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DO U KNOW THAT * Paleontology is the science of history of life. * Mahavira(founder of jainism)and gautama buddha (founder of buddism) were contemporaries and flourished in india in the 6th century B.C. * The three pyramids of eqypt were built from 2700 to 2500 B.C.,these are tombs of khufu,khafra and menkaura. * The great wall of china was completed in 204 B.C.it is 1500 miles long.Its average height is 25 feet and about 12 feet wide at the top. * The city rome was founded in 753 B.C. by romolus. * Christianity emerged as the distinct sect in the second half of the first century A.D. * The light of islam dawned in the 7th century A.D. when in 611 A.D. The Holy Prophet of Islam Muhammad (P.B.U.H) announced the revelation from the one true Allah. * The muslim rule of spain lasted from 711 to 1492 A.D. * The earth is calculated to b 4540 million years old. * The statue of liberty (newyork) was installed in 1886.It is 151 feet one inch high from the base to torch. * The world is divided into 24 time zones,each 15` longtitude wide. the longitudinal meridian passing through greenwich,England is the starting point and is called the prime meridian. * Christopher columbus discovered bahamas on 12 oct 1492 A.D. * Ostrich is the largest bird in the world.

* Saudi Arabia is the largest exporter of oil in the world. * The world famous golden gate bridge is located in San francisco(usa). * Russia invaded afghanistan on dec 27,1979. * Hongkong was returned to china on july 1,1997. * Eritrea became an independent state on may 24,1993. * The normal temperature of human body is 98.6 F. * A billion contain 1000 million. It has 9 zeroes. similarly a trillion has 12 zeroes,a quadrillion 15 zeroes,a quintillion 18 zeroes and a decillion 33 zeroes. * One inch is equal to 2.5400 cms and one mile is equal to 1.6093 kms. * About half of the world population speaks indo-european languages. The IndoEuropean branch to which english belongs is germanic. * Air is composed of nitrogen (78.08%),oxygen (20.95%),argon (0.94%) and carbon dioxide (0.03%). * The original inhabitants of USA are known as Red Indians. * Out of the 193 sovereign independent nations of the world 147 are republics and other 46 are under personal rules (14 kings,1 emperor,3 queens,7 hereditary sheikhs,1 grand duke,2 sultans,1 constitutional monarch etc). * Gwadar became a part of pakistan on september 9,1958. * All india mulim league was formulated on december 30,1906 and first president was Sir Agha Khan. * Hygrometer is instrument used for measuring humidity of air. * Heliscope is used for viewing the sun. * Asian development bank was established in 1966 with headquarter located at manila(philipine) * China has the largest population,russia has largest land area and vatican city has smallest population and land area in the world * Afghanistan got independence on 19th aug 1919. * Lord clive was the first and lord mountbatten was the last british ruler of india. * Air conditioner invented by "willis H. carrier"u.s. in 1902. * Camera(photographic) has been invented by "Joseph N. Niepce"france in 1822. * Largest continent of the world is "asia" and smallest is "australia".Largest ocean of the world is "pacific ocean"and smallest ocean is "indian ocean".The Sahara is the largest desert of the world. * Kazakhstan is the largest muslim country in landarea in the world.it has an area of 1,049,000 sq.miles.Maldives is the smallest muslim country in land area of 115 sq. miles. * Indonesia is the most populous muslim country and maldives is less populous muslim country. * Antarctica is the uninhabited continent of the world which is without any regular population. * Seoul (south korea) is the most populous city of the world. * The lake baikal of russia has the maximum depth of 5315 feet. __________________

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The largest tides of the world occur in Bay of fundy (canada). The earth is the densest planet of universe .It has density of 5.515 time that of water. Kilauea situated in Hawaii (US) is the most active volcano of the world Nauru, an island located in western pacific ocean, is the smallest republic of the world. La Paz,capital city of Bolivia (south america), is situated at an altitude of 3631 metres (12087 feet) from the sea level. The panch pokhri lake situated in the himalaya mountains is the highest lake in the world. The himalaya mountain range (asia) is the greatest mountain range in the world. Mount Everest (2759 N 8656 E) is the highest mountain peak which is located on nepal-tibet border in the himalayas. New Cornelia tailings on ten mile wash Arizona USA with a volume of 209500 million cubic metres is the world,s largest volume dam. Petronas tower-I is the tallest building in the world which is located in kuala lumpur (malaysia). USA is the largest nuclear electric power producing country in the world.It produces 98784 MW electricity which is about 30% of the total nuclear electricity generated in the world. Dalol Danaki depression in ethiopia with an average annual temperature of 35c (95f) is the hottest place on earth and Plateau station,in antaretica with an average annual temperature of -56.7c (-71.7f), is the coldest place of the globe. The Atacama desert in chile is the driest place of the world and Masynram in Assam (india) is the wettest place in the world.

Canada has the longest coastline which is 151,489 miles in the length and Monaco`s coastline measures only 3.5 miles in length. The present palace of sultan of brunei in the capital city of bandar seri begawan consisting of 1788 rooms is the largest palace. Grand central terminal of new york is the largest railway station.it covers an area of 48 acres. The seikan railway tunnel in japan is the longest railway tonned in the world,it s length is 33.50 miles (53.9 km) the yellow stone national park (USA) is the largest national park.It has an area of 3350 sq miles. The california university (USA) is the biggest university of the world.. King khalid international airport,riyadh (saudi arabia) is the largest airport in the world. The port of new york and new jersey (USA) is the largest seaport in the world. Mandarain (chinese) is the most spoken language of the world.It is estimated that a total number of 999 million ppl speak it. The nobel prize is the largest prize.Each prize carries an amount of one million dollars. Shah faisal mosque located in islamabad (pak) is the largest mosque. __________________ L di g !!!

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* The asian development bank established in 1966 with headquarter located at MANILA (philipines). * Eqypt , Iraq , jorden , Lebanon , Saudi Arab , Syria and Yemen are the founder nations of the arab league. * First world war was began on 1914 A.D. and second world war started in 1939 when germany attacked on poland, it is also considered as Greatest war. * Columbus discovered america on 1492 A.D. * The Royal Majesty ship Queen Elizabeth (UK) is the largest pessenger ship in the world.It is 314 metres long and 36 metres wide. * The cambodian language is a language which has a total number of 74 alphabets. * The Sumerian civilization is considered to be the oldest civilization of the world. * Jericho,situated in the Jorden valley is the oldest town of the world. * The maximum ever temperature of 136.4 F was recorded on september 13,1922 in the city Azizia (Libya) and The minimum temperature of -129.6 F was recorded in the town of Vostok near Antarctica on 24th august , 1960. * The highest rainfall for one month was recorded at Indian town of Cherapoonje. 366,14 inches rain fell there during the month of july 1861.

* Robert E. Peary (1856-1920) an American explorer reached North Pole on 6th April,1909 for the first time in human history. * Sierra Leone has the lowest GDP per capita of 510 US dollars and Luxembourg has the highest GDP per capita of 36,400 US dollars. * The UNO originated during the second world war.Its charter was drawn up from 25th april to 26th june,1945 at San francisco which was signed by 51 countries. * The umayyad Dynasty (661-750 A.D) was the first muslim dynasty. * Light is the fastest thing in the universe.It travels at a phenomenal speed of 187,000 miles per second. * According to the Forbcs magazine, There were 311 individual billionaires in the world.out of these, 108 belonged to USA,44 belonged to germany and 34 were japanese. * Bill gates (USA),founder and chairman of microsoft corporation, is currently the richest person in the world and Liliane Bettencourt (france) is the richest woman in the world. * People`s republic of china has the largest army of the world. __________________ L di g !!!

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Biological sciences

* For growth,viruses requires "Living Host". * The deficiency of "Boron" micronutrients causes the death of the stem and root apices. * Plant development is influenced by Quality,Quantity and Duration of light. * Lettuce,wheat and spinach are the long day plants and Sugarcane, Soyabean and tobacco are short day plants. * ATP is a molecule containing high energy bonds. * Edible part of tomato is whole fruit. * The primary producers of organic matter in nature are Green plants. * The total weight of a cell in a leaf or a petal,water constitutes about 90%. * The primary plant body consist of 3 tissue systems. * A tissue is a group of cells having similar structure and function. * The edible portion of mango is Mesocarp. * The rice grain is a seed. * Ethylene is a hormone concerned with Ripening of fruits. * Bamboo is Grass.

* Cork cells are impervious to water because of the presence of Suberin. * The biotic relationship between insects and plants with reference to pollination is called Mutualism. * Historically, Joseph Priertley , recognized in 1727 A.D. that sunlight and air are important for the growth of plants. * Opium is obtained from seed capsule of opium poppy. * Carbon dioxide is required during photosynthesis process in addition to sunlight and water. * The cavity of Ascaris is known as Coelom. * The membranous labyrinth of the ear is filled with Endolymph. * Crura-cerebri is found in Mid-brain. * Man is Homoiothermic. * The compound eye of insect produces Mosaic vision. * The post embryoniv stages in the life history of cockroach is known as Nymphs. * Ptyalin is present in the saliva. * Central nervous system control the reflex action in the body. * The terminal part of vertebral column in man is called Coceyx. * Beingn tertain malaria is caused by plasmodium vivax. * The life history of human malarial parasite in Anopheles was first described by Sir Ronald Ross. * The mouth parts of anopheles are adapted to piercing and sucking type feeding. * The "Urinary system" of the body consists of 3 organs. * Haryersion canals are present in Bone. * The heart bear is initiated and regulated by nodal tissue made of specialized

cardiac muscles called Purkinje tusse. * The gestation period of human being is Nine months. * Amoebic dysentery in man is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. * The first heart sound is produced when Diastole begins. * Kari Landsteiner discovered the blood groups of man. * Prothrombin which helps in clotting of blood is released by Blood platelets. * Glycogen is mainly stored in Liver and muscles. * Pepsin converts protein into peptides in acid media. * The most important function of perspiration is to regulate the body temperature. * The main function of white blood cells in the body is to protect the body against diseases. * The number of chromosomes in the human body is 46. * One micron is equal to One-thousandth of a millimeter. __________________ L di g !!!

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* Solar eclipse occurs at the new moon and not on the full moon and atleast one & seven is maximum no of solar eclipse in a year * The highest earth quake severity on richter scale has been recorded at southern chile in 1960 which was 9.5. * Hally's comet will return in the year 2062. * The speed of light is nearly 300,000 km/sec. * Our solar system has about 50 satellites. * Blue colour has shortest wavelength. * Bacteria ,fungi,virus are Non-green plants. * LASER stands for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". __________________ L di g !!!

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* Brazil covers nearly half of south america * The constitution of 1973 was enforced on 14th aug,1973.It is comprises of twelve parts consisting of 280 articles. * Mian nawaz sharif inaugurated Lahore-islamabad Motorway (M-2) on 26th nov 1997 which is 339 km long and 33 metre wide. * Mrs.Benazir bhutto reserved as prime miniter of pakistan twice viz.from 2 december 1988 to 6 aug 1990 and from 19th oct 1993 to 5th nov 1996. * WAPDA (water and power development authority) is responsible for the generation and distribution of electricity. * Indus water treaty was signed by india and pakistan in 1960 to resolve the outstanding canal water dispute bw 2 countries. * The govt of pakistan convened a convention of Ulema from 21-24th jan 1951 at karachi. The convention was attended by 31 muslim religious scholars belonging to all sects of Islam.The Ulema agreed on 22 points. * The miracle of a pregnant female camel was sent to the nation of samood. * The soap was made by Hazrat Salih (AS) first of all. * The nation of Hazrat Loot (AS) was destroyed by a rain of stones. * In six days (Surah Yunus,Verse no three) Allah had created the earth and the

heaven. * 22 times along with namaz ,Zakat has been mentioned in the Holy Quran. * Hajj made compulsory In the year 9 A.H. * Hazrat Hamza (RA)was the first commander of Islamic Army. * There are 114 surahs , 30 Paras and 6236 Ayats in the holy Quran.Surah-e-Fatiha is the first surah and Surah-e-Nas is the last Surah of the holy Quran. * Seven stages are there in the Holy Quran. __________________ L di g !!!

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* A shooting star is a meteor that comes from space,burning out in the earth`s upper atmosphere. * The total number of star visible with the naked eye can not be more than 6000. * Star twinkle for two main reasons, The intensity of the stars decreases and increases because of line-of-sight effect and there are disturbance in the gases of the atmosphere. * One light year is equal to 9461,000 million km ( 5875,000 million miles ). * The earth is about three million miles closer to the sun in january. * An engine which could do work equal to lifting 550 pounds one foot per second,is said to work at rate of one horsepower. * The essential parts of radio are: Vacuum tubes, transistors , Amplifier and Oscillator. * If you look at sky from the moon,It appears completely black because the moon has no atmosphere. * FM stands for Frequency modulation. * THere is no colour of the sky but it is the blue part of the white light of the sun which gets scattered by the dust particles hanging in the atmosphere. * Kilowatt hour (kWh) is a bigger unit of energy used in addition to SI unit. * Mitosis and meiosis are two types of cell division. * Light travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per sec. * The volcanoes of HAWAII are the most common and thoroughly studied in the world * Acre-foot is a unit of volume and is used to measure irrigation water, runoff volume and reservoir capacity. * Heme is Ferrous Protopo * There is about 340 million cubic miles of liquid water on the surface of the earth

* Ducts are small tubes which transfer the secretion of glands. * Borneo, sumatra , kenya ,uganda, brazil , colombia and equadore are some countries through which the equator passes. * Computer virus has created from pakistan * The dead sea is the world lowest sea.Its surface is 400 metres below the mediterranean. * MegaWatt is a unit of power equal to 1000 kiloWatts. * There are 15 main tectonic plates which makes the dynamic crust of the earth. * Northern edge of the Atlama desert in Chile is richest with the desposits of copper. * Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide at a temperature of -80 C. * Hydro-electric power means production of electricity by making Dams. * Chronic disease usually begins slowly and persists over a longer time. __________________ L di g !!!

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* Pakistan Railway & german Company agreed on a fisiblity report of 750 km line * Pakistan to Manufacture mobile phones from May 2007 * Abu Dhabi to Set-up Oil Refinery in Pakistan * Salt production in Pakistan reaches One Mln Tonnes per Year * Pakistan to increase Oil Output upto 100,000 Barrels Per Day * Pakistan GDP in 2006 was estimated approximately $ 439.7 billion * Fiscal budget for revenue and expenditure is targetted $ 19.8 billion and $ 25.7 billion respectively * GDP growth rate is 6.6 % * Population of pakistan is 165,803,560 * Population below poverty line is 25%. * Export target for the year is estimated $18 billion and Import target is estimated $28 billion * Privatisation target for the year is 75 billion * $13 billion is reserved amount of pakistan __________________ L di g !!!

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GDP (purchasing power parity): $427.3 billion (2006 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $124 billion (2006 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2006 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 22% industry: 26% services: 52% (2006 est.) Labor force: 48.29 million note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2006 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 42% industry: 20% services: 38% (2004 est.) Unemployment rate: 6.5% plus substantial underemployment (2006 est.) Population below poverty line: 24% (FY05/06 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1% highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41 (FY98/99) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.9% (2006 est.) Investment (gross fixed): 15.6% of GDP (2006 est.) Budget: revenues: $20.55 billion expenditures: $25.65 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.) Public debt: 55% of GDP (2006 est.) Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2006 est.) Electricity - production: 80.24 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 68.8% hydro: 28.2% nuclear: 3% other: 0% (2001) Electricity - consumption: 74.62 billion kWh (2004) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2004) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2004) Oil - production: 63,000 bbl/day (2005 est.) Oil - consumption: 324,000 bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - exports: NA bbl/day (2004) Oil - imports: NA bbl/day (2004) Oil - proved reserves: 358.9 million bbl (2006 est.) Natural gas - production: 27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 759.7 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.) Current account balance: $-5.486 billion (2006 est.) Exports: $19.24 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs Exports - partners: US 24.8%, UAE 7.8%, Afghanistan 6.6%, UK 5.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005) Imports: $26.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Imports - commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 11.1%, UAE 10.3%, China 9.2%, Japan 6.4%, US 6%, Kuwait 5%, Germany 4.5% (2005) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $13.29 billion (2006 est.) Debt - external: $42.38 billion (2006 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $2.4 billion (FY01/02) Currency (code): Pakistani rupee (PKR) Currency code: PKR Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.5 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003), 59.724 (2002) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June __________________ L di g !!!

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Najabat Senior Member

Really inspirational Work...Well done Sureshlasi, let me share a lil from my side too The only fish that can blink with both eyes is a shark. The Niagara falls froze solid as it was so cold in winter of 1932. Tigers don't have striped fur but striped skin. Compared to men, women blink nearly twice. Its not possible to keep your eyes open and sneeze.(Don't try it) ;-) An average American spends 6 months in his whole life at red lights. The scissors was invented by Leonardo Da Vinci. When we are born our nose and ears keeps growing but the size of our eyes remains the same. The longest word typed with the left hand is stewardesses and with the right is lollipop. (Don't try others) ;-)

56% of the average typing work is done with the left hand. In every two weeks if the stomach does not produce a new layer of mucus it will digest itself;-) The words read left to right or right to left in the words racecar kayak and level are the same. When a chocolate bar melted in the pocket after a researcher walked by a radar tube, he invented the microwave. The brain of the Ostrich is smaller than its eyes. Vocal sounds of a dog are 10 and that of a cat are over one hundred. In each ear of the cat there are 32 muscles. Life span of a dragonfly is 24 hours. A snail can sleep for three years. __________________

rofile of Pakistan · Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan · Father of the Nation Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) · National Poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) · Head of the State General Pervez Musharraf, President · Head of Government Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, Prime Minister · Capital Islamabad · Area

Total 796,095 Sq. km. Punjab 205,344 Sq. km. Sindh 140,914 Sq. km. North WestFrontierProvince 74,521 Sq. km. Balochistan 347,190 Sq. km. Federally Administered Tribal Areas 27,220 Sq. km. Islamabad (Capital) 906 Sq. km. · Population 149.03 million · Administrative Setup Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. The tribal belt adjoining NWFP is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Divisions and Districts Divisions Districts NWFP 7 24 Punjab 8 34 Sindh 5 21 Balochistan 6 22 While FATA consist of 13 Areas/Agencies and Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have 7 and 5 Districts respectively.

· Religion 95% Muslims, 5% others. · Annual Per capita income Rs. 28,933 (US $ 492 approximately) · GDP 5.1% · Currency Pak. Rupee. · Imports Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea. · Exports Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit · Languages Urdu (National) and English (Official) · Literacy rate 51.6% · Government Parliamentary form · Parliament Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House). The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college. The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats). · Pakistan National Flag Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolises Pakistan's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious miniorities. · National Anthem Approved in June, 1954 Verses Composed by: Abdul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla Duration: 80 seconds · State Emblem The State Emblem consists of: 1. The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam 2. The shield in the centre shows four major crops 3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and

4. Scroll contains Quaid's motto: Unity Faith, Discipline · Pakistan's Official Map Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999) · National Flower Jasmine. · National Tree Deodar (Cedrus Deodara). · National Animal Markhor. · National Bird Chakor (Red-legged partridge) · Flora Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry · Fauna The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, MarcoPolo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls · Popular games Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash. · Tourist's resorts Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit · Archaeological sites Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai. · Major Cities Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot · Major Crops Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane · Agricultural Growth Rate 4.15% in 2002-03 · Total cropped area 22.0 million hectares · Industry Textiles, Cement, Fertilizer, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding · Energy Major sources Electricity (Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear) Oil, Coal, and Liquid Petroleum Gas Power Generating Capacity 18,062 MW · Health Hospitals 947

Dispensaries 4,800 Basic Health Units (BHUs) 4,820 Maternity & Child Health Centres 1,084 Rural Health Centres (RHCs) 581 Tuberculosis (TB) Centres 357 Hospital Beds 82,844 Doctors (registered) 101,635 Dentists (registered) 5,068 Nurses (registered 44,520 Paramedics 22,714 Lady Health Workers 6,397 · Education Primary Schools 164,200 Middle Schools 19,100 High Schools 12,900 Arts & Science Colleges 925 Professional Colleges 374 Universities Public Sector (including one WomenUniversity) 29 Private Sector 10 · Transport & Communication Total length of roads

251,845 km Pakistan Railway network 7,791 km Railway stations 781 Pakistan International Airlines Covers 33 international and 21 domestic stations with a fleet of 44 planes. Major Airports 8 (Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad and Gwadar) · Seaports International 2 (Karachi and Bin Qasim.) Fish Harbours-Cum-Mini Ports 3 (Minora, Gawadar, and Keti Bandar) · Communications Post Offices 12,267 Telephone connections 4,589,000 Public Call Offices 1,14,527 Telegraph offices 328 Internet Connections 1.9 million

· Employment Total Labour force 42.38 million Employed Labour Force 39.41 million Agriculture Sector 18.91 million Manufacturing & Mining sector 4.51 million Construction 2.25 million Trade 5.27 million

Transport 1.97 million Finance, Community & Social Services 5.90 million Others 5.87 million · Media Print Media (In accordance with Central Media List)

Dailies 414 Weeklies 392 Fortnightlies 50 Monthlies 259 Annually 01 Quarterly 03 News Agencies Official APP Private PPI, NNI, On Line and Sana. Electronic Media TV Centres Five TV centres at Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi covering 88.58% population and 29 re-broadcasting stations. Pakistan Television 4 channels (PTV-I, PTV-II (PTV World), PTV-III & PTV-IV) Registered TV sets

3,604,000 Radio Stations Public: Total 25, Home services in 19 languages. External Services cover 81 countries in 15 languages Private: Radio stations 3, TV transmitter channels 3 Cable Operators 900 · Banks Central Bank State Bank of Pakistan Other Banks National Bank of Pakistan Habib Bank Ltd. United Bankn Ltd. Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd. Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd. First Woman Bank Mehran Bank The Bank of Punjab Bank of Khyber Specialized Banks Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan Federal Bank for Co-operatives Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan The Punjab Provincial Co-operative Bank · Famous MountainPeaks K-2 (Mt. Godwin Austin) 28,250 ft./8611 m (2nd in World) Nanga Parbat 26,660 ft./8126 m (8th in World) Gasherbrum-I 26,470 ft./8068 m (11th in World) · Famous Mountain Passes The Khyber Pass NWFP

The KurramPass FATA The TochiPass FATA The GomalPass NWFP The Bolan Pass Balochistan The LowariPass Chitral (NWFP) The KhunjrabPass Northern Areas · Rivers The Indus 2,896 km Jhelum 825 km Chenab 1,242 km Ravi 901 km Sutlej 1,551 km Beas (tributary of Sutlej) 398 km · Famous Glaciers Siachin 75 km Batura 55 km Baltoro 65 km · Deserts

Thar Sindh Cholistan Punjab Thal Punjab · Lakes Manchar Sindh Keenjar Sindh Hanna Balochistan Saif-ul-Maluk NWFP Satpara Northern Areas Kachura Northern Areas · Major Dams Mangla Dam Punjab Tarbela Dam NWFP Warsak Dam NWFP

The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Muhammad Adnan For This Useful Post: chmuzamil (Sunday, November 28, 2010), Saqiyasi (Saturday, September 11, 2010) #2 Sunday, March 18, 2007 A Rehman Pal Senior Member Join Date: Feb 2007 Location: Karachi Posts: 247 Thanks: 41 Thanked 33 Times in 21 Posts

All about Pakistan Background: The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Geography Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 803,940 sq km land: 778,720 sq km water: 25,220 sq km Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California Land boundaries: total: 6,774 km border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km Coastline: 1,046 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Climate:

mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone Land use: arable land: 24.44% permanent crops: 0.84% other: 74.72% (2005) Irrigated land: 182,300 sq km (2003) Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August) Environment - current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation Geography - note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent People Population: 165,803,560 (July 2006 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 39% (male 33,293,428/female 31,434,314) 15-64 years: 56.9% (male 48,214,298/female 46,062,933) 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 3,256,065/female 3,542,522) (2006 est.) Median age: total: 19.8 years

male: 19.7 years female: 20 years (2006 est.) Population growth rate: 2.09% (2006 est.) Birth rate: 29.74 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) Death rate: 8.23 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) Net migration rate: -0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2006 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 70.45 deaths/1,000 live births male: 70.84 deaths/1,000 live births female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.39 years male: 62.4 years female: 64.44 years (2006 est.) Total fertility rate: 4 children born/woman (2006 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 74,000 (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,900 (2003 est.) Major infectious diseases: degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and cutaneous leishmaniasis are high risks depending on location animal contact disease: rabies note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007) Nationality:

noun: Pakistani(s) adjective: Pakistani Ethnic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch, Muhajir (immigrants from India at the time of partition and their descendants) Religions: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3% Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8% Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 48.7% male: 61.7% female: 35.2% (2004 est.) Government Country name: conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan conventional short form: Pakistan local long form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan local short form: Pakistan former: West Pakistan Government type: federal republic Capital: name: Islamabad geographic coordinates: 33 42 N, 73 10 E time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK) National holiday: Republic Day, 23 March (1956) Constitution:

12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003 Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims Executive branch: note: following a military takeover on 12 October 1999, Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez MUSHARRAF, suspended Pakistan's constitution and assumed the additional title of Chief Executive; on 12 May 2000, Pakistan's Supreme Court unanimously validated the October 1999 coup and granted MUSHARRAF executive and legislative authority for three years from the coup date; on 20 June 2001, MUSHARRAF named himself as president and was sworn in replacing Mohammad Rafiq TARAR; in a referendum held on 30 April 2002, MUSHARRAF's presidency was extended by five more years; on 1 January 2004, MUSHARRAF won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly, and four provincial assemblies chief of state: President General Pervez MUSHARRAF (since 20 June 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Shaukat AZIZ (since 28 August 2004) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister elections: the president is elected by an electoral college drawn from the national parliament and provincial assemblies for a five-year term; note - Musharraf was last sworn in as President in November 2002; the prime minister is selected by the National Assembly (next elections to be held in late 2007) election results: AZIZ elected by the National Assembly on 27 August 2004 Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (100 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies and the territories' representatives in the National Assembly to serve six-year terms; half of the Senate's seats turn over every three years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 seats filled by popular vote; 60 seats reserved for women; 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; members serve fiveyear terms) elections: Senate - last held in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2009); National Assembly - last held 10 October 2002 (next to be held in 2007) election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PML 39, MMA 18, PPPP 9, MQM 6, PML/N 4, PkMAP 3, PPP 3, ANP 2, BNP-Awami 1, BNP/M 1, JWP 1, PML/F 1, independents 12; National Assembly results - percent of votes by party - NA; seats by party - PML/Q 126, PPPP 81, MMA 63, PML/N 19, MQM 17, NA 16, PML/F 5, PML/J 3, PPP/S 2, BNP 1, JWP 1, MQM-H 1, PAT 1, PkMAP 1, PML/Z 1, PTI 1, independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by the president); Federal Islamic or Shari'a Court Political parties and leaders: Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN]; Balochistan National Party/Hayee Group or BNP/H [Dr. Hayee BALUCH]; Baluch National Party/Awami or BNP/Awami [Moheem Khan BALOCH]; Baluch National Party-Mengal or BNP/M [Sardar Ataullah MENGAL]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR]; Jamiat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Fazlur Rehman faction or JUI/F [Fazlur REHMAN]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami ulHAQ faction or JUI/S [Sami ul-HAQ]; Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan or JUP [Shah Faridul HAQ]; Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal or MMA [Qazi Hussain AHMED]; Muttahida Qaumi Movement, or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN]; National Alliance or NA [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI] (merged with PML); Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Pakistan Muslim League or PML [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN]; note - as of May 2004, the PML/Q changed its name to PML and absorbed the PML/J, PML/Z, and NA; Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]; Pakistan People's Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]; Tehrik-iIslami [Allama Sajid NAQVI] note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains most important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential International organization participation: ARF, AsDB, C (reinstated 2004), CP, ECO, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahmud Ali DURRANI chancery: 3517 International Court, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 243-6500 FAX: [1] (202) 686-1544 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Sunnyvale (California) Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ryan CROCKER embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad

mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200 telephone: [92] (51) 208-0000 FAX: [92] (51) 2276427 consulate(s) general: Karachi consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam Economy Economy - overview: Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes, low levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. However, IMF-approved government policies, bolstered by generous foreign assistance and renewed access to global markets since 2001, have generated solid macroeconomic recovery the last five years. The government has made substantial macroeconomic reforms since 2000, most notably privatizing the banking sector. Poverty levels have decreased by 10 percent since 2001, and Islamabad has steadily raised development spending in recent years, including a 52-percent real increase in the budget allocation for development in fiscal year 2007, a necessary step toward reversing the broad underdevelopment of its social sector. The fiscal deficit - the result of chronically low tax collection and increased spending, including reconstruction costs from the October 2005 earthquake - appears manageable for now. GDP growth, spurred by gains in the industrial and service sectors, remained in the 6-8% range in 2004-06. Inflation remains the biggest threat to the economy, jumping to more than 9% in 2005 before easing to 7.9% in 2006. The central bank is pursuing tighter monetary policy - raising interest rates in 2006 - while trying to preserve growth. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit - driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion - could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term. GDP (purchasing power parity): $427.3 billion (2006 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $124 billion (2006 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 6.5% (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2006 est.) GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 22% industry: 26% services: 52% (2006 est.) Labor force: 48.29 million note: extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor (2006 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 42% industry: 20% services: 38% (2004 est.) Unemployment rate: 6.5% plus substantial underemployment (2006 est.) Population below poverty line: 24% (FY05/06 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1% highest 10%: 27.6% (FY96/97) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 41 (FY98/99) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.9% (2006 est.) Investment (gross fixed): 15.6% of GDP (2006 est.) Budget: revenues: $20.55 billion expenditures: $25.65 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.) Public debt: 55% of GDP (2006 est.) Agriculture - products: cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; milk, beef, mutton, eggs Industries: textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, paper products, fertilizer, shrimp Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2006 est.) Electricity - production: 80.24 billion kWh (2004) Electricity - consumption: 74.62 billion kWh (2004) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2004)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2004) Oil - production: 63,000 bbl/day (2005 est.) Oil - consumption: 324,000 bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - exports: NA bbl/day Oil - imports: NA bbl/day Oil - proved reserves: 358.9 million bbl (2006 est.) Natural gas - production: 27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 27.4 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 759.7 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.) Current account balance: $-5.486 billion (2006 est.) Exports: $19.24 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Exports - commodities: textiles (garments, bed linen, cotton cloth, yarn), rice, leather goods, sports goods, chemicals, manufactures, carpets and rugs Exports - partners: US 24.8%, UAE 7.8%, Afghanistan 6.6%, UK 5.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005) Imports: $26.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Imports - commodities: petroleum, petroleum products, machinery, plastics, transportation equipment, edible oils, paper and paperboard, iron and steel, tea Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 11.1%, UAE 10.3%, China 9.2%, Japan 6.4%, US 6%, Kuwait 5%, Germany 4.5% (2005) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $13.29 billion (2006 est.) Debt - external:

$42.38 billion (2006 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $2.4 billion (FY01/02) Currency (code): Pakistani rupee (PKR) Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees per US dollar - 60.35 (2006), 59.515 (2005), 58.258 (2004), 57.752 (2003), 59.724 (2002) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Communications Telephones - main lines in use: 5,162,798 (2006) Telephones - mobile cellular: 48,289,136 (2006) Telephone system: general assessment: the telecom infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments into fixed-line and mobile networks; mobile cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, approaching 50 million in late 2006, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; main line availability has risen only marginally over the same period and there are still difficulties getting main line service to rural areas. domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks international: country code - 92; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2006) Radio broadcast stations: AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006) Television broadcast stations: 20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006) Internet country code: .pk Internet hosts: 72,765 (2006) Internet users: 10.5 million (2005) Transportation

Airports: 139 (2006) Airports - with paved runways: total: 91 over 3,047 m: 14 2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 1,524 to 2,437 m: 33 914 to 1,523 m: 15 under 914 m: 8 (2006) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 48 over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 23 (2006) Heliports: 18 (2006) Pipelines: gas 10,257 km; oil 2,001 km (2006) Railways: total: 8,163 km broad gauge: 7,718 km 1.676-m gauge (293 km electrified) narrow gauge: 445 km 1.000-m gauge (2004) Roadways: total: 258,340 km paved: 167,146 km (including 711 km of expressways) unpaved: 91,194 km (2004) Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1000 GRT or over) 397,740 GRT/657,656 DWT by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 10, container 1, petroleum tanker 4 registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 2, North Korea 3, Malta 1, Nigeria 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2006) Ports and terminals: Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim Military Military branches: Army (includes National Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza'ya) (2006) Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat

until age of 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors (2006) Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 39,028,014 females age 16-49: 36,779,584 (2005 est.) Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 29,428,747 females age 16-49: 28,391,887 (2005 est.) Manpower reaching military service age annually: males age 18-49: 1,969,055 females age 16-49: 1,849,254 (2005 est.) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 4.5% (2006 est.) Transnational Issues Disputes - international: various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed stand-off in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India's fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India's Gujarat State; by 2005, Pakistan, with UN assistance, repatriated 2.3 million Afghan refugees leaving slightly less than a million, many of whom remain at their own choosing; Pakistan has proposed and Afghanistan protests construction of a fence and laying of mines along portions of their porous border; Pakistan has sent troops into remote tribal areas to monitor and control the border with Afghanistan and stem terrorist or other illegal activities Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 1,084,208 (Afghanistan) IDPs: undetermined (government strikes on Islamic militants in South Waziristan),

34,000 (October 2005 earthquake, most of those displaced returned to their home villages in the spring of 2006) (2006) Illicit drugs: opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 800 hectares in 2005 yielding a potential production of 4 metric tons of pure heroin; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that force eradication - fines and arrests will take place if the ban on poppy cultivation is not observed; key transit point for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Western markets, the Gulf States, and Africa; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, terrorism, corruption, and smuggling remain problems __________________ REBEL Last edited by Andrew Dufresne; Monday, June 21, 2010 at 05:42 PM. Reason: Kindly avoid using red color

The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to A Rehman Pal For This Useful Post: chmuzamil (Sunday, November 28, 2010), Saqiyasi (Saturday, September 11, 2010), shireenshaikh (Wednesday, December 16, 2009) #3 Monday, March 19, 2007 Last Island Royal Queen of Literature Join Date: May 2005 Location: Forest of Fallen Stars Posts: 4,664 Thanks: 1,107 Thanked 5,596 Times in 2,140 Posts

List of newspapers published in Pakistan. BALOCHI Nawai Watan, Quetta ENGLISH Balochistan Post, Quetta Business Recorder, Karachi Daily Mail, Islamabad Daily Times, Lahore Dawn, Karachi

The Frontier Post, Peshawar Khyber Mail, Peshawar The Nation, Lahore and Islamabad Pakistan Observer, Islamabad Pakistan Times, Islamabad The News, Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad The Star, Karachi The Statesman, Islamabad PASHTO Daily Wahdat, Peshawar PUNJABI Sajjan, Lahore Khabran, Lahore Bhulekha, Lahore SRAIKI Kook, Karachi SINDHI Daily Kawish, Hyderabad Daily Ibrat, Hyderabad Daily Awami Awaz, Karachi Daily Hilal Pakistan, Hyderabad Daily Sindhu, Hyderabad Daily Alakh, Hyderabad Daily Tameer-e-Sindh, Hyderabad Daily Koshish, Hyderabad Daily Mehran, Hyderabad Daily Sach, Hyderabad Daily Sham, Hyderabad Daily Safeer, Hyderabad URDU Aaj Daily,Peshawar , Islamabad and Abbottabad Daily Al-Akhbar, Islamabad Daily Ausaf, Islamabad Daily Awam, Karachi Daily Al-Qamar, Islamabad, Daily Express, Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Rahim Yar Khan and Sukkar Daily Imroze, Karachi

Daily Islam, Karachi and Lahore Daily Jang, Karachi and Lahore Daily Mashriq, Peshawar Daily Naya Zamana, Lahore Daily Pakistan, Lahore Daily Deen, Karachi and Lahore Gujranwala Times, Gujranwala, Daily Jasarat, Karachi Daily Khabrain, Peshawar Daily Millat, Lahore Daily Nawa-i-Waqt, Lahore Daily Ummat, Karachi __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

The Following User Says Thank You to Last Island For This Useful Post: shireenshaikh (Wednesday, December 16, 2009) #4 Monday, March 19, 2007 Last Island Royal Queen of Literature Join Date: May 2005 Location: Forest of Fallen Stars Posts: 4,664 Thanks: 1,107 Thanked 5,596 Times in 2,140 Posts

List of Pakistan Railways Trains INTERNATIONAL
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Samjhauta Express Thar Express

NATION WIDE
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Allama Iqbal Express Awam Express Baddar Express Badin Express

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Bahuddin Zakaria Express Bahawalpur Express Baluchistan Express Bolan Mail Buraq Express Cargo Express Chenab Express Chiltan Express Dachi Express Express Faisal Express Faisalabad Express Fareed Express Fast Fast Passenger Gandhara Steam Safari (Rawalpindi - Landikotal) Ghouri Express Islamabad Non-Stop Jaffar Express Jinnah Express Karachi Express Karkoram Express Khushhal Khan Khattak Express Khyber Mail Lahore Non-Stop Lala Musa Express Lasani Express Malik Wal Express Mari Indus Express Mehr Express Mehran Express Mianwali Express (Lahore-Mianwali-Lahore) Millat Express Nishtar Express (Rawalpindi-Lahore-Karachi) Musa Pak Narowal Express Night Coach Pakpattan Express Passenger Qalander Express Quetta Express Rachna Express

y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

Ravi Express Rohi Express Rohri Express Sakhi Abbas Express Sandal Express Sargodha Express Shah Lateef Express Shah Rukne Alam Express Shah Shams Express Shalimar Express Shuttle Train Sir Syed Express (Rawalpindi-Karachi-Rawalpindi) Subak Kharam Express Subak Raftar Express Sukkar Express Supper Express Tezgam Thal Express Tipu Sultan Express

__________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

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Islands of Pakistan ASTOLA (AKA HAFT TALAR) Astola or Astola Island (also known as Haft Talar or seven hills) is a small, uninhabited island in the Arabian Sea, approximately twenty-five kilometres south of

the Balochistan coast of Pakistan. The island lies about forty kilometres east-southeast of the port of Pasni, its altitude is 0-200 feet and the total area is approximately 4 km². The island is about four kilometres in length and one kilometre in width, with an isolated rock to the southeast which has broken away. There are caves on the south face cliffs. Astola is the only significant offshore island along the north coast of the Arabian Sea. The island is owned by the Balochistan Board of Revenue and administratively is part of the Pasni subdivision of the district of Gwadar. Between September and May of each year, Astola becomes a temporary base for mainland fishermen, to catch lobsters and oysters. From June to August, the island remains uninhabited by humans because of the rough sea and high tides. On one of the cliffs of the island, there is a small solar-operated beacon for the safety of passing vessels.. History Nearchus (360-300 BCE), admiral of Alexander the Great, mentioned Astola island as Carnine Island, inhabited by the Ichthyophagoi (Fish eaters in Greek) where, according to Nearchus, even the mutton had a fishy taste. The Persian phrase Mahi khoran, (Fish eaters) has become the modern name of the coastal region of Makran. On the island are the remains of an ancient Hindu temple of the goddess, Kali Devi. The island was also known as to Hindus as "Satadip". There is also a prayer yard built for the Muslim Sufi Pir Khawaja Khizr who according to mainland legends is said to rule over the oceans and is believed to visit the area occasionally and offer prayers there. The prayer yard is used by the fishermen during the fishing season. Wild life The isolated location of the island has helped maintain endemic life forms. The endangered Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and possibly the Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbracata) nest on the beach at the foot of cliffs, and it is a very important area for endemic reptiles such as the viper Echis carinatus astolae. The island is maintaining the genetic and ecological diversity of the area. The island is reported to support a large number of breeding seabirds including Larus hemprichii and several species of terns. Avifauna includes: Ardeola cinerea, Egretta gularis,Pluvialis squatarola, Numenius arquata, Limosa limosa, Calidris minutus, Larus argentatus, Larus genei, Cursorius coromandelius, Galerida cristata, Oenanthe deserti, and Prinia spp. Feral cats originally introduced by fishermen to control the endemic rodent population pose an increasing threat to birds nesting and breeding sites. and as such maintains the genetic and ecological diversity of the area. BHIT SHAH ISLAND Baba Bhit Shah Island is the smallest neighborhood of Kiamari Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It comprises three small fishing islands which in the centre of the
 

harbour of Karachi. There are several ethnic groups in Kiamari Town including Urdu speakers, Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pakhtuns, Balochs, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis. Over 99% of the population is Muslim. The population of Kiamari Town is estimated to be nearly one million. There is another place named Bhit Shah located in the interior part of province of Sindh, Pakistan. Bhit Shah is the town where the shrine of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689-1752), the patron saint of Sindh. BUDDO ISLAND Buddo Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Buddo Island is also known as Dingi by local fishermen. Buddo and Bundal Islands serve as a temporary port for local fishermen. They clean their nets and dry fish on these islands. The Bundal and Buddo Islands comprising 12,000 acres of land, are the assets of the Port Qasim Authority. BUNDAL ISLAND Bundal Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Bundal, pronounced Bhandar by local fishermen, is a twin island of Buddo and lies to its West. On Bundal Island the tomb of Muslim sufi Yusuf Shah is located. The annual urs of 'Yusuf Shah' which attracts thousands of coastal people to the island. The island looked like a city during the urs. Churma and Buddo Islands are also located near Bundal Island. There is a dispute between the provincial government of Sindh and Karachi Port Trust on the ownership rights of 12,000 acres of land in these Islands. Development Project In September 2006, government of Pakistan gave a Dubai property firm, Emaar the go-ahead for a $43bn (£22.8bn) project to develop two island resorts in Bundal and Buddo Island. A bridge would be constructed at a cost of $50 million to link Karachi Defence Housing SocietyPhase-8 with Bundal and Buddo Islands. The islands are situated at a distance of 1.5km from Karachi Defence Phase-8. A major portion of one of the two islands has submerged beneath the sea and the land of Emaar Group would reclaim the land by using technology. According to initial plan, about 15,000 houses would be constructed and would be sold to public. On December 8th contruction of the islands started. Controversy Many local NGOs, political parties and even Sindh Government have raised their

voice about these development projects. CHURMA ISLAND (AKA CHURNA ISLAND) Churma Island or Churna Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Churna is a tiny island with a big reputation embrace crystal clear water, extraordinary vistas, it s a culmination of your search for the best Sport Fishing action in Pakistan with a plethora of choices excursions to our undersea world, scuba diving, sailing around and snorkeling, The island of Churna is frequently visited by anglers (recreational fishermen) for fishing, this is one of the biggest and most active fishing spot in Pakistan, There is enough sea life which attracts anglers for Big Game Fishing all over Pakistan. CLIFTON OYSTER ROCKS Clifton Oyster Rocks is an island located near Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. KHIPRIANWALA ISLAND Khiprianwala Island is a small island located in the Arabian Sea off the coast of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. MALAN ISLAND Malan Island is located in Arabian Sea 3 kilometres off the coast of Balochistan, Pakistan. It is an offshore mud volcano and rose out of the water overnight in March 1999. MANORA (AKA MANORO) Manora or Manoro is a small island (2.5 km²) located just south of the Port of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. The island is connected to the mainland by a 12 kilometre long causeway called the Sandspit. Manora and neighbouring islands form a protective barrier between Karachiharbour to the north and the Arabian Sea to the south. The western bay of the harbour contains endangered mangrove forests which border the Sandspit and Manora island. To the east is Karachi Bay and the beach towns of Kiamari and Clifton. The island is located at 24°48 00 N, 66°58 00 E (24.800000, 66.970000). History According to the British historian Eliot, parts of city of Karachi and the island of
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Manora at port of Karachi constituted the city of Debal. The island was the site of a small fort constructed in the eighteenth century when the port of Karachi traded with Oman and Bahrain. The fort was stormed by the British in 1839 because of the strategic location of Karachi. Although the fort is now buried beneath the naval base, the lighthouse is a visible reminder of the British presence having been built in 1889 to assist vessels approaching Karachi harbour. The island of Manora has served for more than 50 years as the main base of the Pakistan Navy, with berths for naval vessels located along the eastern edge of the island. The island has been governed as a military cantonment despite being located so close to Karachi. The opening of the new Jinnah Naval Base at Ormara, 250 kilometres away, has mean't that approximately half of the naval vessels have moved away from Manora. Tourism Manora is also a popular picnic spot because of the long sandy beaches along the southern edge of the island, which merge into the beaches of the Sandspit and then extend several kilometres to the beaches at Hawkesbay. At the southeastern end of Manora island is the tallestlighthouse (28 m or 91 feet high) in Pakistan. The island lies approximately 15-20 minutes by boat ride from mainland Karachi but there are no good hotels available for an overnight stay. For this and other reasons, the Government of Pakistan has been considering developing the island into a tourist destination. The island has been envisioned as an exotic location with natural landscapes such as the beaches and the mangrove forests, and secluded beauty with an upgrade for the lighthouse to add to the quaint feel of the island. Development Pakistan's Ministry for Ports and Shipping has just signed Memorandum of Understanding in 2006 with Dubai World and Emaar Properties for the redevelopment of Manora Island. As part of the development plans, the KPT and all Military establishments will vacate the island and hand it over to the the companies for development. The development, so to speak, will comprise of establishing high rise hotels and apartment buildings in the areas. __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

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Gurdwaras in Pakistan Gurdwaras in Pakistan are an essential part of Sikhism and form an important part of the history of Sikhism. The Punjab was only divided in1947 when the separate nations of India and Pakistan were formed. Before this, the area covered by the two countries was one nation. The following is a list of important places in Sikh history:
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Nankana Sahib This is the most sacred Sikh place; the location of the birth of the Sikh founder, Guru Nanak. Gurdwara Janam Asthan, Nankana Sahib - This site is ¶Janam Asthan meaning ¶Place of Birth and childhood home. Gurdwara Bal Lilah, Nankana Sahib - This site is connected with adventures of the early childhood of the Guru. Gurdwara Patti Sahib, Nankana Sahib ¶Patti means ¶Alphabet and is the site where Guru Nanak learnt the various different languages and particular the alphabet of these languages. Gurdwara Mall Ji Sahib, Nankana Sahib - This site is connected with adventures of the early childhood of the Guru in particular the events link to the Cobra and Mehta Kalu Gurdwara Kiara Sahib, Nankana Sahib - This site is where, as a youngster, Guru Nanak used to graze cattle. It is at a distance of about 1.5 Km from the Janam Asthan. Gurdwara Tambu Sahib, Nankana Sahib Gurdwara Guru Hargobind Sahib, Nankana Sahib Gurdwara Nihang Singhan, Nankana Sahib Gurdwara Sachcha Sauda, Chuharkana Gurdwara Panja Sahib, Hasan Abdal This is the site where Guru Nanak Dev stopped the rock with his hand and the palm print is impressed on the rock. Gurdwara Pehli Patshahi, Lahore Gurdwara Sri Nank Garh, Lahore Baoli Sahib Sri Guru Amar Das, Lahore (Roofed Well) Parkash Asthan Sri Guru Ram Das, Lahore Gurdwara Diwan Khana, Lahore
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Dharamshala Sri Guru Ramdas, Lahore Gurdwara Baoli Sahib Guru Arjan Dev, Lahore Gurdwara Bhai Budhu Da Awa, Lahore Gurdwara Lal Khooh, Lahore Gurdwara Dehra Sahib Sri Guru Arjan Dev, Lahore Gurdwara Patshahi Chhevin Gurdwara Patshahi Chhevin Muzang Gurdwara Shikargarh Patshahi Chhevin, Lahore Shahid Ganj Bhai Taru Singh Gurdwara Shahid Ganj Sighnian, Lahore Shahid Ganj Bhai Mani Singh, Lahore

__________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still. Last edited by Last Island; Monday, March 19, 2007 at 06:22 AM.

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Banks of Pakistan Central Bank State Bank of Pakistan Nationalized Scheduled Banks First Women Bank Limited National Bank of Pakistan Specialized Banks Industrial Development Bank

Punjab Provincial Cooperative Bank SME Bank Zarai Taraqiati Bank (Agricultural Development Bank) Private Scheduled Banks Allied Bank of Pakistan Limited, Karachi Arif Habib Rupali Bank Limited, Karachi Askari Commercial Bank Limited. Rawalpindi Atlas Bank Limited, Karachi Bank AL Habib, Karachi Bank Al-Falah Limited, Karachi Crescent Commercial Bank Limited, Karachi Dawood Bank Limited, Karachi Faysal Bank Limited, Karachi Habib Bank Limited, Karachi JS Bank KASB Bank Limited, Karachi Meezan Bank Limited, Karachi Metropolitan Bank Limited, Karachi Muslim Commercial Bank Limited (MCB), Islamabad Mybank Limited, Karachi NIB Bank Limited, Karachi PICIC Commercial Bank Limited, Karachi Prime Commercial Bank Limited, Lahore Saudi-Pak Commercial Bank Limited, Karachi SME Banks, Islamabad Soneri Bank Limited, Karachi Union Bank, Karachi United Bank Limited, Karachi Foreign Banks Abn Amro Bank NV, Karachi. Albaraka Islamic Bank BSC(EC) Lahore American Express Bank Limited, Karachi Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi Limited, Karachi Citibank NA, Karachi Deutsche Bank AG, Karachi Habib Bank AG Zurich, Karachi Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Karachi Oman International Bank SOAG Karachi Rupali Bank Limited, Karachi Standard Chartered Bank Limited, Karachi

Development Financial Institutions Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment Corp Limited, Karachi Pak Kuwait Investment Company Limited, Karachi Pak Libya Holding Company Limited, Karachi Pak-Oman Investment Company Limited, Karachi Saudi Pak Industrial And Agricultural Investment Company (Pvt) Limited Islamabad House Building Finance Corporation, Karachi Investment Corporation Of Pakistan, Karachi National Development Finance Corporation, Karachi Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan, Karachi Dubai Islamic Bank, Karachi Investment Banks Al-Towfeek Investment Bank Limited Asset Investment Bank Limited Atlas Investment Bank Limited Crescent Investment Bank Limited Escorts Investment Bank Limited First International Investment Bank Limited Fidelity Investment Bank Limited Franklin Investment Bank Limited Islamic Investment Bank Limited Jahangir Siddiqui Investment Bank Limited Orix Investment Bank (Pakistan) Limited Prudential Investment Bank Limited Trust Investment Bank Limited Discount & Guarantee Houses First Credit & Discount Corp Limited Prudential Discount & Guarantee House Limited National Discounting Services Limited Speedway Fordmetall (Pakistan) Limited Housing Finance Companies Asian Housing Finance Limited Citibank Housing Finance Company Limited House Building Finance Corporation International Housing Finance Limited Venture Capital Companies Pakistan Venture Capital Limited

Pakistan Emerging Ventures Limited Micro Finance Banks The First Micro Finance Bank Limited Khushali Bank Network Micro Finance Bank Pak Oman Micro Finance Bank Rozgar Micro Finance Bank, Karachi Tameer Microfinance Bank Limited Islamic Banks First Dawood Islamic Bank Dubai Islamic Bank Meezan Bank Bank Alfalah UBL Ameen Islamic Banking AlBaraka Islamic Bank Qaiser Islamic Bank __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

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Glaciers of Pakistan

Abruzzi Glacier Abruzzi Glacier is a glacier in the north of the Baltoro Kangri peak in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. The glacier joins the huge Baltoro Glacier(one of the largest glaciers

outside polar region) that flows northwest in the beginning and then turns westward. Baltoro Glacier The Baltoro Glacier, at 57 kilometers long, is one of the longest glaciers outside of the polar regions. It is located in Baltistan, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, and runs through part of the Karakoram mountain range. The Baltoro Muztagh lies to the north and east of the glacier, while the Masherbrum Mountains lie to the south. At 8,611 m (28,251 ft), K2 is the highest mountain in the region, and three others within 20 km top 8,000 m. The glacier gives rise to the Shigar River, which is a tributary of the Indus River. Several large tributary glaciers feed the main Baltoro glacier, including the Godwin Austen Glacier, flowing south from K2; the Abruzzi and the various Gasherbrum Glaciers, flowing from the Gasherbrum group of peaks; the Vigne Glacier, flowing from Chogolisa, and the Yermandendu Glacier, flowing from Masherbrum. The confluence of the main Baltoro Glacier with the Godwin Austen Glacier is known as Concordia; this location and K2 base camp are popular trekking destinations. The trough of this glacier is very wide and its central part is a vast snowfield. Small valley glaciers form icefalls where they meet the trunk glacier. The sidewalls vary from very steep to precipitous. The glacier has carved striations on the surrounding country rocks. Moving ice has formed depressions, which serve as basins for numerous glacial lakes. The glacier can be approached via the important Balti town of Skardu. Batura Glacier Batura Glacier (57km long) is one of the largest and longest glaciers outside the polar regions. It lies in the Gojal region of the Northern Areas of Pakistan, just north of Batura (7,795 m) and Passu (7,500 m) massifs. It flows west to east. The lower portions can be described as a grey sea of rocks and gravelly moraine, bordered by a few summer villages and pastures with herds of sheep, goats, cows and yaks and where roses and juniper trees are common. Biafo Glacier The Biafo Glacier is a 63 km long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of the Northern Areas, Pakistan which meets the 49 km long Hispar Glacier at an altitude of 5,128m (16,824 feet)at Hispar La(Pass) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. This highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms, Nagar (immediately south of Hunza) in the west with Baltistan in the east. The traverse uses 51 of the Biafo Glacier's 63 km and all of the Hispar Glacier to form a 100

km glacial route. The Biafo Glacier presents a trekker with several days of very strenuous, often hectic boulder hopping, with spectacular views throughout and Snow Lake near the high point. Snow Lake, consisting of parts of the upper Biafo Glacier and its tributary glacier Sim Gang, is one of the world's largest basins of snow or ice in the world outside of the polar regions, up to one mile in depth. The Biafo Glacier is the world's third longest glacier outside of the polar regions, second only to the 70 km Siachen Glacier disputed between Pakistan and India and Tajikistan's 77 km long Fedchenko Glacier. Campsites along the Biafo are located off of the glacier, adjacent to the lateral moraines and steep mountainsides. The first three (heading up from the last village before the glacier, the thousand-year-old Askole village) are beautiful sites with flowing water nearby. Mango and Namla, the first two campsites, are often covered in flowers and Namla has an amazing waterfall very near the camping area. Biantha, the third camp site, is often used as a rest day. A large green meadow, it has a few running streams near the camp and many places to spend the day rock climbing or rappelling. Evidence of wildlife can be seen through out the trek. The Ibex and the Markhor Mountain Goat can be found and the area is famous for brown bears and snow leopards, although sightings are rare. Biarchedi Glacier The Biarchedi Glacier is located on the northeast of Biarchedi Peak in Pakistan. It flows north into the Baltoro Glacier. Godwin-Austen Glacier The Godwin-Austen Glacier is located near K2 in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Its confluence with the Baltoro Glacier is called Concordia and is one of the most favorite spots for trekking in Pakistan since it provides excellent views of four of the five eightthousanders in Pakistan. The glacier can be approached via the important Balti town of Skardu. Gondogoro Glacier Gondogoro Glacier or Gondoghoro Glacier is glacier near Concordia in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It serves as an alternative means to reach Concordia; the confluence of Baltoro Glacier and Godwin-Austen Glacier.

Hainablak Glacier Hainablak Glacier is a glacier near Trango Tower mountain in Baltistan, Northern Areas of Pakistan. Hispar Glacier Hispar Glacier is a 49 km. long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of the (Northern Areas, Pakistan) which meets the 63 km. long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La (Pass) at an altitude of 5,128m (16,824 feet) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. This 100 km. highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms, Nagar (immediately south of Hunza) in the west with Baltistan in the east. The extreme steepness of the hillsides and strenuous nature of the boulder hopping on the lateral moraines and hillsides make this route's upper half the most difficult part of the Biafo - Hispar traverse. Only the Hispar La day includes walking on the Hispar Glacier. The crossing of four major tributary glaciers from the north is most taxing, and potentially high nullah crossings can be dangerous. The views of 7800 meter (25,600 foot) peaks and of the snow covered cliffs and mountains on the south side of the glacier are particularly impressive. Lonak Glacier Lonak Glacier is one of the three major glaciers of Sikhim, in the Himalaya range in Northern Areas of Pakistan. Miar Glacier Miar Glacier is a glacier that forms in the north of Miar Peak (6,824 m). Panmah Glacier Panmah Glacier is a glacier in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is included in the Central Karakoram National Park. Passu Glacier Passu Glacier forms in the east of the Passu Sar (Passu Peak). Rupal Glacier Rupal Glacier or Tashain Glacier is a glacier in the Great Himalaya subrange of Himalayas. It starts in the north of an unnamed 6,326 m high peak (35° 8'35.93"N 74°24'52.46"E) and flows northeast in the north of Laila Peak (Rupal Valley) and in the south of Nanga Parbat's many peaks. The melt water from the glacier forms Rupal

River. Sarpo Laggo Glacier The Sarpo Laggo Glacier (Sarpo Laggo: young husband) is a glacier in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, in the Karakoram mountain range of the Himalayas. Shani Glacier Shani Glacier is a glacier in the north of Shani Peak (5,887 m) in Naltar Valley, Pakistan. Siachen Glacier The Siachen Glacier is located in the eastern Karakoram Range in the Himalaya Mountains, at approximately 35.5° N 77.0° E. It is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second longest in the world's non-polar areas. It ranges from an altitude of 5753 m (18,875 ft.) above sea level at its source at Indira Col (pass) on the China border to its snout at 3620 m (11,875 ft.) The Siachen Glacier lies south of the great watershed that separates Central Asia from the Indian subcontinent. The 70 km (43.5 mile) long Siachen glacier lies between the Saltoro Ridge line immediately to the west and the main Karakoram range to the east. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. The crest of the Saltoro Ridge's altitudes range from 5450 to 7720 m (17,880 to 25,330 feet). The major passes on this ridge are, from north to south, Sia La at 5589 m (18,336 ft), Bilafond La at 5450 m (17,880 ft), and Gyong La at 5689 m (18,665 ft.) Conflict Zone The glacier is located in the disputed region of Kashmir in the Indian subcontinent. The average winter snowfall is 10.5 m (35 ft.) and temperatures can dip to minus 50 degrees celsius (minus 58 degrees fahrenheit. In spite of the severe climate, the word 'Siachen' ironically means 'the place of wild roses, a reference some people attribute to the abundance of Himalayan wildflowers found in the valleys below the glacier, but specifically refers to the thorny wild plants which grow on the rocky outcrops. The glacier is also the highest battleground on earth, where India and Pakistan have fought intermittently since April 13, 1984. Both countries maintain permanent military personnel in the region at a height of over 6,000 metres. The site is a prime example of mountain warfare. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River, which drains into the Shyok River. The Shyok in turn joins the Indus River. The glacier's melting waters are a major source of the river Indus, a vital water source. Global warming has had one of its worst impacts here in the Himalayas with the

glaciers melting at an unprecedented rate. The volume of the glacier has been reduced by 35 percent over the last twenty years. One report blames military activity as much as global warming. The conflict in Siachen stems from the confusion in the improperly demarcated territory on the map beyond the map coordinate known as NJ9842. The 1949 Karachi Agreement and the 1972 Simla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier, merely stating that from the NJ9842 location the boundary would proceed "thence north to the glaciers." In the 1960's and 1970's, however, the United States Defense Mapping Agency (now National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) began, with no legal justification or any boundary documentation, showing an international boundary on their maps available to the public and pilots as proceeding from NJ9842 east-northeast to the Karakoram Pass at 5534 m (18,136 ft.) on the China border. Numerous governmental and private cartographers and atlas producers followed suit. This resulted in cartographically "awarding" the entire 2700 square kilometers (1040 square miles) Siachen area to Pakistan. Indian government and military took note. Prior to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. Fighting In the 1970s and early 1980s several mountaineering expeditions applied to Pakistan to climb high peaks in the Siachen area, and Pakistan granted them. This reinforced the Pakistani claim on the area, as these expeditions arrived on the glacier with a permit obtained from the Government of Pakistan. Once having become aware of this in about 1978, Colonel N. Kumar of the Indian Army mounted an Army expedition to Teram Kangri peaks (in the Siachen area on the China border and just east of a line drawn due north from NJ9842) as a counter-exercise. The first public mention of a possible conflict situation was an article by Joydeep Sircar in The Telegraph newspaper of Calcutta in 1982, reprinted as "Oropolitics" in the Alpine Journal, London, in 1984. India launched Operation Meghdoot (named after the divine cloud messenger in a Sanskrit play) on 13 April 1984 when the Kumaon Regiment of the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force went into the glacier region. Pakistan quickly responded with troop deployments and what followed was literally a race to the top. Within a few days, the Indians were in control over most of the area, as Pakistan was beaten to most of the Saltoro Ridge high ground by about a week. The two northern passes - Sia La and Bilfond La - were quickly secured by India. In his memoirs, current Pakistani president, General Pervez Musharraf states that Pakistan lost almost 2,331 Km2 (900 Mi2) of territory. TIME states that the Indian advance captured nearly 1,000 sq. mi. of territory claimed by Pakistan. Since then Pakistan has launched several attempts to displace the Indian forces, but with little success. The most well known was in 1987, when an attempt was made by Pakistan to dislodge India from the area. The attack was led by Pervez Musharraf (later President of Pakistan) heading a newly formed elite SSG commando unit in the area. A special garrison with eight thousand troops

was built at Khapalu. The immediate aim was to capture Bilafond La but after bitter fighting that included hand to hand combat, the Pakistanis were thrown back and the positions remained the same. The only Param Vir Chakra - India's highest gallantry award - to be awarded for combat in the Siachen area went to Naib Subedar Bana Singh (retired as Subedar Major/Honorary Captain), who assaulted and captured a Pakistani post in a daring daylight raid atop a 22,000 foot (6 700 m) peak, now named Bana Post. Further attempts to reclaim positions were launched by Pakistan in 1990, 1995, 1996 and even in early 1999, just prior to the Lahore Summit. The 1995 attack by Pakistan SSG was significant as it resulted in 40 casualties for Pakistan troops without any changes in the positions. Current situation The Indian Army controls all of the Siachen Glacier and the three main passes of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La, thus holding onto the tactical advantage of high ground. Gyong La (Pass) itself is at 35-1029N, 77-04-15 E; that high point is controlled by India. The Pakistanis control the glacial valley just five kilometers southwest of Gyong La. The line where Indian and Pakistani troops are presently holding on to their respective posts is being increasingly referred to as the Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL). The Pakistanis have been unable get up to the crest of the Saltoro Ridge, while the Indians cannot come down and abandon their strategic high posts. A ceasefire went into effect in 2003. Even before then, every year more soldiers were killed because of severe weather than enemy firing. The two sides have lost an estimated 2,000 personnel primarily due to frostbite, avalanches and other complications. Both nations have 150 manned outposts along the glacier, with some 3,000 troops each. Official figures for maintaining these outposts are put at ~$300 and ~$200 million for India and Pakistan respectively. India has built the world's highest helipad on this glacier at a place called Sonam, which is at 21,000 feet (6,400 m) above the sea level, to serve the area. India also installed the world's highest telephone booth on the glacier. Both sides have been wishing to disengage from the costly military outposts but after the Kargil War in 1999 where Pakistan sent infiltrators to occupy vacated Indian posts across the Line of Control, India has backed off from withdrawing in Siachen. India feels that Pakistan would resort to the same thing if Siachen Glacier is vacated without any official confirmation of its positions in the glacier. During her tenure as Prime Minister of Pakistan, Ms Benazir Bhutto, visited the area west of Gyong La, making her the first premier from either side to get to the Siachen region. On June 12, 2005, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, calling for a peaceful resolution of the problem. In the previous year, the President of India, Abdul Kalam became the first head of state to visit the area. India based Jet Airways plans to open a chartered service to the glacier's nearest airlink, the Thoise airbase, mainly for military purposes. Pakistan's PIA flies

tourists and trekkers daily to Skardu, which is the jumping off point for K2, the world's second highest point just 33 kilometers (20.5 miles) northwest of the Siachen area, although bad weather frequently grounds these scheduled flights. Trango Glacier Trango Glacier is a glacier near Trango Tower mountain in Baltistan, Northern Areas of Pakistan. Vigne Glacier Vigne Glacier is a glacier in the Northern Areas, Pakistan near Gondogoro Glacier and Baltoro Glacier. __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

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Rivers of Pakistan Chenab River The Chenab River is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi located in the upper Himalayas, in the Lahul and SpitiDistrict of Himachal Pradesh, India. In its upper reaches it is also known as the Chandrabhaga. It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu, and then by the Ravi River. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad ('Five Rivers'), which joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. The river was known to Indians in Vedic period as Ashkini or Iskmati and as Acesines to

the Ancient Greeks. In 325 BC, Alexander the Greatallegedly founded the town of Alexandria on the Indus (present day Uch Sharif or Mithankot or Chacharan) at the confluence of the Indus and the combined stream of Punjab rivers (currently known as the Panjnad River). The Chenab has the same place in the consciousness of the people of the Punjab, as, say the Rhine holds for the Germans, or the Danube for the Austrians and the Hungarians. It is the iconic river around which Punjabi consciousness revolves, and plays a prominent part in the tale ofHeer Ranjha, the Punjabi national epic. Dasht River Dasht River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Mirani Dam is being built on Dasht river to provide drinking water to Gwadarcity. Dashtiari River Dashtiari River is located in Gwadar District, Balochistan, Pakistan. Gambila River Gambila River river, also called the Tochi River, is located in Bannu District, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan. It's source are the hills six miles south of the Sufed Koh, the source of the Kurram River, which it runs parallel too and finally joins. The Gambila is an important river for the inhabitants of the Dawar valley, as it serves to irragate a large area of land that it runs through. Particularly that belonging to the Bakkakhel Wazirs, and Miri and Barakzai Bannuchis. Ghaggar-Hakra River The Ghaggar-Hakra River is the (rainy) seasonal river in India and the Hakra River riverbed in Pakistan. It is often identified with the Vedic Sarasvati River, but it is disputed if at all Rigvedic references to the Sarasvati River refer to this river. It is a dried out river which flow during rainy season only and used to flush out flood waters of Punjab. Estimated period at which the river dried up range, very roughly, from 2500 to 2000 BC, with a further margin of error at either end of the date-range. This may be precise in geological terms, but for the Indus Valley Civilization (2800 to 1800 BC) it makes all the difference whether the river dried up in 2500 (its early phase) or 2000 (its late phase). Similarly, for the Gandhara grave culture, often identified with the early influx

of Indo-Aryans from ca. 1600 BC, it makes a great difference whether the river dried up a millennium earlier, or only a few generations ago, so that by contact with remnants of the IVC like the Cemetery H culture, legendary knowledge of the event may have been acquired. The identification with the Sarasvati River is based the descriptions in Vedic texts (e.g. in the enumeration of the rivers in Rigveda 10.75.05, the order is Ganga, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Sutlej), and other geological and paleobotanical findings. This however, is disputed. The Victorian erascholar C.F. Oldham was the first to suggest that geological events had redirected the river, and to connect it to the lost Saraswati: "[it] was formerly the Sarasvati; that name is still known amongst the people, and the famous fortress of Sarsuti or Sarasvati was built upon its banks, nearly 100 miles below the present junction with the Ghaggar." (Oldham 1893: 51-52) Ghaggar River The Ghaggar is a seasonal river in India, flowing when water is available from monsoon rains. It originates in the Shivalik Hills of Himachal Pradesh and flows through Punjab and Haryana to Rajasthan; just southwest of Sirsa in Haryana and by the side of Tibi in Rajasthan, this seasonal river feeds two irrigation canals that extend into Rajasthan. The present-day Sarasvati River originates in a submontane region (Ambala district) and joins the Ghaggar near Shatrana in PEPSU. Near Sadulgarh (Hanumangarh) the Naiwala channel, a dried out channel of the Sutlej, joins the Ghaggar. Near Suratgarh the Ghaggar is then joined by the dried up Drishadvati river. The wide river bed of the Ghaggar river suggest that the river once flowed full of water, and that it formerly continued through the entire region, in the presently dry channel of the Hakra River, possibly emptying into the Rann of Kutch. It supposedly dried up due to the capture of its tributaries by the Indus and Yamuna rivers, and the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing. This is supposed to have happened at the latest in 1900 BCE, but perhaps much earlier. Puri and Verma (1998) have argued that the present-day Tons River was the ancient upper-part of the Sarasvati River, which would then had been fed with Himalayan glaciers. The terrain of this river contains pebbles of quartzite and metamorphic rocks, while the lower terraces in these valleys do not contain such rocks. In India there are also various small or middle-sized rivers called Sarasvati or Saraswati. One of them flows from the west end of the Aravalli Range into the east end of the Rann of Kutch.

Hakra River The Hakra is the dried-out channel of a river in Pakistan that until about 2000 BC - 1500 BC was the continuation of the Ghaggar River inIndia. Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers. Indus Valley Civilization The river was also of great importance to the Indus Valley Civilization. Archaeologists have suggested that the drying up of this river may have been one of the causes for the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. Along the course of the Ghaggar-Hakra river are many archaeological sites of the Indus Valley Civilization; but not further south than the middle of Bahawalpur district. It could be that the permanent Sarasvati ended there, and its water only reached the sea in very wet rainy seasons. It may also have been affected by much of its water being taken for irrigation. Over 600 sites of the Indus civilization have been discovered on the HakraGhaggar river and its tributaries. In contrast to this, only 90 to 96 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries (about 36 sites on the Indus river itself.) V.N. Misra states that over 530 Harappan sites (of the more than 800 known sites, not including Degenerate Harappan or OCP) are located on the Hakra-Ghaggar. The other sites are mainly in Kutch-Saurashtra (nearly 200 sites), Yamuna Valley (nearly 70 Late Harappan sites) and in the Indus Valley/ Baluchistan (less than 100 sites). Early Harappan sites are mostly situated on the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river bed, and some in the Indus Valley. Most of the Mature Harappan sites are located in the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river valley, and some on the Indus and in the Kutch-Saurashtra. However in the late Harappan period the number of late Harappan sites in the middle Hakra channel and in the Indus valley diminishes, while it expands in the upper Ghaggar-Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra. The abandonement of many sites on the Hakra-Ghaggar between the Harappan and the Late Harappan phase was probably due to the drying up of the Hakra-Ghaggar river. Because most of the Indus Valley sites are actually located on the Hakra-Ghaggar river and its tributaries and not on the Indus river, some archaeologists have proposed to use the term "Indus Sarasvati Civilization" to refer to the Harappan culture. In a survey conducted by M.R. Mughal between 1974 and 1977, over 400 sites were mapped along 300 miles of the Hakra river. The majority of these sites were dated to

the fourth or third millennium BCE. Painted Grey Ware sites (ca. 1000 BCE) have been found on the bed and not on the banks of the Ghaggar-Hakra river. The Ghaggar-Hakra and its ancient tributaries Satellite photography has shown that the Ghaggar-Hakra was indeed a large river that dried up probably between ca. 2500 to 2000 B.C. The dried out Hakra river bed is between three and ten kilometers wide. Recent research indicates that the Sutlej and possibly also the Yamunaonce flowed into the Saraswati river bed. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses over the time. Paleobotanical information also documents the aridity that developed after the drying up of the river. (Gadgil and Thapar 1990 and references therein). The disappearance of the river may have been caused by earthquakes which may have led to the redirection of its tributaries. It has also been suggested that the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area due to deforestation and overgrazing in what is now Pakistan may have also contributed to the drying up of the river. The Ghaggar-Hakra and the Sutlej There are no Harappan sites on the Sutlej in its present lower course, only in its upper course near the Siwaliks, and along the dried up channel of the ancient Sutlej, which indicates the Sutlej did flow into the Sarasvati at that period of time. It has been shown by satellite imagery that at Ropar the Sutlej river suddenly flows away from the Ghaggar in a sharp turn. The beforehand narrow Ghaggar river bed itself is becoming suddenly wider at the conjunction where the Sutlej should have met the Ghaggar river. And there is a major paleochannel between the point where the Sutlej takes a sharp turn and where the Ghaggar river bed widens. In later texts like the Mahabharata, the Rigvedic Sutudri ("swiftly flowing") is called Shatudri (Shatadru/Shatadhara), which means a river with 100 flows. The Sutlej (and the Beas and Ravi) have frequently changed their courses. The Sutlej has also probably sometimes flown into the Beas, and the combined stream sometimes in the Ghaggar River. The confluence of the Ghaggar and the Sutlej was downstream from the Kurukshetra region, where most Harappan sites are located. The Ghaggar-Hakra and the Yamuna There are also no Harappan sites on the present Yamuna river. There are however Painted Gray Ware (1000 - 600 BC) sites on the Yamuna channel, showing that the river must have flown in the present channel during this period. The distribution of the Painted Gray Ware sites in the Ghaggar river valley indicates that during this

period the Ghaggar river was already partly dried up. Scholars like Raikes (1968) and Suraj Bhan (1972, 1973, 1975, 1977) have shown that based on archaeological, geomorphic and sedimentological research the Yamuna may have flown into the Saraswati during Harappan times. There are several often dried out river beds (paleochannels) between the Sutlej and the Yamuna, some of them two to ten kilometres wide. They are not always visible on the ground because of excessive silting and encroachment by sand of the dried out river channels. The Yamuna may have flown into the Sarasvati river through the Chautang or the Drishadvati channel, since many Harappan sites have been discovered on these dried out river beds. Gilgit River Gilgit River is a tributary of the Indus River, and flows past the town of Gilgit. It is located in the Northern Areas of Kashmir, Pakistan. Gomal River Gomal River is a river in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with its headwaters in the southeast of Ghazni. The headwater springs of the Gomal's main leg come together close to the fort of Babakarkol in Katawaz, a district inhabited primarily byKharoti and Suleiman Khel Pashtuns. The Gomal's chief tributary is the Zhob River. Within Pakistan, Gomal river surrounds South Waziristan agency, forms the boundary between the North-West Frontier Province and Balochistan. The river passes then through the Damaan plain in Kulachi Tehsil and later on through Dera Ismail Khan Tehsil and then finally falls in river Indus. Hub River Hub River is located in Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan. It forms the provincial boundary between Sindh and Balochistan, west of Karachi. Hub Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981 on the Hub River in the arid plains north of Karachi. The reservoir supplies water for irrigation in the Lasbella district of Balochistan and drinking water for the city of Karachi. It is an important staging and wintering area for an appreciable number of waterbirds and contains a variety of fish species which increase in abundance during periods of high water. TheMahseer (Tor putitora), an indigenous riverine fish found in the Hub River, grows up to 2m in length and provides for excellent angling.It is in pakistan.

Hungol River Hungol River or Hingol River is located in Makran, Balochistan, Pakistan. The Hungol valley has fantastic scenery of towering cliffs, pinnacles and buttresses, the river winding between. Some 350 miles in length, the Hungol is Balochistan's longest river. Unlike most other streams in Balochistan which only flow during rare rains, the Hungol always has flowing water in it. The water is crystal clear, reflecting the incredible blue of the sky. It makes for picture postcard scenery. Hungol river and valley are located in Hungol National Park. Hunza River Hunza River is the principal river of Hunza, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. It is formed by the confluence of the Kilik and Khunjerab nalas(gorges) which are fed by glaciers. It is joined by the Gilgit River and the Naltar River before it flows into the Indus River. The river cuts through the Karakoram range, flowing from north to south. The Karakoram Highway crosses the Hunza River near Hunza andNagar valleys. Indus River Indus is the longest and most important river in Pakistan and one of the most important rivers on the Indian subcontinent. Originating in theTibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through in Jammu and Kashmir and Northern Areas, flowing through the North in a southernly direction along the entire length of country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city Karachi. The total length of the river is 3200 km (1988 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 450,000 square miles. The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometres. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and the extinct Sarasvati River, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu ("Seven Rivers") delta in the Sindh province of Pakistan. It has 20 major tributaries. The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. It also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable waterin Pakistan. The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge
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and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh-Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacieral waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills betweenPeshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges (15,000-17,000 feet) near the Nanga Parbat massif It swiftly flows across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjaband Sind, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named as Satnad River (sat = seven, nadi = river) as the river was now carrying the waters of Kabul River, Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta. The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Karakoram, Hindu Kush and Himalayan ranges of Tibet, Kashmir and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch. It is the Official and National River of Pakistan in Urdu as Qaumi Daryaa and Sindhi it is called Daryaa Badshah ,The King River. History Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), such as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The IVC was extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach to the darcon from east of River Jhelum to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. The coast settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Oxus river at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan (Kenoyer 1998:96), and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon river is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well asLothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90 to 96 of the over 800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were

more Harappan sites than along the Indus. Some scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early IndoAryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 to 600 BCE, when Mohenjo Daro and Harappa had already been abandoned. However many modern researchers believe that the IVC was indeed an Aryan civilization. Researchers such as professor Egbert Richter Ushanas concerning the IVC seals has said, "All the seals are based on Vedas -- Rig Veda and Atharva Veda." The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in theRigveda. Sanskrit sindhu generically means "river, stream", probably from a root sidh "to go, move"; sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter. The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian hinterland and its frontier with Afghanistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - Greek forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Indian campaign. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Gujarat, Punjab and Rajputana. The word "India" is a reference to the Indus River. Geology The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Arabian Sea, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometers of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the KarakoramMountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalaya provide the next largest contibution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Ravi, Jhellum, Chenab and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea by marine geologists Peter Clift and Jerzy Blusztajn has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab Rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganges and were captured after that time. Earlier work, also by Peter Clift, showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most

recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalaya between the Sutlej and the YamunaRivers, close to modern day Chandigarh. The Saraswati river was totally dried by 1900 BC as confirmed by archeological hydrological radio carbon datings. Climate The Indus delta is one of the driest in the Indian subcontinent, lying just to the west of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan - and rainfall is extraordinarily erratic owing to the passage of cyclones from the Arabian Sea. The Punjab plains, however, receive considerable rainfall from the summer monsoon: at Abbottabad the average annual rainfall is around 1,200mm (47 inches) and at Murree around 1,700mm (67 inches) with as much as 730mm (28 inches) in July and August alone. The upper basin of the Indus receives 4-8 inches of rainfall (higher in the west) in the winter months owing to northwestern winds. Higher elevations in Kashmir and the Northern Areas receives a large amount of precipitation in the form of snow, but the lower valleys are extremely dry and quite warm in the summer. Annual temperatures fall below freezing in the northern mountainous regions in the winter, while exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit in the plains of Punjab and Sindh in the summer. Jacobabad, which is one of the hottest spots in the world, lies to the west of the river in Sindh. Wildlife Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babar writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the BaberNameh). Extensivedeforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderate, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river distributes into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including pomfret and prawns. Economy The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to

the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the peoples of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 4,450 feet long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over five million acres (20,000 km²). After partition, the Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan also constructed theTarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 9,000 feet long and 470 feet high, with a 50 mile-long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 3,000 feet long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, the Northwest Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton,sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres. People The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetanstock, with Kashmiris who practise both Islam and Hinduism. As it descends into Northern Areas of Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Balochi, and of other Afghan stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Iran and Afghanistan. The eastern banks are largely populated with peoples of Punjabi stock, with smaller populations of Sindhis and people from regions in modern India. In northern Punjab and the NWFP, Pathan peoples and ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Punjabi peoples. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Serakai peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi, Gujarati, Punjabi and Urduspeaking Mohajir backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Balochi and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan. Modern issues

A flooded Indus river inundates the Srinagar-Kargil-Leh highway. Due to its location and vast water resources, Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. Indus Waters treaty After the partition of India in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India - disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India the control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, Sutlej, Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, Jhelum, Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baghlighar project). Pilgrimage Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the nations. Pakistan does generally allow Indian citizens to visit the country for religious purposes, However, owing to the volatile nature of bilateral relations, most pilgrimage and religious ceremonies are performed by Hindus in Kashmir. Conservation There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, Water-clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation. Jhelum River Jehlum River or Jhelum River is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus River. History A photograph from 1900 shows a passenger traversing the river precariously seated in

a small suspended cradle. The river Jhelum was called Vitasta by the ancient Indians in the Vedic period and Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks. The Vitast is mentioned as one of the major river by the holy scriptures of the Indo-Aryans³the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitasta must have been one of the seven rivers (sapta-sindhu) mentioned so many times in the Rigveda. The name survives the a Kashmiri name for this river as Vyath. The river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as were most mountains and streams; the poet Nonnus in the Dionysiaca (section 26, line 350) makes the Hydaspes a titan-descended god, the son of the sea-god Thaumas and the cloudgoddess Elektra. He was the brother ofIris the goddess of the rainbow, and half-brother to the harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river. Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in 326 BC at the Battle of the Hydaspes where he defeated the Indian king, Porus. According to Arrian (Anabasis, 29), he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala (orBucephala) to honour his famous horse Bukephalis which was buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought that ancient Bukephala was near the site of modern Jhelum City. According to a historian of Gujrat district,Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephala was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephala, Alexander`s dead horse. They say that the name Phalia was the distortion of the word Bucephala. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of theIndus Waters Treaty. Course The river Jhelum rises from north-eastern Jammu and Kashmir and is fed by glaciers, and then passes through the Srinagar district. At the city of Srinagar, the serpentine Jhelum, along with the lake Dal which lies in its course, presents a very picturesque site. The Kishenganga(Neelum)River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it near Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of theKaghan valley.It also connects with Pakistan and Pakistan-held Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with theChenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.

Dams and Barrages
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Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5.9 million acre-feet (7.3 km ) Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft /s (24,000 m /s). Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft /s (18,000 m /s).
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Canals
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The Upper Jhelum Canal runs from Mangla to the Chenab. The Rasul-Qadirabad Link Canal runs from the Rasul barrage to the Chenab. The Chashma-Jhelum Link Canal runs from the Chashma Barrage on the Indus River to the Jhelum river downstream of Rasul Barrage.

Kabul River Kabul River or Kabal River is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by theUnai Pass. It is the main river in the eastern part of Afghanistan. It flows 700 km before joining the Indus River near Attock . It passes through the cities of Kabul, Chaharbagh, Jalalabad, and (flowing into Pakistan some 30 km north of the Khyber Pass) Nowshera. The majortributaries of the Kabul River are the Logar, Panjshir, Kunar and Alingar rivers. The Kabul river itself is little more than a trickle for most of the year, but swells in summer due to melting snows. Its largest tributary is the Kunar, which starts out as the Mastuj River, flowing from the Chiantar glacier in Chitral, Pakistan and once it flows south into Afghanistan it is met by the Bashgal river flowing from Nurestan. The Kunar meets the Kabul near Jalalabad. In spite of the Kunar carrying more water than the Kabul, the river continues as the Kabul River after this confluence, mainly for the political and historical significance of the name. This river is attested in the Rig Veda, the earliest scripture of Hinduism, under the name Kubh (many of the rivers of Afghanistan are mantioned in the Rig Veda). The Sanskrit word later changed to K bul. Swaan River The Swaan River is the most important stream of the Pothohar region of Pakistan. It drains much of the water of Pothohar. It starts near a small village Bun in the foothills of Patriata and Murree. It provides water to Simlbee Dam, which is reservoir of water for Islamabad. Near Pharwala Fort it cuts through a high mountain range and that is a wonderful phenomenon of nature. The place is called Swan Cut. No stream can cut

such a high mountain. It proves the Swaan was there before the formation of this range. And when the mountain rose through millions of years, the stream continued its path by cutting the rising mountain. Ling stream, following a relatively long course though Lehtrar and Kahuta falls in the Swaan near Sihala. Islamabad Highway crosses this stream near Sihala where famous bridge Cock Pull is constructed over it. Another famous, Lai stream joins this stream near Swaan Camp. After walking a tortuous path and creating a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh where it falls into the Indus river. This relatively small stream is more than 250 kilometers long. Due to its mountainous course and shallow bed, it is hardly used for irrigation purposes. For grinding wheat, you can find ancient types of flour mills near Chakian.Fishing is not possible in this stream as a profession. Rohu is the main species of fish in this stream. Kundar River Kundar River is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Kundar River and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River. The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc. Kunhar River Kunhar River is located in North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. A main source of the river is Lulusar lake, nearly 48km from Naran Valley. Glaciers of Malka Parbat and Makra Peak and the waters of Saiful Muluk lake feed the river. The Kunhar flows through the entire Kaghan Valleythrough Jalkhand, Naran, Kaghan, Jared, Paras and Balakot, and joins the Jhelum River. The Kunhar river trout is considered to be the best throughout the sub-continent Kurram River The Kurrum River flows in the Kurrum Valley, stretching across the AfghanPakistani border west to east (crosses from the Paktia Province ofAfghanistan into

the Kohat border region of Pakistan) at 33°49 N 69°58 E, about 150 km west-to-southwest of the Khyber Pass. The Kurram Agency is part of the Pesh war Division of the Northwest Frontier Province. The Kurram River drains the southern flanks of theSafed Koh (Range), and enters the plains a north of Bannu, and joins the Indus River at 32°35 N 71°27 E near Isa Khel after a course of more than 320 km (200 miles). The district has an area of 3,310 km² (1,278 sq miles); pop. approx. 300,000. It lies between the Miranzai Valley and the Afghan border, and is inhabited by the Turis, a tribe of Turki and Parthian origin who are supposed to have subjugated the BangashPathans about six hundred years ago. It is highly irrigated, well peopled, and crowded with small fortified villages, orchards and groves, to which a fine background is afforded by the dark pine forests and alpine snows of the Safed Koh. The beauty and climate of the valley attracted some of the Mogul emperors of Delhi, and the remains exist of a garden planted by Shah Jahan. The Kurram River crosses the Afghan-Pakistan border about 80 km southwest of Jalalabad and in ancient times offered the most direct route to Kabul and Gardez. The route crossed the Peiwar Pass 3,439 m (11,283 ft) high, just over 20 km west of Parachinar, which was blocked by snow for several months of the year. Formerly the Kurram Valley was under the government of Kabul, and every five or six years a military expedition was sent to collect the revenue, the soldiers living meanwhile at free quarters on the people. It was not until about 1848 that the Turis were brought directly under the control of Kabul, when a governor was appointed, who established himself in Kurram. The Turis, being Shiah Muslims, never liked the Afghan rule. During the second Afghan War, when Sir Frederick Roberts advanced by way of the Kurram Valley and the Peiwar Kotal to Kabul, the Turis lent him every assistance in their power, and in consequence their independence was granted them in 1880. The administration of the Kurram Valley was finally undertaken by the British government, at the request of the Turis themselves, in 1890. Technically it ranked, not as a British district, but as an agency or administered area. Two expeditions in the Kurram Valley also require mention: (1) The Kurram expedition of 1856 under Brigadier-General Sir Neville Chamberlain. The Turis on the first annexation of the Kohat district by the British had given much trouble. They had repeatedly leagued with other tribes to harry the Miranzai valley, harbouring fugitives, encouraging resistance, and frequently attacking Bangash and

Khattak villages in the Kohat district. Accordingly, in 1856 a British force of 4,896 troops traversed their country, and the tribe entered into engagements for future good conduct. (2) The Kohat-Kurram expedition of 5,897 under Colonel W. Hill. During the frontier risings of 1897 the inhabitants of the Kurram valley, chiefly the Massozai section of the Orakzais, were infected by the general excitement, and attacked the British camp at Sadda and other posts. A force of 14,230 British troops traversed the country, and the tribesmen were severely punished. In Lord Curzon's reorganization of the frontier in 1900-1901, the British troops were withdrawn from the forts in the Kurram Valley, and were replaced by the Kurram militia, reorganized in two battalions, and chiefly drawn from the Turi tribe. In recent years the Kurram Valley has once again assumed a very strategic position and has been an area of intense military activity between the Taliban and American and allied forces. Lyari River Lyari River is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Lyari River passes through the city of Karachi from north east to the center and drains into the Arabian Sea. Lyari river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Malir River. Malir River Malir River is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Malir River passes through the city of Karachi from northeast to the centre and drains into the Arabian Sea. Malir river is one of the two rivers passing through Karachi and the other is Lyari River.it has two other little river help one is Thadho and other is Sukhan.In a rainy season this river flow with lot of water and millions of gallons of water waste in Arabian Sea. If the goverment becomes searious to this matter and construct a dam on this river, it will benefit the whole of Karachi a great deal. Panjkora The Panjkora River rises rises high in the Hindu Kush at lat. 35.45 and joins the Swat River near Chakdara, Malakand, NWFP, Pakistan. Its name is derived from the Persian for 'panj' (meaning 'five') and 'kora' (meaning 'river'). Panjnad River Panjnad River (panj = five, nadi = river) is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers ofPunjab,

namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad near Uch Sharif. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers. Beyond the confluence of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab. Ravi River The Ravi River is a river in India and Pakistan. It is one of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. The Ravi was known as Parushani orIravati to Indians in Vedic times and Hydraotes to the Ancient Greeks. It originates in the Himalayas in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh following a north-westerly course. It turns to the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur. It then flows along the Indo-Pak border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining theChenab river. The total length of the river is about 720 km. The waters of the Ravi river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treatybetween India and Pakistan. It is also called 'The river of Lahore' since that great city is located on its eastern bank. On its western bank is located the famous tomb of Jahangir. Rig Veda Part of the battle of the ten kings was fought on the Parushani river, which according to Yaska (nirukta 9.26) refers to the Iravati river (Ravi River) in the Punjab. Macdonell and Keith write that "the name [Parusni] is certainly that of the river later called Ravi (Iravati)" Shigar River Shigar River is located in Baltistan, Northern Areas, Pakistan. The Shigar River is formed from the melt water of the Baltoro Glacier and Biafo Glacier. The river is tributary to Indus River and meets the Indus in Skardu valley. Sutlej River Sutlej River (also known as Satluj), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through Indian Punjab in northern India. Its source is in Tibetnear Mount Kailash and its terminus in Pakistani Punjab. It is the easternmost afluent of the Punjab, and it receives the Beas River in the state of Punjab, India and continues into Pakistan to join

the Chenab River to form the Panjnad River, which further down its course joins the Indus River at Mithankot. The Sutlej was known as Shatadru or Su udri to Indians in Vedic period and Zaradros or Hesidros to the Greeks, and Sydrus to the Romans. The waters of the river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan. At present, most of its water is diverted to irrigation canals and used up in India. The Bhakra-Nangal Dam is a huge multipurpose dam on the river. There is substantial evidence to indicate that prior to 1700 B.C. the Sutlej was once an important tributary of the Sarasvati River, instead of the Indus River. It is believed that tectonic activity created elevation changes that redirected the Sutlej from southeast to southwest. Once flowing in its new westward direction, the river eventually joined the Beas river. As a result, the mighty Sarasvati River began to dry up, causing the desertification of Cholistan and Sindh, as well as the abandonment of numerous ancient human settlements along its banks. A canal is being built between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers, known as the SLY. Swat River Swat River flows from Hindukush Mountains through Kalam valley and merges into Kabul River in peshawer valley Sarhad, Pakistan. Swat River irrigates vast area of Swat District and contributes to fishing industry of the region. Saidu Group's of teaching hospitals also located at the banks of Swat River. Malamjaba ski resort is about 10 miles away from the river. Ayub Bridge is one of the attractions for visitors. The scenery attracts many tourists from all over Pakistan during the summer. It is said that Alexander the Great crossed the Swat River with part of his army and before turning south to subdue the locals at what are now Barikoot and Odegram. Also, the banks of this river, which was earliest known as Shrivastu, later Suvastu and currently the present name, is the place of origin of the Shrivastava sub-clan of the Indo-Aryan Kayastha clan Some 30 years ago, the water was fit for drinking even in Mingora (100 km downstream from Kalam), but now it is not safe even in Kalam. Tochi river Tochi river is located in North Waziristan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan. Tochi river flows eastward, in North Waziristan, to join the Kurram River and the Indus. It surrounds Waziristan in the North while the Gomal River river

surrounds South Waziristan. It is also sometimes referred to as the Gambila River. Zhob River Zhob River is located in Balochistan, Pakistan. The meltwater from the Sulaiman Mountains forms Zhob Rivers and it flows through Balochistan and drains into Gomal River. Zhob city is located on banks of Zhob river. The two principal drainage channels of the Zhob district are the Zhob River and the Kundar River, both flow into the Gomal River. The general direction of the rivers is from Southwest to northeast. The Zhob River rises at Tsari Mehtarazai pass, the watershed a distance of about 400 kilometers. The broad plain of the Zhob River is occupied by the alluvial formation. The Kundar River rises from the central and highest point of the TobaKakar range, a few kilometers northeast of the Sakir. It constitutes boundary between Pakistan and Afghanistan territory for a considerable length. The other subsidiary rivers or streams are the Baskan, Chukhan, Sri Toi, Sawar, Surab, etc.

__________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still. Last edited by Last Island; Monday, March 19, 2007 at 08:05 AM.

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Rivers in Pakistan Haro River Haro is the name of a river and its valley in the Abbottabad District, northern Pakistan, identified with the Rigvedic Arjikiya. It is fed by four major tributaries, the Lora Haro, rising in the Muree Hills around Lora, the Stora Haro, rising in the Nahiagali Hills, the Neelan, rising in the Nara Hills, the Kunhad, draining the area of Siribang and Dubran. Minor tributaries include rivulets of Jab, Hally' Desera and Najafpur. Soan River Soan River is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. History The oldest evidence of human life (8,000 to 6,000 years ago) in Pakistan was found in the Soan River valley of Pothohar Plateau region ofPunjab. This human activity, called Soan Culture, discovered in the form of pebble tools scattered long the river. In Peshawar Valley of ancient Gandhara, there is evidence of existence of Stone Age men found at Sanghao near Mardan. Stone tools and burnt bones dated 7,000 years were found near caves. Cave dwellers of middle Stone Age used quartz flakes tools. Soan Culture The Soan Culture is an extinct human culture, found along the Soan River valley in the Pothohar region of the Punjab. The oldest evidence of human life in South Asia was found in the Soan River valley. Along the river, in the Rawalpindi Division hundreds of man made tools can be found. These tools have been dated to 500,000 to 300,000 years ago. On Adiyala and Khasala about 16 km (10 miles) from Rawalpindi terrace on the bend of the river hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. At Chauntrahand axes and cleavers were found. Due to the peculiarity of the tools to the valley archaeologists named this human activity the Soan Culture. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. In the Soan River Gorge many fossil bearing rocks are exposed on the surface. The 14 million year old fossils of gazelle, rhinoceros, crocodile, giraffe and rodents have been found there. Some of these fossils are in display at the Natural History Museum of Islamabad. Hispar River

The Hispar River forms from the melt water of the Hispar Glacier - a 49 kilometerlong glacier in the Northern Areas of Pakistan's Karakoram Mountains. The Hispar Glacier and river both flow northwest, passing through Hispar, Hopar and Nagar (Nagir) villages until the confluence with the Hunza River in the Hunza Valley. Road conditions are spectacular at best, treacherous at worst. In August 2006, a bridge below Hispar village was condemned, and the Hunza River washed the road away at the confluence, eliminating all vehicular access to the entire valley for some months. Gujjar Nallah Gujjar Nallah is a stream in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It passes through the city from northwest to the center and merges with Lyari Riverbefore draining into the Arabian Sea. The Indus River Delta The Indus River Delta occurs where the Indus River flows into the Arabian Sea in Sindh. The delta covers an area of about 16,000 square miles (41,440 km²), and is approximately 130 miles across where it meets the sea. Unlike many other deltas, the Indus River Delta consists ofclay and other infertile soils, and is very swampy. The delta receives between 10 and 20 inches of rainfall in a normal year. Pakistan's fifth largest city, Hyderabad, lies about 130 miles north of the mouths of the Indus. Towns are found throughout the delta, but there are no large cities on the delta south of Hyderabad. Karachi, Pakistan's largest city, lies west of the delta on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Average temperatures for the delta region in July range from 70 - 85 °F, and 50 - 70 °F in January. The Indus River Delta is an important region for migrating water birds, and is an area rich in freshwater fauna. Fish found in the delta include the Hilsa, Indus baril, Indus garua (acatfish), the giant snakehead, golden mahaseer and the Rita catfish. Kunar River The Kunar River (Kunar Rud) is about 480 km long, located in eastern Afghanistan and north-western Pakistan. The Kunar river system is fed from melting glaciers and snow of the Hindu Kush mountains. The Lutkho River joins the Mastuj River just north of the important regional centre of Chitral in Pakistan and is then called the Chitral River, before flowing south into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan, where it is referred to as the Kunar River.

The Kunar River empties into the Kabul River just to the east of the city of Jalalabad in Afghanistan. The combined rivers then flow eastwards into Pakistan, joining the Indus River at the city of Attock. Before the political division of Afghanistan and Pakistan divided the Kunar/Chitral Valley, it formed an important trade route, being the easiest way to travel from the Pamir Mountains' passes to the plains of the Indian subcontinent. Peche River Peche river is located in Afghanistan. Peche river system is fed from glaciers and snow. It includes the Kunar River, which rises in Nuristanprovince of Afghanistan, and the main Kunar River, which rises in the eastern Pamir Mountains before flowing through Chitral in Pakistan into the upper Kunar Valley in Afghanistan. Rupal River Rupal River rises from the melt water of Rupal Glacier in the south of the Nanga Parbat peak and flows northeast through the Rupal Valleyand Tarashing. Neelum River Neelum is a river in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Shyok River The Shyok River is a river flowing through Ladakh and the disputed Northern Areas of Pakistan (Ghangche District). Shyok river (a tributary of the Indus) originates from the Rimo glacier, one of the tounges of Siachin glacier and and becomes very wide at the confluence with the Nubra river (a tributary of Shyok, originating from Siachin Glacier). The alignment of the Shyok river is very unusual, originating from the Rimo glacier it flows in a SE direction and at joining the Pangong range it takes a NW turn and flows parallel to its previous path. The Shyok flowing in a wide valley suddenly enters a narrow gorge after Chalunka and then joins the Indus at Skardu (Pakistan). The Nubra river originating from the Siachin glacier also behaves like the Shyok, before Tirit the SE flowing river takes a NW turn on meeting the river Shyok. The similarity in the courses of these two important rivers probably indicates a series of palaeo fault lines trending NW-SE in delimiting the upper courses of the rivers. The importance of the Indus and the Shyok rivers is in the deposition of a huge thickness of Quaternary sediments a treasure trove for geology researchers. Sohan River

The Sohan is a river of the Punjab, northern Pakistan, forming the northern border of the Bannu District (at ca. 33.02° 71.73 E° ). It has been identified with the Sushoma of the Rigveda. The name "Sohan" derives from this river. I.e: Sohan mikkilinenineni...etc... __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

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S.No. QUESTION ANSWER 1. How many Sura are in Holy Quran ? 114 2. How many Verses are in Holy Quran ? 6666. 3. How many dots are in Holy Quran ? 1015030. 4. How many over bar (zaber) are in Holy Quran ? 93243 5. How many under bar ( Zaer ) are in Holy Quran ? 39586 6. How many Raque are in Holy Quran ? 1000. 7. How many stop ( Waqf ) are in Holy Quran ? 5098. 8. How many Thashdeed are in Holy Quran ? 19253. 9. How many letters are in Holy Quran ? 323671 10 How many pash are in Holy Quran ? 4808. 11. How many Madd are in Holy Quran ? 1771 12 How many words are in Holy Quran ? 77701. 13 How many parts of Holy Quran ? 30. 14 How many time Besmillah Al-Rahmaan Al-Raheem is repeated ? 114. 15 How many Sura start with Besmillah Al-Rahmaan Al-Raheem ? 113.

16 How many time the word 'Quran' is repeated in Holy Quran ? 70. 17 Which is the longest Sura of Holy Quran ? Al-Baqarah. 18 Which is the best drink mentioned in Holy Quran ? Milk. 19 The best eatable thing mentioned in Holy Quran is ? Honey. 20 Which is the shortest Sura of Holy Quran ? Qausar. 21 The longest verse of Holy Quran is in which Sura? Al-Baqarah No.282 23 Which letter is used for the most time in Holy Quran.? Alaph 24 Which letter is used for the lest time in Holy Quran ? Zaa. 25 Which is the best night mentioned in Holy Quran ? Night of Qadar. 26 Which is the best month mentioned in Holy Quran ? Ramzan. 27 Which is the biggest animal mentioned in Holy Quran ? Elephant. 28 Which is the smallest animal mentioned in Holy Quran ? Mosquito 29 How many words are in the longest Sura of Holy Quran ? 25500. 30 How many words are in the smallest Sura of Holy Quran ? 42 31 Which Sura of Holy Quran is called the mother of Quran ? Sura Hamd 32 How many Sura start with Al-Hamdullelah ? Five_ Hamd, Inaam, Kahf, Saba & Fatr. 34 How many Sura's name is only one letter ? Three, Qaf, Sad & Noon. 35 How many Sura start with word " Inna " ? Four sura - Fatha, Nuh,Qadr, Qausar. 37 Which sura are called Musabbahat ? Esra, Hadeed, Hsar, Juma, Taghabun & Aala. 38 How many sura are Makkahi and how many are Madni ? Macci 86, Madni 28. 39 Which sura is on the name of tribe of Holy Prophet ? Quresh 40 Which sura is called the heart of Holy Quran ? Yaseen. 41 In which sura the name of Allah is repeated five time ? Sura al-Haj. 42 Which sura are named Azaiam ? Sajdah, Fusselat, Najum & Alaq. 43 Which sura is on the name of one Holy war ? Sura Ahzaab. 44 Which sura is on the name of one metal ? Sura Hadeed 45 Which sura does not starts with Bismellah ? Sura Tauba. 46 Which sura is called ' Aroos-ul-Quran ? Sura Rehman. 47 Which sura is considered as 1/3 of holy Quran ? Sura tauheed. 48 The name of how many sura are with out dot ? Hamd, Raad, Toor, Room, Masad. 49 In which sura Besmillah came twice ? Sura Naml. 50 How many sura start with the Initials ( Mukette'at ) 29 Sura.

51 Which Sura was revealed twice ? Sura Hamd. 52 In which Sura the back biter are condemned ? Sura Humzah. 53 In which Sura the name of Allah is repeated in every verse ? Sura Mujadala. 54 In which Sura the letter 'Fa' did not come ? Hamd. 55 Which Sura are called Muzetain ? Falk & Nas. 56 Which are those Sura if their name are reversed remain the same ? Lael & Tabbat. 57 Which is that Sura if its first letter is remove becomes the name of one of the city of Saudi Arab ? Sajdah 58 Which Sura start with word ' Tabara Kallazi' ' Mulk & Furkan 59 Macci Sura were revealed in how many years ? 13 years 60 Madani Sura were revealed in how many years ? 10 years. 61 Which sura start with word Kad ? Mujadala & Momenoon. 62 Which Sura is related to Hazrat Ali ? Sura Adiat. 63 How many Sura are in 30th. Chapter ? 37. 64 Which sura every verse ends with letter 'Dal ' ? Tauheed. 65 Which Sura is revealed in respect of Ahllelbayet ? Sura Dahr. 66 Which sura every verse ends with letter ' Ra ' Qauser. 67 In which sura the creation of human being is mentioned ? Sura Hijr V-26. 68 In which sura the regulations for prisoner of war is mentioned ? Sura Nesa 69 Which sura is having the laws about marriage ? Sura Nesa. 70 Which sura if its name is reversed becomes the name of one bird ? Sura Room. 71 In which sura the story of the worship of cow of Bani Esra'iel is mentioned ? Sura Taha. 72 In which sura the law of inheritance is mentioned? Sura Nesa. 73 In which sura the Hegira of Holy Prophet is mentioned ? Sura Infall. 74 In which Sura the 27 Attributes of God are mentioned ? Sura Hadeed.

Other APPSC AllOther Interview Questions Question . Who defeated Ibrahim Lodi (1) Iltutmish (2) Timur (3) Babar (4) Muhammad Ghazni Famous ruler among the Ikshvakus was: (a) Veerapurusha data (b) Ehuzula (c) Vasistee putra Sri Chatamula (d) None . Which one of the following flows west-ward? (1) Godavari (2) Krishna (3) Narmada (4) Thungabhadra . The largest lake in India is (1) Wular (2) Sambhar (3) Chilka (4) Dal . The idea of fundamental duties is derived from (1) Russian constitution (2) American constitution (3) British constitution (4) None please send me group IV exam model paper. when was the group IV exam to be held Who was the main organizer of the Kisan Movement? (a) N.G. Ranga (b) Rajeswara Rao. C (c) P. Sundaraiah (d) T. Prakasam Who suppressed the Poligars of Rayalaseema (a) Sir Thomas Munro (b) Philip Francis (c) James Munro (d) James Reed Among the planets of the solar system, in terms of size, the Earth is the (1) Fourth largest planet (2) Second largest planet (3) Sixth largest planet (4) Fifth largest planet . The line joining places which have the same height above mean sea level is callea (1) Isobar (2) Isohaline (3) Isohyte (4) Contour Who revived the western Chalukya line? (a) Tailapa (b) Vikramadhitya VI (c) Both A & B (d) None According to the Constitution of India, the freedom to form association may be restricted in the interest of (1) The security of India (2) Asked @ Answers

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Friendly relations with foreign countries (3) Contempt of court (4) Public order

Profile of Pakistan Profile of Pakistan · Official Name Islamic Republic of Pakistan · Father of the Nation Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) · National Poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) · Head of the State General Pervez Musharraf, President · Head of Government Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain, Prime Minister · Capital Islamabad · Area Total 796,095 Sq. km. Punjab 205,344 Sq. km. Sindh 140,914 Sq. km. North WestFrontierProvince 74,521 Sq. km. Balochistan 347,190 Sq. km. Federally Administered Tribal Areas 27,220 Sq. km. Islamabad (Capital) 906 Sq. km. · Population 149.03 million · Administrative Setup

Pakistan is divided into four provinces viz., North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan. The tribal belt adjoining NWFP is managed by the Federal Government and is named FATA i.e., Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have their own respective political and administrative machinery, yet certain of their subjects are taken care of by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. Provinces of Pakistan are further divided into Divisions and Districts Divisions Districts NWFP 7 24 Punjab 8 34 Sindh 5 21 Balochistan 6 22 While FATA consist of 13 Areas/Agencies and Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas have 7 and 5 Districts respectively. · Religion 95% Muslims, 5% others. · Annual Per capita income Rs. 28,933 (US $ 492 approximately) · GDP 5.1% · Currency Pak. Rupee. · Imports Industrial equipment, chemicals, vehicles, steel, iron ore, petroleum, edible oil, pulses, tea. · Exports Cotton, textile goods, rice, leather items carpets, sports goods, handi-crafts, fish and fish prep. and fruit · Languages Urdu (National) and English (Official) · Literacy rate 51.6% · Government

Parliamentary form · Parliament Parliament consists of two Houses i.e., the Senate (Upper House) and the National Assembly (Lower House). The Senate is a permanent legislative body and symbolises a process of continuity in the national affairs. It consists of 100 members. The four Provincial Assemblies, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Federal Capital form its electoral college. The National Assembly has a total membership of 342 elected through adult suffrage (272 general seats, 60 women seats and 10 non-Muslim seats). · Pakistan National Flag Dark green with a white vertical bar, a white crescent and a five-pointed star in the middle. The Flag symbolises Pakistan's profound commitment to Islam, the Islamic world and the rights of religious miniorities. · National Anthem Approved in June, 1954 Verses Composed by: Abdul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri Tune Composed by: Ahmed G. Chagla Duration: 80 seconds · State Emblem The State Emblem consists of: 1. The crescent and star which are symbols of Islam 2. The shield in the centre shows four major crops 3. Wreath surrounding the shield represents cultural heritage and 4. Scroll contains Quaid's motto: Unity Faith, Discipline · Pakistan's Official Map Drawn by Mian Mahmood Alam Suhrawardy (1920-1999) · National Flower Jasmine. · National Tree Deodar (Cedrus Deodara). · National Animal Markhor. · National Bird Chakor (Red-legged partridge) · Flora Pine, Oak, Poplar, Deodar, Maple, Mulberry · Fauna The Pheasant, Leopard, Deer, Ibex, Chinkara, Black buck, Neelgai, Markhor, MarcoPolo sheep, Green turtles, River & Sea fish, Crocodile, Waterfowls · Popular games Cricket, Hockey, Football, Squash. · Tourist's resorts Murree, Quetta, Hunza, Ziarat, Swat, Kaghan, Chitral and Gilgit

· Archaeological sites Moenjo Daro, Harappa, Taxila, Kot Diji, Mehr Garh, Takht Bhai. · Major Cities Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sialkot · Major Crops Cotton, Wheat, Rice and Sugarcane · Agricultural Growth Rate 4.15% in 2002-03 · Total cropped area 22.0 million hectares · Industry Textiles, Cement, Fertilizer, Steel, Sugar, Electric Goods, Shipbuilding · Energy Major sources Electricity (Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear) Oil, Coal, and Liquid Petroleum Gas Power Generating Capacity 18,062 MW · Health Hospitals 947 Dispensaries 4,800 Basic Health Units (BHUs) 4,820 Maternity & Child Health Centres 1,084 Rural Health Centres (RHCs) 581 Tuberculosis (TB) Centres 357 Hospital Beds 82,844 Doctors (registered) 101,635 Dentists (registered) 5,068 Nurses (registered 44,520 Paramedics 22,714 Lady Health Workers

6,397 · Education Primary Schools 164,200 Middle Schools 19,100 High Schools 12,900 Arts & Science Colleges 925 Professional Colleges 374 Universities Public Sector (including one WomenUniversity) 29 Private Sector 10 · Transport & Communication Total length of roads 251,845 km Pakistan Railway network 7,791 km Railway stations 781 Pakistan International Airlines Covers 33 international and 21 domestic stations with a fleet of 44 planes. Major Airports 8 (Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Peshawar, Multan, Faisalabad and Gwadar) · Seaports International 2 (Karachi and Bin Qasim.) Fish Harbours-Cum-Mini Ports 3 (Minora, Gawadar, and Keti Bandar) · Communications Post Offices 12,267 Telephone connections 4,589,000 Public Call Offices

1,14,527 Telegraph offices 328 Internet Connections 1.9 million

· Employment Total Labour force 42.38 million Employed Labour Force 39.41 million Agriculture Sector 18.91 million Manufacturing & Mining sector 4.51 million Construction 2.25 million Trade 5.27 million Transport 1.97 million Finance, Community & Social Services 5.90 million Others 5.87 million · Media Print Media (In accordance with Central Media List)

Dailies 414 Weeklies 392 Fortnightlies 50 Monthlies 259 Annually 01 Quarterly 03

News Agencies Official APP Private PPI, NNI, On Line and Sana. Electronic Media TV Centres Five TV centres at Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Karachi covering 88.58% population and 29 re-broadcasting stations. Pakistan Television 4 channels (PTV-I, PTV-II (PTV World), PTV-III & PTV-IV) Registered TV sets 3,604,000 Radio Stations Public: Total 25, Home services in 19 languages. External Services cover 81 countries in 15 languages Private: Radio stations 3, TV transmitter channels 3 Cable Operators 900 · Banks Central Bank State Bank of Pakistan Other Banks National Bank of Pakistan Habib Bank Ltd. United Bankn Ltd. Muslim Commercial Bank Ltd. Allied Bank of Pakistan Ltd. First Woman Bank Mehran Bank The Bank of Punjab

Bank of Khyber Specialized Banks Agricultural Development Bank of Pakistan Federal Bank for Co-operatives Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan The Punjab Provincial Co-operative Bank · Famous MountainPeaks K-2 (Mt. Godwin Austin) 28,250 ft./8611 m (2nd in World) Nanga Parbat 26,660 ft./8126 m (8th in World) Gasherbrum-I 26,470 ft./8068 m (11th in World) · Famous Mountain Passes The Khyber Pass NWFP The KurramPass FATA The TochiPass FATA The GomalPass NWFP The Bolan Pass Balochistan The LowariPass Chitral (NWFP) The KhunjrabPass Northern Areas · Rivers The Indus 2,896 km Jhelum 825 km Chenab 1,242 km Ravi

901 km Sutlej 1,551 km Beas (tributary of Sutlej) 398 km · Famous Glaciers Siachin 75 km Batura 55 km Baltoro 65 km · Deserts Thar Sindh Cholistan Punjab Thal Punjab · Lakes Manchar Sindh Keenjar Sindh Hanna Balochistan Saif-ul-Maluk NWFP Satpara Northern Areas Kachura Northern Areas · Major Dams Mangla Dam Punjab Tarbela Dam NWFP

Warsak Dam NWFP

UNO was formed in: a)1944 b)1945 c)1946 d)Non of these 2-The cold war between USA and USSR started in: a)1942 b)1945 c)1946 d)Non of these 3-Peaceful co-existence between USA and USSR was initiated by: a)Stalin b)Brezhnev c)Khruschev d)Non of these 4-Detente between USA and USSR started between: a)1959-69 b)1969-79 c)1980-90 d)Non of these 5-Perestroika was started by: a)Brezhnev b)Podgorny c)Gorbachev d)Non of these 6-The Taliban came to power in Afghanistan in: a)1990 b)1992 c)1996 d)Non of these 7-Ismail Hania is: a)President of Palestine b)Lebanese Minister c)Leader of Hamas d)Non of these 8-Natan Yahu is: a)President of Taiwan b)Defence Minister of China c)Prime Minister of Israel d)Non of these 9-USSR was disintegrated in: a)1989 b)1990 c)1991 d)Non of these 10-Theory and Practice of International Relations is written by: a)Padelford and Lincoln b)Palmer and Perkins c)Hans j.Morganthau d)Non of these

11-Kim El Jong is: a)President of South Korea b)Foreign Minister of Burma c)President of North Korea d)Non of these 12-Aviar Solana is: a)Foreign Minister of Spain b)President of Namibia c)Foreign Policy adviser of European Union d)Non of these 13-Ronald Reagan an actor became the President of: a)Mexico b)USA c)France d)Non of these 14-NPT was signed in: a)1966 b)1968 c)1970 d)Non of these 15-CTBT was signed in: a)1990 b)1944 c)1995 d)Non of these 16-People's Republic of China came into being in: a)1947 b)1948 c)1949 d)Non of these 17-WTO was formed in: a)1990 b)1993 c)1995 d)Non of these 18-Cuban Missile Crisis took place in: a)1960 b)1961 c)1962 d)Non of these 19-NATO was singed in: a)1945 b)1948 c)1949 d)Non of these 20-UN Secretary General Ban Qi Moon is from: a)Burma b)Mauritius c)South Korea d)Non of these

The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Humayun Khan For This Useful Post: amna saif (Monday, August 30, 2010), Katz (Wednesday, July 07, 2010) #3 Friday, March 12, 2010 Join Date: Aug 2009 Location: London/Lahore Ehsan Chauhdry Junior Member Posts: 4 Thanks: 11 Thanked 1 Time in 1 Post

Dear Fellows, Here is Solution of Objective Part, If there is any wrong answers please let me know as most of them are confiremd. Thanks. 1-UNO was formed in: a)1944 b)1945 c)1946 d)Non of these b)-1945 2-The cold war between USA and USSR started in: a)1942 b)1945 c)1946 d)Non of these b)- 1945 (Some books claims it technically started in 1947) 3-Peaceful co-existence between USA and USSR was initiated by: a)Stalin b)Brezhnev c)Khruschev d)Non of these c)Khruschev

4-Detente between USA and USSR started between: a)1959-69 b)1969-79 c)1980-90 d)Non of these b)1969-79 5-Perestroika was started by: a)Brezhnev b)Podgorny c)Gorbachev d)Non of these c)Gorbachev 6-The Taliban came to power in Afghanistan in: a)1990 b)1992 c)1996 d)Non of these c)1996 7-Ismail Hania is: a)President of Palestine b)Lebanese Minister c)Leader of Hamas d)Non of these c)Leader of Hamas 8-Natan Yahu is: a)President of Taiwan b)Defence Minister of China c)Prime Minister of Israel d)Non of these c)Prime Minister of Israel 9-USSR was disintegrated in: a)1989 b)1990 c)1991 d)Non of these c)1991 10-Theory and Practice of International Relations is written by: a)Padelford and Lincoln b)Palmer and Perkins c)Hans j.Morganthau d)Non of these d)Non of these (Not Sure, Not confirmerd) 11-Kim El Jong is: a)President of South Korea b)Foreign Minister of Burma c)President of North Korea d)Non of these c)President of North Korea 12-Aviar Solana is: a)Foreign Minister of Spain b)President of Namibia c)Foreign Policy adviser of

European Union d)Non of these c)Foreign Policy adviser of European Union 13-Ronald Reagan an actor became the President of: a)Mexico b)USA c)France d)Non of these b)USA 14-NPT was signed in: a)1966 b)1968 c)1970 d)Non of these b)1968 15-CTBT was signed in: a)1990 b)1944 c)1995 d)Non of these d)Non of these (Signed 1996, Sorry Guys who opted for 1995 including myself) 16-People's Republic of China came into being in: a)1947 b)1948 c)1949 d)Non of these c)1949 17-WTO was formed in: a)1990 b)1993 c)1995 d)Non of these c)1995 18-Cuban Missile Crisis took place in: a)1960 b)1961 c)1962 d)Non of these c)1962 19-NATO was singed in: a)1945 b)1948 c)1949 d)Non of these c)1949 20-UN Secretary General Ban Qi Moon is from: a)Burma b)Mauritius c)South Korea d)Non of these c)South Korea

CCOUNTING AND AUDITING AUDITING: 1) Audit program, its contents, advantages and disadvantages, how disadvantages can be removed. 2) Discuss in detail rights and liabilities of an auditor of Public Ltd Co. with reference to Co. Ord.1984 3) Contents of Annual Audit Report of a Listed public Ltd company under the Co. Ord. 1984 4) Write note on Internal Control, Internal Check 5) Define and Explain the advantages and disadvantages of : a) Continuous Audit b) Final Audit c) Internal Audit d) External Audit e) Statutory Audit TAXATION: 1) Numerical. 2) What are various sources of income chargeable to Tax under the headµ Income from other sourcesµ. BUSINESS PORTION: 1) Detail Note on: Cooperative Societies, Joint Stock Company. 2) Business Combinations and its causes. 3) Differentiate between Unlisted Co., Listed Co. and Private Co. 4) Financial Institutions and importance of finance in the growth and development of a Business. 5) Legal Procedure of Establishment of a Public Co. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING: 1) Accounting Ratios 2) Final Accounts 3) Cash Budget 4) Accounting for Non-profit Org. COST ACCOUNTING: 1) Statement of Goods manufactured and sold 2) Process costing 3) Standard costing 4) Job order costing 5) Stock management 6) Define Cost accounting and how it contributes in efficient management of resources 7) Explain Direct cost, indirect Cost, Product cost, period cost, Prime cost, controllable cost and non controllable cos

FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING 1 Gani & EJAZ's Principles of accounting and Advanced Accounting (Final accounts, Partnership, Bank reconciliation, Non-profit organizations and capital and revenue) 2 Meigs and Meigs' Accounting-basis for business decision (Chapter 1 to 5) 3 Shukla's Financial Accounting 1 (Additional practice) COST ACCOUNTING 1 Matz & usury's Cost accounting (chapter 1 to 6) and standard costing, budgeting, byproduct costing and marginal costing 2 HILTON's managerial accounting (Additional practice and theory for objective type preparation) standard costing, marginal costing, process costing, budgeting, LIFO and FIFO. AUDITING Khawaja Amjad Saeed's AUDITING.(only the topics indicated in syllabus) TAXATION mohammad moazzam mughal's INCOME TAX (only the sections mentioned in the syllabus) BUSINESS ORGANIZATION INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS by saeed nasir.(only related topics)

(I will provide details of some more subjects as soon as i am able to finalize the the material sources.)

ECONOMICS, PAPER-I

PART ² I (MCQ) (COMPULSORY)

Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20)

(i) Demand curve in case of Giffen good is: (a) Negatively sloped (b) Vertical (c) Positively sloped (d) None of these

(ii) Price consumption curve in case of complementary goods is: (a) Downward sloping (b) Vertical (c) Upward sloping (d) None of these (iii) In case of two goods, following utility approach, a consumer is in equilibrium when: (a) MUx/Px = MUy/Py (b) MUx/Px < MUy/Py (c) MUx/Mx > MUy/Py (d) Both (b) and (c) (iv) In short run: (a) Labour is variable (b) Both labour and capital are variable (c) Both labour and capital fixed

(d) None of these (v) When MC is equal to AC, the AC: (a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains constant (d) None of these (vi) Normal profit, excess profit and loss of the firm depends on level of: (a) Average costs in short run (b) Total costs in short run (c) Marginal costs in short run (d) All of these (vii) In case of perfect competition, the sellers are: (a) Two (b) A few (c) Very large (d) None of these (viii) The firm is in equilibrium when: (a) Slope of TC = Slope of TR (b) Slope of TC is less than slope of TR (c) Slope of TC is more than slope of TR (d) None of these (ix) The Marginal Revenue Product of labour MRPL is: (a) MR x MP (b) MR / MP (c) MR MP (d) Both (b) and (c) (x) In case of imperfect competition the MRPL is the: (a) Supply of labour curve (b) Demand for labour curve (c) Both of these (d) None of these 

(xi) Per Capita Income is calculated as: (a) N.I+Population (b) N.*Population (c) N.I/Population (d) Both (a) and (c) (xii) Gross Domestic Product equals: (a) GNP NFI (b) GNP + NFI (c) GNP indirect taxes (d) Both (a) and (c) (xiii) The deposit multiplier is always: (a) Greater than one (b) Less than one (c) Equal to one (d) None of these (xiv) Money can be a standard of deferred payments only if the value of money itself: (a) Remains stable (b) increases (c) Decreases (d) None of these (xv) The fiscal policy with a deliberate policy action is: (a) Expansionary fiscal policy (b) Concretionary fiscal policy (c) Discretionary fiscal policy (d) All of these (xvi) Trade based on absolute advantage was presented by: (a) Alfred Marshall (b) Adam Smith (c) Lionel Robbins (d) None of these 


(xvii) According to Keynes, the relationship between money supply and rate of interest is: (a) Negative (b) Positive (c) Indirect (d) None of these (xviii) An object that is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services is called: (a) Standardized money (b) Medium of exchange (c) Unit of account (d) All of these (xix) The account in balance of payment that consists of all transactions in financial assets is known as: (a) Capital account (b) Current account (c) Official Reserve account (d) None of these (xx) The difference between exports and imports of visible items of a country is called: (a) Budget surplus (b) Balanced budget (c) Balance of trade (d) Both (a) and (c) __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

#3 Saturday, December 04, 2010

Join Date: May 2005 Last Island Royal Queen of Literature Location: Forest of Fallen Stars Posts: 4,664 Thanks: 1,107 Thanked 5,596 Times in 2,140 Posts

ECONOMICS, PAPER-II

PART ² I (MCQ) (COMPULSORY) Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20) (i) The best and comprehensive definition of economic development was presented by: (a) Higgins (b) Maddison (c) Friedman (d) None of these (ii) Fishery is the sub sector of: (a) Agriculture (b) Manufacturing (c) Mining (d) Both (b) and (c)

(iii) Pakistan was the leading exporter before the separation of East Pakistan: (a) Cotton (b) Tea (c) Rice (d) None of these (iv) Pakistan devalued its currency in 1972 by: (a) 131% (b) 121% (c) 100% (d) None of these (v) Eighth Five Year Plan duration was: (a) 1983 1988 (b) 1993 1998 (c) 1978 1983 (d) 1988 1993 (vi) Export Bonus Scheme (EBS) was introduced in: (a) 1969 (b) 1979 (c) 1959 (d) 1949 (vii) Primary deficit (primary balance) is the difference between total revenue and: (a) Non-interest total expenditure (b) Interest expenditure (c) development expenditure (d) All of these (viii) Cooperative movement was started in sub-continent in: (a) 1904 (b) 1914 (c) 1934 (d) None of these (ix) The Ryotwari system was introduced by the British rules in the provinces of: 
  

(a) Sindh, Madras and Mumbai (b) Sindh, Punjab and Mumbai (c) Sindh, Madras and NWFP (d) Both (a) and (b) (x) Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Service Corporation (PASSCO) was established in: (a) 1973 (b) 1963 (c) 1953 (d) 1983 (xi) Who developed Physical Quality Life Index (PQLI) in his famous book named by ´Measuring the Condition of the World s Poor: PQLI in 1987? (a) Morris D. Morris (b) Higgins (c) Keynes (d) None of these (xii) The Human Development Index (HDI) ranks all countries on the scale of: (a) 0 to 1 (b) 1 to 100 (c) -1 to +1 (d) None of these (xiii) The United Nations designated The Fourth World as: (a) Less developed countries (b) Poor countries (c) Least developed countries (d) All of these (xiv) According to ¶North-South Divide , the rich countries are called: (a) South countries (b) North countries (c) Industrialized countries (d) Advance countries 


(xv) The loan which is given at a nominal rate of interest ranging from 1% to 3% is called: (a) Hard loan (b) Conditional loan (c) Soft loan (d) All of these (xvi) The accumulation of a stock of debt so large as to threaten the country s ability to repay its past loan: (a) Debt equity swap (b) Debt trap (c) Debt overhang (d) None of these (xvii) ´Rabiµ season which begins in: (a) April-June (b) October-December (c) January-February (d) None of these (xviii) Government of Pakistan announced privatization policy in: (a) 1981 (b) 1995 (c) 1991 (d) None of these (xix) The floating debt (short-term) consists of: (a) Treasury Bills (b) Market Treasury Bills (c) MTBs for Replenishment (d) All of these (xx) The currency of IMF is called: (a) SDRs (b) ODRs (c) Lira (d) None of these 

__________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20) (i) Modern microeconomics theory generally regards utility as: (a) cardinal (b) ordinal (c) independent (d) Republican (ii) A basic assumption of the theory of consumption choice is that: (a) the consumer tries to get on the highest indifference curve (b) the consumer tries to get the most of good Y (c) the budget line is concave (d) none of these (iii) The substitution effect must always be: (a) positive (b) negative (c) zero (d) bigger than the income effect (iv) The income effect: (a) must always be negative (b) must always be positive (c) can be negative or positive (d) must be smaller than substitution effect (v) Normal goods experience an increase in consumption when: (a) real income increase (b) real income falls (c) price rises (d) tastes change (vi) The demand for a good is price inelastic if: (a) the price elasticity is one (b) the price elasticity is less than one (c) the price elasticity is greater than one

(d) all of these (vii) A demand curve with unitary elasticity at all points is: (a) a straight line (b) a parabola (c) a hyperbola (d) all of these (viii) The marginal product equals the average product when the latter is: (a) ½ of its maximum value (b) ¼ of its maximum value (c) equals to its maximum value (d) equals to its minimum value (ix) A firm¶s aspiration level is: (a) its profits last year (b) the boundary between ³satisfactory´ and ³unsatisfactory´ outcomes. (c) its highest previous profit level (d) none of these (x) The firm¶s cost functions are determined by: (a) the price of its product (b) its assets (c) its production function (d) the age of the firm (xi) The following industry often is a natural monopoly: (a) cigarette industry (b) publishing industry (c) drug industry (d) electric power industry (xii) Recognizing that the assumptions of perfect competition never hold at all precisely, the perfectly competitive model is: (a) interesting mainly for academic studies (b) outmoded and seldom used even by academic economists (c) of considerable use to industrial economists, as well as academic economists (d) all of these (xiii) Under perfect competition, rivalry is: (a) impersonal (b) very personal and direct, advertising being important (c) nonexistent since the firms cooperate (d) all of these

(xiv) If average total cost is less than marginal cost at its profit-maximizing output, a perfectly competitive firm: (a) will make positive profit (b) will operate at a point to the right of the minimum point on the average total cost curve (c) will not discontinue production (d) all of these (xv) Monopolies arise as a consequence of: (a) patents (b) control over the supply of a basic input (c) franchise (d) all of these (xvi) A monopolistic firm will expand its output when: (a) marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (b) marginal cost exceeds marginal revenue (c) marginal cost equals marginal revenue (d) marginal revenue is negative (xvii) A monopolist will never produce at a point where: (a) demand is price-inelastic (b) demand is price-elastic (c) marginal cost is positive (d) marginal cost is increasing (xviii) When demand is elastic: (a) a fall in price is more than offset by an increase in quantity demanded, so that total revenue rises. (b) the good is probably a necessity, so price has little effect on quantity demanded (c) a rise in price will increase total revenue, even though less is sold. (d) buyers are not much influenced by prices of competing proceduts (xix) If the price elasticity of demand for product is 0.5, this means that: (a) a 1 percent change in price will change quantity demanded by 50% (b) a 1 percent increase in quantity demanded is associated with a 0.5 percent fall in price (c) a 1 percent increase in price is associated with 0.5% fall in quantity demanded (d) a 1 percent increase in price will cause a 0.5% increase in quantity demanded. (xx) Price elasticity of demand for a commodity tends to be greater: (a) the more of a necessity it is (b) the more substitutes there are for it (c) over shorter time periods (d) the lower the price. PART ± II

(i) PART-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book. (ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. All questions carry EQUAL marks. (iii) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered. Q.2. Critically examine the elasticity of demand with reference to Price of the commodity and Income of the consumer. (20) Q.3. Differentiate between Perfect Competition and Monopoly. Which one is followed by the real world? If not, then name the existing one. (20) Q.4. Explain the Keynesian Consumption Function with suitable examples. (20) Q.5. Why we demand for Money? Explain each one of them. (20) Q.6. It is said that ³Consumer Financing through Banking system is dangerous´. Explain (20) Q.7. Differentiate between Balance of Trade and Balance of Payments with suitable examples. (20) Q.8. ³Economic Growth is linked to the Development of Banking System.´ Explain. (20) ******************** __________________ The Me you have always known, the Me that's a stranger still.

#2 Sunday, November 01, 2009

Last Island
Royal Queen of Literature

Join Date: May 2005 Location: Forest of Fallen Stars Posts: 4,664 Thanks: 1,107 Thanked 5,596 Times in 2,140 Posts

FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS ± 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2009.

ECONOMICS, PAPER - II

TIME ALLOWED: (PART-I) 30 MINUTES, MAXIMUM MARKS: 20 (PART-II) 2 HOURS & 30 MINUTES MAXIMUM MARKS: 80

NOTE: (i) First attempt PART-I (MCQ) on separate Answer Sheet which shall be taken back after 30 minutes. (ii) Overwriting/cutting of the options/answers will not be given credit. PART ± I (MCQ) COMPULSORY Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20) (i) Ceteris paribus is a Latin term meaning: (a) ³one by one´ (b) ³equal under the law.´ (c) ³other things being equal.´ (d) ³in accordance with the law.´ (ii) The slope of a curve is: (a) constant in the case of a straight line (b) positive in the case of a direct relationship (c) negative in the case of an inverse relationship (d) equal to the change in vertical movement divided by the change in horizontal movement. (iii) If the quantity of X increases whenever the price of X decreases, one can conclude that: (a) the relationship between the price and the quantity of X is direct (b) the relationship between the price and the quantity of X is inverse (c) the relationship between the price and the quantity of X is linear

(d) the relationship between the price and the quantity of X is nonlinear (iv) A simultaneous decrease in demand and supply will always result in: (a) a decrease in the equilibrium price (b) an increase in the equilibrium price (c) a decrease in the equilibrium quantity (d) an increase in the equilibrium quantity (v) The marginal utility of a good refers to the: (a) total utility of the good prior to consumption of the last unit (b) extra utility associated with consuming another unit of the good (c) utility associated with consuming an alternative good (d) consumer surplus associated with the consumption of an alternative good (vi) When a firm is experiencing economies of scale: (a) the MP curve slopes upward (b) the LRAC curve slopes downward (c) diminishing returns to labor have been suspended (d) the MC curve slopes downward (vii) Actual GDP may exceed potential GDP for a short period of time when: (a) the unemployment rate is high (b) plants run extra shifts that ordinarily are not scheduled. (c) plants are shut down to remove old equipment and install new equipment (d) any or all of the above occur. (viii) An example of frictional unemployment is: (a) workers at General Motors plants laid off because of slow car sales. (b) steel workers laid off by plant closings. (c) a teenager who has quit work at McDonald¶s waiting to take a job next week at the car wash (d) Inner-city welfare mothers taking classes to earn high-school equivalency degrees. (ix) If inflation is expected to be 5 percent in the coming year and the nominal interest rate is 8 percent, then the real interest rate is: (a) ±3 percent (b) 3 percent (c) 8 percent (d) 13 percent (x) Which of the following is included in GDP as currently measured? (a) food stamps (b) used car sales (c) additions to inventories (d) purchases of Ford stock

(xi) Disposable income is: (a) the same as personal income (b) income that is used only for consumption (c) Personal income remaining after income taxes (d) exclusive of social security payments or welfare. (xii) The difference between GNP and GDP is: (a) net factor payments to foreigners (b) indirect business taxes paid to all levels of government (c) net exports of goods and services. (d) capital consumption allowances. (xiii) A country that makes large net income payments to investors in another country is likely to: (a) have a large GDP than GNP (b) have smaller GDP than GNP (c) grow slower economically than the other country (d) grow faster economically than the other country. (xiv) Which of the following would be the best measure of changes in the standard of living in an economy, expressed in a time series? (a) real GDP (b) output per labor hour of output (c) real GDP per capita (d) nominal GDP per capita (xv) An MPC of less than 1 means that an increase in current disposable income would cause desired consumption expenditures to: (a) rise by less than full increase in disposable income. (b) fall slightly because the increase in income will increase saving. (c) rise by the full increase in disposable income. (d) stay the same because the MPS is also less than 1. (xvi) For money to serve as an efficient medium of exchange, it must have all but which of the following characteristics? (a) general acceptability (b) convertibility into precious metals (c) high value relative to its weight (d) divisibility (xvii) A bond that pays interest forever and never repays the principals is called a: (a) perpetuity (b) preferred share (c) fixed-term bond

(d) treasury bill (xviii) If given the same amount of inputs, U.S farmers produce 2 tons of rice per acre while Japanese farmers produce 1 ton of rice per acre, we can be certain that: (a) the United Sates should export rice to Japan. (b) the United States has a comparative in rice production. (c) the United States has an absolute advantage in rice production. (d) Japanese farmers must be paid twice as much as American farmers. (xix) The doctrine of comparative advantage says that there are gains from international trade: (a) only if both comparative and absolute advantage are present in both countries. (b) if opportunity costs are the same in the countries involved. (c) only there are economies of scale available. (d) if countries specialize in the production of goods in which they are relatively more efficient. (xx) The terms of trade are measured by: (a) the quantity of imported goods that can be obtained for each unit of an exported good. (b) the ratio of the price of imports to the price of exports. (c) the value of imported goods that can be obtained for each dollar of exported goods. (d) all of the above. PART ± II (i) PART-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book. (ii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from PART-II. All questions carry EQUAL marks. (iii) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered. Q.2. Discuss the Agriculture Policy of Pakistan keeping in view the World Trade Organization. (20) Q.3. Examine the Monetary Policy of Pakistan to reduce the inflation. (20) Q.4. Discuss the critical role of Industrial sector in the economic development of Pakistan. (20) Q.5. What are the sources of External Finance for the development of Pakistan economy? Explain ANY TWO of them. (20) Q.6. Discuss the Agricultural Taxation of Pakistan. Do you support the Agriculture Tax? Give reasons. (20)

Q.7. Critically examine the Balance of Payments account of Pakistan. (20) Q.8. Write short notes on ANY TWO of the following: (20) (a) Transport and communication (b) Privatization in Pakistan (c) Energy & Fuel

ECONOMICS-I PAPER 2000 COMPULSORY QUESTION 3. Write only the correct answers in the Answer Book. Don¶t reproduce the questions. (1) A firm¶s monopolistic position is strengthened by: (a) Low elasticity of demand for its product. (b) High elasticity of demand for its product. (c) Constant elasticity of demand. (d None of the above. (2) The overall Budget Deficit is financed from: (a) External borrowing (b) Non-Bank borrowing domestically (c) Bank borrowing plus the above two at (a) and (b) (d) None of the above. (3) Devaluation leads to: (a) Increase in imports (b) µ Increase in exports (c) Decline in imports (d) Nona of the above. (4) guild-up µof Foreign exchange reserves leads to: (a) Decrease in money supply (b) Increase in money supply (c) Contraction in money supply (d) None of the above. (5) . monopolist would maximize profit at that level¶ of production where: (a) His/her average cost of production equals his/her marginal revenue (b) marginal cost of production equal marginal µrevenue (c) Average cost equal average revenue (d) None of the above. (6) Cost push inflation results from: (a) Enhancement in wage bill (b) Increase in the cost of inputs going into product ion

(c) Increase in the international prices of imports (d) None of the above. (7) Balance of trade deficit refers to: (a) Difference between receipts from exports of goods and services and the, payments for imports of goods and services. (b) Difference between commodity export earnings versus payment for commodity imports. (8) Health of a country¶s economy is indicated by: (a) Number of doctors per 1.000 population (b) Per capita income (c) Literacy rate (d) None of the above. (9) According to classical theory of employment Laissez Faire System of enterprise: (a) Ensures continuous Full - Employment (b) Leads to general over production (c) Leads to investment higher than savings, (d) None of the above. (10) Saving means: (a) Part of income for investment (b) Income for boarding (c) Non-consumption of income in the current period (d) None of the above. (11) Thee eziee of GDP in nominal terms refer to: (a) Natioal, output iz~ ~a]. te~m~ (b) National output in prices prevaiLing in market (c) Output at constant prices (d) None of the above. (12) Rs. 100 note has value because: (a) It has intrinsic value (b) State Bank guarantees it (c) Its holder can exchange it for goods and services (d) None of the above. (13) In 25 years (1960-85) Pakistan¶s Per Capita income: (a) More than doubled (b) Less than doubled (c) Did not show more than 70% increase (d) None of the above. (14) All economic models¶are based on: (a) Realistic assumptions (b) Assumptions which can never be perfectly realistic (c) Unrealistic assumptions

(d) None of the above. (15) Terms of Trade improvment if: (a) Unit value of i#t~Orts goes d6wn (b) Unit value of 6*~rts go up (c) Relative value b~ exports ~O higher thäi¶~ that of imports (d) None of the abO~V6. (16) An important policy instrument tO influence commercial banks is: (a) Open market operations (b) Changing reserve ratios of co~tnercial ba~riks (c) Moral persuasion (d) None of the above. (17) Expansion in money supply stems f torn: (a) Increasing the cost of bank credit (b) Reducing availability of bank credit (c) Reducing the financial cost of bank credit (d) None of the above. (18) During the 1980¶s empirical evidence indicates that: (a) Poverty re-emerged in Pakistan (b) Good growth brought down poverty in Pakistan (c) Poverty situation showed no change (d) None of the above. (19) Expansion in international trade is preferable over: (a) Foreign aid (b) Project assistance (c) Commodity assistance by foreign donors (d) None of the above. (20) Supply factors in economic growth, are: (a) Manpower (b) Stock of capital (c) Technology and skills (d) None of the above

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PAPER 2001 COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) Budgetary Deficit refers to: (a) Total Revenue Receipts minus Total Expenditures (b) Fiscal Deficit minus Interest Payments (c) Total Receipts (Revenue Account + Capital Account) Minus Total Expenditure (Revenue + Capital) (d) None of the above (2) Increase in the number of buyers in the market would lead to a shift of the demand curve to: (a) The right (b) The left (c) Upwards along the curve (d) None of the above (3) Balance of Trade Deficit refers to: (a) Excess of payments for import of goods and services over receipts from exports of goods and services. (b) Excess of receipts from commodity exports minus payments of imports of goods (c) Payments for commodity imports minus receipts from commodity exports (d) None of the above (4) A monopolist gains more if: (a) Elasticity of demand for his product is low comparatively (b) Elasticity of demand for his product is high comparatively (c) Demand elasticity does not change

(d) None of the above (5) Devaluation of Pak. Rupee in the 1990¶s led to: (a) Increase in exports (b) Increase in imports (c) Increase in both exports and imports (d) None of the above (6) Most sophisticated models of economics growth are based on: (a) Realistic assumption (b) Unrealistic assumptions (c) On assumptions, at least some of which are extremely difficult to be proved as valid. (d) None of the above (7) Real GDP refers to: (a) GDP, at constant prices (b) GDP, at current prices over time (c) GDP, at nominal prices over time (d) None of the above (8) Terms of trade refer to: (a) Unit price of commodity import (b) Value of exports vs. Value of imports. (c) Exchange rate applicable to foreign trade of a country (d) None of the above (9) Cost-push inflation is the result of: (a) Increase in the production cost (b) Increase in the price of industrial production (c) Escalation of international prices (d) None of the above (10) Competitive market comprises: (a) Large number of buyers (b) Large number of firms (c) Large number of both buyers and producers (d) None of the above (11) A monopolist maximizes his profit at a point where: (a) His average cost curve meets the marginal revenue curve. (b) His marginal cost = marginal revenue (c) His average cost = market price of market (d) None of the above (12) Under perfect competition, a firm would maximize profit at a point where:

(a) Average revenue = average cost (b) Marginal cost = average revenue (c) Marginal cost = marginal revenue (d) None of the above (13) Foreign trade differs from domestic trade: (a) Because of terms of trade (b) Due to differences in production costs (c) Because of territorial differences (d) None of the above (14) World Trade Organization is: (a) The same thing as UNCTAD (b) The same as WHO (c) A replacement of UNCTAD (d) None of the above (15) Major sources of revenue in Pakistan¶s Budget: (a) Have not changed in the 1990¶s (b) Have drastically changed in the nineties (c) Have changed slightly in the nineties (d) None of the above (16) Main heads of expenditure in Pakistan's Budget (in ascending order) are: (a) Foreign debt, Development, Defence. (b) Defence, foreign debt, development (c) Development, defence and foreign debt (d) None of the above (17) Increase in foreign exchange reserves causes: (a) Inflation (b) Deflation (c) No increase in price level (d) None of the above (18) Pakistan¶s Budget deficit is financed by: (a) Revenue Budget surplus (b) Borrowing (both bank and non-bank) (c) Foreign resource inflow (d) None of the above (19) Most important economic indicator of the health of an economy is: (a) Income per capita (b) National output (c) Literacy rate

(d) None of the above (20) Most important catalyst in economic growth is: (a) Savings and investments (b) Technology and skills (c) Both at (a) and (b) (d) None of the above

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PAPER 2002 COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) Two commodities are considered to be perfect substitutes for each other if the elasticity of substitution is: (a) Positive (b) Negative (c) Infinite (d) None of these (2) A straight ± line downward sloping demand curve implies that, as price falls, the elasticity of demand: (a) Increases

(b) Decreases (c) Remains the same (d) None of these (3) Which of the following is often considered to be inconsistent with the notion of perfect competition? (a) Large number of firms (b) Free entry (c) Complete mobility (d) None of these (4) Currently total investment as percentage of GDP in Pakistan is: (a) 12.9 (b) 14.9 (c) 16.9 (d) None of these (5) A purely monetary explanation of the business cycle is proposed by: (a) Hawtrey (b) Schumpeter (c) Hansen (d) None of these (6) The exogenous variable in the income equation C + I + G = Y is: (a) C (b) I (c) G (d) None of these (7) The Lorenz curve describes: (a) Income distribution (b) The interest rate (c) The marginal efficiency of capital (d) None of these (8) A stable equilibrium requires that the marginal propensity to consume is: (a) Less than zero (b) Zero (c) One (d) None of these (9) International trade during the 19th century was characterized by: (a) Extensive barriers to trade (b) Operation of the gold standard (c) A small volume of international trade

(d) None of these (10) The type of business in which an individual has unlimited responsibility for the debts of the organization is: (a) Partnership (b) Corporation (c) Monopoly (d) None of these (11) Which one of the following types of taxes is the most regressive? (a) Income taxes (b) Sales taxes (c) Excise taxes (d) None of these (12) An Engel curve is based on which one of the following assumptions? (a) Constant prices, varying incomes (b) Constant prices, Constant incomes (c) Constant incomes, varying prices (d) None of these (13) The largest trading partner of Pakistan is: (a) Italy (b) Hong Kong (c) Germany (d) None of these (14) Of the following which one is a characteristic of monopolistic competition? (a) Standardized product (b) Comparatively easy entry (c) Little non-price competition (d) None of these (15) In the long run: (a) Fixed costs will be greater than variable costs (b) Variable costs will be greater than fixed costs (c) All costs are variable costs (d) None of these (16) Currently the total export value of Pakistan is: (a) $ 10 billions (b) $ 9 billions (c) $ 8 billions (d) None of these

(17) A competitive firm will maximize profits at the output where: (a) The difference between price and marginal cost is highest (b) Price is higher than the average total cost by the largest amount (c) Total revenues and total costs are exactly equal (d) None of these (18) Structural unemployment can be eliminated by: (a) Training the technologically unemployed (b) Increased federal expenditures (c) An increase in the general credit level (d) None of these (19) Public utilities tend to be: (a) Inefficient (b) Natural monopolies (c) Subject to increasing costs (d) None of these (20) Which one of the following is incorrectly matched? (a) Joan Robinson --- Imperfect Competition (b) Edward Chamberlain --- Monopolistic Competition (c) Vilfredo Pareto --- Welfare Economics (d) None of these

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PAPER 2003 COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) Total revenue receipts are maximum at that point on a demand curve where price elasticity is: (a) Increasing (b) Decreasing (c) Unitary (d) None of these (2) Which of the following products will have an elastic demand? (a) Flour (b) Cloth (c) Honda city (d) None of these (3) Price controls are: (a) Necessary for consumer¶s welfare (b) A must to check inflation (c) Doomed to fail (d) None of these (4) Increase in minimum wage: (a) Helps in controlling unemployment (b) Increases unemployment (c) Reduces wage bill (d) None of these (5) An indifference curve gives: (a) The actual combination of goods that consumer chooses (b) The minimum choice of the consumer (c) The highest level of satisfaction (d) None of these (6) MRSxy being 6 means: (a) Consumer is willing to give up 6 units of x for one of y (b) Preference for y is 6 times that of x (c) Both of the above (d) None of these (7) Consider cardinal measure of utility, increase in consumption will:

(a) Increase marginal utility (b) Will not average utility (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (8) In pure competition (a) Strong rivalries exist (b) Cartels are formed (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (9) National incomes include: (a) Undistributed corporate profits (b) Fringe benefits (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (10) Personal income is obtained by adding which item(s) to national income: (a) Govt. transfer payments (b) Business transfer payments (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (11) Which of the following is a stock variable? (a) Gross private domestic investment (b) Personal savings (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (12) Find out the true statement(s): (a) When aggregate supply exceeds aggregate demand, output rises. (b) If intended investment exceeds savings, output falls (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (13) When un-intended investment is positive: (a) Output tends to rise (b) Output tends to fail (c) Output is in equilibrium (d) None of these (14) With no government and foreign trade sectors, savings always equals: (a) Intended investment (b) Realized investment (c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these (15) If MPC = 2/3, the investment multiplier is: (a) 2/3 (b) 1/3 (c) 3/2 (d) None of these (16) Find out the true statement(s): (a) When consumption function is linear, the mpc=apc (b) The short run consumption function has a steeper slope that that of the LR (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (17) If Union Bank has demand deposits of Rs. 25 million, no time deposits and required reserves of Rs. 7.5 million, the legal reserve requirement ration must be: (a) 3.3 % (b) 33.3 % (c) 40 % (d) None of these (18) Which of the following is likely to be longer for monetary policy that for fiscal policy? (a) The implementation lag (b) The recognition lag (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these (19) The number of income tax payers in Pakistan is: (a) 2 million (b) 0.7 million (c) 1 million (d) None of these (20) The impact and incidence of sales tax is: (a) On the consumer (b) On the seller (c) On the producer (d) None of these

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PAPER 2004 COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) In supply of and demand for a product, an increase in production costs will shift: (a) Demand curve to the left (b) Supply curve to the right (c) Demand curve to the right (d) Supply curve to the left (e) None of these (2) When a demand schedule is drawn up, which of the following is not held constant? (a) Price of Substitutes (b) Price of factors of production (c) Price of Complementary goods (d) The price of the goods (e) None of these (3) The more a person consumes of a thing: (a) The smaller is his total gain (b) The slower is the rate of increase in his total pleasure (c) The higher is the price (d) Consumes the maximum (e) None of these (4) When AC is less than MC: (a) An increase in output would cause AC to rise

(b) Fixed costs must be rising (c) AC to fall (d) Should not produce beyond minimum AC (e) None of these (5) A firm¶s total fixed costs are Rs. 2400. If at a certain output its price per unit is Rs. 20/and average variable cost per unit is Rs. 14/-, the level of output is: (a) 1000 units (b) 800 units (c) 600 units (d) 400 units (e) None of these (6) Which of the following is not a condition of perfect competition? (a) Inelastic Demand curve (b) Single price (c) Uniform product (d) Many buyers (e) None of these (7) Profit maximizing monopolist will produce at the level of output, where: (a) Price is greater than MC (b) AR = MR (c) AR = MC (d) Total cost are minimized (e) None of these (8) A steel firm takes over a Coalmine Company. It is an example of: (a) Holding Company (b) Internal economies of scale (c) Horizontal integrator (d) Vertical integrator (e) None of these (9) Which of the following is not part of aggregate demand? (a) Investment (b) Govt. Spending (c) Net exports (d) Taxes (e) None of these (10) If GNP rises while 3 of the following four remain fixed, which of the four could not have risen? (a) Consumption (b) Taxes

(c) Saving (d) Transfers (e) None of these (11) An increase in the income tax rate causes the full employment budget surplus to: (a) Increase (b) Depends on tax (c) Decrease (d) Depends on propensity (e) None of these (12) The most important factor responsible for growth in GNP has been: (a) Technological change (b) Govt. Spending (c) Capital formation (d) Population growth (e) None of these (13) A businessman expects an internal rate of return of 12% and decides that the investment is attractive. The decision is based on: (a) Accelerator principle (b) Marginal efficiency theory (c) Marginal propensity to invest (d) Multiplier principle (e) None of these (14) Over time increase in interest rate is expected to: (a) Reduce inflation (b) Increase inflation (c) Reduction in GDP (d) Decrease in liquidity (e) None of these (15) Exchange rates are: (a) Only a demand factor (b) A demand & supply factor (c) Only supply factor (d) Neither demand nor supply factor (e) None of these (16) An increase in disposable income (a) Increases economic good (b) Reduces economic good (c) Reduces spending (d) Has no effect on economy

(e) None of these (17) Demand pull inflation is: (a) When aggregate demand is rising (b) When aggregate demand is low (c) When costs are rising (d) When costs are low (e) None of these (18) The foreign debt can be reduced by: (a) Increase in domestic saving (b) Increase in aggregate demand (c) Increase in exchange rate (d) Decrease in wealth (e) None of these (19) Net foreign debt is: (a) The difference between exports and imports (b) Debt less equity (c) Difference between gross borrowing from non residents and lending overseas. (d) Only savings (e) None of these (20) The focus of Monetary policy is a: (a) Price stability (b) External Balance (c) Stimulating growth (d) Current account deficit (e) None of these

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PAPER 2005 COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) Which cause the demand curve for a good to move to the right? (a) A decrease in the cost of production. (b) A fall in the price of the good. (c) An increase in the price of a complimentary good. (d) An increase in the price of a close substitute good. (2) If an economy experiences an increase in productivity, it means that: (a) The level of output has risen (b) Employees are working harder than before (c) Output per unit of input has risen (d) Technical change has taken place (3) The central economic problem in an economy refers to: (a) The prevalence of unemployment (b) To allocate scarce resources between competing uses. (c) Consumers having less money than they would like. (d) Ensures that production costs are covered by sales revenue (4) If the price elasticity for a product is -2, a 10% fall in its price will: (a) Decrease total revenue by 20 % (b) Increase sales volume by 10% (c) Increase sales volume by 20% (d) Increase total revenue by 20 % (5) Average cost curve rises after a certain level of output because of: (a) Diseconomies of scale of production (b) Law of decreasing returns (c) Diminishing marginal utility (d) Rise in price of factor of production (6) Which one of the following will tend to increase the degree of Competition in an industry: (a) Product differentiation

(b) Horizontal integration (c) Economies of scale (d) Low fixed costs (7) A rise in the interest rate can lead to all except which one: (a) Fall in the share prices (b) A rise in investment (c) A rise in exchange rate (d) A shift of income from borrowers to savers (8) If demand is inelastic, which of the following statement is correct? (a) If price of the good rises, the total revenue earned will increase. (b) If price of the good rises, the total revenue earned will fall. (c) If price of the good falls, the total revenue earned will increase. (d) If price of the good falls, the total revenue earned is unaffected. (9) Which would shift the production possibility frontier to the right? (a) A fall in unemployment (b) An increase in exports (c) A rise in total consumer expenditure (d) Technical progress reducing production costs (10) A fiscal expansion is most likely to reduce unemployment when: (a) There is high marginal propensity to consume. (b) There is high marginal propensity to save. (c) Structural unemployment. (d) There is a fixed exchange rate. (11) Economic welfare refers to: (a) An increase in state welfare payment (b) A rising standard of living. (c) Increased employment opportunities. (d) Increase in health and education services (12) In calculating National income, double counting can be avoided by: (a) Deducing taxes and adding subsidies. (b) Deducing imports and adding exports (c) Excluding the value of the output of intermediate goods. (d) Excluding the value of transactions in second hand goods. (13) Government wish to control inflation because it: (a) Tends to reduce government tax revenue (b) Causes money supply to expand (c) Damages international competitiveness (d) Shift income towards holders of financial assets.

(14) If the exchange rate of currency fell, the result would be that export prices: (a) Measured in the domestic currency would fall (b) Measured in the domestic currency would rise (c) Measured in foreign currency would fall (d) Measured in foreign currency would ris (15) Which one of the following is most likely to lead to a fall in the money supply. (a) A fall in the interest rates. (b) Purchase of government securities by the State Bank. (c) Sale of government securities by the State Bank. (d) A rise in the amount of cash held by commercial banks. (16) The real rate of interest is: (a) The rate at which the central bank leads to financial institution. (b) Bank base rate. (c) The difference between the rate of interest and the rate of inflation. (d) The annual percentage rate of interest. (17) Public sector borrowing requirement is best defined as: (a) The borrowing by the general public over the period of a year. (b) To finance the difference between a country¶s exports and imports (c) The amount of taxation and borrowing needed to finance public expenditure. (d) The difference between government expenditure and its revenue from taxation: (18) Multi-national company is best described as one which: (a) Engages extensively in international trade. (b) Sells its output in more than one country (c) Producers goods or services in more than one country. (d) Is owned by share holders in more than one country. (19) Which of the following is not an economic advantage of international trade? (a) It encourages specialization. (b) Consumer choice is widened. (c) Industry secure economics of large scale production (d) Trade surpluses can be used to finance the budget deficit. (20) Which of the following cause most likely a country¶s balance of payments to move towards a deficit? (a) Devalue the country¶s currency. (b) The expansionary fiscal policy. (c) A contractionary fiscal policy. (d) A rise in the rate of domestic saving.

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PAPER 2007 COMPULSORY QUESTION Q. 8 write only the correct answer in the Answer book. Do not reproduce the question. 1) In perfect competition if a firm maximizes profit, then equilibrium: a) MR=MC. b) AR = AC c) MR = AR = PRICE = MC d) ALL of these 2) The production function will be affected by changes in the prices of: a) Inputs b) out puts c) Neither d)all of the above 3) If a firm can fund an investment from its own sources, the opportunity cost of its investment is a) less than Zero b) Zero c) more than zero

d) neither 4) The funds used for further Investment in joint stock company refers to: a) Distributed b) Undistributed c) Remaining d) All of the above 5) The % change in quantity demanded due to % change in income is: a) Price elasticity b) Prices cross elasticity c) Income elasticity d) All of these 6) Indifference curves shows various combinations of: a) One commodity b) Two c) Three d) All of these. 7) equilibrum price is a price at which a) Quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied b) Quantity demanded minus quantity supplied is zero c) Quantity demanded = quantity supplied d) All of these. 8) in oligopoly market seller are : a) Few b) Four c) Some d) A large number 9) monopoly market is characterized by: a) A large number of sellers b) Only one seller c) Thousands of seller d) All of these 10) A demand curve shows the relationship between the quantity demanded for a commodity over a given time and: a) The tastes of consumer. b) The money income of consumer c) The price of related commodities d) The price of the commodity

11) a supply schedule shows the relationship between the quantity supplied of a commodity over a given time and: a) Factor prices b) Technology c) Both (a) and (b) d) The price of the commodity 12) The intersection of market demand and supply curves for a given commodity determines a) The equilibrium price of the commodity b) The equilibrium quantity of the commodity c) The point of neither surplus nor shortage for the commodity d) All of these 13) If the % change in quantity demanded is more than % change in price coefficient of price elasticity is: a) > 1 b) < 1 c) =1 d) =Zero 14) Disposable income is: a) Income less taxes b) Income less Direct taxes c) Income less indirect taxes d) All of these 15) If the coefficient of Price elasticity is less than one: a) It is normal good b) It is inferior good c) It is luxury good d) All of these 16) If the coefficient of income elasticity is negative: a) It is inferior good b) It is normal good c) It is luxury good d) All of these 17) If in a market the seller is charging different prices for the same commodity from different consumers, it is known as: a) Price discrimination b) Efficient selling c) Profit maxi-mizer in Monopoly d) All of these

18) The locus of equilibrium of consumers due to changes in price of a commodity is known as: a) Price consumption curve b) Income consumption curve c) Production possibility curve d) none of these 19) a pure number by which change in investment is multiplied to change in income is called: a) Multiplier b) Accelerator c) Stabilizer d) All of these 20) There is positive relationship between multiplier and: a) Marginal propensity to consume b) Marginal propensity to save c) Marginal efficiency of capital d) All of these.

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PAPER 2008

Part I (MCQs) Question No.1 Select the best option /answer and fill in the appropriate box on the answer sheet. 1. in the theory of the firm, profit maximization is always synonymous with: (a) profitability (b) economic profit making (c) maximization of the sales revenue (d) both (a) and (c) (e) none of these 2. the law of demand is valid when price elasticity of demand is: (a) inelastic (b) perfectly elastic (c) unitary elastic (d) both (a) and (c) (e) none of these 3. at the breakeven point a producer covering entire opportunity cost of production happens to produce under a market structure characterized as: (a) perfectly competitive (b) monopoly (c) oligopoly (d) monopolistic competition (e) all of these 4. in the short run, the decreasing returns to scale are caused by the existence of: (a) internal diseconomies (b) external economies (c) technical inefficiency (d) allocative inefficiency (e) both (b) and (d) 5. the left hand side variable of the saving function is always: (a) endogenous (b) exogenous (c) insignificant (d) significant (e) both (b) and (d) 6. the macro management model of the classical function economist assigns the supreme role to the: (a) fiscal policy (b) monetary policy (c) commercial policy

(d) market (e) both (b) and (c) 7. while determining the national income equilibrium of an open economy, exports are considered to be: (a) exogenous (b) endogenous (c) autonomous (d) both (a) and (c) (e) both (b) and (c) 8. counterpart of the intercept of consumption function is the intercept of: (a) import function (b) exports (c) saving function (d) X-M (e) None of these 9. price stability in an economy is indicative of: (a) presence of sound money (b) rising output (c) rising employment (d) both (a) and (c) (e) none of these 10. the Central Bank of a country plays a significant role in her macroeconomics performance by regulating the: (a) money supply (b) supply credit (c) interest rate (d) money market (e) all of these 11. the relationship depicted by the Phillips curve is not valid if the change in general price level is : (a) positively related with output (b) negatively related with output (c) positively related with employment (d) negatively related with employment (e) all of these 12. with each successive stage of its operation, the marginal cost of a firm in the banking sector: (a) increase (b) decrease

(c) remains constant (d) remains unpredictable (e) none of these 13. the theory of comparative advantage from international trade considers the difference between the trading countries¶ factor prices arising from the different in: (a) factor productivity (b) factor intensity (c) factor availability (d) both (a) and (c) (e) all of these 14. Marshell-lerner condition for stability of a foreign exchange market enquires that the sum total of the elasticity of demand for exports and demand for imports is: (a) cross elasticity of demand (b) income elasticity of demand (c) price elasticity of demand (d) both (b) and (c) (e) none of these 15. expenditure switching policies for adjusting the balance of disequilibrium include: (a) commercial policy (b) fiscal policy (c) monetary policy (d) both (b) and (c) (e) all of these 16. deadweight loss of a trade tariff is higher if the demand and supply functions of importable are: (a) inelastic (b) elastic (c) completely inelastic (d) both (a) and (c) (e) none of these 17. An increasingly higher marginal income tax is: (a) progressive (b) regressive (c) proportional (d) both (b) and (c) (e) none of these 18.the reallocative role of public economies indicates the existence of: (a) Production externalities (b) Inefficiency in resource utilization

(c) Consumption externalities (d) Both (a) and (c) (e) None of these 19.a price control interferes with the market by: (a) causing market imperfection (b) disallowing the market to work (c) introducing price floor or ceiling (d) both (b) and (c) (e) all of these 20. in the presence of elastic supply and demand conditions, sales tax on a product interferes with the market by causing: (a) welfare loss (b) efficiency loss (c) deadweight loss (d) both (a) and (b) (e) all of these

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PAPER 2009 COMPULSORY Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet.

(20) (i) Modern microeconomics theory generally regards utility as: (a) cardinal (b) ordinal (c) independent (d) Republican (ii) A basic assumption of the theory of consumption choice is that: (a) the consumer tries to get on the highest indifference curve (b) the consumer tries to get the most of good Y (c) the budget line is concave (d) none of these (iii) The substitution effect must always be: (a) positive (b) negative (c) zero (d) bigger than the income effect (iv) The income effect: (a) must always be negative (b) must always be positive (c) can be negative or positive (d) must be smaller than substitution effect (v) Normal goods experience an increase in consumption when: (a) real income increase (b) real income falls (c) price rises (d) tastes change (vi) The demand for a good is price inelastic if: (a) the price elasticity is one (b) the price elasticity is less than one (c) the price elasticity is greater than one (d) all of these (vii) A demand curve with unitary elasticity at all points is: (a) a straight line (b) a parabola (c) a hyperbola (d) all of these (viii) The marginal product equals the average product when the latter is:

(a) ½ of its maximum value (b) ¼ of its maximum value (c) equals to its maximum value (d) equals to its minimum value (ix) A firm¶s aspiration level is: (a) its profits last year (b) the boundary between ³satisfactory´ and ³unsatisfactory´ outcomes. (c) its highest previous profit level (d) none of these (x) The firm¶s cost functions are determined by: (a) the price of its product (b) its assets (c) its production function (d) the age of the firm (xi) The following industry often is a natural monopoly: (a) cigarette industry (b) publishing industry (c) drug industry (d) electric power industry (xii) Recognizing that the assumptions of perfect competition never hold at all precisely, the perfectly competitive model is: (a) interesting mainly for academic studies (b) outmoded and seldom used even by academic economists (c) of considerable use to industrial economists, as well as academic economists (d) all of these (xiii) Under perfect competition, rivalry is: (a) impersonal (b) very personal and direct, advertising being important (c) nonexistent since the firms cooperate (d) all of these (xiv) If average total cost is less than marginal cost at its profit-maximizing output, a perfectly competitive firm: (a) will make positive profit (b) will operate at a point to the right of the minimum point on the average total cost curve (c) will not discontinue production (d) all of these (xv) Monopolies arise as a consequence of: (a) patents

(b) control over the supply of a basic input (c) franchise (d) all of these (xvi) A monopolistic firm will expand its output when: (a) marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (b) marginal cost exceeds marginal revenue (c) marginal cost equals marginal revenue (d) marginal revenue is negative (xvii) A monopolist will never produce at a point where: (a) demand is price-inelastic (b) demand is price-elastic (c) marginal cost is positive (d) marginal cost is increasing (xviii) When demand is elastic: (a) a fall in price is more than offset by an increase in quantity demanded, so that total revenue rises. (b) the good is probably a necessity, so price has little effect on quantity demanded (c) a rise in price will increase total revenue, even though less is sold. (d) buyers are not much influenced by prices of competing proceduts (xix) If the price elasticity of demand for product is 0.5, this means that: (a) a 1 percent change in price will change quantity demanded by 50% (b) a 1 percent increase in quantity demanded is associated with a 0.5 percent fall in price (c) a 1 percent increase in price is associated with 0.5% fall in quantity demanded (d) a 1 percent increase in price will cause a 0.5% increase in quantity demanded. (xx) Price elasticity of demand for a commodity tends to be greater: (a) the more of a necessity it is (b) the more substitutes there are for it (c) over shorter time periods (d) the lower the price.

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PAPER 2010 (COMPULSORY) Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20) (i) Demand curve in case of Giffen good is: (a) Negatively sloped (b) Vertical (c) Positively sloped (d) None of these (ii) Price consumption curve in case of complementary goods is: (a) Downward sloping (b) Vertical (c) Upward sloping (d) None of these (iii) In case of two goods, following utility approach, a consumer is in equilibrium when: (a) MUx/Px = MUy/Py (b) MUx/Px < MUy/Py (c) MUx/Mx > MUy/Py (d) Both (b) and (c) (iv) In short run: (a) Labour is variable (b) Both labour and capital are variable (c) Both labour and capital fixed (d) None of these

(v) When MC is equal to AC, the AC: (a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains constant (d) None of these (vi) Normal profit, excess profit and loss of the firm depends on level of: (a) Average costs in short run (b) Total costs in short run (c) Marginal costs in short run (d) All of these (vii) In case of perfect competition, the sellers are: (a) Two (b) A few (c) Very large (d) None of these (viii) The firm is in equilibrium when: (a) Slope of TC = Slope of TR (b) Slope of TC is less than slope of TR (c) Slope of TC is more than slope of TR (d) None of these (ix) The Marginal Revenue Product of labour MRPL is: (a) MR x MP (b) MR / MP (c) MR ± MP (d) Both (b) and (c) (x) In case of imperfect competition the MRPL is the: (a) Supply of labour curve (b) Demand for labour curve (c) Both of these (d) None of these (xi) Per Capita Income is calculated as: (a) N.I+Population (b) N.*Population (c) N.I/Population (d) Both (a) and (c) (xii) Gross Domestic Product equals: (a) GNP ± NFI (b) GNP + NFI

(c) GNP ± indirect taxes (d) Both (a) and (c) (xiii) The deposit multiplier is always: (a) Greater than one (b) Less than one (c) Equal to one (d) None of these (xiv) Money can be a standard of deferred payments only if the value of money itself: (a) Remains stable (b) increases (c) Decreases (d) None of these (xv) The fiscal policy with a deliberate policy action is: (a) Expansionary fiscal policy (b) Concretionary fiscal policy (c) Discretionary fiscal policy (d) All of these (xvi) Trade based on absolute advantage was presented by: (a) Alfred Marshall (b) Adam Smith (c) Lionel Robbins (d) None of these (xvii) According to Keynes, the relationship between money supply and rate of interest is: (a) Negative (b) Positive (c) Indirect (d) None of these (xviii) An object that is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services is called: (a) Standardized money (b) Medium of exchange (c) Unit of account (d) All of these (xix) The account in balance of payment that consists of all transactions in financial assets is known as: (a) Capital account (b) Current account (c) Official Reserve account (d) None of these

(xx) The difference between exports and imports of visible items of a country is called: (a) Budget surplus (b) Balanced budget (c) Balance of trade (d) Both (a) and (c)

Islamic question
1. select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the answer sheet.(20) 1.The Holy Quran was first compiled during the caliphate of Hazrat---------: a)Muhammad (PBUH) b)Abu Bakar Siddique(R.A) c) Uthman (R.A) d)none of these 2. Hazrat Umer was Caliph for---------------: a) 2 years b) 4 years c) 10 years d) none of these 3.The orthodox caliphate lasted for---------- : a) 26 years b) 29 years c) 32 years d)none of these 4.Hazrat Ali was martyred in the year---------: a) 650 AD b) 656 AD c) 661 AD d)none of these

5.The Umayyad Dynasty was put to an end in the year----------: a)660 AD b)750 AD c)770 AD d)None of these 6.The Abbasid Dynasty ruled for just over---------: a)five centuries b)two centuries c)three centuries d)none of these 7.The Islamic calendar(hijra) started in the year-----------: a)622 AD b)620 AD c)621 AD d)none of these 8.The famous Al-Muwatta was written by: a)Imam Malik b)Imam Abu Hanifa c)Imam Muslim d)Imam Hanbal 9.The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) migrated to Madina in-------------: a) 615 AD b) 622 AD c) 625 AD d)none of these 10.The last Umayyad ruler at Damascus was--------: a)Marwan II b)Abdul Aziz c) Abdul Rahman d) none of these

11.The founder of Umayyad Dynasty was---------:

a)Yazid b)Abd al Malik c)Muawiyah I d) none of these 12.Baybars, the Mamluke Sultan of Egypt, took----------to install him as Abbasid caliph in Cairo on the year 1261 AD: a) Al-Mustansir b) Al-Hakim c) Al-Mustakfi-I d)None of these 13.The founder of Umayyad Dynasty in Spain was-------: a)Khalid bin Walid b)Moosa bin Nysair c)Abdur Rahman I d)None of these 14.The Ottoman Sultan Salim took------from cairo to Istanbul to install him as Caliph: a) Al-Mutawakkil III b) Al-Qa¶im c) Al-Mustamsik d)None of these 15. Under which Caliph, Sindh was invaded by Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 AD? a) Muawiyah b) Al-Walid I c) Abdul Malik d)None of these 16.When did the Ottomans cross into Europe: a) 1357 AD b) 1520 AD c) 1550 AD d)None of these 17.When was Hungary brought under Ottoman rule? a) 1521 AD b) 1526 AD

c) 1530 AD d)None of these 18.Kamal Attaturk ended the Ottoman Caliphate and deposed Abdul Majid II in----a) 1920 b) 1922 c) 1924 d)none of these 19. Which Ottoman Ruler took the Abbasid Caliphate to Istanbul? a) Sulaiman I b) Salim I c) Al-Mustansar d)None of these 20. The Ottoman Empire lasted for over---------a) Five Centuries b) Six Centuries c) Seven Centuries d)None of these

Q.2. The Holy Prophet peace and blessing be upon him, gave a charter for the welfare of humanity, discuss the salient feature of that charter. Q.3. The Holy Quran and Sunnah set forth the path for believers in the quest of knowledge .Discuss the examples. Q.4. Give an account on the expansion of the Islamic state during the period of Orthodox Caliphs. Q.5. Write short notes on ANY TWO on the following: 1) Ashra Mubashra 2) Khulfa-i-Rashedin 3) Al-Muwatta 4) Ibn-Khaldun 5) Damascus Mosque 6) Dome of the Rock select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the answer sheet.(20)

1.Spain was invaded in 711 AD by ---------: a) Tariq bin Ziyad b) Abd al Rahman I c) Khalid bin Walid d)none of these 2. The al-Qairawan in North Africa was founded in 670 AD by---------------: a) Musa bin Nusayr b) Suleman I c) Uqbah d) none of these 3.The conquests of Hujjaj in the East matched the Western conquests by ---------- : a Musa bin Nusayr b) Tariq bin Ziyad c) al-Mutawakkil d)none of these 4.Abdul Aziz married Egilona, the widow of king Roderick, and named her ---------: a) Umm-Asim b) Umm-Kulsum c) Umm-Hani d)none of these 5.The Umayyad Dynasty was put to an end in the year----------: a)661 AD b)750 AD c)770 AD d)None of these 6.The Abbasid Dynasty ruled for just over---------: a) two centuries b) three centuries c) five centuries d)none of these 7.Baghdad was put on fire in 1258 AD by ----------a) The Umayyads b) The Mongols c) The Ottomans

d)none of these 8.Musa bin Nusayr was the Governor of--------a) Egypt b) Spain c) North Africa d) none of these 9.The fugitive Umayyad prince reached Spain in the year -------------: a) 755 AD b) 750 AD c) 760 AD d)none of these 10.The last Umayyad ruler in 750 AD was--------: a) Hisham b) Marwan II c) Yazid III d) none of these

11.The name of the French King who attacked Spain in 777 AD was ---------: a) Roderick b) Charlemagne c) Alfonso d) none of these 12.Ibn Khuldun is generally known as a------a) Mathematician b) Astronomer c) Historian d) None of these 13.The real founder of Umayyad Dynasty in Spain was-------: a) Tariq bin Ziyad b) Moosa bin Nysair c) Abdur Rahman I d) None of these 14.The Arabs invaded Spain in the year-------

a) 711 AD b) 750 AD c) 756 AD d) None of these 15.Which Caliph recalled Musa bin Nusayr to Damascus-------? a) al Walid-I b) Abdul Aziz c) Abdul Malik d)None of these 16. Who punished Musa bin Nusayr for invading Spain---------? a) Sulaiman b) Abdul Aziz c) Amr Thaqafi d)None of these 17.After ruling over Spain for one year who refused to give turn to the Yamanites? a) Abdur Rahman-II b) al-Hakam c) Abdur Rahman al-Fehri d) None of these 18.The new capital established by Abbasid in 835 AD is called ----a) al-Mansurah b) Samarra c) Kufa/Basra d) none of these 19. Abdur Rahman-II of Spain went out to receive a minstrel called-------a) Khalid b) Ziryab c) Walid d) None of these 20.Cordova and Baghdad served to the West as main centres for-----------a) Rivalry b) Treasures

c) Learning d) None of these7) Samarra .The Holy Quran was first compiled during the caliphate of Hazrat---------: a)Muhammad (PBUH) b)Abu Bakar Siddique(R.A) c) Uthman (R.A) d)none of these 2. Hazrat Umer was Caliph for---------------: a) 2 years b) 4 years c) 10 years d) none of these 3.The orthodox caliphate lasted for---------- : a) 26 years b) 29 years c) 32 years d)none of these 4.Hazrat Ali was martyred in the year---------: a) 650 AD b) 656 AD c) 661 AD d)none of these 5.The Umayyad Dynasty was put to an end in the year----------: a)660 AD b)750 AD c)770 AD d)None of these 6.The Abbasid Dynasty ruled for just over---------: a)five centuries b)two centuries c)three centuries d)none of these 7.The Islamic calendar(hijra) started in the year-----------:

a)622 AD b)620 AD c)621 AD d)none of these 8.The famous Al-Muwatta was written by: a)Imam Malik b)Imam Abu Hanifa c)Imam Muslim d)Imam Hanbal 9.The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) migrated to Madina in-------------: a) 615 AD b) 622 AD c) 625 AD d)none of these 10.The last Umayyad ruler at Damascus was--------: a)Marwan II b)Abdul Aziz c) Abdul Rahman d) none of these

11.The founder of Umayyad Dynasty was---------: a)Yazid b)Abd al Malik c)Muawiyah I d) none of these 12.Baybars, the Mamluke Sultan of Egypt, took----------to install him as Abbasid caliph in Cairo on the year 1261 AD: a) Al-Mustansir b) Al-Hakim c) Al-Mustakfi-I d)None of these 13.The founder of Umayyad Dynasty in Spain was-------: a)Khalid bin Walid b)Moosa bin Nysair

c)Abdur Rahman I d)None of these 14.The Ottoman Sultan Salim took------from cairo to Istanbul to install him as Caliph: a) Al-Mutawakkil III b) Al-Qa¶im c) Al-Mustamsik d)None of these 15. Under which Caliph, Sindh was invaded by Muhammad bin Qasim in 711 AD? a) Muawiyah b) Al-Walid Ic) Abdul Malik d)None of these 16.When did the Ottomans cross into Europe: a) 1357 AD b) 1520 AD c) 1550 AD d)None of these 17.When was Hungary brought under Ottoman rule? a) 1521 AD b) 1526 AD c) 1530 AD d)None of these 18.Kamal Attaturk ended the Ottoman Caliphate and deposed Abdul Majid II in----a) 1920 b) 1922 c) 1924 d)none of these

19. Which Ottoman Ruler took the Abbasid Caliphate to Istanbul? a) Sulaiman I b) Salim I c) Al-Mustansar d)None of these

20. The Ottoman Empire lasted for over---------a) Five Centuries b) Six Centuries c) Seven Centuries d)None of these

Balochistan Public Service Commission Samungli Road Quetta Cantt. COMPETATIVE EXAMINATION FOR THE POST(s) OF BCS(EB) OFFICER B-17 GENERAL KNOWLEDGE INCLUDING EVERYDAY SCIENCE Marks: 100 Saturday, February 26,2007(0230 PM) Time: 3 Hours ************************************************** ******** Q-1. Write Essays on any Two of the following: (20) (i) Has the Fledgling Democracy in Iraq any future? (ii) Recommendations of the National Judicial Conference. (iii) Will independent Kashmir be financially insolvent?

(iv) Composite Examinations: a Needless Controversy: (v) Science and Religion: Can the be Reconciled: (vi) The bane of V.I.P.Movements. Q-2. (a) What do you understand by the following terms? Attempt any Ten: (10) (1) Hippocratic Oath (2) Bears and Bulls (3) Olive Branch (4) Sheet anchor (5) Jargon (6) Euphemism (7) Hostile Witness (8) Sabbath (9) Humanism (10) Emeritus Professor (11) In Camera (12) Slapstick (13) Uncle Sam (14) Polytheism (15) Platonic love (b) Explain any Ten of the following foreign expressions: (10) (1) Persona grata (2) Bears and Bulls (3) Olive Branch (4) fait accompli (5) Détente (6) Carte blanche (7)Alter ego (8) Alibi (9) Ad hoc (10) A la mode (11) Ex parte (12) Rendezvous (13) Laissez faire (14) A priori (15) Corrigendum Q-3. Answer any Ten of the following questions: (20) (i) Where do icebergs come from? (ii) Why is smoking bad for health? (iii) How can gliders fly without engines? (iv) What is four-wheel drive car? (v) How does a Fax Machine works? (vi) What stainless steel? (vii) What is meant by a balanced diet? (viii) What is frost? Why is there frost more often on a clear night than on a cloudy one? (ix) What is a Piston? (x) What is G.M.T? (xi) What is a Morse Code? (xii) How does a suspension bridge work? (xiii) What is Endoscopy? (xiv) How do vaccination work? (xv) What is Anesthesia? Q-4. Why are the following in news? Attempt any Ten: (20) (1) Mauritania (2) T.G.V (3) Beijing (4) Catania (5) A-380 (6) Mecca (7) Jerusalem (8) W.E.F (9) New Delhi (10) Chad (11) I.A.E.A (12) Mogadishu (13) Amilia (14) T.D.A.P (15) Nigeria Q-5. Identify any Ten of the following: (20) (1) Rafiq Hariri (2) Zinedine Zidane (3) Sherlock Holmes (4) Aung San Suu Kyi (5) Homer (6) Archbishop Desmond Tutu (7) Roosevelt F.D. (8) Archimedes (9) Habib Bourquiba (10) Pathet Lao (11) Dolly (12) Dr. Muhammad Yunus (13) Walt Disney (14) Christian Barnard (15) Pythagoras Good Luck

1. Write an essay on any TWO of the following: i. 2006 ± the year of U-Turns. ii. Pak-Afghan Relations. iii. Woes of Privatization. iv. A solution to energy crisis ± Renewable energy. v. Your plan for fair Elections in 2007. vi. Findings of the Iraq Study Group. Q-2. Identify any Ten of the following: i. Faud Siniona ii. Andrew Flintoff iii. Amr Moussa iv. Augusto Pinochet v. nancy Pelosi vi. Raul Castro vii. Joseph Barbera viii. Munir Niazi ix.Alexandar Litvinenko x. Thaksin Shinawatra xi. Orhan Pamuk xii. Ho Chi Minh xiii. Shane Warne xiv. Sir Henry Mortimer Durand Q-3. Why are the following in the news these days? Attempt any Ten: i. Ashes Whitewash ii. Sharm el-Sheikh iii. Somalia iv. Manama v. Sir Creek vi. Katmandu vii. L.T.T.E viii. Bangla Desh ix. Pyong yong x. S.E.C.P xi. Qatar xii. Guawahati xiii. Ram Allah xiv. O.P.E.C xv. Bundal and Buddo Island Q-4. (a). What do you understand by the following terms? Attempt any Ten: i. Decathlon ii. Paralympics iii. Satire iv. Catharsis v. Banana Republic

vi. Multilateral vii. Fascist viii. Hegemony ix. Non-entity x. Apex xi. Dilemma xii. Horrendous xiii. Collateral xiv. Equity xv. Demography (b). Use Ten of the following words in your sentences: i. Protocol ii. Autonomy iii. Chauvinism iv. Stigma v. Anarchistic vi. Signatory vii. Secede viii. Junta ix. Autocracy x. Impasse xi. Suo moto xii. Kowtow xiii. Deadlock xiv. Mandatory xv. Scenario Q-5. Answer any Ten of the following questions: i. What is Tsunami? ii. When was Braille developed? iii. Why do we have leap years? iv. How does a camera work? v. What are fossil fuels? vi. What causes the seasons? vii. How does photosynthesis work? viii. What do the letters P.V.C stand for? ix. What is Tundra? x. What is D.N.A.? xi. What is an optical fiber? xii. What is glass made of? xiii. What is the Big Bang theory? xiv. How does a fuse work? xv. Who was the first man on the moon and when?

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Q-1. Write notes on any TWO of the following topics: y y y y y y y i. Geneva Convention. ii. Gawadar Sea Port. iii. Mechanization of Agriculture. iv. T.V. advertisements ± their uses and abuses. v. ³Foreign Aid´ ± A blessing or Curse. vi. How to solve the problem of unemployment. vii. Role of Press in Development.

Q-2. Write brief notes on Geographical, Historical, Economic and Strategic Importance of any FIVE of the following: y y y y y y y y i. Suez Canal ii. Guantanamo Bay iii. Hormuz iv. Panama Canal v. English Channel Tunnel vi. Dardanelle¶s Strait vii. Gibraltar viii. Gulf of Aden

Q-3. What do the following terms mean? Attempt any TEN: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y i. Alma mater ii. Hat Trick iii. Inflation iv. Veto v. Knock Out vi. Catharsis vii. Sine die viii. Plaintiff ix. Extradition x. Quorum xi. Embargo xii. Preamble xiii. Renaissance xiv. Barter xv. Premium

Q-4. What do these abbreviations stand for and why are they in the News these days? Attempt any TEN. y y y y y y i. N.E.P.R.A. ii. S.A.R.S. iii. N.R.B. iv. K.C.C.I. v. P.E.M.R.A. vi. L.T.T.E.

y y y y y y y y y

vii. U.N.D.P. viii. I.C.R.C. ix. P.C.S.I.R. x. S.A.A.R.C. xi. I.A.E.A. xii. E.E.C. xiii. L.F.O. xiv. A.I.D.A. xv. U.N.I.C.E.F.

Q-5. Answer any FIFTEEN of the following questions: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y i. How are Pulleys useful? ii. What is Conductor? Give some examples. iii. What is a Glacier? iv. How are Clouds formed? v. What is meant by precipitation? vi. Which was the first manned Space Flight? vii. What are Satellites used for today? viii. How are Tides caused? How often do they occur? ix. What is the surface temperature of the Sun? x. What do some objects float while other do not? xi. Does an Earthworm breathe? If yes, in what way? xii. What does Sterilization mean? xiii. Why does the body need carbohydrates? xiv. Where is Saliva produced? xv. What part of the heart sends blood to the lungs? xvi. What is the difference between Astronomy and Astrology? xvii. Horticulture is a branch of. «««Which studies«««. xviii. What is fog? xix. What is Hibernation? xx. A man was born on December 20, yet his birthday is always in the summer. How is this possible?

Good Luck

. Write an Essay on any TWO of the following: y y y y y y i. Sweets are uses of Adversity. ii. Optimism in Life and Literature. iii. Dignity of Labour. iv. The Fairy Tales of Science. v. They never fail who fail in a great cause. vi. Knowledge is Power.

y y

vii. World Peace and how to achieve it? viii. A Career of my Choice.

Q-2. (a) Suggest One-Word substitution for the following: y y y y y i. One who is easily made angry. ii. More like a woman than man. iii. A remedy of all diseases. iv. My brother is a person who knows many languages. v. Medicine given to counter poison.

(b). Write Verbs ending in ±ISE ± IZE: y y y y y i. to banish from society«««. ii. To make up on the spur of the moment««« iii. To make two or more things occur at the same time««« iv. To have sole control of«««.. v. To drive out an evil spirit«««..

Q-3. What do you understand by the following terms? Do any TEN: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y i. Abdication ii. Coalition iii. Asylum iv. Free Port v. Casting Vote vi. Pan-Islamism vii. Veto viii. Blank Verse ix. Protocol x. Agenda xi. White Man¶s burden xii. Balance of Trade xiii. Demurrage xiv. Indemnity

Q-4. (a) Mention the Capital and Currency of the following: y y y y y y y y y y i. Saudi Arabia ii. Jordan iii. Canada iv. China v. Syria vi. Egypt vii. Belgium viii. Britain ix. Argentina x. Germany

(b) Distinguish the following words by using them in sentences: y y y y y i. Statute ± Statue ii. Righteous ± Rightful iii. Verbose ± Verbal iv. Virtual ± Virtuous v. Proscribe ± Prescribe

Q-5. Answer any TEN of the following: y y y y y y y y y y y y y y i. Why do you run when you take a long jump? ii. What colours go to form a rainbow? iii. How does a ship float? iv. Why is it that cloudy nights are usually warmer than clear ones? v. Why should ice be kept in a blanket? vi. Why do we feel warm in woolen cloths? vii. Why is one¶s breath ³visible´ in cold but not in hot weather? viii. Why does a fountain throw its water up? ix. Why does a bad egg float in water? Where as a good one sinks? x. Why does smoke rise in the air? xi. How can you test the freshness of an egg? xii. Why ice floats on water? xiii. What are the components of our atmosphere? xiv. What do you understand by short-circuiting?

Good Luck

-1. Write an essay on any Two of the following: 30 (i) The causes of the failure of Democracy in pakistan. (ii) one thorn of experience is worth a whole wilderness of learning. (iii) you can not eat your cake and have your cake. (iv) To thine own self be true. (v) one man's meat is another man's poison. (vi) To hope till hope creats from its own wreck the thing it contemplates. (vii) if you have to choose between exercise and sense of humour as a panacea for long life, which would you choose. (viii) Truth is stronger than fiction, Q-2. a) complete each of the following sentences with a word begining with theprefix"in" 10

(i) The flood that is tasteless and wanting in flavour is________. (ii) A person who can not be wounded or hurt is________ (iii) Aplant that is harmless and not polsonous is_______ (iv) A man unable to pay his debts is___________ (v) An event that is sure to happen is____________ b) Find verb ending in ate 10 (i) To tear up by the roots. (ii) to spring from seeds. (iii) to sleep through the winter. (iv) to surrender espacially on terms. Q-3. What do you understand by the following terms? Attempt any ten. 10 (i) blue book (ii) white paper (iii) free verse (iv) philology (v) buffer state (vi) Asylum (vii) Isobel (viii) Geysers (ix) Perjury (x) learning tower (xi) Eurodollar (xii) sedation (xiii) Hot line (xiv) contempt of court (xv) Inquest Q-4. (a) Mention the capitals and currency of the following. 10 (i) Afghanistan (ii) Bangladesh (iii) india (iv) Japan (v) Saudi Arabia (vi) malaysia (vii) Nepal (viii) Philpines (ix) Turkey (x) Burma (b) Distinguish the following words by using them in sentences. 10 (i) clear, manifest, plaint (ii) Apology, Excuse, defence (iii) cautious, prudent, careful (iv) contented, satisfied, gratified (v) Dangerous, perilous, Risky. Q-5. Answer any ten of the following questions. 20 (i) Name the largest island in the world? (ii) The tail of a commet gets shorter as it recedes from the sun? (iii) why does a motor car needs a radiater? (iv) under what conditions do a feather and lump of lead fall at the same rate? (v) what causes an object to look black? (vi) why does a ship rise as it enters the sea from a river? (vii) why a convex mirror is used by the motorists to see the road behind them? (viii) why are lightning conductors affixed to tall buildings? (ix) why should a clinical thermometer not be dropped in the boiling water? (x) how does a rainbow form?

(xi) How does the thermos keep the liquid hot for a long time? (xii) why does an iron nail gain weight by rusting? (xiii) what would happen if the force of gravity were to disappear suddenly? (xiv) why are tallest structures in a locality most likely to be struck by lightning?

-I. Write note on any Two of the following: (20)

1. Gaza Truce
2. 3. 4. 5. Energy Crunch- It solution Global Financial Crisis Is American hegemony on the decline? Politics- ³a rough and tumble business´.

Q-II. Answer any Ten of the following questions: (20)

1. What causes earthquakes?
2. What is galaxy? 3. Where is the deepest ocean and how deep? 4. What is tornado? 5. Where are the World¶s Rains Forests? 6. What is an anemometer? 7. How does photosynthesis work? 8. What is paleontology? 9. What are scavengers? 10. What is a barograph? 11. Which are the smallest plants? 12. How far away is the Sun from the Earth? 13. How many vertebrae does a giraffe have? 14. How much of the Earth¶s surface is covered by Sea? 15. What was the first living creature to travel in space?

Q-III. Write meaning of any Ten of the following Terms: (10)

1. Lithography
2. Macroeconomics 3. Iron Curtain 4. Silt 5. Mafia 6. Malnutrition 7. Bigotry 8. Chauvinism 9. Mantra 10. Lay-offs 11. Lobbying 12. Nemesis 13. Somnambulism

14. Spoonerism 15. Sky-Scraper

Q-IV. Identify any Ten of the following: (10)

1. Dr. R.K. Pachauri
2. Lloyd¶s of London 3. Shpinx 4. John Atta-Mills 5. Martin Luther Kings 6. Sorbonne 7. Velupillai Prabhakaran 8. Samuel P. Huntington 9. Laurel and Hardy 10. Machiavelli 11. Socrates 12. Siamese Twins 13. Leonardo da Vinci 14. D.H. Lawrence

Q-V. Why are the following in the news? Attempt any Ten: (10)

1. Slum dog Millionaire
2. Kilimochchi 3. Antarctica 4. Bangkok 5. Ukraine 6. Dhaka 7. Vienna 8. Brussels 9. Asma Jehangir 10. Darfur 11. Harare 12. Beijing 13. Hudson River 14. I.P.P 15. Taipei

Q-VI. The following foreign phrases are used in English. What do they mean? Any Ten: (10)

1. Coterie
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Bonanza Amicus Curiae Sub Poena Soiree Resume Protégé Matador

9. Portmanteau 10. Laissez Faire 11. Quorum 12. Langua Franca 13. Rapprochement 14. Non de plume 15. Prima facie

Q-VII. What do these abbreviations stand for? What are their functions, if any? Any Ten: (10)

1. A.B.A.D
2. S.I.T.E 3. I.C.M.A.P 4. I.P.C.C 5. N.C.H.R 6. A.W.A.C.S 7. A.I.D.S 8. T.G.V 9. P.A.S.S.C.O 10. LL.B 11. A.D.C 12. F.I.F.A 13. C.E.R.N 14. A.F.P 15. P.S.D.P

Q-VIII. Write brief notes on geographical, historical, economic and strategic importance of any Five of the following: (10)

1. Strait of Hormuz
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Yellow River Bosporus Black Sea Dead Sea Gulf of Aqaba Strait of Malacca Kara Koram Range

Q-1. Write notes on any two of the following: (16) i. Reduction of subsidies for stabilization of economy ± its affects. ii. The role of UNO under the shade of the Super Powers iii. The Spoil System and the Good Governance iv. Policy option for withdrawal of America from Afghanistan v. The deteriorating standards of Education in Balochistan.

Q-2. Differentiate between any six of the following. (12)

a. Centriole and Centrosome b. Smog and Smoke c. Isotopes and Isobars d. Autopsy and Biopsy e. Pisciculture and Sericulture f. Epidemic and Endemic g. Cohesion and Adhesion h. Stress and strain in the context of elasticity i. Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn

Q-3. Explain any ten of the following: (15)

a. Cosmic Rays b. Thermal Vents c. Entropy d. Elastic Limit e. Solar Constant f. Ozone Hole g. Escape Velocity h. Acid Rain i. Rocky Planets j. Solfataras k. Radioactive dating l. Genetic Counseling m. Renewable Sources of Energy n. Mass ± Energy Equivalence Formula

Q-4. Answer any ten of the following: 15

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

How does juice rise in a pipe? Why distance objects look smaller? Why motorists use convex mirror? What is the function of radiator in a car? How can bats fly in dark? Why milk is called a complete diet? What is the role of fat in an animal? How does a Jeweller¶s cut diamond sparkle? What are conducting tissues in plants?

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

What sort of mirror is used in search lights? How does water get cooled in an earthen ware? Why is there a constriction in a clinical thermometer? Why places on sea shore are cooler in summer but warm in winter? Why is Nichrome used in heaters, irons and radiators? Name one unicellular animal and plant each.

Q-5. Identify any ten of the following. (15)

a. Sir Robert Francis Moody b. Sir Ambrose Dandas Flux c. General Sir Frank Messerry d. Allan Octavian Hume e. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas f. Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi g. Recep Tayyip Erdogan h. Mikhail Gorbachev i. Ban Ki Moon j. Rabindranath Tagore k. Abdul Sattar Edhi l. Ardeshir Cowas Jee m. Sir Chandra Sekhara Raman n. Dr. Ahmad Mohammad Ali Al-Madni o. Al-Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah

Q-6. What do these abbreviations stand for (any ten): (10)

a. WUKO d. WADA c. FIFA d. ABC e. JCSC f. IRBM g. FOFA h. ZETA i. XGS j. WWW k. WIPO l. UPI m. UNITAR n. TCP o. SONAR

Q-7. Discuss the general performance of the Football Teams in the 2010 FIFA, specially, in the couple of Semi Finals and Final. Who was the best scorer on the whole and who scored in the Semi Finals and Final?

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