. Support is given by the new system from space: with the help of satellite images, the relief workers receive an overview on blocked roads or destroyed buildings. By means of computer software, they then synchronise their observations on the ground with the satellite images and feed the data to a specialised network via satellite. The system is still in the prototype stage, but soon all involved organisations will be able to access the data directly over the network and supplement them with their own information. The aim is to speed up the investigation of disaster areas so that the exact support that is needed arrives as soon as possible. "We want powerful satellite technology to be used quickly and effectively in case of emergency", said Michael Angermann from DLR. The prototype will be enhanced for civil protection in the coming months. "At the end it shall be as easy to use as a laptop or a phone without costing more", the developers said. "The more field teams are able to connect with each other, share their results and transfer them, the quicker and more effectively the international community will be able to help", said Claus Hollein from the German Agency for Technical Relief (THW).

Space based solar satellites key for disaster relief Andrzej Zwaniecki, USInfo Staff writer, site maintained by U.S. Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs, 8-20-07, ("Space solar energy has future, U.S. researchers say" www.america.gov/st/washfileenglish/2007/August/20070820153255saikceinawz0.864773.html) [JWu] Beam solar energy directly from space, and disaster relief expeditions could power all their equipment with no more than a few portable antennas and converters. Campers could use such energy to cook dinners using nothing more than a cell phone-like device. But the primary beneficiaries of such a technological feat would be the many communities that would be able to tap into space solar energy fed into power grids. Terrestrial solar power stations already exist throughout the world. But sunlight is eight times less intense on the earth's surface than in its geostationary orbit. So why not collect it in space and beam its energy to Earth via microwave power beam, which can penetrate the atmosphere more efficiently, ask U.S. researchers. They have proposed putting in orbit mega-satellites -- giant, possibly inflatable structures of photovoltaic arrays and antennas -- that would do just that. At receiving stations on Earth, the beam could be converted into electricity (or synthetic fuels), which, in contrast to power from terrestrial solar power stations, would flow continuously to the grid independent of the season, weather or location. SPACE SOLAR BEAMS ENERGY KEY TO DISASTER RELIEF Jeremy Singer, Space.com staff wrter, 6-25-07, http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/070725_techwed_pentagon_spacepower.html

[JWu]

Jeff Krukin, executive director of the Space Frontier Foundation, which has been studying space-based solar power for years, said that he has been pleased with the collaboration with the NSSO thus far, and would like to work together again on other topics in the future. Krukin said he has welcomed the NSSO's interest in spacebased solar power, as it helps add legitimacy to the concept. The Space Frontier Foundation believes there are energy and environmental benefits that could come

from space-based solar power — collecting solar power in space and transmitting it back to Earth — and that construction of systems for this purpose could provide a major stimulus for the space industry. For example, it could lead to the construction
and launch of more satellites, he said. Krukin said the idea for collaborating with the NSSO came after an event in April when he asked a Pentagon official who was speaking at a luncheon about the NSSO's interest in space solar power after reading about it in Space News. Smith was sitting next to Krukin, and the two began talking about space-based solar power, Krukin said. Both Smith and Krukin said while they are excited about the potential benefits that could come from space-based solar power, they do not view it as a panacea for military or civilian energy needs, and encouraged the development of other new energy sources. With satellites that could collect solar energy and beam it to areas all

over the world, Smith said space-based solar power could help reduce the military's need for convoys that carry fuel through dangerous areas, and could be used for disaster relief operations like the reconstruction of an area devastated by a hurricane as well.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

SOLVENCY
Space solar key to replace disaster relief electricity generators Department of Energy, April 99 "Counting on solar power for disaster relief" http://www.p2pays.org/ref/40/39847.pdf [JWu] When disaster strikes, electric power is usually the first critically important service to be lost. And the effects can be devastating. Lights go out. Furnaces, refrigerators, and other electric appliances don't work. Neither do the electric pumps that deliver our drinking water and help treat sewage. Without electricity for homes, hospitals, food stores, and vital municipal services, many of our most important needs go unmet. What's more, emergency response teams need a reliable source of electric power to even begin to deal with the crisis. Without electricity, gasoline can't be pumped at local service stations to transport emergency supplies, and banks can't provide emergency funds. Without electric power, conventional communication systems won't work. Historically, townspeople and emergency response teams have had only one recourse in such a crisis — they have had to use gasoline- or diesel-powered engine generators to provide emergency power. The problem with engine generators Unfortunately, generators that run on fossil fuels like gasoline and diesel oil have problems of their own. For example, they can be dangerous in the hands of untrained users. In the wake of a major disaster such as a flood, tornado, earthquake, hurricane, or fire, newspapers often report incidences of fires, burns, fuel explosions, and even asphyxiations caused by the improper use of a generator. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other response groups report that generators can also have very short life spans. Many have to be written off the resource list after just one season. Noise can be a big problem, too. Local response organizations and townspeople alike report that noisy fossil-fueled generators are annoying at best. At worst, the constant loud noise adds to the trauma experienced by emotionally fragile, frazzled victims. But is there a reliable alternative? The answer is yes. A solar-powered solution After several years of research and development, portable electric generator sets (gensets) are now entering the marketplace; these gensets either eliminate or reduce the severity of many of the problems caused by fossilfuel generators. Powered by the sun, like solar cells in space, the new gensets make use of solar electric panels known as photovoltaics (PV) to produce electricity. The electric energy these gensets produce can be used directly or it can be stored in batteries for later use.

Space solar power key to disaster relief Rob Mahan, 07 Citizens for Space Based Solar Power, http://c-sbsp.org/sbsp-faq/ Worldwide disaster relief efforts are another area where space-based solar power might first be used. After Katrina, if portable rectennas could have been helicoptered in to provide temporary power to local grids, if they were still intact or using wireless power transmission if they weren’t operational, mobile hospital units, food banks, pumping stations and many other critical disaster relief services could have been up and running much sooner than they were. Remote, isolated populations would benefit greatly from space-based solar power. Rural electrification technology, consisting of a low cost rectenna and electrical distribution system would dramatically improve the quality of life almost immediately. A remote African village that suddenly had access to sanitation, water purification, refrigeration, lighting air conditionin and heat and communication would be able to provide for the health and human needs of its people.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

SOLVENCY
SBSP key to providing rapid and sustainable disaster relief energy National Security Space Office, part of a long-term government study on the feasibility of solar space power as a provider of U.S. energy, 10-10-07, “Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security,” http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf [JWu] For the DoD specifically, beamed energy from space in quantities greater than 5 MWe has the potential to be a disruptive game changer on the battlefield SBSP and its enabling wireless power transmission technology could facilitate extremely flexible “energy on demand” for combat units and installations across an entire theater, while significantly reducing dependence on vulnerable over‐land fuel deliveries. SBSP could also enable entirely new force structures and capabilities such as ultra long‐endurance airborne or terrestrial surveillance or combat systems to include the individual soldier himself. More routinely, SBSP could provide the ability to deliver rapid and sustainable humanitarian energy to a disaster area or to a local populatio undergoing nation‐building activities. SBSP could also facilitate base “islanding” such that each installation has the ability to operate independent of vulnerable ground‐based energy delivery infrastructures. In addition to helping American and allied defense establishments remain relevant over the entire 21st Century through more scure supply lines, perhaps the greatest military benefit of SBSP is to lessen the chances of conflict due to energy scarcity by providing access o a strategically secure energy supply.

SBSP can provide energy for disaster relief and nation building National Security Space Office, part of a long-term government study on the feasibility of solar space power as a provider of U.S. energy, 10-10-07, “Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security,” http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf [JWu] Finding: The SBSP Study Group found that one immediate application of space‐based solar power would be to broadcast power directly to energy‐deprived areas and to persons performing disaster relief, nation‐building, and other humanitarian missions often associated with the United Nations and related non‐governmental organizations. 1 o Recommendation: The SBSP Study Group recommends that during subsequent phases of the SBSP feasibility study opportunities for broad internatinal partnerships with non‐state and trans‐state actors should be explored. In particular, cooperation with the United Nations and related organizations to employ SBSP in support of various humanitarian relief effortssupport consistent with the U.N. Millennium Objectives must be assessed with the help of affiliated professionals.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

SOLVENCY
Space based solar power key to disaster relief response National Security Space Office, part of a long-term government study on the feasibility of solar space power as a provider of U.S. energy, 10-10-07, “Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security,” http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf [JWu] The first business case – “Scenario 1 – Urgent Need” ‐ is based on the use of SBSP to quickly provide (likely on a temporary not permanent basis) baseload power to a specific location. This may provide troops abroad in unfriendly or ill equipped territory with power. It may be used to help peacekeeping missions in remote or underdeveloped locations. It could also be used to re‐establish power in disaster zones such as those affected by devastating hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis or other natural disasters (either domestic or to provide valuable foreign aid, if or when these occur in other parts of the world) where the existing infrastructure has been damaged or destroyed and cannot be quickly rebuilt. The value of the power provided in these circumstances is very high, some would say priceless.

Government research key to make SBSP viable for disaster relief National Security Space Office, part of a long-term government study on the feasibility of solar space power as a provider of U.S. energy, 10-10-07, “Space-Based Solar Power As an Opportunity for Strategic Security,” http://www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/final-sbsp-interim-assessment-release-01.pdf [JWu] Whether SBSP begins as Scenario 2 (a large scale, commercially viable system) or Scenario 1 (a purely DoD/government system limited to expeditionary, disaster relief or humanitarian operations, where competitive pricing is not the key driver), more research and development needs to occur. Technical problems need to be resolved, retiring some of the risks and thus making it more attractive to private industry. The previous section on science and technology addresses many of the technologies where research needs to occur. Reusable launch vehicles, satellite component fabrication and in‐space construction, power beaming techniques, integrated spacefaring logistics infrastructure and the space hardness, mass reduction and efficiencies of solar cell materials are all areas that need more research and development. Government‐funded research is necessary and may be mandatory. Using academia to conduct some of the research would be desirable. Sharing costs between government, academia and corporate interests who could then commercialize results into products would be even better. Using the resources of NASA’s (former) Research Partnership Centers – which have already done some of the research into SBSP, launch, materials and other concepts would be valuable. DARPA also has existing relationships with universities that are likely to match well with the research goals resulting from his study. Not only does this provide valuable help and creativity to the research efforts, but it could build up the future workforce of expertise by giving students exciting and impactful work to focus on while at unversity.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

NATURAL DISASTERS BAD
Natural disasters hurt lives and economy

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

POVERTY

DISASTER RELIEF DISPROPORTIONATELY HURTS THE POOR World Bank 04 ("Natural Disasters: Counting the Cost" web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20169861~menuPK:34457~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~th eSitePK:4607,00.html) Losses from natural disasters are most devastating to the poorest people, says Margaret Arnold, acting manager of the World Bank’s Hazard Management Unit. This is particularly true in developing countries. Extensive research shows the poor are more likely to occupy dangerous, less desirable locations, such as flood plains, river banks, steep slopes and reclaimed land. Disasters are closely linked to poverty as they can wipe out decades of development in a matter of hours. Because natural disasters hit poor people the hardest, implementing effective disaster recovery programs, if they are well targeted, may be an effective means of reducing poverty, according to a forthcoming report by the ProVention Consortium – an international network of public, private, non-governmental, and academic organizations dedicated to reducing the impact of disasters in developing countries. Other senior disaster recovery officials share that view: “Disasters are first and foremost a major threat to development and specifically to the development of the poorest and most marginalized people in the world. … and ensure they stay poor.”

Natural disasters put disadvantaged in cycles of poverty IRIN news.com, June 05 http://www.irinnews.org/webspecials/DR/default.asp) Didier J. Cherpitel, former secretary-general of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said, in the organisation’s 2002 Disaster Report, “Disasters are first and foremost a major threat to development, and specifically to the development of the poorest and most marginalised people in the world - [disasters] ensure they stay poor.” For many development strategists, and critics of globalisation, the vulnerability of the poor in the face of natural disasters is symptomatic of the poverty cycle that forces poorer communities (and nations) into a downward spiral of destitution. Their plight is compounded by their inability to mitigate the impacts of the disasters they suffer.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

INHERENCY: DISASTERS COMING NOW
Natural disasters are inevitable and getting worse Graciela Chichilnsky, UNESCO Chair of Mathematics and Economics and is a professor of statistics at Columbia University, 05 ("Catastrophic Risks: The need for new tools, financial instruments and institutions." October 20, 2005) http://privatizationofrisk.ssrc.org/Chichilnisky/ While people watch TV screens in shock and disbelief, scientists forecast a new global trend. Hurricanes that could impact the US are increasing in strength and frequency. Many believe that we are entering a new geological cycle and that the increased storm volatility is caused by the warming of the seas, part of an overall pattern of global warming. We may need to brace ourselves for several decades of more frequent and intense floods, hurricanes and typhoons. We need to prepare for an increasingly dangerous physical environment, and we need to do that fast. Natural disasters are coming heavier to economy and lives Anthony Oliver-Smith, professor of anthropology at the University of Florida, 5-11-06 ("Disasters and Forced Migration in the 21st Century" http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Oliver-Smith/) Despite technological and scientific advances in prediction and mitigation, we have seen a serious increase in both mortality and economic losses from disasters since 1960, particularly in the developing world. Disasters are, in fact, increasing in impact and scope through the combined effects of economic, social, demographic, ideological and technological factors. Greater numbers of people are more vulnerable to natural and other hazards than ever before, due in part to increases in population, but more so to their location in dangerous areas. In fact, disaster risk and losses have dramatically increased , but unevenly so according to region (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2003). However, regardless of region, some form of displacement of individuals and communities frequently results from the threat or impact of a disaster.

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

STRAIGHT TURNING ECON DISADS
Natural disasters devastate GDP World Bank 04 ("Natural Disasters: Counting the Cost March 2, 2004" http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20169861~menuPK:34457~pagePK:34370~piPK:344 24~th eSitePK:4607,00.html) Didier J Cherpitel, former Secretary General of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said in the organization’s 2002 Disaster Report. Figures compiled by the World Bank’s Margaret Arnold show that from 1990-2000, natural disasters resulted in damages constituting between 2 to 15 percent of an exposed country’s annual GDP. GDP losses for individual events can be even more devastating: In Honduras, Hurricane Mitch caused losses equal to 41% of GDP. In terms of the government’s annual tax revenue, the losses amounted to 292%. Natural disasters cost hundreds of billions World Bank 04 ("Natural Disasters: Counting the Cost March 2, 2004" http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:20169861~menuPK:34457~pagePK:34370~piPK:344 24~th eSitePK:4607,00.html) Natural disasters are happening more often and having an ever more dramatic impact on the world in terms of both their human and economic cost. While the number of lives lost declined in the past 20 years— 800,000 people died from natural disasters in the 1990s compared with 2 million in the 1970s—the number of people affected has risen. In the past decade, the number of people affected by natural disasters tripled to 2 billion. The International Red Cross, which publishes an annual World Disasters Report, says the economic cost of natural disasters has skyrocketed. In the past two decades alone, direct economic losses from natural disasters multiplied five fold to US$629 billion. Annual direct losses from weather-related events increased from an estimated $3.9 billion in the 1950s to $63 billion in the 1990s. Other recent statistics show:

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Disaster Relief Advantage DDI ‘08 KO

Jackie Wu

TURN OTHER IMPACTS
DISASTERS EXACERBATE MANY OTHER IMPACTS Anthony Oliver-Smith, professor of anthropology at the University of Florida, 5-11-06 ("Disasters and Forced Migration in the 21st Century" http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Oliver-Smith/) The complexity of disasters today is demonstrated by the processes in which they can combine with and compound each other. For example, in 1998 Hurricane Mitch (a natural agent) produced floods in Honduras (a socio-natural phenomenon) that inundated warehouses full of pesticides and fertilizers (a technological hazard), producing what might be called a compound or complex disaster (Jansen 2003). Recently in the fall of 2004, Hurricane Ivan threatened New Orleans with just the same conflation of dangers. Hurricane Katrina has just fully realized the nightmare of Ivan. There is no question that environmental changes, particularly in the form of degradation, have increased the severity of socio-natural disasters. Moreover, disasters, singly or in combination, can further be compounded by the incidence of political upheaval, such as war, ethnic cleansing, or terrorism, or social factors such as racism, exclusion or religious persecution. And disasters can contribute to political instability that can lead to conflict with the potential to displace people.

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