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PRF Spitler Fisher 99

PRF Spitler Fisher 99

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ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 491

ABSTRACT
Harris and McQuiston (1988) developed conduction
transfer function (CTF) coefficients corresponding to 41 repre-
sentative wall assemblies and 42 representative roof assem-
blies for use with the transfer function method (TFM). They
also developed a grouping procedure that allows design engi-
neers to determine the correct representative wall or roof
assembly that most closely matches a specific wall or roof
assembly. The CTF coefficients and the grouping procedure
have been summarized in the ASHRAE Handbook —Funda-
mentals (1989, 1993, 1997) and the ASHRAE Cooling and
Heating Load Calculation Manual, second edition (McQuis-
ton and Spitler 1992).
More recently, a new, simplified design cooling load
calculation procedure, the radiant time series method (RTSM),
has been developed (Spitler et al. 1997). The RTSM uses peri-
odic response factors to model transient conductive heat trans-
fer. While not a true manual load calculation procedure, it is
quite feasible to implement the RTSM in a spreadsheet. To be
useful in such an environment, it would be desirable to have a
pre-calculated set of periodic response factors. Accordingly, a
set of periodic response factors has been calculated and is
presented in this paper.
INTRODUCTION
The transfer function method (TFM) for design cooling
load calculations has been in use for a number of years. This
method uses conduction transfer functions (CTFs) to calculate
the transient, one-dimensional conduction through the build-
ing wall and roof elements. Conduction transfer functions are
a closed form representation of a conduction response factor
series. Conduction response factors, as derived by Mitalas and
Stephenson (1967) and Hittle (1981), are an exact solution to
the transient conductive heat transfer problem for a multi-
layer wall or roof with boundary conditions that can be repre-
sented by a piecewise linear profile. The response factor series
is infinite, so in practice it must be truncated, resulting in some
minor, but controllable, loss of accuracy. Stephenson and
Mitalas (1967) compared a response factor method to an
analog computer simulation and showed that for the one-hour
time steps commonly used in building energy and thermal load
calculations, the expected error due to truncation of the infi-
nite response factor series is small. Procedures for developing
conduction transfer functions from response factors are
described by Peavy (1978) and Hittle (1981). The methods are
necessarily inexact but have been compared to both analytical
and numerical solutions with excellent results. Maloney
(1985) showed that for a one-dimensional, transient slab with
linearly varying surface temperatures, the differences between
a CTF solution and an analytical solution based on Duhamel’s
method are negligible.
ASHRAE research project RP-472 provided a set of
conduction transfer function coefficients (Harris and McQuis-
ton 1988) corresponding to 41 representative roof types and
42 representative wall types. In addition, a grouping proce-
dure was developed so that, theoretically, any wall or roof
could be mapped into one of the representative wall types. The
walls are mapped using four parameters: primary wall mate-
rial (the most thermally massive element), secondary wall
material, R-value, and the thermal mass location (in, out, or
integral). Roofs are also mapped using four parameters:
primary roof material, thermal mass location, R-value, and
presence or absence of a suspended ceiling. Once the repre-
sentative wall or roof type has been identified, the CTF coef-
ficients may be “unnormalized” so that the U-factor of the
Development of Periodic Response
Factors for Use with the Radiant
Time Series Method
Jeffrey D. Spitler, Ph.D., P.E. Daniel E. Fisher, Ph.D.
Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE
Jeffrey D. Spitler is associate professor at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater. Daniel E. Fisher is senior research engineer at the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
SE-99-1-1
©1999, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org).
Published in ASHRAE Transactions 1999, Vol 105, Part 2. For personal use only. Additional distribution in
either paper or digital form is not permitted without ASHRAE’s permission.
492 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia
actual wall or roof is preserved in the CTF coefficients. Once
the coefficients have been determined, they are applied using
the conduction transfer function:
(1)
Since originally appearing in the 1989 ASHRAE Hand-
book—Fundamentals, the tabulated CTF coefficients have
proved to be useful to designers. The radiant time series
method (RTSM) uses periodic response factors to model tran-
sient conductive heat transfer:
(2)
Since the RTSM is amenable to spreadsheet-level imple-
mentation, a tabulated set of periodic response factors is a
useful addition to the literature. The objective of this paper is
to present a set of periodic response factors that correspond
exactly to the CTFs previously published. If desired, they can
be used with exactly the same grouping procedure and a
slightly different “unnormalization” procedure.
METHODOLOGY
Periodic response factors can be derived directly from a
set of CTF coefficients. The procedure is discussed in greater
detail in another paper (Spitler and Fisher 1999), but is
presented here to document the method to generate the peri-
odic response factors directly from the tabulated CTF coeffi-
cients. The periodic response factors developed with this
procedure yield exactly the same results as the conduction
transfer functions, if the boundary conditions (sol-air temper-
atures) are steady periodic. Table 1 defines the terms used in
the discussion.
Noting that a fundamental property of conduction trans-
fer functions is that Σb
n
= Σc
n
, the general CTF equation (1)
can be written out for each hour to form a set of 24 hourly
equations, as follows:
(3a)
(3b)
(3c)
The 24 hourly equations can be rearranged and written in
a matrix form, as shown in Equation 4.
(4)
Equation 4 can be rearranged and represented more
simply as:
q´´ = D
-1
B T
e
− D
-1
B T
rc
= D
-1
B (T
e
− T
rc
) (5)
q
θ

b
n
T
e θ nδ – ,
d
n
q
θ nδ –

T
rc

n 1 =
6

c
n
n 0 =
6


n 0 =
6

=
q
θ

Y
Pj
T
e θ j δ – ,
T
rc
– Y
Pj
j 0 =
23

j 0 =
23

=
q
1

b
n
T
e 1 nδ – ,
d
n
q
1 nδ –

T
rc

n 1 =
6

b
n
n 0 =
6


n 0 =
6

=
q
2

b
n
T
e 2 nδ – ,
d
n
q
2 nδ –

T
rc

n 1 =
6

b
n
n 0 =
6


n 0 =
6

=
q
24

b
n
T
e 24 nδ – ,
d
n
q
24 nδ –

T
rc

n 1 =
6

b
n
n 0 =
6


n 0 =
6

=
TABLE 1
Nomenclature
Subscripts
q´´ heat flux, (Btu/h)/ft
2
(W/m
2
) P periodic
T temperature, ºF (°C) j index
b, d, c conduction transfer function
coefficients
n index
Y periodic response factors δ time
interval, h
Matrices e sol-air
q´´ column vector containing
conductive heat fluxes
rc constant
room air
T
e
column vector containing
sol-air temperatures
θ current hour
B, D b and d CTF coefficient
matrices
Y periodic response factor
matrix
T
rc
column vector containing
T
rc
in every row
1 0 0 … d
3
d
2
d
1
d
1
1 0 0 … d
2
d
2
d
1
1 0 0 …



… d
3
d
2
d
1
1
q
1

q
2

q
3




q
1


b
0
0 0 … b
2
b
1
b
1
b
0
0 0 … b
2
b
2
b
1
b
0
0 0 …



b
4
b
3
b
2
b
1
b
0
T
e 1 ,
T
e 2 ,
T
e 3 ,



T
e 24 ,
T
rc
Σb
n





T
rc
Σb
n
– •
=
ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 493
where
D = the left-hand side coefficient matrix,
q´´ = the column vector containing the conductive heat
fluxes,
B = the right-hand side coefficient matrix,
T
e
= the column vector containing the sol-air
temperatures,
T
rc
= a column vector containing T
rc
in every row.
Similarly, the response factor equations can be written as
a matrix formulation, as in Equation 6.
(6)
Equation 6 can be represented as:
q´´ = Y T
e
− Y T
rc
= Y(T
e
− T
rc
) (7)
where
q´´ = the column vector containing the conductive heat
fluxes,
Y = the periodic response factor matrix,
T
e
= the column vector containing the sol-air
temperatures,
T
rc
= a column vector containing T
rc
in every row.
Together, Equations 5 and 7 yield the following relation-
ship between the conduction transfer functions and the peri-
odic response factors:
Y = D
-1
B. (8)
Consequently, the periodic response factors can be deter-
mined from the matrix, D
-1
B. In fact, the first column of D
-1
B is a column vector containing Y
P0
,Y
P1
,Y
P2
, …, Y
P23
.
In order to generate the periodic response factors, the
following algorithm was implemented in a FORTRAN
program:
• Read wall and roof CTF coefficients from the ASHRAE
RP-626 database. (Falconer et al. 1993).
• Fill D and B matrices.
• Calculate D
-1
and D
-1
B.
• Extract periodic response factors from D
-1
B.
• Output results in tabular form.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Periodic response factors were calculated for the 41
representative wall types summarized in Table 2 and the 42
representative roof types summarized in Table 3. The layers
are described using the code numbers detailed in Table 11,
chapter 28, 1997 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals.
The periodic response factors are given in Tables 4
through 9. They are given to accuracy of six decimal places,
which should be more than sufficient for any practical appli-
cation. SI versions of the periodic response factors are tabu-
lated in the appendix in Tables A-1 through A-6.
APPLICATION
The representative wall types and roof types may be
selected using exactly the same procedure as originally given
by Harris and McQuiston (1988) and later described in
ASHRAE Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1989, 1993, 1997) and
Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual, second
edition (McQuiston and Spitler 1992). However, if this proce-
dure is used, a slightly different “unnormalization” procedure
is necessary. (The “unnormalization” procedure modifies the
CTF coefficients so that they reflect the U-factor of the actual
wall rather than the U-factor of the typical wall.) The CTF
coefficients are “unnormalized” by multiplying the b coeffi-
cients by the ratio of the actual U-factor to the typical wall or
roof’s U-factor. To “unnormalize” the periodic response
factor, each Y coefficient is multiplied by the ratio of the actual
U-factor to the typical wall or roof’s U-factor.
Finally, the error associated with using the tabulated peri-
odic response factors is the same as that associated with using
the tabulated CTF coefficients. The grouping procedure
developed by Harris and McQuiston (1988) was designed with
two criteria:
1. The typical wall or roof has a peak heat gain within ± one
hour of the actual wall or roof.
2. The typical wall or roof has a peak heat gain at least as high
as, but no more than 20% higher than, the actual wall or
roof.
If users of the RTSM desire a higher degree of accuracy,
periodic response factors may be calculated for the actual wall
or roof type using software developed as part of ASHRAE
875-RP. (Pedersen et al. 1998).
q
1

q
2

q
3





q
24

Y
P0
Y
P23
Y
P22


Y
P2
Y
P1
Y
P1
Y
P0
Y
P23
Y
P22


Y
P2
Y
P2
Y
P1
Y
P0
Y
P23
Y
P22






Y
P2
Y
P1
Y
P0
=

T
e 1 ,
T
e 2 ,
T
e 3 ,



T
e 24 ,
T
rc
ΣY
Pn





T
rc
ΣY
Pn

494 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia
TABLE 2
Wall Types
Layers
(Inside to Outside) Description U (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) U (W/m
2
K)
1 E0 A3 B1 B13 A3 A0 Steel siding with 4 in. (100 mm) insulation 0.066 0.375
2 E0 E1 B14 A1 A0 Frame wall with 5 in. (125 mm) insulation 0.055 0.312
3 E0 C3 B5 A6 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete block with 1 in. (25 mm) insulation 0.191 1.084
4 E0 E1 B6 C12 A0 2 in. (50 mm) insulation with 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. concrete 0.047 0.267
5 E0 A6 B21 C7 A0 1.36 in. (35 mm) insulation with 8 in. (200 mm) l.w. concrete block 0.129 0.732
6 E0 E1 B2 C5 A1 A0 1 in. (25 mm) insulation with 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete 0.199 1.130
7 E0 A6 C5 B3 A3 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.122 0.693
8 E0 A2 C12 B5 A6 A0 Face brick and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. concrete with 1 in. (25 mm) insul. 0.195 1.107
9 E0 A6 B15 B10 A0 6 in. (150 mm) insulation with 2 in. (50 mm) wood 0.042 0.238
10 E0 E1 C2 B5 A2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) l.w. conc. block with 1 in. (25 mm) insul. and face brick 0.155 0.880
11 E0 E1 C8 B6 A1 A0 8 in. (200 mm) h.w. concrete block with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.109 0.619
12 E0 E1 B1 C10 A1 A0 8 in. (200 mm) h.w. concrete 0.339 1.925
13 E0 A2 C5 B19 A6 A0 Face brick and 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete with 0.61 in. (16 mm) ins. 0.251 1.425
14 E0 A2 A2 B6 A6 A0 Face brick and face brick with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.114 0.647
15 E0 A6 C17 B1 A7 A0 8 in. (200 mm) l.w. concrete block (filled) and face brick 0.092 0.522
16 E0 A6 C18 B1 A7 A0 8 in. (200 mm) h.w. concrete block (filled) and face brick 0.222 1.261
17 E0 A2 C2 B15 A0 Face brick and 4 in. (100 mm) l.w. conc. block with 6 in. (150 mm) ins. 0.043 0.244
18 E0 A6 B25 C9 A0 3.33 in. (85 mm) insulation with 8 in. (200 mm) common brick 0.072 0.409
19 E0 C9 B6 A6 A0 8 in. (200 mm) common brick with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.106 0.602
20 E0 C11 B19 A6 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete with 0.61 in. (15 mm) insulation 0.237 1.346
21 E0 C11 B6 A1 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.112 0.636
22 E0 C14 B15 A2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) l.w. concrete with 6 in. (150 mm) insul. and face brick 0.040 0.227
23 E0 E1 B15 C7 A2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) insulation with 8 in. (200 mm) l.w. concrete block 0.042 0.238
24 E0 A6 C20 B1 A7 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete block (filled) and face brick 0.196 1.113
25 E0 A2 C15 B12 A6 A0 Face brick and 6 in. (150 mm) l.w. conc. blk. with 3 in. (75 mm) insul. 0.060 0.341
26 E0 A2 C6 B6 A6 A0 Face brick and 8 in. (200 mm) clay tile with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.097 0.551
27 E0 E1 B14 C11 A1 A0 5 in. (125 mm) insulation with 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete 0.052 0.295
28 E0 E1 C11 B13 A1 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete with 4 in. (100 mm) insulation 0.064 0.363
29 E0 A2 C11 B5 A6 A0 Face brick and 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. concrete with 1 in. (25 mm) insul. 0.168 0.954
30 E0 El B19 C19 A2 A0 0.61 in. (15 mm) ins. with 12 in. (300 mm) l.w. blk. (fld.) and face brick 0.062 0.352
31 E0 E1 BI5 C15 A2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) insul. with 6 in. (150 mm) l.w. conc. and face brick 0.038 0.216
32 E0 E1 B23 B9 A2 A0 2.42 in. (60 mm) insulation with face brick 0.069 0.392
33 E0 A2 C6 BI5 A6 A0 Face brick and 8 in. (200 mm) clay tile with 6 in. (150 mm) insulation 0.042 0.238
34 E0 C11 B21 A2 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. conc. with 1.36 in. (35 mm) insul. and face brick 0.143 0.812
35 E0 E1 B14 C11 A2 A0 5 in. (125 mm) insul. with 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. conc. and face brick 0.052 0.295
36 E0 A2 C11 B25 A6 A0 Face brick and 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. conc. with 3.33 in. (85 mm) insul. 0.073 0.414
37 E0 E1 B25 C19 A2 A0 3.33 in. (85 mm) ins. with 12 in. (300 mm) l.w. blk. (fld.) and face brick 0.040 0.227
38 E0 E1 B15 C20 A2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) ins. with 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. block (fld.) and face brick 0.041 0.233
39 E0 A2 C16 B14 A6 A0 Face brick and 8 in. (200 mm) l.w. concrete with 5 in. (125 mm) insul. 0.040 0.227
40 E0 A2 C20 B15 A6 A0 Face brick, 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. block (fld.), 6 in. (150 mm) insul. 0.041 0.233
41 E0 E1 C11 B14 A2 A0 12 in. (300 mm) h.w. conc. with 5 in. (125 mm) insul. and face brick 0.052 0.295
ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 495
TABLE 3
Roof Types
Layers (Inside to Outside) Description
U
(Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F)
U
(W/m
2
K)
1 E0 A3 B25 E3 E2 A0 Steel deck with 3.33 in. (85 mm) insulation 0.080 0.454
2 E0 A3 BI4 E3 E2 A0 Steel deck with 5 in. (125 mm) insulation 0.055 0.312
3 E0 E5 E4 C12 E3 E2 A0 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. concrete deck with suspended ceiling 0.232 1.317
4 E0 E1 BI5 E4 B7 A0 Attic roof with 6 in. (150 mm) insulation 0.043 0.244
5 E0 BI4 C12 E3 E2 A0 5 in. (125 mm) insulation with 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. concrete deck 0.055 0.312
6 E0 C5 BI7 E3 E2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete deck with 0.3 in. (8 mm) insulation 0.371 2.107
7 E0 B22 C12 E3 E2 C12 A0 1.67 in. (40 mm) insulation with 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. concrete RTS 0.138 0.784
8 E0 B16 C13 E3 E2 A0 0.15 in. (4 mm) insul. with 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. concrete deck 0.424 2.407
9 E0 E5 E4 B12 C14 E3 E2 A0 3 in. (75 mm) insul. with 4 in. (100 mm) l.w. conc. deck and susp. clg. 0.057 0.324
10 E0 E5 E4 C15 B16 E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) l.w. conc. dk with 0.15 in. (4 mm) ins. and susp. clg. 0.104 0.591
11 E0 C5 BI5 E3 E2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. concrete deck with 6 in. (150 mm) insulation 0.046 0.261
12 E0 C13 B16 E3 E2 CI2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck with 0.15 in. (4 mm) ins. and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.396 2.248
13 E0 C13 B6 E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. concrete deck with 2 in. (50 mm) insulation 0.117 0.664
14 E0 E5 E4 C12 B13 E3 E2 A0 2 in. (50 mm) 1 w. conc. deck with 4 in. (100 mm) ins. and susp. clg. 0.057 0.324
15 E0 E5 E4 C5 B6 E3 E2 A0 1 in. (25 mm) insul. with 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. conc. deck and susp. clg. 0.090 0.511
16 E0 E5 E4 CI3 B2O E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck with 0.76 in. (20 mm) insul. and susp. clg. 0.140 0.795
17 E0 E5 E4 B15 C14 E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) insul. with 4 in. (100 mm) l.w. conc. deck and susp. clg. 0.036 0.204
18 E0 CI2 B15 E3 E2 C5 A0 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. conc. dk with 6 in. (150 mm) ins. and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.046 0.261
19 E0 C5 B27 E3 E2 C12 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. deck with 4.54 in. (115 mm) ins. and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.059 0.335
20 E0 B21 C16 E3 E2 A0 1.36 in. (35 mm) insulation with 8 in. (200 mm) l.w. concrete deck 0.080 0.454
21 E0 CI3 B12 E3 E2 C12 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck with 3 in. (75 mm) insul. and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.083 0.471
22 E0 B22 C5 E3 E2 C13 A0 1.67 in. (40 mm) ins. with 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. deck and 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.129 0.732
23 E0 E5 E4 C12 B14 E3 E2 C12 A0 Susp. clg, 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. dk, 5 in. (125 mm) ins, 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.047 0.267
24 E0 E5 E4 C5 E3 E2 B6 B1 C12 A0 Susp. clg, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. dk, 2 in. (50 mm) ins, 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.082 0.466
25 E0 E5 E4 C13 B13 E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. conc. deck with 4 in. (100 mm) ins. and susp. clg. 0.056 0.318
26 E0 E5 E4 B15 C15 E3 E2 A0 6 in. (150 mm) insul. with 6 in. (150 mm) l.w. conc. deck and susp. clg. 0.034 0.193
27 E0 C13 B15 E3 E2 C12 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck with 6 in. (150 mm) ins. and 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. RTS 0.045 0.256
28 E0 B9 B14 E3 E2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) wood deck with 5 in. (125 mm) insulation 0.044 0.250
29 E0 E5 E4 C12 B13 E3 E2 C5 A0 Susp. clg, 2 in. (50 mm) h.w. dk, 4 in. (100 mm) ins, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. RTS 0.056 0.318
30 E0 E5 E4 B9 B6 E3 E2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) wood deck with 2 in. (50 mm) insul. and susp. ceiling 0.064 0.363
31 E0 B27 C13 E3 E2 C13 A0 4.54 in. (115 mm) ins. with 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck and 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.057 0.324
32 E0 E5 E4 C5 B20 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. dk, 0.76 in. (20 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.133 0.755
33 E0 E5 E4 C5 B13 E3 E2 C5 A0 Susp. clg, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. dk, 4 in. (100 mm) ins, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. RTS 0.055 0.312
34 E0 E5 E4 C13 B23 E3 E2 C5 A0 Susp. clg, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. dk, 2.42 in. (60 mm) ins, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. RTS 0.077 0.437
35 E0 C5 B15 E3 E2 C13 A0 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. deck with 6 in. (150 mm) ins and 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.045 0.256
36 E0 C13 B27 E3 E2 CI3 A0 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck with 4.54 in. (115 mm) ins. and 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.057 0.324
37 E0 E5 E4 B15 C13 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 6 in. (150 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. dk, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.040 0.227
38 E0 E5 E4 B9 B15 E3 E2 A0 4 in. (100 mm) wood deck with 6 in. (150 mm) insul. and susp. ceiling 0.035 0.199
39 E0 E5 E4 C13 B20 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. dk, 0.76 in. (20 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.131 0.744
40 E0 E5 E4 C5 B26 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 4 in. (100 mm) h.w. dk, 3.64in. (90 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.059 0.335
41 E0 E5 E4 C13 B6 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck, 2 in. (50 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.085 0.483
42 E0 E5 E4 C13 B14 E3 E2 C13 A0 Susp. clg, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. deck, 5 in. (125 mm) ins, 6 in. (150 mm) h.w. RTS 0.046 0.261
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TABLE 4
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Wall Types 1-14
Wall Type
PRF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Y
P0
0.007679 0.000156 0.004133 0.000012 0.000265 0.001215 0.001949 0.002401 0.000129 0.000520 0.001202 0.004482 0.004202 0.002413
Y
P1
0.036827 0.005600 0.035484 0.001094 0.004675 0.010571 0.010142 0.006811 0.000168 0.001441 0.001690 0.006047 0.005920 0.002563
Y
P2
0.016043 0.014795 0.041888 0.005339 0.015527 0.022649 0.013054 0.014860 0.001047 0.006448 0.004788 0.014850 0.012471 0.004252
Y
P3
0.003856 0.014441 0.031281 0.008544 0.019464 0.024744 0.011863 0.017308 0.003050 0.012194 0.008109 0.023672 0.017213 0.006297
Y
P4
0.000901 0.009628 0.022408 0.008706 0.017766 0.022457 0.010539 0.016716 0.004607 0.015366 0.009497 0.027289 0.018574 0.007307
Y
P5
0.000211 0.005414 0.016008 0.007219 0.014707 0.019318 0.009350 0.015380 0.005098 0.016223 0.009506 0.027407 0.018271 0.007538
Y
P6
0.000049 0.002786 0.011434 0.005364 0.011815 0.016347 0.008295 0.013967 0.004859 0.015652 0.008905 0.025970 0.017328 0.007388
Y
P7
0.000011 0.001363 0.008167 0.003735 0.009408 0.013762 0.007359 0.012638 0.004295 0.014326 0.008110 0.023992 0.016183 0.007075
Y
P8
0.000003 0.000647 0.005833 0.002496 0.007472 0.011567 0.006528 0.011424 0.003648 0.012675 0.007301 0.021916 0.015014 0.006701
Y
P9
0.000001 0.000301 0.004166 0.001623 0.005930 0.009717 0.005791 0.010324 0.003032 0.010957 0.006540 0.019918 0.013889 0.006314
Y
P10
0.000000 0.000139 0.002976 0.001036 0.004705 0.008162 0.005138 0.009329 0.002489 0.009313 0.005847 0.018060 0.012831 0.005934
Y
P11
0.000000 0.000063 0.002125 0.000652 0.003733 0.006855 0.004558 0.008430 0.002030 0.007816 0.005224 0.016357 0.011847 0.005570
Y
P12
0.000000 0.000029 0.001518 0.000407 0.002962 0.005757 0.004043 0.007618 0.001649 0.006497 0.004665 0.014808 0.010936 0.005226
Y
P13
0.000000 0.000013 0.001084 0.000252 0.002350 0.004836 0.003587 0.006883 0.001337 0.005360 0.004166 0.013403 0.010094 0.004901
Y
P14
0.000000 0.000006 0.000774 0.000155 0.001865 0.004061 0.003182 0.006220 0.001082 0.004395 0.003720 0.012129 0.009316 0.004595
Y
P15
0.000000 0.000003 0.000553 0.000095 0.001480 0.003411 0.002823 0.005620 0.000876 0.003587 0.003322 0.010976 0.008597 0.004309
Y
P16
0.000000 0.000001 0.000395 0.000058 0.001174 0.002865 0.002504 0.005079 0.000708 0.002915 0.002966 0.009933 0.007935 0.004040
Y
P17
0.000000 0.000001 0.000282 0.000035 0.000931 0.002406 0.002222 0.004589 0.000572 0.002362 0.002649 0.008989 0.007323 0.003788
Y
P18
0.000000 0.000000 0.000202 0.000022 0.000739 0.002021 0.001971 0.004147 0.000463 0.001909 0.002365 0.008134 0.006758 0.003551
Y
P19
0.000000 0.000000 0.000144 0.000013 0.000586 0.001697 0.001748 0.003747 0.000374 0.001539 0.002112 0.007361 0.006237 0.003330
Y
P20
0.000000 0.000000 0.000103 0.000008 0.000465 0.001425 0.001551 0.003386 0.000302 0.001239 0.001886 0.006661 0.005756 0.003122
Y
P21
0.000000 0.000000 0.000073 0.000005 0.000369 0.001197 0.001376 0.003059 0.000244 0.000996 0.001684 0.006027 0.005312 0.002927
Y
P22
0.000000 0.000000 0.000052 0.000003 0.000293 0.001006 0.001221 0.002765 0.000197 0.000799 0.001504 0.005454 0.004903 0.002744
Y
P23
0.000000 0.000000 0.000037 0.000002 0.000232 0.000845 0.001083 0.002498 0.000159 0.000641 0.001343 0.004936 0.004525 0.002573
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TABLE 5
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Wall Types 15-28
Wall Type
PRF 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Y
P0
0.000604 0.002439 0.000735 0.001511 0.002488 0.006271 0.003403 0.000530 0.000860 0.004478 0.001575 0.002758 0.001690 0.002150
Y
P1
0.000530 0.002253 0.000671 0.001414 0.002392 0.006081 0.003278 0.000454 0.000776 0.004085 0.001460 0.002609 0.001622 0.002082
Y
P2
0.001077 0.003798 0.000747 0.001589 0.002933 0.007083 0.003347 0.000446 0.000716 0.003877 0.001389 0.002568 0.001564 0.002034
Y
P3
0.003078 0.008042 0.001265 0.002454 0.004311 0.009430 0.003889 0.000727 0.000787 0.004434 0.001527 0.002909 0.001576 0.002099
Y
P4
0.005595 0.012598 0.002043 0.003569 0.005546 0.011549 0.004658 0.001332 0.001117 0.005947 0.001937 0.003569 0.001735 0.002326
Y
P5
0.007450 0.015779 0.002679 0.004362 0.006233 0.012837 0.005304 0.002005 0.001625 0.007865 0.002438 0.004237 0.002003 0.002620
Y
P6
0.008357 0.017383 0.003032 0.004730 0.006482 0.013417 0.005714 0.002544 0.002136 0.009623 0.002872 0.004747 0.002283 0.002878
Y
P7
0.008496 0.017747 0.003144 0.004788 0.006460 0.013521 0.005912 0.002884 0.002527 0.010946 0.003183 0.005074 0.002506 0.003055
Y
P8
0.008131 0.017273 0.003093 0.004666 0.006287 0.013332 0.005957 0.003039 0.002764 0.011773 0.003371 0.005245 0.002651 0.003154
Y
P9
0.007482 0.016288 0.002949 0.004452 0.006036 0.012970 0.005901 0.003046 0.002858 0.012152 0.003458 0.005294 0.002722 0.003190
Y
P10
0.006702 0.015027 0.002758 0.004197 0.005748 0.012512 0.005782 0.002949 0.002842 0.012172 0.003466 0.005256 0.002737 0.003182
Y
P11
0.005890 0.013650 0.002549 0.003930 0.005447 0.012005 0.005626 0.002783 0.002749 0.011923 0.003415 0.005154 0.002711 0.003143
Y
P12
0.005104 0.012259 0.002339 0.003667 0.005147 0.011478 0.005449 0.002576 0.002608 0.011485 0.003321 0.005010 0.002658 0.003085
Y
P13
0.004377 0.010917 0.002136 0.003413 0.004855 0.010949 0.005263 0.002349 0.002440 0.010924 0.003199 0.004837 0.002588 0.003014
Y
P14
0.003724 0.009659 0.001946 0.003174 0.004575 0.010430 0.005072 0.002116 0.002260 0.010290 0.003056 0.004646 0.002508 0.002937
Y
P15
0.003148 0.008504 0.001769 0.002949 0.004308 0.009926 0.004882 0.001889 0.002078 0.009620 0.002902 0.004445 0.002422 0.002855
Y
P16
0.002648 0.007459 0.001607 0.002739 0.004055 0.009440 0.004696 0.001672 0.001900 0.008941 0.002742 0.004240 0.002335 0.002772
Y
P17
0.002218 0.006522 0.001458 0.002543 0.003816 0.008974 0.004514 0.001471 0.001731 0.008272 0.002581 0.004036 0.002247 0.002689
Y
P18
0.001853 0.005690 0.001323 0.002361 0.003590 0.008529 0.004337 0.001286 0.001573 0.007625 0.002420 0.003834 0.002160 0.002607
Y
P19
0.001544 0.004955 0.001200 0.002192 0.003377 0.008104 0.004167 0.001119 0.001426 0.007008 0.002264 0.003637 0.002075 0.002526
Y
P20
0.001283 0.004308 0.001088 0.002034 0.003177 0.007700 0.004002 0.000970 0.001291 0.006427 0.002112 0.003446 0.001992 0.002447
Y
P21
0.001065 0.003741 0.000987 0.001889 0.002989 0.007315 0.003843 0.000838 0.001168 0.005883 0.001967 0.003262 0.001913 0.002369
Y
P22
0.000883 0.003246 0.000894 0.001753 0.002812 0.006949 0.003691 0.000721 0.001055 0.005377 0.001829 0.003086 0.001836 0.002294
Y
P23
0.000731 0.002815 0.000811 0.001627 0.002645 0.006601 0.003544 0.000619 0.000953 0.004909 0.001699 0.002918 0.001761 0.002221
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TABLE 6
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Wall Types 29-41 (*See Appendix B)
Wall Type
PRF 29 30* 31* 32 33 34 35* 36 37* 38* 39 40 41
Y
P0
0.005932 0.001472 0.000959 0.002108 0.001386 0.004948 0.001577 0.002683 0.000894 0.000941 0.001242 0.001297 0.001730
Y
P1
0.005759 0.001320 0.000873 0.001975 0.001322 0.004754 0.001519 0.002620 0.000806 0.000869 0.001178 0.001242 0.001675
Y
P2
0.005634 0.001186 0.000795 0.001853 0.001261 0.004599 0.001463 0.002561 0.000722 0.000800 0.001115 0.001189 0.001621
Y
P3
0.005737 0.001131 0.000747 0.001789 0.001229 0.004616 0.001419 0.002543 0.000648 0.000739 0.001059 0.001143 0.001573
Y
P4
0.006141 0.001288 0.000795 0.001884 0.001280 0.004882 0.001421 0.002618 0.000610 0.000713 0.001037 0.001127 0.001554
Y
P5
0.006676 0.001696 0.000977 0.002162 0.001426 0.005306 0.001495 0.002771 0.000646 0.000755 0.001073 0.001167 0.001582
Y
P6
0.007176 0.002246 0.001254 0.002545 0.001619 0.005770 0.001627 0.002948 0.000763 0.000870 0.001167 0.001257 0.001652
Y
P7
0.007565 0.002797 0.001549 0.002931 0.001806 0.006191 0.001780 0.003104 0.000933 0.001028 0.001290 0.001373 0.001745
Y
P8
0.007828 0.003254 0.001806 0.003257 0.001957 0.006530 0.001920 0.003222 0.001117 0.001194 0.001417 0.001487 0.001844
Y
P9
0.007980 0.003577 0.001995 0.003495 0.002062 0.006774 0.002030 0.003301 0.001287 0.001340 0.001529 0.001586 0.001934
Y
P10
0.008039 0.003763 0.002111 0.003643 0.002124 0.006926 0.002104 0.003344 0.001426 0.001453 0.001618 0.001661 0.002008
Y
P11
0.008027 0.003827 0.002161 0.003711 0.002149 0.006995 0.002146 0.003360 0.001527 0.001530 0.001681 0.001713 0.002065
Y
P12
0.007961 0.003793 0.002157 0.003712 0.002144 0.006995 0.002160 0.003353 0.001591 0.001573 0.001721 0.001741 0.002102
Y
P13
0.007855 0.003685 0.002111 0.003661 0.002116 0.006938 0.002152 0.003328 0.001620 0.001586 0.001739 0.001751 0.002122
Y
P14
0.007720 0.003525 0.002035 0.003572 0.002072 0.006836 0.002127 0.003291 0.001620 0.001575 0.001738 0.001744 0.002127
Y
P15
0.007565 0.003329 0.001939 0.003454 0.002017 0.006699 0.002090 0.003245 0.001595 0.001545 0.001721 0.001724 0.002117
Y
P16
0.007395 0.003113 0.001830 0.003318 0.001953 0.006538 0.002044 0.003191 0.001551 0.001500 0.001692 0.001695 0.002097
Y
P17
0.007217 0.002886 0.001715 0.003169 0.001884 0.006357 0.001992 0.003133 0.001491 0.001445 0.001653 0.001657 0.002068
Y
P18
0.007033 0.002658 0.001597 0.003014 0.001813 0.006165 0.001936 0.003072 0.001420 0.001382 0.001605 0.001613 0.002031
Y
P19
0.006847 0.002433 0.001479 0.002856 0.001740 0.005964 0.001877 0.003008 0.001340 0.001313 0.001552 0.001565 0.001988
Y
P20
0.006660 0.002217 0.001365 0.002699 0.001666 0.005760 0.001817 0.002943 0.001255 0.001240 0.001494 0.001514 0.001942
Y
P21
0.006474 0.002011 0.001255 0.002544 0.001594 0.005554 0.001757 0.002878 0.001165 0.001165 0.001433 0.001461 0.001891
Y
P22
0.006291 0.001818 0.001150 0.002393 0.001523 0.005349 0.001696 0.002813 0.001075 0.001090 0.001370 0.001406 0.001839
Y
P23
0.006110 0.001638 0.001052 0.002248 0.001454 0.005146 0.001636 0.002748 0.000984 0.001015 0.001306 0.001351 0.001785
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TABLE 7
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Roof Types 1-14
Roof Type
PRF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Y
P0
0.004870 0.000556 0.006192 0.000004 0.000105 0.003675 0.001003 0.003468 0.000145 0.000621 0.000397 0.003593 0.001590 0.001027
Y
P1
0.036463 0.012356 0.044510 0.000658 0.002655 0.034908 0.009678 0.022622 0.000362 0.000777 0.000472 0.006741 0.002817 0.001417
Y
P2
0.026468 0.020191 0.047321 0.004270 0.007678 0.054823 0.017455 0.045052 0.002612 0.003246 0.001479 0.019054 0.006883 0.002939
Y
P3
0.008915 0.012498 0.035390 0.007757 0.008783 0.050193 0.017588 0.047168 0.005981 0.007589 0.003082 0.029822 0.009367 0.003944
Y
P4
0.002562 0.005800 0.026082 0.008259 0.007720 0.041867 0.015516 0.042727 0.007459 0.010269 0.004064 0.034493 0.009723 0.004133
Y
P5
0.000708 0.002436 0.019215 0.006915 0.006261 0.034391 0.013169 0.037442 0.007228 0.010854 0.004322 0.034992 0.009224 0.003991
Y
P6
0.000193 0.000981 0.014156 0.005116 0.004933 0.028178 0.011038 0.032544 0.006305 0.010265 0.004162 0.033303 0.008501 0.003756
Y
P7
0.000053 0.000388 0.010429 0.003527 0.003844 0.023078 0.009213 0.028228 0.005261 0.009210 0.003819 0.030635 0.007766 0.003505
Y
P8
0.000014 0.000152 0.007684 0.002330 0.002982 0.018900 0.007678 0.024472 0.004309 0.008052 0.003421 0.027647 0.007076 0.003264
Y
P9
0.000004 0.000059 0.005661 0.001498 0.002309 0.015478 0.006397 0.021212 0.003503 0.006946 0.003026 0.024671 0.006443 0.003036
Y
P10
0.000001 0.000023 0.004170 0.000946 0.001787 0.012675 0.005328 0.018386 0.002838 0.005952 0.002659 0.021868 0.005865 0.002824
Y
P11
0.000000 0.000009 0.003072 0.000591 0.001383 0.010380 0.004437 0.015937 0.002297 0.005081 0.002329 0.019305 0.005338 0.002626
Y
P12
0.000000 0.000003 0.002264 0.000366 0.001070 0.008501 0.003696 0.013814 0.001858 0.004330 0.002036 0.017000 0.004859 0.002442
Y
P13
0.000000 0.000001 0.001668 0.000225 0.000827 0.006962 0.003078 0.011973 0.001502 0.003686 0.001778 0.014947 0.004422 0.002271
Y
P14
0.000000 0.000001 0.001229 0.000138 0.000640 0.005701 0.002563 0.010378 0.001215 0.003136 0.001552 0.013130 0.004025 0.002112
Y
P15
0.000000 0.000000 0.000905 0.000085 0.000495 0.004669 0.002135 0.008995 0.000982 0.002668 0.001355 0.011527 0.003664 0.001964
Y
P16
0.000000 0.000000 0.000667 0.000052 0.000383 0.003824 0.001778 0.007797 0.000794 0.002269 0.001182 0.010116 0.003335 0.001826
Y
P17
0.000000 0.000000 0.000491 0.000032 0.000296 0.003131 0.001481 0.006758 0.000642 0.001929 0.001032 0.008875 0.003035 0.001698
Y
P18
0.000000 0.000000 0.000362 0.000019 0.000229 0.002564 0.001233 0.005858 0.000519 0.001641 0.000900 0.007786 0.002763 0.001580
Y
P19
0.000000 0.000000 0.000267 0.000012 0.000177 0.002100 0.001027 0.005077 0.000420 0.001395 0.000785 0.006830 0.002515 0.001469
Y
P20
0.000000 0.000000 0.000196 0.000007 0.000137 0.001720 0.000855 0.004401 0.000339 0.001186 0.000685 0.005991 0.002289 0.001366
Y
P21
0.000000 0.000000 0.000145 0.000004 0.000106 0.001408 0.000712 0.003815 0.000274 0.001009 0.000598 0.005255 0.002083 0.001270
Y
P22
0.000000 0.000000 0.000107 0.000003 0.000082 0.001153 0.000593 0.003306 0.000222 0.000858 0.000522 0.004609 0.001896 0.001181
Y
P23
0.000000 0.000000 0.000079 0.000002 0.000063 0.000945 0.000494 0.002866 0.000179 0.000729 0.000455 0.004042 0.001726 0.001099
5
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TABLE 8
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Roof Types 15-28
Roof Type
PRF 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Y
P0
0.002290 0.003723 0.000215 0.000423 0.000634 0.001204 0.001516 0.002973 0.001253 0.002447 0.001842 0.000631 0.001000 0.001165
Y
P1
0.002856 0.004171 0.000186 0.000373 0.000644 0.001105 0.001475 0.002922 0.001212 0.002438 0.001816 0.000569 0.000921 0.001092
Y
P2
0.004551 0.006232 0.000375 0.000606 0.001383 0.001452 0.002153 0.003855 0.001394 0.002885 0.001993 0.000532 0.000923 0.001035
Y
P3
0.005355 0.007775 0.001275 0.001388 0.002752 0.002792 0.003473 0.005493 0.001857 0.003575 0.002398 0.000647 0.001190 0.001083
Y
P4
0.005405 0.008183 0.002519 0.002348 0.003866 0.004377 0.004580 0.006763 0.002296 0.004050 0.002699 0.001045 0.001674 0.001346
Y
P5
0.005240 0.008079 0.003390 0.003110 0.004483 0.005457 0.005234 0.007477 0.002568 0.004277 0.002816 0.001585 0.002164 0.001751
Y
P6
0.005030 0.007815 0.003712 0.003566 0.004697 0.005940 0.005517 0.007771 0.002690 0.004340 0.002822 0.002050 0.002535 0.002139
Y
P7
0.004817 0.007515 0.003635 0.003745 0.004641 0.005989 0.005545 0.007789 0.002710 0.004310 0.002781 0.002339 0.002759 0.002416
Y
P8
0.004611 0.007214 0.003341 0.003717 0.004422 0.005778 0.005411 0.007634 0.002667 0.004228 0.002723 0.002455 0.002855 0.002567
Y
P9
0.004412 0.006922 0.002958 0.003549 0.004112 0.005430 0.005179 0.007375 0.002590 0.004119 0.002660 0.002444 0.002856 0.002614
Y
P10
0.004222 0.006641 0.002561 0.003297 0.003761 0.005022 0.004893 0.007056 0.002494 0.003997 0.002596 0.002350 0.002788 0.002587
Y
P11
0.004040 0.006372 0.002187 0.003000 0.003399 0.004598 0.004580 0.006708 0.002390 0.003870 0.002534 0.002211 0.002678 0.002513
Y
P12
0.003866 0.006113 0.001852 0.002688 0.003044 0.004184 0.004259 0.006348 0.002283 0.003742 0.002473 0.002049 0.002541 0.002412
Y
P13
0.003700 0.005865 0.001559 0.002379 0.002709 0.003792 0.003943 0.005990 0.002177 0.003615 0.002413 0.001882 0.002391 0.002296
Y
P14
0.003541 0.005627 0.001308 0.002086 0.002399 0.003428 0.003638 0.005640 0.002073 0.003490 0.002354 0.001719 0.002235 0.002175
Y
P15
0.003388 0.005398 0.001095 0.001814 0.002116 0.003094 0.003348 0.005303 0.001973 0.003370 0.002297 0.001563 0.002080 0.002053
Y
P16
0.003242 0.005179 0.000915 0.001567 0.001861 0.002790 0.003075 0.004980 0.001877 0.003252 0.002242 0.001418 0.001929 0.001933
Y
P17
0.003103 0.004969 0.000764 0.001347 0.001634 0.002514 0.002821 0.004674 0.001785 0.003139 0.002187 0.001284 0.001784 0.001818
Y
P18
0.002969 0.004767 0.000638 0.001152 0.001431 0.002264 0.002585 0.004384 0.001697 0.003030 0.002134 0.001161 0.001647 0.001708
Y
P19
0.002841 0.004573 0.000532 0.000982 0.001252 0.002038 0.002368 0.004111 0.001613 0.002924 0.002083 0.001050 0.001519 0.001603
Y
P20
0.002719 0.004388 0.000444 0.000834 0.001094 0.001835 0.002167 0.003854 0.001534 0.002822 0.002032 0.000948 0.001399 0.001505
Y
P21
0.002602 0.004209 0.000370 0.000706 0.000955 0.001652 0.001983 0.003612 0.001458 0.002723 0.001983 0.000857 0.001287 0.001412
Y
P22
0.002490 0.004038 0.000309 0.000596 0.000834 0.001487 0.001814 0.003385 0.001386 0.002628 0.001935 0.000773 0.001184 0.001324
Y
P23
0.002383 0.003874 0.000257 0.000503 0.000727 0.001338 0.001658 0.003172 0.001318 0.002536 0.001888 0.000698 0.001088 0.001242
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TABLE 9
Periodic Response Factors (Btu/h⋅ft
2
°F) for Representative Roof Types 29-42 (*See Appendix B)
Roof Type
PRF 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37* 38* 39 40 41 42
Y
P0
0.001504 0.001969 0.001794 0.004279 0.001894 0.002763 0.001255 0.001829 0.001325 0.001150 0.004671 0.002154 0.003219 0.001812
Y
P1
0.001424 0.001881 0.001719 0.004106 0.001833 0.002695 0.001157 0.001725 0.001270 0.001110 0.004531 0.002095 0.003149 0.001782
Y
P2
0.001526 0.001825 0.001675 0.004176 0.001825 0.002681 0.001083 0.001640 0.001218 0.001072 0.004462 0.002054 0.003099 0.001752
Y
P3
0.001892 0.001936 0.001783 0.004641 0.001952 0.002804 0.001121 0.001657 0.001188 0.001043 0.004609 0.002088 0.003129 0.001733
Y
P4
0.002293 0.002272 0.002067 0.005220 0.002148 0.003004 0.001322 0.001829 0.001225 0.001052 0.004922 0.002196 0.003243 0.001743
Y
P5
0.002605 0.002683 0.002396 0.005718 0.002326 0.003192 0.001616 0.002088 0.001343 0.001118 0.005260 0.002324 0.003384 0.001780
Y
P6
0.002819 0.003027 0.002666 0.006093 0.002460 0.003338 0.001912 0.002351 0.001506 0.001226 0.005550 0.002437 0.003515 0.001831
Y
P7
0.002948 0.003258 0.002848 0.006352 0.002552 0.003440 0.002159 0.002572 0.001668 0.001342 0.005773 0.002527 0.003622 0.001882
Y
P8
0.003011 0.003382 0.002948 0.006514 0.002609 0.003505 0.002340 0.002737 0.001803 0.001443 0.005931 0.002594 0.003703 0.001927
Y
P9
0.003022 0.003422 0.002983 0.006594 0.002638 0.003540 0.002456 0.002849 0.001898 0.001517 0.006032 0.002640 0.003760 0.001963
Y
P10
0.002992 0.003403 0.002973 0.006608 0.002644 0.003550 0.002515 0.002913 0.001955 0.001563 0.006084 0.002668 0.003795 0.001989
Y
P11
0.002933 0.003344 0.002930 0.006568 0.002631 0.003540 0.002525 0.002938 0.001978 0.001585 0.006095 0.002681 0.003813 0.002007
Y
P12
0.002851 0.003258 0.002865 0.006485 0.002605 0.003515 0.002498 0.002929 0.001975 0.001587 0.006073 0.002680 0.003814 0.002018
Y
P13
0.002753 0.003157 0.002785 0.006368 0.002567 0.003477 0.002441 0.002894 0.001952 0.001574 0.006024 0.002667 0.003803 0.002021
Y
P14
0.002644 0.003046 0.002697 0.006224 0.002520 0.003430 0.002362 0.002838 0.001914 0.001551 0.005951 0.002645 0.003780 0.002019
Y
P15
0.002528 0.002930 0.002603 0.006059 0.002467 0.003376 0.002267 0.002765 0.001866 0.001520 0.005861 0.002615 0.003747 0.002012
Y
P16
0.002409 0.002813 0.002507 0.005879 0.002410 0.003316 0.002161 0.002680 0.001811 0.001484 0.005755 0.002578 0.003707 0.002001
Y
P17
0.002287 0.002696 0.002411 0.005689 0.002348 0.003252 0.002048 0.002584 0.001752 0.001444 0.005639 0.002536 0.003659 0.001985
Y
P18
0.002166 0.002582 0.002316 0.005491 0.002285 0.003185 0.001930 0.002482 0.001690 0.001403 0.005513 0.002489 0.003606 0.001967
Y
P19
0.002047 0.002470 0.002222 0.005288 0.002220 0.003116 0.001812 0.002376 0.001627 0.001360 0.005380 0.002439 0.003549 0.001946
Y
P20
0.001930 0.002362 0.002131 0.005083 0.002154 0.003046 0.001694 0.002266 0.001565 0.001317 0.005243 0.002385 0.003488 0.001922
Y
P21
0.001817 0.002258 0.002042 0.004879 0.002088 0.002975 0.001578 0.002156 0.001503 0.001274 0.005102 0.002329 0.003423 0.001897
Y
P22
0.001708 0.002158 0.001956 0.004675 0.002023 0.002904 0.001466 0.002046 0.001442 0.001232 0.004959 0.002272 0.003357 0.001870
Y
P23
0.001604 0.002061 0.001874 0.004475 0.001958 0.002833 0.001358 0.001936 0.001383 0.001191 0.004815 0.002214 0.003289 0.001842
502 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia
CONCLUSIONS
The periodic response factor tables presented in this paper
support wall and roof conductive heat gain calculations by the
periodic response factor method. Heat gains calculated using
the tables are equivalent to heat gains calculated using CTFs
for the same wall type. The Harris and McQuiston grouping
procedure is carried through to the periodic response factor
tables. As a result an “unnormalization” procedure similar to
the CTF procedure is required to obtain response factors that
reflect correct wall and roof U-factors.
Although the tables were generated specifically to
support the RTSM, the periodic response factor method is
generally applicable to any conductive heat gain calculation
with steady periodic inputs. As such, it is useful for all peak
design day cooling load calculations that typically assume that
previous days were identical to the design day.
REFERENCES
ASHRAE. 1989. 1989 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamen-
tals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerat-
ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
ASHRAE. 1993. 1993 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamen-
tals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerat-
ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
ASHRAE. 1997. 1997 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamen-
tals. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerat-
ing and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Falconer, D.R., E.F. Sowell, J.D. Spitler, and B. Todovorich.
1993. Electronic tables for the ASHRAE Load Calcula-
tion Manual. ASHRAE Transactions 99 (1): 193-200.
Harris, S.M., and F.C. McQuiston. 1988. A study to catego-
rize walls and roofs on the basis of thermal response.
ASHRAE Transactions 94 (2): 688-714.
Hittle, D.C. 1981. Calculating building heating and cooling
loads using the frequency response of multilayered
slabs. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign.
Maloney, D. 1985. A verification of the use of heat conduc-
tion transfer functions as used in the program BLAST.
BLAST Support Office Report, University of Illinois.
McQuiston, F.C., and J.D. Spitler. 1992. Cooling and heat-
ing load calculation manual, 2d ed. Atlanta: American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
Engineers, Inc.
Mitalas, G.P., and D.G. Stephenson. 1967. Cooling load cal-
culations by thermal response factor method. ASHRAE
Transactions 73, pp. III 2.1-2.10.
Peavy, B.A. 1978. A note on response factors and conduc-
tion transfer functions. ASHRAE Transactions 84 (1):
pp. 688-690.
Pedersen, C.O., D. Fisher, J.D. Spitler, and R. Liesen. 1998.
Cooling and heating load calculation principles.
Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Spitler, J.D., and D.E. Fisher. 1999. On the relationship
between the radiant time series and transfer function
methods for design cooling load calculations. Interna-
tional Journal of HVAC&R Research, 5 (2): 125-138.
Spitler, J.D., D.E. Fisher, and C.O. Pedersen. 1997. The radi-
ant time series cooling load calculation procedure.
ASHRAE Transactions 103 (2): 503-515.
Stephenson, D.G., and G.P. Mitalas. 1967. Room thermal
response factors. ASHRAE Transactions 73, pp. III 1.1-
1.7.
DISCUSSION
Byron Jones, Associate Dean of Research, Kansas
State University, Manhattan, Kansas: The calculation
methods used in this paper make the implicit assumption that
the cooling system is air-based. That is, they evaluate the
energy gain of the air. Can these calculations be applied to load
calculations when part or all of the cooling is provided by radi-
ant cooling systems? How will the loads differ for a radiant
cooling system as compared to an air-based system?
Jeffrey D. Spitler: In the author’s opinion, load calcula-
tions for systems involving radiant heating or cooling ought to
be performed using a load calculation procedure which explic-
itly accounts for surface-to-surface radiant interchange.
Therefore, we recommend using a heat balance procedure
rather than the radiant time series procedure for which the
periodic response factors in this paper were developed. Imple-
mentation of a radiant heating and/or cooling model in a heat
balance procedure has been described by Strand and Pedersen
(1997). (Reference: Strand, R.K., and C.O. Pedersen. Imple-
mentation of a radiant heating and cooling model into an inte-
grated building energy analysis program. ASHRAE
Transactions, 103 (1): 949-958.)
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APPENDIX A
TABLE A-1
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Wall Types 1-14
Wall Type
PRF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Y
P0
0.043604 0.000887 0.023469 0.000067 0.001503 0.006897 0.011068 0.013634 0.000732 0.002954 0.006826 0.025450 0.023858 0.013704
Y
P1
0.209101 0.031798 0.201480 0.006214 0.026544 0.060020 0.057588 0.038674 0.000954 0.008182 0.009596 0.034335 0.033612 0.014552
Y
P2
0.091092 0.084006 0.237838 0.030315 0.088162 0.128601 0.074120 0.084373 0.005946 0.036614 0.027188 0.084321 0.070812 0.024146
Y
P3
0.021893 0.081998 0.177612 0.048513 0.110515 0.140497 0.067359 0.098276 0.017320 0.069236 0.046042 0.134410 0.097734 0.035754
Y
P4
0.005118 0.054670 0.127235 0.049432 0.100873 0.127511 0.059840 0.094913 0.026159 0.087249 0.053925 0.154949 0.105466 0.041491
Y
P5
0.001195 0.030739 0.090894 0.040988 0.083504 0.109686 0.053091 0.087327 0.028946 0.092116 0.053975 0.155617 0.103745 0.042803
Y
P6
0.000279 0.015817 0.064922 0.030457 0.067086 0.092817 0.047099 0.079304 0.027589 0.088870 0.050560 0.147457 0.098389 0.041949
Y
P7
0.000065 0.007739 0.046370 0.021210 0.053417 0.078140 0.041783 0.071760 0.024385 0.081341 0.046050 0.136228 0.091889 0.040169
Y
P8
0.000015 0.003673 0.033120 0.014175 0.042425 0.065678 0.037067 0.064868 0.020711 0.071971 0.041453 0.124441 0.085250 0.038048
Y
P9
0.000004 0.001711 0.023656 0.009217 0.033670 0.055174 0.032883 0.058621 0.017214 0.062212 0.037134 0.113094 0.078860 0.035850
Y
P10
0.000001 0.000787 0.016896 0.005881 0.026716 0.046343 0.029172 0.052972 0.014135 0.052877 0.033201 0.102542 0.072855 0.033694
Y
P11
0.000000 0.000360 0.012068 0.003703 0.021198 0.038923 0.025879 0.047867 0.011528 0.044380 0.029661 0.092876 0.067268 0.031628
Y
P12
0.000000 0.000163 0.008620 0.002309 0.016819 0.032691 0.022958 0.043253 0.009366 0.036890 0.026490 0.084080 0.062094 0.029671
Y
P13
0.000000 0.000074 0.006157 0.001429 0.013345 0.027457 0.020367 0.039084 0.007592 0.030433 0.023656 0.076100 0.057311 0.027827
Y
P14
0.000000 0.000033 0.004397 0.000880 0.010588 0.023060 0.018068 0.035316 0.006146 0.024956 0.021123 0.068870 0.052894 0.026093
Y
P15
0.000000 0.000015 0.003141 0.000540 0.008401 0.019368 0.016029 0.031912 0.004972 0.020365 0.018862 0.062324 0.048816 0.024466
Y
P16
0.000000 0.000007 0.002243 0.000330 0.006665 0.016266 0.014220 0.028836 0.004020 0.016554 0.016843 0.056400 0.045053 0.022939
Y
P17
0.000000 0.000003 0.001602 0.000201 0.005289 0.013662 0.012615 0.026056 0.003250 0.013413 0.015039 0.051037 0.041579 0.021508
Y
P18
0.000000 0.000001 0.001144 0.000123 0.004196 0.011474 0.011191 0.023545 0.002627 0.010839 0.013429 0.046185 0.038373 0.020165
Y
P19
0.000000 0.000001 0.000817 0.000075 0.003329 0.009637 0.009928 0.021275 0.002123 0.008740 0.011991 0.041794 0.035414 0.018906
Y
P20
0.000000 0.000000 0.000584 0.000045 0.002642 0.008094 0.008807 0.019225 0.001716 0.007034 0.010707 0.037820 0.032683 0.017726
Y
P21
0.000000 0.000000 0.000417 0.000028 0.002096 0.006798 0.007813 0.017371 0.001387 0.005653 0.009561 0.034224 0.030163 0.016620
Y
P22
0.000000 0.000000 0.000298 0.000017 0.001663 0.005709 0.006931 0.015697 0.001121 0.004537 0.008537 0.030970 0.027837 0.015582
Y
P23
0.000000 0.000000 0.000213 0.000010 0.001319 0.004795 0.006149 0.014184 0.000906 0.003637 0.007623 0.028025 0.025691 0.014609
5
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TABLE A-2
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Wall Types 15-28
Wall Type
PRF 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Y
P0
0.003431 0.013849 0.004175 0.008577 0.014126 0.035606 0.019325 0.003007 0.004882 0.025424 0.008945 0.015662 0.009596 0.012209
Y
P1
0.003012 0.012792 0.003810 0.008028 0.013585 0.034529 0.018612 0.002575 0.004406 0.023192 0.008292 0.014815 0.009207 0.011821
Y
P2
0.006114 0.021567 0.004241 0.009021 0.016653 0.040215 0.019004 0.002532 0.004063 0.022015 0.007887 0.014581 0.008878 0.011549
Y
P3
0.017478 0.045665 0.007182 0.013933 0.024480 0.053542 0.022081 0.004128 0.004471 0.025174 0.008673 0.016516 0.008950 0.011916
Y
P4
0.031771 0.071531 0.011602 0.020266 0.031490 0.065575 0.026450 0.007563 0.006341 0.033768 0.010998 0.020265 0.009851 0.013207
Y
P5
0.042301 0.089595 0.015211 0.024766 0.035392 0.072886 0.030119 0.011384 0.009229 0.044656 0.013844 0.024056 0.011374 0.014878
Y
P6
0.047450 0.098700 0.017218 0.026854 0.036803 0.076180 0.032445 0.014445 0.012126 0.054641 0.016307 0.026953 0.012963 0.016339
Y
P7
0.048238 0.100767 0.017849 0.027188 0.036679 0.076775 0.033569 0.016378 0.014350 0.062150 0.018071 0.028811 0.014229 0.017347
Y
P8
0.046165 0.098074 0.017561 0.026495 0.035698 0.075701 0.033825 0.017254 0.015692 0.066845 0.019141 0.029779 0.015050 0.017908
Y
P9
0.042480 0.092481 0.016743 0.025278 0.034270 0.073645 0.033507 0.017297 0.016227 0.069001 0.019634 0.030062 0.015458 0.018114
Y
P10
0.038053 0.085324 0.015660 0.023831 0.032635 0.071042 0.032832 0.016744 0.016136 0.069113 0.019678 0.029842 0.015542 0.018066
Y
P11
0.033443 0.077507 0.014474 0.022317 0.030928 0.068162 0.031946 0.015800 0.015609 0.067699 0.019388 0.029266 0.015396 0.017846
Y
P12
0.028983 0.069609 0.013281 0.020820 0.029226 0.065171 0.030942 0.014625 0.014808 0.065214 0.018858 0.028445 0.015095 0.017516
Y
P13
0.024854 0.061987 0.012130 0.019382 0.027568 0.062171 0.029881 0.013336 0.013853 0.062028 0.018161 0.027462 0.014696 0.017116
Y
P14
0.021143 0.054845 0.011048 0.018020 0.025976 0.059222 0.028800 0.012017 0.012830 0.058427 0.017354 0.026379 0.014241 0.016675
Y
P15
0.017873 0.048287 0.010045 0.016743 0.024460 0.056358 0.027722 0.010725 0.011797 0.054623 0.016480 0.025239 0.013754 0.016213
Y
P16
0.015034 0.042351 0.009123 0.015550 0.023023 0.053599 0.026663 0.009495 0.010790 0.050768 0.015572 0.024077 0.013256 0.015741
Y
P17
0.012596 0.037033 0.008280 0.014438 0.021665 0.050953 0.025629 0.008351 0.009831 0.046968 0.014654 0.022914 0.012756 0.015269
Y
P18
0.010520 0.032307 0.007512 0.013405 0.020384 0.048425 0.024627 0.007303 0.008932 0.043294 0.013743 0.021768 0.012263 0.014801
Y
P19
0.008764 0.028132 0.006813 0.012444 0.019177 0.046015 0.023658 0.006356 0.008098 0.039794 0.012854 0.020649 0.011781 0.014341
Y
P20
0.007286 0.024461 0.006178 0.011552 0.018040 0.043719 0.022723 0.005508 0.007331 0.036493 0.011994 0.019566 0.011313 0.013891
Y
P21
0.006047 0.021244 0.005602 0.010723 0.016970 0.041534 0.021823 0.004756 0.006629 0.033404 0.011170 0.018524 0.010859 0.013453
Y
P22
0.005012 0.018433 0.005079 0.009954 0.015964 0.039457 0.020957 0.004093 0.005990 0.030532 0.010386 0.017525 0.010422 0.013026
Y
P23
0.004149 0.015982 0.004605 0.009240 0.015017 0.037482 0.020125 0.003513 0.005409 0.027874 0.009644 0.016571 0.010001 0.012611
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TABLE A-3
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Wall Types 29-41 (*See Appendix B)
Wall Type
PRF 29 30* 31* 32 33 34 35* 36 37* 38* 39 40 41
Y
P0
0.033682 0.008359 0.005447 0.011969 0.007872 0.028092 0.008953 0.015236 0.005075 0.005342 0.007049 0.007362 0.009825
Y
P1
0.032700 0.007494 0.004959 0.011214 0.007504 0.026995 0.008625 0.014875 0.004578 0.004934 0.006687 0.007054 0.009512
Y
P2
0.031988 0.006735 0.004517 0.010520 0.007160 0.026112 0.008307 0.014543 0.004101 0.004541 0.006330 0.006752 0.009202
Y
P3
0.032573 0.006422 0.004244 0.010156 0.006978 0.026210 0.008057 0.014439 0.003678 0.004196 0.006016 0.006490 0.008933
Y
P4
0.034867 0.007316 0.004513 0.010695 0.007269 0.027717 0.008066 0.014863 0.003464 0.004046 0.005885 0.006401 0.008826
Y
P5
0.037908 0.009632 0.005547 0.012278 0.008096 0.030130 0.008487 0.015736 0.003668 0.004285 0.006093 0.006626 0.008983
Y
P6
0.040746 0.012755 0.007118 0.014448 0.009191 0.032762 0.009241 0.016737 0.004333 0.004939 0.006625 0.007140 0.009380
Y
P7
0.042953 0.015883 0.008798 0.016643 0.010253 0.035152 0.010108 0.017622 0.005295 0.005839 0.007326 0.007794 0.009910
Y
P8
0.044449 0.018478 0.010256 0.018494 0.011110 0.037076 0.010902 0.018294 0.006341 0.006779 0.008043 0.008445 0.010468
Y
P9
0.045308 0.020311 0.011330 0.019847 0.011710 0.038461 0.011525 0.018741 0.007307 0.007608 0.008679 0.009005 0.010980
Y
P10
0.045646 0.021364 0.011989 0.020687 0.012060 0.039324 0.011948 0.018990 0.008096 0.008251 0.009185 0.009433 0.011404
Y
P11
0.045577 0.021729 0.012271 0.021070 0.012200 0.039718 0.012184 0.019076 0.008671 0.008687 0.009547 0.009724 0.011724
Y
P12
0.045202 0.021538 0.012245 0.021076 0.012172 0.039717 0.012262 0.019036 0.009032 0.008929 0.009771 0.009888 0.011937
Y
P13
0.044600 0.020926 0.011985 0.020788 0.012017 0.039393 0.012217 0.018898 0.009198 0.009003 0.009872 0.009941 0.012050
Y
P14
0.043834 0.020014 0.011555 0.020280 0.011768 0.038814 0.012077 0.018688 0.009196 0.008941 0.009867 0.009903 0.012075
Y
P15
0.042952 0.018903 0.011009 0.019613 0.011452 0.038040 0.011867 0.018423 0.009056 0.008771 0.009773 0.009792 0.012023
Y
P16
0.041991 0.017673 0.010393 0.018839 0.011090 0.037120 0.011607 0.018120 0.008805 0.008519 0.009607 0.009622 0.011908
Y
P17
0.040978 0.016387 0.009737 0.017996 0.010700 0.036097 0.011312 0.017790 0.008467 0.008205 0.009383 0.009408 0.011741
Y
P18
0.039936 0.015089 0.009067 0.017115 0.010293 0.035003 0.010994 0.017441 0.008063 0.007845 0.009114 0.009159 0.011532
Y
P19
0.038878 0.013815 0.008400 0.016219 0.009878 0.033865 0.010660 0.017080 0.007610 0.007453 0.008811 0.008886 0.011290
Y
P20
0.037817 0.012586 0.007750 0.015325 0.009462 0.032703 0.010319 0.016712 0.007124 0.007040 0.008482 0.008595 0.011024
Y
P21
0.036762 0.011418 0.007125 0.014445 0.009050 0.031534 0.009974 0.016341 0.006617 0.006616 0.008136 0.008293 0.010739
Y
P22
0.035718 0.010322 0.006531 0.013588 0.008647 0.030370 0.009630 0.015970 0.006101 0.006187 0.007778 0.007984 0.010442
Y
P23
0.034690 0.009301 0.005971 0.012762 0.008253 0.029221 0.009289 0.015601 0.005585 0.005761 0.007415 0.007673 0.010136
5
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TABLE A-4
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Roof Types 1-14
Roof Type
PRF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Y
P0
0.027654 0.003156 0.035160 0.000022 0.000594 0.020865 0.005693 0.019691 0.000826 0.003524 0.002256 0.020401 0.009027 0.005829
Y
P1
0.207035 0.070157 0.252727 0.003734 0.015074 0.198207 0.054949 0.128446 0.002057 0.004413 0.002680 0.038276 0.015993 0.008048
Y
P2
0.150283 0.114644 0.268687 0.024245 0.043597 0.311286 0.099112 0.255807 0.014833 0.018433 0.008397 0.108191 0.039082 0.016688
Y
P3
0.050619 0.070966 0.200944 0.044043 0.049870 0.284994 0.099862 0.267821 0.033958 0.043089 0.017498 0.169331 0.053185 0.022392
Y
P4
0.014549 0.032932 0.148093 0.046896 0.043836 0.237722 0.088098 0.242607 0.042351 0.058310 0.023073 0.195852 0.055210 0.023469
Y
P5
0.004017 0.013831 0.109105 0.039265 0.035550 0.195273 0.074774 0.212598 0.041039 0.061629 0.024541 0.198684 0.052373 0.022663
Y
P6
0.001097 0.005571 0.080381 0.029047 0.028009 0.159997 0.062673 0.184784 0.035797 0.058285 0.023632 0.189092 0.048271 0.021324
Y
P7
0.000298 0.002201 0.059219 0.020026 0.021825 0.131038 0.052310 0.160278 0.029872 0.052296 0.021685 0.173948 0.044098 0.019903
Y
P8
0.000081 0.000861 0.043628 0.013228 0.016932 0.107313 0.043598 0.138949 0.024469 0.045717 0.019422 0.156977 0.040179 0.018530
Y
P9
0.000022 0.000336 0.032142 0.008504 0.013113 0.087883 0.036319 0.120443 0.019889 0.039440 0.017179 0.140081 0.036582 0.017238
Y
P10
0.000006 0.000130 0.023680 0.005372 0.010148 0.071971 0.030251 0.104397 0.016116 0.033793 0.015097 0.124167 0.033299 0.016033
Y
P11
0.000002 0.000051 0.017446 0.003354 0.007851 0.058939 0.025195 0.090489 0.013042 0.028851 0.013222 0.109614 0.030310 0.014910
Y
P12
0.000000 0.000020 0.012853 0.002078 0.006074 0.048268 0.020983 0.078433 0.010549 0.024585 0.011560 0.096525 0.027588 0.013866
Y
P13
0.000000 0.000008 0.009469 0.001280 0.004698 0.039528 0.017476 0.067984 0.008530 0.020929 0.010097 0.084870 0.025111 0.012895
Y
P14
0.000000 0.000003 0.006976 0.000786 0.003634 0.032371 0.014554 0.058926 0.006898 0.017807 0.008814 0.074551 0.022856 0.011991
Y
P15
0.000000 0.000001 0.005139 0.000481 0.002811 0.026510 0.012122 0.051075 0.005577 0.015147 0.007693 0.065449 0.020803 0.011152
Y
P16
0.000000 0.000000 0.003786 0.000294 0.002175 0.021710 0.010095 0.044271 0.004510 0.012882 0.006713 0.057437 0.018935 0.010370
Y
P17
0.000000 0.000000 0.002790 0.000180 0.001682 0.017779 0.008408 0.038373 0.003646 0.010955 0.005858 0.050394 0.017235 0.009644
Y
P18
0.000000 0.000000 0.002055 0.000110 0.001301 0.014560 0.007002 0.033260 0.002948 0.009316 0.005111 0.044209 0.015687 0.008969
Y
P19
0.000000 0.000000 0.001514 0.000067 0.001007 0.011924 0.005832 0.028829 0.002384 0.007922 0.004459 0.038780 0.014278 0.008340
Y
P20
0.000000 0.000000 0.001115 0.000041 0.000779 0.009765 0.004857 0.024988 0.001928 0.006736 0.003891 0.034016 0.012996 0.007756
Y
P21
0.000000 0.000000 0.000822 0.000025 0.000602 0.007997 0.004045 0.021659 0.001559 0.005728 0.003395 0.029836 0.011829 0.007213
Y
P22
0.000000 0.000000 0.000605 0.000015 0.000466 0.006549 0.003369 0.018773 0.001260 0.004871 0.002962 0.026169 0.010767 0.006708
Y
P23
0.000000 0.000000 0.000446 0.000009 0.000360 0.005363 0.002806 0.016272 0.001019 0.004142 0.002584 0.022952 0.009800 0.006238
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TABLE A-5
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Roof Types 15-28
Roof Type
PRF 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
Y
P0
0.013002 0.021141 0.001218 0.002401 0.003600 0.006837 0.008610 0.016880 0.007113 0.013896 0.010460 0.003580 0.005678 0.006612
Y
P1
0.016218 0.023683 0.001053 0.002118 0.003656 0.006275 0.008375 0.016593 0.006881 0.013843 0.010309 0.003233 0.005231 0.006201
Y
P2
0.025842 0.035386 0.002130 0.003441 0.007854 0.008243 0.012223 0.021887 0.007914 0.016380 0.011314 0.003018 0.005242 0.005877
Y
P3
0.030405 0.044148 0.007240 0.007883 0.015626 0.015853 0.019719 0.031186 0.010544 0.020299 0.013616 0.003672 0.006757 0.006148
Y
P4
0.030691 0.046465 0.014305 0.013333 0.021953 0.024855 0.026005 0.038400 0.013035 0.022994 0.015326 0.005932 0.009507 0.007642
Y
P5
0.029753 0.045871 0.019247 0.017657 0.025455 0.030987 0.029720 0.042455 0.014582 0.024282 0.015987 0.009000 0.012289 0.009943
Y
P6
0.028561 0.044373 0.021078 0.020246 0.026668 0.033729 0.031325 0.044127 0.015275 0.024645 0.016022 0.011638 0.014392 0.012146
Y
P7
0.027352 0.042669 0.020640 0.021265 0.026352 0.034008 0.031486 0.044229 0.015387 0.024474 0.015788 0.013278 0.015665 0.013720
Y
P8
0.026179 0.040962 0.018969 0.021106 0.025107 0.032808 0.030725 0.043346 0.015146 0.024009 0.015459 0.013942 0.016213 0.014575
Y
P9
0.025053 0.039305 0.016797 0.020154 0.023350 0.030831 0.029408 0.041872 0.014706 0.023390 0.015102 0.013876 0.016214 0.014840
Y
P10
0.023974 0.037710 0.014544 0.018720 0.021355 0.028512 0.027781 0.040063 0.014161 0.022697 0.014742 0.013345 0.015833 0.014687
Y
P11
0.022942 0.036179 0.012420 0.017036 0.019298 0.026108 0.026005 0.038086 0.013569 0.021973 0.014387 0.012551 0.015205 0.014268
Y
P12
0.021954 0.034710 0.010514 0.015264 0.017286 0.023757 0.024185 0.036046 0.012962 0.021245 0.014039 0.011637 0.014428 0.013694
Y
P13
0.021009 0.033301 0.008852 0.013510 0.015383 0.021532 0.022388 0.034011 0.012358 0.020524 0.013699 0.010689 0.013574 0.013038
Y
P14
0.020104 0.031948 0.007427 0.011843 0.013622 0.019466 0.020654 0.032024 0.011770 0.019819 0.013367 0.009758 0.012690 0.012348
Y
P15
0.019238 0.030651 0.006217 0.010299 0.012017 0.017569 0.019008 0.030108 0.011201 0.019133 0.013044 0.008874 0.011810 0.011656
Y
P16
0.018410 0.029406 0.005197 0.008899 0.010569 0.015841 0.017460 0.028277 0.010655 0.018468 0.012728 0.008049 0.010952 0.010977
Y
P17
0.017617 0.028212 0.004340 0.007647 0.009276 0.014273 0.016018 0.026538 0.010133 0.017824 0.012419 0.007289 0.010132 0.010322
Y
P18
0.016858 0.027066 0.003622 0.006541 0.008126 0.012855 0.014680 0.024893 0.009635 0.017202 0.012118 0.006593 0.009354 0.009697
Y
P19
0.016132 0.025967 0.003022 0.005574 0.007109 0.011574 0.013444 0.023342 0.009161 0.016601 0.011825 0.005959 0.008624 0.009104
Y
P20
0.015438 0.024913 0.002521 0.004734 0.006212 0.010419 0.012305 0.021882 0.008709 0.016021 0.011538 0.005384 0.007943 0.008543
Y
P21
0.014773 0.023901 0.002102 0.004009 0.005424 0.009378 0.011258 0.020510 0.008280 0.015460 0.011259 0.004863 0.007309 0.008015
Y
P22
0.014137 0.022930 0.001753 0.003386 0.004733 0.008441 0.010297 0.019221 0.007871 0.014920 0.010986 0.004392 0.006722 0.007518
Y
P23
0.013528 0.021999 0.001461 0.002854 0.004128 0.007597 0.009416 0.018012 0.007482 0.014398 0.010720 0.003966 0.006179 0.007051
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TABLE A-6
Periodic Response Factors (W/m
2
K) for Representative Roof Types 29-42 (*See Appendix B)
Roof Type
PRF 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37* 38* 39 40 41 42
Y
P0
0.008540 0.011181 0.010188 0.024294 0.010753 0.015686 0.007126 0.010387 0.007526 0.006529 0.026523 0.012232 0.018278 0.010291
Y
P1
0.008087 0.010682 0.009758 0.023314 0.010409 0.015305 0.006572 0.009795 0.007211 0.006304 0.025726 0.011896 0.017882 0.010120
Y
P2
0.008667 0.010363 0.009513 0.023710 0.010363 0.015221 0.006152 0.009313 0.006915 0.006088 0.025335 0.011663 0.017594 0.009951
Y
P3
0.010741 0.010994 0.010124 0.026353 0.011083 0.015921 0.006363 0.009408 0.006744 0.005925 0.026168 0.011857 0.017764 0.009842
Y
P4
0.013017 0.012901 0.011735 0.029640 0.012197 0.017059 0.007508 0.010383 0.006954 0.005973 0.027947 0.012471 0.018411 0.009895
Y
P5
0.014794 0.015232 0.013603 0.032465 0.013207 0.018126 0.009177 0.011858 0.007624 0.006347 0.029868 0.013193 0.019215 0.010107
Y
P6
0.016006 0.017188 0.015139 0.034594 0.013969 0.018954 0.010856 0.013350 0.008549 0.006960 0.031515 0.013837 0.019958 0.010396
Y
P7
0.016741 0.018499 0.016171 0.036068 0.014493 0.019535 0.012258 0.014603 0.009473 0.007621 0.032781 0.014349 0.020565 0.010687
Y
P8
0.017096 0.019202 0.016737 0.036985 0.014816 0.019904 0.013287 0.015542 0.010235 0.008192 0.033677 0.014729 0.021024 0.010941
Y
P9
0.017156 0.019432 0.016940 0.037442 0.014978 0.020099 0.013946 0.016176 0.010777 0.008612 0.034248 0.014991 0.021347 0.011144
Y
P10
0.016990 0.019324 0.016880 0.037521 0.015011 0.020155 0.014278 0.016541 0.011100 0.008874 0.034544 0.015150 0.021549 0.011295
Y
P11
0.016652 0.018987 0.016634 0.037294 0.014940 0.020100 0.014340 0.016680 0.011233 0.008998 0.034610 0.015220 0.021648 0.011397
Y
P12
0.016188 0.018502 0.016265 0.036823 0.014789 0.019956 0.014185 0.016633 0.011216 0.009010 0.034485 0.015215 0.021659 0.011456
Y
P13
0.015633 0.017924 0.015813 0.036157 0.014574 0.019743 0.013862 0.016435 0.011084 0.008939 0.034203 0.015144 0.021593 0.011477
Y
P14
0.015015 0.017293 0.015311 0.035339 0.014310 0.019476 0.013414 0.016116 0.010869 0.008806 0.033792 0.015020 0.021462 0.011465
Y
P15
0.014357 0.016636 0.014780 0.034405 0.014010 0.019168 0.012873 0.015702 0.010595 0.008630 0.033277 0.014849 0.021278 0.011425
Y
P16
0.013676 0.015970 0.014236 0.033384 0.013682 0.018828 0.012270 0.015216 0.010283 0.008425 0.032679 0.014641 0.021047 0.011359
Y
P17
0.012986 0.015308 0.013690 0.032300 0.013334 0.018464 0.011626 0.014675 0.009946 0.008201 0.032016 0.014400 0.020778 0.011272
Y
P18
0.012298 0.014658 0.013148 0.031175 0.012974 0.018084 0.010960 0.014095 0.009595 0.007965 0.031301 0.014134 0.020477 0.011168
Y
P19
0.011620 0.014025 0.012616 0.030025 0.012605 0.017693 0.010287 0.013489 0.009239 0.007723 0.030548 0.013847 0.020150 0.011048
Y
P20
0.010958 0.013411 0.012098 0.028863 0.012231 0.017294 0.009618 0.012868 0.008884 0.007479 0.029767 0.013543 0.019802 0.010915
Y
P21
0.010316 0.012820 0.011595 0.027701 0.011857 0.016891 0.008961 0.012241 0.008532 0.007236 0.028967 0.013227 0.019437 0.010771
Y
P22
0.009698 0.012251 0.011109 0.026547 0.011485 0.016488 0.008324 0.011615 0.008187 0.006996 0.028156 0.012901 0.019060 0.010618
Y
P23
0.009105 0.011704 0.010640 0.025410 0.011116 0.016086 0.007711 0.010995 0.007852 0.006760 0.027339 0.012568 0.018672 0.010457
ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia 509
APPENDIX B
After the review process and very near to press time, it
was determined that the conduction transfer function coeffi-
cients originally published by Harris and McQuiston (1988)
were inaccurate for a few of the very high mass walls and
roofs. Furthermore, these CTF coefficients have been
published in the 1989, 1993, and 1997 editions of the
ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals. Presumably, this is due
to precision problems in the CTF calculation program,
although this has not been investigated in detail by the
authors. The errors may be quantified by checking whether or
not the CTF coefficients satisfy a fundamental relationship
between the U-factor and the CTF coefficients:
(B-1)
The surfaces for which the discrepancy between the
actual U-factor and the U-factor determined from the CTF
coefficients exceeds 1% are Roof 37 (3%), Roof 38 (8%),
Wall 30 (2%), Wall 31 (6%), Wall 35 (16%), Wall 37 (30%),
Wall 38 (30%). In every case, the U-factor based on the CTF
coefficients is lower than the actual U-factor. Hence, the
errors in the CTF coefficients will result in under-predicting
the cooling loads.
Therefore, new CTF coefficients were determined using
Seem’s method (Seem et al. 1989). For each of the massive
surfaces, either 12 or 13 temperature history terms (b coeffi-
cients) and 12 or 13 flux history terms (d coefficients)
resulted. Periodic response factors were determined from
these CTF coefficients using the procedure described in the
paper. Surfaces for which new CTF coefficients were used to
determine the periodic response factors are marked with an
asterisk in Tables 6, 9, A-3, and A-6.
REFERENCES
Seem, J.E., S.A. Klein, W.A. Beckman, J.W. Mitchell. 1989.
Transfer functions for efficient calculation of multidi-
mensional transient heat transfer. Journal of Heat Trans-
fer, 11: 5-12, February.


=
=
+
=
1
0
1
n
n
n
n
d
b
U

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems
Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)

The correct citation for the paper is:

Spitler, J.D., D.E. Fisher. 1999. Development of Periodic Response Factors for Use with
the Radiant Time Series Method. ASHRAE Transactions. 105(2): 491-509.

Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Transactions (Vol. #105 Part 2, pp. 491-509).
© 1999 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.

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