)
FIBONACCINumbers
Alfred S. Posamentier
Ingmar Lehmann
Afterword by
Herbert A.
Hauptman
Lobel Laureate
~ Prometheus Bcxlks
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Amherst, New York 142282197
Published 2007 by Prometheus Books
The Fabulous Fibonacci Numbers. Copyright © 2007 by Alfred S. Posamentier
and Ingmar Lehmann. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
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11 10 09 08 07 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Posamentier, Alfred S.
The fabulous Fibonacci numbers / by Alfred S. Posamentier and
Ingmar Lehmann.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 9781591024750 (alk. paper)
1. Fibonacci numbers. I. Lehmann, Ingmar. II. Title.
QA241.P665 2007
512.7'2dc22
2006035406
Printed in the United States of America on acidfree paper
To Barbara for her support, patience, and inspiration.
To my children and grandchildren: David, Lisa, Danny, Max,
and Sam, whose future is unbounded.
And in memory of my beloved parents, Alice and Ernest, who
never lost faith in me.
Alfred S. Posamentier
To my wife and life partner, Sabine, without whose support
and patience my work on this book would not have been possible.
And to my children and grandchildren: Maren, Claudia, Simon,
and Miriam.
Ingmar Lehmann
Contents
Acknowledgments 9
Introduction 11
Chapter 1: A History and Introduction to the
Fibonacci Numbers 17
Chapter 2: The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature 59
Chapter 3: The Fibonacci Numbers and the
Pascal Triangle 77
Chapter 4: The Fibonacci Numbers and the
Golden Ratio 107
Chapter 5: The Fibonacci Numbers and
Continued Fractions 161
Chapter 6: A Potpourri of Fibonacci Number
Applications 177
Chapter 7: The Fibonacci Numbers Found in Art
and Architecture 231
Chapter 8: The Fibonacci Numbers and
Musical Form 271
7
8 CONTENTS
Chapter 9: The Famous Binet Formula for Finding
a Particular Fibonacci Number
Chapter 10: The Fibonacci Numbers and
Fractals
Epilogue
Afterword by Herbert A. Hauptman
Appendix A: List of the First 500 Fibonacci Numbers,
with the First 200 Fibonacci Numbers
293
307
327
329
Factored 343
Appendix B: Proofs of Fibonacci Relationships 349
References 371
Index 375
Acknowledgments
T
he authors wish to thank Professor Stephen Jablonsky of the
City College of New YorkCUNY, who used his multifaceted
talents to present the unusual appearances of the Fibonacci num
bers in the realm of music from the design of compositions to the
design of musical instruments.
Professor Ana Lucia B. Dias deserves our sincere thanks for
her broad discussion of the occurrence of the Fibonacci numbers in
the field of fractals.
Our dear friend Dr. Herbert A. Hauptman, the acknowledged
first mathematician to win the Nobel Prize (Chemistry, 1985), pro
vided a stimulating afterword for the book. This capstone piece
will provide a challenge to the reader and may even have some
elements never before discovered.
It was during a conversation with our friend James S. Tisch,
president and CEO of the Loews Corporation, that he mentioned
the applications of the Fibonacci numbers in the world of eco
nomics. He provided much information, and we took it the rest of
the way to the pages of this book. For this, we thank him.
Dr. Lehmann acknowledges the occasional support of Tristan
Vincent in helping him identify the right English words to best ex
press his ideas.
We wish to also thank Professor Andreas Filler, of the Pada
gogische Hochschule at Heidelberg (Germany); Heino Hellwig,
Humboldt University, Berlin; and HansPeter Ludtke, at the Hein
richHertz Gymnasium, Berlin, for providing some valuable com
ments during the writing of this book.
9
10 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The success of a book is usually dependent on two types of
support: our faithful guide through the development of the project
for which we thank Linda Greenspan Regan, who gave us constant
advice to make the book as appealing to the general readership as
possible, and the content editor, Peggy Deemer, who, as usual, did
a magnificent job editing the manuscriptno mean feat, given the
complexity of the subject.
Naturally, we wish to thank, respectively, Barbara and Sabine,
for their encouragement, patience, and support during our work on
this book.
Introduction
The Fabulous Fibonacci Numbers
I
n a remote section of the Austrian Alps, there is a long
abandoned salt mine entrance with a cornerstone bearing the in
scription "anno 1180." It refers to the year that the mine was estab
lished. Clearly there is something wrong with this designation.
Scholars have determined that the first published use of the Hindu
numerals (our common numerals) in the Western world was in
1202. It was in this year that Leonardo of Pisa (Leonardo Pisano),
more commonly known as Fibonacci (pronounced: feebohNACH
ee), published his seminal work Liber Abaci, or "book of calcula
tion." He began chapter 1 of his book with:
The nine Indian 1 figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
With these nine figures, and with the sign 0, which
the Arabs call zephyr, any number whatsoever is written.
This constitutes the first formal mention of our baseten numeral
system in the Western world. There is speculation, however, that
Arabs already introduced these numerals informally and locally in
Spain in the second half of the tenth century.
Unlike luminaries from the past, whose fame today is largely
based on a single work, such as Georges Bizet (18381875) for
Carmen, Engelbert Humperdinck (18541921) for Hansel und
1. Fibonacci used the term Indian figures for the Hindu numerals.
1 1
12 INTRODUCTION
Gretel, or J. D. Salinger (b. 1919) for The Catcher in the Rye, we
should not think of Fibonacci as a mathematician who is known
only for this nowfamous sequence of numbers that bears his name.
He was one of the greatest mathematical influences in Western cul
ture and unquestionably the leading mathematical mind of his times.
Yet it was this sequence of numbers, emanating from a problem on
the regeneration of rabbits, that made him famous in today's world.
Fibonacci was a serious mathematician, who first learned
mathematics in his youth in Bugia, a town on the Barbary Coast of
Africa, which had been established by merchants from Pisa. He
traveled on business throughout the Middle East and along the way
met mathematicians with whom he entered into serious discussions.
He was familiar with the methods of Euclid (ca. 300 BeE) and used
those skills to bring to the European people mathematics in a very
usable form. His contributions include introducing a practical nu
meration system, calculating algorithms and algebraic methods, and
a new facility with fractions, among others. The result was that the
schools in Tuscany soon began to teach Fibonacci's form of calcu
lation. They abandoned the use of the abacus, which involved
counting beads on a string and then recording their results with Ro
man numerals. This catapulted the discipline of mathematics for
ward, since algorithms were not possible with these cumbersome
symbols. Through his revolutionary book and other subsequent
publications, he made dramatic changes in western Europe's use and
understanding of mathematics.
Unfortunately, Fibonacci's popularity today does not encompass
these most important innovations. Among the mathematical prob
lems Fibonacci poses in chapter 12 of Liber Abaci, there is one
about the regeneration of rabbits. Although its statement is a bit
cumbersome, its results have paved the way for a plethora of
monumental ideas, which has resulted in his fame today. The prob
lem, which is stated on page 25 (figure 12), shows the monthly
count of rabbits as the following sequence of numbers: 1,1,2,3,5,
8, 13,21,34,55, 89, 144,233,377, ... , which is known today as
the Fibonacci numbers. At first sight one may wonder what makes
this sequence of numbers so revered. A quick inspection shows that
INTRODUCTION 13
this sequence of numbers can go on infinitely, as it begins with two
1 s and continues to get succeeding terms by adding, each time, the
last two numbers to get the next number (i.e., 1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = 3,
2 + 3 = 5, and so on). By itself, this is not very impressive. Yet, as
you will see, there are no numbers in all of mathematics as ubiquitous
as the Fibonacci numbers. They appear in geometry, algebra, number
theory, and many other branches of mathematics. However, even
more spectacularly, they appear in nature; for example, the number of
spirals of bracts on a pinecone is always a Fibonacci number, and,
similarly, the number of spirals of bracts on a pineapple is also a
Fibonacci number. The appearances in nature seem boundless. The
Fibonacci numbers can be found in connection with the arrangement
of branches on various species of trees, as well as in the number of
ancestors at every generation of the male bee on its family tree.
There is practically no end to where these numbers appear.
Throughout these pages we will explore many manifestations, so
that you may be motivated to find other instances in nature where
these Fibonacci numbers surface. The book will also provide you with
a gentle, yet illuminating discussion of the unusual nature of these
numbers. Their interrelationships with other seemingly completely
unrelated aspects of mathematics will open the door to applications in
a variety of other fields and areas as remote as the stock market.
It is our desire that this book serve as your introduction to these
fabulous numbers. We will provide you with the development of
the Fibonacci numbers, a sort of history, one might say. Then we
will investigate the many "sightings" of these numbers by subject
area. For example, in geometry we will explore their relationship
with the most beautiful ratio, known as the "golden ratio.,,2 Here
the Fibonacci numbers, when taken as quotients in consecutive
pairs, approach the golden ratio:
l/J = 1.6180339887498948482045868343656 ...
2. The golden ratio will be discussed in reasonable depth (with ample applica
tions in geometry and art) so that the reader will have a true appreciation for it
and, consequently, its relationship to the Fibonacci numbers. It is often symbol
ized by the Greek letter l/J.
14 INTRODUCTION
The larger the Fibonacci numbers, the closer their quotient ap
proaches the golden ratio.
Consider, for example, the quotient of the relatively small pair
of consecutive Fibonacci numbers:
13
 == 1.625
8
Then consider the quotient of the somewhat larger pair of con
secutive Fibonacci numbers:
55
_ = 1.6176470588235294117 3
34
and the quotient of an even larger pair of consecutive Fibonacci
numbers:
144
 = 1.61797752808988764044943820224719101123595505
89
Notice how these increasingly larger quotients seem to sur
round the actual value of the golden ratio, l/J. Then, when we take
much larger pairs of consecutive Fibonacci numbers, their quo
tients get us ever closer to the actual value of the golden ratio, l/J.
For example,
4 181
, =1.6180340557275541795665634674923 ...
2,584
165 580 141
, , =1.618033988749894890909100680999418033988 ... 4
102,334,155
3. The bar above the last repeat of 16 indicates that the 16 digits repeat indefi
nitely.
4. The fortieth Fibonacci number is 102,334,155 and the fortyfirst is
165,580,141.
INTRODUCTION 15
Compare this last quotient to the value of the golden ratio:
l/> == 1.6180339887498948482045868343656 ...
We will also discuss the nature and glory of the golden ratio
itself. Its appearance in architecture and art is more than coinci
dental. If you were to sketch a rectangle encasing the front view
of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, you will have drawn a golden
rectanglethat is, one whose length and width are in the golden
ratio. Many artists have employed the golden rectangle in their
art. The painting of Adam and Eve by the famous medieval Ger
man artist Albrecht Durer (14711528), for instance, has the
subjects encased in a golden rectangle.
Interestingly enough, the Fibonacci numbers did not get their
prominence, and their name, until Edouard Lucas (18421891), a
French mathematician, studied them in the second half of the
nineteenth century. He mused about the start of the sequence,
wondering what would happen if the sequence had begun with 1
and 3, rather than 1 and 1. So he studied this new sequence (fol
lowing the same additive rule) and then compared it to the
Fibonacci sequence. The Lucas numbers, which are 1, 3, 4, 7, 11,
18,29,47,76, 123, ... , interrelate with the Fibonacci numbers.
We will explore their relationship later.
There is almost no end to the places where the Fibonacci num
bers appear and their many applications. We will present mathe
matical recreations, as well as more serious properties of these
numbersall of which will fascinate the uninitiated as well as the
mathsavvy reader. You will be truly awed by these magnificent
numbers and most likely will be continuously consciously seeking
your own sightings of the Fibonacci numbers. Throughout this
book we hope to appeal to all types of readers, but always have the
general reader in mind. For the more mathematically advanced
reader, however, we provide an appendix with proofs of statements
made throughout this book. Our goal is to evoke the power and
beauty of mathematics for all readers.
Chapter 1
A History and Introduction to
the Fibonacci Numbers
W
ith the dawn of the thirteenth century, Europe began to
wake from the long sleep of the Middle Ages and perceive
faint glimmers of the coming Renaissance. The mists rose slowly
as the forces of change impelled scholars, crusaders, artists, and
merchants to take their tentative steps into the future. Nowhere
were these stirrings more evident than in the great trading and
mercantile cities of Italy. By the end of the century, Marco Polo
(12541324) had journeyed the Great Silk Road to reach China,
Giotto di Bondone (12661337) had changed the course of paint
ing and freed it from Byzantine conventions, and the mathemati
cian Leonardo Pisano, best known as Fibonacci, changed forever
Western methods of calculation, which facilitated the exchange of
currency and trade. He further presented mathematicians to this
day with unsolved challenges. The Fibonacci Association, started
in 1963, is a tribute to the enduring contributions of the master.
Leonardo Pisanoor Leonardo of Pisa, Fibonacci Ihis name
as recorded in history, is derived from the Latin "filius Bonacci,"
or a son of Bonacci, but it may more likely derive from "de filiis
1. It is unclear who first used the name however, it seems to be at
tributed to Giovanni Gabriello Grimaldi (17571837) at around 1790, or to Pie
tro Cossali (17481815).
17
18 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Bonacci," or family of Bonacci. He was born to Guilielmo (Wil
liam) Bonacci and his wife in the port city of Pisa, Italy, around
1175, shortly after the start of construction of the famous bell
tower, the Leaning Tower of Pisa. These were turbulent times in
Europe. The Crusades were in full swing and the Holy Roman
Empire was in conflict with the papacy. The cities of Pisa, Genoa,
Venice, and Amalfi, although frequently at war with each other,
were maritime republics with specified trade routes to the Mediter
ranean countries and beyond. Pisa had played a powerful role in
commerce since Roman times and even before as a port of call for
Greek traders. Early on it had established outposts for its com
merce along its colonies and trading routes.
Figure 11
Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci).
In 1192 Guilielmo Bonacci became a public clerk in the cus
toms house for the Republic of Pisa, which was stationed in the
Pisan colony of Bugia (later Bougie, and today Bejaia, Algeria) on
the Barbary Coast of Africa. Shortly after his arrival he brought his
son, Leonardo, to join him so that the boy could learn the skill of
calculating and become a merchant. This ability was significant
since each republic had its own units of money and traders had to
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 19
calculate monies due them. This meant determining currency
equivalents on a daily basis. It was in Bugia that Fibonacci first
became acquainted with the "nine Indian figures," as he called the
Hindu numerals and "the sign 0 which the Arabs call zephyr." He
declares his fascination for the methods of calculation using these
numerals in the only source we have about his life story, the pro
logue to his most famous book, Liber Abaci. During his time away
from Pisa, he received instruction from a Muslim teacher, who in
troduced him to a book on algebra titled Hisab aljabr w'al
muqabalah2 by the Persian mathematician alKhowarizmi (ca.
780ca. 850), which also influenced him.
During his lifetime, Fibonacci traveled extensively to Egypt,
Syria, Greece, Sicily, and Provence, where he not only conducted
business but also met with mathematicians to learn their ways of
doing mathematics. Indeed Fibonacci sometimes referred to him
self as "Bigollo," which could mean goodfornothing or, more
positively, traveler. He may have liked the double meaning. When
he returned to Pisa around the tum of the century, Fibonacci began
to write about calculation methods with the Indian numerals for
commercial applications in his book, Liber Abaci.
3
The volume is
mostly loaded with algebraic problems and those "realworld"
problems that require more abstract mathematics. Fibonacci
wanted to spread these newfound techniques to his countrymen.
Bear in mind that during these times, there was no printing
press, so books had to be written by the hands of scribes, and if a
copy was to be made, that, too, had to be hand written. Therefore we
are fortunate to still have copies of Liber Abaci, which first appeared
in 1202 and was later revised in 1228.
4
Among Fibonacci's other
books is Practica geometriae (1220), a book on the practice of ge
ometry. It covers geometry and trigonometry with a rigor compara
ble to that of Euclid's work, and with ideas presented in proof form
as well as in numerical form, using these very convenient numerals.
2. The name "algebra" comes from the title of this book.
3. The title means "book on calculation"; it is not about the abacus.
4. An Englishlanguage version of Liber Abacithe first in a modern lan
guageof the 1228, Latin version of 1857 by Baldassarre Boncompagni was
recently published by Laurence E. Sigler (New York: SpringerVerlag, 2002).
20 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Here Fibonacci uses algebraic methods to solve geometric problems
as well as the reverse. In 1225 he wrote Flos (on flowers or blos
soms) and Liber quadratorum (or "Book of Squares"), a book that
truly distinguished Fibonacci as a talented mathematician, ranking
very high among number theorists. Fibonacci likely wrote additional
works that are lost. His book on commercial arithmetic, Di minor
guisa, is lost, as is his commentary on Book X of Euclid's Elements,
which contained a numerical treatment of irrational numbers
5
as
compared to Euclid's geometrical treatment.
The confluence of politics and scholarship brought Fibonacci
into contact with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (1194
1250) in the third decade of the century. Frederick II, who had been
crowned king of Sicily in 1198, king of Germany in 1212, and then
crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in St. Peter's Cathedral
in Rome (1220), had spent the years up to 1227 consolidating his
power in Italy. He supported Pisa, then with a population of about
ten thousand, in its conflicts with Genoa at sea and with Lucca and
Florence on land. As a strong patron of science and the arts, Freder
ick II became aware of Fibonacci's work through the scholars at his
court, who had corresponded with Fibonacci since his return to Pisa
around 1200. These scholars included Michael Scotus (ca. 1175{;a.
1236), who was the court astrologer and to whom Fibonacci dedi
cated his book Liber Abaci; Theodorus Physicus, the court philoso
pher; and Dominicus Hispanus, who suggested to Frederick II that
he meet Fibonacci when Frederick's court met in Pisa around 1225.
The meeting took place as expected within the year.
Johannes of Palermo, another member of Frederick II's court,
presented a number of problems as challenges to the great mathe
matician Fibonacci. Fibonacci solved three of these problems. He
provided solutions in Flos, which he sent to Frederick II. One of
these problems, taken from Omar Khayyam's (10481122) book on
algebra, was to solve the equation: x
3
+ 2X2 + lOx = 20. Fibonacci
knew that this was not solvable with the numerical system then in
placethe Roman numerals. He provided an approximate answer,
5. Irrational numbers are those that cannot be expressed as a common fraction
involving integers.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 21
since he pointed out that the answer was not an integer, nor a frac
tion, nor the square root of a fraction. Without any explanation, he
gives the approximate solution in the form of a sexagesimal
6
number
as 1.22.7.42.33.4.40, which equals:
22 7 42 33 4 40
1++++++
60 60
2
60
3
60
4
60
5
60
6
However, with today's computer algebra system we can get the
proper (real) solutionby no means trivial! It is
2 ~ 3 , 930 352 2 ~ 3 , 930 352 2
x == 3 _+ 3 +
9 27 9 27 3
~ 1.3688081075
Another of the problems with which he was challenged is one
we can explore here, since it doesn't require anything more than
some elementary algebra. Remember that although these methods
may seem elementary to us, they were hardly known at the time of
Fibonacci, and so this was considered a real challenge. The prob
lem was to find the perfect square
7
that remains a perfect square
when increased or decreased by 5.
Fibonacci found the number 41 as his solution to the problem.
12
To check this, we must add and subtract 5 and see if the result is
still a perfect square.
(
~ ) 2 +5= 1,681 + 720 = 2,401 =(49)2
12 144 144 144 12
(
~ ) 2 _ 5 = 1,681 _ 720 = 961 = ( ~ ) 2
12 144 144 144 12
We have then shown that 41 meets the criteria set out in the
12
problem. Luckily the problem asked for 5 to be added and sub
tracted from the perfect square, for if he were asked to add or sub
6. A number in base 60.
7. A perfect square is the square of an integer, e.g., 16, 36, or 81.
22 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
tract 1, 2, 3, or 4 instead of 5, the problem could not have been
solved. For a more general solution of this problem, see appendix B.
The third problem, also presented in Flos, is to solve the following:
Three people are to share an amount of money in the
following parts: ~ , ~ , and ~ . Each person takes some
money from this amount of money until there is nothing
left. The first person then returns ~ of what he took. The
2
second person then returns ! of what he took, and the
3
third person returns ! of what he took. When the total of
6
what was returned is divided equally among the three,
each has his correct share, namely, ~ , ~ , and ~ . How
much money was in the original amount and how much
did each person get from the original amount of money?
Although none of Fibonacci's competitors could solve any of
these three problems, he gave as an answer of 47 as the smallest
amount, yet he claimed the problem was indeterminate.
The last mention of Fibonacci was in 1240, when he was hon
ored with a lifetime salary by the Republic of Pisa for his service to
the people, whom he advised on matters of accounting, often pro
bono.
The Book Liber Abaci
Although Fibonacci wrote several books, the one we will focus on
is Liber Abaci. This extensive volume is full of very interesting
problems. Based on the arithmetic and algebra that Fibonacci had
accumulated during his travels, it was widely copied and imitated,
and, as noted, introduced into Europe the HinduArabic place
valued decimal system along with the use of HinduArabic numer
als. The book was increasingly widely used for the better part of
the next two centuriesa best seller!
He begins Liber Abaci with the following:
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 23
The nine Indian
8
figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.9
With these nine figures, and with the sign 0, which
the Arabs call zephyr, any number whatsoever is written,
as demonstrated below. A number is a sum of units, and
through the addition of them the number increases by
steps without end. First one composes those numbers,
which are from one to ten. Second, from the tens are
made those numbers, which are from ten up to one hun
dred. Third, from the hundreds are made those numbers,
which are from one hundred up to one thousand ... and
thus by an unending sequence of steps, any number
whatsoever is constructed by joining the preceding num
bers. The first place in the writing of the numbers is at
the right. The second follows the first to the left.
Despite their relative facility, these numerals were not widely
accepted by merchants, who were suspicious of those who knew
how to use them. They were simply afraid of being cheated. We
can safely say that it took the same three hundred years for these
numerals to catch on as it did for the completion of the Leaning
Tower of Pisa.
Interestingly, Liber Abaci also contains simultaneous linear
equations. Many of the problems that Fibonacci considers, how
ever, were similar to those appearing in Arab sources. This does
not detract from the value of the book, since it is the collection of
solutions to these problems that makes the major contribution to
our development of mathematics. As a matter of fact, a number of
mathematical termscommon in today's usagewere first intro
duced in Liber Abaci. Fibonacci referred to "factus ex multiplica
tione,,,IO and from this first sighting of the word, we speak of the
"factors of a number" or the "factors of a multiplication." Another
example of words whose introduction into the current mathematics
vocabulary seems to stem from this famous book are the words
"numerator" and "denominator."
8. Fibonacci used the term Indian figures for the Hindu numerals.
9. It is assumed that Fibonacci wrote the numerals in order from right to left,
since he took them from the Arabs, who write in this direction.
1 O. David Eugene Smith, History of Mathematics, vol. 2 (New York: Dover,
1958), p. 105.
24 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The second section of Liber Abaci includes a large collection
of problems aimed at merchants. They relate to the price of goods,
how to convert between the various currencies in use in Mediterra
nean countries, how to calculate profit on transactions, and prob
lems that had probably originated in China.
Fibonacci was aware of a merchant's desire to circumvent the
church's ban on charging interest on loans. So he devised a way to
hide the interest in a higher initial sum than the actual loan, and
based his calculations on compound interest.
The third section of the book contains many problems, such as:
A hound whose speed increases arithmetically chases a
hare whose speed also increases arithmetically. How far
do they travel before the hound catches the hare?
A spider climbs so many feet up a wall each day and
slips back a fixed number each night. How many days
does it take him to climb the wall?
Calculate the amount of money two people have after a
certain amount changes hands and the proportional in
crease and decrease are given.
There are also problems involving perfect numbers, II problems
involving the Chinese remainder theorem, and problems involving
the sums of arithmetic and geometric series. Fibonacci treats num
bers such as J10 in the fourth section, both with rational
12
ap
proximations and with geometric constructions.
Some of the classical problems, which are considered recrea
tional mathematics today, first appeared in the Western world in
Liber Abaci. Yet the technique for solution was always the chief
concern for introducing the problem. This book is of interest to us,
not only because it was the first publication in Western culture to
use the Hindu numerals to replace the clumsy Roman numerals, or
because Fibonacci was the first to use a horizontal fraction bar, but
1 1. Perfect numbers are those where the sum of the number's proper factors is
equal to the number itself. For example, the proper factors of 6 are 1, 2, and 3.
The sum of these factors is 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, and therefore 6 is a perfect number.
The next larger perfect number is 28.
12. Rational numbers are those that can be expressed as common fractions, in
volving integers.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 25
because it casually includes a recreational mathematics problem in
chapter 12 that has made Fibonacci famous for posterity. This is the
problem on the regeneration of rabbits.
The Rabbit Problem
Figure 12 shows how the problem was stated (with the marginal
note included):
Beginning 1
First 2
Second 3
Third 5
Fourth 8
Fifth 13
Sixth 21
Seventh 34
Eighth 55
Ninth 89
Tenth 144
Eleventh 233
Twelfth 377
A certain man had one pair of rabbits together in a certain enclosed
place, and one wishes to know how many are created from the pair
in one year when it is the nature of them in a single month to bear
another pair, and in the second month those born to bear also. Be
cause the above written pair in the first month bore, you will dou
ble it; there will be two pairs in one month. One of these, namely
the first, bears in the second month, and thus there are in the sec
ond month 3 pairs; of these in one month two are pregnant and in
the third month 2 pairs of rabbits are born and thus there are 5
pairs in the month; in this month 3 pairs are pregnant and in the
fourth month there are 8 pairs, of wh ich 5 pairs bear another 5
pairs; these are added to the 8 pairs making 13 pairs in the fifth
month; these 5 pairs that are born in this month do not mate in this
month, but another 8 pairs are pregnant, and thus there are in the
sixth month 21 pairs; to these are added the 13 pairs that are born
in the seventh month; there will be 34 pairs in this month; to this
are added the 21 pairs that are born in the eighth month; there will
be 55 pairs in this month; to these are added the 34 pairs that are
born in the ninth month; there will be 89 pairs in this month; to
these are added again the 55 pairs that are born in the tenth month;
there will be 144 pairs in this month; to these are added again the
89 pairs that are born in the eleventh month; there will be 233
pairs in this month. To these are still added the 144 pairs that are
born in the last month; there will be 377 pairs and this many pairs
are produced from the abovewritten pair in the mentioned place at
the end of one year.
You can indeed see in the margin how we operated, namely, that
we added the first number to the second, namely the 1 to the 2, and
the second to the third and the third to the fourth and the fourth to
the fifth, and thus one after another until we added the tenth to the
eleventh, namely the 144 to the 233, and we had the abovewritten
sum of rabbits, namely 377 and thus you can in order find it for an
unending number of months."
Figure 12
To see how this problem would look on a monthly basis, con
sider the chart in figure 13. If we assume that a pair of baby (B)
26 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
rabbits matures in one month to become offspringproducing adults
(A), then we can set up the following chart:
Month Pairs
No. of Pairs of No. of Pairs Total
Adults ~ A } of Babies ~ B ! Pairs
Jan. 1
/""
0
Feb. 1
/'" ~
2
Mar. 1
/:)
t:::,
2 3
Apr. 1
A B
3 2 5
/\ \ ""
May 1
A J /t
t\
B
t\ \ \"'"
5 3 8
\
\
June 1 A B A A B A B A A B A A B 8 5 13
July 1 13 8 21
Aug. 1 21 13 34
Sept. 1 34 21 55
Oct. 1 55 34 89
Nov. I 89 55 144
Dec. 1 144 89 233
Jan. I 233 144 377
Figure 13
This problem generated the sequence of numbers:
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, ... ,
which is known today as the Fibonacci numbers. At first glance
there is nothing spectacular about these numbers beyond the rela
tionship that would allow us to generate additional numbers of the
sequence quite easily. We notice that every number in the sequence
(after the first two) is the sum of the two preceding numbers.
The Fibonacci sequence can be written in a way that its recursive
defmition becomes clear: each number is the sum of the two preceding
ones.
1+1=2
1+2=3
2+3=5
3+5=8
5+8= 13
8+ 13=21
13 + 21 = 34
21 + 34 = 55
34 + 55 = 89
55 + 89 = 144
89 + 144 = 233
144 + 233 = 377
233 + 377 = 610
377 + 610 = 987
610+987= 1,597 ...
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 27
The Fibonacci sequence is the oldest known (recursive) recurrent
sequence. There is no evidence that Fibonacci knew of this rela
tionship, but it is securely assumed that a man of his talents and
insight knew the recursive
l3
relationship. It took another four hun
dred years before this relationship appeared in print.
Introducing the Fibonacci Numbers
These numbers were not identified as anything special during the
time Fibonacci wrote Liber Abaci. As a matter of fact, the famous
German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571
1630) mentioned these numbers in a 1611 publication
14
when he
wrote of the ratios: "as 5 is to 8, so is 8 to 13, so is 13 to 21 al
most." Centuries passed and the numbers still went unnoticed. In
the 1830s C. F. Schimper and A. Braun noticed that the numbers
appeared as the number of spirals of bracts on a pinecone. In the
mid 1800s the Fibonacci numbers began to capture the fascination
of mathematicians. They took on their current name ("Fibonacci
, 15
numbers") from FranyoisEdouardAnatole Lucas (18421891),
the French mathematician usually referred to as "Edouard Lucas,"
who later devised his own sequence by following the pattern set by
Fibonacci. Lucas numbers form a sequence of numbers much like
the Fibonacci numbers and also closely related to the Fibonacci
numbers. Instead of starting with 1, 1, 2, 3, ... , Lucas thought of
beginning with 1, 3, 4, 7, 11 .... Had he started with 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,
... , he would have ended up with a somewhat truncated version of
13. The recursive relationship comes from the notion that each number is gener
ated from its two predecessors. This will be explored in more detail later in the
bookin chapter 9.
14. Maxey Brooke, "Fibonacci Numbers and Their History through 1900," Fi
bonacci Quarterly 2 (April 1964): 149.
15. Lucas is also well known for his invention of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle and
other mathematical recreations. The Tower of Hanoi puzzle appeared in 1883
under the name of M. Claus. Notice that Claus is an anagram of Lucas.
His fourvolume work on recreational mathematics (18821894) has be
come a classic. Lucas died as the result of a freak accident at a banquet when a
plate was dropped and a piece flew up and cut his cheek. He died of erysipelas a
few days later.
28 THE FABULOUS FiBONACCI NUMBERS
the Fibonacci sequence. (We will inspect the Lucas numbers later
in this chapter.)
At about this time the French mathematician JacquesPhilippe
Marie Binet (1786 1856) developed a fonnula for finding any Fi
bonacci number given its position in the sequence. That is, with
Binet's fonnula we can find the I I 8th Fibonacci number without
having to list the previous 117 numbers. (We will have the oppor
tunity to use this fonnula in chapter 9.)
Figure 14
EdouardAnatole Lucas.'6
Today, these numbers still hold the fascination of mathemati
cians around the world. The Fibonacci Association was created in
the early 1960s to provide enthusiasts an opportunity to share ideas
about these intriguing numbers and their applications. Through
The Fibonacci Quarterly,17 their official publication, many new
facts, applications, and relationships about them can be shared
worldwide. According to its official Web site, http://www.mses
.dal.ca/Fibonacci/, "The Fibonacci Quarterly is meant to serve as a
focal point for interest in Fibonacci numbers and related questions,
especially with respect to new results, research proposals, chal
lenging problems, and innovative proofs of old ideas."
Still one may ask, what is so special about these numbers?
That is what we hope to be able to demonstrate throughout this
16. Pennission of Francis Lucas http://edouardlucas.free.fr/.
17. Gerald E. Bergum, editor, Department of Computer Science, South Dakota
State University, Brookings, SD 57007.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 29
book. Before we explore the vast variety of examples in which we
find the Fibonacci numbers, let us begin by simply inspecting this
famous Fibonacci number sequence and some of the remarkable
properties it has.
We will use the symbol F, to represent the seventh Fibonacci
number, and Fn to represent the nth Fibonacci number, or, as we
say, the general Fibonacci numberthat is, any Fibonacci number.
Let us look at the first thirty Fibonacci numbers (figure 15). No
tice that after we begin with the first two 1 s, in every case after
them, each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers.
F =1
I
F; == 1
F; = 2
F4 =3
~ ==5
~ = 8
F, = 13
F8 = 21
F9 = 34
Fio = 55
Fil = 89
Fi2 = 144
Fi3 == 233
Fi4 = 377
Fis =610
Fi6 = 987
Fi7 = 1,597
Fi8 = 2,584
Fi9 = 4,181
F
20
= 6,765
F21 = 10,946
F22 = 17, 711
F
23
= 28,657
F24 = 46,368
F
2S
= 75,025
F
26
= 121,393
F27 = 196,418
F
28
= 31 7 , 811
F
29
= 514,229
F10 = 832,040
Figure 15
In appendix A we provide you with a list of the first five hun
dred Fibonacci numbers. You may discover certain wonders there.
For example, if you look at the list, you will notice that (as you
would expect) the number of digits of the Fibonacci numbers in
creases steadily as the numbers get larger. The French mathemati
cian Gabriel Lame (17951870) proved that in the Fibonacci se
quence there must be either at least four numbers and at most five
30 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
numbers with the same number of digits. In other words, there
would never be only three Fibonacci numbers with a certain num
ber of digits, nor would there be as many as six Fibonacci numbers
with a specified number of digits. Interestingly, Lame did not use
the name "Fibonacci numbers." So, as a consequence, they were
often called "Lame numbers" because of his proof.
Another oddity that is easily noticeable by a quick inspection of
the Fibonacci numbers is seen if you look at the sixtieth through the
seventieth Fibonacci numbers, which we call F60 and F,o . You will
notice a curious pattern emerging with their last digits. Yes, they
form the Fibonacci sequence (last digits) starting from the beginning:
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55.
18
This will continue on and on.
This form of a pattern of repetition, which mathematicians call
"periodicity," can be seen most readily with rational numbers
those that can be written as common fractions. A fraction such as
1
 == 0.142857142857142857142857142857 ...
7
which shows a continuous repetition of the digits 142857, can also
be written as ~ = 0.142857 , with the bar above the digits representing
the endless repetition of the digits it covers. Here the period is one
involving six repeating digits. The Fibonacci numbers also exhibit
a less obvious periodicity. Let's look at the first thirtyone Fibo
nacci numbers (plus the one preceding them, which we will call
Fo). See figure 16. When Fo through F31 are each divided by 7,
we obtain the following sequence displaying the quotients and re
mainders.
19
18. We can also begin the Fibonacci sequence with Fa = 0 and F; = 1, instead of
F; = 1 and F; = 1.
19. We are writing quotients in a multiplication form. That is, instead of writing,
say, 55 divided by 7 is 7, with a remainder of 6, we will write this fact as
55 = 7 ·7 + 6 .
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 31
F =0=0·7+0 F =987=141·7+0
o 16
F=I=0·7+1
I
F = 1,597 = 228 . 7 + 1
17
F=I=0·7+1
2
F = 2,584 = 369 . 7 + 1
IX
F=2=0·7+2
I
F =4,181=597·7+2
19
F=3=0·7+3
4
F = 6, 765 = 977 . 7 + 3
20
F = 10,946= 1,5737+5
21
F =5=0·7+5
<;
F=8=1·7+1
6
F = 17,711 = 2,530 . 7 + 1
22
F=13=1·7+6
7
F =28,657=4,093·7+6
21
F=21=3·7+0
X
F = 46,368 = 6,624 . 7 + 0
24
F = 34 = 4·7 + 6
<)
F =75,025=10,717·7+6
25
F = 55 = 7·7 + 6
10
F =121,393=17,341·7+6
26
F = 89 = 12  7 + 5
II
F =196,418=28,059·7+5
27
F = 3 1 7 ,8 1 1 = 47, 401 . 7 + 4
2X
F = 144 = 20 . 7 + 4
12
F = 233 = 33 . 7 + 2
Il
F =514,229=73,461·7+2
29
F = 377 = 53 . 7 + 6
14
F = 832,040 = 118,872·7 + 6
.,0
F = 1,346,269 = 192,324·7 + 1
"
F =610=87·7+1
15
Figure 16
You can see where we have 0 remainders; that is, where 7 di
vides the numbers, as with: Fa, Fg, F:.6, and F24 in this list.
Notice the pattern of the remainders (since each Fn is the sum
of the two preceding Fibonacci numbers):
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 1, 6, 0, 6, 6, 5, 4, 2, 6, 1
There is a sortofFibonacci recursive relationship here, al
though a bit hidden. If you do the same recursive procedure as we
used on the original Fibonacci numbers, but taking only the re
mainders when the number generated is divided by 7, we get the
following. This is the pattern seen in figure 16.
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, (8 = 7 + 1), 6, (1 + 6 = 7 + 0), 6, 6, (6 + 6 = 7 + 5),
(5 + 6 = 7 + 4), (5 + 4 = 7 + 2), 6, (2 + 6 = 7 + 1), ...
32 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The bold numbers in the line above are precisely the numbers that
we see as the sequence of remainders. That is, they form a recursive
sequence much the same as the Fibonacci number sequence.
n
F
n
60 1548008755920
61 2504730781961
62 4052739537881
63 6557470319842
64 10610209857723
65 17167680177565
66 27777890035288
67 44945570212853
68 72723460248141
69 117669030460994
70 190392490709135
Figure 17
When you get to the 120th (F;20)' the same will be true (see
figure 18). You might want to search in appendix A for other evi
dences of these Fibonacci numbers. And there will be other sight
ings! (Hint: look at F; 80 .)
n
F
n
120 5358359254990966640871840
121 8670007398507948658051921
122 14028366653498915298923761
123 22698374052006863956975682
124 36726740705505779255899443
125 59425114757512643212875125
126 96151855463018422468774568
127 155576970220531065681649693
128 251728825683549488150424261
129 407305795904080553832073954
130 659034621587630041982498215
Figure 18
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 33
Some Properties of the Fibonacci Numbers
To warm you up, we will present some of the countless curious
characteristics of the Fibonacci numbersworking inductively.
For those who care to see proofs of these relationships, we refer
you to appendix B. So let's begin our inspection of these numbers.
1. The sum of any ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is divisi
ble by 11. We can convince ourselves that this may be true by
considering some randomly chosen examples. Take, for ex
ample, the sum of the following ten consecutive Fibonacci
numbers:
13+ 21 + 34 + 55+ 89 + 144 + 233+ 377 + 610 + 987 = 2,563
which just happens to be divisible by 11, since
11 . 233 == 2,563.
Let's take another example: the sum of another ten con
secutive Fibonacci numbers, say, from F21 to F30:
10,946+ 17,711 +28,657+46,368+75,025+ 121,393
+ 196,418 + 317,811 + 514,229 + 832,040 = 2,160,598
which also is a multiple of 11, since 11 . 196,418 = 2,160,598.
Are you convinced that the sum of any ten consecutive
Fibonacci numbers is divisible by II? You really shouldn't be
convinced without further evidence. One way to go about per
suading yourself of the truth in this "conjecture" is to keep on
taking the sum of groups of ten consecutive Fibonacci num
bers. You could also try to prove the statement, mathemati
cally. (See appendix B.)
2. Two consecutive Fibonacci numbers do not have any com
mon factors, which means that they are said to be relatively
prime.
20
This can be seen by mere inspection. Or take any two
consecutive Fibonacci numbers and factor them, and you will
see that they have no common factors. Take a look at figure
19, where we have listed the first forty Fibonacci numbers
20. Two numbers (integers) are relatively prime if they have no common factors,
other than 1.
34 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
and factored those that are not prime. Notice that no two con
secutive Fibonacci numbers have any common factors.
Enough examples of this should convince you. (However, for
those who require a proof to be convinced that this is true for
any pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers, see appendix B.)
n
Fn
Factors
1 1 Unit
2 1 Unit
3 2 prime
4 3 Prime
5 5 prime
6 8 23
7 13 prime
8 21 3·7
9 34 2· 17
10 55 5 . 11
11 89 prime
12 144 24·32
13 233 prime
14 377 13·29
15 610 2·5·61
16 987 3·7·47
17 1,597 prime
18 2,584 23 . 17 . 19
19 4,181 37 . 113
20 6,765
3,5,1141
21 10,946 2· 13  421
22 17,711 89· 199
23 28,657 prime
24 46,368 25 . 32·7·23
25 75,025 52  3,001
26 121,393 233  521
27 196,,418 2 . 1 7  53 . 109
28 317811 3 . 13  29 . 281
29 514,229 prime
30 832,040 23 . 5 . 11 . 3 1 . 61
31 1,346,269 557· 2,417
32 2,178,309 3 . 7 . 47 . 2,207
33 3,524,578 2·89· 19,801
34 5,702,887 1,597 . 3,571
35 9,227,465 5 . 13 . 141,961
36 14,930,352 24 . 33 . 17 . 19 . 107
37 24,157,817 73 . 149 . 2,221
38 39,088,169 37 . 1 13  9,349
39 63,245,986 2·233'135,721
40 102,334,155 3  5 . 7 . 1 1 . 41 . 2,161
Figure 19
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 35
3. Consider the Fibonacci numbers in the compositenumber
21
positions (with the exception of the 4th Fibonacci number).
By that we mean, the 6th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 14th, 15th,
16th, 18th, 20th, and so on, Fibonacci numberswhich are
all nonprimes. A quick inspection (figure 110) shows that
the Fibonacci numbers in the compositenumber (i.e., non
prime) positions are also composite numbers. For the fac
tors of these Fibonacci numbers, we refer you to figure 19
and for further evidence see the much longer list in appen
dix A. Again, you may be convinced of this property, but to
really make it a fact, we have to prove it mathematically.
(See appendix B.)
F6 = 8
Fg = 21
F9 = 34
Fio = 55
Fi2 = 144
Fi4 = 377
Fi5 = 610
Fi6 = 987
Fi8 = 2,584
Figure 110
Fio = 6, 765
Fil = 10,946
F22 = 17, 711
Fi4 = 46,368
F
25
= 75,025
F
26
= 121,393
F27 = 196,418
F
28
= 3 1 7 , 81 1
F10 = 832,040
One could conjecture at this point that the analog of this is
also truenamely, that the Fibonacci numbers in prime
number
22
positions are also prime. That is, if we look at the
list of the first thirty Fibonacci numbers above, those in the
prime positions, namely, the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th,
17th, 19th, 23rd, and 29th Fibonacci numbers, would then
also have to be prime.
21. A composite number is one that is not prime, that is, it is divisible by num
bers other than itself and 1.
22. A prime number is a number (other than 0 or ±1) that is divisible only by
itself and 1.
36 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
They are:
F2 = 1, not a prime
F =2
3
=5
F7 = 13
FI3 = 233
FI7 = 1,597
F
I9
=4,181 =37·113
F
23
= 28,657
F
29
= 514,229
However, you will notice that the 2nd and the 19th
Fibonacci numbers are not primes, and therefore this ana
log situation does not hold true. Nothing further to prove.
One counterexample suffices to draw this conclusion.
4. With all these lovely relationships embracing the Fibonacci
numbers, there must be a simple way to get the sum of a
specified number of these Fibonacci numbers. A simple for
mula would be helpful as opposed to actually adding all the
Fibonacci numbers to a certain point. To derive such a for
mula for the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers, we will use
a nice little technique that will help us generate a fonnula.
Remember the basic rule (or definition of a Fibonacci
number. We can write this definition formally as
Or
F 2 == F I + F ,where n > 1
n+ n+ n
F==F F
n n+2 n+l
By substituting increasing values for n, we get:
F =F F
111 11+1 11
F =F F
n n+2 n+1
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 37
By adding these equations, you will notice that there
will be many terms on the right side of the equations that
will disappear (because their sum is zerosince you will
be adding and subtracting the same number). What will re
main on the right side will be Fn+2  F2 = Fn+2  1.
On the left side, we have the sum of the first n Fibo
nacci numbers: F. + F2 + ~ 1 + F4 + .. . + Fn ' which is what
we are looking for.
Therefore, we get the following:
which says that the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is
equal to the Fibonacci number two further along the se
quence minus 1.
There is a shortcut notation that we can use to signify
n
the sum: F; + F2 + F; + F4 + . . . + F
n
, and that is L F; .
i=1
This reads: "The sum of all the F terms where i takes on
I
the values from 1 to n." So we can then write this result as:
n
L ~ = F. + F; + F; + F4 + ... + Fn = Fn+2 1
i=1
n
or simply: L ~ = Fn+2  1
i=1
5. Suppose we now consider the sum of the consecutive even
positioned Fibonacci numbers, beginning with the first such
Fibonacci number, F
2
• Again, let's see if we can discover a
pattern when adding these consecutive evenpositioned
Fibonacci numbers.
38 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
F +F =1+3=4
2 4
F; + F4 + F6 = 1+3+8= 12
F2 + F4 + + = 1 + 3 + 8 + 21 = 33
F2 + F4 + F6 + + = 1 + 3 + 8 + 21 + 55 = 88
We may notice that each sum is 1 less than a Fibonacci
numbermore particularly, the Fibonacci number that
follows the last even number in the sum. We can write this
symbolically as:
F2 + F4 + + + ... + F
2n

2
+ F
2n
= F
2n
+
1
 1, where n > 1
n
or L F;i = F;n+1  1, where n > 1
i=l
Again, this looks to be the case for all Fibonacci numbers,
but remember we only looked at the first few. To accept this
as general truth, we would have to prove it. (See appendix B.)
6. Now that we have established a shortcut method to get the
sum of the initial consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci
numbers, it is only fitting that we inspect the analog: the
sum of the initial consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci
numbers. Once again, by considering a few examples of
these sums, we will look for a pattern.
F+F =1+2=3
I 3
+F; +F, = 1+2+5+13=21
+F; +F, = 1+2+5+13+34=55
These sums appear to be Fibonacci numbers. But how
do these sums relate to the series that generated them? In
each case the sums are the next Fibonacci number after the
last term in the sum of oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 39
This can be symbolically written as
n
or L F
21
_
1
= F211
1=1
(See appendix B.)
If we add the sum of the initial consecutive even
positioned Fibonacci numbers and the sum of the initial
consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers, we should
get the sum of the initial consecutive Fibonacci numbers:
F2 + F4 + ~ + ~ + ... + F;11 = F
2n
+
1
 1, where n > 1
~ + F; + ~ + F7 + ... + F
2n
_
1
= F;n ,where n > 1
The sum of these sequences is:
or
which is consistent with what we concluded In item 4
(above).
7. Having established relationships for various sums of
Fibonacci numbers, we shall now consider the sum of the
squares of the initial Fibonacci numbers. Here we will see
another astonishing relationship that continues to make the
Fibonacci numbers special. Since we are talking about
"squares," it is fitting for us to look at them geometrically.
40 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
21
13
21
13
3
2
2
T
1 1 3
8
5
5
Figure 111
We find that, beginning with a 1 x 1 square (see figure
111), we can generate a series of squares, the sides of which
are Fibonacci numbers. We can continue on this way indefi
nitely. Let us now express the area of each rectangle as the
sum of its component squares.
12+ 12+22+3
2
+5
2
+8
2
+ 13
2
= 13·21
If we express the sum of the squares making up the
smaller rectangles, we get this pattern:
1
2
+1
2
=1.2
12 + 12 + 22 = 2·3
12 + 12 + 22 + 3
2
= 3·5
12 + 12 + 22 + 3
2
+ 52 = 5·8
12 + 12 + 22 + 3
2
+ 52 + 8
2
= 8·13
12+ 12+22+3
2
+5
2
+8
2
+ 13
2
= 13·21
From this pattern we can establish a rule: the sum of the
squares of the Fibonacci numbers, to a certain point in
the sequence, is equal to the product of the last number and
the next number in the sequence. That is, if, for example, we
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 41
choose to find the sum of the squares of the following por
tion of the sequence of Fibonacci numbers: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,
13, 21, 34, we would get:
12 + 12 +22 +3
2
+5
2
+8
2
+ 13
2
+212 +34
2
= 1870
,
However, we can apply this amazing rule that tells us
that this sum is merely the product of the last number and
the one that would come after it (sometimes known as its
immediate successor), in the Fibonacci sequence. That
would mean that this sum can be found by multiplying 34
by 55. Indeed, this product gives us 1,870 (= 34 . 55) .
We can write this with our summation notation as
n
" F2 = F F
.£..J I n n+l
i=1
Imagine you would want to find the sum of the squares
of the first thirty Fibonacci numbers. This neat relationship
makes the task very simple. Instead of finding the squares
of each and then finding their suma rather laborious task
all we need to do is multiply the thirtieth by the thirty
first Fibonacci number.
That is, the sum of the squares:
30
L F;2 = F;2 + F;2 + .. . + F ; ~ + F ; ~
;=1
= 12 + 12 + 22 + 3
2
+ 52 + 8
2
+ 13
2
+ ... + 514,229
2
+ 832,040
2
= 1,120,149,658,760
Or simply, using our newly established formula,
30
LF;2 = F;o· F;l = 832,040 ·1,346,269 = 1,120,149,658,760
;=1
42 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
(For the more advanced reader we offer a proof of this re
lationship in appendix B.)
8. While we are talking about the squares of Fibonacci num
bers, consider the following relationship. Let's take the
square of a Fibonacci number, say, 34, and the square of the
Fibonacci number that is two before it, 13. Subtracting these
two squares, we get: 34
2
 13
2
= 1,156  169 = 987 , which
is also a Fibonacci number! So we squared the ninth
Fibonacci number = 34), and subtracted the square of
the seventh Fibonacci number (F; = 13) to get the sixteenth
Fibonacci number = 987). This can be written symboli
cally as:  F7
2
=
It is nice to see that by subtracting the squares of two
alternating
23
Fibonacci numbers, we seem to get another
Fibonacci number. Will this work for any pair of alternat
ing Fibonacci numbers? To answer this we would have to
do a mathematical proof (which is provided in appendix B).
However, we can begin to convince ourselves by inspecting
some examples that this result was no fluke, but rather, that
it actually works for any appropriate pair of Fibonacci
numbers. Let's look at a few now and see if we can deter
mine a pattern:
F 2  F 2 = 8
2
 3
2
= 55 = F
6 4 10
F 2  F2 = 13
2
 52 = 144 = F
7 5 12
=610
2
233
2
=317,811= F
2X
By inspecting the three subscripts for each of these ex
amples, we notice that the sum of the first two equals the
third. This would lead us to make the following generaliza
tion: Fn
2
 F}_2 = F
2n

2
. You might want to try to apply this
23. Alternating members of a sequence will be those that are one member apart
from one another. That is, for example, the 4th and 6th members or the 15th and
17th members are called alternating members.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 43
rule to a few more such pairs to further convince yourself if
you wish. (A proof is in appendix B.)
9. The next natural question would be to look at the sum of
the squares of two Fibonacci numbers. Suppose we con
sider two consecutive Fibonacci numbers, say, F7 (==13)
and Fg (== 21). Their squares, 169 and 441, have a sum of
610, which is also a Fibonacci number, Fis. Perhaps we are
onto something here. Let us we try another consecutive pair
of Fibonacci numbers and see what the sum of the squares
of these numbers is. To establish a pattern, we will look at
the two Fibonacci numbers Fio (== 55) and Fi I (== 89). Their
squares, 3,025 and 7,921, have a sum of 10,946, which is
again a Fibonacci number, F21 • It appears that as we try this
for several other pairs of consecutive Fibonacci numbers,
we arrive each time at another Fibonacci number. But what
is the pattern? To be able to predict which Fibonacci num
ber will result from the sum of the squares of a consecutive
pair of Fibonacci numbers, we will want to inspect their
position in the sequence. In our first example, above, we
used the Fibonacci numbers F7 and F
s
, and the sum of
their squares was Fis. In the next example we used the
Fibonacci numbers Fio and Fi I , and we found that the sum
of their squares was F;I . It appears that the sum of the sub
scripts of the two Fibonacci numbers whose squares we are
adding will give us the subscript of the Fibonacci number
representing their sum. That is, the sum of the squares of
the Fibonacci numbers in positions nand n + 1 (consecu
tive positions) is the Fibonacci number in place n + (n + 1)
= 2n + 1, or Fn
2
+ F;,2+1 = F
2n
+
l
• (The proof may be found in
appendix B.)
10. Here is an engaging relationship that takes another look at
the unexpected patterns we find among the numbers in the
Fibonacci sequence. Take any four consecutive numbers in
the sequence, say, 3, 5, 8, 13, and then find the difference
of the squares of the middle two numbers: 8
2
 52 == 64  25
== 39. Then find the product of the outer two numbers:
44 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
3 . 13 = 39 . Amazingly the same result is attained! Was
this by strange coincidence or was it a pattern that will hold
for all such strings of four consecutive Fibonacci numbers?
We can try this again with another group of four consecu
tive Fibonacci numbers, say, 8, 13,21,34. Again, we find
the sum of the squares of the two middle numbers:
212  13
2
= 441  169 = 272. If the pattern will continue to
work, then the product of the outer two numbers must be
272. Well, 8· 34 = 272 , and so the pattern still holds. Sym
bolically, we can write for any four consecutive numbers,
F
n

h
F
n
, Fn+h and F,,+2, this as Fn:l  Fn
2
= F
n

1
. F
n
+
2
• To
really convince yourself that this is always true, it is not
sufficient to merely try many groups of four consecutive
Fibonacci numbers and find that the pattern holds for each
of your tries, rather, you would have to do a proof. (See ap
pendix B.)
11. Another curious relationship is obtained by inspecting the
products of two alternating members of the Fibonacci se
quence. Consider some of these products:
F3 . Fs = 2 . 5 = 10, which is 1 more than the square of the
Fibonacci number 3: F4
2
+ 1 = 3
2
+ 1.
F4 . F 6 = 3 . 8 = 24, which is 1 less than the square of the
Fibonacci number 5: Fs2  1 = 52  I.
Fs . F7 = 5 . 13 = 65, which is 1 more than the square of the
Fibonacci number 8: F6
2
+ 1 = 8
2
+ 1.
F6 . F8 = 8 . 21 = 168, which is 1 less than the square of the
Fibonacci number 13: F7
2
 1 = 13
2
 1.
By now you should begin to see a pattern emerging: the
product of two alternating Fibonacci numbers is equal to the
square of the Fibonacci number between them ±1. We still
need to determine when it is + 1 or 1. When the number to
be squared is in an evennumbered position, we add 1, and
when it is in an oddnumbered position, we subtract 1. This
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 45
can be generalized by using (_l)n, since that will do exactly
what we want: 1 to an even power is + 1, and 1 to an odd
power is 1.
Symbolically, this may be written as:
F IF 1 == F2 +(_I)n
n n+ n
where n > 1.
Although we "convinced" ourselves that this appears to
be true, we must actually do a proof to be sure it is true for
all cases. (See appendix B.)
This relationship can be expanded. Suppose instead of
taking the product of the two Fibonacci numbers on either
side of a particular Fibonacci number as we did above, we
would take the two Fibonacci numbers that are one re
moved in either direction. Let's see how the product com
pares to the square of the Fibonacci number in the middle.
If we take a specific example from the Fibonacci numbers,
say, ~ == 8, the product of the two Fibonacci numbers one
removed on either side of 8 is 3· 21 == 63, and the square of
8 is 64. They differ by 1. Suppose we now use Fs == 5, then
the product of the two numbers removed on either side is
2 . 13 == 26, which differ from 52 by 1. We can write this
symbolically as:
where n > 1.
You can now try this by comparIng the product of
Fibonacci numbers two, three, four, and so on removed on
either side of a designated Fibonacci number, and you will
find the following to hold true.
By now you may begin to recognize the pattern in the
chart in figure 112. The difference between the square of
the selected Fibonacci number and the various products of
Fibonacci numbers, which are equidistant from the selected
46 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Number
(k) of
Fibonacci number, is the square of another Fibonacci num
ber. Symbolically we can write this as
F F
 F2  +17
2
nk n+k n  rk
where n > 1 and k > 1.
Symbolic Example for Example for Difference
Representa between:
Fibonacci tion for the
F = 13
7
F = 21
8
F ·F
numbers
nk n+k
removed
case of F
n
on either
F2
side of
and
n
selected
Fibonacci
number
1
2
3
4
5
6
k
F,l_I
F
n+1
Fn
2
8·21 = 168
13
2
= 169
13·34 = 442
212 = 441
±1
Fn_2Fn+2 Fn
2
5·34 = 170
13
2
= 169
8·55 = 440
212 = 441
±1
F
n
_
3
F
n
+
3
F2
3·55=165 2 5·89 = 445
212 = 441
±4
n
13 = 169
F F
..,
2 ·89 = 178
13
2
= 169
3·144 = 432
212 = 441
±9
F
n4 11+4
n
F
n
_
5
F,1+5
F2
1·144 = 144
13
2
= 169
2 233 = 466
212 = 441
±25
n
F F
Fn
2
1 . 233 = 233
13
2
= 169
1 377 = 377
212 = 441
±64
n6 n+6
F
n
_
A
Fn+k
f:,2
+F, 2
 k
Figure 112
There are endless properties that one can observe with
the Fibonacci numbers. Many of them can be found by
simple inspection. Before we embark on a more structured
study of these amazing numbers, let's take another look at
the sequence (figure 113).
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 47
FI
1
F16
897
F2
1
F17
1,597
F3
2
FI8
2,584
F4
3
FI9
4,181
F5
5 F
20
6,765
F6
8
F21
10,946
F7
13
F22
17,711
Fg 21 F
23
28,657
F9
34
F24
46,368
Flo
55 F
25
75,025
Fll
89 F
26
121,393
F12
144
F27
196,418
F13
233 F
28
317,811
FI4
377 F
29
514,229
F
15
610
F30
832,040
Figure 113
12. Beginning with the first Fibonacci number, notice that
every third number is even. That is, F;, ~ , Fg, F:.2' F:.s,
and F:.xare all even numbers. We could restate this by say
ing that these numbers are all divisible by 2 or by F;.
Let's look further at this list of Fibonacci numbers. No
tice that every fourth number is divisible by 3. Here,
~ , ~ , F..2' F..6' F;o' and F24 are each divisible
24
by 3. We
can again restate this by saying that F
4
, Fg, F:.2' F:.6'
F;o' and F;4 are each divisible by F
4
, or by 3.
Using patterns to see where we go from here, we would
see that the first divisibility was by 2, then by 3, then, in
good Fibonacci style, we ought to try to check for divisibility
by 5the next number in the Fibonacci sequence. Searching
for Fibonacci numbers that are divisible by 5 is easy. They
are the following numbers: 5, 55, 610, 765, and 832,040,
which correspond (symbolically) to Fs, F:.o' F:.5' F
20
,
24. You can check this quite easily by using the popular rule for divisibility by
3. If and only if the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 3, then the
number 75,025, itself is divisible by 3.
48 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
F
25
, and F;o. Thus, we are able to say that Fs, F:.o'
F:.5' F
20
, F
25
, and F;o are each divisible by 5 or by Fs.
Checking for divisibility by 8 (the next Fibonacci num
ber), we find that F:.8' F
24
, andF;oare each divisi
ble by 8, or by
Yes, every seventh Fibonacci number is divisible by 13,
or F;. You might now try to generalize this finding. You
can either say that a Fibonacci number Fnm is divisible by a
Fibonacci number F
m
, where n is a positive integer, or you
may state it as the following: If p is divisible by q, then Fp
is divisible by (A proof of this wonderful relationship
is in appendix B.)
13. Fibonacci relationships, as noted earlier, can also be seen
geometrically. We can consider Fibonacci squares as ar
ranged as in figure 114 and figure 115.
13x21
2x3
I 3x15
1x2 I'" I
8x 13
5x8
Figure 114
Fibonacci square with an odd
number of rectangles.
,   l
I •
I ,
!
21 x34
13x21
I
3x5, 1 1 'I·
. x 5x8
2x3t ' I
. . i
1x1 1x2 i
i
8x 13
. ___ ._ ___ __ . _ . _ .. ____ . ___ ._ ... ____ . ________ J
Figure 115
Fibonacci square with an
even number of rectangles.
Figure 114 shows an odd number (n == 7) of rectangles
into which the Fibonacci square is divided. The rectangles
have dimensions of F; and F;+I , where i has values from 1
to n + 1. The square then has sides of length Fn+1 • The area
of the square is equal to the sum of the rectangles, which
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 49
can constitute a geometric proof. This can be written sym
bolically as:
n+1
~ FF == F2
£..J I iI n+1
i=2
when n is odd.
As you can see in figure 114, when n == 7 the sum of
the areas of the rectangles is
F2FI + F3
F
2 + F4
F
3 + FsF4 + F6
F
S + F7
F
6 + FgF7
= 1 +2+6+ 15+40+ 104+273=441 =212=Fg2
On the other hand, when n is even (in figure 115, n == 8),
that is, when a Fibonacci square is constructed using an even
number of Fibonacci rectangles, a unit square remains that is
not used. This indicates that the Fibonacci square is 1 unit
larger than the sum of the rectangles, which gives us the
following adjusted relationship:
n+1
~ F F == F2  1
£..J I II n+1
i=2
when n is even.
In figure 115, where n == 8, the sum of the rectangles is
~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~ + ~ ~
= 1 + 1 +2+6+ 15+40+ 104+273+714
= 1,156 = 342 = F
29
14. Earlier in this chapter, we mentioned the Lucas numbers.
They are: 1,3,4,7, 11, 18,29,47, .... (See appendix A for
a list of the first two hundred Lucas numbers.) We can find
the sum of the Lucas numbers much the same way we found
the sum of the Fibonacci numbers. Again, there must be a
simple way through a formula to get the sum of a specified
number of these Lucas numbers. To derive such a formula
for the sum of the first n Lucas numbers, we will use a nice
little technique that will help us generate the formula.
50 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The basic rule (or definition) of a Lucas number is
L 2 = L 1 + L , where n > 1
n+ n+ n
or L = L 2  L )
n n+ n+
By substituting increasing values for n, we get:
L) = L3  L2
L2 = L4  L3
L3 = Ls  L4
L4 = L6  Ls
L =L L
n) n+' n
L =L L
n n+2 n+)
By adding these equations, you will notice that there
will be many terms on the right side that will disappear be
cause their sum is zero. This occurs since you will be add
ing and subtracting the same number. What will remain on
the right side will be Ln+2  L2 = Ln+2  3.
On the left side, we have the sum of the first n Lucas
numbers: L) + L2 + L3 + L4 + . . . + L
n
, which is what we
are looking for. Therefore, we get the following equation:
L, + L2 + L3 + L4 + . .. +Ln = Ln+2  3 ,which says that the
sum of the first n Lucas numbers is equal to the Lucas
number two further along the sequence minus 3.
There is a shortcut notation that we can use to signify
n
the sum: L\ + L2 + L, + L4 + . . . + Ln , and that is L L/ . So
1=1
we can then write this result as:
n
L Li = L) + L2 + L3 + L4 + . . . + Ln = Ln+2  3
i=)
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 51
or simply:
n
"'L.=[ ,3
~ f n+
i = 1
15. Just as we found the sum of the squares of the Fibonacci
numbers, so, too, can we find the sum of the squares of the
Lucas numbers.
Here we will uncover another astonishing relationship
that continues to make the Lucas numbers special.
11 18
11
11
18
7 3 1
f
1
3
1
3 f
1
7
1
4
4
7
4
18
Figure 116
We find in figure 116 that, beginning with the three
small 1 x 1 squares, we can generate a series of squares the
sides of which are Lucas numbers. We can continue on this
way indefinitely. Let us now express the area of the rectan
gle as the sum of its component squares minus the two
small squares (shaded).
[' + [' + [' + [' + [' + ['
1 2 3 4 5 6
= I' +3' +4' +7' +11' +18'
= 522  2 = 520 = 18·29
= [6 . [,
52 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
If we express the sum of the squares progressively,
which make up the smaller rectangles, we get this pattern:
12 + 3
2
= 3·4  2
12+3
2
+42=4.72
12 + 3
2
+ 4
2
+ 7
2
= 7 11 2
12+3
2
+42+72+112=11.182
12+3
2
+42+72+112+18
2
=18292
12 + 3
2
+ 4
2
+ 7
2
+ 112 + 18
2
+ 29
2
= 29 47  2
From this pattern we can establish a rule: the sum of the
squares of the Lucas numbers to a certain point in the se
quence is equal to the product of the last number and the
next number in the sequence minus 2_ In other words, if, for
example, we choose to find the sum of the squares of the
following portion of the sequence of Lucas numbers: 1, 3,
4,7,11,18,29,47,76, we would get:
L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
= 12 + 3
2
+ 4
2
+ 7
2
+ 112 + 18
2
+ 29
2
+ 47
2
+ 76
2
= 9,346
However, we can apply this amazing rule that tells us
that this sum is merely the product of the last number and
the one that would come after it (sometimes known as its
immediate successor) in the Lucas sequence. That would
mean that this sum can be found by multiplying 76 by 123
and subtracting 2. Indeed, this product gives us the follow
ing: L9  LID = 76 ·123 = 9,348 = 9,346 + 2.
We can concisely summarize this as:
n
~ L? = L L 12
.£.J I n n+
;=1
This will help you find the sum of the squares of the
Lucas numbers without having to first find all the terms
below it.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 53
Imagine you would want to find the sum of the squares
of the first thirty Lucas numbers. This neat relationship
makes the task very simple. Instead of finding the squares
of each and then finding their suma time consuming
taskall you need to do is multiply the thirtieth by the
thirtyfirst Lucas number and subtract 2. (See appendix B
for a proof of this relationship.)
These proofs, although geometric, are reasonable enough to con
vince you of the veracity of these statements. Before having you
explore more unexpected sightings of these lovely Lucas numbers,
we provide you with a summary of the properties we have noted
thus far.
A Summary of the Properties
Here is a summary of the Fibonacci (and Lucas) relationships we
have seen (let be n any natural number; n > 1):
O. Definition of the Fibonacci numbers FIl and of the Lucas
numbers Ln:
F I = 1; F 2 = I; FIl + 2 = Fn + Fn + I
LI = 1; L2 = 3; Ln + 2 = Ln + Ln + I
1. The sum of any ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is di
visible by 11:
1 I I (FIl + Fn + 1+ Fn + 2 + . . . + Fn + 8 + FIl + l))
2. Consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime:
That is, their greatest common divisor is 1.
3. Fibonacci numbers in a composite number position (with
the exception of the fourth Fibonacci number) are also
composite numbers.
54 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Another way of saying this is that if n is not prime, then Fn
is not prime
(with n"# 4, since F4 = 3, which is a prime number).
4. The sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is equal to the
Fibonacci number two further along the sequence minus 1:
n
L F ; = F ; + F ; + F ; + ~ + ... +F
n
=F
n
+
2
1
i=1
5. The sum of the consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci
numbers is 1 less than the Fibonacci number that follows
the last even number in the sum:
n
LF2i = F2 + F4 + F
6
+··· + F
2n

2
+ F
2n
= F
2n
+
1
 1
;=1
6. The sum of the consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci num
bers is equal to the Fibonacci number that follows the last
odd number in the sum:
n
LF
2i

1
= FI + F3 + Fs + ... + F
2n

3
+ F
2n

1
= F
2n
i=1
7. The sum of the squares of the Fibonacci numbers is equal
to the product of the last number and the next number in
the Fibonacci sequence:
n
~ F2 = F F 1
.£..J I n n+
i=1
8. The difforence of the squares of tvvo altemate
25
Fibonacci num
bers is equal to the Fibonacci number in the sequence whose po
sition number is the sum of their position numbers:
F2  F2 = F
n n2 2n2
25. I.e., a Fibonacci number with number n and the Fibonacci number two be
fore it.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 55
9. The sum of the squares oftvvo consecutive Fibonacci numbers is
equal to the Fibonacci number in the sequence whose position
number is the sum of their position numbers:
10. For any group offour consecutive Fibonacci numbers, the
0.( the squares of the middle two numbers is
equal to the product of the outer two numbers.
Symbolically, we can write this as
F2  F2 = F . F
n+1 11 nl n+2
11. The product of tvvo alternating Fibonacci numbers is J more or
less than the square of the Fibonacci number betvveen them ±J:
FIl _ I Fll + I = Fn 2 + ( 1)"
(If n is even, the product is 1 more; if n is odd, the product
is 1 less.)
The difference between the square of the selected
Fibonacci number and the various products of Fibonacci
numbers equidistant from the selected Fibonacci number is
the square of another Fibonacci number:
F
n
_
k
Fn+k  Fn
2
= + F/, where n > 1, and k > 1
12. A Fibonacci number F mn is divisible by a Fibonacci num
ber Fm.
We can write this as
Fm I F mn' and it reads Fm divides Fmn
Or in other words: If p is divisible by q, then Fp is divisible
by Fq or using our symbols:
(in the above, m, n, p, and q are positive integers)
56 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Here is how this looks for specific cases:
F,IF
n
, i.e., 11 F
I
, 1 I F
2
, 11 F}, II F
4
, 1 I F s ~ I I F
6
, ...• I I F
n
, ...
F21 F
21l
, i.e., 1 I F
2
, 1 1 F
4
, 1 1 F
6
, 1 1 Ff!"
1 I FlO'
1 1 F
12
• .... 1 1 F211' ...
F}I F}n , i.e., 21 F}, 21 F
6
, 21 F
9
, 21 Fib 21 FIS'
21 Fig, ...• 2 I F
Jn
, ...
F4 1 F4n ~
i.e., 31 F
4
, 31 F
8
, 3 I Fib 31 F
16
,
31 F20'
3 1 F
24
, ... , 31 F
4n
, ...
Fs I Fsn ,
i.e., 51 F
s
, 5 1 FlO, 51 F IS' 51 F20'
5 1 F
2S
, 5 I FlO, ... , 51 F"ill' ...
F6 1 F
6n
, i.e., 81 F
6
, 81 Fib 81 F
18
, 8 I F
24
, 81 FJo, 8 1 F
36
, ... , 81 F
6n
, ...
F7 1 F
7n
, i.e., 13 I F
7
, 13 1 F
14
, 13 I F
2
], 131 F
2
f!" 131 F
35
• 131 F
42
, ... ,131 F
71l
• ...
13. The product of consecutive Fibonacci numbers is either the
square of a Fibonacci number or I greater that the square of a
Fibonacci number.
n+1
~ FF 1 = F2 I' when n is odd
~ 1 1 n+
i=2
n+l
~ F.F 1= F2 11, when n is even
~ / / n+
i=2
14. The sum of the first n Lucas numbers is equal to the Lucas
number two further along the sequence minus 3:
n
L Li = Ll + L2 + L3 + L4 + .. . + Ln = Ln + 2  3
i=1
15. The sum of the squares of the Lucas numbers is equal to the
product of the last number and the next number in the Lu
cas number sequence minus 2:
n
~ L.2 = L L 1 2
~ I n n+
i=1
Although our focus IS largely about the Fibonacci numbers, we
should not think of Fibonacci as a mathematician who is known
only for this nowfamous sequence of numbers that bears his
name. Fibonacci, as mentioned, was one of the greatest mathemati
cal influences in Western culture. He not only provided us with the
tools to do efficient mathematics (e.g., the numerals heretofore
known largely to the Eastern world), but he also introduced to the
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 57
European world a thought process that opened the way for many
future mathematical endeavors.
Notice how the origin of the Fibonacci numbers, innocently
embedded in a problem about the regeneration of rabbits, seems to
have properties far beyond what might be expected. The surprising
relationships of this sequence, within the realm of the numbers, are
truly mindboggling! It is this phenomenon coupled with the al
most endless applications beyond the sequence that has intrigued
mathematicians for generations. It is our intention to fascinate with
applications of these numbers as far afield as one can imagine.
Figure 117
A statue of Fibonacci in Pisa.
Chapter 2
The Fibonacci Numbers
in Nature
F
ibonacci numbers, as we have seen briefly, have amazing
properties. We will continue to explore the wide variety of
applications and relationships that these numbers hold. Here we
will go back to the original manifestation of the Fibonacci num
bers: in nature. We first saw them evolve in the regeneration of
rabbits. Let's see if there are other living creatures whose regen
eration might result in an application of the Fibonacci numbers.
The Male Bee's Family Tree
Of the more than thirty thousand species of bees, the most well
known is probably the honeybee, which lives in a bee hive and has a
family. So let us take a closer look at this type of bee. Curiously
enough, an inspection of the family tree of the male bee will reveal
our famous numbers. To examine the family tree closely, we first
have to understand the peculiarities of the male bee. In a bee hive
there are three types of bees: the male bee (called a drone), who
does no work; the female bees (called worker bees), who do all the
work; and the queen bee, who produces eggs to generate more bees.
A male bee hatches from an unfertilized egg, which means it has
only a mother and no father (but does have a grandfather), whereas a
59
60 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
female bee hatches from a fertilized egg, thus requiring a mother
(queen bee) and a father (one of the drones). The female bees end up
as worker bees, unless they have taken some of the "royal jelly" that
enables them to become queen bees and begin new colonies of bees
elsewhere.
In the table (figure 21, where d' represents the male and
represents the female) we begin with the male bee whose ancestors
we are tracking. As we said, the male bee must come from an un
fertilized egg, so only a female was needed to produce him. How
ever, the eggproducing female must have had a mother and a fa
ther, so the third line has both a male and a female. It then
continues with this pattern: the immediate ancestor of every male
is a single female and the ancestor of a female is a male and a fe
male. At the right, is a summary of the number of bees in each
row. As you look down each column at the right, you will recog
nize the familiar Fibonacci numbers. Surprised? If not, you ought
to be. This is clearly a surprising appearance of the Fibonacci
numbers. Even the biology here is quite different from the rabbit's
reproductory pattern, which generated the first recognition of the
Fibonacci numbers.
Geneological Table of a Male Bee (Drone)
Female Tutal
Bees 8eeI Bees
0 0 1 1
,
Y 0
d 2
I
<.? cr !1?
2 3
I
9 <3 9 9 <3 3 2 5
I
I
9 0 <.? 9 5 3 8
A
I A A I A
I
<.? 0
y
0 9 0
)1
0 13 5 13
/\
1\
1\
I
1\
I
1\ 1\
I
1\ 1\
I
9 S? () S? ?
« o 9
y ('{ ()
? 9 9 (f 9 21 8 21
Figure 21
Had Fibonacci been aware of the relationship that unfolds as we
inspect the genealogy of the drone (male bee), then he could have
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 61
used it in place of what some consider as a lessthanrealistic exam
ple of the regeneration of rabbits in his Liber Abaci. However, the
rabbit problem is, in fact, not so far off from reality. After age three
months, rabbits can produce offspring and can reproduce them on a
monthly basis. So his rabbit problem was close to accurate.
The regeneration of the rabbits and the genealogy of the drone
are described with the recursive formula Fn+2 := F n + Fn+ I, which,
as we have seen, means that each number in the sequence is the
sum of its two immediate predecessors.
If we extend our theme here from the "Fibonacci numbers in
nature" to the "Fibonacci numbers in society"which could be
stretched to be the nature of man!then we can use the example of
the spreading of rumors in society as an example of the Fibonacci
numbers at work. We can create a model
l
for the spread of a
rumor, which will generate the Fibonacci numbers.
The message (i.e., the rumor) will be passed on to only one
person at a time. Specifically:
(1) If person x is told the rumor, the earliest he will pass it
on is the next day.
(2) Person x passes the rumor to only one person per day.
(3) After person x has passed the rumor twice, he is not in
terested in it any more, so person x does not go on
spreading the rumor any further.
A chart of this stream of events should expose the Fibonacci
sequence.
1. M. Huber, U. Manz, and H. Walser, Anniiherung an den Goldenen Schnitt
(Approaching the Golden Section) ETH ZUrich, Bericht No. 9301, 1993, p. 57.
62 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Distribution of a Rumor
(x passes the rumor on to xa and xb)
Day 1
1
Day22
1, la = 2
Day 3
1,2,lb=3,2a=4
Day 4
1,2,3,4, 2b = 5, 3a = 6, 4a = 7
DayS
1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,3b=8,4b=9,5a= 10,6a= 11, 7a= 12
Day 6
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 5b = 13, 6b = 14, 7b = 15,
8a= 16,9a= 17, 10a= 18, 11a= 19, 12a=20
Day 7
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18, 19,20,8b
= 21, 9b = 22, lOb = 23, lIb = 24, 12b = 25, 13a = 26, 14a = 27,
15a = 28, 16a = 29, 17a = 30, 18a= 31, 19a = 32, 20a = 33
Daysn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12
Personsp
1 2 4 7 12 20 33 54 88 143 232 376
Difference
(1) 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144
Figure 22
We find Pn = F
n

2
 1.
The rumor would be spread so much faster, if step (2) were to
be changed to the following:
(2) At first person x passes on the news to p people, on
the second day to q people.
2. The number after each of the equal signs indicates the running total of people
with the rumor, so that the last number after the last equal sign is the total num
ber for that day.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 63
Fibonacci Numbers in the Plant World
Perhaps you would be most surprised to discover that these ubiq
uitous numbers also appear in the plant world. Take, for example,
the pineapple. It might even be worth your while to get a pineapple
and see for yourself that the Fibonacci numbers are represented on
the pineapple. The hexagonal bracts on a pineapple can be seen to
form three different direction spirals. In figures 23, 24, 25, and
26 you will notice that in the three directions there are 5, 8, and 13
spirals. These are three consecutive Fibonacci numbers.
Figure 23
Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26
64 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Consider the drawing of a pineapple
(figure 27), where we have numbered the
hexagons. The numbering has been done
by the following rule: the lowest hexagon
was assigned the number 0, the next higher
one gets a 1 (remember this continues on
the back side, not visible in the picture),
then the next higher is assigned the number
2, and so on. Notice that hexagon 42 is
slightly higher than hexagon 37. You
should be able to identify three distinct
spirals: one will have the hexagons 0, 5, 10,
... ; the second will have hexagons 0, 13,
Figure 27 26, . . . ; and the third spiral would include
hexagons 0, 8, 16, . . . . Now look at the
common difference between the spirals and you will find the differ
ences to be 5, 8, and 13once again Fibonacci numbers.
The Pinecone
There are various species of pinecones (e.g., Norway spruce; Doug
las fir or spruce; larch). Most will have two distinct direction spirals.
Spiral arrangements are classified by the number of visible spirals
(parastichies) that they exhibit. The number of spirals in each direc
tion will be most often two successive Fibonacci numbers. When
this occurs,3 the angle between successive leaves or botanical ele
ments is close to the "golden angle"about 137.5°, which is related
to the golden ratio (see chapter 4). The connection between the
golden angle and the Fibonacci numbers can be seen in the ratio
137 50 h· h b . d' I I h d h
' , W IC ecomes lmme late y c ear w en we re uce t e
360
0
fraction (see chapter 5) as:
3. In spiral phyllotaxis, botanical elements grow one by one, each at a constant
divergence angle d from the previous one. This is the most common pattern, and
most often the divergence angle d is close to the golden angle. The latter case
gives rise to Fibonacci phyllotaxis.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 65
137.5
0
55
360
0
144
The two pictures in figure 28 will bear this out, but you may
want to convince yourself by getting some actual pinecones and
counting the spirals yourself.
Figure 28
These pinecones have eight spirals in one direction and thirteen in
the other direction. Again, you will notice these are Fibonacci
numbers.
Tree Number of spirals Number of spirals
(Species) in one direction in the other direction
Norway spruce 13 8
Douglas fir (spruce) 3 5
larch 5 3
pme 5 8
More details can be found in an article by Brother Alfred
Brouseau.
4
The following designations of spiral patterns do not make any
pretense of completeness. Actual1y bracts can be lined up into se
quences in many ways. The fol1owing are simply some of the more
obvious patterns that have been observed. (As for notation, 85, for
example, means that starting from a given bract and proceeding
4. Brother A. Brousseau, "On the Trail of the California Pine Spiral Patterns on
California Pines," Fibonacci Quarterly 6, no. I (1968): 76.
66 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
along two spirals, 8 bracts will be found on one spiral and 5 on the
other when going to the next intersection of the spirals.)
Pinus albicaulis (Whitebark pine),
Pinus flexilis (Limber pine),
Pinus Lamberttana (Sugar pine),
Pinus monticola (Western white pine,
Silver pine),
Pinus monophylla (Oneleaved pinon),
Pinus edulis,
Pinus quadrifolia (Fourleaved pinon),
Pinus aristata (Bristlecone pine),
Pinus Balfouriana (Foxtail pine),
Pinus muricata (Bishop pine),
Pinus remorata (Santa Cruz Island pine),
Pinus contorta (Beach pine),
Pinus Murrayana (Lodgepole pine,
Tamarack pine),
Pinus Torreyana (Torrey pine),
Pinus ponderosa (Yellow pine),
Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffrey pine),
Pinus radiata (Monterey pine),
Pinus attenuata (Knobcone pine),
Pinus Sabiniana (Digger pine),
Pinus Coulteri (Coulter pine),
53, 83, 85
85, 53, 83
85, 135, 138, 35, 38,
313,321
35
35, 38
53
53
85, 53, 83
85, 53, 83
813,58
58
813
85, 135, 138
85, 135
138, 135, 85
135, 138, 58
138, 85, 135
85, 135, 35, 38
138
138
In a similar detailed article we find spiral patterns, especially
58, in Aroids. The Aroids (family Araceae) are a group of attrac
tive ornamental plants which include the very familiar Aglaonema,
Alocasia, Anthurium, Arum, Caladium, Colocasia, Dieffenbachia,
Monstera, Philodendron, Scindapsus, and Spathiphyllum species.
5
Spirals are also found on a variety of plants. Here are a few repre
sentative examples. You may well want to search for other exam
ples yourself.
5. T. Antony Davis and T. K. Bose, "Fibonacci System in Aroids," Fibonacci
Quarterly 9, no. 3 (1971): 25355.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 67
Figure 29
Mammilnria huitzilopochtli
has 13 and 21 spirals_
Figure 211
Marguerite has 21 and
34 spirals_
Figure 213
Knautia arvensis has twice
2 and 5 spirals (i_e_. 4 and
10 spirals)_
Figure 210
Mammilnria magnimamma
has 8 and 13 spirals_
Figure 212
Gymnocalcium izozogsii
has twice 5 and 8 spirals
(i.e_. 10 and 16 spirals)_
Figure 214
This anonium has 3
and 5 spirals_
68 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 215
Anonium_
Figure 216
Anonium_
The sunflower, on the other hand, has a variety of different spi
ral numbers. The older the flowers get, the more spirals they de
velop. In any case, however, the number of spirals will be a
Fibonacci number. They usually will take on the following pairs of
Fibonacci numbers: 13 (leftoriented spirals); 21 (rightoriented
spirals), 21 :34, 34:55, 55:89, 89:44.
Figure 217
Sunflower 1.

. "
"
. 
Figure 219
Sunflower 3.
•
II •••
. " . . '''
.. ·tI· .... "
... "" .... .,.,
. . ... "".. ....... ..
~ ............................ .
'" . . ~ . " ' .... ~ : ~ .. ::.
'l'!::;...... .. ..... ~
. a··, ~ .... ..
Z
.... , "'''.
o •• ." .... ..
• JI .. ' , t .... .t
~ .... r •• ' ~ 4
'3?J. •.. :::. J.::;:.
# ~ •• '. . ~ .. ".
'r ..... . . . . ... ...
. : ... " ' ~ .. "
.. ~ " .. ' ... ::: .:
.... • ••••• t.' ........ ~ .
·,··· •• ·... tl
...... 10
Figure 218
Sunflower 2.
Figure 220
Sunflower 4.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 69
In 2004 the principality of Liechtenstein
6
devoted an entire
postage stamp series to science, called the "Exact Sciences;
(CHF .85) Mathematics; 2004." The stamp depicts the logarithmic
spiral, exponential growth, and the 39th Mersenne prime number,
7
2
13
.466.917  I
One of the subjects highlighted a sunflower.
8
Figure 221
Based on a survey of the literature encompassing 650 species
and 12,500 specimens, R. Jean
9
estimated that, among plants dis
6. An independent state between Austria and Switzerland.
7. The 39th Mersenne prime number was found in 2001; and in 2005 we have
come as far as finding the 42nd Mersenne prime number 2
25
964 951  I.
8. For sunflowers there exists three kinds of spirals: 82 percent are Fibonacci
spirals (8,13,21,34, ... ); 14 percent are Lucas spirals (7, II, 18,29, ... ); and
2 percent are Fibonacci bijugate spirals (10, 16,26,42, ... ). J. C. Sehoute,
"Early Binding Whorls," Rec. Trav. Bal. Neer I, no. 35 (1938): 416558.
9. Roger V. Jean, Phyl/olaxis: A Syslemic SIudy in Plant Morphogenesis (Cam
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
70 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
playing spiral or multijugate phyllotaxis,lo about 92 percent of
them have Fibonacci phyllotaxis.
One may wonder why this happens. Certainly mathematicians
did not influence this phenomenon. The reason seems to be that
this arrangement forms an optimal packing of the seeds so that, no
matter how large the seed range, with all the seeds being the same
size, they should be uniformly packed at any stage; this means no
crowding in the center and not too sparse near the edges. We "see"
this packing as spirals, which almost always translates into adja
cent Fibonacci numbers.
Artificial FibonacciFlower Spirals
. '
........
'.
· . s.. s ...... .
::' :.:' : .......................... ".
· . : .. ' ,... ............ ".
.
: .:' :: :,.. ..
•••• as a.
a : : : a. • •
. . . I '. : .
: : ; \ , : :
• a. :. : : • •
· . .. : : : .
............. :.:: ..... .. . .. /./ / }
aa • •
as a. ••••••••••• .. ••
. .
".
s· ..
.... .
. . . . . . . .
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .. .
. . . .. .. ...... . .
· .. . ........ .
. . .
. . . ... . a sa..... . ..
• • • • • a.a ••••••••••••
• •••••• a ••••••••••••
". ::. :::.: .; .. ; .. ; ':'
. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. . . . .
• • ••••• a ••••••••••
. . ...
. .... .
· .. . .. .
. . . .. . .
. . . .. . .
. .
" .
........• ....................
' .
........ .. _""' .... " \ ..
......... "\ \ \
.. ',,"' ! :
.... /./ j j
: I
! {.! \
\
.... .............. .
. •...
".
. .................... .
" .
. .
. . .. . ..
. ...
'. .
....
. .. .
... . ...
. .. ..
. ... : .. ' ..... '. '. '. '. ' .. ' ..
. .. ....... .
: :: : :. ::: : ::.
.....
. . . : : : : :. :.: .. : : .' . . .
... . ....... ..
. ...... . ..
.. ....... .
. .....
. . .... . . . .. ..
. ....
. ......... .
. .. .
. '.
Figure 222
10. From the Greek: Phyllo means leaf, and taxis means arrangement.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 71
Leaf ArrangementPhyllotaxis
Having now concentrated at the center of the sunflower, or, for that
matter, the daisy, we can now inspect the petals surrounding the
center. Again, you will discover that most plants will have the
number of such petals corresponding to a Fibonacci number. For
example, lilies and irises have 3 petals; buttercups have 5 petals;
some delphiniums have 8 petals; com marigolds have 13 petals;
some asters have 21 petals; and daisies can be found with 34, 55,
or 89 petals.
Here is a short list with some flowers arranged by the number
of petals they generally have:
3 petals: iris, snowdrop, lily (some lilies have 6 petals formed from
two sets of 3)
5 petals: buttercup, columbine (aquilegia), wild rose, larkspur,
pinks; also apple blossom, hibiscus
8 petals: delphiniums (larkspurs), Cosmos bipinnatus, II Coreopsis
tinctoria
13 petals: com marigold, cineraria, some daisies, ragwort
21 petals: aster, chicory, Helianthus annuus
34 petals: pyrethrum and other daisies
55, 89 petals: michaelmas daisies and other Compositae (asteraceae
family)
Some species, such as the buttercup, are very precise about the
number of petals they have, but others have petals whose numbers are
very near those abovewith the average being a Fibonacci number!
Having now inspected the parts of flowers, we can look at the
placement of the leaves on a stem. Take a plant that has not been
pruned and locate the lowest leaf. Begin with the bottom leaf, and
count the number of rotations around the stem, each time going
11. These are species of Compositaeone of the largest families of the vascular
plants. See P. P. Majumder and A. Chakravati, "Variation in the Number of
Rays and DiscFlorets in Four Species of Compositae," Fibonacci Quarterly 14
(1976): 97100.
72 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
through the next leaf up the stem, until you reach the next leaf
whose direction is the same as the first leaf you identified (that is,
above it and pointing in the same direction). The number of rota
tions will be a Fibonacci number. Furthermore, the number of leaves that
you will pass along the way to reach the "final" leaf will also be a
Fibonacci number.
In figure 223, it took five revolutions to reach the leaf (their eighth
leaf) that is in the same direction as the first one. This phyllotaxis (i.e., leaf
arrangement) will vruy with different species, but should be a Fibonacci
number. If we refer to the rotationlleaf number ratio for this plant, it would
be about ~ . One also describes the CUIVe marked in figure 223 as the
8
"genetic spiral of a plant."
Which is directly
above"" flrst_
I
•
'",TURN'
_ 4th TURN
 3rd TURN
_ 2nd TURN
 1st '''N
 ___ .J
Figure 223
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 73
Here are some phyllotaxis ratios:
1/2: elm, linden, lime, some grasses
3/8: asters, cabbages, poplar, pear, hawkweed, some roses
1/3: alders, birches, sedges, beech, hazel, blackberry, some grasses
2/5: roses, oak, apricot, cherry, apple, holly, plum, common
groundsel
8/21: fir trees, spruce
5/13: pussy willow, almond
13/34: some pine trees
Different species of palms display different numbers of leaf spi
rals, but the numbers always match with Fibonacci numbers. For
example, in the arecanut palm (Areca catechu), or the ornamental
Ptychosperma macarthurii palm, only a single foliar spiral is dis
cernible, while in the sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera), or Arenga
pinnata, two spirals each are visible. In the palmira palm (Borassus
flabellifer), or Corypha elata, as well as in a number of other species
of palms, three clear spirals are visible. The coconut palm (Cocos
nucifera) as well as Copernicia spirals have five spirals, while the
African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bears eight spirals. The wild
date palm (Phoenix sylvestris) and a few other species of palms also
show eight spirals. On stout trunks of the Canary island palm
(Phoenix canariensis), thirteen spirals can be observed. Also in
some of these plants, twentyone spirals can be found. Palms bear
ing 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, or 12 obvious leaf spirals are not known. 12
This phyllotaxis ratio of Fibonacci numbers is not guaranteed
for every plant, but it can be observed on most plants. Why do
these arrangements occur? We can speculate that some of the cases
may be related to maximizing the space for each leaf, or the aver
age amount of light falling on each one. Even a tiny advantage
would come to dominate, over many generations. In the case of
closepacked leaves in cabbages and succulents, such arrangements
may be crucial for availability of space.
12. T. Antony Davis, "Why Fibonacci Sequence for Palm Leaf Spirals?" Fibo
nacci Quarterly 9 no. 3( 1971): 23744.
74 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Much has been written about the arrangement of leaves, petals,
and other plant aspects, but earlier works were just descriptive and
did not explain any connection between numbers and plant growth.
Rather they dealt with the geometry of the arrangements. The most
dramatic insight comes out of a recently published work by the
French mathematical physicists Stephane Douady and Yves
Couder. They developed a theory of the dynamics of plant growth
using computer models and laboratory experiments in relation to
the Fibonacci pattern. Douady and Couder
13
also found a dynamic
explanation for the golden angle (137.5°). They obtained this angle
as a consequence of simple rules of dynamics and did not postulate
it as many of their predecessors, who saw it as a consequence of a
spacesaving arrangement. The spiral arrangement does not require
any special botanical explanation.
Last, but not least, we can continue our search for Fibonacci
numbers on the human body: A human being has 1 head, 2 arms,
and 3 finger joints, and 5 fingers on each armthese are all
Fibonacci numbers. Wow! But, actually, it does not go on like this!
Moreover, the "small" Fibonacci numbers are just pure coinci
dence, because among the eight numbers from 1 to 8, there are five
Fibonacci numbers. Therefore you have a good chance of finding a
Fibonacci number purely by coincidence. The percentage of Fibo
nacci numbers among the rest of all other numbers changes dramati
cally if we look at bigger intervals of numbers. On the other hand, if
you can find two different large Fibonacci numbers in one sun
flower, you might ask, how this could be? (See page 68).
Particularly at the end of the nineteenth century, many scientists
were of the opinion that the golden section was a divine, universal
law of nature. Yet the golden section, l/J, can be seen as a limit of a
sequence, that is, made of the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers.
(This will be covered in chapter 4 in great detail.) So, how then can
the human being, the "pride of creation," not have been designed by
the rules of the golden section?! Some see it as if it were. Leonardo
13. Stephane Douady and Yves Couder, "Phyllotaxis as a Physical Self
Organized Growth Process," Physical Review Letters 68, no. 13 (1992):
2098101.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 75
da Vinci (14521519)14 constructed the proportion of the human
body based on the golden section, l/J (see pages 25760). Further
more, da Vinci partitioned the face vertically into thirds: forehead,
middle face, and chin. Plastic surgeons further divide the face hori
zontally in fifths. In this way, we see once again the presence of the
two Fibonacci numbers, 3 and 5, come into play.
The Belgian mathematician and astronomer and founder of the
social statistics Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet (17961874)15
and the German author, critic, playwright, poet and philosopher
Adolph Zeising (18101876)16 measured the human body and saw
its proportions related to the golden section, and thus greatly influ
enced future generations.
The French architect Le Corbusier (CharlesEdouard Jeanneret,
18871965) assumed that human body proportions are based on
the golden section. Le Corbusier formulated the ideal proportions
in the following way: height 182 cm; navel height 113 cm; finger
tips with arms upraised 226 cm. The ratio of height to navel height
is 1.610619469, a very close approximation of ¢ . By another
113
measurement of the same features he got an analogous ratio of
176cm ::::: 1.6147, which is another good approximation of the ratio
109cm
of two Fibonacci numbers, 13 and 21, or = 1.615384615.
Looking furthermaybe a bit too far!the American Frank A.
Lonc
l7
measured sixtyfive women to substantiate the work of da
Vinci and Zeising by determining the mean ratio of a woman's
height to her navel. He then established that the ideal proportions
were those nearest 1.618, or approximately the golden section. In
14. Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer.
15."Des proportions du corps humain," Bulletin de I 'Academie Royale des sci
ences, des lettres et des beauxarts de Belgique, vol. 1. Bruxelles 184815,1,
pp. 58093, and vol. 2.15,2. pp. 1627.
16. "Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen K6rpers" (Leipzig: R.
Weigel, 1854).
17. Martin Gardner, Phi," Scientific American, August 1959, pp.
12834.
76 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
deed T. Antony Davis and Rudolf Altevogt
l8
claimed that the
value of "a goodlooking human body" based on Le Corbusier for
both boys and girls of a similar age is approximately the golden
ratio. Specifically, using 207 pupils in Munster, Germany, and 252
youngsters from Calcutta, India, they derived the value 1.615.
The ubiquitous appearances of the Fibonacci numbers in nature
are just another piece of evidence that these numbers have truly
phenomenal qualities.
18. "Golden Mean of the Human Body," Fibonacci Quarterly 17, no. 4 (1979):
34044.
Chapter 3
The Fibonacci Numbers and
the Pascal Triangle
B
y now you probably expect the Fibonacci numbers to appear
in the most unexpected places. "Sightings" of the Fibonacci
numbers can either be of individual members of the sequence, as in
the case of many of their appearances in nature, or as a sequence of
numbers appearing where you least expect them. We will begin
with some unusual sequences and then bring the Fibonacci num
bers into the discussionyes, when you least expect them to ap
pear. Not only will they appear, but they will interact with various
other fields in a very meaningful way.
Some Sequences
So far we have seen that the Fibonacci numbers emanate from a
nicely defined sequence, originally determined by a problem deal
ing with the regeneration of rabbits. We know they follow a
rulethat beginning with two 1 s, the sum of every two consecu
tive members of the sequence gives the next number in the se
quence. This may not be the usual kind of sequence to which we
are accustomed. We usually like sequences such as:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, ...
77
78 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
or
2, 4,6, 8, 10, 12, 14, ...
or
1,3,5,7,9,11,13, ...
We can even easily accept:
5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40, ...
or even the sequence of perfect squares:
1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, . . .
Suppose we didn't recognize that the above was the sequence of
perfect squares; we could check the differences between terms to
see if there is a common difference (or perhaps a common factor).
For example, if there is a common difference, then you can easily
get the next number, but if there is no common difference, then
you could try to get the next row of differencesthat is, between
the terms of differences. Look at the chart below (figure 31) and
notice that the second differences are constant.
Original
1 4 9 16 25 36
Sequence
First
3 5 7 9 11
Difference
Second
2 2 2 2
Difference
Figure 31
However, when we get the sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, we expect
the next number to be 32. Yet if we were told that it is 31, we
might cry out "wrong!"
Much to many people's surprise, either 32 or 31 "works" to
create a viable or meaningful sequence.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 79
Yes, what may be much to your amazement, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31,
... can be a legitimate sequence.
To show that this is a proper sequence (one that has a rule for
getting additional members of the sequence), we shall set up a ta
ble of differences. Just as we might have done for the first four se
quences above, this will enable us to determine the rule for deriv
ing succeeding members of the sequence.
We will set up a chart (figure 32) showing the differences
between terms of the sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31, ... , and then the
differences of the differences, and so on until a pattern emerges.
That is, we take the differences of the terms in the given sequence,
and if no pattern emerges, we shall try to find a pattern in the new
sequence formed by these differences. We will do this in exactly
the same way: take differences between the terms and look for a
pattern. The first row of differences leaves us without much of a
clue of a pattern, since again the last term ruins what may have de
veloped into a pattern. The second row, likewise. However, at the
third sequence of differences, a clear pattern emerges: 1, 2, 3, ....
Original
1 2 4 8 16 31
Sequeoce
First
I 2 4 8 15
Difference
Second
I 2 4 7
Difference
Third
I 2 3
Difference
rourth
I I
dIfference
Figure 32
With the fourth differences forming a sequence of constants,
we can reverse the process (i.e., tum the table upside down as in
figure 33) and extend the third differences a few more steps, say,
up to 9.
Fourth 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t
Difference
Third 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Difference
Second 1 2 4 7 II 16 22 29 37 46
Difference
First 1 2 4 8 15 26 42 64 93 130
Difference
Onginal 1 2 4 8 16 31 57 99 163 256 386
Sequence
Figure 33
80 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The bold numbers are those that were obtained by working
backward from the sequence of third differences. So the next num
bers of the given sequence are 57, 99, 163, 256, and 386.
1
After we have just taken you from what you expected would be
a comfortable and familiar sequence, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, ... , to a rather strangelooking one, 1, 2'; 4, 8, 16, 31, 57, 99,
163,256,386, ... , you should not think that this sequence is con
trived and is independent of other parts of mathematics. A geomet
ric interpretation of this unusual sequence should help convince
you of the consistency we enjoy in mathematics, and give you rea
son to better appreciate the beauty inherent in mathematics.
Consider a sequence of circles, each with successively more
points highlighted on it. Beginning with the first circle, we will
join these points with straight line segments to form the greatest
number of regions in each of these circles. Let's count the number
of regions in each circle successively. In figure 34 we show five
circles, each with successively more points on it. We have omitted
the actual "first circle"the one with only one point on it, since it
would show only one region formeda trivial case. We marked
the regions with consecutive numbers so that the number of re
gions can be easily counted.
1. The general tenn (that is, the nth tenn) of the sequence 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ... is
easy to find, and it is T(n) = 2
n
 I. The general tenn of the sequence 1, 2, 4, 8,
16, 31, ... is a fourthpower expression, since we had to go to the third differ
ences to get a constant.
. n
4
6n
3
+23n
2
18n+24
The general tenn IS T(n) = . [But also the general tenn T(n) =
24
n+(:) + C ~ I ) = (:) + C) + I is for all natural numbersn (wheren>O) a de
scription of this sequence.]
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 81
1
8
2 3
1 2
5 .4
6 7
Figure 34
To summarize this circle partitioning we will make a chart
(figure 35) of the number of regions into which a circle can be
partitioned by joining the highlighted points on the circle. If you do
this independently for further cases, make sure no three lines are
concurrent (i.e., meet at one point), or else you will lose a region.
Number of points Number of regions into which
on the circle the circle is partitioned
I 1
2 2
3 4
4 8
5 16
6 31
7 57
8 99
Figure 35
Notice that the number of regions listed on the chart gives us
(what originally appeared to be) this unusual sequence.
82 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Fibonacci Differences
By now you might be asking how this relates to the Fibonacci num
bers. First of all, we know that the Fibonacci sequence does not have
a common difference between its terms. After our previous discus
sion on sequences, this might "de legitimatize" the Fibonacci se
quence in your mind. But, before drawing such rash conclusions,
let's take a look at the differences between the terms of the
Fibonacci sequence (figure 36).
Original 1 1 2 .1 8 13 21 34 55 89 144
Fir;t 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55
DIfTerence.,
Sc=cond 0 1 I 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
Third 0 I 1 2 3 5 8 13
Differc=nces
rourth 0 I 1 2 3 5 IS
Figure 36
Using the same procedure for inspecting the above sequences,
we quickly notice that everywhere on this chart of differences, you
will see the Fibonacci sequence. Its appearance could overwhelm us.
It is in the first, second, third, fourth, ... differences, as well as
along the diagonals. It appears to reproduce itself in almost all di
rections! Such a characteristic is one of the many reasons that this
sequence has these unusual properties.
If we complete the chart in figure 36 using the relationship
F: = F:+2  F
n
+
l
, which comes from the definition of the Fibonacci
numbers (i.e., Fn + Fn+1 = Fn+2 ), the list of differences would be:
Fibonacci sequence:
sequence of first differences:
sequence of second differences:
sequence of third differences:
sequence of fourth differences:
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, .. .
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, .. .
1,0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13, .. .
1,1,0,1, 1,2,3,5,8,13, ..
2, 1,1,0,1, 1,2,3,5,8,13, ...
(Notice that Fo = 0, F_I = 1, F_2 = 1, ... )
Furthermore, the sequences of sums generate the Fibonacci se
quence again, although a bit shifted over (see figure 37).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 83
Sequence of Sums 10,946
4,181 6,765
1,597 2,584 4,181
610 987 1,597 2,584
233 377 610 987 1,597
89 144 233 377 610 987
34 55 89 144 233 377 610
13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377
a+b 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233
a b 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144
Fn
1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89
~
0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
ba 1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13
1 1 0 1 1 2 3 5
2 1 1 0 1 1 2
3 2 1 1 0 1
5 3 2 1 1
8 5 3 2
13 8 5
21 13
Sequence of Differences 34
Figure 37
Their appearance in the realm of sequence differences is quite
amazing, but how does the Fibonacci sequence relate to the other
sequences we just inspected? Or put another way: does the Fibo
84 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
nacci sequence relate to these seemingly unrelated sequences? If
the past gives us a clue about the future, the answer should be an
unexpected "yes." Let's see if we can draw a connection between
these three unrelated sequences.
The sequence of powers of2:
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1,024, ...
The sequence of circle partitions:
1,2, 4,8, 16, 31, 57,99, 163, 256, 386,
The Fibonacci sequence:
1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89,144,233,
To do this we will introduce you to the Pascal triangle, named
after the famous French mathematician Blaise Pascal (16231662),
who developed his "arithmetical triangle" as an aid for his work on
probability. Pascal showed his genius for mathematics as a child.
Even though mathematics books were forbidden to him as a child,
his desire and talent for mathematics could not dampen. Through his
own inventive construction, he independently proved Euclid's
thirtysecond proposition, establishing the angle sum of a plane tri
angle. In order to help his father process huge amounts of data in his
position as tax commissioner, he developed a mechanical calculator
(called "Pascaline") that by 1645 was on the market for purchase.
The Pascal Triangle
In 1653 Pascal invented his arithmetical triangle,2 although it was
not published until after his death. This famous triangular ar
2. This triangular arrangement of numbers was first described by the Arabian
mathematician Omar Khayyam (10481122), but first appeared in print in a
1303 manuscript "The Valuable Mirror of the Four Elements" by the Chinese
mathematician Chu ShihChieh (12701330). Yet in the Western world Pascal is
credited with having discovered it without reference to any previous documents.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 85
rangement of numbers (figure 38) is formed by beginning at the
top with 1, then the second row has 1, 1, then the third row is ob
tained by placing 1 s at the end positions and adding the two num
bers in the second row (1 + 1 = 2) to get the 2, placed below the
interval between the 1 s of the previous row. The fourth row is ob
tained the same way: after the end 1 s are placed, the 3s are gotten
from the sum of the two numbers above (to the right and left); that
is, 1 + 2 = 3 and 2 + 1 = 3. This pattern then continues to get the
succeeding rows.
The Pascal Triangle
2
3 3
4 6 4
5 10 10 5
6 15 20 15 6
7 21 35 35 21 7
R 28 56 70 56 28 8
9 36 84 )26 126 84 36 9
J
10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10
Figure 38
Let's look at some of the hidden gems in the Pascal triangle
(figure 38). Ifwe take the sum of the numbers in each row, we no
tice .that we have arrived at the successive powers of 2 (figure 39).
Namely,
86 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
1 = 1 = 2
0
,
1+1=2=21
,
1 + 2 + 1 = 4 = 22 ,
1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 8 = 2
3
,
1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 = 16 = 2
4
,
1 +5+ 10+ 10+5+ 1 =32=2
5
,
1 +6+ 15+20+ 15+6+ 1 =64=2
6
,
1 +7+21 +35+35+21 +7+ 1 = 128=2
7
,
1 + 8 + 28 + 56 + 70 + 56 + 28 + 8 + 1 = 256 = 2
8
,
1 +9+36+84+ 126+ 126+84+36+9+ 1 =512=2
9
,
1 + 10+45+ 120+210+252+210+ 120+45 + 10+ 1 = 1,024=2
10
This is the first sequence of the three we will connect through the
Pascal triangle.
Row sums
(Po ..... ers of2)
2
2
4
3 3
R
4 6 4
16
5 10 10 5
32
6 15 20 15 6
64
7 21 35 ,5 21 7
128
R 28 56 70 56 28 R
256
9 36 ~ 4 126 126 84 36
() 512
JO 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 \0
1.024
Figure 39
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 87
Now, consider only the horizontal sums of the rows in figure
310 that are to the right of the bold line drawn through the Pascal
triangle. There, strangely enough, the sequence of circle partitions
emerges!
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31, 57, 99, 163
What a coincidence! So the Pascal triangle provides us with a con
nection between the first two of the sequences that we wanted to
connect.
The Pascal triangle contains many unexpected number relation
ships beyond the characteristics that Pascal intended in his original
use of the triangle. The ubiquity of this triangular arrangement of
numbers merits just a bit of further elaboration before we relate the
third of our sequences of numbersthe Fibonacci numbersto the
others. Pascal's original use was to exhibit the coefficients of suc
cessive terms of a binomial expansion.
Sum of the
numbers
to the right of the
line
I
2
4
8
4 16
5 31
IS 6 57
21 7 99
56 28 8 163
84 36
<)
256
210 120 45 10 386
Figure 310
That is, taking a binomial such as (a + b) to successively high
er powers.
88 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
(a + b)o = 1
(a+b)1 =a+b
(a + b)2 = a
2
+ 2ab + b
2
(a + b)3 = a
3
+ 3a
2
b + 3ab
2
+ b
3
(a + b)4 = a
4
+ 4a
3
b + 6a
2
b
2
+ 4ab
3
+ b
4
(a+b)5 =a
5
+5a
4
b+ 10a
3
b
2
+ 10a
2
b
3
+5ab
4
+b
5
(a+b)6 =a
6
+6a
5
b+ 15a
4
b
2
+20a
3
b
3
+ 15a
2
b
4
+6ab
5
+b
6
(a + b)7 = a
7
+ 7a
6
b+ 21a
5
b
2
+ 35a
4
b
3
+ 35a3b4+21a2b5+7ab6+b7
(a + b)8 = a
8
+ 8a
7
b + 28a
6
b
2
+ 56a
5
b
3
+ 70a
4
b
4
+ 56a
3
b
5
+ 28a
2
b
6
+ 8ab
7
+ b
8
(a + b)9 = a
9
+ 9a
8
b+ 36a
7
b
2
+ 84a
6
b
3
+ 126a
5
b
4
+ 126a4b5+84a3b6+36a2b7
+9ab
8
+ b
9
(a + b)IO = a
lO
+l0a
9
b+ 45a
8
b
2
+ 120a
7
b
3
+ 210a
6
b
4
+ 252a
s
b
5
+ 210a
4
b
6
+ 120a
3
b
7
+ 45a
2
b
8
+ 10ab
9
+ b
10
Notice how the coefficients of each binomialexpansion line is
also represented as a row of the Pascal triangle. This allows us to
expand a binomial without actually multiplying it by itself many
times to get the end result. There is a pattern also among the vari
ables' exponents: one descends while the other ascends in
valueeach time keeping the sum of the exponents con
stantmaking it equal to the exponent of the original binomial
taken to a power.3
3. Some may be interested in the general term of the expansion of (a + b), so we
offer it here:
(a+br = (:) an + (;) anI b + (;) a
n

2
b
2
+ ... + L:2) a
2
b
n

2
+ L:J ab
n

I
+ (:) b
n
,
where (n)= n! ,andn!=1.2.3.4 ... n.
k k! ·(nk)!
We should note that we define ( ~ ) = 1.
F or example, to get the fourth entry in the eighth row, we use
(
n) (7) 7! 7! 4!·5·6·7 5·6·7 5·6·7
k = 3 = 3!·(73)! = 3!·4! = 3!·4! = ~ = 1.2.3 = 35.
By the way, the binomial coefficient (:) tells us how many ways n coin tosses
come up with k heads.
THE FIBON ACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 89
There are many more intriguing surprises embedded in this
wonderful triangular arrangement of numbers. Consider the Pascal
triangle in figure 311 with the various cells shaded.
Figure 311
First we notice the list of I s on both sides of the triangle:
1,1, I, I, I, I, 1, I, I, 1, I, 1, ...
The next list in the parallel direction is the list of natural
numbers:
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13, ...
Continuing in this pattern (i.e., parallel lists) we get the list of
triangular numbers:
4
1,3,6, 10,15,21,28,36,45,55,66,78, ...
The next list of numbers in the same direction is the list of
tetrahedral numbers:
5
1,4, 10,20,35,56,84, 120, 165,220,286, ...
We then come to a lesserknown sequence of numbers that
exists in the fourth dimension called pentatop numbers:
1,5,15,35, 70,126,210,330,495,715, ...
Suppose you would like to add the numbers in one of these se
quences of numbers. All you need to do is locate the number in the
cell that is immediately below and to the right (or left) of the last
4. Triangular numbers represent the number of points that can be arranged to
form an equilateral triangle.
5. Tetrahedral numbers represent the number of points that can be arranged to
form a regular tetrahedron.
90 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
number in the list of numbers you are adding. For example, con
sider the triangular numbers (see figure 312):
I + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 = 56
The same holds true for the sum of tetrahedral numbers:
I + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 + 28 + 36 + 45 + 55 + 66 = 286

,
•
•
•
..
•
.. »
"
•
•
» N
• •
M
,.
"
~
,.
'"
.,
"
•
' M
~ ~
"
"
"
~ ~ m ~
"
"
~

'"
, ~
nl'
n ..
Figure 312
Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle
By now you must be wondering where on the Pascal triangle are the
Fibonacci numbers hiding, for, after all, isn't that what you expect
by now? They seem to crop up everywhere, even when we least ex
pect to see them. Yes, indeed, the Fibonacci numbers are embedded
on the Pascal triangle. Look at the sums of the numbers along each
of the indicated lines (see figure 313). There you have the Fibo
nacci numbers! We have then connected, with the help of the Pascal
triangle, the three sequences we sought to relate.
10
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 91
35
56 70 56
36 84 126 126
45 120 210 252 210
Figure 313
6
21 7
28
84 36
120
8
9
45
I
I
2
3
5
8
13
21
34
55
89
10
This may be easier to visualize if we left justify the triangular
arrangement of numbers as in figure 314:
Sum
1
1
1 2
2 3
3 1 5
4 3 8
5 6 1 13
6 10 4 21
7 15 10 1 34
8 21 20 5 55
9 28 35 15 1 89
10 36 56 35 6 144
1 1 45 84 70 21 233
Figure 314
Ron Knott, a British mathematician who has provided some
interesting insights into the Fibonacci numbers, found the Fibo
nacci numbers appearing as sums of "rows" in Pascal's triangle.
92 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
o I 234 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
o I
I I
2 I 2 I
3 I 3 3
4 I 4 6 4
5 5 10 10 5
6 6 15 20 15 6
7 7 21 35 35 21 7
8 8 28 56 70 56 28 8
9
9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9
10
I 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10
1 I
I II 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55
12
I 12 66 220 495 792 924 792 495
13
I 13 78 286 715 1287 1716 1716
14
I 14 91 364 1001 2002 3003
15
15 105 455 1365 3003
16
16 120 560 1820
17
17 136 680
18
18 153
19
19
20
I I 235 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946
Figure 315
By drawing Pascal's triangle with all the rows moved over by
one place, we have a clearer arrangement, which shows the Fibo
nacci numbers as sums of columns. (See the last row in figure 3
15.)
We could also rewrite this version of the Pascal trian
glemoving each row over to the right by one columnand
writing each row twice. By doing this we find that the column
sums again yield the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 316).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 93
2 J 4 5 6 7 X 9 10 II 12 U 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
0 1
1 1
I I
2 1 2 1
I 2
3 1 3 3
4 4 6 4
4 0 4
5 5 10 10 5
5 10 10 5
6 6 15 20 15 6
6 15 20 15 0
7 7 21 35 35 21 7
7 21 )5 35 21 7
8 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1
g
28 56 70 56 2X 8
9 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9
9 )0 X4 12tl 12tl X4 3tl 9
10 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10
10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10
1 I 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55
II 55 165 330 462 462 330 165
12 12 66 220 495 792 924 792 495
12 66 220 495 792 924 792
13 13 78 286 715 1287 1716 1716
13 78 286 715 1287 1716
14 14 91 364 1001 2002 3003
14 91 364 1001 2002
15 15 105 455 1365 3003
15 105 455 1365
16 16 120 560 1820
16 120 560
17 17 136 680
17 130
18 18 153
H<
19 19
20
I 2
)
5 X 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 9X7 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711
Figure 316
If we revert once agaIn to the leftjustified Pascal triangle
(figure 317), we can easily discover a nice group of palindromic
numbers:
6
1,001, 2,002, 3,003, 5,005, and 8,008.
6. Palindromic numbers are those that read the same in both directions, such as
3,003, or from the Pascal triangle: 1,331 and 14,641.
94 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
I I
I 2
I 3 3
I 4 6 4
I
,
10 10
,
I 6
"
20
"
6
I 7 21 35 35 21 7
I 8 28
' 6
70
'6
28 8
I 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9
I 10
"
120 21 0 m 210 120
"
10
III
"
16'
330 462 462 330
16'
"
II
112 66 220
49'
792 924 792
49'
220 66
12
113 78 286
'"
1287 17 16 11 16 1287
'"
286
78 13
114 91 364 lOOt 2002
,,,,,
3432 300J 2002 1001
""
91 14
I IS 105 455 1365 . ~ ) ( J . I .5OOS 6435 6435 StMI5 XlOJ 136'
'"
10'
"
I 16 120 560 1820 4368 !4,()8 I J 440 12870 11440
"""
4368 1820 S6IJ 120
"
I 17 136 680 2380 6188 12376 19448 243 10 24.3 10 19448
12376 61118 2380 680 136 17
I 18 153 816 3060 8568 18564 3 1824 43758 48620 43758
31824 1S564
8,..
3060
81'
m IS
I 19 17 . 969 3876 11 628 27 132 50388 75582 92378 92378
75582 5038827 132 11 628 3876 969 171 19 I
I 20 190 1140 4845 15504 38760 77520 125970 167960 184756 167%0 12597077520 3876() 15504 4845 11 40 190 20 I
Figure 317
In 1971 , David Singmaster an American mathematician
living in London, who has analyzed many aspects of recreational
mathematics to secure them into the realm of serious mathemat
ics
7
discovered
8
that the fifteenth row is the only one in which
three consecutive numbers will be in the ratio I : 2 : 3. They are:
1,001, 2,002, and 3,003. It should not be lost on the reader that
coincidentally the numbers under these three are also palindromes
in a Fibonacci ratio! (See figure 318.)
Notice that 1,001= 1· 1,001; 2,002 = 2·1,001; 3,003 = 3·1,001;
5,005 = 5·1,001; and 8,008 = 8·1 ,001.
They all have 1,001 as their common factor.
1,001
3,003
7. Such as the Rubic ' s Cube.
2,002
5,005
8,008
Figure 318
8. American Mathematical Monthly 78 (1971): 385 86.
3,003
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 95
Lest you worry about our quest for a relationship between the
Fibonacci numbers and the Pascal triangle, consider this. Using our
earlier symbols to represent the Fibonacci numbers, and con
sidering that we can extend the Fibonacci number sequence in the
negative direction as follows:
9
. . . , 13, 8, 5, 3, 2, 1 , 1, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . . ,
we can also represent the Fibonacci numbers in terms of the
members of the Pascal triangle as shown in figure 319.
Fn+S= 1·F
n
+8·F
Il
_ , + 28·F
n
_
2
+ 56·F
n
_
3
+ 70·F
n
4 + 56·F
Il
_
5
+ 28·F
n
fJ + 8·F
n
_
7
+ l·F
n
_
s
Figure 319
At first glance, this may look artificial and contrived, but reserve
your judgment until you begin to substitute the Fibonacci values to
verify the relationship.
9. See, for instance, the sequence of fourth differences and the diagonal in figure
37 (from left to right).
96 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
You can see from the negatively extended Fibonacci sequence
that Fo == 0, F_
2n
==  F
2n
, and F2n+1 == F
2n

1
for all natural numbers
n. Furthermore, the recursive definition from before (the actual
basis for the Fibonacci numbers), Fk +2 == F
k
+
l
+ Fk , still holds true
for all integer values of k.
To get a better understanding about this unusual relationship,
let's check the case where n == 5 (figure 320):
FI3 = 1·F
s
+8·F
4
+28·F
3
+56·F
2
+ 70·F
1
+56·F
o
+28·F_
1
+8·F_
2
+ 1·F_
3
Figure 320
To get a better "feel" for this, we will substitute the appropriate
Fibonacci numbers in the listing shown in figure 320. This allows
us to calculate the "generated" Fibonacci numbers at the right in
figure 321.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 97
F5
=
1·5 =
5
F6
=
1·5 + 1·3 =
8
F7
=
1·5 + 2·3 + 1·2 =
13
F8
=
1·5 + 3·3 + 3·2 + 1·1 =
21
F9
=
1·5 + 4·3 + 6·2 + 4·1 + 1·1 =
34
FlO =
1·5 + 5·3 + 10·2 + 10·1 + 5·1 + 1·0 =
55
FII =
1·5 + 6·3 + 15·2 + 20· I + 15·1 + 6·0 + 1·1 =
89
FI2 =
1·5 + 7·3 + 21·2+ 35·1 + 35·1 + 21·0+ 7·1 + 1·(1)
=
144
FI3
=
1·5 + 8·3 + 28·2 + 56·1 + 70·1 + 56·0 + 28·1 + 8·(1) + 1·2 =
233
Figure 321
Lucas Numbers and the Pascal Triangle
As if this weren't enough, the Pascal triangle also enables us to con
nect in yet another way the Fibonacci numbers to the Lucas numbers
that we mentioned in chapter 1. Recall that Edouard Lucas (1842
1891), a French mathematician, developed the sequence of numbers
with the same recursive rule as the Fibonacci numbers, but he began
with 1 and 3 instead of 1 and 1. So he got the sequence 1, 3, 4, 7, 11,
18, ... instead of the Fibonacci numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, .... In fig
ure 322 we list the Lucas numbers. To make things even more in
teresting, however, we will begin the sequence one number earlier
than the traditional beginning. That is, instead of beginning with the
first Lucas number, L), we will begin with L
o
' which is 2.
We will represent the nth Lucas number as Ln so that LI = 1,
L2 = 3 (and as we said earlier, Lo = 2), and Ln +2 = Ln+l + Ln.
As we begin to relate the Fibonacci and the Lucas sequences, we
should realize a direct connection: The nth Lucas number (n > 0) is
98 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
equal to the sum of the (n 1)st Fibonacci number and the (n + l)st
Fibonacci number. Symbolically, that is written as: Ln= F nl + Fn+l.
n
Ln
0 2
1 1
2 3
3 4
4 7
5 11
6 18
7 29
8 47
9 76
10 123
1 1 199
12 322
13 521
14 843
15 1,364
16 2,207
17 3,571
18 5,778
19 9,349
20 15,127
Figure 322
In figure 323 you can observe this relationship (Ln = F
n

l
+
F
n
+
l
) with the two sequences placed next to each other.
II 0 J 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 JJ J2 13 14 15 16 J7 18 19 20
F •• 1
1 2 3 5 8 13 2J 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1,597 2,584 4.181 6.765 10.946
+
Fa_ 1 J 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181
=
L. 1 3 4
,
11 18 19
4'
76 III 199 322 521 843 1,364
~
3,571 5,778 9,349 15,127
Figure 323
Since these two sequences are so closely related, it is only
fitting, and not particularly surprising, that we can also represent
the Lucas numbers in the arrangement of the Pascal trianglejust
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 99
as we did with the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 324). Keep in
mind that Lo = 2, L2n = L
2n
, and L2n +1 = L
2n

1
, for all natural
numbers n.
Ln+1 = l·L
ll
+ 1·L
n
_
1
Ln+7= l·L
n
+ 7·L
n
_
1
+21·L
n
_
2
+35·L
II
_
3
+ 35·L
n
4 + 21·L
n
_
5
+ 7·L
n
6 + 1·L
n
_
7
Figure 324
Moreover, the recursive definition, Ln+2 = Ln+l + L
n
, which is
the basis for the Lucas and the Fibonacci numbers, still holds true
for all integer values of n. We can see that in figure 325.
We are now ready to experience the beautiful Pascal triangle
relationship with actual Lucas numbers. For that we consider the
case where n = 5. To accomplish this, we will substitute the actual
Lucas numbers in the listing of figure' 324, so that we get the
listing shown in figure 326 with the Lucas numbers generated at
the right.
100 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
n
Ln
0 2
1 1
2 3
3 4
4 7
5 11
6 18
7 29
8 47
9 76
10 123
11 199
12 322
13 521
14 843
15 1,364
16 2,207
17 3,571
Figure 325
Ls
= III =
II
L6
= III + 17 =
18
L7
= III + 27
+
14
=
29
Lg = 1·11 + 37 + 3·4
+
13
=
47
L9
= 1·11 + 4·7 + 6·4 + 4·3 t 1·1
=
76
LIO
== 1·11 + 5·7 + 104 + 10·3 , 5·1
+
1·2
=
123
LII
= 1·11 + 6·7 + 15·4 + 20·3 ,15·1
+
62 t 1(1 )

199
LI2
= III + 7·7 + 21·4 + 353 ,35·1 +21·2 t 7(1) + 13 = 322
LI3
= 1·11 + 8·7 + 28·4 + 56·3 ,70·1 + 56·2 t28(1) + 8·3 + 1·(4) = 521
Figure 326
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 10 I
We can also get the initial Lucas numbers in the same way.
Consider the case where n = I, and substitute the values of the
appropriate Lucas numbers in figure 324. We then get figure 327,
with the Lucas numbers generated at the right.
L,
=
) · 1
=
1,
=
)·1 +12
=
3
L,
=
) · 1 +2·2+ )( 1 )
=
4
L.
=
) 1
+3·2+
3( 1 ) +
) 3
=
7
L,
=
)1
+4·2+
6( 1 )
+
4·3 + ).(4)
=
11
4 =
)1 +52+10( 1)
+ 10·3 +
5(4)
+
)7
=
18
L,
=
)1 +62+1S( I) + 203 + )5(4)
+
6·7 +
) (11 )
=
29
L,
=
)1 +72+2) ( 1) +353 +35(4) +21·7 + 7( 11 ) + 1 18
=
47
L,
=
) 1
+82+28(1) +563 +70(4) +567 + 28( 11) +818 +)( 29)
=
76
Figure 327
For the sake of consistency, we would want to be able to find
the Lucas numbers on the Pascal triangle. To do so, we will modify
the original Pascal triangle by replacing the right side I s with 2s
and then carrying on the calculation as we did for the original
Pascal triangle to generate the rows. See figure 328.
2
2
,
2
,
2 12
2 24
6 2
" 1 20 2 %
,
21
'"
192
,
35 11 105 2 JK4
10 .. 112 ,,2 196 2
'" II 54 156 294 31. 336 2 1.536
Figure 328
Before we search for the Lucas numbers, we should take note
of some interesting features of this type of Pascal triangle. Looking
102 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
at the diagonal rows in figure 328, you can see the odd numbers,
the square numbers, and the pyramidal numbers. In addition, if you
inspect the diagonal rows in the other direction, you will find a
progression followed by sequences of progressive differences, a
natural result of the Pascal triangle's construction.
As we found the Fibonacci numbers in the original Pascal
triangle, so, too, will we now locate the Lucas numbers in the
second type of Pascal triangle. To locate the Lucas numbers,
notice the sum of the numbers along each of the lines drawn in
figure 329. This is analogous to the way in which we located
the Fibonacci numbers on the Pascal triangle.
2
I
3
2
4
7
11
18
29
47
76
123
11 2
55 36 13 2
77 105 91 49 15 2
44 112 182 196 140 64 17 2
1 1 54 156 294 378 336 204 81 19 2
Figure 329
By writing this triangular arrangement of numbers in a left
justified fashion (figure 330), we can get the column sums to
generate the Lucas numbers.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 103
o 1 234 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
o 2
1 1 2
2 132
3 1 4 5 2
4 I 5 9 7 2
5 1 6 14 16 9 2
6 I 7 20 30 25 II 2
7 8 27 50 55 36 13 2
8 1 9 35 77 105 91 49 15 2
9 10 44 112 182 196 140 64 17 2
10 1 1 1 54 156 294 378 336 204 81 19 2
11 12 65 210 450 672 714 540 285 100
12 13 77 275 660 1122 1386 1254 825
13 14 90 352 935 1782 2508 2640
14 15 104 442 1287 2717 4290
15 16 119 546 1729 4004
16 17 135 665 2275
17 18 152 800
18 19 170
19 20
20
2 1 347 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127
Figure 330
If we repeat this with double entries, as we have for the Fibo
nacci numbers on the Pascal triangle, we can again generate the Lu
cas numbers by taking the column sums, as in figure 331.
104 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
0 2
2
1 2
I 2
2 1 3 2
I 3 2
3 1 4 5 2
I 4 5 2
4 1 5 9 7 2
5 9 7 2
5 6 14 16 9 2
I 6 14 16 9 2
6 1 7 20 30 25 11 2
7 20 30 25 II 2
7 8 27 50 55 36 13 2
8 27 50 55 36 13 2
8 9 35 77 105 91 49 15 2
9 35 77 105 91 49 15 2
9 1 10 44 112 182 196 140 64 17 2
I 10 44 112 182 196 140 64 17 2
10 1 11 54 156 294 378 336 204 81 19 2
II 54 156 294 378 336 204 81 19
II 1 12 65 210 450 672 714 540 285 100
12 65 210 450 672 714 540 285
12 1 13 77 275 660 1122 1386 1254 825
13 77 275 660 1122 1386 1254
13 14 90 352 935 1782 2508 2640
14 90 352 935 1782 2508
14 15 104 442 1287 2717 4290
15 104 442 1287 2717
15 16 119 546 1729 4004
16 119 546 1729
16 17 135 665 2275
17 135 665
17 18 152 800
18 152
18 19 170
19
19 20
20
(2) 3 4 7 II 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127 24476
Figure 331
Sequences of numbers, as we have just seen, are not always
what we might expect upon a first inspection. They can be related
even if they appear completely unrelated. We have now taken one
of the most ubiquitous arrays of numbers in mathematics, the
Pascal triangle, to show how, via this array, number sequences that
are seemingly entirely unrelated can In fact have some
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 105
commonality. The Fibonacci numbers and many other familiar
sequences are embedded in the Pascal triangle. The modified
Pascal triangle relates the Lucas numbers to other wellknown
sequences. It shows a very strong connection between the
Fibonacci numbers and the Lucas numbers. This is just the
beginning. We invite you to search for others in this amazing array
of numbers.
Chapter 4
The Fibonacci Numbers and
the Golden Ratio
I
t is time we ought to consider the geometric manifestation of the
Fibonacci numbers, the beauty of which has been appreciated in
many fields. We will show the relationship between the Fibonacci
numbers and the golden ratio, which has generally been observed
in the golden section, the golden rectangle, and the golden triangle,
as well as other related figures along the way. In any case, this ge
ometry excursion is well worth the journey!
Fibonacci Ratios
In the previous chapter, we viewed the Fibonacci numbers as a se
quence, rather than as individual numbers. We noticed how the
Fibonacci sequence related to other sequences of numbers that, at
the start, seemed completely unrelated to it. We will now inspect
the Fibonacci sequence of numbers by considering the relationship
of consecutive members of the sequence. Such a relationship is
best seen by taking the ratio of these consecutive numbers. We can
see that, as the numbers get larger, the ratio seems to approach a
specific number. But, as the numbers get larger, what is this num
ber that the ratios are approaching?
107
108 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
F;_1_
 1
F; 1
F.1_2_
 2
F2 1
~ 3
=  = 1.5
F3 2
F 5 
2.=  =1.6
~ 3
~ 8
=  = 1.6
F." 5
F7 13
=  = 1.625
~ 8
F 21
_8 ====1.6153841
F; 13
~ = 34 = 1.619047
~ 21
F 55
_10 ==  == 1.61764705882352941
~ 34
F 89 
_11 ==  == 1.618
F;o 55
F 144
.!l.:= := 1.61797752808988764044943820224719101123595505
Fi.l 89
F 233 
_13 ==  == 1.61805
F;2 144
F 377
~ ==  == 1.6180257510729613733905579399142 ... 2
F;3 233
1. A reminder: the bar over the digits after the decimal point indicates that these
digits repeat endlessly.
2. The period of the decimal expansion of 377 is
233
618025751072961373390557939914163090128755364806866952789699570815450643
776824034334763948497854077253218884120171673819742489270386266094420600
858369098712446351931330472103004291845493562231759656652360515021459227
4678111587982832, which then repeats endlessly. The period has length 232
[=233 1].
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 109
We could have also considered the ratio of the numbers of the
Fibonacci sequence in the inverted order. Take a look at the two
sets of ratios in figure 41. Can you see anything curious about the
respective numbers they are approaching? It should begin to be
come evident with the larger numbers
The Ratios of Consecutive Fibonacci Numbers
3
F F
n+1 n
F F
n n+1
1
1
 = 1.000000000
 = 1.000000000
1
1
2
1
 = 2.000000000
 = 0.500000000
1
2
3
2
 = 1.500000000
 = 0.666666667
2
3
5
3
 = 1.666666667
 = 0.600000000
3
5
8
5
 = 1.600000000
 = 0.625000000
5
8
13
8
 = 1.625000000
=0.615384615
8
13
21
13
 = 1.615384615
 = 0.619047619
13
21
34
21
 = 1.619047619
 =0.617647059
21
34
55
34
 = 1.617647059
 = 0.618181818
34
55
89
55
 = 1.618181818
 = 0.617977528
55
89
3. Rounded to 9 decimal places.
110 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
144
 = 1.617977528
89
233
 = 1.618055556
144
377
 = 1.618025751
233
610
 == 1.618037135
377
987
 = 1.618032787
610
89
 = 0.618055556
144
144
=0.618025751
233
233
 = 0.618037135
377
377
 = 0.618032787
610
610
 =0.618034448
987
Figure 41
Both columns are each approaching a specific number (with
the right column lagging one ratio behind). The left column seems
to be approaching the value 1.61803 ... , while the right column
appears to be approaching 0.61803 .... As the numbers in the ra
tio become very large, we might conclude that
4
FF
n
+
1
= F
n

I
+ 1. But
n Fn
as the numbers get larger and larger, the one step lag that we ob
served in figure 41 becomes negligible. We can thus say that, in
general, Fn+l ~ ~ + 1. This is called the golden ratiowhen the
Fn Fn+l
Fibonacci numbers used reach their limitless "largeness."
The Golden Ratio
The limit of this ratio is perhaps one of the most famous numbers
in mathematics. Convention has it that the Greek letter ¢ (phi) is
used to represent this ratio. There is reason to believe that the letter
¢ was used because it is the first letter of the name of the cele
brated Greek sculptor Phidias (490430 BCE),5 who produced the
4. Even though there is a lagby onein the right column, when the numbers
get larger this lag becomes relatively insignificant.
5. In Greek: < P I ~ I A L .
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO III
famous statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympia and supervised
the construction of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece. His frequent
use of the golden ratio in this glorious building (see chapter 7) is
likely the reason for this attribution.
(In a lighthearted way, some like to relate the Fibonacci num
bers to ¢ [phi], by saying that they are really called the Phibonacci
numbers or tfJbonacci numbers!)
A somewhat more accurate estimate of t/J would look like this:
¢ 1.6180339887498948482045868343656, which is what the Fi
bonacci number ratios in figure 41 seem to be getting ever closer to.
The unique characteristic that we can observe from this chart is that
t/J = + 1, or = t/J 1 . This way, we can calculate the value of the
reciprocal of ¢ from the value of it given above, by merely subtract
ing 1, to get: 0.6180339887498948482045868 343656 .... As a
t/J
matter of fact, this is the only number where such a relationship is
true. This should not be confused with the universally true mathe
matical relationship that t/J. = 1 . This, of course, is true for all num
bers other than zero.
For those wanting a more precise value of ¢, we offer it here
to one thousand places:
13544862270526046281890244970720720418939113748475408807
53868917521266338622235369317931800607667263544333890865
95939582905638322661319928290267880675208766892501711696
20703222104321626954862629631361443814975870122034080588
79544547492461856953648644492410443207713449470495658467
88509874339442212544877066478091588460749988712400765217
05751797883416625624940758906970400028121042762177111777
80531531714101170466659914669798731761356006708748071013
17952368942752194843530567830022878569978297783478458782
28911097625003026961561700250464338243776486102838312683
30372429267526311653392473167111211588186385133162038400
52221657912866752946549068113171599343235973494985090409
112 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
47621322298101726107059611645629909816290555208524790352
40602017279974717534277759277862561943208275051312181562
85512224809394712341451702237358057727861600868838295230
45926478780178899219902707769038953219681986151437803149
9741106926088674296226757560523172777520353613936
Since the relationship between if> and is so spectacular, we re
peat (for emphasis and to highlight our amazement) that the deci
mal portion of these two values is the same.
tfJ
35448622705260462818902449707207204189391137484754088075
38689175212663386222353693179318006076672635443338908659
59395829056383226613199282902678806752087668925017116962
07032221043216269548626296313614438149758701220340805887
95445474924618569536486444924104432077134494704956584678
85098743394422125448770664780915884607499887124007652170
57517978834166256249407589069704000281210427621771117778
05315317141011704666599146697987317613560067087480710131
79523689427521948435305678300228785699782977834784587822
89110976250030269615617002504643382437764861028383126833
03724292675263116533924731671112115881863851331620384005
22216579128667529465490681131715993432359734949850904094
76213222981017261070596116456299098162905552085247903524
06020172799747175342777592778625619432082750513121815628
55122248093947123414517022373580577278616008688382952304
59264787801788992199027077690389532196819861514378031499
741106926088674296226757560523172777520353613936
It is not periodic,
6
and it is also irrational.
7
The two numbers
differ by one. Therefore we get = 1>  1. To further solidify the
6. A periodic decimal, or repeating decimal, is a decimal that is finite or infinite
and has a finite block of digits that eventually repeats indefinitely.
7. An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed as an integer
or a quotient of integers.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 113
connection between q> and the Fibonacci numbers, let's take a
short journey back to elementary algebra to solve the equation
I
=</>1.
l/J
Ifwe multiply both sides of the equation by </> we get:
1 = </>2  </> .
Then </>2  </>  1 = 0 .
Applying the quadratic formula, we get: tjJ = 1±;S .
The positive value of
tjJ = 1+;S = 1.6180339887498948482045868343656 ....
Just to check our earlier presumption ( above) that the relation
ship ~ = tjJ  1 is really true, we can calculate
~ = i: = J51 :::: 0.61803398874989484820458683436564 ,
l/J v5+1 2
which appears to bear out our conjecture about the reciprocal rela
tionship.
Therefore, not only does t j J . ~ = 1 (obviously!), but also
1
</>l/J=1.
Bear in mind that </> and  ~ are the roots of the equation
l/J
x
2
 xI = 0, a property we shall examine later.
Powers of the Golden Ratio
It is interesting to examine powers of </> . They will further link the
Fibonacci numbers to </>. To do so we first must find the value of </>2
in terms of </>.
4
114 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
We now use this relationship (l/J2 = l/J + 1 ) to inspect the succes
sive powers of l/J by breaking them down to their component parts
in detail. It may at first appear more complicated than it really is.
You should try to follow each step (it's really not difficultand
yet very rewarding!) and then extend it to further powers of l/J .
l/J 1 = l/J ol/J2 = l/J(l/J + 1) = l/J2 + l/J = (l/J + I) + l/J = 2l/J + 1
l/J 4 = l/J
2
e l/J
2
= (l/J + I) ( l/J + I) = l/J
2
+ 2l/J + 1 = (l/J + I) + 2l/J + 1 = 3l/J + 2
l/J5 = l/J3 ol/J2 = (2l/J + 1)( l/J + I) = 2l/J2 + 3l/J + 1 = 2 (l/J + I) + 3l/J + 1 = 5l/J + 3
l/J6 = l/J3 el/J3 = (2l/J + 1)(2l/J + I) = 4l/J2 + 4l/J + 1 = 4(l/J + I) + 4l/J + 1 = 8l/J + 5
l/J 7 = l/J
4
'l/JJ = (3l/J + 2) (2l/J + 1) = 6l/J2 + 7l/J + 2 = 6 (l/J + I) + 7l/> + 2 == 13l/> + 8
and so on.
By this point you should be able to see a pattern emerging. As
we take further powers of l/J, the end result of each power of l/J is
actually equal to a multiple of l/J plus a constant. Further inspection
shows that the coefficients of powers of l/J and the constants are all
Fibonacci numbers. Not only that, but they are also in their Fibo
nacci sequence order. So you ought to be able to extend the list as
we havebegun in figure 42 to get the powers of l/J:
l/J
= ll/J + 0
l/J6 = 8l/J + 5
l/J2=
Il/J + 1
l/J7 = 13l/J + 8
l/J3=
2l/J + 1
l/J
8
= 21l/J + 13
l/J4 =
3l/J + 2
l/J9 = 34l/J + 21
l/J5=
5l/J + 3
l/J 10 = 55l/J + 34
Figure 42
Voila! Once again the Fibonacci number sequence appeared
where you may have least expected it. The Fibonacci numbers ap
pear both as the coefficients of l/J, and as the constants as we take
powers of l/J. Furthermore, we can write all powers of l/J in a linear
form: l/Jn == a l/J + b, where a and b are special integersthe
Fibonacci numbers.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 115
The Golden Rectangle
For centuries, artists and architects have identified what they be
lieved to be the most perfectly shaped rectangle. This ideal rectan
gle, often referred to as the "golden rectangle," has also proved to
be the most pleasing to the eye. The golden rectangle is one that
has the following ratio of its length and width: ; = w ~ l .
The desirability of this rectangle has been borne out by numer
ous psychological experiments. For example, Gustav Fechner
(18011887), a German experimental psychologist, inspired by
Adolf Zeising's book Der goldene Schnitt
8
began a serious inquiry
to see if the golden rectangle had a special psychological aesthetic
appeal. His findings were published in 1876.
9
Fechner made thou
sands of measurements of commonly seen rectangles, such as
playing cards, writing pads, books, windows, etc. He found that
most had a ratio of length to width that was close to </J. He also
tested people's preferences and found most people preferred the
golden rectangle.
What Gustav Fechner actually did was to ask 228 men and 119
women which of the following rectangles is aesthetically the most
pleasing. Take a look at the rectangles in figure 43. Which rectan
gle would you choose as the most pleasing to look at? Rectangle
1 : 1 is too much like a squareconsidered by the general public as
not representative of a "rectangle." It is, after all, a square! On the
other hand, rectangle 2:5 (the other extreme) is uncomfortable to
look at since it requires the eye to scan it horizontally. Finally,
consider the rectangle 21 :34, which can be appreciated at a single
glance and is therefore more aesthetically pleasing. Fechner's
findings seem to bear this out.
8. AdolfZeising (18101876), a German philosopher, Neue Lehre von den Pro
portionen des menschlichen Korpers (New theories about the proportions of the
human body) (Leipzig, Germany: R. Weigel, 1854.) The book Der goldene
Schnitt (The Golden Section) was published postumously (by the Leopoldinisch
Carolinische Akademie: Halle, Germany, 1884).
9. Gustav Theodor Fechner, Zur experimentalen Asthetik (On Experimental
Aesthetics) (Leipzig, Germany: Breitkopf & Hartl, 1876).
116 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
D
1 : 1
D
2:3
D
5:6
CJ
21 : 34
D
4:5
CJ
13: 23
D
3:4
I I
1 : 2
D
20: 29
I
2:5
Figure 43
Fechner's rectangles.
Here are the results that Fechner reported:
Ratio of sides of Percent response Percent response
rectangle for best rectangle for worst rectangle
1: 1 = 1.00000 3.0 27.8
5:6 = .83333 .02 19.7
4:5 = .80000 2.0 9.4
3:4 = .75000 2.5 2.5
20:29 = .68966 7.7 1.2
2:3 = .66667 20.6 0.4
21:34 = .61765 35.0 0.0
13:23 = .56522 20.0 0.8
1:2 = .50000 7.5 2.5
2:5 = .40000 1.5 35.7
100.00 100.00
Figure 44
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 117
Fechner's experiment has been repeated with variations in
methodology many times and his results have been further sup
ported. For example, in 1917 Edward Lee Thorndike (18741949),
an American psychologist and educator, carried out similar ex
periments, with analogous results.
In general, the rectangle with the ratio of 21 :34 was most pre
ferred. Do those numbers look familiar? Yes, once again the Fibo
nacci numbers. The ratio : ~ = 0.61764705882352941 approaches
the value of ~ , and gives us the socalled golden rectangle.
l/J
Consider a rectangle (figure 45) where the length, [, and the
width, w, are in the following proportion: ; = W ~ l ·
B I C
.,
w
A
D
Figure 45
By cross multiplying in this proportion we get w (w + 1) = [2,
or w
2
+ wi == 12 , or w
2
+ wi  12 == O.
Ifwe let I == I, then w
2
+ wI == o.
Using the quadratic formu1a,10 we get w = 1±.Js . Because we
2
are dealing with lengths, the negative value is of no interest here.
Th
c. 1+J5 J51 I d h ld . .
erelore, w = 2  2  l/J' an t e go en ratIo agaIn
emerges.
10. The quadratic formula presented in the high school algebra course,
 b± ~ b
2
 4ac . C: hId· . 2 b 0
x = , IS lor t e genera qua ratlc equation ax + x + c = .
2a
118 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
I
This is the same equation that gave us l/J above. So we now
know that the ratio of the rectangle's dimensions is
w = _,_ = ~ = ../51 or i= w+! = cjJ = ../5+1
, w+ I tfJ 2' w I 2
giving us a golden rectangle.
Let's see how this rectangle may be constructed using the tra
ditional Euclidean tools: an unmarked straightedge and a pair of
compasses. (Another way would be to use a computer geometric
construction program such as Geometer's Sketchpad.) With a
width of 1 unit, our objective is to get the length to be .J5+1 , so that
2
the ratio of the length to the width will be cjJ, which equals .J5+I.
2
Perhaps one of the simpler ways to construct this golden rec
tangle is to begin with a square ABEF (see figure 46) with M, the
midpoint of AF. Then with radius ME and center M, draw a circle
to intersect ifF at D. The perpendicular at D intersects BE at C.
We now have ABCD (which turns out to be a golden rectangle).
8
E
C
,
J
I
r
r
J5
I
1
2
I
I
I
I
I
I
r
I
r
I

A
M F
J5 }
0

2 2
2
Figure 46
Let us verify that figure 46 is, in fact, a golden rectangle.
Without loss of generality, we let ABEF be a unit square. There
I
fore EF = AF = 1 and MF = 2 .
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 119
By applying the Pythagorean theorem to 11 we get
J5 J5+1
ME = 2 . Therefore, AD = 2 .
To verify that ABeD is a golden rectangle, we would want to
show that the ratio of the lengths and the widths follows the rela
tionship mentioned earliernamely, that CD = AD . We can do
AD CD+AD
this by substituting the above lengths into this proportion to get
which is a true equality!
15 + 1
1 2
15+1  15+1
1+
2 2
Johannes Kepler (15711630), the revered astronomer and
mathematician, said that "geometry holds two great treasures: one
is the Pythagorean theorem and the other is the golden section. The
first we can compare to a bushel of gold and the second we can call
a priceless gem."
As we like to relate mathematical phenomena to each other, we
shall mention that Underwood Dudley12 drew a "cute" relationship
between the golden ratio and 1t. He showed that the following is
just a good approximation, but nothing more:
3.1415926535897932384 ... = 1t = 6 ¢2 = 3.1416407864998738178 ...
5
11. Applying the Pythagorean theorem gives us:
(ME)2 = (MF)2 + (EF)2
+12
(
4
(ME) = fi = J5
'14 2
12. Mathematical Cranks (Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of
America, 1992).
120 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Furthermore, as we continue to connect mathematical values,
consider one of the most famous relationships in mathematics. It is
attributed to Leonhard Euler (17071783), one of the most prolific
mathematicians in history. The beauty of this relationship is that
the simple equation contains each of the most significant values in
mathematics.
It is: e
1ti
+ 1 = 0, where e is the base of natural logarithms
(Euler's number), 1t is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to
its diameter (Ludolph's number), i is the imaginary unit of the
complex numbers (square root of  1; rI), 1 is the unit of the
natural numbers (all numbers> 0 are produced by 1 and adding),
and 0 is the neutral element of the addition. Notice that l/J is miss
ing. Well, we can fix that!
We know that cp = .[5+1 and I =  e
1ti
(from Euler's equation),
2
so we can incorporate l/J into this equation by replacing the 1 in the
. ~ e
H
;
first equation with ( e
1t1
) to get: l/J =  . So now we have an
2
exact way to relate l/J to 1t, e, and i.
Constructing the Golden Section
There are many ways to construct the golden ratio with Euclidean
tools (i.e., an unmarked straightedge and a pair of compasses) be
sides the method shown in figure 46. With each method we have
an opportunity to see how many lovely geometric relationships are
brought into play in our quest for the golden ratio. We shall show a
few of them here. The first, shown in figure 47, is attributed to
Heron of Alexandria (1070 CE).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 121
c
rl2
E
A B
Figure 47
You may be able to see from figure 47 how the construction is to
be done to get AB divided into the golden ratio. You begin with
 
AB and construct AB ..1 BC (..1 is the symbol used to denote per
pendicularity). Then draw the circle with center at C and radius
length CB to intersect the hypotenuse of the right triangle ABC at
D. You complete the construction by drawing the circle with center
A and radius AD to intersect the other leg at E, which is the point
on AB that divides the segment into the golden section. By using
the Pythagorean theorem on triangle ABC, we find that the hypote
 r15 . AE x 15+1
nuse, AC = . The result IS that  =  =  = l/>
2 BE rx 2
~ 1.618033988. This is a start for justifying our conclusion. (Fur
ther details and justification can be found in appendix B.)
Another Construction of the Golden Section
Another construction of the golden section along AB, using
Euclidean tools, can be seen in figure 48. Here the two circles,
with the line segment lengths indicated, are shown to be tangent at
 
D and AB ..1 A C .
122 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
To do the construction, begin with the larger circle (center at C
and radius length AB) and construct a right triangle ABC where B
is on the circle. Then extend CA to meet the circle at D. Next draw
the circle with center A and radius length AD. We then can con
clude that point E divides the line segment AB into the golden ra
tio. That is, AE = ~ = .J5 + I = f/J :::; 1.618033988. (The justification
BE ax 2
for this construction can be found in appendix B.)
a
I
2
c
A
x
o
E
Figure 48
B
Yet Another Construction of the Golden Section
The construction shown in figure 49 will have two segments that
reflect the golden ratio:
f/J =.J5 + 1 and ~ = J5  1
2 t/J 2
They are BQ and BP .
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 123
A
2
p
1 B
•
Figure 49
'1*
t
2
Q
The construction is rather simple. You start off with a right
triangle ABC, where AB = 2 . BC, thus making the hypotenuse
AC = .J5. Then all that remains is to construct the angle bisec
tors of LACB and the exterior angle at C. (See appendix B.)
A Surprising Construction of the Golden Section
We can construct the golden ratio along a line and then, of
course, use the segments to construct the golden rectangle. The
construction is simple, as is the justification. Begin with an
equilateral triangle ABC inscribed in a circle. Through the mid
point of two of its sides, construct a line that will intersect the
circle. (See figure 410.) For convenience, we will let the sides
of the equilateral triangle be of length 2. It is easy to establish 13
that the line joining the midpoints of the two sides of the trian
gle is half the third side and, therefore, is of length 1.
13. To do this, draw a line segment through E parallel to AB and intersecting
Be at F. The figure formed, BDEF is a rhombus with each side of length 1.
124 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
A
Figure 410
Using the relationship that the products of the segments of two
intersecting chords of a circle are equal,14 we get:
AE· EC=ME· EN
1 . 1 = (x + 1) x
r+xl=O
.[;  1 ]
X = , which is .
2 t/J
So, from the previous constructions of the golden section, we
can say that the Fibonacci numbers appear even when there is no
golden rectangle.
Golden or Fibonacci Spirals
Let us continue our discussion with golden rectangle ABeD, but
now in a very curious way. We established in figure 46 that when
a square is constructed internally (as shown in figure 411), if
AF = 1 and AD = C/>, then FD = C/>  1 = We now can establish
14. When two chords of a circle intersect, the product of the segments of one
chord equals the product of the segments of the other chord.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 125
that rectangle CDFE has dimensions FD = ~ and CD = 1. If we
inspect the ratio of length to width of rectangle CD FE , we get
:;; = + = l/J , and it is, therefore, also a golden rectangle.
l/J
B ..._______ .E...____ .... c
A
1
F
1
t/J
~           ~ y ~             ~
Figure 411
D
Let's continue this process of constructing an internal square in
the newly formed golden rectangle. In golden rectangle CD FE ,
square DFGH is constructed (figure 412). We find that
CH = 1 ~ = ;2 , so the ratio of the length to width of rectangle
CHGEis
(having multiplied both numerator and denominator by l/J2). This
thereby establishes rectangle CHGE also as a golden rectangle.
126 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
B
L
N
M
1

~ Sr
T
¢4
G
R K
1
1

t/J
A
F
~                 v ~               ~
Figure 412
c
1
t/J
o
Continuing this scheme, we construct square CHKJ in golden
rectangle CHGE. We find
15
1
EJ:=!... __ l := lfJl :=!L:=_l
lfJ lfJ2 lfJ2 lfJ2 lfJ3
We now inspect the ratio of the dimensions of rectangle EJKG.
This time the length to width ratio is
Once again, we have a new golden rectangle; this time rectangle
EJKG.
By continuing this process, we get golden rectangle GKML,
golden rectangle NMKR, golden rectangle MNST, and so on.
15. We showed earlier that t/J  ~ = 1, therefore, t/J  1 = ~ .
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 127
center E, radius EB
center G, radius GF
center K, radius KH
center M, radius MJ
center N, radius NL
center S, radius SR
The result is an approximation of a logarithmic spiral (figure
413).
B E J C
r                 r   ~ . . , . _ _ ~   _ _ _ .
A
G 1............""'"1 H
R K
F
Figure 413
o
The symmetric parts of this complexlooking figure are the
squares. Suppose we locate the center of each of these squares. We
can draw arcs through each of these points and then see that the
centers of these squares lie in another approximation of a logarith
mic spiral (figure 414).
The spiral in figure 413 seems to converge (i.e., end) at a point
in rectangle ABC D. This point is at the intersection P, of
 
AC and ED (figure 415).
128 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
______ ____________ ____ ______
GI''+t H
A
F
o
Figure 414
Consider once again golden rectangle ABCD (figure 415).
Earlier we established that square ABEF determined another
golden rectangle CEFD.
____________ ______
p
A
F
o
Figure 415
Since all golden rectangles have the same shape, rectangle ABCD
is similar to rectangle CEFD. This implies that MCD is similar to
i1CDA. Therefore LCED is congruent to LDCA. And LDCA is com
plementary to LECA. Therefore LCED is complementary to LECA.
 
Thus LEPC must be a right angle, or AC ..1 ED.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 129
If the width of one rectangle is the length of the other and the
rectangles are similar, then the rectangles are said to be reciprocal
rectangles. In this case, the ratio of similitude
1 6
is l/J.
In figure 415 we see that rectangle ABCD and rectangle CEFD
are reciprocal rectangles. Furthermore, we see that reciprocal rec
tangles have corresponding diagonals that are perpendicular.
In the same way as before, we can prove that rectangles CEFD
 
and CEGH are reciprocal rectangles. Their diagonals ED and CG
are perpendicular at P. This may be extended to each pair of con
secutive golden rectangles shown in figure 416. Clearly P ought
to be the limiting point of the spiral.
B E J C
r              . . . . . . . .   ~ _ " . . . . _ _  _ _ _ _ _ "
~    ~      I H
A
F
o
Figure 416
We can use this relationship of the diagonals to construct con
secutive golden rectangles. We could simply begin with golden
rectangle ABCD and construct a perpendicular from D to AC and
from its intersection E with BC construct a perpendicular to AD
to complete the second golden rectangle. This process can be re
peated indefinitely.
Let's take another look at the spiral we generated by drawing
quarter circlesone that approximates the golden spiral (see figure 4
17). We have a golden rectangle ABCD, with sides of length a and b
16. The ratio of similitude is the ratio of the corresponding sides of the two
similar figures, in this case, rectangles.
130 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
(a > b), where it follows that a = l/J. band b = l/J 1 · a. We shall then
construct the spiral with the quarter circles as before. This will allow
us to get the length of the spiral that approximates the golden spiral.
D c
E:i   .    +:3I .... e.==
A
a
Figure 417
The actual golden spiral does not evolve from these quarter cir
cles. This diagram merely gives us a good and easily understood
approximation. The table in figure 418 provides a progressive cal
culation of the length of the spiral.
Length Width (quarter circle radius)
J51 IJ51
b = b
o
= l/JI· a
=
·a
=
·a
a =a
o
2 2
3J5 IJ53
a
l
= b
o
b
l
= ao  b
o
=l/JI'
al
=
·a
=
·a
2 2
2J54 2J54
a
2
=b
l
b
2
= a
l
 b
l
= l/J I . a
2
=
·a  ·a
2 2
73J5 3J57
a
3
= b
2
b
3
= a
2
 b
2
= l/J 1 • a
3
=
·a  ·a
2 2
SJ511 SJ511
a
4
= b
3
b
4
= a
3
 b
3
= l/J I . a
4
=
·a
=
·a
2 2
lSSJ5 SJ51S
a
5
= b
4
b
5
=a
4
b
4
 l/J I a
=
·a
=
·a
 • 5
2 2
13J529 13J529
a
6
= b
5
b
6
= a
5
 b
5
l/J I =
·a

·a
= . a6
2 2
4721J5 21J547
a
7
= b
6
b
7
= a6  h6
= l/J I . a
7
=
·a  ·a
2 2
•••
Figure 418
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 131
Amazingly, as you inspect the results, you will see the Fibo
nacci numbers, Fn (1, 1,2,3,5,8, 13,21, ... ), as the product with
.J5, as well as the constants highlighting the Lucas numbers, Ln
(1, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18, 29, 47, ... ). This could justify calling this spiral
the FibonacciLucas spiral.
The real golden spiral, also called a logarithmic spiral, looks
something like that in figure 419.
The real golden (logarithmic) spiral cuts the sides of the
squares at very small angles. The apparent spiral (which consists of
quarter circles) touches it. So the sides of the golden rectangles
aren't tangents to this golden spiral (as in the case of the approxi
mation); they are each cut twice.
D ~ ____ ~ __ ~ __________________________ ~ C
A
B
Figure 419
It is sometimes called an "equiangular spiral," since the radius
keeps a constant angle with the curve. It was named such by Rene
Descartes (15961650), the French mathematician, who is respon
sible for the field of analytic geometry that is done on a "Cartesian
plane"named for its founder. Descartes mentioned this spiral in
1638 correspondences with another French mathematician Marin
Mersenne (15881648), who is famous for his work with prime
numbers. The Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli (16551705)
referred to this spiral as the logarithmic spiral. He was so en
chanted with it and its properties that he requested it as his epitaph
132 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
with the words: "Eadem mutata resurgo" (It changed me, and yet
remain unchanged). 17
In nature the nautilus shell exhibits such a golden spiral (figure 420).
Figure 420
Figure 421 shows a curve that crosses the xaxis at the
Fibonacci numbers.
The spiral part crosses at 1, 2, 5, 13, and so on, on the positive
axis, and 0, 1,3,8, and so on, on the negative axis.
The oscillatory part crosses at 0, 1, 1,2,3,5,8, 13, etc. on the
positive axis.
/
,
I
\
\
\
•
•
 
,
,
,
'/
,
Figure 421
17. The sculptor who then created the epitaph chiseled not a logarithmic spiral.
but rather an Archimedean one!
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RA no 133
The curve is strangely reminiscent of the shells of nautilus and
snails (figure 422). This is not surprising, since the curve tends to
a logarithmic spiral as it expands.
Figure 4·22
A Surprising Sighting of the Fibonacci Numbers
We typically call the area between two concentric circles a ring. In
figure 423, you will notice that as the area of the ring gets smaller,
the area of the ellipse that is tangent to each of the circles gets
larger. At some point the ellipse will be equal in area to the ring.
Strangely enough, the ellipse will be equal in area to the ring
lS
when the ratio of the radii of the two circles is 0.618 ... or ~ .
4>
18. The justification for this claim is as follows: The area of a circle of radius r
is,,? The area of an ellipse with "radii" a and b (as shown above) is "ab (Note
how when a ~ b in the ellipse, it becomes a circle and the two formula are the
same.) So the outer circle has radius a, the inner circle radius b, and the area of
the ring between them is therefore: " (b'  a'). This is equal to the area of the
ellipse when" (b'  a') ~ "ab, and b'  a
2
 ab ~ O.
If we let the ratio oj the two circles' radii ~ alb, be R, say, then dividing the
equation by a
2
, we have R'  R  I ~ 0, which means R is 4>. The equation of an
ellipse is (x/b)' + (y/a)' ~ I. When a ~ b, we have the equation of a circle of ra
dius a ( ~ b ) : (x/a)' + (y/a)2 ~ I.
134 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Again, when you least expect it, if! or ~ , or for that matter, the
¢
Fibonacci numbers, come up to greet you.
Figure 423
Let's look at the right triangle and consider when the tangent of
an angle would be equal to the cosine of the same angle that is,
when is tan LA = cos LA ?
Consider the right triangle ABC (figure 424) with AC = I and
BC = Q. Then by the Pythagorean theorem, we get:
AB = Ja
2
+1 .
B
a
e__________________________ ~ ~ A
C
I
Figure 424
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 135
a
tan LA =
1
1
cos LA =
a
2
+ 1
We want to have tan LA = cos LA :
a I
1  .J a
2
+ 1
Solving this equation for a :
+ 1 = 1
a
2
(a
2
+ 1) = 1
a
4
+ a
2
1 = 0
We shall let p = a
2
, so that we then get the equation p2 + P  1 = 0,
at which point you should recognize this equation.
15  1 1 2 1
Then p = = , or a = .
2 l/J l/J
Let's use these values for the sides of right triangle ABC (see fig
ure 425).
B
c 1
Figure 425
So you can see that when a triangle has sides of lengths:
1, .Ja
2
+! = =.,fo, and a = , the tangent of an acute angle of
the right triangle will equal the cosine. Again, the golden ratioor, if
you wish, the Fibonacci numbersappears when you least expect it.
136 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Another Emergence of the Fibonacci Numbers
in Geometry
An engaging problem that was posed by 1. A. H. Hunter
19
asks us
to determine the points on any rectangle ABeD that will leave
three triangles of equal areas when the center triangle (triangle 4 in
figure 426) is removed from it.
A
r+s
D
p
p+q
Figure 426
q
B
2
r
s
c
You can guess by now that this will in some way result in the
Fibonacci numbersanother sighting in geometry of this wonder
ful sequence. We begin (using the markings in figure 426) by set
ting the areas of the three triangles equal to one another.
p(r + s)
= ,
2
qr
=
2 '
= s(p + q)
2
Since = =
p(r + s) qr
and
p(r + s) s(p + q)

2 '
 , or
2 2 2
p(r+s)=qr, and p( r + s) = s( p + q)
qr
and p= pr=sq
r+s
19. "Triangle Inscribed in a Rectangle," Fibonacci Quarterly 1 (1963): 66.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 137
From the second equation we can set up the following propor
tion: p = q , which tells us that the two sides of the rectangle were
s r
divided proportionally. But what is that proportion? (Can you
guess by now?)
Let us replace p from the second equation, above, with the
value of p shown in the first equation:
(
qr )r = sq
r+s
r
2
=s(r+s)
If we divide both sides of the equation by S2 , we will get:
r2 s(r+s)
2 2
S S
2 2
r sr s
=+
2 2 2
S S S
2
r r
=+1
S2 s
Putting this in a more recognizable form (remember, ¢ and!
t/J
are the roots of the equation x
2
 x  1 = 0):
We can see (because r > S, q > p) that the solution of this
. . r _ 1+15 _ A\ (_ q)
equatIon IS    'Y   •
s 2 p
Therefore, the points on the sides of the rectangle that will de
termine the triangles that must be removed to leave the three trian
gle of equal areas must be placed so that they partition the sides in
the golden ratio ( ¢ ). Again, the Fibonacci numbers are involved!
138 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The Diagonal of the Golden Rectangle
We have done quite a bit with the golden rectangle, yet there never
seems to be an end to what you can do. For example, the golden
rectanglethe relationship of whose sides are in the golden ra
tioallows us a neat way to find the point along the diagonal that
cuts it into a ratio related to the golden ratio. It is only because of
the unique properties of this special rectangle that we can do this
so easily.
Consider the golden rectangle ABCD, whose sides AB == a and
Be = b, so that : = 1>. As shown in figure 427, two semicircles are
drawn on the sides AB and BC to intersect at S. If we now draw
segments SA, SB, and SC , we find that LASB and LBSC are right
angles (since they are each inscribed in a semicircle). Therefore,
AC is a straight line, namely, the diagonal. We can now show,
rather elegantly, that point S divides the diagonal in the golden ratio.
D
c
Figure 427
From the mean proportional ratios (obtained from similar tri
angles MBC, MSB, and MSC), we get the following:
We use the segment length markings in figure 427, for each of
the right triangles:
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 139
~ S B : a
2
== e(e+ f)
M3SC: b
2
== f(e+ f)
2
a e
Therefore, 
b
2
f
a a
2
But since  = ¢, then 2 = ¢2 = ¢+ 1
b b
1
[Recall: ¢ =  + 1 and the powers of ¢.]
l/J
Thus the point S divides the diagonal of the golden rectangle
in a ratio involving the golden section (1/l,2 or I/l;') and, in turn, the
Fibonacci numbers.
Another Curiosity That Will Generate
the Golden Ratio
Consider the semicircle in figure 428 with the three congruent cir
cles inscribed so that the tangency points are as shown.
Figure 428
We seek to find the ratio of the radii of the large semicircle to
one of the smaller circles. In figure 429, AB = 2R and AM = R .
Each of the congruent small circles has a radius r. Consider right
140 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
triangle CKM with legs rand 2r, where the hypotenuse then has
length r.J5 . So we now have MK = r.J5 and PK = r, and therefore,
MP = r(.J5 + 1) = R.
Put another way, R = J5 + 1 = 2l/J .
r
Out of this seemingly unrelated situation with three congruent
circles inscribed in a semicircle, we find the ratio of their radii is
related to the golden ratio.
Figure 429
Fibonacci Nuntbers and a Curious Dilemma
B
This discussion of the role of the Fibonacci numbers in geometry
can also take on other entertaining aspects. Toward this end, we
will examine a rather curious problem. It was made popular by the
English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (18321898),
who, under the pen name of Lewis Carroll, wrote The Adventures
of Alice in Wonderland.
20
He posed the following problem: the
square on the left side of figure 430 has an area of 64 square units
and is partitioned as shown.
20. See Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, ed., Diversions and Digressions of Lewis
Carrol (New York: Dover, 1961), pp. 3161 7.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 141
5 3 '8 5
!
3
••••• 1 t··· •
3
_ ... ~ •••••••••••• _ .... 0 • ••••••• •• _!.. ..... . .... _._ .. ~ ............. ""... _ ... _. n'
5
5
5
i
! ! 3
•••••• 1. " •• _ •••• '(0'0' .0 + .0 •• 0
: 5
5
i 5
3 :
Figure 430
These four parts are then reassembled to form the rectangle at
the right of figure 430. This rectangle has an area of 13 . 5 = 65
square units. Where did this additional square unit come from?
Think about it before reading further.
All right, we'll relieve you of the suspense. The "error" lies in
the assumption that the figures will all line up along the drawn di
agonal. This, it turns out, is not so. In fact, a "narrow" parallelo
gram is embedded here, and it has an area of one square unit (see
figure 431).
2 : 1
: 1{ A' i
______ 2 _______ .. _______ ~ ____ ... ______ ;
!
+
I
51
3
3
i.
Figure 431
l 5
I
3
5
We can discover where the error lies by taking the tangent
function of a and f3 so that we can discover the measure of these
angles. Remember, they ought to be equal if they lie on the diagona1.
21
21. Alternateinterior angles of parallel lines are congruent.
142 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Since tan a = ~ , then a ~ 20.6°.
8
Since tan J3 =.:. , then (3 ~ 21.8°.
5
The difference, (3  a, is merely 1.2°, yet enough to show that
they are not on the diagonal.
You will notice that the segments above were 2,3,5,8, and 13
all Fibonacci numbers. Moreover, we already discovered
22
that
F
n
_
1
Fn+ I = Fn
2
+ ( 1 ) n , where n > 1. The rectangle has dimensions
5 and 13, and the square has a side length 8. These are the fifty,
sixth, and senenth Fibonacci numbers: ~ , ~ , and F, .
This relationship tells us that
5 ·3= 8
2
+ 1
65 = 64 + 1
This puzzle can then be done with any three consecutive
Fibonacci numbers as long as the middle number is an even
numbered member of the Fibonacci sequence (i.e., in an even po
sition). If we use larger Fibonacci numbers, the parallelogram will
be even less noticeable. But if we use smaller Fibonacci numbers,
then our eyes cannot be deceived as in figure 432:
3'
i
 ·r· .; ..
3 3
t .. ··2
5
3
3
I
• I
3
.. 'j . _ .. _.. ..
3
j
! 
!
i
3 '
,  ,  "  :H'  ~ , ..  'j '" '':' ,  I'  "j  i 
Figure 432
22. Chapter 1, page 55, item 11.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 143
Here is the general fonn of the rectangle (figure 433).
To do this properly, without the missing area, the only parti
tioningamazingly enoughis with the golden ratio, l/J as is seen
in figure 434.
1
</}1
1
1
</}1
1
1
(/>1
</}l
1
cp
(/>2 = (/>+ 1
Figure 434
The areas of the rectangle and the square are equal here (figure
434), as we shall show as follows:
The area of the square
= ¢. ¢ = </i = ¢ + 1 = J; + 3 = 2.6180339887 ...
2
The area of the rectangle
J; +3
= (l/J + 1) . 1 = l/J + 1 = = 2.6180339887 ...
2
Thus the areas of the square and the rectangle under this parti
tion are equal.
144 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The Golden Triangle
Now that we have thoroughly investigated the famous golden rec
tangle, we are ready to consider the golden ratio as it pertains to a
trianglethe golden triangle. As you would expect, much like the
golden rectangle, which has the Fibonacci numbers embedded
within it, so, too, does this golden triangle exhibit the Fibonacci
numbers, and consequently, the golden ratio. Let's consider a tri
angle that contains this golden ratio. We will begin with an attempt
to place an isosceles triangle into another similar isosceles triangle
in a somewhat analogous way to the way we embedded our similar
golden rectangles earlier. To do this, we may get a configuration as
in figure 435. The sum of the measures of the angles of triangle
ABC is a + a + a + 2a = 5a = 180° , and therefore a = 36° .
A
A
~ o
x
\
x
B
x
c
Figure 435 Figure 436
Aside from placing the two similar triangles the way we did
above, we could also have simply begun with an isosceles triangle
whose vertex angle measures 36°. Construct the bisector
BD of LABC (figure 436).
Since isosceles triangles with congruent vertex angles are
similar, then MBC is similar to MCD. We shall now let AD = x
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 145
and A B = I. However since ~ A DB and ~ D B C are isosceles,
BC=BD =AD =x.
From the similarity above, we get a (hopefully by now) famil
. . I x
Iar equatIon:  =  .
x Ix
As before, this gives us: x
2
+ xI = 0 and x = ~  1 . (The
negative root cannot be used for the length of AD.)
151 I
Remember that 2 = q, ·
. side 1
In MBC the ratIo of  =  = l/> .
base x
We therefore call this a golden triangle. One easy way to con
struct a golden triangle is to first construct the golden section (done
earlier in this chapter; for example, in figure 49: A B = 2 and
Be = 1, angle bisectors provide the points P and Q with BP = ~
and BQ = l/». We draw a circle around 0 with radius 1. On this
circle we choose a point A and draw around this center a second
circle with radius x = ~ . The intersection point(s) of the two cir
l/J
cles, as shown in figure 437, helps to determine a golden triangle
(compare also with figure 436).
B
Figure 437
146 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
By taking consecutive angle bisectors BD, CE, DF,
 
EG, and FH of a base angle of each newly fonned 36°, 72°, 72°
triangle, we get a series of golden triangles (see figure 438). These
golden triangles (36°, 72°, 72°) are: MBC, MCD, 8.CDE, MJEF,
MFG, and M'GH. Obviously, had space permitted, we could have
continued to draw angle bisectors and thereby generate more
golden triangles. Our inspection of the golden triangle will parallel
that of the golden rectangle. We proceed in pursuit of the
Fibonacci numbers.
A
B c
Figure 438
Let us begin by having HG = 1 (figure 438). Since the ratio of
b
side
of a golden triangle is l/J, we find that for golden M'GH:
ase
GF l/J GF l/J
=, or = and GF= l/J.
HG 1 1 1 '
Similarly for golden MFG: FE = if> , but GF = l/J, so FE = l/J 2.
GF 1
ED l/> 2 3
In golden WEF:  = , but FE = l/J , therefore ED = l/J .
FE 1
. DC l/J 3 4
AgaIn, for 8.CDE:  =  , but ED = l/J ,therefore DC = l/J .
ED 1
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 147
For MCD: CB = q, , but DC = ¢ \ therefore CB = ¢ 5.
DC 1
Finally for MBC: BA = q, , but CB = ¢ 5, therefore BA = ¢ 6.
CB 1
This can be summarized by using our knowledge of powers of
¢ (developed earlier) as follows (this time we point out the
Fibonacci numbers):
HG = l/J
0
= Ol/J + 1 = F l/J + F
o I
GF = l/J' = ll/J + 0 = Fl/J + F
I 0
FE = l/J2 = ll/J + 1 = F l/J + F
2 1
ED = l/J3 = 2l/J + 1 = F l/J + F
3 2
DC = l/J
4
= 3l/J + 2 = F l/J + F
4 3
CB = l/J5 = 5l/J + 3 = F l/J + F
5 4
BA = l/J6 = 8l/J + 5 = F l/J + F
6 5
As we did with the golden rectangle, we can generate an ap
proximation of a logarithmic spiral by drawing arcs to join the vertex
A
Figure 439
angle vertices of consecutive golden
triangles (see figure 439).
That is, we draw circular arcs as
follows:
AB (circle center at D)
Be (circle center at E)
CD (circle center at F)
DE (circle center at G)
EF (circle center at H)
FG (circle center at J)
148 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
There are many other truly fascinating relationships emanating
from the golden ratio. After you have been exposed to the golden
triangle, the next logical place to tum for more applications is the
regular pentagon
23
and the regular pentagram (the fivepointed
star), since these are essentially composed of many golden trian
gles. You will then see that the golden ratio abounds through
outas do the Fibonacci numbers.
The Golden Angle
Let us first take a side step and look at the golden angle, one that
divides a complete circle, 360
0
, into the golden ratio. Notice in
figure 440 the angles 'V and <p are in the ratio that approaches the
golden ratio:
B
'" = 3600 _ 360° = 137.5077640 ... 0 _ 137.50.
l/J
q> = 360° = 222.4922359 ... ° "" 222.5°.
l/J
_. A
I
I
Figure 440
q> = 360° "" 222.50
l/J
'" = 3600 _ 360° _ 137.50
l/J
23. A regular pentagon is one whose sides have the same length and whose an
gles are all the same measure.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 149
The ratio of circle = 360
0
~ 1.618 and larger angle ~ 1.618.
larger angle 222.5
0
, smaller angle
In each case, the golden ratio is approximated, as it can be, by
the quotient of successive Fibonacci numbers.
The Pentagon and the Pentagram
We now come to the beautiful geometric shape that sums up much
of the golden ratio in one configuration.
  ~
Figure 441 Figure 442
The golden triangle is embedded many times in the regular
pentagram, which just happened to be the symbol of the Pythago
reans. According to Pythagoras, all geometric shapes could be de
scribed in terms of integers. So it would have come as a great dis
appointment to him when one of his followers, Hippasus of
Metapontum (ca. 450 BeE), showed that the ratio of a diagonal of
the regular pentagon (i.e., a side of the regular pentagram) to the
side length of the pentagon could not be expressed as a fraction of
integers, in other words, this ratio is not rational! This, then, car
ried over to their symbol: the pentagram. This secret society was a
bit troubled by this which today can be seen as the very begin
ning of our concept of irrational numbers. That is, these are num
bers that cannot be repressed as a ratio of two whole numbers;
hence the name irrational. In the regular pentagon, the ratio of the
side to the diagonal is irrational. But which irrational number did
he find? Yes, you guessed it! It was the golden ratio, 1/1.
150 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
To show that this length relationship is actually irrational, we
use the relationship that in a regular pentagon every diagonal is
parallel to the sides it does not intersect. In figure 443 the trian
gles AED and BTC have therefore parallel sides, so they are similar
to each other.
A
D
Figure 443
Therefore AD=BC. But BT == BD  TD == BD AE. In the
AE BT
regular pentagon, therefore, the following ratio holds:
diagonal: side == side: (diagonal  side).
Symbolically, we can write this as
d a
or
a da
d
a
1
d
1
a
(with d as the length of the diagonal and a the length of the side).
If we now let x == d we get the equation x == _1_, which then
a xI
can be converted to the quadratic equation x
2
 xI == 0, of which
d is a positive root and just happens to be the irrational number
a
¢ = .[5+1 . (Remember: .Js is irrational!)
2
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 151
This is what we claimed at the outset: the ratio of the diagonal
to the side of a regular pentagon is irrational. As the irrational
number 1t = 3.1415926535897932384 ... is connected inseparably
with the circle, so, too, the irrational number l/J = 1.6180339887
498948482 ... is connected inseparably with the regular pentagon!
The regular pentagon ABCDE (figure 443) is a fascinating
figure with lots of useful properties. Here are some for you to ap
preciate and perhaps ponder over. You might look for other such
properties.
For figure 443 the regular pentagon ABCE has the following
properties:
(a) The size of every interior angle is 108°:
LEAB =LABC =LBCD =LCDE =LDEA = 108°
(b) The size of the angles of a golden rectangle are:
LPEB =LQAC =LRBD =LSCE =LTDA= 36°
LCDA =LDEB =LEAC =LABD =LBCE = 72°
(c) The following triangles are all isosceles:
WAC, MBD, MCE, MDA, and
MEA, WBC, MCD, and MDE
MEB, MBD, MCE, and
(d) The triangles 8DAC and 8QCD are similar (as are many
others figure 443).
( e) All diagonals of the pentagon have the same length.
(f) Every side of the pentagon is parallel to the diagonal "fac
ing" it.
152 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
(g) As an example, AD : DC = CQ : QD.
(h) The intersection point of two diagonals partitions both di
agonals in the golden section.
(i) PQRST is a regular pentagon.
Which of the triangles are golden triangles in the regular pen
tagon?
At this point we can bring in our Fibonacci numbers. We already
established that the various line segments of a regular pentagon
cannot be measured in integers. We say the segment relationships
are incommensurable. Yet we know that the ratio of adjacent
Fibonacci numbers approaches the golden ratio. With the obvious
loss of accuracy, we can display the regular pentagon and penta
gram in terms of the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 444).
Figure 444
These conditions can be approximately interpreted as follows:
If the side and the diagonal of the little pentagon were ap
proximately of lengths 34 and 55 mm, the side length of the larger
pentagon (89 mm) might have been obtained from the sum of these
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 153
values (34 + 55). Similarly, we can generate the other lengths as
shown in figure 444. There again, we have the Fibonacci num
bers!
Remember, the irrationality Hippasus of Metapontum encoun
tered, which made the Pythagoreans a bit disturbed, was that, for
example, 144 and 55 have a value of about 1.618. This is only an
89 34
approximation of the actual irrational value. Had the line segments
been exactly 34,55, 89, and 144 (mm), then all the fame Hippasus
of Metapontum garnered would have been ignored. So he remains
the "originator" to have stumbled on irrational numbers. Yet all
this fame did not come without his attackers. A remark by the
Greek philosopher Plato (427348/347 BeE) shows how terribly
the discovery of Hippasus moved the Greek:
I thought such an ignorance befits not people but rather a
herd's pigs, and I am not only ashamed of me but for all
Greeks.
24
The pentagram (fivecomer star) inscribed in a regular penta
gon abounds with the golden ratio l/>, since it is composed of lots
of golden triangles. In figure 445 the regular pentagon has side
length 1.
A
E ~         .      ~         ~ B
o
c
Figure 445
24. Plato, Laws for an Ideal State.
154 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Since the golden triangle is everywhere to be seen in the figure,
we have for each golden triangle: b
side
= if!, therefore AD = if! . With
ase DC
DC = I , we get AD = if! . In the golden MEH we get
side = if!
base
Therefore AH = ~ .
q,
A£
AH
. I I 25
Smce EH=DC= I, then FH= EH  EF = 1  = ,.
q, q,
The golden ratio is also involved with various area compari
sons in figure 445.
The ratio of the area of the larger pentagon ABCDE to the area
4
of the smaller pentagon is ~ .
The ratio of the area of the larger pentagon ABCDE to the area
3
of the pentagram is q,2 .
You can see the continued pattern in pentagrams and pentagons
(figure 446) harboring the golden ratio and, consequently, the
Fibonacci numbers.
E c
Figure 446
25. This comes from the nowfamiliar equation: q, '  ¢  I = 0, and then we
divide both sides by 1// to get:
I I
1  = . See also figure 412.
¢ ¢'
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 155
Constructing a Regular Pentagon
The construction of a regular pentagon is more complicated than
most other constructible regular polygons. The regular hexagon is
easily constructible. One need only draw circles around the cir
cumference of a given circle with the same radius as the given cir
cle. As you can see in figure 447, only four such circles are
needed. Joining the intersection points gives us a regular hexagon.
Figure 447
Were we to try to construct a regular pentagon in a similar
way, we would find ourselves in a dilemma. Perhaps the most im
portant artist Germany has contributed to Western culture is Al
brecht Durer (14711528). A much forgotten work by this artist (in
1525) is a geometric construction (using a straightedge and a pair
of compasses) of a regular pentagon, which he knew was an ap
proximation of a regular pentagon but extremely close to perfect. It
is so nearly perfect that its inaccuracy is not visually detectable. He
offered this very easy construction to the mathematical community
as an alternative method to get a "regular" pentagon, with the full
knowledge that is was off by about half a degree.
26
Its deviation
from a perfect regular pentagon is minuscule, but that cannot be
26. C. J. Scriba and P. Schreiber, 5000 Jahre Geometrie. Geschichte, Kulturen,
Menschen (Berlin: Springer, 2000), pp. 259, 28990.
156 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
ignored. Until recently, engineering books still provided it as a
method for constructing a regular pentagon. We shall provide an
explanation of the method here, despite its being slightly inaccu
rate, since it is instructive and has been used for many years.
In figure 448 we begin with a segment AB. Five circles of ra
dius AB are constructed as follows:
1. Circles with centers at A and B are drawn and intersect at
QandN.
2. Then the circle with center Q is drawn to intersect circles
with centers at A and B at points Rand S, respectively.
3. QN intersects circle Q with center at at P.
4. SP and RP intersect circles with centers at A and B at
points E and C, respectively.
5. Draw the circles with centers at E and C, with radius AB
to intersect at D.27
6. The polygon ABCDE is (approximately) a regular pentagon.
'.
'.
.0.
:Q
'.
'.
"
E C
:
."
..
Figure 448
27. Notice we only need one of the points of intersection (D) of these two
circles.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 157
Joining the points in order (figure 449), we get the pentagon
ABCDE.
.................. . .... .............. .
/........ . ... , •••. ~ . . . . . . . . ..... , .. \ ... )
'.
... ....
, /
........
R
Figure 449
Although the pentagon "looks" regular, it's mLABC is about
22 of a degree too large. In other words, for ABCDE to be a regular
60
pentagon, each angle must be
mLABC ~ 108.3661202° .
108°. Instead we will show that
•• ••••••••••••••••••••·•·•••• ••••••• n ••••• ••••••·••••• ...................... .
..••
...... ....
" " "
./ \ '\
f N \ C \
: ;
E
".
./
Figure 450
The rhombus in figure 450, ABQR, has LARQ = 60° and
BR = AB,{j since BR is actually twice the length of an altitude of
158 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
equilateral MRQ. Since MRQ is an isosceles right triangle,
mLPRQ = 45° ,and then mLBRC = 15° .
We shall apply the law of sines to MCR: . BR _ BC ·
sin LBCR sin LBRC '
h
· ABJi AB · LBCfn r:. 150
t at IS, . LBC'D = . 15
0
' or SIn .n = ",3 SIn .
sin .n sin
Therefore, mLBCR ~ 26.63387984 .
In MCR,
mLRBC = 180°  mLBRC  mLBCR
~ 180°  15°  26.63387984°
~ 138.3661202°
Thus, since mLABR = 30°,
mLRBC  mLABR ~ 138.661202°  30° ~ 108.3661202°
and not 108°, as it should be in order for it to be a regular penta
gon!
The results of Diirer's construction:
mLABC= mLBAE ~ 108.37°, mLBCD = mLAED
~ 107.94°, and mLEDC ~ 107.38°.
To construct a proper regular pentagon, we would first con
struct a golden triangle and then simply mark its base off along a
given circle as shown in figure 451.
M
Figure 451
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 159
We can even create the golden ratio by paperfolding methods.
Take a strip of paper, making sure the sides are parallel, and fold it
into a regular knot. Then carefully pull it taut so that it looks like
picture 3 in figure 452. You can tear off the end flops as in picture
4, if you wish. You have now formed a regular pentagon. If you
hold this pentagon up to the light and look through the knot, you
should see the pentagram inside the pentagon that you formed.
5
Figure 452
We have shown the many geometric sightings wherewhen
you least expect itthe Fibonacci numbers appear and sometimes
in the form of the golden ratio. We leave you in this chapter with a
series of regular pentagons that are placed so the vertex of each
divides the side of another in the golden ratio (see figure 453).
Figure 453
Ifwe join specific points (figure 454). we can generate a series
of spirals reminiscent of those we encountered in chapter 2.
160 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 454
In figure 455 the sides of neighboring (or adjacent) pentagons
are in the ratio equal to t/J: I. Once again, we can use the
Fibonacci numbers to render the appropriate approximation.
Figure 455
There are many more such appearances in geometry that we
will leave the reader to discover.
Chapter 5
The Fibonacci Numbers
and Continued Fractions
W
e have seen the Fibonacci numbers as they appear in nature,
as they manifest themselves among other numbers and se
quences, and as they can be seen in geometry. They also can be
seen in the study of continued fractions. A continued fraction is
just another form of a fraction that allows us to look at the nature
of numbers in a different way. We will introduce you to continued
fractions. Once again, after you are comfortable with continued
fractions, we will investigate their relationship to the Fibonacci
numbers.
Continued Fractions
We will begin with a brief introduction to continued fractions. A
continued fraction is a fraction in which the denominator has a
mixed number (a whole number and a proper fraction) in it. We
can take an improper fraction such as ~ and express it as a mixed
7
number:
6 6
1=1+
7 7
Without changing the value, we could then write this as
161
162 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
6 1
1+=1+
7 7
6
which in tum could be written (again, without any value change)
as:
1
1+
1
1+
6
This is a continued fraction. We could have continued this process,
but when we reach a unit fraction (i.e., a fraction in which the nu
merator is 1 and the denominator is a positive integer; in this case,
the unit fraction is ~ ) , we are essentially finished.
6
So that you can get a better grasp of this technique, we will
create another continued fraction. We will convert g to contin
7
ued fraction form. Notice that at each stage, when a proper frac
tion is reached, we take the reciprocal of the reciprocal (e.g.,
change ~ to _1 ,as we will do in the example that follows), which
5 5
2
does not change its value:
12 5 1 1 1 1
=1+=1+ =1+ =1+ =1+
7 7 7 2 1 1
1 + 1+ 1+
5 5 5 1
2+
2 2
If we break up a continued fraction into its component parts
(called convergents),1 we get closer and closer to the actual value
of the original fraction.
1. This is done by considering the value of each portion of the continued fraction
up to each plus sign, successively.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 163
F
o f 12
Irst convergent 0 
7
== 1
12 1
Second convergent of  == 1 +  == 2
7 1
Third convergent of g
7
1 2 2 5
==1+ ==1+==1==
1 + ~ 3 3 3
2
12 1 12
Fourth Convergent of  == 1 + 
717
1+
1
2+
2
The above examples are all finite continued fractions, which
are equivalent to rational numbers (those that can be expressed as
simple fractions). It would then follow that an irrational number
would result in an infinite continued fraction. That is exactly the
case. A simple example of an infinite continued fraction is that of
J2 . Although we show it here, we will actually generate it just a
bit further on.
J2==I+I
1
2 + 
1
2+
1
2+
1
2+
1
2+
1
2+
2 + ...
We have a short way to write a long (in this case infinitely
long!) continued fraction: [1;2,2,2,2,2,2,2, ... J, or when there are
these endless repetitions, we can even write it in a shorter form as
164 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
[ 1;2J, where the bar over the 2 indicates that the 2 repeats end
lessly.
In general, we can represent a continued fraction as:
1
1
1
a
3
+ ... .
1
1
a +
nI
an
where ai are real numbers and ai ~ 0 for i > O. We can write this in
a shorter fashion as: [a
O
;al'a
2
,a
3
, ••• ,an_pan] .
As we said before, we will generate a continued fraction equal
to 12.
Begin with the identity: J2 + 2 = J2 + 2
Factor the left side and split the 2 on the right side:
J2 (1 + J2) = 1 + J2 + 1
Divide both sides by 1 + J2 to get:
J2=I+ 1 =[I;I,J2]
1+J2
Replace J2 with .J2 = 1 + 1 r;;
l+v2
and simplify the terms:
J2 = 1 + 1 1 = 1 + 1 = [1; 2, I, J2 ]
1+(1+ 1+J2) 2+ 1+
1
J2
Continue this process. The pattern now becomes clear.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 165
J2 == 1 + ___ 11 = [1; 2, 2, 1,.J2], and so on.
2+ 1
2 + ::=
1+J2
Eventually, we conclude with the following:
J2 == 1 + ___ 1 __ = [1; 2, 2, 2, ... ]
1
2+
1
2+
2+ ...
Thus we have a periodic continued fraction for .J2 :
( .J2 = [ 1; 2, 2, 2, ... ] = [1; 2])
There are continued fractions equal to some famous numbers
such as Euler's e(e:= 2.7182818284590452353 ... )2 and the
famous 1t (1t:= 3.1415926535897932384 ... ):
1
e = 2 + 
1
1 + 
1
2 + 
1
1 + 
1
1+
1
4+
1
1+
1
1+
6+ ...
= [2; 1,2, 1, 1,4, 1, 1,6, 1, 1,8,1,1,10, ... ] = [2; 1, 2n, 1]
2. The number e is the base of the system of natural logarithms. When n in
creases without limit, then e is the limit of the sequence (.+:f. The symbol e
was introduced by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (17071 783) in
1748. In 1761 the German mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert
(17281777) showed that e is irrational, and in 1873 the French mathematician
Charles Hermite (18221901) proved e is a transcendental number.
A transcendental number is a number that is not the root of any integer poly
nomial equation, meaning that it is not an algebraic number of any degree. This
definition guarantees that every transcendental number must also be irrational.
166 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Here are two ways that 1C can be expressed as a continued
fraction.
3
4
_1C = 1 + ____ 1 ___ _
1t =
}2
2 1·2
1+
1+
3
2
2+
52
2·3
1+
3·4
2+
7
2
1+
2+
9
2
2+
4·5
1+
1 + ...
Sometimes we have continued fractions representing these
famous numbers that do not seem to have a distinctive pattern:
1C = 3 + 
7 + 
15+
1 + 
292 + 
1+
1+
1+
2+
1+
3 + ...
1C= [3; 7,15,1,292,1,1,1,2, 1,3,1,14,2,I,I,2,2,2,2,1,84,2, ... J.
We have now set the stage for the golden ratio.
4
Can we
express this Fibonaccirelated ratio as a continued fraction?
Let's try to use these continuedfraction techniques with </J.
3 For more on the various representations of 1C see A. S. Posamentier and
I. Lehmann, 1C: A Biography of the World's Most Mysterious Number
(Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004).
4. Remember </J = 1.61803 39887498948482 ....
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 167
Actually, we will use our now wellknown relationship for l/J to
produce one of the nicest continued fractions_ Begin with this
relationship: t/J = 1 + ~ ·
We can now replace the l/J in the denominator on the right side
with its equal: 1 + ~ .
Th
 . 1
IS gIves us: l/J = 1 + 1 .
1+
l/J
Continuing this process will give us the following:
1
l/J= 1 + = [1; l/J]
l/J
1
l/J= 1 + 1 = [1; 1,l/J]
1+
l/J
1
l/J=I+
1
=[ 1; 1, 1,l/J]
1+
1
1 +
l/J
1
l/J=I+
I
= [1; 1, 1, 1,l/J]
1+
1
1+
I
1 +
l/J
1
l/J=I+
1
= [1; 1,1,1, 1,l/J]
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1 +
l/J
168 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
1
41=1+
1
= [1; 1, 1, 1, 1, 1,41]
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1 +
41
1
41=1+
1
= [ 1; 1, 1, 1, 1,1,1,41]
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
41
1
41=1+
1
=[ 1; 1, 1, 1, I, 1, ... ]=[1]
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1 + ...
and so on.
I
Thus we now have a continued fraction equal to l/J from our
val ue for l/J :
1 1 
 = [0; 1, 1, I, 1, 1, I, ... ] = [0; 1]
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 169
This has to be the nicest continued fraction of all, since the golden
section continued fraction (l/> = J5 + I ::::: l.6180398874989) and its
2
reciprocal ( ~ = ~  I ::::: 0.61803398874989) are comprised of all Is.
On the other hand, these continued fractions, though elegant,
are very slow to approach their true value. You will need many
terms to get a good approximation. We will do this with the help of
the Fibonacci numbers:
I Fa 2 F2
lP) = I +  = 1 +  =  =  = 2
1 F., I Fi
I 1 1 Fi 3 F3
lP2 = 1+ = 1 += 1 += 1 +=== 1.5
1 + ~ lP, 2 F2 2 F2
1
1 1 2 F
2
5F
4

lP3 = I + = 1 +  = 1 +  = I +  =  =  = 1. 6
1 + _I _ lP2 3 F3 3 F3
1
1 +
1
1
1 3 F38Fs
lP4 = 1 + = 1 += 1 += I +=== 1.6
1 + __ 1__ lP1 5 F4 5 F4
1
1+
1
1 +
I
I 5 F4 13 F6
lPs = 1 + = I += 1 += 1+=== 1.625
1+
1+
1
1+
1
1 +
1
~ 8 ~ 8 ~
170 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
1 1 8 Fs 21 F7
l/1
6
= 1 + = 1 += 1 += 1 +==
1 + ___ 1___ l/1
s
13 F6 13 F6
1
1+
= 1. 615384
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1 I 13 F6 34 Fg
l/1
7
= 1 + = 1 += 1 += 1 +==
1 + ____ 1____ l/1
6
21 F7 21 F7
1
1+
= 1. 619047
1
1+
1
1+
1
1+
1
1 +
1
The nth case is then:
1 1 F F
l/1
n
= 1 + = 1 += I
n . 1+
1+
1+
1+
1+
1+ ...
l/1n1 Fn
We then see that the limiting value of the continued fraction for
<Pn is:
5
. F J5+1
11m = = <P (See chapter 4.)
F 2
n
5. This reads "the limiting value of Fn+l , as n gets larger and larger and
Fn
.J5+1 A\
approaches 00, equals  = 'f' ."
2
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 171
In 1968 Joseph S. Madachy6 introduced a new constant J..l, the
continued fraction
1
J..l = 1 + 
3
2 + 
8
5 + 
21
13 + 
55
34+
144
89+
377
233+
= 1.3941865502287836729028896495777209667374096430683 ...
We see that the terms of this continued fraction are successive
Fibonacci numbers. For this constant J..l is l/> < J..l < .J2 a rough
estimation (inequality).
The famous Scottish mathematician Robert Simson (1687 1768),
who took Euclid's Elements and wrote an Englishlanguage book on
it, which is largely responsible for the development of the foundation
of the high school geometry course taught in the United States, was
F
the first to recognize that the ratio 1!±..!.. of two consecutive Fibonacci
F
n
numbers will approach the value l/> of the golden ratio.
Consider the following list of fractions (figure 51) to see the
value of l/> being approached.
($ 0)
$1 $2 C/>3 $4 $5 $6 $7
... $
Numerator (J) 2 3 5 8 13 21 34
Denominator (I)
]
2 3 5 8 13 21
J 2 .3 4 56 7
Figure 51
6. HRecreational Mathematics," Fibonacci Quarterly 6, no. 6 (1968): 38592.
172 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
In order to see how the shape of the resulting rectangle gets to
look more and more like a golden rectangle, we provide you with a
series of drawings. The width b remains constant, while the length
a varies. Each time the rectangle takes on the dimensions of the
successive Fibonacci numbers. At the far right, you have the true
golden rectangle for comparison. So with the numerator and de
nominator of lP; (with i == 1, 2, 3, ... , 7), you can see the
development of the golden rectangle (figure 52).
a.1·b a.2·b a.".6 a.".b II.s·b a ••. b a.7·b ... a •. b
J
a= '2.b
8
a= s·b
13
a,.b
Figure 52
21 34 ..;5+1
a"'i3 b all·b ... a
2
 b
You will notice that </15 ==.!1. == 1.625 is a good approximation for
8
</1 == 1.6180339887498948482 .... While for </17 == 34 == 1. 619047 , we
21
can hardly see the difference between the rectangle formed and the
actual golden rectangle. In figure 53 the leftside rectangle is the
approximation, and the rightside rectangle is the golden one.
(/).21 33.98
21 21
Figure 53
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 173
A Nest of Radicals
Interestingly enough, the 1 s play another role in the value of l/J •
Consider the "nest of radicals"
and let's see how we might find the value of it.
This is an analogous method to the one we used to evaluate an
infinite continued fraction, since this nest also goes on infinitely
long. So we begin by setting this value equal to x :
We then square both sides of this equation to get:
Since
we can replace the nest of radicals in the above equation with x to
get x
2
= 1 + x, which can be written as x
2
 xI = o.
The positive value of x is then 1+; = cf>. So we then have
Aha! Another surprising appearance of the golden ratio!
174 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers
Let us return now to the Lucas numbers. We would expect to find a
relationship between the ratios of consecutive Lucas numbers and
the golden ratio, just as we have for the Fibonacci numbers. In
figure 54, you will notice that both sequences
7
approach the
golden ratio.
With that being the case, we ought to be able to use continued
fractions with the Lucas numbers also to generate the approach to
the golden ratio. Consider the following ratios of consecutive Lu
cas numbers:
3 2 1
=1+=1+
1 1 1
2
4 1 1 1
=1+=1+ =1+
3 3 1+2 1+_1
1
2
731 1
= 1 + = 1 + = 1 + 
4 4 4
3
1
1 + 1
1+
1
2
1
This, in a short version, can be written as [1; 1, 1, 1, ... , ].
2
The fact that the last term here is ~ ,rather than 1 as it is with the
2
Fibonacci numbers, becomes relatively insignificant as the contin
ued fraction increases in terms.
The study of continued fractions holds many other fascinating
surprises. But for now we have had the pleasure of using this tech
nique to further explore the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers.
7. Rounded to nine decimal places.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 175
F
n+1
F
n
1
 = 1.000000000
1
2
 = 2.000000000
1
3
 = 1.500000000
2
5
 = 1.666666667
3
8
 = 1.600000000
5
13
 = 1.625000000
8
21
 = 1.615384615
13
34
 = 1.619047619
21
55
 = 1.617647059
34
89
 = 1.6182181618
55
144
 = 1.617977528
89
233
 = 1.618055556
144
377
 = 1.618025751
233
610
 = 1.618037135
377
987
 = 1.618032787
610
L
n+1
L
n
3
 = 3.000000000
1
4
 = 1.333333333
3
7
 = 1.750000000
4
11
 = 1.571428571
7
18
 = 1.636363636
11
29
 = 1.611111111
18
47
 = 1.620689655
29
76
 = 1.617021277
47
123
 = 1.618421053
76
199
 = 1.617886179
123
322
 = 1.618090452
199
521
 = 1.618012422
322
843
 = 1.618042226
521
1 364
, = 1.618030842
843
2,207
= 1.618035191
1,364
Figure 54
Chapter 6
A Potpourri of Fibonacci
Number Applications
W
e will now take a brief tour through some rather unusual
and sundry applications and sightings of the ubiquitous Fi
bonacci numbers. Some will be serious and others lighthearted.
These examples are merely a sampling of the wide variety of uses
and appearances in which the Fibonacci numbers have been found
to manifest themselves. This is by no means meant to be a com
plete collection. Such a collection would be limitless!
Business Applications
We have seen evidence of the Fibonacci numbers popping up in
the most unexpected places. Now, we go searching for them in the
volatile world of the stock market.
All human activities have three distinctive features, pat
tern, time and ratio, all of which observe the Fibonacci
summation series
R. N. Elliott
Investor confidence was at an alltime low after the stock mar
ket's Great Crash of 1929, whereupon many Americans viewed the
stock market as a costly roll of the dice. Nonetheless, a little
177
178 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
known, albeit successful, accountant and engineer, Ralph Nelson
Elliott (1871 1948), decided to pore over decades of stock per
formance charts and trace trader movement in an attempt to make
sense of the crash. As his research progressed, distinct and repeti
tive zigzagging patterns began to emerge as Elliott studied the ups
and downs, or rather, ebb and flow, of market behavior. He dubbed
these patterns "waves" and categorized them as either "impulsive"
or "corrective" waves that could be measured and used to forecast
market behavior.
Figure 61
Ralph Nelson Elliott.
In a letter to Charles Collins, the publisher of a national market
newsletter of the day with an extensive following, which included
R. N. Elliott, the enthusiastic Elliott wrote that there was "a much
needed complement to Dow theory" that he called his "wave the
ory." This correspondence began in November 1934 when Elliott
wrote to Collins about his "discoveries" with the hope that he
would find support from Collins. Collins was impressed by the ac
curacy of Elliott's analysis and invited him to Detroit to explain
the process in greater detail. Although Elliott's insistence that all
market decisions should be based on wave theory prevented
Collins from directly employing Elliott, he did help him to estab
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 179
lish an office on Wall Street. Later, in 1938, Collins wrote a book
let, under Elliott's name, titled The Wave Principle. Elliott went on
to further publicize his theory through various letters and magazine
articles, including publication in the Financial World magazine.
Then, in 1946, Elliott expanded on The Wave Principle with a
book called Nature's LawThe Secret of the Universe.
Elliott's famous, influential booklet, The Wave Principle, is
based on the belief that market behavior should not be seen as ran
dom or chaotic but rather as a natural reflection of investor confi
dence, or lack thereof, (impulsive waves) and selfsustaining mar
ket mechanisms (corrective waves). In layman's terms, Elliott felt
the market, like "other things in the universe," moves in predict
able cycles once its patterns of behavior have been established and
made visible to the trained eye. At this point, it should come as no
surprise that the Fibonacci numbers should be visible within those
patterns.
What may be surprising is just how pervasive the Fibonacci
numbers are in Elliott's analysis of the stock market. Tracing most
bear markets, he found that they move in a series of 2 impulsive
waves and 1 corrective wave, for a total of 3 waves (sound famil
iar?). On the other hand, his research showed that a bull market
usually jumps upward in 3 impulsive waves and 2 corrective
waves, for a total of 5 waves (recognize these numbers?). A com
plete cycle would be the total of these moves, or 8 waves. The re
lationship of the Fibonacci sequence to the wave principle does not
end there.
Elliott's wave principle also states that each "major" wave can
be further subdivided into "minor" and "intermediate" waves. A
regular bear market has 13 intermediate waves. Yes (as you might
have suspected), a bull market has 21 intermediate waves, for a
total of 34. Continuing on with the sequence, there are 55 minor
waves in a bear market and 89 in a bull market, for a total of 144.
Elliott himself was not at all surprised to find the Fibonacci se
quence while tracing these market waves because he had always
believed that "the stock market is a creation of man and therefore
reflects human idiosyncrasy." However, it was only when Elliott
180 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
began to study the relationships between the size of the waves for
his second work, Nature's LawThe Secret of the Universe, that
he realized his new discoveries were based on "a law of nature
known to the designers of the Great Pyramid 'Gizeh,' which may
have been constructed 5,000 years ago." (See chapter 7.)
Of course, he was talking about the golden ratio. Elliott be
lieved that this most famous of ratios, along with other Fibonacci
generated ratios, could be used to predict stock prices with as
tounding accuracy. In order to understand how he reached this
conclusion, it is important to investigate what these Fibonacci ra
tios are. Consider the results when dividing the Fibonacci numbers
by their two immediate successors; can you see a pattern emerge
after the first several calculations? (See figure 62.)
It is clear that after the first several columns, the results in each
of the succeeding columns approximate .2360, .3820, and the
golden ratio, .6180. Written as percentages, these numbers trans
late to: 23.6 percent, 38.2 percent, and 61.8 percent and are called
Fibonacci percentages. It is interesting to notice a very curious
property: the sum of the first two percentages equals the third per
centage (.2360 + .3820 = .6180); and the last two percentages
(.3820 and .6180) happen to have a sum of 100 percent, a fact that
can be proved algebraically.
Elliott's premise, or the Fibonacci indicator, is that the ratio,
or the proportional relationship, between two waves could be
used to indicate stock prices. Elliott found that an initial wave up
in price was usually followed by a second wave downward, or
what market analysts call a "retracement" of the initial surge.
Upon closer inspection, these retracements seemed, more often
than not, to be Fibonacci percentages of the initial price surge,
with, 61.8 percent as the highest retracement. Once again, the
golden ratio reigns supreme!
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 181
n
Fn
F" F" F"
  
F,,+I F,,+2 F,,+3
1 1
I 1 1
 = 1.00000000  = .500000000  ::::; .33333333
1 2 3
2 1
1 1 1
= .500000000  ::::;.33333333  = .20000000
2 3 5
3 2
2 2 2
 ::::: .666666667 =.40000000  =.25000000
3 5 8
4 3
3 3 3
 = .600000000  = .37500000  ::::; .230769231
5 8 13
5 5
5 5 5
 = 0.625000000  ::::; .384615385  = .238095238
8 13 21
6 8
8 8 8
 = 0.615384615  ::::; .380952381  = .235294118
13 21 34
7 13
13 13 13
 = .619047619  = .382352941  = .236363636
21 34 55
8 21
21 21 21
 = .617647059  = .381818182  ::::; .235955056
34 55 89
9 34
34 34 34
 = .618181818  = .382022471  = .236111111
55 89 144
10 55
55 55 55
 ::::; .617977528  = .381944444  = .236051502
89 144 233
1 1 89
89 89 89
::::; .618055555  = .381974249  = .236074271
144 233 377
12 144
144 144 144
 ::::; .618025751  = .381962865  = .236065574
233 377 610
13 233
233 233 233
 ::::; .618037135  = .381967213  ::::; .236068896
377 610 987
Figure 62
182 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
While many of today's market analysts incorporate wave pat
terns and retracements to forecast the market, some analysts take
the Fibonacci numbers a step further. They scan previous dates and
results looking for the Fibonacci numbers. There might be 34
months or 55 months between a major high or low, or as few as 21
or 13 days between minor fluctuations. A trader might look for re
petitive patterns and try to establish a Fibonacci relationship be
tween dates to help forecast the future market.
Before you scoff at the importance of the Fibonacci numbers in
the stock market, consider that Elliott, at the age of sixtyseven and
without the aid of any computers, forecast the end of a bear market
decline from 19331935 to the exact day_
By the way, while considering the applications of the Fibonacci
numbers in the financial world, even one of the main vehicles by
which many of these trades are made, the credit card, measures
very close to the golden rectangle55 mm by 86 mm is actually
only 3 mm short in the length from fitting a Fibonacci ratio ap
proximation.
A book by Robert Fischer, Fibonacci Applications and Strate
gies for Traders,l expounds on the use of the Fibonacci numbers in
investment strategies. It is a complete, handson resource that
shows how to measure price and time signals quickly and with ac
curacy, by using the logarithmic spiral. He explains how to act on
these analyses. This innovative trading guide first takes a fresh
look at the classic principles and applications of the Elliott wave
theory, then introduces the Fibonacci sequence, exploring its ap
pearance in many of the fields discussed here, and then in stock
and commodity trading.
Fischer then explains how the Fibonacci sequence is used to
measure equity and commodity price swings and to forecast
short and longterm correction targets. You can learn how to
accurately analyze price targets on market extensions, and how,
by using the author's logarithmic spirals, to develop price and
time analyses with some precision. The book claims to enable
you to calculate and predict key turning points in the commodity
1. (New York: Wiley, 1993).
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 183
market, analyze business and economic cycles, and discover en
try and exit rules that make disciplined trading possible and
profitable. We are not suggesting that this is a foolproof method
for becoming rich. But the Fibonacci numbers continue to fasci
nate some in the investment field.
The Vending Machine
A completely different type of application would be setting up a
vending machine to dispense a variety of candies. Y ou are told that
the cost of each of the candies is to be a multiple of 25 cents. Each
type of candy will be a different arrangement (order) of coins de
posited, so that the amount of money deposited into the machine
and the arrangement of the order in which the coins have been de
posited will determine which of the candies has been selected. We
need to calculate how many different types of candy the machine
can accommodate. Put another way, we need to determine the
number of different ways each multiple of 25 cents can be arrived
at using the machine's coin slot, which accepts only quarters and
halfdollars. For example, for a 75cent candy selection there are
three possible ways to pay: three quarters (QQQ), a quarter and a
halfdollar (QH), or a halfdollar and a quarter (HQ). Each of these
payments will result in a different type of candy. When we make a
chart (figure 63) of the various amounts of money that the ma
chine can accept, a curious set of numbers appears. Can you guess
what that might be?
Once again, seemingly out of nowhere, the Fibonacci numbers
appear in the rightside column, indicating the number of ways by
which the various amounts of money can be deposited. This would
help the manufacturer of the vending machine predict the number
of ways that one could deposit $3.00. The answer would be 12
times 25 cents, or the thirteenth number in the Fibonacci sequence,
namely, 233.
184 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Cost of Number of List of ways to pay Number
the multiples of of ways
candies 25 cents to pay
$.25 1
1
Q
$.50 2
2
QQ,H
$.75 3
3
QQQ, H Q ~ QH
$1.00 4
5
Q Q Q Q , H H ~ Q Q H , H Q Q , Q H Q
$1.25 5
QQQQQ, HHQ, QHH, H Q H ~ Q Q Q H ~
8
HQQQ, QHQQ, QQHQ
$1.50 6
QQQQQQ, QQQQH, Q Q Q H Q ~ QQHQQ, 13
QHQQQ, H Q Q Q Q ~ QQHH, H H Q Q ~
H Q H Q , Q H Q H , H Q Q H , Q H H Q ~ H H H
$1.75 7
QQQQQQQ, QQQQQH, Q Q Q Q H Q ~ 21
QQQHQQ, QQHQQQ, Q H Q Q Q Q ~
HQQQQQ, QQQHH, QQHHQ, Q H H Q Q ~
HHQQQ, QHQHQ, HQHQQ, Q Q H Q H ~
HQQQH, HQQHQ, QHQQH, HHHQ,
HHQH, HQHH, QHHH
$2.00 8
QQQQQQQQ, QQQQQQH, Q Q Q Q Q H Q ~ 34
Q Q Q Q H Q Q ~ QQQHQQQ, QQHQQQQ,
QHQQQQQ, HQQQQQQ, Q Q Q Q H H ~
Q Q Q H H Q ~ Q Q H H Q Q ~ QHHQQQ,
H H Q Q Q Q ~ HQHQQQ, Q H Q H Q Q ~
QQHQHQ, QQQQHH, H Q Q H Q Q ~
QHQQHQ, QQHQQH, H Q Q Q H Q ~
Q H Q Q Q H ~ HQQQQH, QQHHH, HQQHH,
H H Q Q H ~ H H H Q Q ~ QHQHH, HQHQH,
HHQHQ, QHHQH, HQHHQ, Q H H H Q ~
HHHH
Figure 63
Climbing a Staircase
An analogous situation arises with the following problem. Suppose
you are about to use a staircase with n stairs and you can either take
one step at a time or two steps at a time. The number of different
ways of climbing the stairs ( en ) will be a Fibonacci numbermuch
the same way as the previous situation with the vending machine.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 185
Suppose n = 1, which means there is only one stair to climb.
Then the answer is easy: there is only one way to climb the stair.
If n = 2, and there are two stairs, then there are two different
ways to climb the steps: two single steps or one double step.
If n = 3, and there are three steps, then there are three different
ways to climb the steps: 1 step + 1 step + 1 step, 1 step + 2 steps, or 2
steps + 1 step. This can be generalized (now that you are experts at
counting these stairclimbing possibilities). For the staircase of n
steps (where n > 2), the number of ways of climbing them is C
n
•
After you take the first step up on a single stair, there are n  1 stairs
left to climb. So the number of ways to climb the remainder of the
staircase is C
n
_
l
. If you begin your climb with a double step (i.e., 2
steps have been climbed), then there are C
n

2
ways to climb the rest
of the staircase. Thus the number of ways to climb the staircase of n
steps is the sum of these: C
n
== C
n
_
1
+ C
n

2
• Does this remind you of
the Fibonacci recursive relationship? The values of C
n
will follow
the Fibonacci pattern, with C
n
== F
n
+
1
• You can check this with
smaller numbers of stairs and see that it works, or you can compare
this to the previous vending machine problem and see that it is the
equivalent of thatwith the 25cent units analogous to the stairs.
On the other hand, we can inspect a rather large example. The
Empire State Building is 1,453 feet 8 and 9/16th inches tall from
street level to its highest pointa lightning rod. There are annual
races up the building's 1,860 stairs. In how many ways can an Em
pire State Building stairs runner reach the topmost step?
It is an unbelievably large number:
C
n
= C1.
860
= FJ.861 = 37,714,947,112,431,814,322,507,744,749,931,
049,632,797,687,008,623,480,871,351,609,764,568, 156, 193,373,
680,151,232,412,945,298,517, 190,425,833,936,823,942,275,395,
680,820,896,518,732,120,268,852,036,861,867,624, 728,128,920,
239,509,015,217,615,431,571,741,968,260,146,431,90 1,232,750,
464,530,968,296,717,544,866,475 ,402,917,320,392,352,090,243,
657,224,327,657, 131,325,954,780,580,843,850,283,683,054,714,
131, 136,328,674,469,916,443,464,802,738,976,662,616,325, 164,
306,656,544,521,133,547,290,540,333,738,912, 142,760,761 ~ 3.7
71494711 · 10
388
186 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Painting a House Creatively
The stories of an nstory house are to be painted blue and yellow,
with the stipulation that no two adjacent stories are blue. However,
both of them may be yellow. We will let an represent the number
of possible colorings for a house with n stories (n > I).
I story: 2 stories: 3 stories:
2 possibilities 3 possibilities 5 possibilities
4 stories:
8 possibilities
Figure 64
In figure 64, you will see the possible ways to paint a house of
various story heights. Now suppose we have a building with five sto
ries. The fifth story can be painted either yellow or blue. If it gets a
yellow color, then the remaining stories can be painted like a four
story house. If it is painted blue, the fourth story must get yellow and
the first three stories can be painted like a threestory house. Therefore,
we find that a5 = a4 + a3 = 8 + 5 = I3 = F6 + F5 = F
7
. Do you recognize
the recursive pattern here? It should be reminiscent of the pattern used
to generate the Fibonacci numbers.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 187
Ordered Sum of Ones and Twos
Another nice application of the Fibonacci numbers can be seen
from the following challenge:
In how many ways can a natural number, n, be written as
an ordered sum of ones and twos?
Let's inspect the chart in figure 65 and count the ways in which
we can fulfill this task.
n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fn
1 1 2 3 5 8 13
Fn+1
1 2 3 5 8 13 21
ordered 1 1 +1 1+1+1 1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1
sum
of ones
2 1+2 1+1+2 1+1+1+2 1+1+1+1+2 2+1+1+1+1+1
and twos
2+1 1+2+1 1+1+2+1 1+1+1+2+1 1+2+1+1+1+1
2+1+1 1+2+1+1 1+1+2+1+1 1+1+2+1+1+1
2+1+1+1 1+2+1+1+1 1+1+1+2+1+1
2+2
2+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+2+1
1+2+2
1+1+1+1+1+2
2+1+2 1+1+2+2
2+2+1 1+2+2+1 2+2+1+1+1
2+2+1+1 2+1+2+1+1
2+1+2+1 2+1+1+2+1
1+2+1+2 2+1+1+1+2
2+1+1+2 1+2+2+1+1
1+2+1+2+1
2+2+2
1+2+1+1+2
1+1+2+2+1
1+1+2+1+2
1+1+1+2+2
2+2+2+1
2+2+1+2
2+1+2+2
1+2+2+2
Figure 65
We might conclude from the pattern that seems to be evolving
in the chart (figure 65) that the natural number n can be written in
Fn+l different ways as an ordered sum of ones and twos, where Fn
is the nth Fibonacci number.
For all n > 2, the representation of n ends with 1 or 2. The pre
vious terms add up to n  1 or n  2. This yields Fn+l = Fn + F
n

1
;
n > 2.
188 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Representing Natural Numbers as the Sum of
Fibonacci Numbers
Suppose we take any natural number,2 say, 27, and try to represent
this number as the sum of some Fibonacci numbers. We could do it
as 27 = 21 + 5 + 1, or as 27 = 13 + 8 + 3+ 2 + 1, or even as
27 = 13 + 8 + 5 + 1, and with other combinations as well. This will
be possible for all natural numbers.
3
You might want to try it for
other randomly selected natural numbers. What you should find
(with enough examples) is that there will be only one way of repre
senting any natural number with nonconsecutive Fibonacci num
bers.4 In the above example, the first illustration, 27 = 21 + 5 + 1,
is the only representation of 27 with nonconsecutive Fibonacci
numbers. Here are some examples of the unique representations of
natural numbers with nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers:
1 = F2
2 = F3
3 =F4
4 = F2 + F4 = 1 + 3
5 =Fs
6 = F2 + Fs = 1 + 5
Covering a Checkerboard
7 = F3 + Fs= 2 + 5
8 = F6
9 = F2 + F6= 1 + 8
10 = F2 + F6= 2 + 8
11 = F4 + F6 = 3 + 8
12 = F6 + F4 + F2 = 8 + 3 + 1
Strangely enough, the Fibonacci numbers can describe the number
of ways to tile a 2 by (nl) checkerboard with 2 by 1 dominoes;
that is, each domino will cover exactly two adjacent squares on the
checkerboard. Let's take a look at how that can be done for the
first few examples of these.
2. A natural number is one of the counting numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ....
3. There is a proof of this in appendix B.
4. This was proved by the Belgian amateur mathematician Edouard Zeckendorf
(19011983), and the theorem is known as the Zeckendorf theorem.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 189
There is only one way to tile a 2 x I board:
Figure 66
There are two ways to tile a 2 x 2 board:
n c
U ::J
Figure 67
There are three ways to tile a 2 x 3 board:
Figure 68
There are five ways to tile a 2 x 4 board:
n c
U ::J
n :::J
C U
c n
:J U
c C
::J :J
Figure 69
There are eight ways to tile a 2 x 5 board:
n n n
u u
n :::J n
C U
n :J
:::J C
n n :::J
U C
:::J ::J
c: C
c c n
:::J ::J
Figure 610
n c n
U :::J
n n
:::J U
190 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
There are thirteen ways to tile a 2 x 6 board:
n n n
u u u
n c n
U :::J U
c n c
::J U ::J
c c C
::J :::J ::J
nne
U U ::J
n c: c
U ::J :::J
n ::I :::J
C C U
c n :::J
::J C U
Figure 611
n n ::I
U C U
n ::J n
c u U
c n n
:J U U
C l: n
::J ::J U
There are twentyone ways to tile a 2 x 7 board:
n n n n
u u u
nn::Jn
u c u
ncn::J
U ::J C
n:J:J:J
c c c
c n c n
::J U ::J
c c n n
::J ::J U
n n n ::J
u U c
n n :J :J
U C C
ncr::: n
U :J :J
n ::J C n
c U :J
C n n n
::J U U
C n ::J n
::J c U
r::: r::: n :J
:::J :::J C
Figure 612
nne n
U U :::J
n c n n
U :J U
n:::Jnn
C U U
n ::J ::J n
c c U
C n n :J
::J U C
C n ::J ::J
::J C C
C r:: c
:::J :::J :::J
While we are on the topic of checkerboards, there is a cute
problem with a very useful problemsolving message. Suppose you
have an 8 by 8 checkerboard with a pair of oppositecomer squares
missing. (See figure 613.) Can you show how to cover it with 31
dominoes, each of which is capable of covering exactly two adja
cent squares of the checkerboard?
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 191
Figure 613
As soon as the question is posed, most people try various ar
rangements of square covering. This may be done with actual tiles
or by drawing a graph grid on paper and then shading adjacent
squares two at a time. But before long, frustration begins to set in,
since this approach cannot be successful.
Here the issue is to go back to the original question. A careful
reading of the question reveals that it does not say to do this tile
covering; it asks only if it can be done. Yet, because of the way we
have been trained, the question is often misread and interpreted as
"do it."
A bit of clever insight helps. Ask yourself this question: When
a domino tile is placed on the checkerboard, what kind of squares
are covered? A black square and a white square must be covered
by each domino placed on the checkerboard. Are there an equal
number of black and white squares on the truncated checkerboard?
No! There are two fewer black squares than white squares. There
fore, it is impossible to cover the truncated checkerboard with the
31 domino tiles, since there must be an equal number of black and
white squares. Asking the right questions as you begin to solve a
problem and inspecting the problem posed are essential aspects of
being successful in problem solving in mathematics.
192 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Fibonacci Numbers and Pythagorean Triangles
Generating Pythagorean Triples
Perhaps the one mathematical relationship that most adults can re
call is the famous Pythagorean theorem, which established that the
relationship among the sides of a right triangle, whose sides have
lengths a, b, and c, is a
2
+ b
2
= c
2
• We may further recall that there
are groups of three numbers, such as 3, 4, 5 and 5, 12, 13 as well as
8, 15, 17, that satisfy this relationship, since 3
2
+ 4
2
= 9 + 16 = 25
= 52, 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13
2
, and 8
2
+ 15
2
= 64 + 225
= 289 = 17
2
• Such groups of three numbers that satisfy the Py
thagorean theorem are called Pythagorean triples. When the three
numbers have no common factor,5 such as the three examples
above, then we call them "primitive Pythagorean triples." An ex
ample of a nonprimitive Pythagorean triple is 6, 8, 10, since all the
members of this group have a common factor of 2.
From the start, we can state that the Fibonacci numbers have
nothing in common with the Pythagorean theorem. They were dis
covered independently and have no subsequent connection. Yet
much to our amazement, we can use the Fibonacci numbers to
generate Pythagorean triples. Let's see how this can be done. To
make a Pythagorean triple from the Fibonacci numbers, we take
any four consecutive numbers in this sequence, such as 3, 5, 8, and
13. We now follow these rules:
1. Multiply the middle two numbers and double the result.
Here the product of 5 and 8 is 40 then we double this to get
80. (This is one member of the Pythagorean triple.)
2. Multiply the two outer numbers.
Here the product of 3 and 13 is 39. (This is another member
of the Pythagorean triple.)
3. Add the squares of the inner two numbers to get the third
member of the Pythagorean triple.
Here 52 + 8
2
= 25 + 64 = 89.
5. Here and for future references to common factor, we will not consider the
number 1, which is always a common factor.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 193
So we have found a Pythagorean triple: 39, 80, 89. We can
verify that this is, in fact, a Pythagorean triple by showing that
39
2
+ 80
2
== 1,521 + 6,400 == 7,921 == 89
2
• (A proof of this delightful
and surprising procedure can be found in appendix B.)
Another Connection between the Fibonacci Numbers
and Pythagorean Triples
There is an established method for generating integer sides for a
Pythagorean trianglethat is, a right triangle whose sides satisfy the
Pythagorean theorem: a
2
+ b
2
== c
2
• This method uses the following
set of equations to generate the appropriate values of a, b, and c:
2 2
a=m n,
b = 2mn, and
2 2
c=m +n,
where m and n are natural numbers.
For example, if m = 5 and n = 2, then we can get a Pythagorean
triple as follows:
a == m
2
 n
2
== 25  4 == 21
b == 2mn == 2 ·5· 2 = 20, and
c == m
2
+ n
2
== 25 + 4 = 29
'
which yields the Pythagorean triple (20, 21, 29).
These three equations, sometimes referred to as Babylonian
formulae, were already known to have helped the Babylonians
generate such Pythagorean triples as (3,456; 3,367; 4,825), and
( 12,709; 13,500; 18,541).
Remember, a Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) is called primitive, if
a, b, and c are relatively prime, that is, there is no common factor
among a, b, and c. This occurs when m and n are two relatively
prime natural numbers, with m > n, and of different parity.6
6. Two (integer) numbers have the same parity if they are both even or both odd.
194 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
By now you must be wondering where the Fibonacci num
bers come in. Well, suppose we let m and n take on the values of
Fibonacci numbers sequentially, beginning with m = 2 and n =
1. You will find to your amazement that in each case C turns out
to also be a Fibonacci number, as you can see in Figure 614.
k
2 2
b=2mn c = m
2
+ n
2
m n a=m n
1 2 1 3 4 5
2 3 2 5 12 13
3 5 3 16 30 34
4 8 5 39 80 89
5 13 8 105 208 233
6 21 13 272 546 610
7 34 21 715 1,428 1,597
8 55 34 1,869 3,740 4,181
9 89 55 4,896 9,790 10,946
10 144 89 12,815 25,632 28,657
1 1 233 144 33,553 67,104 75,025
12 377 233 87,840 175,682 196,418
Figure 614
We can easily justify this phenomenon. Consider the general
case for the two consecutive Fibonacci numbers:
Using the formulas from above, we get the following:
2 2
ak = m  n = ~ 2 + 2  Fl+1 ,
b
k
= 2mn = 2F
k
+
2
F
k
+ I, and
Ck = m
2
+ n
2
= ~ 2 + 2 + ~ 2 + 1 F
k
+
2
2
+ F
k
+)2,
which according to relationship 9 in chapter 1 (page 43) is always
equal to another Fibonacci number, F;k+3.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 195
Can a Triangle Have Sides with Lengths Represented
by Fibonacci Numbers?
Clearly, you can have an equilateral triangle each of whose sides
have length 5, a Fibonacci number, or you can have an isosceles
triangle with sides 13, 13, and 5also made up of Fibonacci
lengths. However, if the numbers we select to represent the sides
of a triangle are all different Fibonacci numbers, then the result is
quite different. No such triangle can exist! We can show that a tri
angle can never have all three sides with lengths represented by
three distinct Fibonacci numbers.
This can be easily established
7
by invoking the triangle ine
qualitynamely, for a triangle to exist, the sum of any two sides
must be greater than the third side: hence, for a triangle with side
lengths a, b, and c, the following relationships would be true:
a + b > c, b + c > a, and c + a > b
For any three consecutive Fibonacci numbers, Fn + Fn+l = F
n
+
2
,
and so there can be no triangle with sides having measures F n,
F
n
+
1
, and F
n
+
2
•
In general, consider Fibonacci numbers, F
r
, F
s
, and Fr, where
Fr < F.\. I and F.., +1 < Ft. Since F
S

1
+ Fs = Fs+l and Fr < F
s

1
, we
have F,. + F.., < F
s
+
1
, and since Fs+l < Fr, we have Fr + Fs < Ft.
Therefore, there can be no triangle with sides having measure F
r
,
F
s
, and Ft.
A Multiplication Algorithm Using the Fibonacci
Numbers
It is said that the Russian peasants used a rather strange, perhaps
even primitive, method to multiply two numbers.
8
It is actually
quite simple, yet somewhat cumbersome. Let's take a look at it.
7. V. E. Hogatt Jr., Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1969), p. 85.
8. There is also evidence that this algorithm was used by the ancient Egyptians.
196 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
We shall begin with a simple case. If we take the product of two
integers, where one of the factors is a power of 2, then the process
becomes trivial as you will see from the example of 65 . 32.9 We
can see that the product of two integers remains constant if one
factor is doubled and the other factor is halved. We do this in the
following table:
65·32 =
65 32
130 16
260 8
520 4
1.040 2
2,080
6S· 32 =
2,080
Figure 615
So products in which a factor is a power of 2 are particularly
simple to calculate, since we can read off figure 615 that I· 2,080
= 2,080. Thus we have found the product of 65 and 32.
We shall now consider the problem of finding the product of
43·92 . This time we are not using a factor that is a power of 2.
Let's work this multiplication together. We begin by setting up
a chart of two columns with the two members of the product in the
first row (figure 616). We place the numbers 43 and 92 at the head
of the columns. One column will be formed by doubling each
number to get the next, while the other column will take half the
number and drop the remainder. For convenience, our first column
(the leftside column) will be the doubling column, and the second
column will be the halving column. Notice that by halving an odd
number such as 23 (the third number in the rightside column) we
get II with a remainder of I and we simply drop the I. The rest of
this halving process should now be clear.
9. Remember 32 is a power of2: 2
s
= 32.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 197
43 92
86 46
172 23
344 11
688 5
1,376 2
2,752 1
Figure 616
Find the odd numbers in the halving column (the right col
umn), then get the sum of the partner numbers in the doubling col
umn (the left column). These are highlighted in bold type. This
sum gives you the originally required product of 43 and 92. In
other words, with the Russian peasant's method, we get
43 ·92 == 172 + 344 + 688 + 2,752 == 3,956
In the example above, we chose to have the first column be the
doubling column and the second column be the halving column.
We could also have done this Russian peasant's method by halving
the numbers in the first column and doubling those in the second.
See figure 617.
43 92
21 184
10 368
5 736
2 1,472
1 2,944
Figure 617
To complete the multiplication, we find the odd numbers in the
halving column (in bold type), and then get the sum of their partner
numbers in the second column (now the doubling column). This
gives us 43·92 = 92 + 184 + 736 + 2,944 = 3,956.
Obviously, you are not expected to do your multiplication in
this hightech era by copying the Russian peasant's method. How
ever, it should be fun to observe how this primitive system of
198 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
arithmetic actually does work. Explorations of this kind are not
only instructive but also entertaining.
Here you see what was done in the above multiplication algo
rithm.
1o
43 . 92 = (21 . 2 + 1)· 92 = 21· 2 . 92 + 1· 92 = 21· 184 + 92 = 3,956
21 . 184 = (10 . 2 + 1)· 184 = 10 . 2 . 184 + 1· 184 = 10· 368 + 184 = 3,864
10 ·368 = (5 . 2 + 0) 368 = 5  2 ·368 + O· 368 = 5· 736 + 0=3,680
5 . 736 = ( 2· 2 + 1)· 736 = 2 . 2 . 736 + 1· 736 = 2· 1,472 + 736 = 3,680
2 . 1,472 = (1  2 + 0) 1,472 = 1  2· 1,472 + O· 1472 = 1 2,944 + 0 = 2,944
1 . 2,944 = (0  2 + 1)· 2,944 = 0  2 ·2,944 + 1 2944 = 0 + 2,944 = 2,944
3,956
For those familiar with the binary system (i.e., base 2), one can
also explain this Russian peasant's method with the following rep
resentation.
43·92 = (1· 2
5
+ 0.2
4
+ 1· 2
3
+ 0.2
2
+ 1· 21 + 1· 2°).92
= 2° ·92 + 2
1
.92 + 2
3
·92 + 2
5
·92
= 92 + 184 + 736 + 2,944
= 3,956
Whether or not you have a complete understanding of the dis
cussion of the Russian peasant's method of multiplication, you
should at least now have a deeper appreciation for the multiplica
tion algorithm you learned in school, even though most people to
day multiply with a calculator. There are many other multiplication
algorithms, yet the one shown here is perhaps one of the strangest.
It is through this strangeness that we can appreciate the powerful
consistency of mathematics and that allows us to conjure up such
an algorithm. Now let us bring in the Fibonacci numbers. With the
aid of these numbers, we can develop an analogous multiplication
algorithm. The Fibonacci multiplication algorithm will use addi
10. We have defined an algorithm as a stepbystep problemsolving procedure, espe
cially an established, recursive computational procedure for solving a problem in a finite
number of steps.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 199
tion instead of doubling. Let us use the same two numbers that we
used for the multiplication example above: 43· 92 .
This time we will place the 92 at the top of the rightside column
(figure 618). On the left side we will begin with the second 1 of the
Fibonacci sequence and list the members of the sequence until we
reach the Fibonacci number that is just less than the other number to
be multipliedin this case, 43. So we list the Fibonacci numbers to
34, since the next Fibonacci number, 55, would exceed 43.
In the rightside column, we double 92 to get the next number,
and then add every pair of numbers to get the succeeding one (just
as we do with the Fibonacci numbers). We now select the numbers
in the leftside column that will give us a sum of 43 (the original
multiplier). We have selected 1 + 8 + 34 = 43. The sum of their
partners in the rightside column is our desired product:
92 + 736 + 3,128 = 3,956
1 92
2 184
=
92+ 92
3 276 = 184 + 92
5 460 = 276 + 184
8 736 = 460+ 276
13 1,196 = 736 + 460
21 1,932 = 1,196 + 736
34 3,128 = 1,932 + 1,196
Figure 618
This may not be the algorithm of choice, but it is fascinating to
observe how our Fibonacci numbers can even enable us to do
multiplication.
200 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Using the Fibonacci Numbers to Convert Kilometers
to, and from, Miles
Most of the world uses kilometers to measure distance, while the
United States still holds on to the mile. This requires a conversion
of units when one travels in a country in which the measure of
distance is not the one we are accustomed to. Such conversions can
be done with specially designed calculators or by some "trick"
method. This is where the Fibonacci numbers come in. Before we
discuss the conversion process between these two units of measure,
let's look at their origin.
The mile derives its name from the Latin for thousand: mille. It
represented the distance that a Roman legion could march in 1,000
paces (which is 2,000 steps). One of these paces was about 5 feet,
so the Roman mile was about 5,000 feet. The Romans marked off
these miles with stones along the many roads they built in
Europehence the name, "milestones"! The name statute mile
goes back to Queen Elizabeth I of England, who redefined the mile
from 5,000 feet to 8 furlongsll (5,280 feet) by statute in 1593.
The metric system dates back to 1790 when the French
National Assembly (during the French Revolution) requested that
the French Academy of Sciences establish a standard of measure
based on the decimal system, which they did. The unit of length
they called a "meter," derived from the Greek word, metron, which
means measure. Its length was determined to be one tenmillionth
of the distance from the North Pole to the equator along a meridian
going near Dunkirk, France, and Barcelona, Spain.12 Clearly, the
11. A furlong is a measure of distance within Imperial units and US customary
units. Although its definition has varied historically, in modem terms it equals
660 feet, and is therefore equal to 201.168 meters. There are eight furlongs in a
mile. The name furlong derives from the Old English wordsfurh (furrow) and
lang (long). It originally referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a
ploughed open field (a medieval communal field which was divided into strips).
The term is used today for distances horses run at a racetrack.
12. There are three fascinating books on this subject: Dava Sobel, Longitude
(New York: Walker & Co., 1995); Umberto Eco, The Island of the Day Before
(New York: Harcourt Brace, 1994); and Thomas Pynchon, Mason & Dixon
(New York: Henry Holt, 1997).
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 201
metric system is better suited for scientific use than is the
American system of measure. By an act of Congress in 1866 it
became "lawful throughout the United States of America to
employ the weights and measures of the metric system in all
contracts, dealings, or court proceedings" (though it has not been
used that often). And there is no such law establishing the use of
our mile system.
Now to convert miles to and from kilometers, we need to see
how one mile relates to the kilometer. The statute mile (our usual
measure of distance in the United States today) is exactly
1,609.344 meters long. This translated into kilometers is 1.609344
kilometers. One the other hand, one kilometer is .621371192 mile
long. The nature of these two numbers (reciprocals that differ by
almost 1) might remind us of the golden ratio, which is approxi
mately 1.618 and has a reciprocal of approximately .618. Remem
ber, it is the only number whose reciprocal differs from it by ex
actly 1. This would tell us that the Fibonacci numbers, the ratio of
whose consecutive members approaches the golden ratio, might
come into play here.
Let's see what the equivalent of five miles would be in kilo
meters:
5 . 1.609344 == 8.04672 ::::: 8
We could also check to see what the equivalent of eight kilo
meters would be in miles:
8 .. 621371192 == 4.970969536 ::::: 5
This allows us to conclude that approximately five miles is equal
to eight kilometers. Here we have two of our Fibonacci numbers.
The ratio of a Fibonacci number to the one before it is ap
proximately l/J. Therefore, since the relationship between miles
and kilometers is very close to the golden ratio, they appear to be
almost in the relationship of consecutive Fibonacci numbers. Using
this relationship, we would be able to approximately convert thir
teen kilometers to miles. Replace 13 by the previous Fibonacci
number, 8, and thirteen kilometers is about eight miles. Similarly,
202 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
five kilometers is about three miles and two kilometers is about
one mile. The higher Fibonacci numbers will give us a more accu
rate estimate, since the ratio of these larger consecutive numbers
gets closer to tP.
Now suppose you want to convert twenty kilometers to miles.
We have selected 20, since it is not a Fibonacci number. We can
express 20 as a sum of Fibonacci numbers,l3 convert each num
ber separately, and then add them. Thus, 20 kilometers == 13 kilo
meters + 5 kilometers + 2 kilometers, which, by replacing 13 by 8,
5 by 3, and 2 by 1, is approximately equal to twelve miles.
To use this process to achieve the reverse, that is, to convert
miles to kilometers, we write the number of miles as a sum of Fibo
nacci numbers and then replace each by the next larger Fibonacci
number. Let's convert twenty miles to kilometers. Thus, 20 miles
== 13 miles + 5 miles + 2 miles. Now, replacing each of the Fibonacci
numbers with the next larger in the sequence, we get 20 miles ~ 21
kilometers + 8 kilometers + 3 kilometers == 32 kilometers.
13. Representing Numbers as Sums of Fibonacci Numbers: It is not a trivial
matter for us to conclude that every natural number can be expressed as the sum
of other Fibonacci numbers without repeating anyone of them in the sum. Let's
take the first few Fibonacci numbers to demonstrate this property:
n The Sum of Fibonacci Numbers equal to n
I I
2 2
3 3
4 1+3
5 5
6 1+5
7 2+5
8 8
9 1+8
lO 2+X
II 3+X
12 1+3+8
13 13
14 1 + 13
15 2 + 13
16 3 + 13
You should begin to see patterns and also note that we used the fewest number
of Fibonacci numbers in each sum in the table above. For example, we could
also have represented 13 as the sum of 2 + 3 + 8, or as 5 + 8. Try to express
larger natural numbers as the sum of Fibonacci numbers. Each time ask yourself
if you have used the fewest number of Fibonacci numbers in the sum. It will be
fun to see the patterns that develop. By the way, Edouard Zeckendorf
(19011983) proved that each natural number is a (unique) sum of nonconsecu
tive Fibonacci numbers.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 203
There is no need to use the Fibonacci representation of a number
that uses the fewest Fibonacci numbers. You can use any combination
of numbers whose sum is the number you are converting. For in
stance, forty kilometers is two times twenty kilometers, and we have
just seen that twenty kilometers is twelve miles. So forty kilometers is
two times twelve miles, or twentyfour miles (approximately).
Fibonacci Numbers in Physics
The field of optics provides us with a nice application of the
Fibonacci numbers.
14
Suppose you place two glass plates face to
face (figures 619 and 620) and wish to count the number of pos
sible reflections. This might be achieved by intermittently covering
a surface, say, at the back side. For convenience, we shall number
the various surfaces of reflection as in figure 620.
Figure 619 Figure 620
The first case, where there are no reflections, is where the light
source passes right through both plates of glass (figure 621).
There is one path the light ray takes.
o
Figure 621
14. This problem was posed by L. Moser and M Wyman, "Problem B6," Fibo
nacci Quarterly 1, no. 1 (February 1963): 74, and solved by L. Moser and J. L.
Brown, "Some Reflections," Fibonacci Quarterly I, no. 1 (December 1963): 75.
204 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The next case is where there is one reflection. There can be
two possible paths that the light can take in this case. It can reflect
off the two surfaces shown in figure 622.
Figure 622
Suppose, now, that the ray of light is reflected twice within this
set of two plates of glass. Then there will be three possible reflec
tions (figure 623).
Figure 623
If the light ray is reflected three times, then there will be five
possible paths that the ray can takeas seen in figure 624.
Figure 624
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 205
By now you will surely anticipate that the next case, that of the
light ray taking four reflections, will result in eight possible
pathsas seen in figure 625.
Figure 625
You may be tempted to generalize this situation to the
Fibonacci numbers. And, if you do, you are, in fact, right! How
ever, you may want to be able to generalize this with a mathemati
cal argument. Let's try to justify this in a mathematical fashion.
1 23 4
Figure 626
Suppose the last reflection occurs at face 1 or 3, as it did with
the even number of reflections. The previous reflection had to be
off faces 2 or 4. (figure 626).
If the last reflection, of n reflections, was off face 1, then there
were n  1 reflections prior to this one, or n  1 possible paths (see
figure 626). If the last reflection (of n reflections) was off face 3,
then the previous reflectionthe (n  1 )stmust have occurred
off face 4, and must have had n  2 reflections prior to this one.
And so there were n  2 possible paths. Therefore, since both re
flectionsoff face 1 or 3can be considered the last reflection,
we get the number of paths as (n  1) + (n  2), which would indi
cate that F" is the number of paths. This began with zero reflec
206 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
tions giving us 1 path, then one reflection, which gave us 2 paths,
and three reflections, which gave us 3 paths. This implies that Fn+2
indicates the number of paths for n reflections. Again the Fibo
nacci numbers appear!
LastDigit Patterns
We mentioned in chapter 1 that there is a pattern among the final
digits of the Fibonacci numbers. Namely, they have a period of 60.
That is, the first 60 Fibonacci numbers, ~  F
60
, have the same
last digits (or sometimes called terminal digits), respectively, as the
second 60 Fibonacci numbers, ~ l  ~ 2 0 ' the third 60 Fibonacci
numbers, F;21  F;80 ' the fourth 60 Fibonacci numbers, F;81  F;40'
and so on for each group of 60 Fibonacci numbers. (You can check
this with the list of the first 500 Fibonacci numbers provided for
you in appendix A.)
Suppose we now consider the last two digits of each of the
Fibonacci numbers (which are below in bold).
00,01,01,02,03, 05,08,13,21,34,55,89,144,233,377,610,987,
1,597,2,584,4,181,6,765, 10,946, 17,711,28,657,46,368,75,025,
121,393, ...
If we look at the 300th Fibonacci number in appendix A, we
find the last two digits repeating beginning with the 301 st
Fibonacci number. Hence, this period is 300 numbers long. Yes, if
we were to look at ~ O O ' we would find the pattern continuing. You
might be speculating about the period of repetition of the last three
digits of the Fibonacci numbers. Well, we won't make you struggle
with this computation. For the next few groups of terminal digits,
we can conclude the following:
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 207
• The period of the last three digits of the Fibonacci numbers
repeating is 1,500.
• The period of the last four digits of the Fibonacci numbers
repeating is 15,000.
• The period of the last five digits of the Fibonacci numbers
repeating is 150,000.
If you do have the time, you can verify this. Or else you can
take our word for it.
The First Digits of Fibonacci Numbers
Now that we have inspected the relationship among the terminal digits
of the Fibonacci numbers, let's turn to the initial digits. One would
assume that there would be an even distribution of the nine numerals
among the initial digits of the Fibonacci numbers. If you take the time
to inspect the first five hundred Fibonacci numbers in appendix A, you
will find that the most frequent numeral is 1, and the least frequent is
9. Figure 627 provides a summary of the frequency of the initial digits
of the first one hundred Fibonacci numbers.
Initial Frequency
di2it (Percent)
1 30
2 18
3 13
4 9
5 8
6 6
7 5
8 7
9 4
Figure 627
Quite surprising! The reason lies in the fact that Fibonacci num
bers (as you will see in chapter 9 when we investigate the Binet
formula) are expressible as powers of J5. This, in part, also ac
counts for the uneven distribution of the Fibonacci numbers
208 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
throughout the list of natural numbers. What does this actually
mean? Within the first one hundred natural numbers (i.e., the num
bers from 1 to 100), there are eleven Fibonacci numbers. Amazingly
enough, among the next hundred natural numbers (from 101 to 200)
there is only one Fibonacci number (144). As we look further down
the list of natural numbers, we find that among the next three hun
dred natural numbers there are only two Fibonacci numbers, and
further there are only two Fibonacci numbers between 500 and
1,000 (i.e., 610 and 987). This paucity continues, and you can see it
clearly in appendix A. Who would have expected this strange distri
bution! This is even made more dramatic when seen through a
graph. The visualization shows how fast (and steeply) the values
grow. The eighteenth Fibonacci number (F
I8
== 2,584) still can be
read on the graph in figure 628 the nineteenth Fibonacci number
(F
19
== 6,765) is far off the scale shown in figure 628.
2500 2500
2000 2000
1500 1500
1000 1000
500 500
...
20 20
Figure 628
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 209
A Fibonacci Curiosity of Digits 15
Here is a strange "coincidence" (or is it one?) that seems to occur
for some of the Fibonacci numbers. And it is that the sum of the
digits of these Fibonacci numbers, F
n
, is equal to n. The table in
figure 629 lists the Fibonacci number where this relationship
holds true.
n
Fn
Sum of the Digits
0 0 0
1 1 1
5 5 5
10 55 10
31 1,346,269 31
35 9,227,465 35
62 4,052,739,537,881 62
72 498,454,011,879,264 72
Figure 629
This is just a curiosity to further entice you to appreciate these
intriguing numbers.
Examining Relationships between Successive
Fibonacci Numbers
While we are examining the characteristics of the members of the
Fibonacci sequence, we might look at the relationship between two
15. Leon Bankoff, "A Fibonacci Curiosity," Fibonacci Quarterly 14, no. 1
(1976): 17.
210 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
consecutive Fibonacci numbers. Of course, by this point, you know
that the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers gives us a
good approximation of the golden ratio. However, there are other
relationships worth noting. A quick look at appendix A will verify
that no two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are even. Another way
of saying this is that they do not have a common factor of 2. As a
matter of fact, you will notice that every third Fibonacci number is
even, or that there are two odd Fibonacci numbers between every
two consecutive even Fibonacci numbers.
Looking at the Fibonacci numbers that have a factor of 3, you
will find they are ~ , ~ , F ; 2 , F ; 6 ' ... . Every fourth Fibonacci
number has a factor of 3. Although we already noted this in chap
ter 1, we can enhance this by stating that no two consecutive
Fibonacci numbers have a common factor. (We call two numbers
that have no common factor "relatively prime numbers.") We can
do a simple proof of this fact here.
• If x and y have a common factor, then it must also be a fac
tor ofx + y.
• If x and y have a common factor, then it is also a factor of
yx.
• If x and y have no common factor, then y and x + y also
have no common factor. This is because if y and x + y had a
common factor, then their difference, y  (x + y), which is
just equal to x, would also have a common factor, but that
is absurd!
• Therefore, if the first two members of a sequence are rela
tively prime, then all pairs of consecutive members of the
sequence are relatively prime.
• We know that F:. and F2 are relatively prime (since they
have no common factor).
• Therefore, all the members of the sequence Fn and Fn+1 are
relatively prime.
This little proof is a fine example of how a mathematical truth is
established.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 211
A Cute Curiosity!
Consider the four consecutive Fibonacci numbers F
7
, F g, F
9
, and
FlO, or specifically, 13,21,34, and 55. Now let's look at these
numbers in another form. We will break each one down into its
prime factors: (13), (7,3), (2,17), and (5,11). Ifwe rearrange this
list of factors in ascending order, we get: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17,
which are the first seven prime numbers. The product of these
numbers is 510, which just happens to be the Library Dewey
Decimal classification number
l6
for mathematics! This is a coinci
dental fun fact!
Special Fibonacci Numbers
Those numbers representing dots that can be arranged to form an
equilateral triangle are called triangular numbers. As shown below,
the first few triangular numbers are 1,3,6, 10, 15,21, and 28.
15
10
•
6
• • •
3
• • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Figure 630
21
•
• •
• • •
• • • •
• • • • •
• • • • •
28
•
• •
• • •
• • • •
• • • • •
• • • • • •
• • • • • • •
A triangular number IS one that is an integer of the form
n(n+l) _
2 ' where n  1, 2, 3, ....
16. American librarian Melvil Dewey, born Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey, in
Adams Center, New York, on December 10, 1851, is best known as the inventor
of what came to be called the "Dewey Decimal System of Classification," which
is used in most local and school libraries to catalog books. Devised in 1876 as a
system for small libraries, it has the advantage of a limited number of general
categories and short call numbers. The system is based on ten classes of subject
(000999), which are then further subdivided. Dewey also promoted the use of
the metric system, and helped found the American Library Association in 1876.
When Dewey created Columbia University's School of Library Economy in
1887, he began the field of library science in the United States.
212 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
However, there are only four Fibonacci numbers that are trian
gular numbers. They are 1, 3, 21, and 55.
There are only three Lucas numbers that are triangular num
bers. They are 1, 3, and 5,778. So even in the realm of triangular
numbers, the Fibonacci numbers make an appearance.
The thirtysixth triangular number
17
is 666, a number that has
captured the popular imagination for a long time. (Many associate
it with the devil.) The sum of the squares of the first seven prime
numbers is 666. That is, 22 + 32 + 52 + 7
2
+ 112 + 132 + 172 == 666.
This unusual number also offers some nice number relation
ships, such as:
666 == 1
6
 2
6
+ 3
6
666 == 6 + 6 + 6 + 6
3
+ 6
3
+ 6
3
666 == 2 . 3 . 3 . 37, and 6 + 6 + 6 == 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 7
And just for the sake of entertainment on the number 666, con
sider the first six Roman numerals written in order: DCLXVI,
which just happens to equal 666.
Of course, this number, 666, is also related to the Fibonacci
numbers.
And the analog for the subscripts:
1  9 + 11 + 15 = 6 + 6 + 6
Similarly for the cubes of the Fibonacci numbers:
3 3 3 3 3
FI + F2 + F4 + F5 + F6 = 1 + 1 + 27 + 125 + 512 = 666
And the analog for the subscripts:
1+2+4+5+6=6+6+6
17. The thirtysixth triangular number = (36)(36 + 1) = 18·37 = 666.
2
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 213
Now let's have this curious number 666 connect to the Fibo
nacci numbers with the golden ratioas is fitting to do in this
book:
2sin( 666°) = 1.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057 ...
a very close approximation of the golden ratio, which is
l/> = 1.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057 ...
Finally, in 1994 Steve C. Wang published the following myste
rious equation in the Journal of Recreational Mathematics
18
with
the title "The Sign of the Devil":
l/> =  [sin (666°) + cos (6 . 6 . 6 0)]
While earlier we had a fine approximation of the golden ratio,
this equation, then, places the number 666 in an unquestionable
connection with the golden ratio!
The Curiosity of the Eleventh Fibonacci Number
The eleventh Fibonacci number, F..I' is 89. This number has many
unusual characteristics. For example, if you take any number and
find the sum of the squares of the digits, and continuously repeat
this process, you will either end up with 1 or 89.
19
We will show
how this works in a few cases:
18. 26, no. 3 (1994): 201205.
19. If you take this further you will be led to the number 4, but this is via the
number 89. This would continue as:
8
2
+ 9
2
= 145
12 + 4
2
+ 52 = 42
4
2
+22=20
22 + 0
2
= 4
,
which then takes you into a loop back to 89:
4
2
= 16
12 + 6
2
= 37
3
2
+ 7
2
= 58
52 + 8
2
= 89
214 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
For the number 23:
For the number 54:
For the number 64:
22 + 3
2
== 13
12 + 3
2
== 10
12+0==1
52 + 4
2
== 41
42+12==17
12+72=50
52 + 0 == 25
22 + 52 == 29
22 + 9
2
== 85
8
2
+ 52 == 89
6
2
+42==52
52 + 22 = 29
22 + 9
2
= 85
8
2
+ 52 == 89
To convince yourself of this peculiarity, try this with some
other numbers. If you are still piqued by this Fibonacci peculiarity,
consider the reciprocal of 89:
1
89
= 0.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191 01123595505
61797752808988764044943820224719 011235955056179775280898
87640449438202247191 011235955056179775280898876404494382
02247191 ...
= 0.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 215
You will notice it repeats after fortyfour decimal places, or as
we say, it has a period of 44. Curiously, at the very middle of this
period of fortyfour digits you will notice there is the number 89.
0.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191
Its unusual Fibonacci property is even more surprising. Notice
the first few digits of the period, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, and 5, are the first
few Fibonacci numbers. So what happens after that? To see this
continue, consider the following:
1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13
=++++++++ ...
89 10
1
10
2
10' 10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
IFF F F F F F F
_=_0 +_1 +_2 +_3 +_4 +_5 +_6 +_7 + ...
89 10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
105 10
6
10
7
lOX
This may be seen, perhaps, more concretely when written as
decimals:
o
+.01
+.001
+.0002
+.00003
+.000005
+.0000008
+.00000013
+.000000021
+.0000000034
+.00000000055
+.000000000089
+.0000000000144
+.00000000000233
+.000000000000377
+.0000000000000610
+.00000000000000987
.0112359550561 7977 ...
This will continue to generate the above period of fortyfour digits
if we take the decimal approximations further.
But the question might be asked: Why does this happen? We
can do some numerical manipulations that will show how the
216 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Fibonacci numbers tie in with this remarkable number 89itself
the eleventh Fibonacci number.
We begin with the following equality:
10
2
= 89 + 10 + 1 (I)
We will multiply both sides of (I) by 10:
10
3
= 89 . 10 + 10
2
+ 10
and then substitute (I) in the resulting equality to get:
10
3
= 89·10 + 89 + 10+ 1
10
3
= 89·10 + 89 + 2·10 + 1 (II)
Continuing this process, we will multiply both sides of (II) by 10:
10
4
= 89 . 10
2
+ 89 . 10 + 2 . 10
2
+ 1 . 10
10
4
=89.10
2
+89.10+2(89+10+1)+1. 10
and then substitute (I) again, where appropriate to get:
10
4
= 89 . 10
2
+ 89 . 10 + 89 . 2 + 3 . 10 + 2 (III)
Continuing this process gives us the following:
and
10
5
=89.10
3
+89.10
2
+89.2.10+3.10
2
+2.10
10
5
=89.10
3
+89.10
2
+89.2.10+3(89+10+1)+2.10
105 = 89 . 10
3
+ 89 . 10
2
+ 89 . 2 . 10 + 89 . 3 + 5 . 10 + 3
10
5
=89(1.10
3
+1.10
2
+2.10+3)+5.10+3 (IV)
10
6
=89(1.10
4
+1.10
3
+2.10
2
+3.10+5)+8.10+5 (V)
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 217
and this can be generalized to:
for all positive integers n.
We then divide both sides by IOn + 1 to get:
lOF + F
We can establish that lim n+l n = 0, the proof of which
n ~ o o 10
n
+
1
can be found in appendix B.
As we conclude our brief discussion of the eleventh Fibo
nacci number, let us take note of its successor: the twelfth Fibo
nacci number, F:.2 = 144 = 122 . Aside from the first two numbers
of the Fibonacci sequence, F:. = 1, and F2 = 1 , it is the only Fibo
nacci number that is also a square number.
Displaying a Watch
What might the Fibonacci numbers have to do with the way a
watch is displayed in a showcase or in an advertisement? Well,
here we are using the geometric form of the Fibonacci numbers,
namely, the golden rectangle. You may notice that advertise
ments and window displays often show a watch with the hands
set at 1 0: 1 o.
218 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 631
The hands make an angle of 19 ~ minutes,20 which is the
equivalent of 155 degrees (figure 631). Now consider the rectangle
formed by placing its vertices at points at which the hands indicate
10: 10, that is, at minute markers 2 and 10 ~ . Then fonn a rectangle
(figure 632) with these two points as two adjacent vertices and with
the point of intersection of its diagonals at the center of the watch
face. This rectangle is very close to the golden rectangle, whose di
agonals meet at an angle of about 116.6 degrees (figure 633).
A "' ____ r ' __ ._n __ 7iB
•
,
D c
Figure 632 Figure 633
20. Since IO minutes is .!. of an hour, the hour hand moved'!' of the distance
6 6
I
between 10 and 1 1, from 10:00 to 10: I O. Therefore, the hour hand moved  of 5
6
minute markers, or .? of a minute marker. Thus the angle at 10: 10 is 19.!. min
6 6
ute markers. To find the degree measure of that angle, we simply find the part of
I 115
19 
60 that 19 .!. is . . . Q . = _ 6 _ = ~ which is 115°.
6 60 60 360'
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 219
This can be determined by using the golden rectangle (figure
633) and finding the measure of the angle whose tangent function is
¢
tanx = FB = 2" = I/J
FE I
2
That angle. x, has measure 58.28 degrees. Therefore,
mL.AEB = 116.56
0
, which is very close to the 115
0
that is felt by
many exhibitors to be the ideal placement of the hands of a
watch. Some might have suspected that the 10: I 0 time place
ment was to allow the observer to see, in unobstructed fashion,
the brand name of the watch. Not necessarily so. Consider an
advertisement at the Prague airport (figure 634), where there
was no need to highlight a brand name. Once again. the time
10: lOis shown.
Prague
'''enna
I
, , ,
, ' ,
' 'V''
"V'
, , ' , , .
Brattslava
, ' ,
"V'
, , '
Wtl'5aw
1 ,I,
,
' /
, t .'
( " ' 1 ' ' ' ' \ ~ . ~
""'l>In ... t_·c
One Central European Exhibition Centre ~ ' \
Figure 634
, t·"
' /
, ,
, , '
Take, for another example, a recent United States postage
stamp that exhibits the "American Clock."
220 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 635
Here the time shown is about 8:21 Y2, where the hands form an an
gie of about 121.75°,21 which is not exactly the angle ofthe diagonals
of an ideal golden rectangle. But it is close enough for the naked eye
to appreciate. The golden rectangle seems to have again determined
the ideal!
Some may recall that when they were taught to drive a car,
they were instructed to hold the steering wheel at the positions of
the 10 and 2 of a clock. Perhaps those points present some sort of
special balance. Something to ponder!
2 I. To find the angle formed, we will do it in two parts. First, the angle formed
between the "6," or 30minute marker, and the 21.5minute marker L (30 
21 Y,) = 8.5 . 6° = 5 I 0. Second, the angle formed by the 30minute marker and
the hour hand at 8:21.5. In 21.5 minutes the hour hand moved 21.5 of the 5 min
60
ute markers between the 8 and 9 on the clock, or 2 ~ 5 of 30°, which is 10.75°.
The angle between the hour hand and the 30minute marker is 10.75° + 60 ° =
70.75°. The angle formed by the hands of the clock is, then, 51 ° + 70.75° =
121.75°.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 221
Fibonacci Helps Us Determine Seatings
There are often interesting mathematical phenomena that arise
from problems that stem from seating arrangements. We will con
sider one here in which, once again, our Fibonacci numbers will
emerge. Suppose that from a school full of boys and girls, you will
be placing a number of chairs on a stage and you want to know
how many ways to seat the boys and girls so that no two boys sit
together. (This is not meant to be an indication that if two boys sit
together, they will misbehave!) The chart in figure 636 will sum
marize the various seatings.
Number Arrangements Number of
of Chairs Ways to Seat
Students
1 B,G 2
2 BG, GB, GG, gg 3
3 GGB, ~ , BGB, GBG. GGG, 5
g g g , B G G , ~ ,
4 GGGG, ~ , QQCC, GCQQ, 8
BGBG, GBGB, CQQC; BGGB,
QQQC, GGGB, CQQQ. BGGG.
QQCQ,GGBG, QCQQ,GBGG
5 GGGGB, QQQQQ, QQCGB, 13
CCQQQ, BGBGB, CQCQQ,
CQQCQ, QCCQQ. QQQCQ,
GCCQQ, CQQQQ, BGGGB,
QQCQQ, GGBGB, QCQQQ.
GBGGB GGGGG, QQQQC,
QQCCC, CCQQC, BGBGG,
GBGBG, CQQCC, BGGBG,
QQQCC,GGGBG,CQQQG,
BGGGG,QQCQC,GGBGG,
QGQQC,GBGGG
Figure 636
As you can clearly see, in each case the number of seating pos
sibilities is a successive Fibonacci number, beginning with 2.
Let us now change the restrictions and insist that no boy or girl
sits without someone from the same sex next to him/her and that
the first position must be a girl. Figure 637 displays the various
acceptable arrangements and shows us that the Fibonacci numbers
give the number of ways this seating can be done. With six chairs,
there are five possible seating arrangements.
222 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Number Arrangements Number of
of Chairs Ways to Seat
Students
1
0
2 GG, gg 1
3 GGG, ggg, I
4 GGGG, QQQQ, GGBB, 2
QCCR,
QQQC, GcCQ, CQQQ, QCCC,
5 QQQQQ, QQGGQ, GGBBB, 3
QCQCQ, CQCQQ, GQQCQ. QGGQQ,
QQQGQ, GGGBB, GQQQQ, QGGGQ,
GGGGG, QQQQG, QQCCC,
CCQQC, QCQGG,CQCQC,
CQQCG, QCCQC,QQQGC,
cCCQC, CQQQG, Reccc,
QQCQC,CGQCC,RCQQC,CQCGC
Figure 637
Fish in a Hatchery
Consider a fish hatchery that is partitioned into sixteen congruent
regular hexagonsarranged in two rows (figure 638)with
pathways between each adjacent hexagon.
22
A fish begins a jour
ney at the upperleft side of the double row of hexagons and ends
up at the lowerright hexagon. Our problem is to determine the
number of paths the fish can take to complete his journey to reach
hexagon K, if he can only move to the right.
x
z B D F H J
y
A E G I K
Figure 638
22. This example may not be too realistic, but it provides us with a nice applica
tion of the Fibonacci numbers.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 223
As the fish begins his travels, there is only one path he can take
to hexagon W (figure 639), since if he were to go horizontally first,
he would no longer be traveling to the right to get to hexagon W.
Figure 639
To get to hexagon X, there are two paths, one directly to the
right, and one through W (figure 640).
Figure 640
For the fish to get to hexagon Y, there are three paths: hexa
gons WXY, XV, and WY (figure 641).
"
y
Figure 641
224 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Perhaps you will anticipate the next number of possible hexa
gon paths that the fish can travel when there are five hexagons
available. Yes, there are five paths, as shown in figure 642.
They are: WYZ, WXYZ, XZ, WXZ, and XYZ.
x
Figure 642
It would be correct to assume that this pattern will continue as
we increase the number of hexagons for the fish to traverse. To
summarize, we provide the following chart:
Number of hexagons
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ... n
for the fish's journey
Number of different
1 1 2 3 5 8 13
paths
Figure 643
So we might conclude that for the fish to reach the sixteenth
hexagon, K, we would need to find F
16
, which is 987. Thus, there
are 987 possible paths for the fish to travel from the first hexagon
to the sixteenth hexagon, Kalways traveling only to the right.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 225
The Game of Fibonacci Nim
At this point in the chapter, perhaps we shall have the enjoyment
of playing a game where the winning strategy is dependent on the
Fibonacci numbers. The rules of the game are as follows.
The Rules:
• There is one pile of pennies. The first player may remove
any positive number of pennies, but not the whole pile.
• Thereafter, each player may remove at most twice the num
ber of pennies his opponent took on the previous move.
• The player who removes the last penny wins.
• You move first: you can win from the initial position, but
don't make any mistakes!
The questions before us, as we begin to play the game, are:
Will the number of pennies at the beginning determine which
player will win the game? What strategy should be used in playing
the game? And what might this have to do with the Fibonacci
numbers?
The strategy for this game, as you might have expected, is
based on the Fibonacci numbers. Just as we can use binary notation
to represent every positive integer as a sum of distinct powers of 2,
we can use a similar process to write integers as a sum of Fibo
nacci numbers (see page 188). The winning strategy for this game
involves removing the smallest of the Fibonacci summands.
23
Here
is a method for doing this: pick the largest Fibonacci number not
exceeding the given integer, then subtract that Fibonacci number
and continue the process with the difference. For example, to write
20 in terms of Fibonacci numbers, subtract 13 from it to get 7.
Subtract 5 from 7 to get 2, which itself is a Fibonacci number.
Thus 20 == 113 + 08 + 15 + 03 + 12 + 0·1 == 101010.
24
23. A summand is one member of a sum.
24. We are merely representing the number by showing all the Fibonacci num
bers: those for inclusion in the sum are multiplied by 1 and those not included in
226 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
We can express 20 = 13 + 5 + 2, and thus the winning move in
volves taking two pennies. This is equivalent to taking the right
most 1 in the Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies in
the pile.
Number Fibonacci repre The small Number of Fibonacci
of pen sentation of the est of the pennies that representation
ntes In number of pen Fibonacci remain after of the number
pile nies summands the move of pennies that
remain
20 101010 2 18 101000
19 101001 1 18 101000
18 101000 5 13 100000
17 100101 1 16 100100
16 100100 3 13 100000
15 100010 2 13 100000
14 100001 1 13 100000
13 100000 13 0 0
12 10101 1 I 1 10100
11 10100 3 8 10000
10 10010 2 8 10000
9 10001 1 8 10000
8 10000 8 0 0
7 1010 2 5 1000
6 1001 1 5 1000
5 1000 5 0 0
4 101 I 3 100
3 100 3 0 0
2 10 2 0 0
1 1 1 0 0
Figure 644
Compare the Fibonacci representations in the second column
with those in the fifth column in figure 644. Note that the winning
move in this game is equivalent to taking the rightmost 1 in the
Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies in the pile. Less
obvious is that the second player cannot make a similar move.
Try this strategy with a friend. Are there initialpile sizes for
which the first player cannot be assured of a win with this strategy?
the sum are multiplied by O. Note: We do not use the first I of the sequence and
begin with the second 1.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 227
When Is a Fibonacci Number Equal to
a Lucas Number?
What we seek to determine is when might a Fibonacci number, F
n
,
be equal to a Lucas number, Lm? Let's consider some of the rela
tionships we have established earlier, which compare these two
numbers.
For m > 3
In the first case, we have that L > F I' and in the second case
m m+
we get: L < F 2.
m m+
For m > 3, we have Fm+l < Lm < F
m
+
2
•
Therefore, Fn == Lm only when m < 3.
The only solutions are
F==L==l
I I
F==L==l
2 I
F ==L ==3
4 2
By this point in the book, you are probably expecting the
Fibonacci numbers to appear, even where they may be least ex
pected. The applications or sightings of these fabulous Fibonacci
numbers seem to be boundless. Besides these kinds of appear
ances, the Fibonacci numbers can also surprise us by the many in
terrelationships they have, as well as those they have with the
Lucas numbers. We will close this chapter with a sample listing of
some of these amazing relationships. Convince yourself that they
hold true by applying them to specific cases, or for the more ambi
tious reader, try to prove them true.
228 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
A Plethora of Fibonacci Relationships
Let k, m, n be any natural numbers; where k, m, n > 1:
LI = 1; L2 = 3; L n+2 = L n + L 11+1
(Fn , F
n
+
l
) = 1. The greatest common divisor of Fn and Fn+1
is 1 (they are relatively prime)
n
L F; = F; + F; + F; + ~ + ... + ~ 1 = Fn+2  1
i=l
n
L F21 = F2 + F4 + F6 + ... + F
21l

2
+ F
2n
= F21l+1  I
1=1
n
L F
2i

1
= F) + F3 + Fs + ... + F
2n

3
+ F
2n

1
= F
2n
i=1
n
~ F2 =F F I
~ I n n+
1=1
F2  F2 == F
11 112 2n2
F k F k  F 2 = + Fk
2
, where n > 1 and k > 1
11 n+ n
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 229
n+1
~ FF 1 = F2 I' when n is odd
£...J / / n+
i=2
n+1
LF;F;l = F}+I 1, when n is even
i=2
n
L Li = LI + L2 + L3 + L4 + ... + Ln = Ln+2  3
,=1
n
~ L2 = L L 1 2
£...J / n n+
i=1
F22k = F
2k

1
F
2k
+
1
 1
F=FF +F F
n m n+lm mI nm
F +F =L
nI n+1 n
F F =L
n+2 n2 n
F +L =2F 1
n n n+
F =FL
2n n n
F L FL=F
n+l n+1 n n 2n+1
F +(_I)m F = L F
n+m nm m n
F  (_I)m F = F L
n+m nm m n
F L L F =(I)m2F
n m n m nm
F L =F 1
n+1 n 2n+l
230 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
3F + L = 2F 2
n n n+
5F +3L = 2L 2
n n n+
F IL = F2 1+1
n+ n n+
L + (_I)m L = L L
n+m nm m n
L + 2( _1)n = L2
2n n
L
4n
 2 = 5F2
2
n
L
4n
+ 2 = L ~ n
L
n
_
J
+ L
n
+
J
= 5Fn
L F +L F = 2F
m n n m n+m
L (I)mL =5FF
n+m nm m n
L2 2L = 5F2
n 2n n
L 2(I)n=5F2
2n n
Ln = Fn+2 + 2F
n
_
1
Ln = Fn+2  F
n
_
2
Ln = LJF
n
+ LOFn_J
L L + F F = 6F
2
nJ n+J nI n+1 n
F3 + F3  F3 = 3F
n+1 n nJ 3n
Chapter 7
The Fibonacci Numbers Found
in Art and Architecture
T
he golden ratio seems to be ever present in both art and architec
ture. Why this is, we can only speculate. We have already estab
lished that it has been proclaimed the most beautiful ratio of all
timeboth numerically and geometrically. Here, we will provide a
brief survey of its apparent sightings in these two aesthetic fields. And
we will look at the visual art in both two and three dimensions.
During the Renaissance, the study of proportions in architec
ture, sculpture, and painting as an aesthetic mathematical device
was based on the notion that harmony and beauty in art can best be
determined through particular numbers, often seen in their rela
tionships with other numbers. This is how the golden section came
into prominence. There are countless articles and books that at
tempt to show that outstanding art and architecture derived from,
in one form or another, the principle of the golden section.
The golden section, whose ratio is also considered beautiful,
was already known in antiquity and by the Pythagoreans when they
constructed a regular pentagon and a regular dodecahedron. Many
architects through the ages, intuitively or deliberately, used the
golden section in their sketches and construction plans, either for
the entire work or for the apportionment of parts of the work. In
particular, this aesthetic bias frequently manifested itself as the
231
232 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
golden rectangle. Since the golden ratio, tjJ = J5 +1 , is an irrational
2
number, architects were known to use lengths of the sides of a
rectangle whose ratio approximated l/> . And, as you now know, the
most common approximations for l/> are the Fibonacci numbers.
Moreover, the larger these numbers, the closer the ratio is to l/>.
Fibonacci Numbers in Architecture
For years, architects have used the golden ratio, l/>, in their draw
ings, sometimes as the golden rectangle, other times as a partition
indicator. To circumvent the difficulty of using the irrational num
ber (l/», the golden rectangles that were constructed typically in
volved dimensions that were Fibonacci numbers. The golden ra
tioan idealwas very nearly achieved, since, as we already
know, the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers approaches
the golden ratio, with the greater the magnitude of the Fibonacci
numbers, the closer the approximation of l/J.
Perhaps the most famous structure that exhibits the golden
rectangle is the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens. The artistic
concept for building this magnificent structure came from Phidias
(460430 BeE). It was erected to thank Pericles (500429 BeE)
for saving Athens during the Persian War (447432 BeE). The
purpose of this temple was to house the statue of the goddess
Athena. It is believed that the current designation for the golden
ratio, l/>, came from the first letter of Phidias's name (in Greek:
We must stress at this point that we have no evidence
today that Phidias was aware of the golden ratio; we can only as
sume it from the shape of the structure. As you can see in figure
7 1, the Parthenon fits nicely into a golden rectangle. Further
more, in figure 7 1, you will notice a number of golden rectan
gles, generated from the structure of the building.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 233
Figure 71
4>
........

1111111111111111111111111111
i i
Figure 72
If one takes measurements of various ornaments above the col
umns, the golden ratio keeps cropping up. Figure 72 exhibits the
golden ratio throughout the Parthenon. To what extent ancient ar
chitects consciously used the golden rectangle is still largely a
mystery. Some believe that we moderns are just looking for ways
234 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
to superimpose a golden rectangle over a specific structure
though no one can deny its presence.
Another example of the golden section can be seen on
Hadrian's Arch on the Propylaeum temple, also situated on the
Acropolis. The arrangement of snails and other ornaments at the
top of the arch further exhibits the golden ratio through a regular
pentagon that can be superimposed as in figure 73. (Notice the M
represents the major portion of the golden section, while the m rep
resents the minor portion.)
E
~
....
~
I ~
~
.,
~
E
co
0
Figure 73
Figure 74
(Copyright Wolfgang Randt . Used with permission.)
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 235
According to the Greek historian Herodot (ca. 490425 BCE),
the Khufu (Cheops) Pyramid at Giza was constructed in such a
way that the square of the height is equal to the area of one of the
lateral sides. Using our superimposed triangle in figure 74 (and
the Pythagorean theorem), we get the following:
2
2 a 2
hI!,. =+ hp
4
The area of one of the lateral triangles is A = a . hI!,..
2
According to the construction principle introduced by Herodot
(above), where the square of the height is equal to the area of the
lateral triangle, we get:
2
2 2 a a
h = h =A = . h .
p I!,. 4 2 I!,.
2
Ifwe divide both sides of the equation a hI!,. = h ~  ~ by a hI!,.'
2 4 2
we get:
a
_ hI!,. 2
1
a h
 I!,.
2
By making the following substitution of h" = x by first changing
a
2
a
 1 1
its form to ...L = , we get the equation: 1 = x  , which just hap
ht! x x
pens to generate the equation x
2
 x  1 = 0, whose solution is al
ready known to us as XI = </J and x
2
= .!. . By now you have realized
l/J
that x
2
is negative and holds no real meaning for us geometrically; so
we won't consider it here. Using today's measurement capabilities,
this great pyramid has the following dimensions.
236 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Cheops Length of Height of Pyramid
h/),.
C
pyramid the side of lateral height


the base: triangle: hp
a 2hp

a
hI). 2
measurements 230.56 m 186.54 m 146.65 m 1.61813471 3.144357313
Figure 75
Lo and behold, the ratio of the height of the lateral triangle to
h
half its base is 2. = 1.61813471.
a
2
Was this done intentionally by the design of an ingenious ar
chitect? This is a question that you'll have to answer for yourself.
We can only point out what has been found by measurement and
historical clues.
We assume that the Egyptians did their measurements with cu
bits, which was defined as the length of a man's forearm (i.e., from
fingertip to elbow) and measured as a length of 52.25 cm. A Brit
ish Egyptologist, W. M. F. Petrie (18531942), established meas
urements for this famous pyramid as follows:
; = 220 cubits (= 114.95m)[i.e. a=440cubits=229.90m]
h = 280 cubits ( ::::: 146.30m)
p
h/),. = 356 cubits (::::: 186.01m)
The angle formed by the lateral height ( h/),. ) and the base yields
a cosine measure, which is a quitesurprising result: cosL( ~ , h/),.)
2
= ~ ~ ~ = : ~ . You would almost think that there is some sort of "fix"
in this analysis. However, we are just reporting the facts as they
have been recorded.
From the above, we can speculate that the base of the pyramid,
whose side is 230.56 m, has a perimeter of 922.24 m. If we divide
this perimeter by twice the height of the pyramid, we get, curiously
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 237
enough, an approximation for one of the most famous numbers in
mathematics, n.
1
Spectators have noted the golden section on Mexican pyra
mids, Japanese pagodas, and even Stonehenge (ca. 2800 BCE) in
England. There is, moreover, speculation that the Arch of Triumph
in ancient Rome was built on the basis of the golden ratio.
The oldest stone structure in Germany, stemming back to the
postRoman period (770 CE), is the "Konigshalle" in the town of
Lorsch (figure 76). This magnificent example of architecture from
the early Middle Ages has an impressive openair ground floor.
The interior space of this building exhibits practically a perfect
golden rectangle. We still don't know today what purpose this
building had and how it was used. Perhaps if one day the building
plans could be found, we might be able to see if the dimensions
might have intentionally been Fibonacci numbers.
Figure 76
The Cathedral of Chartres, France (built from 11941260),
clearly exhibits the golden rectangle. In figure 78, you can see the
front portal , and figure 77 shows a window from the Cathedral of
Chartres exhibiting this famous rectangle.
I. For more on It, see Alfred S. Posamentier and Ingmar Lehmann, 11:: A Biogra
phyofthe World's Most Mysterious Number (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books,
2004).
238 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 77 Figure 78
Figure 79
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 239
Figure 710
Throughout the Renaissance, the designs of many construction
projects used the Fibonacci numbers or the golden ratio. They can
be found in the plans of the dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore
Cathedral in Florence (see figure 79). The rough sketch by Gio
vanni di Gherardo da Prato (1426) exhibits the Fibonacci numbers,
55, 89, and 144, as well as 17 (which is half the Fibonacci number
34) and 72 (which is half the Fibonacci number 144). The dome
was actually constructed in 1434 by Filippo Brunelleschi
(13371446) and has a height of 91 m and a diameter of 45.52 m,
which (sadly) does not give us the golden ratio.
The remainder of the Cathedral in Florence further demon
strates the Fibonacci numbers. But the most dramatic proportions
are those shown in figure 7 11, where the ratio of 89: 5 5
(== 1.6181818 ... ) has an extremely close approximation to the
golden ratio 1.618033988 ....
240 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
•
"
Tf,7
144 • ~             ~ .
I I
i
89
* ..
Figure 711
Let ' s move to more modern times. Le Corbusier (1887
1965),2 was a FrenchSwiss architect who between 1946 and 1952
designed the unites d'habitation in Marseille, France (see figure
712), which again exhibits the golden ratio. Here it is exhibited in
the tower, which divides the remainder of the building into the
golden ratio. This was not done by chance, but rather by specific
design! He displays the golden section throughout.
Figure 712
2. His actual name was CharlesEdouard Jeanneret.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 241
Furthermore, all of the measurements in the apartments are
based on a theory of the proportions that Le Corbusier developed
in 1948, and published in a book titled The Modulor: A Harmoni
ous Measure to the Human Scale Universally Applicable to Ar
chitecture and Mechanics.
3
This stringent rule caused somewhat
of a furor in the art world. Le Corbusier developed his scheme on
the basis of the golden section. This included his decision that the
height of a door was to have a measure of 2.26 m (7.4 feet),4 so
that a person of height 1.83 m (6 feet) can touch the top with out
stretched arms. Le Corbusier supported his ideas with the fol
lowing: "A man with a raised arm provides the main points of
space displacementthe foot, solar plexus, head, and fingertip of
the raised armthree intervals which yield a number of golden
sections that are determined by Fibonacci."
The Modulor (see figure 713), a model of how the human pro
portions should be standardized for use by architects and engi
neers, consists of two scales or bands, which are marked with two
sequences of natural numbersthe sequence:
(*) 6,9,15,24,39,63,102,165,267,432,698,1130,1829
and an intermediate sequence:
(**) 11,18,30,48,78,126,204,330,534,863,1397,2260
Usually, at second glance, we can see the relationship to the
golden section, l/J.
3. Le Corbusier, The Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale
Universally Applicable to Architecture and Mechanics and Modulor, 2 vols.
(Basel: Birkhauser, 2000).
4. 1 meter = 3.28 feet.
242 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
1.829
1.130 2.260
698 1.397
432 863
267 534
165 330
102 204
63 126
39 78
24 48
15 30
9 18
6 II
(*) ( •• )
Figure 713
If we divide the members of the sequence (*) by 3 and those of
the sequence (**) by 6, we get:
(*), 2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89, 144,232 ~ , 376f, 609 ~
and
   
(**)' 1.83, 3, 5, 8, 13,21, 34, 55, 89, 143.83, 232.83, 376. 83
If we round off the fractional members of each sequence, we
are then dealing exclusively with the Fibonacci numbers.
This relationship to the Fibonacci numbers results from the fact
that Le Corbusier's sequences almost approximate a geometric
progression with the common ratio of the golden section, rp. In his
Modular, Le Corbusier claimed to have found a scale that adapted
exceptionally well to the visual arts.
Le Corbusier was substantially influenced by the ideas of the
Romanian lawyer, engineer, and diplomat Matila Costiescu Ghyka
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 243
(1881  1965),5 whose writing about the golden ratio connected the
religious aspects of Luca Pacioli (1445 1517)6 with the aesthetic
writings of Adolf Zeising (1810 1876).7 Ghyka interpreted the
golden section as a fundamental secret of the universe and sup
ported this position with examples from nature. This perspective
further inspired Le Corbusier, whose aim was to create a harmonic
design over a specific living space. He seized on the same philoso
phy in creating resident apartments.
Figure 714
In 1947 Le Corbusier was a member of the architectural commis
sion that planned the building of the UN headquarters in New York
(see figure 714). He was ultimately responsible for the basic concept
of the plans for the thirtyninestory Secretariat building. As you
might expect, the height and the width of the building are close to the
ratio of 1.618: I. Yes, once again the golden ratio stares us in the face!
Last, but not least, an obvious exhibit of the golden ratio can be
found in an aerial view of the Pentagon in Washington, DC (see
5. Matila Ghyka, Esthetique des proportions dans la nature et dans les arts (Paris,
1927); Matila Ghyka, The Geometry oj Art and Life (New York: Sheed and
Ward, 1946; reprint, New York: Dover Science Books, 1977).
6. Fra Luca Pacioli, Divina Proporzione A Study oj the Golden Section First
Published in Venice in 1509 (New York: Abaris Books, 2005).
7. Adolf Zeising. Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen K6rpers
(Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1854); the book Der goldene Schnitt was printed posthu
mously at the expense of the LeopoldinischCarolinischen Akademie: Halle,
1884.
244 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
figure 715). By now you might (rightly) expect that the intersec
tion point of two diagonals divides each of the diagonals in the
golden ratio, as is the case with any regular pentagon.
Figure 715
In the field of architecture, there are countless illustrations of
the use of the golden ratio, which, of course, employ the Fibonacci
numbers. The lingering question persists: Are these coincidences
or are these golden sections marked off deliberately? In the case of
some buildings such as those designed by Le Corbusier, we have
enough evidence to know that the use of the golden ratio was in
tentional. As for the ancient architecture, we can sometimes
speculate or assume that if an architect had a connection with a
mathematician, then he might have used it by design. Still, there is
always the notion that this ratio delivers the most beautifying par
tition in geometry and therefore the "trained eye" might have sim
ply landed on the golden ratio through artistic prowess.
Fibonacci Numbers and Sculptures
The golden section, 1/>, endows a work of art with a particularly
pleasing and "beautiful" shape. The golden section, 1/>, also
serves as the bridge to the Fibonacci numbers. Recall that the
ratio of consecutive members of the Fibonacci sequence ap
proximates the golden section:
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 245
5. 1.666 ... , ~ = 1.6, .!2 = 1.625, ~ = 1.615 ...
3 5 8 13
The roughest approximation occurs with the smallest Fibonacci
numbers, and yet even then its greatest deviation from the actual
value l/J is less than _1 ,or 5 percent.
20
In 1509 the Italian Renaissance scholar Fra Luca Pacioli (ca.
14451517), in his book on regular solids, titled De divina propor
tione,8 stressed the importance of the golden section and enthusi
astically called it "De Divina Proportio" (i.e., divine proportion).
The use of the adjective divina shows the level of aesthetic signifi
cance he attached to the golden section.
In the first part of the twentieth century, two important books
on the subject were published: in 1914 The Curves of Life 9 writ
ten by Sir Theodore Andrea Cook, and in 1926 The Elements of
Dynamic Symmetry by Jay Hambidge.
1o
Both books had a great
effect on artists, in particular the latter work. Hambidge' s primary
discovery was that there were two types of symmetrystatic and
dynamic. His thorough study of Greek art and architecture, par
ticularly of the Parthenon, convinced him that the secret of the
beauty of Greek design was in the conscious use of dynamic sym
metrythe law of natural design based upon the symmetry of
growth in man and in plants.
The scholar Otto Hagenmaier
11
pointed out that the Apollo
Belvedere (a Roman copy of Leochares; Vatican Museum,
Rome)12 is an example of a famous sculpture with proportions that
reflect the golden section. In figure 7 16 you can see how the
sculpture measures up in its golden ratio proportions.
8. Luca Pacioli, De divina proportione (Venezia, 1509; reprinted in Milan in
1896, and Gardner Pelican, 1961).
9. (London, 1914; reprint, New York: Dover, 1979).
10. (New York, Dover, 1967). The dynamic symmetry is based on the laws of
thermodynamics.
II. Otto Hagenmaier, Der Goldene SchnittEin Harmoniegesetz und seine
Anwendung (Grafeling, Germany: Moos & Partner, 1958); 2nd ed. (Mi.inchen:
Moos Verlag, 1977).
12. Attic sculptor of the fourth century BeE; the Roman copy was found at ex
cavations in Rome toward the end of the fifteenth century.
246 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 716
Roman copy of Apollo
Belvedere.
Figure 717
Aphrodite of Melos.
The great mathematician Felix Klein (1849 1925) could not
rest until he tried to explain the beauty of this magnificent sculp
ture mathematically and beyond the golden ratio. He marked the
significant points of a Gaussian curveD on the face of Apollo in
order to discover the secret of its beauty. Is this really what we ex
pect from mathematics? Maybe not, but it opens our eyes wider to
the mysteries of aesthetics.
The Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo) in the
Louvre museum in Paris was created at about 125 BeE (see figure
7 17). Her navel partitions the entire figure into the golden ratio.
Was this by chance or by design? We will never know for certain.
13. The Gaussian curve is the nonnal curve.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 247
The artists' association Section d'Or was founded in 1912 by
Jacques Villon (18751963)14 in Paris, during the late Cubism pe
riod. The association's name itself already highlights its belief in
the golden section. Its stated goal was to create absolute painting
purely from numerical ratios in which the golden section was not
just nominally used, but rather was the theoretical starting point.
The FrenchHungarian sculptor and painter Etienne Beothy
(18971961) did not confine himself to the twodimensional
painting that the Section d'Or community did, but expanded his
work to the threedimensional realm. Beothy supported his theo
retical groundwork further by providing a detailed construction
plan for all his sculptures. He relied in large measure on the
"golden series"apparently a reference to the Fibonacci num
bersfor the distances, curves, and other proportions in his works.
In 1926 Beothy wrote in the preface to the Hungarian version
of his book La Serie d'Or, 15 "It [the golden series] has the same
significance for the visual arts as harmony has for music .... What
works for music will also be achieved for the visual arts through
the golden series." At the end of this book, Beothy concludes that
the best sequence of numbers that can represent the golden series is
the additive sequence:
8
16
. . . 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 2 1, 34, 55, 9, 144, . . .
14. Whose actual name was Gaston Duchamp, French painter and graphic artist.
15. Uwe Ruth, Etienne Beothy, and Helga MullerHofstede, Etienne Beothy: Ein
Klassiker der BildhauereiRetrospektive (Sculpture Museum, Marl, Germany,
Exhibition 1979, ed. Dr. Uwe Ruth).
16. Etienne Beothy, La Serie d'Or (Paris: Edition Chanth, 1939).
248 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI N UMBERS
Figure 718
(Used wilh permission of Uwe RUth.)
Beothy's wood sculpture, Essor 11 (op. 77), composed in 1936
(Sculpture Museum, Marl, Germany), appears to grow from a nar
row footing and twists upward (see figure 718). It appears as if it
were a flame. Yet behind this sculpture lie exact plans based on the
Fibonacci numbers. It is out of this mathematical basis that the
sculptor derived a work of great beauty.
Through the minimalist art movement in the 1960s the use of
the Fibonacci numbers became fashionable. Some works by Timm
Ulrichs (b. 1940) rely entirely on the golden section. For a
sculpture (figure 719), he cut bread and vegetables in the propor
tion of this number, ¢. He also sliced up a book with the title The
Golden Section by Otto Hagenmaier
17
into the golden section!
17. Der Goldene Schnitt: Ein Harmoniegeselz und seine Anwendung, 2nd ed.
(Grafe ling, Germany: Moos & Partner, 1958).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 249
Figure 719
Timm Ulrichs, Der goldene Schnitt (Application example),
1969.
(Photo by Timm Ulrichs. Used with permission.)
In 1969 Ulrich wrote "I took several food productsbread,
sausage, and pickles that one usually divides with a knife and
deliberately partitioned them into the golden section, and then em
blazoned it in gold."
Jo Niemeyer (b. 1946), a German graphic artist and architect,
created works according to plans that were based on the golden sec
tion. He even called his works Geometric Compositions. Niemeyer
is still moving onin the true sense of the word! His work, 20 Steps
around the Globe
ls
was a breathtaking "countryart" project that he
completed in 1997. Once again, the golden section is the key ele
ment of the project. It involved the installation of twenty highgrade
18. Ulrich Grevsmiihl, 20 Punkte 20 Steps. Ein LandArt Projekt von Jo
Niemeyer. See 20 Steps around the Globe. http://www.jo.niemeyer.com.
250 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
steel columns once around the earth. The columns were placed at
carefully calculated points along a great circle. 19 These twenty
points were determined by dividing the great circle around the earth,
whose circumference was given as 40,023 km. Yet the golden ratio
played a crucial role in determining the position of the points .
• • • • •
1 2 3 4 5
Figure 720
The distance from point 1 to point 2 was determined to be
.458 m (see figure 720).
Then the distance of point 2 to point 3 was determined by
l/J .. 458 m = .741 m. Point 3 is then 1.198 m from point 1.
The distance from point 3 to point 4 was determined by
l/J. 1.198 m = 1.939 m. That means that point 4 is 3.137 m from
point 1.
The distance from point 4 to point 5 is obtained by l/J . 3.137 m
= 5.077 m. Then point 5 is 8.214m from point 1.
By continuing in this way, he found that point 20 would
coincide with point 1 (with all points along a great circle).
The specific positions of the columns were more exactly car
ried out with the help of the golden angle 20 (see figure 721).
The first column was placed in Lapland (Finland). This is near
the Swedish border and north of the polar circle. The eighth col
umn can be seen on the photo of the starting point (figure 722).
The complete route (figure 721) is described with all necessary
data in the project 20 Steps around the Globe
21
at the Web site
http://www.jo.niemeyer.com. Jo Niemeyer believes that only the
proportions are essential for the perception and understanding of this
feat, and says, "There are no measuresonly the proportions exist."
19. The great circle of a sphere is the largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere
and has its center at the center of the sphere.
20. The golden angle (see p. 148) = 137.507 764050 ... 0.
21. The geodesic draft was carried out under the scientific advice of Dr. Ulrich
Grevsmilhl (Hinterzarten); the computer program was by Jorg Pfeiffer. See 20
Steps around the Globe, http://www.jo.niemeyer.com.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 251
Positions
112 Ropinsalmi Lapland Finland
018 km
13 Kautokeino District Norway
47 km
14 Anarjokka Norway
124 km
15 Pitkajarvi/Nickel Russia
325 km
16 The Barents Sea Int. Water
851 km
17 Noryj Urengoj Siberia Russia
2,229 km
18 Baotou [nner/Mongolia China
5,837 km
19 Westernport Bay Australia
[5,282 km
20 = 1 Ropinsalmi Lapland Finland
Figure 721
,.
. .....
•
I •
•
.. 
)
•
D
252 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 722
The starting point: RopinsalmiILaplandiFinland,
Position 68°40'06"N 21°36'21"E.
(Reprinted with permission of Jo Niemeyer.)
The Italian artist Mario Merz (19252003) set up a monument
to the Fibonacci numbers in several works of art. He is the doyen
of the arte povera (the poor art), which distinguishes itself by the
meager materials and simple gestures it employs. It is the Euro
pean answer to the American minimalist art. For him the Fibonacci
numbers were a guiding light as well as an inspiration.
His works Fibonacci Napoli (1971) and Animali da 1 a 55
(I 997 2000) are his best known. Yet, as an example of his work in
a blackandwhite format, his drawing Ivy may more graphically
illustrate his respect for the simple elegance of the Fibonacci num
bers (see figure 723).
)
Figure 723
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 253
By reaching out to the Fibonacci numbers, Merz relegates to
nature a reason for its power. "The Fibonacci numbers are in a
rapid expansion ... . The numbers have the power, to ease walls."
This is how Mario Merz describes the peculiarity and effect of this
historical design system.
22

Figure 724
(Reprinted with permission of Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg.)
On eight marble plates, Merz assembled his sculpture Igloo
Fibonacci (1970) with the help of brass pipes and steel hinges; on
this he mounted adhesive pieces of tape with (white) numbers. The
eight arms of the igloo are connected to each other with joints at the
distances that reflect the Fibonacci proportions (see figure 724.)
Obviously Merz was quite fascinated with the Fibonacci num
bers, as is further evidenced by his having decorated the great hall
in the Zurich, Switzerland, central railway station with the Fibo
nacci numbers. He also used the Fibonacci numbers to decorate
smokestacks: the 52 m smokestack at the Center for International
Light Art in Unna, Germany, in 2001 (figure 725), and a smoke
stack in Turku, Finland, in 1994 (figure 726).
22. Mario Merz, Die FibonacciZahlen und die Kunst, in Mario Merz's
Exhibition catalogue of the FolkwangMuseum, Essen, Germany, 1979, p. 75.
254 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 725 Figure 726
The Austrian artist Hellmut Bruch (b. 1936) was also greatly
influenced by the Fibonacci numbers as evidenced by his many
designs that clearly reflect the Fibonacci numbers in the relative
lengths of their components (see figures 727, 728, and 729.) It is
said that these lengths enabled him to create the most astounding
shapes of tangible and evident harmony.
The columns, made of stainless steel, exhibit through their
lengths a portion of the Fibonacci sequence (89 cm, 144 cm, 233
cm, 377 cm, 610 cm). The name Hommage it Fibonacci is an
eloquent testimoniaL
Employing the Fibonacci sequence in nearly all of his work,
Bruch has said that through these numbers he tries to show the
fullness of forms and the variety of nature and tries to understand
them. Bruch is not only interested in demonstrating the Fibonacci
series but, more important, in seeing what these numbers can do to
enhance his artistic possibilities.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 255
Figure 727 Figure 728 Figure 729
(Reprinted with permission of Hellmut Bruch.)
The German sculptor Claus Bury (b. 1946) heralds the theme
of his sculpture merely with its name: Fibonacci's Temple. The
structure, built in 1984 and located in Cologne, Germany, is made
of raw spruce wood and is 15 m long, is 6.3 m wide, and 5.70 m
high at the center (figure 730) .
. ,
::t ~ "\
Figure 730
(Reprinted with permission of Claus Bury.)
256 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The preparation for this structure reveals that Bury was already
fascinated with the Fibonacci numbers and in particular with the
theoretical writings of Le Corbusier in Modular (see pages
24142). An inspection of Bury' s plans demonstrates that he
clearly constructed this work according to the Fibonacci numbers
(see figures 731 and 732).
•
•
L
1
•
T
•
[.
.  ...
 
... .. ...
, .. .
. . .. ... ..
Figure 731
(Reprinted with permission of Claus Bury.)
• • •
0<>
.. Ii
•
:
"
.. 3'2' 00
2'
.,
S
.2 3
•
e
'"
Z
•
5 32 J >
•
z 00
•
• •
•
• 1 .!
,
•
•
5
_'"
Figure 732
(Reprinted with permission of Claus Bury.)
The Fibonacci numbers clearly have inspired modem artists in
their sculptures. Yet we still remain uncertain about the conscious
influence that these fabulous numbers have had on the ancient art
ists. Were they aware of these numbers or of the golden ratio, or
did they do these works intuitively and they just happened to fit the
golden ratio? This leads us to look for further answers in the two
dimensional medium of painting.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 257
Fibonacci Numbers and Paintings
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519i
3
illustrated the book De divina
proportione
24
by the Franciscan monk Fra Luca Pacioli (ca.
1445 1517) with an anatomical srudy of the "Vitruvian" man. This
drawing supported Pacioli's discussion of the Roman architect Vi
truvius (ca. 84 BCE 27 BCE)25 whose documents about architec
rure suggest that he believed the proportions of the human body are
a basis for architecture. The ratio of the square side to the circle
radius in this wellknown picture (figure 733) corresponds to the
golden section with a deviation of 1.7 percent .
..
•
. . .
,
•
Figure 733
23. Famous Italian painter, sculptor, architect. natural scientist, and engineer.
24. Luca Pacioli, De divina proportione (Venezia, 1509; reprinted in Milan in
1896, Gardner Pelican, 1961).
25. Actually Vitruvius Pollio, Roman armed forces technician and engineer. He
published ten books about architecture and civil engineering and developed a
theory of proportions.
258 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The respected German painter and graphic artist Albrecht
Durer (1471  1528) also relied heavily on Vitruvius's work when
he wrote his Four Books on Human Proportions in 1523. Here he
refines the earlier works and expresses them as a system of pro
portions, where the unit of measure is the human body with the
parts expressed as fractions thereof.
In Durer's books on geometry, fortress building, and human
proportions, he supported all of his ideas with theoretical (mathe
matical) arguments, as opposed to aesthetic ones. As a matter of
fact, his works in descriptive geometry influenced some of the
greatest thinkers of the Renaissance Johannes Kepler (1571
1630) and Galileo Galilei (1564 1642) among them.
In his famous selfportrait (ca. 1500), Durer drew himself with
a head of wavy hair, the outlines of which create an equilateral tri
angle. This can be seen in figure 734, where Durer actually su
perimposes the triangle and several other guidelines over the self
portrait. The base of the equilateral triangle divides a height of the
entire picture into the golden ratio. The chin also divides the height
of the entire picture into the golden ratio (in the other direction).
Figure 734
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 259
It remains unclear why Durer never connected the golden sec
tion to his drawing of the regular pentagon,26 since at age twenty
nine he had constructed the golden section in his selfportrait.
Another classic work of art is Sandro Botticelli's painting The
Birth of Venus (1477). Sir Theodore A. Cook (1867 1928) ana
lyzed it with the aid of the golden section. He superimposed a
number scale on the figure of Venus, which had the first seven
powers of ¢ (see figure 735).
As earlier, in our review of architectual and scultpural applica
tions of the Fibonacci numbers, we are faced here with a similar
problem to determine whether conscious use was made of the
golden section or the Fibonacci numbers. Many scholars collected
information in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to search for
applications of the golden section. These applications need to be
critically and sensitively inspected. Oftentimes, we stumble on
fractions that approach the golden section and immediately assume
that the golden section was intended. We must be careful not to
draw conclusions where they aren't necessarily warranted.
Figure 735
26. See page 155ff for a discussion of DOrer' s construction of the "regular pen
tagon," one that looks regular but is just slightly inaccurate.
260 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Let us analyze a few samples where the golden section appears,
though you could unearth countless examples from the past several
centuries in which you could find similar "sightings." We will be
gin with, perhaps, the most famous painting in Western civiliza
tion, Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa (figure 736), which was
painted between 1503 and 1506 and is on exhibit in the Louvre
museum in Paris. King Frant;ois I of France paid 15.3 kilograms of
gold for this painting. Let's look at this masterpiece from the point
of view of the golden ratio. First, one can draw a rectangle around
Mona Lisa's face and find that this rectangle is a golden rectangle.
In figure 737, you will notice several triangles; the two largest
ones are golden triangles. Furthermore, in Figure 738, you will
observe specific points on the body of Mona Lisa as golden sec
tions. Since da Vinci illustrated Pacioli's book Da divina propor
tione, which thoroughly discussed the golden section, it can be as
sumed that he was consciously guided by this magnificent ratio.
Figure 736 Figure 737 Figure 738
Another great painter Raphael (1483 1520) also exhibits the
golden section in his Sistine Madonna (1513). The horizontal line in
dicated in figure 739, which emanates from the eyes of Pope Sixtus II
and the head of Saint Barbara, divides the height of the picture into the
golden section and also partitions the figure of the Madonna into two
equal parts. In figure 740, you will notice that the lines emanating
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 261
from very selected points in the figure aid in detennining the golden
ratio from another point of view; here, too, the Madonna's figure is
divided by the golden section. You will also observe that the isosceles
triangle, the ratio of whose base and altitudes closely approximates the
golden ration, superimposed on the picture in figure 740 exactly en
cases the four heads. Whether Raphael consciously selected these di
mensions with the golden section in mind, or whether these were
merely the product of an artistic eye, remains the master' s secret.
Figure 739 Figure 740
In figure 741 a regular pentagram has been superimposed over
Raphael's Madonna Alba (15111513). This geometric fonn is
clearly visible along appropriate linear parts. This once again dem
onstrates Raphael's penchant for the golden sectionwhich we
already know is embedded in the regular pentagram.
262 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 741
(National Gallery, Washington. DC.)
Let's jump a few hundred years ahead to the French painter
Georges Seurat (J 8591891), who was known for having a strict
geometric structure to his works. Although he used colors to a dra
matic extent, Seurat wanted to highlight his use of geometric space
as the main attraction, which thereby helped set the groundwork for
modem art.
Figure 742
THE FIBONACCI N UMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 263
The painting Circus Parade (1888, New York, Metropolitan
Museum of Art) by Seurat (figure 742) is replete with evidence of
the golden section. Some observers see the golden section produced
by the horizontal line at the top edge of the banister, and in the verti
cal direction by the line that is just to the right of the main figure.
Others find that a golden rectangle is formed by these two lines and
the horizontal line just below the nine lights at the top of the picture.
There is also speculation that the golden spiral is embedded in this
picture.
27
The 8 x 3 unit rectangle (at the upperleft side) gives fur
ther evidence to the possibility that the artist was aware of the rela
tionship of the Fibonacci numbers to the golden section. In Seurat's
Bathers at Asnieres (1883, Tate Gallery, London), the golden ratio
can be seen as well as several golden rectangles (figure 743).
Figure 743
Jo Niemeyer (b. 1946), the German graphic artist and architect
mentioned earlier, created works according to plans that were
based on the golden section. He even calls his works Geometric
Compositions. In figure 744 you will see that his work titled Uts
joki displays several golden sections.
27. H. Walser. Der Goldene Schnitt (Leipzig: EAG.LE. 2004). p. 135.
264 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
I
•
Figure 744
(Used with permission of Jo Niemeyer.)
For the painting Variation VI, 1987 (figure 745), we have
clear evidence that Niemeyer does not intuitively create his works,
but rather he sketches them from a mathematical basis. Notice that
he even marked the right side of the sketch (figure 745) with the
golden ratio (.61803), should our visual assessment of his sketch
not suffice.
Figure 745 Figure 746
(Used with permission of Jo Niemeyer.)
Niemeyer does not restrict himself to only twodimensional art;
he also works in the third dimension. Again with the sketch of his
Modulon (figure 747) we are given clear evidence of the mathe
matical underpinnings of his work. Modulon is an art object (a
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 265
cube) divided into sixteen building blocks according to the golden
ratio (see figure 748).
The possible variations that can be achieved by placing, order
ing, grouping, and filling spaces are practically unlimited. The col
oring is restricted, however, to the primary colors: blue, red, and
yellow, as well as black and white. The Modulon has been in the
collection of the Museum of Modem Art in New York since 1984.
8
".
,JO
.. " _ ..
,
Figure 747
E A
Major Minor
v
" , ,
\
./
.",
/'
. \
.r .r \'
...
",.
..r
./ "
..
........
Figure 748
c
1 AS
2
I=1F : FR
EB : J:lB
266 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The Icelandic artist Hreinn Fridfinnsson (b. 1943) clearly based
his art on the golden rectangle and the golden spiral. His work called
Untitled (\988, Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz) can be seen in
figure 749. This is art based on the golden ratio throughout.
Figure 749
(Used with permission of Hreinn Fridfinnsson.)
Another example of an artist's conscious effort to use the
Fibonacci numbers as the basic structure of her work is that of the
German artist Rune Mields (b. 1935). In her Evolution: Progres
sion and Symmetry 111 and IV (figure 750), she exhibits her
graphics as representing the Fibonacci numbers. The artist stresses
in the accompanying text of the catalog that "[i]n an ascending
line, a progression of triangles is generated, with the help of the
famous mathematical series of the Leonardo Pisano, called
Fibonacci, (0, I, I, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 ... ), who developed it at the
beginning of 13th century. It was an assumption that the arising
form should be respectively subject to the laws of the symmetry.,,28
28. Catalog on the occasion of the exhibitions: Rune Mields SANCTA
RA no, ed. Kunstverein Lingen Kunsthalle [April 3 May 29, 2005,
Kunstverein Lingen, Germany, Kunsthalle, Lingen (Ems, Germany); August
I7 Novem: Buxus Verlag, 2005), p. 45.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 267
Figure 750
'" ..
(Used wilh permission of Rune Mields.)
There is some evidence that the golden section has been em
bedded in the composition of the following works of art. Whether
it was intentional or intuitive is for you to decide. Many of these
works can be found in books, on the Internet, or for the world trav
eler: in person!
• The relief Dionysius' Procession (Villa Albani, Rome)
• The fresco St. Francis Preaching to the Birds by Giotto
(1266 1337)29  (Basilica San Francesco, Assisi, Italy)
• The fresco Trinity by Masaccio (l4011429)3o{Santa
Maria Novella, Florence, Italy)
29. Actually Giallo di Bondone, Italian painter and master builder.
30. Actually Tammaso di Giovanni di Simone Gujdi , Italian painter who is re
garded as a founder of Renaissance painting. The Trinity fresco advanced the art
of mural painting and the development of the altar because of the central per
spective.
268 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
• The Deposition from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden
(ca. 14001464)31 (altar piece, Prado, Madrid, Spain)
• The Baptism of Christ by Piero della Francesca
(1415/14201492)32(London, National Gallery)
• Madonna and Child by Pietro Perugino (ca. 14551523)33
(Vatican Museum, Rome)
• The painting The Girl with the Ermine by Leonardo da
Vinci (National Museum, Krakow, Poland)
• The wall painting The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci
(Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy)
• The round painting of Madonna Doni by Michelangelo
(14751564)34 (Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy)
• The painting Crucifixion (with the Virgin Mary, Saint
Jerome, Mary Magdalene, and John the Baptist) by Raphael
(National Gallery, London, England)
• The panels Adam and Eve by Albrecht Durer (Prado Mu
seum, Madrid, Spain)
• The painting The School of Athens by Raphael (Vatican
Museum, Rome)
• The fresco The Triumph of Galatea by Raphael (Villa Far
nesina, Rome, Italy)
• The copper engraving Adam and Eve by Marcantonio Rai
mondi
35
• The painting A Selfportrait by Rembrandt Harmensz van
Rijn (16061669)(N ational Gallery, London, England)
• Gelmeroda by Lyonel Feininger (18711956)( Gelmer
oda VIII, Whitney Museum, New York; and Gelmeroda
XII, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
• Half a Giant Cup Suspended with an Inexplicable Append
age Five Meters Long by Salvador Dali (19041989)
31. Also called Roger de Le Pasture, Flemish painter.
32. Actually Pietro di Benedetto dei Franceschi, also Pietro Borgliese, Italian
painter.
33. Actually Pietro Vannucci.
34. Actually Michelangelo Buonarroti; Michelangelo was, however, sculptor,
painter, architect, and poet. In 1508 Michelangelo also designed the uniforms of
the Swiss Guard for the Vatican.
35. Italian copperplate engraver (ca. 1480ca. 1534).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 269
The following is a partial list of artists who are often men
tioned in connection with the golden section:
• Paul Signac (18631935)
• Paul Serusier (18641927)
• Piet Mondrian (18721944)36
• Juan Gris (18871927)37
• Otto Pankok (18931966)38
Paul Serusier not only knew about the golden section, but he
also indicated it in his sketches. In contrast, Gris, Mondrian, and
Pankok have flatly denied using it.
Many admirers of l/J and Fibonacci would be disappointed to
learn that the careful examination by the art historian Marguerite
Neveux at the end of the twentieth century removed many pictures
from the "golden section list." She analyzed xray pictures ofvari
ous canvases and came to the conclusion that most of the artists
divided their canvases into eighths before starting their work.
There are many ways to use these fractional partitions; yet more
often than not, ~ is selected. So if this art historian eliminated
8
some art from the "golden section list," we can still claim them to
the "almost golden section" since they used two Fibonacci num
bers that can generate a rough approximation of the golden section.
It is truly fascinating how this "magical" golden ratio has in
spired artists over the centuriessometimes deliberately and at
other times intuitively. Whether the use of the golden section was
conscious or not, no one can deny its prevalence in many of the
great masterpieces of the Western world.
36. Painting I and Composition with Colored Areas and Gray Lines 1 (1918),
for example, are often quoted, as well as Composition with Gray and Light
Brown (1918; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas) and Composition with Red
Yellow Blue (1928).
37. Actually Jose Victoriano Gonzalez Perez, Spanish painter and graphic artist.
38. German painter, graphic artist, and wood engraver.
Chapter 8
The Fibonacci Numbers and
Musical Form
Fibonacci Data on the Internet
sequence and lIs relationship to musIc?] Some of the Web sites one
encounters are most fascinating. but what you generally find is often
confusing or msipu,l. Unfortunately, most of the inronnation that
shows up on your screen is not meaningful or even accurate. This
may be the result of some wellIntentioned authors who were writ
ing for elementary school kids and tried to spoonfeed them some
thlllg about F1bonacci and music that IS easily digestible. Well, thIS
stuff now shows up all over the place, and It docs not tell you any
thmg generally sigmficant aboul the relationship. While 11 IS true
that the violin IS a beaullful example oflhe application of the golden
to eighteentheenrury italian Instrument making, the discus
271
272 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
sions about eightnote scales are completely erroneous. The diatonic
scales we all know and love have seven notes, not eight, because
number 8 is a repeat of number 1 and continues the scalar motion
into the next octave. The fact that the black notes on the piano are
divided into twos and threes has nothing to do with the Fibonacci
sequence, since it is impossible to tell which one comes first, two or
three, because they relate to nothing except the white notes that
separate them. A true Fibonacci keyboard would have 2, 3, 5, and 8
black notes in every octave. Now that would be something!
It is also misleading to suggest that certain pleasing frequency ra
tios, such as 5:3 (a major sixth) and 8:5 (a minor sixth), are related to
anything like the Fibonacci sequence because they are only a few
among a multitude of ratios that contribute to the rich intervallic (har
monic) essence of the music we know and love. What about the major
third (5:4) and minor third (6:5) that are the triadic foundation of all
the popular music you have stored in your iPod? And last, if you listen
to the pieces that are generated by Fibonacci applications to pitch
and/or rhythm, you get to hear music that is perhaps interesting on first
hearing, but not worth a second play. So let us talk about Fibonacci
applications that really matter.
The golden section has been successfully employed by composers
mainly in two areas of the compositional process. The first relates to
the location of the climax and the second relates to form. Let us talk
about the climax first because that is an easier concept with which to
deal, especially if you were not forced to take piano lessons.
The Chopin Preludes
One of the great collections of nineteenthcentury piano pieces is the
Preludes by Frederic Chopin (18101849). His book contains twenty
four of the most extraordinary musical miniatures, each one a world
unto itself The fust of these is based on an interesting game that Cho
pin is playing with himself In figure 81 we see the essential melodic
activity of the right hand, which is simplified for purposes of illustra
tion. Each measure (except the final six) contains two notes, a step
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 273
apart, one of which harmonizes with the left hand accompaniment (the
whole note) and one that does not (the black note). This piece, which
lasts only about a half a minute, is constructed of two dramatic arches
of differing sizes. The melody begins on the notes GA and rises to the
ED in measure 5, where it remains for three measures and then de
scends back to the GA in measure 9. From here the melody rises even
farther and climaxes on the DC in measure 21. It then begins its de
scent to the GA in measure 25 at which point it leaps twice to ED
before coming to rest on five Cs with AG pairs below them. The
wonderful climax of this miniature masterpiece comes exactly in
measure 21 at the golden section of its 34 measures. (Remember these
numbers? Yes, they are true members ofthe Fibonacci sequence! Also
recall that 34· .618", 21.)
The same accurate placement of the climax at the golden section
occurs in Prelude No. 9 in E major. This piece is twelve measures
long and contains fortyeight beats. The climax occurs exactly on beat
29 ( 48· .618 '" 29) at the beginning of the eighth measure. Sometimes
it happens and sometimes it doesn't. In any case, the exact location of
the climax does not always have to conform to a prescribed mathe
matical formula. Still, in a large number of cases it occurs in close
proximity to the golden mean. Most of the Preludes are not in a golden
proportion, and they work perfectly well in their lessthanperfect con
dition. Apparently, Chopin found that it was not necessary to use l/J to
guarantee musical success.
f .. 
I
.. 
I
.. 
I

"I .. I "I "I"
 I .. 
10
f
= •
d • d • <>
I ..  I " 1
ft
 .. 1" I .. I  " I  .. I •
$ g.
t
.,
28
, 
.. 1" .. 1" .. 1" .. 1" .. 1" I ..
Figure 81
Chopin: Prelude No.1 in C major.
274 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 82 is the graphic equivalent of figure 81 and shows the
placement of the golden climax in the sequence of pitches. It was de
signed for those of you who are not familiar with musical notation.
•••
• •
•
••• •••
•
•
• •
• •
•
TIME
Figure 82
21
•
•
•
•
• ••
• ••••••
Chopin: Prelude No.1 in C major.
Binary Form
34
•
Now let us talk about musical form. This may prove to be more
taxing, but rest assured, it will be worth it.
Music whose structure contains two parts is said to be in binary
form. There are two kinds of binary form: equal binary form is di
visible into two parts of relatively equal size, while unequal binary
form is divided into two parts of which the second is significantly
larger than the first. For a very long time composers have been per
fectly happy with the results of using equal binary formboth
halves seem to balance each other very nicely. When they use une
qual binary form, which may be equally successful, the question
arises as to the relative proportions of both parts, and this is where
the golden section enters the equation.
We often think of great composers as highly inspired creative
types who sit alone in garrets by candle light drawing their inspi
ration from a distant muse. We imagine their creations to be the
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 275
result of some reverie when, in fact, most of what they do tends to
be quite rational and deliberate. While it is true that there are mo
ments in the creative process when they listen to an inner voice
that tells them to do something out of the ordinary, most of the
time they are drawing upon years of training and experience that
has fostered a technical craft that allows them to make music that
"works." By "works" we mean that it conforms to a general game
plan that is selflimiting and keeps the piece from becoming a
hodgepodge of this, that, and the other thing. The difficult job of
the composer is to control the elements of the piece so that it
maintains an integral logic but still sounds like it was just made up
on the spur of the moment. Most important, the music must present
a smooth, continuous narrative that entertains its audience. With
very few exceptions, most composers are very bright people who
have worked hard to hone their skills and refine their craft. When
they put pen to paper (or make music by moving a mouse), they
are making very deliberate choices about the sequence of sounds
and silences that tells their musical tale. Quite often, the process of
composition takes on gamelike qualities. Some of the rules of this
game are derived from its style and some are unique to this specific
piece. Composers are not only tunesmiths and harmonists; they are
often game players.
The Mozart Piano Sonatas
One of the interesting games that have been played by a number
of famous composers relates to the use of the golden section in
determining the form of a piece. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(17561791), who loved numbers and all kinds of games, was
especially fond of this application. Apparently, when he sat down
to write his piano sonatas, he always had the same plan in
mindto try to use the proportions of the golden section to create
formal elegance and balance. In Mozart's time, the solo keyboard
sonata was comprised of three movements, or separate pieces.
The first was spirited and energetic; the second was slow and
276 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
lyrical; and the third was the fastest of all and brought the sonata
to an exciting conclusion.
Before we go any further, be warned that music theory can be a
fascinating line of study for those who wish to spend a lifetime in
pursuit of truth and beauty, since both can be tantalizingly elusive
when it comes to understanding the likes of Mozart. Even the most
adept theorists never feel completely satisfied when trying to dis
cover and report on the internal workings of creations like Mozart
sonatas. We aim for complete understanding and always settle for
something less. Music theory is as complicated as physics and
mathematics, but it also has the aesthetic element that seems to take
it into the realm of the mystical or magical. Quite often, Mozart
seems more the magician than the musician. Such is the case when
we study the form of the first movements of his piano sonatas.
One of the most significant contributions to the music of the
late eighteenth century was the development of what we call the
sonataallegro form. This name is derived from the fact that it was
used almost exclusively in the first movements of all major instru
mental forms, all of which may be considered a type of sonata.
2
A
symphony is essentially a sonata for an orchestra while a string
quartet is a sonata for two violins, a viola, and a cello, and a con
certo is a sonata for a soloist and an orchestra. As used in the so
natas, it is a form that has two basic parts, each of which is re
peated. The first part is the exposition where the musical materials
of the piece are presented. The section is repeated so you can hear
all that stuff over again since you probably did not catch it all the
first time because it went by so fast. When the repeat is accom
plished, we move to the second part that contains the development
and the recapitulation. The development does what it saysit is
where the materials of the exposition are distorted, chopped up,
and tossed about. It is often quite tumultuous and exciting. It is
here that the increasing level of tension brings us to the climax of
the piece. As the tempest subsides, we return to the beginning of
2. A composition for one or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a
keyboard instrument, usually consisting of three or four independent movements
varying in key, mood, and tempo.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 277
the piece. That is what recapitulation meansa return to the head.
This is where a lot of the sleight of hand takes place, because if we
are not paying close attention, we think we are hearing a repeat of
the exposition, but we are not. Much has been changed, but it is
often quite subtle and goes unnoticed.
Now you have learned more about sonataallegro form than
you wanted to know, but a little extra knowledge won't hurt you.
And the next time you hear a symphony or a sonata you will have
some idea of how the first movement is put together. As we have
seen, the first movement is in binary form (two parts) although the
parts are not of equal size. That is the significant factor. The ques
tion for Mozart and his contemporaries was how to get these two
parts in balance even though they are not the same size. Enter the
Fibonacci sequence and the golden mean whose proportions of
.6180339 provide a possible solution. 3
.3819661
It should be pointed out that in the baroque period (16001750)
a great deal of music, especially dance forms, was in equal binary
formboth halves were approximately the same size, contained
similar music, and were usually repeated. Along come the com
posers of the classical period (17501825), and they expanded this
form into what we now know as the sonataallegro form. This is
what we call a rounded binary form because it features a return of
the opening section in the latter part of the second. It looks some
thing like this: II: A :11: AI A :11
Mozart wrote eighteen piano sonatas and all but one employ
sonataallegro form in the first movement (the remaining one uses
theme and variations form). As may be seen in figure 83, of the
seventeen, six (35 percent) are exactly divisible by the golden sec
tion and are identified as such in the Measures column by the word
"golden." Eight (47 percent) are very close and are identified in the
Measures column by numbers ranging from 3 to +4. These quan
tities represent the displacement of the golden section. And three
3. This fraction is built by the quotient * ~ 0.618033988 ... and ~ : ~ 1 6 , ~ ~ ~
0.3819661865 ....
278 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
(18 percent) are really not close enough for serious consideration
because the expositions are six, eight, and twelve measures too
long. Statistically, that certainly leaves one with the impression
that the use of the golden section was important to Mozart.
Mozart Sonata
No. I. K. 279
No.2. K. 280
No.3. K. 281
No.4. K. 282
No.5, K. 283
No.6, K. 284
NO.7. K. 309
No.8, K. 310
No.9. K. 311
No. 10. K. 330
No. II, K. 331
No. 12, K. 332
No. 13. K.333
No. 14. K.457
No. 15. K.S45
No. 16. K.S70
No. 17, K. 576
No. 18. K. 533
Key Length Exposition
C major 100 38
Fmajor 144 56
Bb major 109 40
Eb major 36 15
G major 120 53
o major 127 51
C major IS6 59
A minor J3J 49
o major 112 39
C major 149 57
A major 135 55
F major 229 93
Bb major 170 63
Cminor 185 74
C major 73 28
Bb major 209 79
o major 160 S8
F major 240 103
Figure 83
Mozart Piano Sonatas.
Proportion
0.38
0.389
0.367
0.417
0.442
OA02
0.378
0.368
0.348
0.383
Theme & Var.
0.406
0.371
0.4
0.384
0.378
0.363
0.429
Accuracy
golden
golden
·2
I
golden
·1
·3
golden
·1
4
golden
golden
·2
12
Of the six that are right on the money, there is one, Sonata No.
(K.279), that is exactly 100 measures in length and the exposi
tion ends in measure 38. It just does not get more obvious than
that, and because it is the first, it serves as a kind of declaration of
purpose. Here is what it looks like:
Exposition : I I: Development Recapitulatiori : I I
38 MEASURES 62 MEASURES
Figure 84
Those of you who know something about the music of the late
eighteenth century might be asking yourself whether Franz Joseph
Haydn (17321809) was just as keen to use the golden section in
his piano sonatas. After all, he is the other giant of the classical
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 279
period and it would be interesting to see his approach to sonata
allegro form. As it turns out, his adherence to cP did not match Mo
zart's. In analyzing an equal number of randomly chosen piano
sonatas, we find that only 18 percent ( ~ ) of his sonataallegro
forms are golden, while 53 percent ( ~ ) are close, and 29 percent
(;) are out of consideration. Make of it what you will.
Haydn Sonata Key Length Exposition Proportion Accuracy
No. 14. 1767 E major 84 30 0.357 2
No. 15. 1767 o major 110 36 0.327 6
No. 16. 1767 Bb major 116 38 0.327 6
No. 17. 1767 o major 103 42 0.408
No. 19, 1773 C major 150 57 0.38 golden
No. 21. 1773 Fmajor 127 46 0.362 3
No. 25, 1776 (J major 143 57 0399
No. 26, 1776 Eb major 141 52 0.369 2
No. 27,1776 Fmajor 90 31 0.344 4
No. 31.1778 o major 195 69 0.353 6
;\10.32, 1778 I: minor 127 45 0.354 4
No. 33, 1780 Cmajor 172 68 0.395
No. 34, 1780 C# minor 100 33 0.33 5
~ o . 35, 1780 Dmajor 103 40 0.388 golden
No. 42. 1786 G minor 77 30 0.39 golden
'No. 43, 1786 Abmajor 112 38 0.339 5
No. 49. )793 Eb major 116 43 0.371 I
Figure 85
Haydn Piano Sonatas.
So, are the Mozart movements better than those of Haydn? Can
a statistical analysis help us arrive at a reasonable conclusion? The
proportions of the average Mozart movement are .389 as compared
.611
to Haydn's .364. However, Mozart's placement of the double bar
.636
relative to cp ranged from 3 to +12, while Haydn's only ranged
from 6 to +2. Perhaps there are other ways of using the data to
help us. But it is also possible that numbers may have nothing to
do with the quality of the music. Here is a suggestion: listen to all
of the thirtyfour movements under consideration in pairsone
Mozart followed by one Haydnand see how it goes. Even though
280 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
you may be as confused at the end of the test as you were at the
beginning, at least you will have heard a lot ofterrific music.
Beethoven's Fifth Symphony
The opening five measures of the first movement of this symphony
forms probably the most universally recognized musical statement
in classical music. Few of the millions who adore this piece realize
how extraordinary and revolutionary it is in the history of Western
classical music. There are so many aspects to this work that are
worthy of discussion that countless authors have written tomes
about it. Since this is a book about the Fibonacci sequence, let us try
to contain our enthusiasm and stick to the topic (it may not be easy).
Exposition
125/
249
182/
:J06
: II Developmenl
IVlsas!lemhl)
248/ '268/
372 392
Recapitulation
I Oboe caden7.a
Figure 86
374/
498
Coda
Beethoven, Symphony No. 5,jirst movement.
47f1/
602
Codetta
em/
626
Before you get dazzled by the data, you need to understand
how the form of this movement differs from those in the sonatas
and symphonies of Mozart and Haydn. Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770\827) was born into the generation of musicians that fol
lowed these two pillars of AustroHungarian musical culture and
proved to be the most revolutionary and influential composer of
the Romantic period. Surprisingly, the exposition, development,
and recapitulation in this astounding work are all essentially the
same size, thus preventing a golden section of these three sections.
Instead of bringing the first movement to a conclusion, the reca
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 281
pitulation rushes headlong into a coda
4
that turns out to be another
development sectionsomething his predecessors never contem
plated. Compounding that is the addition of a codetta (little tail
section) to the coda which, when taken together, add a significant
and unprecedented fifth section. This tail is big enough to wag the
dog! Therefore, we end up with five sections, not four, all of which
are between 124 and 128 measures. This is a new kind of sonata
allegro form.
As may be seen in figure 86, this newly expanded sonata
allegro form contains three golden sections that may have been part
of a deliberate attempt to apply the principle in new ways. First, the
arrival of the recapitulation in measure 372 is the golden section of
the entire piece without the shocking second coda. Without the co
detta, the piece would be 602 measures in length: 602· .618 = 372 .
Right on the mark! The rest of the evidence hits the targetnot ex
actly in the bull's eye, but close enough for music.
The end of the repeat of the exposition (measure 124 . 2 =
measure 248) is almost a golden section of the entire movement
(
248 =.396) . If we remove the two measures of rest at the end of the
626
exposition (measures 12324) the proportion is even closer
(
244 =.389). In a generous mood we could credit Beethoven for that
626
one too.
Two very special compositional events occur at points of critical
proportion. The first occurs in the development, where the fournote
motive begins to break into two notes and then into one. This disas
sembly of the fournote motive, that has remained intact so far, oc
curs at measure 306. This is a golden section of the movement up to
the end of the recapitulation in measure 498 (306=.614). One of the
498
most inspired moments in the entire symphony occurs in the reca
pitulation when, in measure 392, the entire orchestra stops, as it did
in the analogous spot in the exposition, except for the oboe. The lit
4. A coda is a section of music added at the end of a composition, introduced to
bring it to a satisfactory close.
282 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
tle cadenza, which the oboe plays, has no precedent and is dramati
cally shocking and perplexing to those familiar with sonataallegro
form. This astounding solo occurs only six measures from the
golden section of the entire movement (626· .618 = measure 386).
"Close, but no cigar," you say. Well, we will never know if Beetho
ven had intended this special moment to occur at a golden section,
but it is tantalizingly close, and it is possible that, in the heat of
creation, measures were added and subtracted with the final result as
we see it now. The process of continually reediting his music was
Beethoven's usual practice, for he wrestled mightily until his almost
indecipherable scores were finally finished and could be sent to be
fuddled copyists and publishers.
Wagner's Prelude to Tristan und Isolde
When, in the late 1850s, Richard Wagner (18131883) sat down to
write a mythic opera about the delays and disappointments of
tragic love, he had a plan to force a gigantic leap in the art of musi
cal composition. So revolutionary is this work that today theorists
are still arguing about its construction. We will bypass all that ex
traordinary stuff, however, and get to the I/J at the heart of the
prelude that opens this masterpiece.
Wagner, like Mozart, was a composer who liked to play games.
Perhaps the most extraordinary evidence of Wagner's game play
ing is his deliberate use of the golden section to delineate signifi
cant keys in the Tristan prelude. By "key" we mean what scale, or
collection of notes, is being used as the primary material of a piece
of music. C major is a scale that contains the notes C, 0, E, F, G,
A, B, and C. Beginning pianists like this scale because it is com
prised of only white notes, which are easier to play. Anyway, a
piece that is in C major uses the notes of that scale as the building
blocks of its composition. At the beginning of every line of music
there is what we call a key signature. This is a collection of flats or
sharps that composers put there so they do not have to notate the
flats and sharps next to every note. It is, in effect, a form of musi
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 283
cal short hand. For example, if you see a sharp (#) on the F line of
the staff in the key signature, it means that the performer should
play only F sharps (black notes), not F naturals (white notes).
It should be mentioned that European intellectuals in the 1850s
were familiar with the principle of the golden section, since it had
come back into vogue around this time. Wagner certainly knew
about it, but would not have let slip that he was using this princi
ple. He, like so many composers, did not like to tell his audience
how he did his tricks of musical magic. These composers assumed
that trained musicians who were curious would dig into their
scores in order to unearth the hidden secrets. Until recently, most
Wagner theorists did not realize that the golden section applica
tions were at work in this piece. They lay undiscovered for more
than 140 years.
An examination of the score of the prelude reveals something
very strange. The key signature of the piece has no flats or sharps,
indicating that the scale being used is either C major or A minor. In
this case, it is A minor. In measure 43, the key signature changes to
A major (three sharps) even though the key is not A major. In
measure 71 the key signature returns to A minor. What is strange
about this is the fact that the beautiful, but revolutionary, music
you hear is never actually in any keythe tonal orientation moves
frequently from key to key. So the question is, Why would Wagner
go to the trouble of changing key signatures twice in a piece that
really isn't in any key? The extreme fluctuation of keys does not
seem to call for a key signature, and both changes take place in the
middle of phrases. If you chart this phenomenon, it looks like this:
1 42 measures  II  28 measures  II  41 measures I
Figure 87
Look familiar? Have you done the math? The double bar at the
end of measure 70 divides the III measures by a section that is
extremely close to the golden section and the double bar
III
284 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
at the end of measure 42 does the same thing for the first 70 meas
ures ( ~ = . 6 ) . This is only one of the many fascinating ways this
piece is organized in terms of key structure. There are applications
of the golden sections all over the place, as you can see by looking
at the diagram in figure 88.
Figure 88
Wagner: Prelude to Tristan und Isolde.
The harmonic events that take place at each of these points of de
marcation may not mean much to you unless you are a scholar of
Wagner's chromaticism and shifting tonal centers. But rest as
sured, these events are critical to the construction of the piece.
Wagner knew what he was doing. If you are wondering where
Wagner put his climax, it is not at the golden section (measure 68),
but in measure 83, threequarters of the way through the
piecevery late in the game by traditional standards.
The following information is only for musicians, the foolishly
curious, or mathematical sticklers. The golden mean of a piece 111
measures long is calculated to be measure 68.
(obtained by: 111· .618 = 68.6). The question is: Should we expect
Wagner to do something really special at the golden mean? The an
swer is: Sure, why not? While it is true that he placed the double
bars at the end of measure 70, measures 6869 are significant be
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 285
cause they contain the last of the dominants
5
in A minor (E
9
) that
began in measure 63, and this final dominant is preceded by a su
pertonic Bo. This is the only true iiV progression in the tonic kel
(Am) in the entire piece! The strategic importance of measures
6971 is reinforced not only by the return to the opening key signa
ture but also by the shift away from E9 to G
9
, the dominant of C
major, as well as the arrival at the apexthe only consecutive return
of the opening AF dyad
7
in either the melody or the bass line!
Bartok's Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta
When, in 1936, Bela Bartok (18811945) was commissioned by
Paul Sacher (19061999) to write a work for chamber orchestra, he
decided to provide the wealthy conductor with something very
special. What he produced was the Music for Strings, Percussion,
and Celesta, one of the seminal works of the twentieth century. It
is a piece that uses no woodwinds or brass instruments in its en
semble. What we hear is a small string orchestra in combination
with a variety of percussion instruments: side drum, snare drum,
cymbals, tamtam, bass drum, tympani, xylophone, celesta, harp,
and piano. This instrumentation had never been used before, or has
been since. Its sound is totally unique. It is quintessential Bartok.
This masterpiece is comprised of four movements, the first of
which is a fugue. Just in case you forgot what you learned in Music
10 I, a fugue is a contrapuntal (two or more melodies at the same
time), additive musical process that begins with a solo statement of
the fugue subject (melody). When the statement ends (it can be
anywhere from a few notes to a protracted melody), it is imitated
in another voice (or instrument) at a different pitch level (higher or
lower). At this point you hear the fugue subject in the second
voice, accompanied by a countermelody in the continuation of the
5. A dominant is the fifth note ofa scale, or the chord built on that note.
6. A tonic is the first note of a scale.
7. A dyad is any two notes or pitches (consecutively or simultaneously), also
known as an interval, but dyad sounds better when the two pitches in question
are important.
286 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
first voice. Most fugues have three or four voices, and each of
them gets to state the subject in the opening section we call the ex
position. When each of the voices has had a chance to present the
subject, and we have three or four countermelodies all playing to
gether, we move on to the development section. It is here that just
about anything can happen. The subject may be played by one or
more voices in inversion (upside down), backward; it may be
rhythmically altered or chopped into pieces. There may also be a
lot of overlapping of subject statements, something we call stretto.
There is no prescription for what should be done. That is left to the
composer's imagination and invention. It is a form that was quite
popular in the baroque period, and Johann Sebastian Bach
(16851750) was undoubtedly its master. Composers since Bach
have tried their hand at this complicated contrapuntal challenge,
but fugues were relatively rare in the nineteenth and twentieth
centuries, and are so far in the twentyfirst century. It is not an easy
thing to write because it is the musical equivalent of a crossword
puzzle that makes sense both vertically and horizontally at the
same time.
Two centuries after Bach, Bartok provides us with one hum
dinger of a fugue in the first movement of his Music. What he did
was take an old idea and dress it up in new clothes. It is, in effect, a
super fugue for the twentieth century. The most striking update is
the presentation of the fugue subject on all twelve steps of the
chromatic scale (all the black and white notes within one octave)
beginning with A. The arrival on the twelfth pitch (E flat) in meas
ure 56 is also the climax of the piece and is very close to golden in
its proportion ( ~ = 6 3 ) . From this point to the end of the piece, the
statements work their way back through all twelve pitches until the
final statement on A. Figure 89 shows how the subject entrances
are related by pitch. The first statement begins on A and the second
is a fifth higher on E. The third entrance is a fifth lower than A (D)
and is followed by an entrance a fifth high than E (B). The pattern
of fifths continues until measure 56, where we find all the strings
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 287
playing in unison E flats. The scheme works backward from there
until the end:
EI
G#
AI
c#
c#
F#
F#
B
B
E
E
A
56 A
D
D
G
G
C
C
F
F
BI
BI
EI
Figure 89
If you take a good look at the diagram in figure 810, you will
notice that it bears an uncanny resemblance to figure 88. The major
difference is the placement of the climaxes, with Bartok being more
of a traditionalist than was Wagner seventyseven years earlier. This
diagram (figure 810) displays the significant golden section and its
relationship to subject statements or entrances of new instrumental
colors. It is obvious from the pitch scheme and the use of the golden
section that this piece is one enormously complicated game. There
are other games at work in this score, but they require more training
and patience on the part of the reader than may be appropriate here.
But, lest you feel cheated, one or two more delicious morsels
couldn't hurt. The fugue subject is comprised of four little phrases,
each of which rises and falls like a miniature version of the grand
scheme of the piece. When we come to the last phrase of the fugue,
we find the second phrase of the subject played by the first violin,
while the second violin plays its inversion. This simultaneous, mir
rored bow form (AE flatA) looks and sounds like a miniature ver
sion of the diagram you see below.
288 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
tlml'd"j
Figure 810
Bartok: Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta.
Good Math, Bad Music
A possible reason that much contemporary music has never been
well received may be that too many composers got lost in the
number games of twentiethcentury compositional practice. While
it is true that all composers play mind games with themselves in
the process of creating music, many luminaries in the generation
that included the likes of Pierre Boulez (b. 1925) and Milton Bab
bitt (b. 1916) lost sight of the fact that people are mostly emotional
beings, not numerical calculators (sacred hearts, not sacred brains).
Too many of the works from that period are brilliantly calculated
but are devoid of the color, mood, passion, or musical narrative
that can move an audience to tears or rapture.
When Arnold Schonberg (18741951) applied his twelvetone
method (formulated in 1924), he imbued his soundscapes with the
nineteenthcentury Romanticism of his youth. He was always the
Romantic. Here was a brilliant mind that was searching for a re
placement for the diatonic tonal system and, in the process, created
exquisitely crafted works that few people wanted to hear. His music
had a new technology clothed in an outofdate aesthetic. It was his
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 289
student, Anton von Webem (18831945), who seemed to apply an
aesthetic that was truly modem, more in tune with the times and the
new notepicking system. For a long time performers of his music
did not realize that he, too, was a Romantic, and their performances
reflected that ignorancethey were insipid. He just disguised his
romanticism better than Schonberg. His sparse textures must be per
formed with the same passion that one would apply to the music of
Johannes Brahms (18331897) and Gustav Mahler (18601911),
only the attention is focused on far fewer notes.
This misunderstanding of W ebem' s underlying Romanticism
led a lot of young composers that followed him to believe they
could play all those wonderful numerical and structural mind
games and everything would work out just fine. Well, it did not.
Over many decades the musically adventurous among us have at
tended too many concerts where minds were dazzled, but hearts
were unmoved. Often they went home unable to remember a single
musical gesture. Too often they heard a vast amount of musical
data without hearing anything that seemed to be meaningful. What
this music often lacked was modesty. Mozart played as many mind
games as anyone who ever lived, only he hid his calculations
where only the refined ear and eye could find them. His outfront,
tuneful lyricism disguised his underlying machinery. His music
invites us to sing along, and, once we are seduced by his magic, we
spend a lifetime trying to figure out how he did it.
Music is a communication from heart to heart and mind to
mindit must tell us what it means to be a human being, not a
UNIV AC.
8
The most difficult part of being a composer is trying to
balance the heart and the mind, and it does not take much to tilt
slightly in the wrong direction with results that are brilliantly in
sipid and vacuous. There are those, like minimalist composer Tom
Johnson (b. 1939), who believe otherwise. Here is a fellow who
has employed a great deal of mathematical calculations in his
compositional process with questionable results. Many art forms in
8. UNIVAC is an acronym, standing for UNIVersal Automatic Computer.
UNIV AC was one of the eight major computer companies throughout most of
the 1960s.
290 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
the twentieth century have had practitioners who eschew their own
humanity. For them, emotion plays no part in the artistic process.
Johnson admits this denial of the personal element as follows:
1 have often tried to explain that my music is a reaction
against the romantic and expressionistic musical past,
and that 1 am seeking something more objective, some
thing that doesn't express my emotions, something that
doesn't try to manipulate the emotions of the listener
either, something outside myself. Sometimes 1 explain
that my reasons for being a minimalist, for wanting to
work with a minimum of musical materials, is because it
also helps me to minimize arbitrary selfexpression.
Sometimes 1 say, "I want to find the music, not to com
pose it.,,9
This is in tune with the philosophy originally promoted by John
Cage (19121992), a highly influential thinker whose music has
never found wide acceptance with a paying audience. Many who
have heard Johnson's music feel that he fulfills his minimalist in
tentions most effectively. Pieces such as his Narayana's Cows, a
composition that employs the Fibonacci series as a pitch generator,
are pleasing to some, but have not found wide acceptance. Many
people, when listening to his music, come away disappointed that
they have not been touched by the personal revelations of a sen
tient being. They experience the musical equivalent of eating a
vegetarian snackwhile at the concert they are entertained by a
skillful array of sounds, but an hour later they are hungry for
something more profound.
It's too often the case that good math doesn't make good music.
The Coda
If you are still reading, it means that you are of stout heart and firm
mind because, for a book that was supposed to be about math, you
9. http://www.ChronicleoftheNonPopRevolution,Kalvos.org/johness4.html.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND M USICAL FORM 291
have been inundated by an awful lot of music theory. But, if you
got thi s far, you can see that though the golden mean plays a sig
nificant role in music, it is by no means the whole story. Below
you will find a li ttle reminder of Fibonacci in music: a picture ofa
violin with its proportions related to 4>. It is. unquestionably, a
lovely shape to behold and, when put in the ri ght hands, can be an
extraordinary conveyor of passionate expression. Antonio Stradi
varius ( 1644 1737) is, undoubtedly, the most famous maker of
violins. His instruments set a standard that is still being foll owed
today. The proportions. components, and assembly of hi s instru
ments have been studied and imitated by all those attempting to
replicate an instrument that sings freely and projects to the farthest
reaches of the concert hall. Today, hi s instruments cost several
mill ion dollars on those rare occasions when they come on the
market. If you can' t make the payments on a "Strad" and want to
go out to the shop to see what you can paste together, here are the
Fibonacci proportions to get you started. Good luck!
Figure 811
Chapter 9
The Famous Binet Formula for
Finding a Particular
Fibonacci Number
U
ntil now, we usually inspected the Fibonacci numbers by
their location in their sequence. If we wanted to find the
tenth Fibonacci number, we would write the sequence to 10 num
bers, and then we would have the tenth number. In other words, we
would simply list them as 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 and count
to the tenth number in the sequence. This would give us 55 as the
tenth Fibonacci number. Such a procedure can be somewhat cum
bersome, however, if we seek, say, the fiftieth Fibonacci number.
After all, listing fifty Fibonacci numbers is no easy matter if you
don't have the list handy that we after you in appendix A.
Well, the French mathematician JacquesPhilippeMarie Binet
(17861856) provided us with a formula for finding any Fibonacci
number without actually listing the sequence as we just did. To de
velop this formula, we will gently take you through some elemen
tary algebra, explaining all of our steps along the way. But before
we embark on this somewhat tedious task, we need to understand
what it means to derive such a formula. We will, thus, examine a
simple and very wellknown kind of numberthe square num
berto determine what it means to work with a recursive sequence
of numbers such as the Fibonacci numbers.
293
294 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 91
JacquesPhilippeMarie Binet.
The recursive nature of the Fibonacci numbers comes from the
definiti ve relati onship: Fhl = F ~ + F " ~ I ' where we know that
F; = I and Fl = I. We are accustomed to finding any Fibonacci
number in the sequence as long as we know its two preceding
numbers.
Suppose we seek to find the s ixth square number (remember,
the square numbers are 1, 4,9, 16,25,36,49,64, 81, and so on),
then wc simpl y square 6 to get 36. If we are call ed on to find the
11 8th square number, then we square 118 to get
11 8 · 11 8 = 13,924. This is an explicit definition of the square
numbers. Let 's try 10 set up a recursive defin iti on of the square
numbers.
We begin with the definit ion of S • • which wi ll represent the
nth square number. We know that SI = I, and we wi ll see that
5.,1 = s. + (2n + I) . Using thi s definition, we would get the fol 
10wing:
1
I. We ean also usc that.so .. O. the Oth square number.
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 295
5, = Su + (2 · 0+ J) = 0 + J = I
S, = S, + (2. I + I) = I + 3 = 4
SJ = Sz+(2· 2 + 1) = 4 + 5 = 9
S. = S}+(2· 3 + 1) = 9+ 7 = 16
1) = 16+9=25
This tell s us that we can get a square number by adding to its
predecessorsquare number a number that is one greater than twice
the position number of that square. Of course, you may be thinking
that this is a sill y way to look at a rather simple problem when you
can just square the number and that 's it. However, we are trying to
show that there is a recursive relati onship from which one can also
generate square numberseven though it is ridiculously more com
pl icated.
From this we can also conclude that the sum of consecutive
odd numbers (beginning with 1) is always a square number, which
leads us to the recursive re lat ionship as displayed below.
Si nce 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n  I) + (2n + I) = (n + 1)2,
and (n + 1)2 = n
2
+ (2n + I), for any natural number n, we get the
recursive relationshi p we used above.
Even though we can easily prove this by the technique known
as mathematica l inducti on, we can see thi s in a geomet ri c repre
sentation (fi gure 92), which can serve a similar purpose
,,
4 + J
+J+5+7 ... 9+ II + 13
I +3+5+7+ 9+ 11 + IJ+ 15
100  I +)+5 +7 +9 + 11 + 1l'" 15 + 17+ 19
Figure 92
296 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
We have now seen the square numbers from the explicit defini
tion (our more common one) and the recursive definition (the much
more cumbersome one). Until now, we have been viewing the
Fibonacci numbers from the recursive relationship. In 1843 Jacques
PhilippeMarie Binet (17861856)2 developed an explicit definition
for the Fibonacci numbers. As is often the case in mathematics when
a formula is named after a mathematician, controversies arise as to
who was actually the first to discover it. Even today when a
mathematician comes up with what appears to be a new idea, others
are usually hesitant to attribute the work to that person. They often
say something like: "It looks original but how do we know it wasn't
done by someone else earlier?" Such is the case with the Binet
formula. When he publicized his work, there were no challenges to
Binet, but in the course of time, there have been claims that
Abraham de Moivre (16671754) was aware of it in 1718, Nicolaus
Bernoulli I (16871759) knew it in 1728, and his cousin Daniel
Bernoulli (17001782)3 also seems to have known the formula
before Binet. The prolific mathematician Leonhard Euler
(17071783) is also said to have known it in 1765. Nevertheless, it
is known today as the Binetformula.
Let us now slowly try to develop this relationship. We will begin
by recalling the golden ratio ( ~ = ~ ) that led us to the equation:
x x+!
x
2
 xI = O. The roots of this equation are ¢ and .!. , where ¢ =
'"
.J5+1 . h d Id . d h C' • 1 2 .J51
~  IS t e announce go en ratIO an t erelore IS  = ~ = ~  .
2 '" ,,5+1 2
By now you may be familiar with the sum and difference of
these terms as:
,;, 1_.J5+1 .J51_
1 'P 
¢ 2 2
2. " Memoire sur I'integration des equations lineaires aux diffeences finies d'un
ordre quelconque, a coefficients variables," Comples rendus de I 'academie des
sciences de Paris, vol. 17, 1843, p. 563.
3. The Bernoulli family is like a clan (of 8 mathematicians in 3 genera
tions)famous and estranged!
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 297
As a next step, we will take successive powers of this sum and
difference. Figure 93 shows this.
n Sum Difference
1
I
= 1...[5
I
=1
¢+  ¢ 
¢ ¢
2
¢2+ '
=3
¢2 _ ¢12
= 1...[5
¢2
3
¢3+ ~
= 2...[5
¢3  ;3
=4
¢3
4
¢4 I
=7
¢4 _ ¢14
= 3...[5
+
¢4
5
¢s I
= 5...[5
¢s_¢ls
=11
+
¢s
6
¢6 I
= 18
¢6 _ ¢16
= 8...[5
+ 
¢6
7
¢7 I
= 13...[5
¢ 7 _ ¢\
= 29
+
¢7
8
¢s I
= 47
¢ s _ ¢Is
= 21...[5
+
¢s
9
¢9+ ~
= 34...[5
¢9 _ ¢19
= 76
¢9
10
¢ 10 I
= 123 ¢ 10 __ 1_ = 55...[5
+10
¢IO
¢
Figure 93
An inspection of the values generated for the sum and differ
ence suggests that we can represent them in terms of Fibonacci
numbers ( Fn ) and Lucas numbers ( Ln)' as in figure 94.
298 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
n Sum Difference
I
,
=1j5=F;j5
,
= 1 = LI
l/J+  l/J 
41 41
2
l/J 2 ,
= 3 = L2
l/J 2  41'2
= Ij5
= F2 j5
+
41
2
3
l/J3+
=2j5=F;j5
l/J3  ;3
=4 = L3
41
3
4
l/J4 , = 7 = L4
l/J4  41'4
= 3j5
=F.j5
+
414
5
l/J 5 ,
l/J 5  41'5
= II = Ls
+
41
5
6
l/J6 1 = 18 = L6
l/J6  41
16
=8j5
= F6 j5
+
41
6
7
l/J7+
=13j5 =F;j5
l/J 7  41\
= 29 = L7
417
8
l/J S 1 = 47 = Ls
l/JS _ 41ls
= 21j5 j5
+
41
8
9
l/J9+
=34j5 =F9j5
l/J9 
= 76 = L9
41
9
10
l/J 10 1 = 123 = L
IO l/JIO '
= 55j5 = F;o j5
+\0
4110
41
Figure 94
Focusing on the Fibonacci numbers, we notice that they appear
alternately as coefficients in the sums and differences ofthe powers of
j5+, 1 j51
l/J =  and  = . For evennumber powers they appear as the
2 41 2
difference, and for oddnumber powers they appear as the sum. This
can be handled by using 1 to various powers; since when 1 is taken
to an odd power, the result is negative, and when it is taken to an even
power, the result is positive. This can be summarized with the
following expression:
1 ( I J" (.J5 I J"
1/>" (1)";= 2 (I)" 2
=( .J5
2
+1} C
2
.J5}
= 1/>" (;}
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 299
Remember, in figure 94 each of the Fibonacci numbers was
multiplied by .J5, so in order for us to have an expression equal to the
Fibonacci numbers, we need to divide our result by .J5 . Therefore,
A summary of this division is seen in figure 95.
n
( *J
Js[¢n ( ;J]
Fn
I
(;)
= 1.J5
Js[¢( ;)]
=1
2
2 ( I) 2
= 1.J5
Js[¢' ( ;)]
=1
 ;
3
= 2.J5
Js [ ¢' ( ; )']
=2
4
4 ( I}
= 3.J5
Js [¢' ( ; J ]
=3
 ;
5
5 ( I)
= 5.J5
Js [¢' ( ; J ]
=5
 ;
6
6 ( I}
= 8.J5
Js [¢' ( ; J ]
=8
 ;
7
=13.J5
Js[¢'(;)']
=13
8
= 21.J5
Js[¢' ( ; J]
=21
9
= 34.J5
Js [ ¢' ( ; J ]
=34
\0
(_*)10
= 55.J5
Js[¢'O ( ;r]
= 55
Figure 95
300 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The test to see if we, in fact, have developed a fonnula for gen
erating any Fibonacci number is for us to apply the fonnula to our
nowfamiliar recursive relationship Fn+2 = Fn + F
n
+
l
.
This would require a proof by mathematical induction. (For
this we refer you to appendix B.)
By substituting the value of cP in [",n ( i r 1, we get the Binet
formula in terms of real numbers.
F. Js[' Hl} Js[( J [ +n
So now we shall use this formula. Let's try using it to find a
Fibonacci number we would ordinarily not find by using the
recursive definition of the Fibonacci numbersthat is, writing out
the Fibonacci sequence until we get to the 128th number. Applying
the Binet fonnula for n = 128 gives us:
[
( )
12H 1 [( 15 )128 ( 15 )128]
F,28=JsCPI28 __ =Js 1\5 _1
2
5
= 251,728,825,683,549,488, 150,424,261
(You might want to check this with the listing in appendix A.)
Thus we have the Binet formula:
which will give us any Fibonacci number for any natural number n.
Let's stop and marvel at this wonderful result. For any natural
number n the irrational numbers in the fonn of 15 seem to disap
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 301
pear in the calculation and a Fibonacci number appears. In other
words, the Binet formula delivers the possibility of obtaining any
Fibonacci number with the aid of the golden ratio <p.
At this point you may be wondering about the practicality of
the Binet formula. Well, you are right if you surmised that we
would likely obtain these larger Fibonacci numbers with the aid of
a computer. However, there is an intrinsic value to knowing that
the Binet formula exists and that it is possible to get the Fibonacci
numbers in two ways: explicitly and recursivelyjust as we saw
earlier was the case with the square numbers.
The Binet Formula for Lucas Numbers
It would be only fitting that there be an analogous formula to find a
Lucas number without listing the Lucas sequence up to the number
sought. Using for Lucas numbers a similar argument as the one we
used for the Fibonacci numbers, we can get the Binet formula from
figure 94. There we see that when n is odd, the Lucas number
appears in the difference expression <p
n
 and when n is even,
rpn
the Lucas number appears in the sum expression <p
n
+ We can
rpn
state this mathematically (as we did before) with the following:
L
n ¢n
That means (see the Binet formula):
n (l)n (l)n ( 1 + vis )n ( 1 _ vis )"
Ln = <pn + ( 1) . 1> = <p
n
+ 1> = l2  + l2 
(for all n E N).4
To check this "inductively," we can test it for a few values of
n. Let us try one odd and one even number.
4. This means for all natural numbers. Yet, in this case, we will also include O.
302 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
For n = 3, we get:
3 1
=¢ =4
¢3
(We can use the chart in figure 94, rather than doing the
computation again.)
For n = 6, we get:
Just to get a better feeling about how to evaluate these beyond
the chart, we shall evaluate the Binet formula for the eleventh
Lucas number, L
II
.
L =,/,11 +(1)11 . ( ~ ) I I =¢II __ I
II 'I' ¢ ¢"
= [ .J5
2
+ I r [ .J5
2
1 r 89.J5
2
+ 199
= 199
89.J5 199
2
which is the eleventh Lucas number. So you can see how we can
get any Lucas number without generating the sequence to that
pointwhich would be potentially a very tedious task! Thus we
have a Binet formula for generating Lucas numbers as well as the
Fibonacci numbers.
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 303
Finding Individual Fibonacci Numbers
Suppose you have just found the twentyfifth Fibonacci number
and you would like the twentysixth Fibonacci numberwithout
knowing the twentyfourth Fibonacci number. We could use the
Binet formula, but there is another way that might be simpler.
Since we know that the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci num
bers is approximately the golden ratio, l/J = 1.618. That is,
F
~ = 1.6 1803399
F
25
Therefore, we get F
26
= 1.61803399· F
25
, and then we round off the
answer. So in order for us to find the twentysixth Fibonacci num
ber, we just multiply the twentyfifth Fibonacci number by
1.61803399 and then round off the answer: 75,025 . 1.61803399
"" 121,393.0001, which when rounded off is 121,393, which is the
twentysixth Fibonacci number. You can easily seeby try
ingthat this method of finding a Fibonacci number, given only
the one before it, can be used for the Fibonacci numbers after the
first onethat is, for finding F", where n > 1.
Another Way to Find a Specific Fibonacci Number
(Using a Calculator or a Computer)
Finding a specific Fibonacci number can be done in several ways,
as we have shown so far in this chapter. However, the use of a
computer or a calculator presents us with yet another option. If we
are asked to find the thousandth Fibonacci number, F;ooo, then by
using the definitioneven with the use of technologyit would
be a laborious task. We would have to use the definition:
Fa = 0; F; = 1; and Fn = F
n
_, + F
n
_
2
' where n > 1, and then find all
999 numbers that precede F;ooo.
304 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Consider the following two relationships:5
F
2n

1
= F}_l + Fn
2
and F
2n
= Fn (2F
n
_
1
+ Fn)
With these two relationships, we need only Fn and F
n
_
1
to
compute both F2n and F
2n

1
• So here is how we would go about
finding F;ooo' using these relationships (with technological assis
tance naturally):
To find F; 000' we must first find F,oo and F.99 .
To find F,oo and F.99' we must first find F"o and F
249
·
To find F"o and F
249
, we must first find F;24 and F;2S'
To find F;25 and F;24' we must first find P"" P"2' and F
63
·
To find P"" P"2' and P"3' we must first find F,o' F", and F,2'
To find F,o' F", and F,2 we must first find F;4' F;" and F;6'
To find F;4' F;s' and F;6 we must first find P", F" and F".
To find P" , F" and F" we must first find F
2
, F" and F. .
To find F" F" and F. we must first find F'.;, F;, and F
2
•
Remember, F; = F2 = 1, and F" = O.
Although we had to compute 22 Fibonacci numbers, it is still a
lot less work than having to compute 999 Fibonacci numbers to get
the thousandth Fibonacci number.
Testing for Fibonacci Numbers
Now let's look at the situation in reverse. Suppose we were given a
number and we wish to determine if this number is a Fibonacci
number. There is (curiously enough) a method for testing if a num
ber is a member of the Fibonacci sequence. The test goes this way:
5. The first of these relationships was considered in chapter I, item 9 on page
43. The second relationship is new to us but also holds true. For a proof of this,
see appendix B.
THE FAMOUS BINET FORMULA 305
A number n is a Fibonacci number if (and only it)
5n
2
+ 4 or 5n
2
 4 is a perfect square.
6
We do this without a proof, but we can test this with some of
our familiar numbers, say, at first, n = 5. We can then calculate that
5.5
2
 4 = 125  4 = 121, which is a perfect square, namely, 112.
Therefore, 5 is a Fibonacci number, since it passes this (square
root) test. Indeed, we know 5 = Fs. Now we choose n = 8. We can
then calculate that 5.8
2
+ 4 = 320 + 4 = 324, which is a perfect
square, namely, 18
2
• Therefore, 8 is a Fibonacci number since it
passes this "square root" test. Indeed, we know that 8 = F6 . We
should also note that since 4 is not a Fibonacci number, it will fail
this square root test. That is, 5n
2
± 4 is not a perfect square, when
n=4: 5.4
2
+4=84, and 5.4
2
4=76. You might want to try a
few more examples to convince yourself that this powerful test
really works.
We have now seen that the Fibonacci are so
closely tied to the sequence from which they emanatecan also be
treated as individual entities. We can now identify specific
Fibonacci numbers and can test to see if a given number is, in fact,
a member of the Fibonacci number sequence.
6. This means the following: if 5n
2
+ 4 or 5n
2
 4 is a perfect square, then n is a
Fibonacci number. And conversely, if n is a Fibonacci number, then 5n
2
+ 4 or
5n
2
 4 is a perfect square.
Chapter 10
The Fibonacci Numbers and
Fractals
U
nless you are young enough to have experienced recent re
forms in school mathematics curricula, your idea of geome
try is probably the study of ideal shapes such as lines, circles,
squares, and rectangles. More precisely, you have probably studied
the objects and mathematical relationships compiled by the Greek
mathematician Euclid (ca. 365300 BeE), from more than two
thousand years ago. The socalled Euclidean geometry studies
points, lines, planes, and objects such as circles and poly
gonsobjects that for many of us precisely denote the term geo
metrical figures. We usually think of a geometrical figure when we
recognize a circle on the surface of a wheel, or a rectangle on a ta
bletop. After all, it is not so difficult to find approximations of
these figures in objects made by people. However, how often do
we find smooth planes, lines, or curves in nature?
Natural objects are often irregular. Their. surfaces and lines are
usually rough and fragmented. For example, compare the smooth
feel of a finished wooden table to the roughness of a tree bark. Or
compare the prickly crown of a reallife conifer, such as a pine
tree, to the solid shape that names it, the cone. Or, moreover, think
of the appearance of ragged coastlines, with all their projections
This chapter was written by Dr. Ana Lucia B. Dias, professor of mathematics at
Central Michigan University.
307
308 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCt NUMBERS
and indentations, in comparison to that of unifonn curves such as
the circle, in which all points in its circumference li e regularl y at a
same di stance from the center. We can see that although Euclidean
geometry is useful in human creations, it is definitely not the best set
of tool s to describe and understand natural obj ects or phenomena.
In the late ninet eenth and early twenti eth centuri es mathemat i
cians such as Gaston Jul ia (J 893 1978), Pierre Fatou ( 1878 1929),
and Georg Cant or (1845 19 18) experimented with curves that
have reveal ed themselves to be much more suited to represent and
model natural phenomena. Although their contemporaries were not
very enthusiastic about the new objects, referring to them as mon
strous and pathological. mathematicians and nonmat hemat icians
alike for decades now have been fascinated by the beauty of im
ages of fracta ls made possible by computer graphics (figure 101 ).
Figu.e 101
Some images of fractals.
With the aid of the comput er, mathematician Benoit Mandel
brot (b. 1924) showed in 1980 that pictures of the mathemati cal
objects created by Gaston Julia were quite beautiful , not mon
strous. And more important, he showed that, rather than pathologi
THE FIBONACCI N UMBERS AND FRACTALS 309
cal, the ragged outlines and the repeating patterns of those figures
were oft en found in nature (figure 102). He used the Latin word
fractus, meaning broken or fractured, to coin a word to denote the
new mathematical objects:fracrals.
Figure 102
In fi gure 102 the images to the left are pictures of reallife
scenes. Those to the right are fractal model s.
Interestingly, the Fibonacci numbers also arise in the analysis
of some fractal s_ In thi s chapter we are going to describe two in
stances in whi ch Fibonacci numbers appear in two different frac
tal s, even though the construction of the Fibonacci sequence was
by no means embedded in the procedures for the creation of such
fracta ls which makes the find ing of such numbers all the more
fascinating!
310 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The characteristic feature of fractals is selfsimilarity: geomet
ric patterns seen in the big picture of a fractal are repeated in its
parts in smaller and smaller scales.
Making fractals involves the repeated application of a geomet
ric rule or transformation to an original figure or set of points,
which we will refer to as the seed of the fractal.
Once we determine what the generative procedure and the seed
of a fractal will consist of, we can begin constructing the fractal by
repeatedly applying the generative procedurefirst to the seed,
then once again to the resulting output, and so on. Therein lies an
other definitive aspect of fractal construction: fractals are made up
of consecutive phases called iterations. An iteration is the act of
applying one algorithm or procedure one time through in a repeti
tive process.
When constructing a fractal, the iterations of the generative
procedure are done recursively; that is, the input of each iteration is
the output of the previous onewith the exception of the first it
eration, which is applied to a seed. In some cases this means that
each subsequent iteration will be more cumbersome than the pre
vious one! In those cases, programmable technology is definitely a
great help.
A fractal ideally entails the iteration of a procedure an infinite
number of times, although in practice we can iterate a procedure
only a finite number of times. We can use computers or calculators
to help us perform as many iterations as we want, which would
give us different stages in the construction of a fractal. Or we can
use mathematics to deduce what would be the result of performing
that infinite process.
Before we move on to fractals that yield the Fibonacci num
bers, we will illustrate the generative process described above and
the appropriate terminology through a classical example, the Koch
snowflake (l904)'(figure 103).
For the construction of this fractal, the seed will be an equilat
eral triangle. Because the generation of the fractal happens by suc
1. Named after the Swedish mathematician He\ge von Koch (18701924).
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND FRACTALS 311
cessive iterations, we will call the result of each iteration a stage in
the fractal construction.
The generative procedure will consist of erasing the middle
third of every line segment in a stage and replacing it with two line
segments of the same length (onethird of the original segment) at
an angle of 60°; this will form cusps (which look like partial equi
lateral triangles), where before there were segments. We can see
this procedure illustrated in figure 103.
Figure 103
Generative procedure for the Koch snowflake.
Each iteration will consist of applying the fractalconstruction
procedure to each line segment in a stage of the fractal, which will
create the next. stage. Figure 104 shows the first two iterations in
the construction of the Koch snowflake. But now we do this on
three sides of an equilateral triangle.
Stage 0 Stagel Stage 2
Figure 104
Construction of Koch snowflake.
You may want to sketch stage 3 of the Koch snowflake on a
separate piece of paper, or use a computer drawing program. Re
member this iteration will require applying the generative procedure
to every segment in stage 2. It involves quite a bit more work than
the previous iteration. While the first iteration consisted of applying
312 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
the generative procedure to three line segments, in the second itera
tion that number increased to twelve. In the third iteration you will
need to work on fortyeight line segments. That increase in com
plexity is displayed in figure 105. With each iteration, each line
segment at a stage will be replaced by four line segments, forming a
cusp, in the next stage. So if we know how many segments there are
at a stage, we can find out the number of segments at the next stage
by multiplying that number by four. This relation can be written al
gebraically and recursively as: Sn = 4· SnI (which just happens to
equal 3· 4 n ), where Sn is the number of segments at stage n, and Snl
is the number of segments at the previous stage.
Stage (n)
o
2
3
n
Number of Line
Segments (Sn)
3
12 = 4 . 3
48 = 4 . 12
192 = 4 . 48
Sn = 4· Sn_1
Figure 105
The replacement of each segment by a visual spike, and the ac
celerating increase in the number of segments in this fractal, is what
gives it the main features of a fractal: the jagged appearance and the
property of selfsimilarity. If you zoom in on any spike, you will
find smaller and smaller copies of it. MagnifYing fractals reveals in
them smallscale details similar to the largescale characteristics.
Another popular fractal is the Sierpinski
2
gasket (1915) (figure
106). Its seed is also an equilateral triangle. Each iteration consists
of splitting a triangle into four smaller equilateral triangles by us
ing the midpoints of the three sides of the original triangle as the
new vertices, then deleting the middle triangle from further action,
2. Named after Waclaw Sierpinski (18821969), a Polish mathematician.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND FRACTALS 313
that is, a quarter of the area is removed. The construction of the
fractal continues by iterating this procedure over and over: from
every triangle formed, a triangle is removed from its interior. This
results in not only a rough, fragmented surface, but also in self
similaritythe two main features of fractals.
Stag .. 0 Stag .. 1 Stage 2
Figure 106
Construction of the Sierpinski gasket.
Stage 3
We are now ready to encounter our protagonist, the Fibonacci
numbers. In fractals, as well as elsewhere, these numbers make
intriguing incidental appearances.
One of such unexpected sightings of the Fibonacci sequence oc
curred in the examination of a recently created fractal, the Grossman
Truss.
3
Let us see how this fractal is constructed: we start with an
isosceles right triangle as the seed. An isosceles right triangle has two
sides of equal length forming a right angle (figure 107).
Figure 107
Stage 0 of the construction of the Grossman truss.
3. The creation of this fractal and a mathematical analysis of its properties were
reported by George W. Grossman, in "Construction of Fractals by Orthogonal
Projection Using Fibonacci sequence," Fibonacci Quarterly 35, no. 3 (August
1997): 20624.
3 14 1)iE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
We will now drop a perpendicular from its right angle until it in
tersects the opposite side. We then bounce that perpendicular clock
wise, until it meets the opposi te side, again orthogonally or perpen
dicularly. Finally, we will delete the tri angle created at the interior of
the figure. This completes the first iteration of the generati ve proce
dure. The result is a new figure, in which the original isosceles right
triangle appears split into two other triangles, with a triangular gap
between them. If you examine this figure carefully, you will see that
all triangles formed are also isosceles right trianglesIhat is, they are
similar to the original seed, but they appear in different positions
(figure 108).
Figure 108
Stage t of the construction of the Grossman truss.
It 's time to move on to the second iteration. In this fractal.
each iteration consists of repeating the procedure described above
in the largest triangles at each stage. Take a look at the triangles
still existing on Stage I (remember the middle triangle has been
deleted and is no longer part of the figurea blank rema ins in its
place). You can see that there are two triangles of different size.
Therefore, the next iteration will consist of applying the genera
tive procedure to the largest and only to the largest triangle. The
result is shown in figure 109.
THE FI BONACCI NUMBERS AND FRACTALS 3 15
Figure 109
Stage 2 of the construction of the Grossman truss.
Now Ihat our fractal has another gap in it. what can we say
about the remaining tri angles? Are they all equall y sized? Careful
inspection of the shaded triangles in fi gure 109 reveals thai there
are two sizes of triangles at thi s stage: two large ones and one
small one. So for the next iteration, the generative procedure will
need to be perfonned on the two large triangles.
The construct ion of thi s frac tal proceeds in thi s way, always
applying the generati ve procedure to the largest triangles at a stage.
The result is a nicelooking fracta l. in which the basic shape shown
in figure 109 can be repeatedl y seen in smaller scales and at dif
ferent positions throughout the fraclal. Figure 1010 shows the
fractal after eight it erat ions.
Figure 10 10
Stage 8 of the construction of the Grossman truss.
3 16 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBEI<S
In figure 1010, as well, we can see that the remaining triangles
come in two sizes. Can you tell how many triangles there are of the
larger and how many of the smaller sizes? Maybe it will help to look at
the fractal after fewer iterations. Figure 1011 shows the Grossman
truss after four iterati ons. Again, there are shaded tri angles of two sizes.
They have been filled with different shades of gray to help USCOWlt.
Figure 10·11
The Grossman truss after 4 iterations.
Ifwe look at the shaded triangles in figure 10 11 . we see five
larger triangles and three smaller triangles. These numbers happen
to be the fifth and fourth terms in the Fibonacci sequence.
What happens after one more iteration? The number of
larger triang les is now eight. and there are five smaller triangl es
(figure 10 12).
Figure 1012
Stage 5 of the construction of the Grossman truss, showing the
eight larger triangles in the dark shade of gray and the five
smaller triangles in the lighter shade.
THE FIBONACCI N UMBERS AND FRACTALS 317
Wilh trained eyes, you should be able to find that in figure
10·10 there are twenty·one small er triangles and thirty·four larger
ones. This pattern continues indefi nitely the number of triangles
of a li ke size in the Grossman truss is always a Fibonacci number!
There are more places where the Fibonacci numbers appear.
We can also shift our gaze to the triangles that have been deleted
from the fractal  the empty triangular gaps. How many s izes are
there at a determined stage, and how many of each size?
Figure 1013 shows three copies of Stage 3 of the Grossman
truss. How many differentsized triangular gaps are there in Stage
3? There is one gap of the largest size; one gap is the second
largest; and there are two of the small er gaps. Do you see a pattern
being fonned?
Figure 10·13
Counting gaps in Stage 3 of the Grossman truss.
Can you predict how many differentsized gaps there will be af
ter one more iteration? Remember, all the gaps at a stage will still be
there in subsequent iterations, since the gaps are removed from fur
ther action. But the procedures applied to the areas of the fraclal thai
3 18 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
are sti ll filled will create more gaps, of smaller and smaller sizes.
How many new gaps will be created with each iteration?
The pattern suggested by figure 1013 becomes even more
striki ng if we look at further iterations. Figure 10 14 shows copies
of Stage 5 of the fractal, and a count of the number of gaps of each
different size.
I
I
2
3
5
Figure 10 14
Count ing gaps in Stage 5 of the Gr ossman truss.
Again, it is the Fibonacci sequence! And whereas counting tri
angles of the Grossman truss gives us two Fibonacci numbers at
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS ANI) FRACTALS 319
every stage, counting gaps can give us the entire sequence in a sin
gle stage. More precisely, counting gaps with the Grossman truss
after n iterations will give us the n firs t tenns of the Fibonacci se
quence!
What is most amazi ng about thi s fractal is that the Fibonacci
sequence emerges in it even though it was not directly involved in
the procedure that generated it.
The way in which the Grossman truss was created did not hint
at a possible participation of the Fibonacci numbers in the resulting
fractal. This makes all the more mysterious and amazing the ways
in which this sequence appea rs both in nature and in human
created objects such as fractals. It makes us wonder about the
true nature of mathematics: even though mathematical objects are
human creations, the re lationships within them seem to follow by
necessity. They emerge even though we did not put them there.
Robert Devanel has shown another amazing way of finding
Fibonacci numbers in a fraClal. The Fibonacci sequence has made
it s way into one of the most wellknown fractals: the MandelbrOI
set (fi gure 10 15).
Figure 10·15
4. A mathemat ical ellposit ion of these concepts is reponed in Roben L. Deva
ney, "The Fractal Geometry of the Mandclbrot Set," in Fractals. Graphics. and
Mathematics Edllcation, cd. Michael Frame and Benoit Mandelbrot (Washing
ton, DC: Mathematical Association of America, 2(02), pp.6168
320 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
But first, let's see what the Mandelbrot set is. Its image is so
popular it could earn the title of the "emblem of fractal geometry."
Its strange beauty mesmerizes laymen and experts alike. But what
does that image represent? As with the other fractals we have ex
amined, some elements are involved in its construction: a seed, a
rule or transformation, and an infinite number of iterations. But
unlike our previous exampleswhich were mainly geometri
calthe Mandelbrot set is a set of numbers. The image you see in
figure 1015 is just a plot, in the complex plane,s of the numbers
that belong to the set.
How do we know whether a number is or is not in the Mandel
brot set? We have to test each number to find out. This infinitely
large task can only be done with the aid of a computer, and only a
finite number of times, although a very large number of times. In
fact, it was only under the right conditions, in which Benoit Man
delbrot's vision and intellect was combined with the environment of
IBM's Watson Research Center, that a revival of the work on this
set that had been initiated by Julia in the I 920s was made possible.
So the construction of the image of the Mandelbrot set requires
one more element besides the seed, the rule, and the iterations that
the fractals, previously discussed, also had: it involves a test of
numbers. Let us say the number we are testing is c.
The seed for this fractal is the number 0; not a triangle or a
segment, but a number, because this fractal is numerical in nature.
The rule or transformation is: square the input and add c, which
can be expressed algebraically as x
2
+ c .
Suppose we want to test the number c = I. Our transformation
becomes: x
2
+ I .
Let us see the result of a few iterations, starting with the seed 0
as the input, and then using the output of each iteration as the input
for the next:
5. The complex plane is the twodimensional representation of complex num
bers with a real axis and an imaginary axis.
0
2
+ I = I
I' + I = 2
2' +1 = 5
52 + 1= 26
26' + I = 677
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND FRACTALS 321
677' + I = 458,330
We can see that the more iterations, the greater the result will
be. The terms of the sequence of numbers will increase without
bound. We say that "it goes to infinity."
Let us test for another number, c = O. With this value for c, our
rule becomes: x
2
+ 0 .
Starting with the same seed 0, a few iterations will show that
the sequence will be fixed at 0:
First iteration: 0
2
+ 0 = 0
Second iteration: 0
2
+ 0 = 0
For each value of c, the "test" (repeatedly iterating the rule)
will tell us whether the result will go to infinity, or if it will not.
Values of c that will result in an escape to infinity are not in the
set; all the others are in the set. The image of the Mandelbrot set
is actually a record of the fate of each number, c, under this
test.
6
The key to understanding the image is to unveil the code
used. The most frequently used code for plotting the results of
these tests is to use the color black to represent those points in
the plane that are in the Mandelbrot set and to color the others
according to their "escape speed," that is, using different colors
6. In fact, figure 1015 is only an approximation of the Mandelbrot set. In actu
ality, we cannot know for sure whether a number c lies in the Mandelbrot set,
because to determine that with absolute certainty we would need to iterate the
"test" an infinite number of times. But even with computers, we can obviously
iterate anything only a finite number of times. But it so happens that the se
quence formed by iterating the rule to a certain value of c may behave differ
ently only after a very large number of iterations. So we can make our approxi
mation better by iterating a great number of times. Still, this will not lead to
absolute accuracy.
322 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
to represent the numbe r of iterations that va lue takes to reach a
certain distance from the origin. Another traditional way of
plolting the Mandelbrot set is just to use black for points that are
in the set and white for those that are not.
We will now look at the image of the MandelbrOI set wilh a
categorical eye. At the core of the image, we can see a heart 
shaped figure, the main cardioid.? We can also note many round
decorations, or bulbs (figure 10 16). We call any bulb that is
directly attached 10 the main cardioid a primary bulb. The pri
mary bulbs have in turn many smaller decorations attached to
them. Among them, we can identify what appear to be antennas
(figure 1017).
Figure 1016
The main cardioid and bulbs in
the Mandelbrot set.
7. A cardioid is a heartshaped curve generated by a fixed point on a circle as it
...,lls around another circle of equal radius.
TilE FI BONACCI N UMBERS AND FRACTALS 323
Figure 1017
Detail of decorations in the Ma ndelbrot set.
We will call the longest of these amennas the main antenna.
Finall y, the main amennas show several "spokes" (figure 10 18).
Note that the number of spokes in a mai n antenna varies from
decoration to decoration. We wi ll call thi s number the period of
that bulb or decorat ion. To determine the peri od of that bulb, just
count the number of spokes on an antenna. Don't forget to count
the spoke emanating from the primary decorat ion 10 the main
junction poim. Figure 10 19 di splays various primary bulbs and
their peri ods.
Figure 1018
Main antennas and their "spokes."
324 Til E FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
.. ;.".
Figure 10· 19
Determining the period of bulbs by counting the "spokes" in
Ihei r ma in anl enna.
How can the Fibonacci sequence be seen in the Mandelbrot
set? We will consider the peri od of the main cardioid to be I.
Then, by counti ng the spokes in the main antenna of the largest
primary bulbs, we will determine their period. The results of this
counting, that is, the period of the main cardi oid and of some of the
largest primary bulbs, are registered in fi gure 1020.
Figur e 10·20
The Fibonacci numbers in the Mandelbrot set.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND FRACTALS 325
You may be surprised to see from inspection of figure 10IS
that the largest bulb between the bulb of period 1 and the bulb of
period 2 is a bulb with period 3. The largest bulb between a period
2 bulb and a period3 bulb is a period5 bulb. And the largest bulb
between a period5 bulb and a period3 bulb is a periodS bulb.
Voila! Once again the Fibonacci numbers appear. Why is that so?
There are no obvious explanations. The Fibonacci numbers are not
directly related to the way in which the periods of primary bulbs
are calculated. Once again, the Fibonacci sequence makes a myste
rious and remarkable appearance.
So where else might the Fibonacci sequence emerge? Appar
ently, if we develop the habit of countingcounting the most di
verse sets of objects we can think of: seeds, spikes, triangleswe
are bound to find the Fibonacci sequence in many of them.
Should you develop the habit of counting various collections of
things, you will probably make your own amazing sightings of the
Fibonacci sequence. It is mostly everywhereall we have to do is
to look carefully.
Epilogue
N
ow that you have experienced the wonders of what might be
considered the most famous sequence of numbers in all of
mathematics, you will undoubtedly be keen to search for other
manifestations of them. You should be aware that there are con
stantly new discoveries made where the Fibonacci numbers amaz
ingly appear. Even if some might argue that a few of our examples
might be a bit forced or contrived, no one can deny how ubiquitous
the presence of this sequence of numbers is.
We found the Fibonacci numbers in nature and art. They grew
to prominence in the seminal work by Leonardo of
PisaFibonacci, who brought the ten numerals to the attention of
Western culture. The Fibonacci numbers have been found to hold
structures together in the most beautiful way as an integral part (or
generator) of the golden ratio, and they have tied together more
diverse branches of mathematics than perhaps any other entity in
mathematics. They even manifest themselves in the way we ma
nipulate investments on the stock market.
Not only do the Fibonacci numbers demonstrate what most
mathematicians vehemently argue is the beauty in mathematics, but
they also seem to be either an integral part of what we in our society
consider beautiful or they help determine that beauty. This can be
seen in the many art works, both old and new, that exhibit the golden
ratioitself determinable from the Fibonacci numbers. Though for
some artists and composers the golden ratio plays less of a role than
for othersand, of course, music and art are more than a mathemati
cal formula. Its significance in the arts is undeniable. Whether it is the
327
328 EPILOGUE
beauty of these numbers or the challenge they continuously lay before
us to discover new manifestations of their appearance, the Fibonacci
numbers never cease to amaze us. Mathematicians, through the Fibo
nacci Association, established in 1963, continue to find applications
of these numbers both inside and outside the field of mathematics and
publish them four times a year.
The Fibonacci numbers are very easy to remember, but if you
cannot commit, say, the first twelve to memory (remember F" just
happens to be equal to 122 = 144), we have the additive process to
rely on, and for very large Fibonacci numbers, the convenient Bi
net formula will bring us there immediately. As you look for the
Fibonacci numbers in any field, remember, care must be taken not
to overstate their application. Not all beauty is consistent with the
Fibonacci numbersas we have found in musicand not all art
relies on the golden ratio for its beauty. Yet there is a role for the
Fibonacci numbers in both of these fields as long as we observe it
objectively and not force their appearance. There are plenty of
natural illustrations, so we do not have to artificially claim the
numbers' presence artificially.
We hope, by reading this book, you will not only have been
motivated to search for new appearances of the Fibonacci numbers,
but will also have developed anew, or renewed, love for mathe
matics and a greater appreciation of the beauty of this most im
portant sciencereferred to by the famous German mathematician
Carl Friedrich Gauss (17771855) as "the queen of science."
Afterword
By
Herbert A. Hauptman
T
he Fibonacci numbers have fascinated me for decades. Yet
when I was asked to provide my thoughts about them, I de
cided to see if I could discover patterns independent of what others
may have found earlier. One never knows if his discoveries are
new, for when one asks mathematicians if some of these discover
ies are new, one often gets the answer: "Well, I haven't seen this
before, but that doesn't mean that it hasn't been published some
where." Since 1963 the Fibonacci Association (mentioned else
where in this book) has published a quarterly journal on the seem
ingly endless relationships involving the Fibonacci numbers. I
offer here some of my "discoveries" in the hope that they will pro
vide further insights and motivate the reader to seek others.
1. Some Plausible Speculations
We begin with what must surely be one of the most fundamental
concepts of all: the idea of unity, or the number one. We continue
in this vein with what is, just as certainly, the most primitive ar
ithmetical operation: the operation of addition. We obtain in this
way the subject matter of this book, a construct of great beauty, the
wonderful sequence of numbers known as the Fibonacci numbers,
1, 1,2,3,5,8, 13, .... As the reader already knows, each number
in this sequence, after the first two, is obtained by addition of the
329
330 AFTERWORD
preceding two. Can one imagine a simpler construction? Yet this
sequence of numbers has the most remarkable properties, many of
which are described in this book. In this afterword, adopting a
somewhat different point of view, we give a brief overview of the
divisibility properties of the Fibonacci numbers and hint at the ex
citing further developments, which the reader is invited to explore. I
1.1. Notation
Denote by Fn the nth Fibonacci number, so that FI = 1, F2 = 1,
F3=2,F4=3, Fs=5, ....
1.2. The Even Fibonacci Numbers
We ask a simple question. Which of the Fibonacci numbers are
divisible by 2? Consulting the table of Fibonacci numbers, we ob
serve that F
3
, F
6
, F
9
, F
12
, F
1S
, •.• are all divisible by 2 and, in fact,
these are the only even Fibonacci numbers. We are tempted there
fore to conjecture that the even Fibonacci numbers consist of the
set F
3
, F
6
, F9, F
12
, F
1S
, •••• We note in addition that the subscripts
3,6,9,12, ... of the even Fibonacci numbers themselves form an
arithmetic progression with initial term and common difference
equal to 3; in other words, it consists of all the numbers divisible
by 3.
Encouraged by this discovery, we ask next which Fibonacci
numbers are divisible by 3.
1.3. The Fibonacci Numbers That Are Divisible by 3
Again consulting the table, we observe that those Fibonacci num
bers that are divisible by 3 are F4 = 3, Fs = 21, FI2 = 144, FI6 = 987,
F
20
= 6,765, .... The subscripts 4,8, 12, 16,20, ... again form an
arithmetic progression, this time with the initial term and common
difference equal to 4, and therefore consist of all numbers that are
1. This was briefly mentioned in chapter 1 (pages 4748, item 12)
AFfERWORD 331
divisible by 4. We conjecture therefore that the collection of the
subscripts of all the Fibonacci numbers that are divisible by 3
themselves consist of all numbers divisible by 4.
1.4. The Fibonacci Numbers Divisible by 4
The pattern is now clear. We now find the Fibonacci numbers di
visible by 4 to be F6 = 8, Fl2 = 144, Fl8 = 2,584, F24 = 46,368, ... ,
the subscripts of which form an arithmetic progression with initial
term and common difference equal to 6. Hence the subscripts of all
Fibonacci numbers that are divisible by 4 are themselves divisible
by 6 and in fact consist of all the multiples of 6.
Proceed as in 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 to deduce the following: the Fi
bonacci numbers Fn that are divisible by 5 (or 6, or 7, respectively)
have subscripts, n, that are divisible by 5 (or 12, or 8, respectively)
and, in fact, consist of all the multiples of 5 (or 12, or 8, respec
tively).
2. The Minor Modulus m(n)
In this section we formulate in greater generality what we have
learned in the previous section. Let n be any positive integer. In
view of our previous work, we make the fundamental assumption
that there exist infinitely many positive integers x such that the
Fibonacci number Fx is divisible by n. The smallest such number x
clearly depends on n. We call it the minor modulus of n and denote
it by m(n). Thus m(n) is the smallest positive integer x such that Fx
is divisible by n. Referring to our previous work, we deduce, for
example, that m(2) = 3, m(3) = 4, m(4) = 6, m(5) = 5, m(6) = 12,
and m(7) = 8. A more extensive table of values of the minor
modulus m(n) is readily derived as explained in the previous sec
tion, and is shown in table 1. It is assumed that the reader has ex
tended this table to n = 200 at least so he can confirm to his satis
faction the several conjectures made here.
332 AFfERWORD
Table of m(n), 1 :s n :s 100
n men) n men) n men) n men) n men)
1 1 21 8 41 20 61 15 81 108
2 3 22 30 42 24 62 30 82 60
3 4 23 24 43 44 63 24 83 84
4 6 24 12 44 30 64 48 84 24
5 5 25 25 45 60 65 35 85 45
6 12 26 21 46 24 66 60 86 132
7 8 27 36 47 16 67 68 87 28
8 6 28 24 48 12 68 18 88 30
9 12 29 14 49 56 69 24 89 11
10 15 30 60 50 75 70 120 90 60
11 10 31 30 51 36 71 70 91 56
12 12 32 24 52 42 72 12 92 24
13 7 33 20 53 27 73 37 93 60
14 24 34 9 54 36 74 57 94 48
15 20 35 40 55 10 75 100 95 90
16 12 36 12 56 24 76 18 96 24
17 9 37 19 57 36 77 40 97 49
18 12 38 18 58 42 78 84 98 168
19 18 39 28 59 58 79 78 99 60
20 30 40 30 60 60 80 60 100 150
Table 1
We summarize our major conjecture as follows: Let n be any
positive integer; denote by m = men) the minor modulus of n. Then
the Fibonacci number Fx is divisible by n if and only if x is divisible
bym.
AFfERWORD 333
The minor modulus men) itself has a number of interesting prop
erties that inspection of table I makes plausible and which we sum
marize shortly. First however we digress to give a brief account of
the prime numbers that playa special role in this development.
3. The Primes
Definition: Every number (> 1) is divisible by itself and unity. If
these are its only divisors, it is said to be prime. Thus, 17, which is
divisible by no numbers other than 1 and 17, is prime. Similarly, 2,
3, 4, 7, I 1, and 13 are also primes. A famous theorem attributed to
Euclid states that there are infinitely many primes. Numbers like
6 = 2· 3 or 8 = 2
3
are, on the other hand, not primes since 6 is di
visible by 2 (in addition to 1,3, and 6) and 8 is divisible by 2 (in
addition to 1, 4, and 8). They are said to be composite. The reader
may readily confirm that the first few composite numbers are 4, 6,
8,9, 10, and 12. Clearly all primes, other than 2, are odd.
4. m(pk) Where p Is Prime and k Is a Positive Integer
The minor modulus ofa prime power is of particular importance in
the sequel. Reference to table 1 makes plausible the following
conjectures:
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
m(21) = m(2) = 3, k = 1
m(22) = m(4) = 6, k = 2
m(2k) = 3 . 2k2, if k > 2
If p is an odd prime, m(pk) = pkI m(p)
334 AFTERWORD
For example, to confirm 4.1, observe that
when k = 1, F3 = 2, which is divisible by 2, and x = 3 is the
smallest value of x for which Fx is divisible by 2' = 2, whence, by
definition, m(2) = 3;
when k = 2, F6 = 8, which is divisible by 2
2
, and x = 6 is the
smallest value of x for which Fx is divisible by 22 = 4, whence
m(22) = 6;
when k = 3, F6 = 8, which is divisible by 2
3
, and x = 6 is the
smallest value of x for which Fx is divisible by 2
3
= 8, whence
m(2
3
) = 6;
when k = 4, F'2 = 144, which is divisible by 2
4
, and x = 12 is
the smallest value for x for which Fx is divisible by 24 = 16,
whence m(24) = 12;
when k = 5, F24 = 46,368, which is divisible by 2
5
, and x = 24
is the smallest value of x for which Fx is divisible by 2
5
= 32,
whence m(2
5
) = 24;
when k = 6, F48 = 4,807,526,976, which is divisible by 2
6
, and
x = 48 is the smallest value of x for which Fx is divisible by 2
6
=
64, whence m (2
6
) = 48;
and so on.
Next, to confirm 4.2, observe that when k = 1, F5 = 5, which is
divisible by 5, and x = 5 is the smallest value of x for which Fx is
divisible by 5.
Whence, by definition, m(5) = 5, and when k = 2, 52 = 25,
F
25
= 52 ·3,001, which is divisible by 52, and x = 25 is the smallest
value of x for which Fx is divisible by 52.
Whence, again by definition, m(5
2
) = 52, and when k = 3,
53 = 125, FI25 = 5
3
.3,001. 158,414,167,964,045,700,001, which is
divisible by 53, and x = 125 is the smallest value of x for which Fx
is divisible by 53.
Whence, by definition, m(5
3
) = 53, and when k = 4, 54 = 625,
F
625
= 54. P, where P is a product of 5 primes, which is divisible
by 54.
Whence, by definition again, m(5
4
) = 54, and so on.
AFTERWORD 335
Finally, we shall confirm 4.3 for odd primes, p = 3, 5, 7 and
k = 1, 2, 3, and leave to the reader the pleasure of confirming 4.3
for primes 11, 13, 17, 19andk= 1,2,3.
Thus when p = 3, k = 2 we have from table 1 and the Fibonacci
table:
m(3) = 4, m(3
2
) = 12 = 3' . m(3) = 3·4
when p = 3, k = 3,
m(3) = 4, m(3
3
) = 36 = 3
2
. m(3) = 9·4
whenp = 3, k = 4,
m(3)=4, m(3
4
) = 108 = 3
3
. m(3) = 27·4
when p = 5, k = 2,
m(5) = 5, m(5
2
) = 25 = 5' . m(5) = 5·5
when p = 5, k = 3,
m(5) = 5, m(5
3
) = 125 = 52 . m(5) = 25·5
when p = 5, k = 4,
m(5)=5, m(5
4
) = 625 = 53 ·m(5) = 125· 5
when p = 7, k = 2,
m(7) = 8, m(72) = 56 = 7' . m(7 ) = 7·8
whenp= 7, k= 3,
m(7) = 8, m(73) = 7
2
m(7) = 49·8 = 392
and we readily confirm from the table that Fx is divisible by
7
3
= 343 when x = 392 but for no smaller value of x.
336 AFTERWORD
5. Special Primes p = 10n ± 1, q = 10n ± 3 If n Is a
Positive Integer
If, upon division by 10, the prime p leaves the remainder 1 or 9, it is
said to be a prime IOn ± 1, because in this case there exists an inte
ger n such that p = IOn ± 1. For example, the first few primes IOn ±
1 are:p= 11, 19,29,31,41,59,61,71, and 79, since 11 = 10·1 + 1,
19 = 10· 2  1, 29 = 10· 3  1, 31 = 10· 3 + 1, and so on.
Note that the last digit of a prime 10 ± 1 is either 1 or 9.
If, on the other hand, upon division by 10 the prime q leaves the
remainder 3 or 7, it is said to be a prime IOn ± 3 because in this case
there exists an integer n such that q = IOn ± 3. For example, the first
few primes IOn ± 3 are q = 3, 7, 13, 17,23,37,43,47, and 53.
Note that the last digit of a prime IOn ± 3 is either 3 or 7.
Every odd prime other than 5 is either p = IOn ± 1 or
q = IOn ± 3. The special importance of primes p = IOn ± 1 and
primes q = IOn ± 3 is due to the following, 5.1 and 5.2, which the
reader is invited to confirm.
5.1. Ifp Is a Prime IOn ± 1 Then m(p) Is a Divisor ofp  1.
Consult table 1 to confirm for the primes p = 11, 19, 29, 31,41, 59,
61,71,79, and 89.
5.2. If q Is a Prime IOn ± 3 Then m(q) Is a Divisor of q + 1.
Consult table 1 to confirm for the primes q = 3, 7, 13, 17,23,37,
43,47,53,67, 73, 83, and 97.
6. A Simple Exercise
For each fixed positive integer n = 2, 3, 4, ... consult table 1 to
calculate the sequence n, men), m(m(n», m(m(m(n»), ....
What conclusion do you draw?
AFTERWORD 337
7. Greatest Common Divisor
We conclude this afterword with the remarkable formula described
below in section 8. We shall need a short preliminary digression.
The greatest of all common divisors of two specified positive
integers rand s is denoted by g = (r, s).
It has the property that any common divisor of rand s is also a
divisor of g.
Thus, if r = 30, and s = 75, then g = (30, 75) = 15. We see that
15 is the greatest of all common divisors of 30 and 75. Observe
that the common divisor 5 of 30 and 75 is also a divisor of 15, but
not the greatest one.
If rand s have no common divisor other than 1, we say that r
and s are relatively prime and write (r, s) = 1.
8. A Remarkable Formula
We conclude with four remarkable properties of the Fibonacci
numbers. In number 4 above, we described properties of m(2k) and
m(pk), where p is an odd prime, which, together with table 1, fa
cilitates the calculation of men), when n is an arbitrary power of a
prime. Here we give a formula which, again by means of table 1,
facilitates the calculation of men) for arbitrary integers n. This for
mula expresses m(rs), where rand s are relatively prime, in terms
of mer) and m(s). The reader may readily confirm that if (r, s) = 1
then
m(rs) =
m(r)m(s)
(m(r), m(s))
In other words, if rand s are relatively prime, that is, they have
no common factor other than unity, then m(rs) is equal to the prod
uct of m(r)and m(s) divided by the greatest common divisor of mer)
and m(s). Confirm this formula by consulting the extended table 1.
Clearly this formula facilitates the calculation of men) once the val
ues of m(2k) and m(pk), where p is an odd prime, have been found.
338 AFTERWORD
Let me again summarize the ideas involving the minor
modulus men).
Let n be any positive integer. Then there exist infinitely many
positive integers x such that the Fibonacci number F, is divisible
by n. The smallest such number x clearly depends on n. We call it
the minor modulus of n and denote it by men). Then men) is the
smallest positive integer x, such that Fx is divisible by n.
Let n be any positive integer. Then F, is divisible by n if and
only if x is divisible by men). Alternatively, all solutions of the
congruence
Fx =0 (mod n)
are given by
x = 0 (mod m e n » ~
We also have for m(pk), where p is prime, the following:
1. m(2) = 3, m(4) = 6, if k > 2, m(2k) = 3. 2
k

2
2. m(5
k
) = 5
k
3. Ifp is an odd prime, m(pk) = mk1m(p)
4. If P is a prime IOn ± 1 , then m(p) divides p  1
5. If q is a prime IOn ± 3, then m(q) divides q + 1
. m(r)m(s)
Furthermore, tf(r, s) =1, then m(rs) = ''"":"''
(m(r), m(s»
We now consider the primitive factors. For the equation
m(x) = x, there are infinitely many solutions. They are all given by
x = 1,5,25, 125,625, ... , 5
k
, k = 1,2,3, ...
x =12, 60, 300,1500,7500, ... , 12·5
k
, k = 0,1,2,3, ...
We call these solutions of the equation m(x) =x, the primitive
numbers.
Consider the sequence men), m(m(n», m(m(m(n» .... If we
let n be any positive integer, then the sequence men), m(m(n»,
AFTERWORD 339
m(m(m(n») ... tenninates in a primitive number, the second re
markable property of the Fibonacci numbers.
If one represents this function of the minor modulus m(n)
graphically, astonishing pictures arise.
So let n be a (given arbitrary) number. Then the smallest index
of x E N with n I Fx (where Fx is a Fibonacci number) is said to be
the minor modulus m(n) of n.
At first, table I seems quite "chaotic" and also in its graphic
presentation (figure I).
m(n)
Figure 1
It rather looks like "fly droppings"concentrated in the lower
half of the quadrant, which lies under this one of diagonals going
from the lower left to the upper right. If the points are connected
(see figure 2), we recognize hardly any pattern.
340 AFTERWORD
m(n)
Figure 2
If we were to continue table I to about n = 3,200, then radial
parts can be recognized in the graphtruly an amazing result,
which gives usthe third remarkable property of the Fibonacci num
bers (see figure 3).
men)
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
.'
4000
2000
o
o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
Figure 3
So you can see, even if a pattern does not immediately emerge,
you may have to look a bit further until one appears. There are
AFTERWORD 341
boundless beauties embedded in the Fibonacci numbers. I leave it
to the reader to discover others.
The Ultimate Word
In this afterword we have discussed some of the divisibility prop
erties of the Fibonacci numbers, and to this end have introduced
the concept of the minor modulus m(n). This work naturally raises
the question: What can we say about those Fibonacci numbers that,
upon division by the specified number n, leave the fixed remainder
r * O? Readers are invited to explore this question for themselves
and to make some of the exciting discoveries that await them. The
work is not easy but will be well rewarded.
As I read this delightfully informative book, I was motivated to
search for new mathematical relationships regarding the Fibonacci
numbers, some of which I just presented. I felt my search was in
complete until I could relate these ubiquitous numbers to the field
that has occupied a large portion of my professional
lifecrystallographyand for which some of my work was ac
knowledged by the Nobel prize. My search turned up the follow
ing: a crystal may be defined mathematically as a triply periodic
array of (or a triply periodic function, the electron density func
tion) points (atoms). As such, it may have certain elements of
symmetry, for example, a center of symmetry, a mirror plane, a
twofold rotation axis, and so on. Certain elements of symmetry,
consistent with its triply periodic structure, are, on the other hand,
forbiddena simple example of forbidden symmetry is the five
fold symmetry element.
When, nevertheless, a crystal, the aluminummanganese alloy,
AI6Mn, was observed in 1984 to have the forbidden fivefold sym
metry, the crystallographers were presented with a dilemma. The
dilemma was resolved with the recognition that this alloy consti
tutes a new state of matter, since called a quasicrystal, having
some properties of crystals and others of noncrystalline matter,
such as glass.
342 AFTERWORD
Quasicrystals may be described by means of a quasilattice;
for example, in the onedimensional case, by the Fibonacci lattice
generated by the two basis vectors of lengths a and b defined by
successive application of the rule Sn+1 = Sn_ISn' n = I, 2, 3 ... ,
where
.f5 + 1
So = a, SI = b, a = ¢b, where ¢ = 2 = 1.618034 ...
Then, as is readily confirmed,
So = a, S, = b ,S, = ab ,SJ = ab' ,S, = a' b
J
,S, = a' b' ,S6 = as b
B
, •••
In the Fibonacci lattice, the relationship of which to the sequence
of Fibonacci numbers is clear, we have the fourth remarkable
property of the Fibonacci numbers.
This example illustrates, once again, how often, and in what
unexpected ways, the most abstract mathematical construct may
throw light on a realworld phenomenon.
For some readers, my musings in the realm of the Fibonacci
numbers may be a bit challenging. Yet I hope that each reader will
see this fine book as a springboard to further investigations into the
Fibonacci numbers and perhaps their relationship to the reader's
field of interest. You have here a source for boundless entertain
ment and an entree into the beautiful world of mathematics.
n
,
9
10
II
12
lJ
"
15
16
11
" 19
20
21
22
2J
24
25
" 27
" 29
)0
31
l2
J3
34
JS
l6
31
"
J9
40
" 42
4J
'"
45
46
41
" 49
'0
"
"
II
Appendix A
List of the First 500 Fibonacci
Numbers, with the First 200
Fibonacci Numbers Factored
Fn
,
lJ
21
34
"
'''' 23J
377
610
'" 1597
25114
41S1
6765
'0946
17711
28657
463611
15025
12139)
196418
3171111
514229
1132040
1)46269
2178309
3524578
570211117
9227465
14930352
241571117
390118169
632459116
102334155
165Sl!OI41
267914296
433494437
701408733
IIJ49()3170
11136)11903
2971215073
41107526976
77711742049
125116169025
20365011014
329512110099
53)16291173
Number
of digits
(I)
,I)
Factors for the first 200
(I) pnme
(I) pnme
(I) pnme
(I) 2'
(2) pnme
(2) 37
(1) 217
(2) 511
(2J pnme
(3) Z'3!
(3) pnme
(3) 1329
(3) 2561
(JJ 3747
(4) pnme
(4) 2'1719
(4) 37113
(4) 351141
(5) 213421
(5) 119199
(5) pnme
(5) 253'723
(5) 5' 3001
(6) 233521
(6) 21753109
(6) 313292111
(6) pnme
(6) 2'5113161
(7) 5572417
(7) )7472207
(1) 289191101
(7) 15973571
(7) 513141961
(II) 2'3'17·19107
(II) 73·1492221
(8) 371139349
(8) 2233135721
(9) 35711412161
(9) 2711959369
(9) 2' \3 29211421
(9) pnme
(9) 34389199307
(10) 251761 10944\
(10) 139461211657
(\O) pnme
(10) 253' 7 23471103
(10) 13 97 61611709
(1l) 5' 11 \01 1513001
(II) 215976376021
(II) 3233 52! 904111
(II) 95355945741
343
344 ApPENDIX A
n F.
Number
Factors for the first 200
54 116261571272
of digits
(11) 2'171'1531095779
"
139511311(,2445 (121 SI!9MI474541
"
225K514)3717 (12) 3" U 29 2M1
"
365435296162 (12) 2171137975483)
58 5912116729879 (12) 5'11941!9514229
59 956722026041 (12) 35] 2710260697
'0
1541:1001:1755920 (13) 2'3'5113141612521
61 250473071:1.961 (13) 4513 55.5003497
62 405273953711111 (13) 2417 3010149
65574703191142 (13) 21317421352}96111
"
10610209857723 (14) J 7471010220744111
65 171676110177565 (14) .5 233 14736206161
66 277771:1900352t111 (14) 2' 1191999901191101
449455702121153 (14) 26911611491429913
727234602411141 (14) 3671597357163443
"
117669030460994 (lS) 2 1l7IQ9IKQ77211657
70 190392490709135 (15) 511112971911141961
71 30)1061521170129 (15) 607)41>165)71073
72 4911454011!l79264 (IS) 3'71719 n 107
7J 806515533049393 (15) 9375IC!986020717
74 1304969544928657 (16) 73149222154018521
"
2111485077978050 (16) 25' 613001230686501
76 3416454622906707 (16) 337111934929134601
77 5527939700884757 (16) 1,1:<991111611141132521
"
1:1944394323791464 (16) 2' 79233 521 1159135721
79 14472334024676221 (17)
234167283484676115 (17) .' 7 II 41 47 1601 2161 3041
"
3711119062373143906 (17) 217531092269437319441
82 61305790721611591 (17) 2711959)69370248451
"
99194853094755497 (17) prnl\e
K4 160500(4)1I163670KK (III) 2'3' 1129113211 2111 421 1427
"
25969549691 1 1225K5 (18) 15979521 3415914041
"
420196140727489673 (18) 6709144481433494437
"
67989163763861225K (18) 21735142293821263937
"
1100087778366101931 (19) 3743 K9199 263 307 881967
"
(19) 10091665011113218004111
90 2K800671943701116120 (19) 2' II 17 1911 61 IKI 541109441
91 4660046610375530309 (19) I J' 741469 159607993
92 75401131104746346429 (19) 3 1J9 4614969211657275449
93 1220016041512111767311 (20) 255724174531100550901
94 197402742198M!223167 (20) 2971215073 6643113111179
31940434634990099905 (20) 537 IU 7(,129641 67735001
"
5161W70M154115l1323072 (20) 23'72347769110322073107
97 1136211434119K4l1422977 (20) 1933119 3(j1l49K9 361040209
OK 1353011152344706746049 (21) 112997616117095997116069
99 211:1922995834555169026 (21) 21789197 191!01 (85468051),
100 3542241!4817926)915075 (21) 35' II 41 101 1514013001570601
101 573147l14401311170ll4101 (21) 74351937777011579711613
102 927372692193078999176 (21) 2' 91'11597 3469 35716376021
103 150052053020611960113277 (22) 519121 5644193512119709
104 2427IN3221!39997501!245, (22) J 7 103 233 521 904111 102193207
10'
39284137646061171165730 (22) 251361421 141961112811K2341!1
100 (,35630699300684624111113 (22) 9535594574111921111!51371
107 10211471075761371741391.' (23) 1247!03K242065050061761
10< 16641027750620563662090 (23) 2' J' 17 1953107 1095779111211427
109 2692574115011234281076009 (23) 11277211777325296754111:1417
110 43566776251:11:154844731:1105 (23) 5 II' K9 199 331 661 39161474541
III 7049252476701191251114114 (2') 2731492221 1459000305513721
112 1140593010259439705522)9 (24) 3713294721:111450310J450ll1141!1
113 1845511:125793033096366JD (24) 677 272602401466814027129
114 291161 I 126818977066911!552 (24) 2'."1132297979349541<3395419
115 41131629526120101632K411115 (24) 5131112116572441738K87'16391!1
"'
71117740794309117230203437 (24) ,59.1471941:19 514229
117 12649370320429973934H!022 (25) 2 17233297(71)5721 395l1961!5093
118 20467111114739114(2)691759 (25) 35,709119093364192710260697
119 331 I64KI435169!12017IHOOIII (25) 13 1597 15951293911151!557HII121
120 535!13592549909666401!711140 (25) 253'5711233141612412101252120641
121 11670007391:1507948651:1051921 (25) 119 \l7415!1134663814455960II'I
122 1402H36665349K91529K9237(,1 (26) 4513 555003497560074112931<01
123 2269113740520068639569756!12 (26) 22711959369611541957733949701
124 367267407055057792551199443 (26) 3557241730103493020733700601
125 59425114757512643212H75125 (26) 5' 3001 ISK414167964045700001
12'
96151855463018422461177456!1 (26) 2' IJ 17 1929211421 100911249352396111
127 155576<J702205310656KI64969J (27) 21941 556!105304H227732210073
128 25 I 72H1I2568354948l1 I 50424261 (27) '747127 10872207 44HI 11I61!122011641
12. 4073057959040805531<32073954 (27) 2257541711513396391193433494437
130 659034621 58763004198249H215 (27) 5111112335212011124571147.16200161
131 10663404174917105951114572169 (21!) pnmc
132 1725375039079340637797070384 12K) 2' 3' 43 H9 1993079901 191!01 26U99601
133 2791715456571051233611642553 n37113345742293351101301942501
134 45170904956503911171401!712937 (2K) 2694021 116!1491429913 24994118449
135 730111105952221443]050203554'10 (2H) 2517 53 61 109109441 11147(,9<.154367361
13'
111I251!964471!71!1349764290611427 (29) 3767159735716344323230657239121
137 19]34702400093278081449423917 (29) prune
13'
3096059111!47965113057871!492344 (29) 2'137 139461691 H29 11!0772H657 14H5571
139 500'l53012411051!391139327916261 (29) 277 21145375011155267229061!9093
"0
H 1 05 590009602 3 504 1 9720640H60 5 (29) 35 1113294171211191114196112317523121
"I
1311512013440111895336534324H66 (30) 2 1O!l21191435097 142017737 2971215073
'"
212207101440105399533740733471 (30) 067146(65)7I07361!I!Mf,50251111399
(10) H9 233 H51!1 192951141517561150496021
I"
555565404224292694404015791HOI! (30) 25"7171923471071103103611110749957121
'"
lI9K923707001:1479989274290R50145 (30) 551422'13496199969.107.170791190201
146 1454411911123277268367830664(95) (31) 15154\1 9)75H29 116020717 111199937029
I"
23534121111124125267295259749209K (31) 2119729342135296168709347502052673
I"
3110790 19294 7402535663090413405 I (31) 171149n2111911754018521K1(4)477963
"9
616131414771527110295113501626149 (31) 162709400094'1 115607646594.'i77
ISO 996921667711193033110214405760200 (31) II 3161101151300112301 11!451 23061!6501
151 161305314249045HI4157979073l1634\1 (32) 57021111666624525HII646469915H77
LIST OF FIBONACCI NUMBERS 345
n
Number
of digits
'52
153
15'
150
'50
100
'"
162
"J
'04
165
'60
'"
'"
'" 170
17'
172
17)
17'
175
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'" 17"
'79
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'84
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'"
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'90
'91
'92
I9J
19'
,9>
196
197
'"
'99
200
2('U9974KI020'HII1I4X02012)1,146549
4223027952699114662171(102205321<91(
6K).lO()216290923510191112533679447
II()Sf>0307156090Hl72J7632754212345
17I1!1903J4711511(llbK2574552H11191792
21<'1450641'141273911549501111042104137
461040976726457153752543329995929
7577916111667131139247631372100066
122111.1259539411<11293000174702095995
19K)924214061919432247!106U74196061
SI9}9KIOB5IX027151495711685041!1I111
1359110 I KK5M921620402N554477261:!2'IQ
220020566119466296922983322104048463
1316753
5760213223542475SIH1620619H6115365216
932022077KI3K3214K494290752666t11969
150X04340016HQ79707356352739520471115
24400t.547791119111155115004349218729154
.194l1I011117l1I4999156320699623170776339
63111117435(,13190341905763972389505493
1033621112342l1111949822646159556021\11'O2
1672445759041379114013222756794971\7325
270607401Q469569331B511691163510069157
114631137t>54914676953405211(,26429782121
300101121454'.1(,.145)907530667147829411911111
411551152'11444354401197201105669229197641
71156935tl5q9391111'14027251472l1I705l16117522
127127I1N74311.1433414tl97227l14116211711115163
2056'172303412332281742237513033465726115
13211251100117067562321196029711963445711411
53R522.14043030079049541971110929111030533
11713474505173(,11352.'1166151110.'1.'1261541111381
14091169790947669143.112035591975596511:1914
22111217241405037490121165140211511212007295
3691011 7032412 70663 94406116994.'1331101:1526209
597230427311777441355693 }1I39769202 05 3 3504
96633'113062904507750100253925251:129059713
15635695511016l1194910579363790217l149593217
409347112466(26)1405961687529729615211246147
662331169353011541162l1I751:1142155705206899077
1071611651111971232611779261195128666735145224
173402521172797l1I31596l150372114371942044301
28U571172'N25101400'7611'H241.'OJII677189525
201 45397.1694165307953197296969697410619233826
202 7345448671578180932349089021 10449296423351
203 1 18851856 lJ2J 1260464322058718078599 15657177
204 19230634284809441396671 14773918309212080528
205 31 1 1581989804070186099J20645726169127737705
206 5034645418285014325766435419644478339818233
207 8146227408089084511865756065370647467555938
(32)
(32)
(2)
(B)
(33)
(11)
(33)
(3,)
(14)
(34)
(34)
(34)
(34)
(35)
(35)
(35)
(35)
(35)
(6)
(36)
(36)
(36)
(37)
(37)
(37)
(37)
(37)
(38)
(311)
(311)
(311)
(311)
(39)
(3'1)
(39)
(39)
(39)
(40)
(40)
(40)
(40)
(40)
(4))
(41)
(41)
(41)
(42)
(42)
(42)
208 13180872826374098837632191485015125807374171
209 2 I 327100234463183349497947550385773274930109
210 34507973060837282187130139035400899082304280
211 55835073295300465536628086585786672357234389
212 90343046356137747723758225621187571439538669
213 146178119651438213260386312206974243796773058
214 236521166007575960984144537828161815236311727
2 15 3826992856590 14 174244530850035136059033084785
216 619220451666590135228675387863297874269396512
217 100 I 91973 7 325604109473206237898433933302481297
218 1621140188992194444701881625761731807571877809
219 2623059926317798754175087863660165740874359 J06
220 4244200115309993198876969489421897548446236915
221 686726(X)4 1627791953052057353082063289320596021
222 11111460156937785151929026842503960837766832936
223 17978720198565577 10498 1084 195586024127087428957
224 29090 18035550336225691 0 1 11038089984964854261893
225 47068900554068939361891195233676009091941690850
226 76159080909572301618801306271765994056795952743
227 123227981463641240980692501505442003148737643593
228 199387062373213542599493807777207997205533596336
229 3226 I 5043836854783580 186309282650000354271239929
230 52200210621 006R326179680 1 17059857997559804836265
231 844617150046923 109759866426342507997914076076194
232 J 366619256256991435939546543402365995473880912459
233 2211236406303914545699412969744873993387956988653
234 357785566256090598163895951314723998886183790 1112
235 5789092068864820527338372482892113982249794889765
236 936694773142572650897733199603935397111 1632790877
237 151560398002905470363 I 5704478931467953361427680642
238 245229875317 I 6273545293036474970821924473060471519
239 396790273J2006820581608740953902289877834488 1 52161
240 6420201486372309412690 1777428873111802307548623680
241 1038810421957299147085!O5 18382775401680142036775841
242 1680830570594530088354 I 2295811648513482449585399521
243 271964099255182923543922814194423915162591622175362
244 44004715631463593237933511000607242864504 1 207574883
245 712011255569818855923257924200496343807632829750245
Factors for the first 200
3737 113 9349 29134601 109134639691:10401
217' 1597 637f>021 7175323114950564593
132911919922971"199886111411325219321929
5557241721701123705331:18161182771:1621
2' 3' 79 233 52185990481 135721 1221:10217041
I 11617 7636411 I 10424204306491346737
15792111047149475332361122672259149
2 l17 953 55945741 97639037 229602768949
35·7114147160121612207304123725145626561
IlIl69l2116576126061077S5058997065597
2' 17 1953 10922693079437357791944162650261
977411926093336551939332566223208133
3 1632789593698004833502075693702411451
2561 !!9661 19801116461474541518101900241
3576131116202401259991941153094755497
111104700793 1966344318693345608565721
253'7'1323298316721121:11421142714503657405113
233 337 119909104600155609126213229732669
5 II 159735719521 11511551 127600313415914041
2 1737 113 797 68415483357414617608791\44361
36709 1444111 433494437 31319571151657K281
16393437115721389678749007629271532733
2' 59 173 349 194119514229947104099·3821263937
5' 137013(01141961172312037)0201189308301
3743471191992633071:181967930582415624111561
23532191261110513406112970276812710260697
179 1069 1 6650111132 I 1:l004K 1 22235502640988369
214111 1560119341811166409031:191:1929534613769
2'3'511 1719314161 107 IK1541 2521 109441 107833420lli
8611942245311175789237231:1547574551461093
13' 292335217414691596079936119667151970161
2109745135550034971429734797197575711001133
3713946149692865725336727544995063721931163
5731492221170294551319130555690709761KI61
2' 557 2417 63799 3010349 355107494531100550901
119373 1597 10157807)05963434099105034917037
3563564129712150736643831111794632894751907
2131753 109421 31193335239681955921950316735037
5 1137113 I'll 761 93492964141611677350011173112901
41170723671313757810806256989128439975793
2' 3' 7 23 47 76910117110322073167 44KI 1111625752411703
9465271192910209304320323269339768260011497
19338932993084911936104020956678557502141579
2561233 135721 1473620616111899925083749911776111
313 2997 211158111 6168709 59978606961025309469041
15761257959692271502656977171851071251186549
2' 17 1989 197 199991 21799901 19801 1513909185461105133
397436782169201002048261171378550055269633
'5'71141101151401216130015706019125201
346 ApPENDIX A
n F.
246 1152058411884454788302593034206568772452674037325128
247 1864069667454273644225850958407065116260306867075373
248 3016 J 2807933872843252844399261363388871298090440050 I
249 488019774679300207675429495 102069900497328777 ! 475874
250 7896325826131730509282738943634332893686268675876375
251 12776523572924732586037033894655031898659556447352249
252 20672849399056463095319772838289364792345825123228624
253 33449372971981195681356806732944396691005381570580873
254 5412222237103 765877667657957123376 J 483351206693809497
255 8757 J 5953430 18854458033386304178158174356588264390370
256 141693817714056513234709965875411919657707794958199867
257 229265413057075367692743352179590077832064383222590237
258 37095923077113188092745331805500 1997489772178 1 80790104
259 600224643828207248620196670234592075321836561403380341
260 97118387459933912954764998828959407281 1608739584170445
261 1571408518427546378167846658524186148133445300987550786
262 2542592393026885507715496646813780220945054040571721231
263 4114000911454431885883343305337966369078499341559272017
264 6656593304481317393598839952151746590023553382 I 30993248
265 10770594215935749279482183257489712959102052723690265265
266 17427187520417066673081023209641459549 I 256061 0582 1 2585 I 3
267 28197781736352815952563206467131172508227658829511523778
268 4562496925676988262564422967677263205735326493533278229 I
269 73822750993122698578207436143903804565580923764844306069
270 119447720249892581203851665820676436622934188700177088360
271 193270471243015279782059101964580241188515 I 12465021394429
272 31271819149290786098591076778525667781 144930 I 165198482789
273 5059886627359231407679698697498369189999644 I 36302198772 I 8
274 81870685422883100 17538806375350935968 I 1413714795418360007
275 1324695516964754142521850507284930515811378128425638237225
276 2143402371193585144275731144820024112622791843221056597232
277 346809788815833928679758165210495462843416997 I 646694834457
278 5611500259351924431073312796924978741056961814867751431689
279 907959814751026371787089444902993336949 113 I 7865 14446266 146
280 146910984068621881489442072459549 I 21 1054809360 I 382197697835
281 23770696554372451866815101694984845480039225387896643963981
282 384617949612346400 1575930894093975759058731898927884166 I 8 1 6
283 6223249151560709188257441 0635924603070626544377175485625797
284 100694286476841731898333719576864360661213863366454327287613
285 16292677799244882378090813021278896373 I 8404077436298129 I 3410
286 26362106446929055567924 I 8497896533243930542711 10084140201023
287 426547842461739379460 149980002442288124894678853713953114433
288 690 168906931 029935139391829792095612517948949963798093315456
289 11167167493927693145995418097945379006428436288 17512046429889
290 18068856563237992497389336395866335 I 3 160792578781310139745345
291 2923602405716568564338475449381171413803636207598822186175234
292 4730488062040367814077409088967804926964428786380 132325920579
293 765409046 7756936378415884538348976340768064993978954512095813
294 12384578529797304192493293627316781267732493780359086838016392
295 20038668997554240570909178165665757608500558774338041350112205
296 32423247527351544763402471792982538876233052554697128188128597
297 5246191652490578533431164995864829648473361 1329035169538240802
298 84885164052257330097714121751630835360966663883732297726369399
299 13734708057716311543202577 1 710279 131845700275212767467264610201
300 222232244629420445529739893461909967206666939096499764990979600
301 3595793252065835609617656651721890990523672 14309267232255589801
302 581811569836004006491505558634099066259034 I 53405766997246569401
303 9413908950425875674532712238062881653 I 1401367715034229502159202
304 152320246487859157394477678244038723157043552112080 1226748728603
305 2464593359921 179141398048006246675396881836888835835456250887805
306 398779582479977071534282478868706262845227240995663668299% 16408
307 6452389184720949856740872794933738025334 109298792472139250504213
308 10440 18500952072057208369758362080065378638 I 7087491 08822250 120621
309 16892574194241670428824570378554538679120491007541580961500624834
310 27332759203762391 000908267962175339332906872716290689783750745455
31 I 442253333980040614297328383407298780 120273637238322707452513 70289
312 7155809260176645243064 I 1063029052 I 7344934236440 122960529002115744
313 I 15783425999770513860373944643635095356961600163955231274253486033
314 1873415 I 860 153696629101 505094654031270189583660407819180325560 1777
315 30312494460 1307480 151388995590 17540805885743676803342307750908781 0
316 490466463202844446442404046536715720760753273372111614880764689587
317 793591407804151926593793042126891 128819610710140 145037958273777397
318 1284057871 006996373036197088663606849580363983512256652839038466984
319 207764927881114829962999013079049797839997469365240 1690797312244381
320 336 I 707 I 49818 144672666 I 872194541 04827980338677 I 6465834363635071 1365
321 54393564286292929722961773502446028063803133708 17060034433662955746
322 880 10635784474376449623645696987076343606520479817183780700 13667111
323 142404200070767306172585419199433 I 0440740965418798778412503676622857
324 230414835855241682622209064896420 1807510161 7466780496790573690289968
325 37281903592600898879479448409585328515842582885579275203077366912825
326 60323387178125067141700354899227346590944200352359771993651057202793
327 97605290770725966021179803308812675106786783237939047 196728424 1 15618
328 157928677948851033162880 158208040021697730983590298819190379481318411
329 2555339687195769991840599615168526968045177668282378663871 07905434029
330 4134626466684280323469401197248927185022487504 I 8536685577487386752440
331 66899661538800503153100008 1 241745415306766517246774551964595292186469
332 10824592620564330638779402009666381338090 1526766531 1237542082678938909
333 1751455877444438095408940282208383549115781784912085789506677971125378
334 283391513950087115928688048317502 1682924797052577397027048760650064287
335 4585371 0 16945309254695820765383405232040578837489482816555438621189665
336 741928615644618041 398270 1248558426914965375890066879843604199271253952
337 12004657 1733914896686785220 13941832147005954727556362660159637892443617
338 1942394332983767008266122326250025906 I 971 3306 I 7623242503763837163697569
339 31428600503229159751339745276442091208977285345179605163923475056141186
340 508525438330668298340009685389423502709486 I 596280284 766 7687312219838755
LIST OF FIBONACCI NUMBERS 347
n F.
341 822all443362959895853407] 381538444147992590 I J079824521B 1610787275979941
342 I J]! 336881 693628! 9419341682354326791750874517270785300499298099495818696
343 21541483250565880900468239616971123323080041 8578767753330908886771798637
344 3485485206750216284240240785240380249816 749358495530538302069862676 J 7333
345 563963353180680437428706474693749258212475354428320807161115873039415970
346 91251 1873855702065852730553217787283194150290277873860991322859307033303
347 147647522703638250328143702791 1536541406625644706194668152438732346449273
348 2388987100892084569134167581129323824600775934984068529143761591653482576
349 386546232792846707241560460904086036600740 1579690263197296200323999931849
350 6254449428820551641549772190 170 184190608177514674331726439961915653414425
351 101199117567490 18713965376799211044556615579094364594923736162239653346274
352 16374361185569570355515148989381228747223756609038926650 176124155306760699
353 26494272942318589069480525788592273303839335703403521573912286394960 106973
354 42868634127888159424995674777973502051 06309231244244822408841 0550266867672
355 693629070702067484944762005665657753549024280 1 5845969798000696945226974645
356 112231541 198094907919471875344539277405965520328288418022089107495493842317
357 18159444826830 165641394807591 1 105052760867948344134387820089804440720816962
358 293825989466396564333419951255644330 16683346867242280584217891 1936214659279
359 4754204377346982207473680271667493829277014 17016557193662268716376935476241
360 769246427201 094 785080787978422393713094534885688979999504447628313150 135520
361 124466686493579300582815600558914309602223630270553719316671634469008561 1761
362 201 39132921368877909089439840115368091 16771188394517192671163973003235747281
363 32585801570726807967370999896006 79905139007491100054385837880317693321359042
364 5272493449209568587646043973612216714255778679494571578509044290696557 106323
365 85310736062822493843831439632 1 2896619394786170594625964346924608389878465365
366 13803567055491817972029187936825113333650564850089 1 97542855968899086435571688
367 2233464066177406 7356412331900038009953045351020683823507202893507476314037053
368 361382077172658853284415198368631 23286695915870773021 05005886240656274960874 1
369 5847284837903995268485385173690 1133239741266891456844557261755914039063645794
370 9461 10560963058380 1329537157376425652643718276222986560732061832060 1813254535
371 15308390447534579069814922331066538976617844965368671 0 1645823 74234640876900329
372 24 769496057165162871 1444594884429646292615632415916575771902992555242690 1 54864
373 4007788650469974 19409593818195095036058794082069603285936485366789883567055 193
374 64847382561864904812 1038413079524682351409714485519861708388359345126257210057
375 I 049252690665646467530632231274619718410203796555123147644873726135009824265250
376 16977265162842955156516706443541444007616135 1 1040643009353262085480136081475307
377 2746979206949941983182302875628764119171817307595766156998135811615145905740557
378 44447057232342374988339735 19982908519933430818636409166351397897095281987215864
379 71916849301841794820162763956116726391 0524812623217 5323349533708710427892956421
380 1 16363906534 18416980850249915594581159038678944868584489700931605805709880172285
381 18828075583602596462866526311206253798143927071100759813050465314516137773128706
382 304644662370210 134437167762268008349571826060 1596934430275139692032184 7653300991
383 492925418206236099065833025380070887553265330870701041 15801862234837985426429697
384 79757008057644623350300078764807923712509139103039448418553259155159833079730688
385 1290495498782682332568833813028150 12467835672190 109552534355121389997818506160385
386 20880655793591285660718346(X)6762293618034481 1293149000952908380545157651585891073
387 3378561078141 81 08986406684137043794864818048348325855348726350 19351554 70092051458
388 54666266575009394647125030 1438060884828525294776407554440171882480313 1 21677942531
389 8845187735642750363353171428084988334 76705778259666107927435384415468591769993989
390 1431 181439314368982806567444246559718305231 073036073662367607266895781713447936520
391 23157002128786440 1914188458705505855 1 781936851295739770295042651311250305217930509
392 374688165219301300 194845203130 16182700871679243318134326626499182070320 18665867029
393 6062581865071657021 0903366183566768218691 04775627553202957692569518282323883797538
394 98094635172646 7002303878864965829509195627269995936663562034248772531434254966456 7
395 1 5R72045382J36327044 1 291252680 149719 I 38253774755869198385780350572435966664334621 05
396 25681 508899600997067167913917673267005781650 175546286474198377544968911008983126672
397 4155.155428 1937324111297039185688238919607027651133206312776412602212507675416588777
398 6723506318153832 1 1784649531033615059253886778266794927869747901471814 18684399715449
399 1087886 1 746H75645289761992289049744844995705477812699099751202749393926359816304226
400 1760236806450 1396646K22694539241 1250770384.183304492191886725992896575345 0442160 19675
40 I 2848122981 0848961 175798893768146099561538008878230489098647719564596927140403232390 I
402 460835978753503578226215883073872246385764472086797082873203188542544616448248343576
40.1 74564827686199.118998420482075533324200 1 14456086910197.1859680384188513887852280667477
404 1206484255615496 7682 1042070382920548838690903295589905673288357273 10585043005290 I 1053
405 19521325324774899581946255245845387.1038805.159382500 I 030592563956919572392152809678530
406 .1158616788092986 72640504622841374421877496262678090008732544 7529650630896453338689583
407 511074932057047668459967175299828294916301622060590 1117918011486570203288606148368113
408 826936610866.146.1411004717981412027 16793797884738680 1205243459016220834 185059487057696
409 13.1801154292..1.19400956043897.14410310117100995067992702323161470502791037473665635425809
410 21649481 5.178974035066091 077158223372850389739153795035284049295190 1187 1658725122483505
411 35029596967131343602213497450132647402139968983.1722058515664000218029091323907579093 14
412 566790785050287471088226051660549846871789428987517093799713295408147807911158803928 19
413 IJ 1708675472 1 6(X)907 1 10361026162876.1208931891 18821239152315.17729562617689923506638302133
414 I 4838775W771 R88.17819858707782342616 776497854 78087562461 1509059103432470714622518694952
415 240096429449.148928530894810398630248865816766662999539843046 788666050160638 129156997085
416 .18848418342653776635075.15 18180972865642314621443875164454555847769482631352751675692037
417 6285806128758R669488 1 6483285796031 145081313881 {}68747042976026.164.155.12791990880832689 1 22
418 1 () 1 70647963024244h 12.1240 1 846 7605759RO 1 504460095507498687521584842050 15423.14363250838 1 159
419 1645645409178.111 1561 14050175340 179094658577.11J7657624573049761 120640548215334513341070281
420 266271 02()54807356 I 7346452022 I oo75507480902340720R3 74441801919604845563638678145849451440
421 4.108.15561 4659()46 77346050219744093416946760080486599901485 16807254861 I 18540 1265919052 1 721
422 6971 065820 13978231J08069542195416892442766242120743734566536(X)33033 1675492690805039973161
423 I 12794214.1479882916426745641698262341.17442250 I 694037247150528 10558 1 7787346703464230494882
424 18250487254'.).\861 15550744 !O636524.1 I 26580208492290 14745928158881386149462839394269270468043
425 29529908689737440719341867053506936071 7650742459551 I 8W9664 I 6244 I 967250 186097733500962925
426 477803959446760522744 1 62776900.11248729785923474969864327823043828 I 16713025492002771430968
427 7731030463441.149299375814474353818480 1 5509977209249827274872062700839632 1 1589736272393893
428 1250907005790895452681744224]3569433531 336921195894847055310250098200676237081739043824861
429 20240 1 00521 35030382619325671771 07618332887918916819829782797456368284639448671475316218754
430 327491705792592583530 1069896106770518642248401 12714676838107706466485315685753214360043615
431 52989271 10060956217920395567877846701971 12759029534506620905162834769955134424689676262369
432 8573844167986882053221465463984617220613375991422491834590 1286930 1255270820 177904036305984
433 14186 J 03186246392258450358171783690079918032136025225954602593712568353
434 22446615446034720324363326495847081 143 197879573140.1287353893090 1437280496774780497748874337
435 36319386 724082558595505 1875277095450657823831548581656361884893.157330572272938309146 1 442690
348 ApPENDIX A
n ~
436 58766002170 117278919868514023556626208980262727998494371577798350 I 0586219504163589210317027
437 95085388894 J 9983751537370 15512661712747626458828566600077662876858389194223354668067 1759717
438 15385139106431711643524221557482279748374290861 08551 543793440860359447816! 73771 02698R2076744
4)9 248936779958516953950615917126088968758505554493711814387I 1037372178370103971256950553836461
440 402788171022834O70385858! 3270091 ! 7662422484631 0456696876645445975772848265708967220435913205
441 65 J 72495098135 10243364740498270007350007540 1759827878315356483347951218369680224170989749666
442 105451 312200418509472233218252791250 12430024807028457519200 1929323724066635389191391425662871
4 4 ~ 170623807298553611905880623235491323624375649830112453507358412671675285005069415562415412537
444 276075119498972121378113841488282573748675897900397028699360341995399351640458606953841075408
445 446698926 79752573328399446472377389737305154 7730509482206718754667074636645528022516256487945
446 7227740462964978546621 0830621205647112172744563090651 0906079096662473988285986629470097563353
447 1169472973094023587946102770935830368494778993361415993112797851329548624931514651986354051298
448 189224701939052144260821 10771478868396165064389923225040 1887694799202261321750 1281456451614651
449 30617199924845450305543138480837172081 112854323537384971316747993215712381490 15933442805665949
450 495396701 187506647316252492523160404772779187134606100 1 150551747313593851366517214899257280600
451 80 1568700435961 1503716838773315321255839077303699799498282226546635 165089515533148342062946549
452 129696540 16234677976879363698546925303566869175045860499432778293948758940882050363241 320227149
453 20985341 0205942894805962024718622465594059464787456599977150048405839240303975835 1 1583383173698
454 3395499503682896745747556617040917 1862972815653791520497147783134532682971279633874824703400847
455 5494033605742325693807176864227141842237876213253 718049486278797511660700 1677217386408086574545
456 8889533109425222439554733481 26805902853515777863287009920 10571 109649289972956851261232789975392
457 1438356671516 754813336191 03454952008707730339918865881486873359084765896974634068647640876549937
458 2327309982459277057291664382676325989930819177051945824 78883930 194415186947590919908873666525329
459 376566665397603 18706278554 17225846077008 1225762406046396575728927918 1083922224988556514543075266
460 6092976636435308927919519799902172066938941753292550464446412194 73596270869815908465388209600595
461 98586432904113407985473752171280 181439470643295331551 041 0398508752777354792040897021902752675861
462 1595161992684664972646689501 703019021 08860060828257055(8550)9728226373625661 856805487290962276456
463 258102632172579905250 142702341582083548330704 1235886067265438236979150980453897702509193714952317
464 4176188314410464025148116525118839856571907649518456624120477965205524606115754507996484677228773
465 6757214636136263077649543548534660692055214690754342691385916202 184675586569652210505678392181090
466 10933402950546 7271 0279766007365350054862712234027279931550639416 7390200 1926854067 18502 1 63{)69409863
467 17690617586682990 180447203622188161240682337031 02714200689231 036957487577925505892900784 1461590953
468 286240205372297172832448636958416617893094593 7129994132239870453696507597194046564 75 10004531000816
469 4631463812391270746369206 73180298230299917964023270833292910 14906539951751 1955245765 17845992591769
470 749386586611424247469369310 1387148481930 1255773627024651689719443505027723135990224027850523592585
471 121253296785055132210628998331901307849293052175954107980980734350044979474331514800545696516184354
472 196191955446197556957565929345772792668594307949581 132632670453793550007197467505024573547039776939
473 317445252231252689168194927677674100517887360125535240613651188143594986671799019825119243555961293
474 51363 72076774502461257608570234468931864816680751 163732463216419371449938692665248496927<.X)595738232
475 83108245990870293529395578470 1120993704369028200651613859972830080739980541 065544674812034 151699525
476 1344719667586153 1814197166417245678868908506962757679871062944720 1788497441 0332069524504824747437757
477 2175802127494856116713672426425688880595219724476419600966267302098624954951397614199316858899137282
478 3520521795081 009298 1333890681502567674860704207521875880725617741 16509929361729683723821683646575039
479 5696323922575865414847061494575945648081290145228607189038829076215134884313127297923138542545712321
480 9216845717656874712980450562726202415567360565980794777111390850331644813674856981646960226192287360
481 14913169640232740 12782751205730214806364865071120940 1966150219926546779697987984279570098768737999681
482 241300 153578896148408079626200283504792160 11277190 1967432616]077687842451]66284 1 26 1217058994930287041
483 3904318499812235496863547467733049854286466 1 98839959870941 1830703425204209650825540787157763668286722
484 631732003560 1 1969809443437297358849022080673265589795452673441480303628721313666802004216758598573763
485 10221638535413432477807891 1974689347564945335253989394 1 62085272183728832930964492342791374522266860485
486 1653895857 10 1462945875223492720481965870260085195791896147587 1 3664032461652278159144795591280865434248
487 267605971 06428061936560 126124673754415197134377356858377684398584776 1 294583242651487586965803132294733
488 43299555677442691395312361051878574073899735229314777339 1 6026995 1 1793756235520810632382557083997728981
489 70060 15278387075333 18724871765523284890968696066 7]63571684466853595550508187634621]9969522887130023714
490 1 13359708461313444 7271848482284309025629966048359864130560049384871348807054284272752352079971 127752695
491 ]83419861245 1841980590573354049832310520934 744426580487728496070230903857873047734872321602858257776409
492 2967795697064976427862421836334 14 ]3361509007927864446]8288545455] 02252664927332007624673682829385529104
493 4801994309516818408452995190383973646671835537213025 1060 17041525333 156522800379742496995285687643305513
494 7769790006581794836315417026 7 1811498282273632999946972430558698043540918772771 1750 12166R96R517028834617
495 12571784316098613244768412217 10208862949457186 7212494830322628505768565710528091492618664254204672140 130
496 2034 157432268040808108382924382020361231730819721 1964554628215486203974898255803242740333222721700974747
497 32913358638779021325852241460922292241811880064424459384950843991972540608783894735358997476926373114877
498 5325493296]459429406936070704 742495854129188261636423939579059478]765]5507039697978099330699648074089624
499 8616829160023845073278831 216566478809594] 068326060883324529903470 1490561]582359271 3458328176574447204501
500 139423224561697880 1397243828704072839500702565876973072641 08962948325571622863290691557658876222521294125
Appendix B
Proofs of Fibonacci
Relationships
For Cha pter 1
Some of the foll owi ng proofs involve a technique called mathe
mat ical induction. A bri ef explanation of t hi s procedure may be in
order here.
Introduction to Mathemati cal Induction
Consider a set of domi noes with an endless number of tiles set up
as ill ustrated below.
Figure 8  1
If we were asked to knock down all the til es, we could consider
two methods:
349
350 ApPENDIX B
(1) we could knock down each tile separately; or
(2) we could knock down just the first tile, if we were sure that
any tile knocked down would automatically knock down
the tile after it.
The first method would not only be inefficient but would also
never assure us of knocking down all the tiles (since the end may
never be reached). The second method would guarantee that all the
tiles are knocked down. If we knocked down the first tile, we
would be assured that it, and any knocked down tile, would knock
down its successor tilethat is, the first tile knocks down the sec
ond, which knocks down the third, which knocks down the fourth,
and so on. All would be knocked down.
This second method is directly analogous to the axiom of
mathematical induction:
A proposition involving the natural number n is true for all
natural numbers:
(a) if the proposition is correct when n = I; and
(b) if k is any value of n for which the proposition is correct, then
the proposition is also correct for n = k + I.
Now for the proof of some of the relationships that were ac
cepted intuitively in the chapters.
1. (p. 33) Listing the remainders of the first few Fibonacci
numbers upon dividing by 11, we have
1, 1,2,3,5,8,2,10, 1,0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 2, 10, 1,0, ....
So we see that the remainders repeat in cycles of
length 10. Since it is the remainder upon dividing a num
ber by 11 that determines its divisibility by 11, all we
have to do is check that in adding any ten consecutive
numbers in the sequence
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 351
1,1,2,3,5,8,2,10,1,0,1, 1,2,3,5,8,2,10,1,0, ...
we get a sum divisible by 11. And we check this as follows.
Since the cycle of this sequence is of length exactly 10,
adding any ten consecutive numbers in this sequence will
always come out to adding the ten numbersI, 1,2,3,5,
8, 2, 10, 1, Oin a cycle.
1
y. 1
1/ \2
: I
1 0 ~ ~ 3
2  . 5
8
Figure B2
(Imagine these ten numbers arranged clockwise in that
order around a circle, with the sequence above obtained by
traveling around the circle over and over. Then you can see
that any numbers missed at the beginning of a cycleif the
sum is started somewhere in the interior of the cycleare
regained from the next cycle; for example, consider the
sum 5 + 8 + 2 + 10 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 3. This is because
no matter where you start counting on the circle, counting
ten numbers clockwise around the circle will amount to
counting all ten numbers, because that is exactly how many
numbers there are.)
These ten numbers have a sum of 33, which is indeed
divisible by 11.
2. (p. 33) We proceed by induction. Fl = 1 and F2 = 1 are, of
course, relatively prime. Now, assume that Fk and F
k
+
1
are
relatively prime (our induction hypothesis). If F
k
+
1
and Fk+2
352 ApPENDIX B
had a common factor other than 1, say the factor b, then
since Fk = Fk+2  Fk+l' Fk would have the factor b too. But
then Fk and Fk+l would both have the factor b, and that
would contradict our assumption that Fk and Fk+l are rela
tively prime (do not have any common factor other than 1).
So Fk+l and Fk+2 cannot have any common factors other
than 1, which means they are relatively prime as well. This
completes our induction.
3. (p. 35) We have to prove that the Fibonacci numbers in
compositenumber positionswith the exception of the
fourth Fibonacci number, F4 = 3are composite numbers.
We will show that, in general, if m is divisible by n, then
Fm is divisible by Fn, or, in other words, that Fnk is divisi
ble by Fn for any nand k.
We proceed by induction on k. For k = 1, we need to
check that Fnl is divisible by Fn; and this is, of course,
true. Now assume Fnp is divisible by Fn (this is our induc
tion hypothesis). We want to prove the statement for
k = p + 1, that is, that F
n
(p+l) is divisible by F". Using the
lemma
l
in number 8 (following later)
we get:
which is divisible by F" because both F
np
_
1
F
n
and FnpFn+l
are divisible by Fn (by the induction hypothesis,
Fnp is divisible by Fn , and so is F"pF
n
+
1
). This completes the
induction.
I. A subsidiary proposition is used to prove another proposition; a helping theo
rem.
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 353
So, based on all this, if n is a composite nwnber, that is,
if we can write n = ab, where a and b are both different from
I, then we know that Fn is divisible by Fa (and also by F
b
,
for that matter). Now, for n greater than or equal to 2, Fn is
greater than any Fibonacci number that comes before it (the
Fibonacci sequence is increasing), so since n = 4 (which is
greater than 2) is the first composite number, certainly Fa is
different from Fn' Now we also need to make sure Fa is dif
ferent from I to show that Fn is composite (a composite
number must have some divisor other than I and itself).
Now, Fa = 1 can only happen if a = I or a = 2. But a (and b)
was assumed not to be equal to I (because n is composite),
so the only possibility is a = 2. The only problem, then, can
occur when a = 2 and b = 2, that is, when n = 4. Indeed, for n
= 4, F" = 3 , which is not composite.
5. (p. 37) We proceed by induction. For n = I, we need to
check that F2 = F3 1 ; and this is, indeed, true (1 = 2  I).
Now assume the statement is true for n = k, that is, assume:
Then we need to check the case when n = k + I:
(F
2
+··· +F2k)+F2k+2
= F
2k
+
1
1 + F2k+2
= (F2k+l + F2k+2)1
= F
2
k+3
1
= F
2
(k+l)+1 1
which is exactly the statement for n = k + I. So our proof by
induction is complete.
6. (p. 38) We again we proceed by induction. For n = I, we
need to check that F1 = F
2
; and this is, of course, true
354 ApPENDIX B
(1 = 1). Now assume the statement is true for n = k, that is,
assume:
Then we must check to see if this holds true for n = k + 1:
(F; + ... + F
2k

1
) + F
2k
+
1
= F2k + F2k+l
= F
2k
+
2
= F
2
(k+l)
which is exactly the statement for n = k + 1. So our proof by
induction is complete.
7. (p. 39) We again proceed by induction. For n = 1, we need
to check that F/ = F;F
2
; and this is, of course, true
(12 = 1 . 1). Now assume the statement is true for n = k, that
is, assume:
Then we check the case for n = k + 1:
(F;2 + ... + F/) + F/+
1
= FkF;,.+1 + F/+1
=F;,.+I(F;,.+Fk+l)
= F
k
+1F;,.+2
which is exactly the statement for n = k + 1. So our proof
by induction is complete.
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 355
8. (p. 42) We have, by factoring (difference of squares),
F/  F/"_2
=(Fk F
k

2
)(F
k
+F
k

2
)
= F
k

I
F
k

2
)
= Fk_1F
k
+
= +
First we'll prove the following lemma, which will come in
useful and later on.
Proof of Lemma
We proceed by induction on n. (Actually, this will be a
form of induction that is called "strong induction," where
we will be using the statements for n = k  I and for n = k
to prove the statement for n = k + I. This will also mean
that we will need two base cases rather than just one; so we
will have to check the statement for n = I and for n = 2.)
For n = I, we have to check that Fm+' = Fm,F; + F
m
F
2
, or,
since F2 = 1 and F2 = 1, we have to check that
Fm+' = F
m
_, + Fm; this is, of course, true because it is the
very relation by which we define the Fibonacci numbers.
For n = 2, we have to check that Fm+2 = F
m

1
F
2
+ , or,
since F2 = 1 and F3 = 2, we have to check that
Fm+2 = F
m
_, + 2Fm; and this is true by the following se
quence of equalities:
Now assume the statement is true for n = k  I and n = k,
that is, assume
356 ApPENDIX B
F
m
+
k

I
= Fm_1F
k
_
1
+ F m ~
and
(This is our induction hypothesis.) Then
Fm_1F
k
+
1
+ F
m
F
k
+
2
= Fm_1(F
k
_
1
+ F
k
)+ Fm(Fk + Fk+l)
= Fm_1F
k
_
1
+ Fm_1F
k
+ FmFk + FmFk+l
= Fm_1F
k
+ FmF
k
+
1
+ Fm_1F
k
_
1
+ FmFk
= Fm+k + F
m
+
k

1
= F
m
+
k
+
1
That is, Fm_1Fk+l + F,nFk+2 = F
m
+
k
+
1
, which is exactly the
statement for n = k + 1. So our induction is complete.
Now using this lemma, we see (by substituting m = k
and n = k  2) that
Hence F/  F/_2 = F
2k

2
, and the proof is complete.
9. (p. 43) F} + F}+l = F
2n
+
1
; that is, the sum of the squares of
the Fibonacci numbers in positions nand n + 1 (consecu
tive positions) is the Fibonacci number in place 2n + 1.
Proof
Using the lemma from item 8 (above), we prove our origi
nal statement. In the lemma, let m = n + 1 and n = n. Then
we getF
2n
+
1
= FnF;, + Fn+IF
n
+
l
, or, in other words,
F2n+1 = Fn
2
+ Fn
2
+1' which is the equation we wanted.
10. (p. 43) A proof that Fn
2
+1  Fn
2
= F
n
_
1
. F;,+2
It follows immediately, because of the binomial theo
rem [a
2
 b
2
= (a + b)( a  b) ] and the definition of the Fi
bonacci numbers, that
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 357
11. (p. 44) A proof of Fn1F"+1 =Fn
2
+(1)",
By mathematical induction:
For n = 1:
P(1): F
o
F,=F;'+(lr;
0·1=1'1=0
For n = k:
For n = k + 1:
P(k + 1): to check if it is true for k + 1:
2 2 ( )2 2
F
k
+
2
 F
k
+
1
= + F
k
+
1
 F
k
+
1
= Fk
2
+ 2F
k
+
1
F
k
+  F/+
1
= Fk(Fk +2F
k
+
l
)
= Fk [ ( Fk + Fk+ I) + Fk + I]
= Fk (F
k
+
2
+ Fk+,)
= F
k
•
And we will complete the proof by mathematical induc
tion if we in the following use the assumption for n = k
in the form F
k
 I· Fk+ 1 F/= (_l)k+1.
358 ApPENDIX B
•• 2 ( )k+ I
P(k + 1): To check If P(k + 1) IS true: F
k
F
k
+
2
= F
k
+
1
+ 1
F
k
F
k
+
2
 F/+
1
= Fk(F
k
+
1
+ F
k
) Fk2+1
= FkF
k
+
1
+ F/  F/+
1
= (_ l)k
= F/ + Fk+1(F
k
 F
k
+
1
)
= F/ + Fk+1(F
k
_
1
)
= F/  Fk+1F
k
_
1
= (1)(Fk+1F
k
_
1
 Fk
2
)
= (l)(l)k
= (_l)k+l
12. (p. 47) We have to show that Fmn is divisible by Fm for any
nand m. We proceed by induction on n.
For n = 1, we need to check that F,m is divisible by Fm;
and this is, of course, true. Now assume Fmp is divisible by
Fm (this is our induction hypothesisthe statement for
m = p). We want to prove the statement for m = p + 1, that
is, that Fm(P+l) is divisible by Fm. Using the Lemma in
number 8, we get:
which is divisible by Fm because both summands (addends)
Fmp1F
m
and FmpFm+l are divisible by Fm (by the induction
hypothesis, Fmp is divisible by Fm), so it is also Fm(p+l).
This completes the induction.
14. (p. 49) We again proceed by induction. For n = 1, we need
to check that L 1 = L 3  3; and this is, of course, true
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 359
(I = 4  3). Now assume the statement is true for n = k,
that is, assume:
Then we must check to see if this holds true for n = k + I:
We have
Ll + L
z
+ ... Lk + L
k
+
1
= L
k
+
2
 3+ L
k
+
1
= L
k
+
1
+ L
k
+
2
 3
= L
k
+
3
 3
which is exactly the statement for n = k + I. This completes
our proof by induction.
15. (p. 51) We again proceed by induction. For n = I, we need
to check that L ~ = L1L2  2; and this is of course true
(12 = 1·3  2 = I). Now assume the statement is true for
n = k, that is, assume:
Then we must check to see if this holds true for n = k+ 1:
L ~ + L ~ + ... + L ~ + L ~ + l = L
k
+
1
L
k
+
2
 2
L ~ + L ~ + ... + L ~ + L ~ + l
= LkLk+l  2 + L ~ + l
= L
k
+
1
(Lk + L
k
+
1
)  2
= L
k
+
1
L
k
+
2
 2
which is exactly the statement for n = k + 1. This completes
our proof by induction.
360 ApPENDIX B
For Chapter 4
Heron of Alexandria's Method for Constructing the Golden
Section (figure 47) (p. 121)
AB = r, BC = CD =!..., and AD = AE = x
2
Applying the Pythagorean theorem to MBC:
r2 2 r2 2 2
x
2
+ rx +  = r + , or x + rx  r = 0
4 4
r
X
'
2=± +r =± =±.J5=(l±.J5)
. 24 2422 2
Since x must be positive, we disregard x = !... (1 +.J5); there
2
r C .,[;1 r I r r
fore x=(1 .;5) = .=  ', or X"" .618033988· .
2 2 2 I/J 2 2
.,[;  1
r
.,[;  1
r
(.,[;
  

AE x
2 2 2 2 4
BE rx .,[;  1
4r
.,[;  1
(4 _.,[; + I). r
r·
 
2 2 4 2 2
4
2
= t/J = 1.618033988
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 361
r .J51 r
AB =r AE = BE = BC = CD = and AD = AE =x=·
, 2' 2 2
Construction of the Golden Section as in Figure 48
(p.122)
AB=a AC =.': BC = CD and AD = AE =x
, 2' ,
Applying the Pythagorean theorem to MBC: BC
2
= AB2 + AC
2
Therefore,
=a
J5 a J51
x = AE = AD = CD  AC = a    = a·  and
2 2 2'
3J5
BE=ax=a
2
.J5 \
a
2 .J51
AE: BE = x: (a  x) = ='__;=_
3.J5  3.J5
a
2
.J51 3+.J5 3.J5+53.J5 2.J5+2 2(.J5+1) .J5+1
= 3.J5· 3+.J5= 95 4 4 2
= l/J "" 1.618033988
a .J51
(AB=a, AC=, BC = CD, and AD = AE =x=a·)
2 2
Construction of the Golden Section as in Figure 49 (p. 123)
Begin by constructing a right MBC with AB = 2 cm, BC = 1 cm.
By the Pythagorean theorem, we get A C =.J5 cm.
362 ApPENDIX B
Using the theorem that states that the angle bisector of a trian
gle divides the side to which it is drawn proportionally to the other
two sides, we find that
AP J5
PB
and angle bisector CQ divides side AB (externally) proportionally
to the sides of the angle to give us
AQ .J5
QB
Our task now is to show that point P divides the line segment
AB into the golden ratio (or its reciprocal).
From the relationship established above, we get:
1 PB PB PB
J5  AP = ABPB = 2PB
PBJ5 = 2 PB
PB=_2_= J51
J5 +1 2
which is the reciprocal of the golden ratio (PB =i).
We can show that the point Q divides the line segment AB
externally into the golden ratio.
From the second relationship above we get:
1 QB QB QB
J5 = AQ = AB+QB = 2+QB
QBJ5 =2+QB
QB=_2_= J5+1
J5 1 2
which is the golden ratio (1)).
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 363
You might notice that in right MCQ, CB is the mean propor
tional between PB and QB so that
CB QB
PB CB
/5+1
I _2_
/51 = I
2
which is certainly true!
For Chapter 6
Sums of Distinct Fibonacci Numbers (p. 188)
Every positive integer n can be expressed as a finite sum of distinct
Fibonacci numbers.
Proof
Let Fk be the largest Fibonacci number ::;; n. Then n = F;. + n],
where n] ::;; Fk . Let F
k
, be the largest Fibonacci number::;; n] . Then
n = Fk + F
k
, + n
2
, n ;:: Fk > F;., .
Continuing like this, we get n = Fk + F., + F. + ... , where
n;:: Fk > F., > F., .... Since this sequence of decreasing positive
integers must terminate, the result follows.
Proof of Fibonacci Generation of Pythagorean Triples (p. 192)
Suppose a, b, c, and d form a Fibonacci sequence. Then we get
c = a + b, d = c + b = a + b + b = a + 2b. That is, a, b, a + b, and
a + 2b form a Fibonacci sequence.
364 ApPENDIX B
Thus, a, b, a + b, b + a + b is by definition a Fibonacci se
quence.
The operations indicated in the procedure are:
A = 2bc = 2b(a + b) = 2ab +2b
2
B = ad= a(b + a + b) = a
2
+2ab
C = b
2
+ c
2
= b
2
+ (a + b)2 = a
2
+ 2ab + 2b
2
Applying the Pythagorean theorem to see if these triples fit the
theorem:
A2 = (2ab + 2b
2
)2 = 4a
2
b
2
+ 8ab
3
+ 4b
4
S2 = (a
2
+ 2ab)2 = a
4
+ 4a
3
b +4a
2
b
2
C
2
= (a
2
+2ab + 2b
2
i = a
4
+ 4a
3
b + 8a
2
b
2
+ 8ab
3
+ 4b
4
More generally, to find a square which remains a square when in
creased or decreased by d, we have to find three squares that form
an arithmetical progression with a common difference d.
The squares of the numbers are:
(a
2
_ 2ab  b
2
f = a
4
 4a'b + 2a
2
b' + 4ab' + b
4
(a
2
+b
2
f = a
4
+ 2a'b' +b
4
(a' + 2ab b
2
f = a
4
+ 4a
3
b+ 2a'b'  4ab
3
+b
4
They form an arithmetic progression with difference
d = 4a
3
b 4ab' = 4ab(a
2
b')
If a = 5 and b = 4, then d = 720, and we have three squares
(a
2
+ b
2
)2 = 41
2
, 412  720 = 31
2
, and 412 + 720 = 49
2
.
Dividing by 12
2
, we have Fibonacci's solution.
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 365
From anyone solution we can form infinitely many other solu
tions. Therefore, if we take a = 412 = 1,681 and b = 720, we have
another solution, with
d= 5(24.41. 49.31)2 = 11,170,580,662,080
and
(
2 2)2
a +b = 11,183,412,793,921
The three squares in arithmetic progression are then x  5, x,
and x + 5, with
x = (11,183,412,793,921)2
2,234,116,132,416
Proof on the Property of 89 (pp. 21617)
Refer to the development on pages 21617.
We have already shown that (VI) is true for n = 1:
10' +, = 89·(F,·IO' I) + IOF
1
+, + FI = 89· (1. I) + 10·1 + 1 = 89 + 10 + I
= 100,
that is, 10
2
= 89 + 10 + 1 (I)
Suppose that for some fixed integer k ~ 1,
Then multiplying by 10 and again substituting (I), we get:
366 ApPENDIX B
10'+2 = 89·(F,·IO' + F
2
·10'' + ... + F, ·10) + 10
2
F,+, + IOF,
= 89(F,'IO' + F
2
·1O'' + ... + F,IO) + (89 + 10 + I)Fk+' + IOF,
= 89·(F,·IO' + F,.IO'' + ... + F,·1O + F,+,) + IOF,+, + F,+, + IOF,
= 89·(F,·IO' + F
2
·1O'' + .•. + F,'IO + F,+,) + IO(F,+, + F,) + F, +,
= 89·(F,·IO' + F
2
·1O'' + ... + F,·IO + F,+,) + IOF'+2+ F,+,.
This shows that (VI) is true in the (k + I )st case, if it is true in
the kst case.
And since we already have that it is true for n = I, it is true for
every positive integer n.
Dividing both sides of (VI) by 89·1 On+l, we obtain
~ = ~ + ~ + ~ +
+ F,,, + ~ + IOF, .. , + F"
89 10
2
10' 10' 10" 10"" 10""
= ~ + ~ + ~ +
10' 10' 10'
1
· IOF +F
where 1m "" " = O.
n ~ o o 10""
Chapter 9
Proof of the Binet Formula for Finding a Fibonacci Number
(pp. 299300)
We will prove that F" = Js{p" ( i J 1
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 367
By mathematical induction, we have shown in figure 95 that
for n = I the following is true:
For n = k, therefore, from figure 95 we can see that
F
k
+
2
= Fk + F
k
+! (our induction hypothesis).
Therefore, we must show that for n = k + 1 the following is
also true:
~ + 3 = Fk+! + ~ + 2
We begin with:
[ Recall that ¢! + 1 = ¢2 and ( i) + 1 = ( i J]
= Js[¢k+!¢2 ( i J+! (i J]
= Js[¢k+3_( iJ+
3
]
= Fk+3, which was to be shown.
368 ApPENDIX B
We could have also done this with our alternate version of the
Binet formulausing real numbers:
=
=
again showing what was required to complete the induction proof.
Thus we have the Binet formula:
which will give us any Fibonacci number for any natural number n.
Another Way to Find a Specific Fibonacci Number (Using a
Calculator or a Computer) (p. 303)
We will use the following:
(This lemma was also used in the proof for chapter I, item 8.)
We substitute m = n, then we get on the one side of the equation
PROOFS OF FIBONACCI RELATIONSHIPS 369
and on the other side
also
F
2n
= Fn (F,,l + F
n
+
1
)
Since Fn+l = F,,l + F", we get:
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Sigler, Laurence. The Book of Squares. New York: Academic
Press, 1987.
REFERENCES 373
. Fibonacci's Liber Abaci. New York; SpringerVerlag,
2002.
Vorobiev, Nicolai N. Fibonacci Numbers. New York: Blaisdell,
1961. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag, 2002.
Walser, Hans. The Golden Section. Washington, DC: Mathe
matical Association of America, 2001.
Index
e. See Euler's number
1/1. See golden ratio (section)
i. See Ludolph's number
o (the number), 37, 50, 111,205206
2 (the number)
Fibonacci numbers divisible by, 47,
210,330
power of, 196, 196n9
3 (the number)
Fibonacci numbers divisible by, 47,
210,33031
rule for divisibility by, 47n24
4 (the number)
Fibonacci numbers divisible by,
33031
relationship to 89, 213nl9
5 (the number), Fibonacci numbers di
visible by, 47
6 (the number), Fibonacci numbers di
visible by, 331
8 (the number), Fibonacci numbers di
visible by, 48, 331
II (the number), Fibonacci numbers
divisible by, 33, 331,35051
12 (the number), Fibonacci numbers
divisible by, 331
20 Steps around Globe (created by Nie
meyer), 24952, 250n21
89 (the number), 21317, 213n19,
36566
144 (the number), 208, 217, 328
666 (the number), 21213
abacus, 12, 19n3
Acropolis (Athens), 232, 234
Adam and Eve (Di.irer), 15, 268
Adam and Eve (Raimondi), 268
375
algebra, 12, 1920, 19n2
algebraic number, 165n2
algorithms, 12, 198, 198n 10, 310
and ancient Egyptians, 195n8
multiplication algorithm and Fibo
nacci numbers, 19599
alKhowarizmi, 19
alternating numbers, 42, 42n23, 4445,
54, 54n25, 55, 142
Altevogt, Rudolf, 76
American Library Association, 211 n 16
angle
angle sum of a triangle, 84
bisectors, 123, 145, 146,362
divergence angle, 64n3
and fractals, 311, 313, 314
golden angle, 64, 64n3, 74, 14849,
250, 250n20
and isosceles triangles, 144
and pentagons, 151, 157
and right triangles, 128, 134, 135
used in watch displays, 21720,
220n21
vertex angle, 144, 147
Animali da I a 55 (Merz), 252
antennas (in fractals), 32225
Aphrodite of Melos (statue), 24647
Apollo Belvedere (statue), 24546
Arabic numerals. See Hindu numerals
architecture, Fibonacci numbers in,
23244
arte povera, 252
arts and Fibonacci numbers, 23169
Babbitt, Milton, 288
Babylonian formulae, 193
Bach, Johann Sebastian, 286
376 INDEX
Baptism o/Christ, The (Piero della
Francesca), 268
Barbara, Saint, 26061
baroque period, 277, 286
bar over digits, meaning of, 14, 14n3,
30, 108nl
Bartok, Bela, 28588
basesixty numbering system, 21, 21 n6
baseten numbering system, 11
basetwo numbering system, 198
Bathers at Asneres (Seurat), 263
bear markets, 179, 1 82
bees, male, 13, 5961
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 28082
Beothy, Etienne, 24748
Bernoulli, Daniel, 296
Bernoulli, Jacob, 13132
Bernoulli, Nicolaus, I, 296
Bernoulli family, 296n3
"Bigollo," See Fibonacci, Leonardo
bijugate spirals, 69n8
binary fonns of music, 27475, 277
binary numbering system, 198
Binet, JacquesPhilippeMarie, 28,
29394,296
Binet fonnula, 207
for finding a particular Fibonacci
number, 293301, 328, 36668
for finding a particular Lucas num
ber, 301302
binomial coefficient, 88n3
binomial expansion, 8788, 88n3
binomial theorem, 356
Birth o/Venus, The (Botticelli), 259
bisectors of an angle, 123, 145, 146, 362
Bizet, George, 1 1
Bonacci, Guilielmo (William), 1718
Bonacci, son of. See Fibonacci, Leon
ardo
Boncompagni, Baldassarre, 19n4
Bondone, Giotto di. See Giotto (di Bon
done)
"Book of Squares." See Liber quadrato
rum (Fibonacci)
"book on calculation." See Liber Abaci
(Fibonacci)
Borgliese, Pietro. See Piero della Fran
cesca
Botticelli, Sandro, 259
Boulez, Pierre, 288
bracts, counting of, 13, 27, 6364,
6566
Braun, A., 27
Brouseau, Alfred, 65
Bruch, Hellmut, 25455
Brunelleschi, Filippo, 239
bulbs (in fractals), 32225
bull markets, 179
Bury, Claus, 25556
business applications of Fibonacci num
bers, 17783
Cage, John, 290
calculator or computer used to find a
Fibonacci number, 303304,
36869
Cantor, Georg, 308
cardiods (in fractals), 32225, 322n7
Carmen (Bizet), 11
"Cartesian plane," 131
Cassai, Tommaso. See Masaccio
Cathedral of Chartres (France), 23738
Center for International Light Art (Ger
many), 25354
checkerboard, covering a, 18891
Cheops (Khufu) Pyramid (Giza). See
Great Pyramid (Giza)
Chinese remainder theorem, 24
Chopin, Frederic, 27274
chords ofa circle, 124, 124nl4
chromatic scale, 286
Chu ShihChieh, 84n2
circles
chords of, 124, 124n 14
concentric circles, 133
congruent circles, 13940
and constructing a pentagon, 15658
great circle, 250, 250n 19
sequence of, 8081, 84, 87
used to construct golden ratio,
12122,124,36061
Circus Parade (Seurat), 263
Claus, M. See Lucas, Franl'oisEdouard
Anatole (Edouard)
coda in music, 281, 281n4
codetta in music, 281
coins and vending machines, 18384
Collins, Charles, 178, 179
Cologne (Gennany), 25556
Columbia University, School of Library
Economy,21lnl6
common differences, 64, 78, 82, 330,
331,364
common factors, 3334, 33n20, 94, 192,
192n5,35152
See also relati vely prime numbers
common fractions, 20n5, 24n12, 30
complex numbers, 120, 320
complex plane, 320, 320n5
composite numbers, 35, 35n21, 5354,
35253
Composition with Colored Areas and
Gray Lines I (Mondrian), 269n36
Composition with Gray and Light
Brown (Mondrian), 269n36
Composition with Red Yellow Blue
(Mondrian),269n36
compound interest, 24
computer or calculator used to find a Fibo
nacci number, 303304, 36870
computers and music, 289
concentric circles, 133
congruent circles, 13940
consecutive numbers, 4344, 55, 56
four consecutive Fibonacci numbers,
211
odd numbers, 295
ratios of, 10910, 210
construction
constructing a pentagon, ISS58
constructing fractals, 31017
constructing the golden ratio,
12024,36265
continued fractions and Fibonacci num
bers, 16175, 162nl
finite continued fractions, 163
golden ratio as a continued fraction,
16672
infinite continued fractions, 16364
Cook, Theodore Andrea, 245
corrective waves, 178, 179
Cossa[i, Pietro, [7n [
Couder, Yves, 74
credit cards, measurements of, 182
Crucifixion (Raphae[), 268
crystallography, 342
cubits (as a measurement), 236
curves, 72, 13[, [3233,247,308,322
Gaussian curve, 246, 246n 13
Curves of Life, The (Cook), 245
Da[i, Salvador, 268
Davis, T. Antony, 76
decimal expansion, [08n2
De divina proportione (Pacio[i), 245,
257,260
denominator, 23
Depositionfrom the Cross (Weyden),
268
INDEX 377
Der goldene Schnitt (scu[pture by U[
richs),24849
Der goldene Schnitt (Zeising), [15,
I [5n8
Der goldene Schnitt. Ein Harmoniege
setz und seine Anwendung
(Hagenmaier), 248
Descartes, Rene, \3 I
Devaney, Robert,3[9,3[9n4
development in music, 276, 280, 281,
286
devil, sign of, 212, 213
Dewey, Me[vi[, 2[ In16, 271nl
Dewey Decima[ classification system,
211, 211n16, 271nl
diagonal of the golden rectangle, \3839
diatonic scales, 272
di fferences
common differences, 64, 78, 82, 330,
331,364
Fibonacci differences, 7880, 82, 83,
95n9
in Lucas numbers, 30 I
pattern in differences of squares,
4344,4546,54,55,357,364
sequences of progressive differences,
102
sum and difference, 29698
and sum of successive powers,
29798
digits
curiosity of, 208
firstdigit patterns, 207208
lastdigit patterns, 206207
See also integers; numbers
Di minor guisa (Fibonacci), 20
Dionysius' Procession (re[ief at Villa
A[bani),267
distances, conversion of measures of,
200203
divergence angle, 64n3
"divine proportion," 245
division
common divisor, 337
denominator, 23
divisibility of Fibonacci numbers,
4748,5556,330,341,350,
358
divisors of composite numbers, 353
numerator, 23
sequences of remainders, 3132
dodecahedron, 231
Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge, 140
378 INDEX
dominant in music, 285, 285n5
dominoes
covering a checkerboard, 18891
knocking down as example of
mathematical induction, 34950
door, height of, 241
Douady, Stephane, 74
"Dow theory" of investing, 178
drones, 13,
Duchamp, Gaston, 247, 247nl4
Dudley, Underwood, 119
DUrer, Albrecht, 15, 155, 158,25859,
259n26,268
dyad in music, 285, 285n7
dynamic symmetry, 245, 245nl0
Egyptian pyramids, 180,23437
Elements (Euclid), 20, 171
Elements of Dynamic Symmetry, The
(Hambidge),245
Elliott, Ralph Nelson, 177, 17883
ellipse, area of, 133, 133n 18
Empire State Building, climbing stairs
of, 185
equal binary form of music, 27475, 277
equations
integer polynomial equation, 165n2
linear equations, 23
polynomial equation, 165n2
"equiangular spiral," 131
Essor II (sculpture), 248
Euclid, 12, 19,20,84, l71, 307
Euler, Leonhard, 120, I 65n2, 296
Euler's number, 120, 165, 165n2
evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers, 47,
210,330
sum of, 3738, 54, 353
event seating and Fibonacci numbers,
22122
Evolution: Progression and Symmetry
III (Mields), 26667
Evolution: Progression and Symmetry
W(Mields),26667
expansion, binomial, 8788, 88n3
exposition in music, 280
factors, common, 3334, 33n20, 192,
192n5,35152
"factors of a multiplication," 23
"factors of a number," 23
Fatou, Pierre, 308
Fechner, Gustav, 11517
feet (as a measurement), 241, 241n4
Feininger, Lyonel, 268
Fibonacci, Leonardo, II, 1722,
23nn89,5657,266,327
Fibonacci Applications and Strategies
for Traders (Fischer), 182
Fibonacci Association, 17, 28, 329
Fibonacci multiplication algorithm,
19899
Fibonacci Napoli (Merz), 252
Fibonacci Nim, 22526
Fibonacci numbers, mathematical as
pects
definition of, 53
introduction to, 2632
list of first 500, 34348
and Lucas numbers, 15, 9798,
104105,227,22830,29798
and the Pascal triangle, 9098, 99,
102,103,104105
proofs of Fibonacci relationships,
properties of, 3356, 33741
and Pythagorean triples, 19294
testing to determine if it is, 304305,
305n6
See also golden angle; golden ratio
(section); golden rectangle;
golden spirals
Fibonacci numbers, use of
in art and architecture, 23169
business applications of, 17783
climbing a staircase, 18485
converting miles and kilometers,
200203
determining path of fish in a hatch
ery,22224
determining seating at events,
22122
and fractals, 30725
in geometry, 13643
in music, 27191
in nature, 12, 13,2527,57,5976,
132,133
in optics, 203206
and painting a house, I 86
and physics, 203206
and watch displays, 21720
Fibonacci phyllotaxis, 64n3, 7074
Fibonacci ratios, 94, 10710, 180, 182
See also golden ratio (section)
Fibonacci spirals. See golden spirals
Fibonacci's Temple (Bury), 25556
Fifth Symphony (Beethoven), 28082
finding a particular Fibonacci number
in a fractal, 319, 319n4
using a calculator or a computer,
303304,368369
using Binet formula, 293301,
36669
using golden ratio, 303
finite continued fractions, 163
first differences. See differences
first digits of Fibonacci numbers,
207208
Fischer, Robert, 182
fish, determining path in a hatchery,
22224
fivefold symmetry element, 342
fixed integer, 365
Florence (Italy), 20, 23840
Flos (Fibonacci), 20, 22
forbidden symmetry, 342
Four Books on Human Proportions
(Diirer), 258
fourth di fferences. See di fferences
fractals, 30725
fractions
common fractions, 20n5, 24n 12, 30
continued fractions and Fibonacci
numbers, 16175, 162nl
improper fractions, 16162
infinite continued fractions, 16364
proper fractions, 161, 162, 173
unit fractions, 162
use of horizontal bar in, 25
French Academy of Sciences, 200
French National Assembly, 200
Fridfinnsson, Hreinn, 266
fugues in music, 28586, 287
furlongs (as a measurement), 200,
200nll
Galileo Galilei, 258
game of Fibonacci Nim, 22526
Gauss, Carl Friedrich, 328
Gaussian curve, 246n 13
Gelmeroda (Feininger), 268
generating fractals, 3 1017
geodesic draft, 250n21
Geometric Compositions (Niemeyer),
249,26364
geometry, Fibonacci numbers in,
13643
Gherardo, Giovanni di (da Prato), 239
Ghyka, Matil Costiescu, 243
Giotto (di Bondone), 17,267, 267n29
INDEX 379
Girl with the Ermine, The (da Vinci),
268
Giza, Great Pyramid at, 180,23437
golden angle, 14849,250, 250n20
and plants, 64, 64n3, 74
golden ratio (section), 1315, 13n2,
7476,10760,180,263,296,327
in art and architecture, 23 169
and congruent circles, 13940
and consecutive Fibonacci numbers,
210
constructing, 12024,36063
as a continued fraction, 16672
as an irrational number, 14951
and Lucas numbers, 17475
and measurements, 201
in music, 27191
paperfolding and, 159
powers of, 11314
precise value of, 11112, 166n4
golden rectangle, 11520, 123, 12527,
12829, 172
in art and architecture, 23233, 237,
259,263
and credit cards, 182
diagonal of, 13839
and watch displays, 21720
Golden Section, The (Hagenmaier), 248
golden spirals, 12433,263,266
See also spiral patterns
golden triangle, 107, 14448,260
in pentagrams, 14954, 158
great circle, 250, 250n 19
Great Crash of 1929, 177
Great Pyramid (Giza), 180,23437
Grevsmiihl, 250n21
Grimaldi, Giovanni Gabriello, 17n I
Gris, Juan, 269, 269n37
Grossman, George W., 313n3
Grossman truss, 31319, 313n3
Hadrian's Arch, 234
Hagenmaier, Otto, 245, 248
Half a Giant Cup Suspended with an
Inexplicable Appendage Five Me
ters Long (Dali), 268
Hambidge, Jay, 245
Hansel und Gretel (Humperdinck),
1112
harmonics in music, 283
Haydn, Franz Joseph, 27880
Hermite, Charles, 165n2
Herodot, 235
380 INDEX
Heron of Alexandria, 12021,362
hexagon, 155
Hindu numerals, II, II n I, 19, 23, 23n8
Hippasus of Metapontum, 149, 153
Hisdb aljabr w'almuqabdlah (al
Khowarizmi), 19
Hispanus, Dominicus, 20
Hommage a Fibonacci (Bruch), 25455
horizontal fraction bar, 25
human body and Fibonacci numbers, 74,
7576,24142,257,258
Humperdinck, Engelbert, 1112
Hunter, J. A. H., 136
IBM, Watson Research Center, 320
Igloo Fibonacci (Merz), 253
immediate successor, 52
improper fractions, 16162
impulsive waves, 178, 179
Indian figures. See Hindu numerals
induction and proofs of Fibonacci num
bers, 34969
infinite continued fractions, 16364
integer polynomial equation, 165n2
integers, 20n5, 21, 24n12, 33n20,
112n7, 149, 196,211
fixed integers, 193
and parity, 193, 193n6
and pentagons, 152
and perfect squares, 21 n 7
positive integers, 48, 55, 162,217,
225,33132,333,33637,338,
339,363,366
and Pythagorean triangle, 193
special integers, I 14
See also digits; numbers
investments and Fibonacci numbers,
17883
irrational numbers, 20, 20n5, 112,
112n7, 14951, 153, 163, 165n2,
232,300301
isosceles triangles, 14448, 151, 158,
195,261,313,314
iterations of fractals, 310, 31 I, 32022,
321n6
in Grossman truss, 31318
Ivy (Merz), 252
Japanese pagodas, 237
Jeanneret, CharlesEdouard. See Le
Corbusier
Johannes of Palermo, 20
Johnson, Tom, 28990
Journal of Recreational Mathematics,
213
Julia, Gaston, 308, 320
Kepler, Johannes, 27, 119,258
Khayyam, Omar, 20, 84n2
Khufu (Cheops) Pyramid (Giza). See
Great Pyramid (Giza)
kilometers, conversion to miles,
200203
Knott, Ron, 91
Koch, Helge von, 310n I
Koch snowflake, 3 I 012
Lambert, Johann Heinrich, 165n2
Lame, Gabriel, 2930
Lame numbers, 30
La Serie d'Or (Beothy), 24748
Last digit of Fibonacci numbers,
206207
Last Supper, The (da Vinci), 268
leaf arrangements, 7174
Leaning Tower of Pis a, 18,23
Le Corbusier, 75, 76, 24043, 244, 256
Leochares,24546,246nI2
Leonardo da Vinci, 7475, 75n 14, 257,
260,268
Leonardo of Pisa (Leonardo Pisano). See
Fibonacci, Leonardo
Liber Abaci (Fibonacci), 11, 12, 19,20,
2227
See also Fibonacci numbers; rabbits,
regeneration of
Liber quadratorum (Fibonacci), 20
linear equations, 23
logarithms
and Euler's number, 120, 165n2
logarithmic spiral, 69,127,13132,
133,147,182
Lonc, Frank A., 7576
Lucas, Franl'oisEdouardAnatole
(Edouard), 15, 2728, 27n 15,97
Lucas numbers, 15, 2728
Binet formula for finding a particular
number, 301302
definition of, 53
and Fibonacci numbers, 15, 9798,
104105,227,22830,29798
and golden ratio, 17475
and golden spirals, 13 I
Lucas spirals, 69n8
and Pascal triangle, 97104
proofs for, 36061
properties of, 4953
as triangular numbers, 212
Ludolph's number, 120
Madachy, Joseph S., 171
Madonna Alba (Raphael), 26162
Madonna and Child (Perugino), 268
Madonna Doni (Michelangelo), 268
main antenna (in fractals), 323
main cardioid (in fractals), 32225
Mandelbrot, Benoit, 308309, 320
Mandelbrot set, 31925, 321 n6
Masaccio, 267n30
mathematical induction and proofs of
Fibonacci numbers, 349<i9
measurements
cubits, 236
feet, 241, 241 n4
furlongs, 200, 200n II
meters, 241 , 241 n4
miles and kilometers, 200203
Mersenne, Marin, 131
Mersenne prime numbers, 69, 69n7
Merz, Mario, 25254
Mexican pyramids, 237
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 268, 268n34
Mields, Rune, 26667
miles, conversion to kilometers,
200203
minor modulus, 33136, 33741
Modulon (Niemeyer), 26465
Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the
Human Scale Universally Applica
ble to Architecture and Mechanics,
The (Le Cobrusier), 241, 242, 256
Moivre, Abraham de, 296
Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 260
Mondrian, Piet, 269, 269n36
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 27580,
289
multijugate phyllotaxis, 70
multiplication, 23, 216, 22526n24, 299,
303,312,36566
finding a sum by multiplying, 41, 52,
53
and golden ratio, 114, 125
and multiples of 6, 331
multiplication algorithm and Fibo
nacci numbers, 19599
products of Fibonacci numbers,
4447,56
and Pythagorean triples, 192
writing quotients, 30n 19
INDEX 381
music, Fibonacci numbers in, 27191
Music for Strings, Percussion, and Ce
lesta (Bartok), 28588
Narayan's Cows (Johnson), 290
natural numbers, 80n I, 120, 188n2,
202n13, 207208,30In4, 350
ordered sum of ones and twos, 187
prime natural numbers, 193
sequences of, 241
as sum of Fibonacci numbers, 188
nature, Fibonacci numbers in, 12, 13,
2527,57,5976, 132, 133,
22224
Nature's LawThe Secret of the Uni
verse (Elliott), 179, 180
nautilus shells, 132
"nest of radicals," 173
Neveux, Marguerite, 269
Niemeyer, Jo, 24952, 263<i5
nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers, 188,
202n13
non prime numbers, 35, 35n21, 54
notation
binary notation, 225
and Fibonacci numbers, 37, 41,
330
and Lucas numbers, 50
musical notation, 274
numbering systems
baseIO, II
base60, 21, 21 n6
binary system (base2), 198
Hindu numerals, II, 19,23
Roman numerals, 12
numbers
algebraic number, 165n2
alternating numbers, 42, 42n23,
4445, 54, 54n25, 55, 142
complex numbers, 320, 320n5
composite numbers, 35, 35n21,
5354,35253
consecutive numbers, 4344, 55, 56,
10910,210,211,295
irrational numbers, 20, 20n5, 112,
112n7, 14951, 153, 163,
165n2,232,300301
natural numbers, 80n I, 120, 18788,
188n2,193,202nI3,207208,
241,30In4,350
nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers,
187,202n13
nonprime numbers, 35, 35n21
382 INDEX
odd prime numbers, 208, 328,
33336,33741
palindromic numbers, 9394, 93n6
pentatop numbers, 89
perfect numbers, 24, 24n II
prime natural numbers, 193
prime numbers, 3334, 33n20,
35n22, 54, 69n7, 131,211,212,
33137
primitive numbers, 339
rational numbers, 24, 24n 12, 30, 163
reciprocals, III, 113,162,169,201,
214,362
relatively prime numbers, 3334,
33n20, 53, 193,210,228,337,
338,35152
successive Fibonacci numbers,
20911
symbol to show repetition ofnum
bers, 14, 14n3, 30, I08nl
tetrahedral numbers, 89, 89n5, 90
transcendental numbers, 165n2
triangular numbers, 89, 89n4, 90,
21113
See also digits; integers; squaring
numbers
numerator, 23
oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers, sum
of, 3839, 54, 295, 35556
odd prime numbers, 208, 328, 33336,
33741
optics and Fibonacci numbers, 203206
ordered sum of ones and twos, 187
Pacioli, Luca, 243, 245, 257, 257n23,
260
pagodas, 237
painting a house and Fibonacci numbers,
186
Painting [ (Mondrian), 269n36
paintings, Fibonacci numbers in,
25769
palindromic numbers, 9394, 93n6
Pankok, Otto, 269, 269n38
paperfolding and pentagon, 159
parastichies, 6466
parity, 193, 193n6
Parthenon (Greece), 15, 111,23233,
245
Pascal, Blaise, 84, 84n2
"Pascaline" (calculator), 84
Pascal triangle, 84105, 84n2
patterns
in differences of squares, 4344,
4546,54,55,357,366
of even Fibonacci numbers, 47
firstdigit patterns, 207208
lastdigit patterns, 206207
ordered sum of ones and twos, 187
of spirals in plants, 6670
in squares of Fibonacci numbers, 42,
4344,4546,35559
symbol to show repetition ofnum
bers, 14, 14n3, 30, 108nl
"wave theory" of investing, 17883
See also sequences
pentagon, 148, 148n23, 14954,231,
259,259n26
constructing, 15558
paperfolding and, 159
Pentagon (Washington, DC), 244
pentagram, 148, 14954
paperfolding and, 159
pentatop numbers, 89
Perez, Jose Victoriano Gonzalez. See
Oris, Juan
perfect numbers, 24, 24n II
perfect square, 2122, 21n7, 78, 305,
305n6
Pericles, 232
"periodicity," 14, 14n3, 30, I08nl, 350
periodic decimals, 112n6
period of bulb or decoration (in fractals),
32324
Persian War, 232
Perugino, Pietro, 268, 268n33
petal arrangements, 71, 74
Petrie, W. M. F., 236
Pfeiffer, Jorg, 250n21
Phidias, 110, 232
phyllotaxis, 64n3, 7074, 70n I 0
physics and Fibonacci numbers,
203206
Physicus, Theodorus, 20
~ , 1 1 9  2 0 , 16566, 166n5,237
Piano Sonatas (Haydn), 27880
Piano Sonatas (Mozart), 27778
Piero della Francesca, 268, 268n32
Pietro di Benedetto dei Franceschi (Pie
tro Borgliese). See Piero della
Francesca
pineapples, 13, 6364
pinecones, 13,27,6466
Pisa (Italy), 18, 20, 22
Leaning Tower of Pisa, 18, 23
pitch generator, 290
plants, Fibonacci numbers in, 6376
Plato, 153
Pollio, Vitruvius, 25758, 257n24
Polo, Marco, 17
polynomial equation, 165n2
poor art, 252
positive integers, 55, 162,217,225,
33132,333,33637,339,363,
366
Praclica geomelriae (Fibonacci), 19
Prato (Giovanni di Gherardo da). See
Gherardo, Giovanni di (da Prato)
Prelude No.1 in C major (Chopin), 274
Prelude No.9 in E major (Chopin), 273
Preludes (Chopin), 27274
primary bulb (in fractals), 322, 324
prime numbers, 35n22, 54, 131, 211,
212,33137
Mersenne prime numbers, 69, 69n7
odd prime numbers, 208, 328,
33336,33741
prime natural numbers, 193
relatively prime numbers, 3334,
33n20, 53,193,210,228,337,
338,35152
special primes, 33637
primitive numbers, 339
products of multiplication, 4447, 56
progressive differences, 102
proper fractions, 161, 162, 173
Propylaeum temple (Greece), 234
pyramids, 180, 23437
Pythagoras and Pythagoreans, 149, 153,
231
Pythagorean theorem, 119, 119n 11, 134,
235,360
using Fibonacci numbers to generate
Pythagorean triples, 19294,
36365
quadratic formula, 113, II?, Il?nlO,
150
"queen of science," mathematics as, 328
Quetelet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques, 75
quotients, writing of, 30n 19
rabbits, regeneration of, 12,2527,57,
61
radicals, nest of, 173
Raimondi, Marcantonio, 268, 268n35
Raphael Santi, 26062, 268
rational numbers, 24, 24n 12, 30, 163
INDEX 383
ratios
Fibonacci ratios. See Fibonacci ratios
golden ratio (section). See golden
ratio (section)
and irrational numbers, 149
ratio of similitude, 128, 128n 16
recapitulation in music, 276, 277, 280,
281
reciprocal rectangles, 128, 129
reciprocals, II I, 113, 169, 20 I, 214, 362
recreational mathematics, 24, 25, 27n 15,
94, 94n7, 213
rectangles
created using Fibonacci numbers, 40,
4849
created using Lucas numbers, 51
golden rectangle, 11520, 123, 125
27,12829,13839,172,182,
21720,23233,237,259,263
puzzle concerning area of, 14043
reciprocal rectangles, 128, 129
and triangles of equal area, 13637
recursive sequence, 26, 27, 27n 13,
3132,9697,185,186,29394,
295,296,300
in fractals, 310, 312
and Lucas numbers, 97, 99
reflections in glass and Fibonacci num
bers, 203206
relatively prime numbers, 3334, 33n20,
53, 193,210,228,337,338,
35152
remainders, sequences of, 3132
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijnlnl,
268
Renaissance, 17,231,239,245,258,
267n30
ring, area of, 133
Roger de Le Pasture. See Weyden,
Rogier van der
Roman mile (as a measurement), 200
Roman numerals, 12, 20
Romantic period, 280, 288
Rome, 237
Rubie's Cube, 94n7
rule for fractals, 320
rumors, distribution of, 6162, 62n2
Russian peasant's method of multi plica
tion, 19599
Sacher, Paul, 285
SI. Francis Preaching 10 Ihe Birds
(Giotto),267
384 INDEX
Salinger, J. D., 12
Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral (Italy),
23840
scales in music, 27172, 28283,
285nn56,286
Schimper, C. F., 27
Schonberg, Arnold, 28889
School of Athens, The (Raphael), 268
Scotus, Michael, 20
sculpture, Fibonacci numbers in, 24456
seating at events and Fibonacci num
bers, 22122
second differences. See differences
Section d'Or (artist association), 247
seed of the fractal, 31011, 320
SelfPortrait, A (Rembrandt), 268
sequences, 80n I
of circles, 8081, 84, 87
and Fibonacci numbers, 7784, 114,
17475
and Lucas numbers, 17475
of natural numbers, 241
and Pascal triangle, 87105
of progressi ve di fferences, 102
recursive sequence, 27, 27n13,
3132,9697,29394
of remainders, 3132
See also patterns
Serusier, Paul, 269
Seurat, Georges, 26263
sexagesimal number. See basesixty
numbering system
Sierpinski, Waclaw, 312n2
Sierpinski gasket, 31213
Sigler, Laurence E., 19n4
Signac, Paul, 269
"Sign of the Devil, The" (Wang), 213
similitude, ratio of, 128, 128n 16
Simson, Robert, 171
Singmaster, David, 94
Sistine Madonna (Raphael), 26061
Sixtus II (pope), 26061
snails, 133
sonataallegro form of music, 27576,
281
sonatas as a musical form, 27580,
276n2
special integer, I 14
special primes, 33637
spiral patterns, 6574, 69n8, 131
artificial Fibonacciflower spirals, 70
bijugate spirals, 69n8
"equiangular spiral," 131
golden spirals, 12433,263
logarithmic spiral, 127, 13132, 133
and pentagons, I 5960
spokes (in fractals), 323
square roots, 305
squares
created using Fibonacci numbers, 40,
4849
created using Lucas numbers, 51
squaring numbers, 29396
alternating numbers and, 4447, 55,
142
pattern in differences of squares,
4344,4546,54,55,355,364
patterns in squares of Fibonacci
numbers, 42, 4344, 4546
perfect square, 2122, 21n7, 78, 305,
305n6
subtracting squares of Fibonacci
numbers, 4243, 35559
sum of squares of Fibonacci num
bers, 3942, 43, 54,35354
sum of squares of Lucas numbers,
5153,56
transforming fractals, 32021
See also numbers
staircases, Fibonacci numbers and
climbing, 18485
static symmetry, 245
statute mile (as a measurement.), 200
stock market and Fibonacci numbers,
17883
Stonehenge (Great Britain), 237
Stradivarius, Antonio, 291
subtracting squares of Fibonacci num
bers, 4243, 35761
successive Fibonacci numbers, 20911
sum
angle sum of a triangle, 84
and difference of successive powers,
29798
of evenpositioned Fibonacci num
bers, 3738, 54, 353
of Fibonacci numbers and distance
conversion, 202, 202n 13
Fibonacci numbers in Pascal trian
gle,9194
finding a sum by multiplying, 41, 52,
53
formulas for getting sum of Fibo
nacci numbers, 3642, 53, 54
formulas for getting sum of Lucas
numbers, 4951,56
natural numbers as sum of Fibonacci
numbers, 188, 365
of oddpositioned Fibonacci num
bers, 3839, 54, 295, 35354
ordered sum of ones and twos, 187
in Pascal triangle, 8587
sequences of sums of Fibonacci
numbers, 8283
sum and difference, 29698
sum of squares of Fibonacci num
bers, 3942, 43, 54, 35354
sum of squares of Lucas numbers,
5153,56
summand, 225, 225n23
sunflowers, 6869, 69n8
Swiss Guard, uniforms for, 268n34
symbol to show repetition of numbers,
14, 14n3, 30, 108nl
symmetry, 245, 245n10, 266, 342
forbidden symmetry, 342
Temple of Olympia, III
testing numbers to find Fibonacci num
bers, 304305, 305n6
test of numbers in fractals, 320, 321,
321n6
tetrahedral numbers, 89, 89n5, 90
thermodynamics, laws of, 245nl0
39th Mersenne prime number, 69, 69n7
Thorndike, Edward Lee, I 17
tonic in music, 285, 285n6
Tower of Hanoi puzzle, 27nl5
transcendental numbers, 165n2
triangles
angle sum of a triangle, 84
and constructing the Grossman truss,
31419
Fibonacci numbers as lengths of
sides, 195
golden triangle, 14448, 14954
isosceles triangles, 14448,314
Omar Khayyam and, 84n2
Pascal triangle, 84105
Pythagorean triangles and Pythago
rean triples, 19294
triangular numbers, 89, 89n4, 90,
21113,212nI7
Trinity (Masaccio), 267, 267n30
INDEX 385
triples, Pythagorean, 19294,36567
Tristan und Isolde (Wagner), 28285
Triumph a/Galatea, The (Raphael), 268
twelvetone method in music, 28889
20 Steps around Globe (created by Nie
meyer), 24952, 250n21
Ulrichs, Timm, 24849
unequal binary form of music, 27475
United Nations headquarters (New York
City), 243
unites d'habitation (France), 240
unit fractions, 162
UNIV AC (computer), 289, 289n8
Unna (Germany), 25354
Untitled (Fridfinnsson), 266
Utsjoki (Niemeyer), 26364
"Valuable Mirror of the Four Elements,
The" (Khayyam), 84n2
Vannucci, Pietro. See Perugino, Pietro
Variation VI (Niemeyer), 264
vending machines and Fibonacci num
bers, 18384
Venus de Milo (statue). See Aphrodite
of Mel os (statue)
vertex angle, 144, 147
Villon, Jacques, 247, 247n 14
violin as example of golden ratio, 271,
291
"Vitruvian" man, 257
Vitruvius,25758
Wagner, Richard, 28285, 287
Wang, Steve C, 213
watches, displaying of, 21720
Watson Research Center, IBM, 320
Wave Principle. The (Elliott), 179
"wave theory" of investing, 17893
Webern, Anton von, 289
Weyden, Rogier van der, 268, 268n31
worker bees, 59
188n4,202n13
Zeckendorf theorem, 188n4
Zeising, Adolph, 75, 115, 115n8, 243
zephyr (zero), II, 19, 23
Zeus (statue of), I I I
The
(Fabulous)
FIBONACCINumbers
Alfred S. Posamentier Ingmar Lehmann
Afterword by
Herbert A. Hauptman
Lobel Laureate
~ Prometheus Bcxlks
59 John Glenn Drive Amherst, New York 142282197
Published 2007 by Prometheus Books
The Fabulous Fibonacci Numbers. Copyright © 2007 by Alfred S. Posamentier and Ingmar Lehmann. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, digital, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or conveyed via the Internet or a Web site without prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.
Inquiries should be addressed to Prometheus Books 59 John Glenn Drive Amherst, New York 142282197 VOICE: 7166910133, ext. 207 FAX: 7165642711 WWW.PROMETHEUSBOOKS.COM 11 10 09 08 07
5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data Posamentier, Alfred S. The fabulous Fibonacci numbers / by Alfred S. Posamentier and Ingmar Lehmann. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 9781591024750 (alk. paper) 1. Fibonacci numbers. I. Lehmann, Ingmar. II. Title. QA241.P665 2007 512.7'2dc22 2006035406 Printed in the United States of America on acidfree paper
To Barbara for her support, patience, and inspiration. To my children and grandchildren: David, Lisa, Danny, Max, and Sam, whose future is unbounded. And in memory of my beloved parents, Alice and Ernest, who never lost faith in me. Alfred S. Posamentier To my wife and life partner, Sabine, without whose support and patience my work on this book would not have been possible. And to my children and grandchildren: Maren, Claudia, Simon, and Miriam. Ingmar Lehmann
Contents
Acknowledgments Introduction
Chapter 1:
A History and Introduction to the Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature The Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Ratio The Fibonacci Numbers and Continued Fractions A Potpourri of Fibonacci Number Applications The Fibonacci Numbers Found in Art and Architecture The Fibonacci Numbers and Musical Form
9
11
17
59
Chapter 2: Chapter 3:
77 107 161 177 231 271
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:
Chapter 6:
Chapter 7:
Chapter 8:
7
8
CONTENTS
Chapter 9:
The Famous Binet Formula for Finding a Particular Fibonacci Number
293 307 327 329
Chapter 10: The Fibonacci Numbers and Fractals
Epilogue Afterword by Herbert A. Hauptman Appendix A: List of the First 500 Fibonacci Numbers,
with the First 200 Fibonacci Numbers Factored
343 349 371 375
Appendix B: Proofs of Fibonacci Relationships References Index
Heino Hellwig. Our dear friend Dr. He provided much information. Dr. provided a stimulating afterword for the book. the acknowledged first mathematician to win the Nobel Prize (Chemistry. It was during a conversation with our friend James S. president and CEO of the Loews Corporation. and we took it the rest of the way to the pages of this book. Berlin. Herbert A. For this. Tisch. we thank him.Acknowledgments T he authors wish to thank Professor Stephen Jablonsky of the City College of New YorkCUNY. 9 . at the HeinrichHertz Gymnasium. Professor Ana Lucia B. This capstone piece will provide a challenge to the reader and may even have some elements never before discovered. Hauptman. who used his multifaceted talents to present the unusual appearances of the Fibonacci numbers in the realm of music from the design of compositions to the design of musical instruments. Dias deserves our sincere thanks for her broad discussion of the occurrence of the Fibonacci numbers in the field of fractals. We wish to also thank Professor Andreas Filler. 1985). Humboldt University. Lehmann acknowledges the occasional support of Tristan Vincent in helping him identify the right English words to best express his ideas. Berlin. of the Padagogische Hochschule at Heidelberg (Germany). that he mentioned the applications of the Fibonacci numbers in the world of economics. and HansPeter Ludtke. for providing some valuable comments during the writing of this book.
. did a magnificent job editing the manuscriptno mean feat. Peggy Deemer. as usual. and support during our work on this book. for their encouragement. respectively. given the complexity of the subject. and the content editor. Naturally.10 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The success of a book is usually dependent on two types of support: our faithful guide through the development of the project for which we thank Linda Greenspan Regan. we wish to thank. patience. who gave us constant advice to make the book as appealing to the general readership as possible. who. Barbara and Sabine.
or "book of calculation. I This constitutes the first formal mention of our baseten numeral system in the Western world. and with the sign 0. such as Georges Bizet (18381875) for Carmen. whose fame today is largely based on a single work.Introduction The Fabulous Fibonacci Numbers n a remote section of the Austrian Alps. Scholars have determined that the first published use of the Hindu numerals (our common numerals) in the Western world was in 1202. It was in this year that Leonardo of Pisa (Leonardo Pisano)." He began chapter 1 of his book with: The nine Indian 1 figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. Unlike luminaries from the past. published his seminal work Liber Abaci. Fibonacci used the term Indian figures for the Hindu numerals." It refers to the year that the mine was established. more commonly known as Fibonacci (pronounced: feebohNACHee). With these nine figures. Engelbert Humperdinck (18541921) for Hansel und 1. which the Arabs call zephyr. that Arabs already introduced these numerals informally and locally in Spain in the second half of the tenth century. there is a longabandoned salt mine entrance with a cornerstone bearing the inscription "anno 1180. however. There is speculation. 11 . any number whatsoever is written. Clearly there is something wrong with this designation.
he made dramatic changes in western Europe's use and understanding of mathematics. there is one about the regeneration of rabbits. which is known today as the Fibonacci numbers.377. He was familiar with the methods of Euclid (ca. 8.. At first sight one may wonder what makes this sequence of numbers so revered.5. Although its statement is a bit cumbersome. Fibonacci's popularity today does not encompass these most important innovations. 1919) for The Catcher in the Rye. since algorithms were not possible with these cumbersome symbols. which has resulted in his fame today. Through his revolutionary book and other subsequent publications. 89.1. 300 BeE) and used those skills to bring to the European people mathematics in a very usable form.12 INTRODUCTION Gretel. 144. emanating from a problem on the regeneration of rabbits. He traveled on business throughout the Middle East and along the way met mathematicians with whom he entered into serious discussions. its results have paved the way for a plethora of monumental ideas.55. Unfortunately. 13. that made him famous in today's world. which is stated on page 25 (figure 12). and a new facility with fractions. A quick inspection shows that . . Fibonacci was a serious mathematician.34. D. The result was that the schools in Tuscany soon began to teach Fibonacci's form of calculation. which involved counting beads on a string and then recording their results with Roman numerals.. shows the monthly count of rabbits as the following sequence of numbers: 1. a town on the Barbary Coast of Africa. we should not think of Fibonacci as a mathematician who is known only for this nowfamous sequence of numbers that bears his name. The problem. which had been established by merchants from Pisa.3. who first learned mathematics in his youth in Bugia. Salinger (b. Yet it was this sequence of numbers. Among the mathematical problems Fibonacci poses in chapter 12 of Liber Abaci. They abandoned the use of the abacus.21. or J. . He was one of the greatest mathematical influences in Western culture and unquestionably the leading mathematical mind of his times. This catapulted the discipline of mathematics forward.2. among others. His contributions include introducing a practical numeration system. calculating algorithms and algebraic methods.233.
its relationship to the Fibonacci numbers. and many other branches of mathematics.e. They appear in geometry. and so on). However. The golden ratio will be discussed in reasonable depth (with ample applications in geometry and art) so that the reader will have a true appreciation for it and..2 Here the Fibonacci numbers.INTRODUCTION 13 this sequence of numbers can go on infinitely. each time. Their interrelationships with other seemingly completely unrelated aspects of mathematics will open the door to applications in a variety of other fields and areas as remote as the stock market. By itself. consequently. The appearances in nature seem boundless.. for example. similarly. this is not very impressive. when taken as quotients in consecutive pairs. they appear in nature. We will provide you with the development of the Fibonacci numbers. number theory. The Fibonacci numbers can be found in connection with the arrangement of branches on various species of trees.. in geometry we will explore their relationship with the most beautiful ratio. It is often symbolized by the Greek letter l/J. as you will see. as it begins with two 1s and continues to get succeeding terms by adding.. It is our desire that this book serve as your introduction to these fabulous numbers. For example. there are no numbers in all of mathematics as ubiquitous as the Fibonacci numbers. There is practically no end to where these numbers appear. known as the "golden ratio. 1 + 1 = 2. The book will also provide you with a gentle.6180339887498948482045868343656 . and. 2 + 3 = 5. the last two numbers to get the next number (i. Yet. Then we will investigate the many "sightings" of these numbers by subject area. approach the golden ratio: l/J = 1. algebra. a sort of history. 2. the number of spirals of bracts on a pineapple is also a Fibonacci number. . Throughout these pages we will explore many manifestations. so that you may be motivated to find other instances in nature where these Fibonacci numbers surface. as well as in the number of ancestors at every generation of the male bee on its family tree.. 1 + 2 = 3. one might say. the number of spirals of bracts on a pinecone is always a Fibonacci number. yet illuminating discussion of the unusual nature of these numbers. even more spectacularly.
when we take much larger pairs of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.== 1. Consider. their quotients get us ever closer to the actual value of the golden ratio.. . the closer their quotient approaches the golden ratio. The fortieth Fibonacci number is 102.580.6180340557275541795665634674923 . Then.618033988749894890909100680999418033988 . =1. 102.6176470588235294117 3 and the quotient of an even larger pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers: 144 89  = 1. the quotient of the relatively small pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers: 13 .. For example.14 INTRODUCTION The larger the Fibonacci numbers. 2.141. =1.155 4 3. l/J.61797752808988764044943820224719101123595505 Notice how these increasingly larger quotients seem to surround the actual value of the golden ratio.334.584 165 580 141 . l/J.334.625 8 Then consider the quotient of the somewhat larger pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers: 55 _ 34 = 1. for example.. 4 181 . ..155 and the fortyfirst is 165. 4. The bar above the last repeat of 16 indicates that the 16 digits repeat indefinitely.
wondering what would happen if the sequence had begun with 1 and 3.6180339887498948482045868343656 . . Its appearance in architecture and art is more than coincidental. rather than 1 and 1. 123.. We will also discuss the nature and glory of the golden ratio itself. The Lucas numbers. 3.29.INTRODUCTION 15 Compare this last quotient to the value of the golden ratio: l/> == 1. Greece. So he studied this new sequence (following the same additive rule) and then compared it to the Fibonacci sequence. He mused about the start of the sequence. for instance. until Edouard Lucas (18421891). studied them in the second half of the nineteenth century.76. the Fibonacci numbers did not get their prominence. . There is almost no end to the places where the Fibonacci numbers appear and their many applications. and their name. a French mathematician..47. We will present mathematical recreations. For the more mathematically advanced reader. 4. you will have drawn a golden rectanglethat is. Throughout this book we hope to appeal to all types of readers.. 7.. 18. 11. as well as more serious properties of these numbersall of which will fascinate the uninitiated as well as the mathsavvy reader. has the subjects encased in a golden rectangle. If you were to sketch a rectangle encasing the front view of the Parthenon in Athens. Our goal is to evoke the power and beauty of mathematics for all readers. interrelate with the Fibonacci numbers. however. we provide an appendix with proofs of statements made throughout this book. Interestingly enough. The painting of Adam and Eve by the famous medieval German artist Albrecht Durer (14711528). but always have the general reader in mind. Many artists have employed the golden rectangle in their art. You will be truly awed by these magnificent numbers and most likely will be continuously consciously seeking your own sightings of the Fibonacci numbers. . We will explore their relationship later. which are 1. one whose length and width are in the golden ratio.
.
Leonardo Pisanoor Leonardo of Pisa. which facilitated the exchange of currency and trade. best known as Fibonacci. Nowhere were these stirrings more evident than in the great trading and mercantile cities of Italy.Chapter 1 A History and Introduction to the Fibonacci Numbers W ith the dawn of the thirteenth century. The mists rose slowly as the forces of change impelled scholars. The Fibonacci Association. By the end of the century. crusaders." or a son of Bonacci. it seems to be attributed to Giovanni Gabriello Grimaldi (17571837) at around 1790. changed forever Western methods of calculation. is a tribute to the enduring contributions of the master. and the mathematician Leonardo Pisano. Europe began to wake from the long sleep of the Middle Ages and perceive faint glimmers of the coming Renaissance. started in 1963. but it may more likely derive from "de filiis 1. Marco Polo (12541324) had journeyed the Great Silk Road to reach China. artists. Giotto di Bondone (12661337) had changed the course of painting and freed it from Byzantine conventions. Fibonacci Ihis name as recorded in history. 17 . or to Pietro Cossali (17481815). He further presented mathematicians to this day with unsolved challenges. It is unclear who first used the name Fibonacci~ however. is derived from the Latin "filius Bonacci. and merchants to take their tentative steps into the future.
18 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Bonacci. around 1175. The cities of Pisa. Algeria) on the Barbary Coast of Africa. Italy. and Amalfi. although frequently at war with each other. In 1192 Guilielmo Bonacci became a public clerk in the customs house for the Republic of Pisa. the Leaning Tower of Pisa. and today Bejaia. Shortly after his arrival he brought his son. Pisa had played a powerful role in commerce since Roman times and even before as a port of call for Greek traders. Early on it had established outposts for its commerce along its colonies and trading routes. He was born to Guilielmo (William) Bonacci and his wife in the port city of Pisa. This ability was significant since each republic had its own units of money and traders had to . The Crusades were in full swing and the Holy Roman Empire was in conflict with the papacy. Leonardo. Genoa. Venice." or family of Bonacci. which was stationed in the Pisan colony of Bugia (later Bougie. Figure 11 Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci). were maritime republics with specified trade routes to the Mediterranean countries and beyond. to join him so that the boy could learn the skill of calculating and become a merchant. shortly after the start of construction of the famous bell tower. These were turbulent times in Europe.
Sigler (New York: SpringerVerlag. the prologue to his most famous book. which first appeared in 1202 and was later revised in 1228." He declares his fascination for the methods of calculation using these numerals in the only source we have about his life story. When he returned to Pisa around the tum of the century. a book on the practice of geometry. During his lifetime.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 19 calculate monies due them. 3 The volume is mostly loaded with algebraic problems and those "realworld" problems that require more abstract mathematics. 2002). and if a copy was to be made. had to be hand written. Fibonacci wanted to spread these newfound techniques to his countrymen. Therefore we are fortunate to still have copies of Liber Abaci. 4. This meant determining currency equivalents on a daily basis. it is not about the abacus. Sicily. It was in Bugia that Fibonacci first became acquainted with the "nine Indian figures.4 Among Fibonacci's other books is Practica geometriae (1220). that. The name "algebra" comes from the title of this book. . more positively. Latin version of 1857 by Baldassarre Boncompagni was recently published by Laurence E. Fibonacci began to write about calculation methods with the Indian numerals for commercial applications in his book. Indeed Fibonacci sometimes referred to himself as "Bigollo. During his time away from Pisa. He may have liked the double meaning. The title means "book on calculation". It covers geometry and trigonometry with a rigor comparable to that of Euclid's work." as he called the Hindu numerals and "the sign 0 which the Arabs call zephyr. there was no printing press. Syria." which could mean goodfornothing or. Liber Abaci. 2. Greece. using these very convenient numerals. too. An Englishlanguage version of Liber Abacithe first in a modern languageof the 1228. and with ideas presented in proof form as well as in numerical form. 3. and Provence. so books had to be written by the hands of scribes. Liber Abaci. where he not only conducted business but also met with mathematicians to learn their ways of doing mathematics. he received instruction from a Muslim teacher. Fibonacci traveled extensively to Egypt. traveler. 850). who introduced him to a book on algebra titled Hisab aljabr w'almuqabalah2 by the Persian mathematician alKhowarizmi (ca. 780ca. which also influenced him. Bear in mind that during these times.
and then crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope in St. as is his commentary on Book X of Euclid's Elements. The confluence of politics and scholarship brought Fibonacci into contact with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (11941250) in the third decade of the century. The meeting took place as expected within the year. Peter's Cathedral in Rome (1220). He provided solutions in Flos. His book on commercial arithmetic. which contained a numerical treatment of irrational numbers 5 as compared to Euclid's geometrical treatment. 1175{. He provided an approximate answer. who had corresponded with Fibonacci since his return to Pisa around 1200. was to solve the equation: x 3+ 2X2 + lOx = 20. is lost. One of these problems. ranking very high among number theorists. which he sent to Frederick II. then with a population of about ten thousand. Fibonacci knew that this was not solvable with the numerical system then in placethe Roman numerals. king of Germany in 1212. In 1225 he wrote Flos (on flowers or blossoms) and Liber quadratorum (or "Book of Squares"). and Dominicus Hispanus. a book that truly distinguished Fibonacci as a talented mathematician.20 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Here Fibonacci uses algebraic methods to solve geometric problems as well as the reverse. in its conflicts with Genoa at sea and with Lucca and Florence on land. These scholars included Michael Scotus (ca. 1236). taken from Omar Khayyam's (10481122) book on algebra. Di minor guisa. Frederick II became aware of Fibonacci's work through the scholars at his court. Frederick II. As a strong patron of science and the arts. who suggested to Frederick II that he meet Fibonacci when Frederick's court met in Pisa around 1225. Johannes of Palermo. had spent the years up to 1227 consolidating his power in Italy.a. Irrational numbers are those that cannot be expressed as a common fraction involving integers. Theodorus Physicus. the court philosopher. presented a number of problems as challenges to the great mathematician Fibonacci. who was the court astrologer and to whom Fibonacci dedicated his book Liber Abaci. Fibonacci solved three of these problems. He supported Pisa. 5. Fibonacci likely wrote additional works that are lost. another member of Frederick II's court. . who had been crowned king of Sicily in 1198.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS
21
since he pointed out that the answer was not an integer, nor a fraction, nor the square root of a fraction. Without any explanation, he gives the approximate solution in the form of a sexagesimal 6 number as 1.22.7.42.33.4.40, which equals:
1 +  +  +  +4 +  + 2 5 6 3
60 60 60 60 60 60
22
7
42
33
4
40
However, with today's computer algebra system we can get the proper (real) solutionby no means trivial! It is
x
==~
3
2~3, 930
9
_+
27
352
3
2~3, 930
9
+27 3
352
2
1.3688081075
Another of the problems with which he was challenged is one we can explore here, since it doesn't require anything more than some elementary algebra. Remember that although these methods may seem elementary to us, they were hardly known at the time of Fibonacci, and so this was considered a real challenge. The problem was to find the perfect square 7 that remains a perfect square when increased or decreased by 5. Fibonacci found the number 41 as his solution to the problem. 12 To check this, we must add and subtract 5 and see if the result is still a perfect square.
( 12
~)2 +5=
~)2
12
1,681 + 720 144 144
=2,401 =(49)2
144 12
_ (
5 = 1,681 _ 720 = 961 = 144 144 144
41 12
(~)2
12
We have then shown that
meets the criteria set out in the
problem. Luckily the problem asked for 5 to be added and subtracted from the perfect square, for if he were asked to add or sub6. A number in base 60. 7. A perfect square is the square of an integer, e.g., 16, 36, or 81.
22
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
tract 1, 2, 3, or 4 instead of 5, the problem could not have been solved. For a more general solution of this problem, see appendix B. The third problem, also presented in Flos, is to solve the following:
Three people are to share an amount of money in the following parts: ~,~, and ~. Each person takes some money from this amount of money until there is nothing left. The first person then returns ~ of what he took. The
2
second person then returns ! of what he took, and the
3
third person returns ! of what he took. When the total of
6
what was returned is divided equally among the three, each has his correct share, namely, ~,~, and ~. How much money was in the original amount and how much did each person get from the original amount of money?
Although none of Fibonacci's competitors could solve any of these three problems, he gave as an answer of 47 as the smallest amount, yet he claimed the problem was indeterminate. The last mention of Fibonacci was in 1240, when he was honored with a lifetime salary by the Republic of Pisa for his service to the people, whom he advised on matters of accounting, often pro bono.
The Book Liber Abaci
Although Fibonacci wrote several books, the one we will focus on is Liber Abaci. This extensive volume is full of very interesting problems. Based on the arithmetic and algebra that Fibonacci had accumulated during his travels, it was widely copied and imitated, and, as noted, introduced into Europe the HinduArabic placevalued decimal system along with the use of HinduArabic numerals. The book was increasingly widely used for the better part of the next two centuriesa best seller! He begins Liber Abaci with the following:
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS
23
The nine Indian 8 figures are: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.9 With these nine figures, and with the sign 0, which the Arabs call zephyr, any number whatsoever is written, as demonstrated below. A number is a sum of units, and through the addition of them the number increases by steps without end. First one composes those numbers, which are from one to ten. Second, from the tens are made those numbers, which are from ten up to one hundred. Third, from the hundreds are made those numbers, which are from one hundred up to one thousand ... and thus by an unending sequence of steps, any number whatsoever is constructed by joining the preceding numbers. The first place in the writing of the numbers is at the right. The second follows the first to the left.
Despite their relative facility, these numerals were not widely accepted by merchants, who were suspicious of those who knew how to use them. They were simply afraid of being cheated. We can safely say that it took the same three hundred years for these numerals to catch on as it did for the completion of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Interestingly, Liber Abaci also contains simultaneous linear equations. Many of the problems that Fibonacci considers, however, were similar to those appearing in Arab sources. This does not detract from the value of the book, since it is the collection of solutions to these problems that makes the major contribution to our development of mathematics. As a matter of fact, a number of mathematical termscommon in today's usagewere first introduced in Liber Abaci. Fibonacci referred to "factus ex multiplicatione,,,IO and from this first sighting of the word, we speak of the "factors of a number" or the "factors of a multiplication." Another example of words whose introduction into the current mathematics vocabulary seems to stem from this famous book are the words "numerator" and "denominator."
8. Fibonacci used the term Indian figures for the Hindu numerals. 9. It is assumed that Fibonacci wrote the numerals in order from right to left, since he took them from the Arabs, who write in this direction. 1O. David Eugene Smith, History of Mathematics, vol. 2 (New York: Dover, 1958), p. 105.
24
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
The second section of Liber Abaci includes a large collection of problems aimed at merchants. They relate to the price of goods, how to convert between the various currencies in use in Mediterranean countries, how to calculate profit on transactions, and problems that had probably originated in China. Fibonacci was aware of a merchant's desire to circumvent the church's ban on charging interest on loans. So he devised a way to hide the interest in a higher initial sum than the actual loan, and based his calculations on compound interest. The third section of the book contains many problems, such as:
A hound whose speed increases arithmetically chases a hare whose speed also increases arithmetically. How far do they travel before the hound catches the hare? A spider climbs so many feet up a wall each day and slips back a fixed number each night. How many days does it take him to climb the wall? Calculate the amount of money two people have after a certain amount changes hands and the proportional increase and decrease are given.
There are also problems involving perfect numbers, II problems involving the Chinese remainder theorem, and problems involving the sums of arithmetic and geometric series. Fibonacci treats numbers such as J10 in the fourth section, both with rational 12 approximations and with geometric constructions. Some of the classical problems, which are considered recreational mathematics today, first appeared in the Western world in Liber Abaci. Yet the technique for solution was always the chief concern for introducing the problem. This book is of interest to us, not only because it was the first publication in Western culture to use the Hindu numerals to replace the clumsy Roman numerals, or because Fibonacci was the first to use a horizontal fraction bar, but
1 1. Perfect numbers are those where the sum of the number's proper factors is equal to the number itself. For example, the proper factors of 6 are 1, 2, and 3. The sum of these factors is 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, and therefore 6 is a perfect number. The next larger perfect number is 28. 12. Rational numbers are those that can be expressed as common fractions, involving integers.
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS
25
because it casually includes a recreational mathematics problem in chapter 12 that has made Fibonacci famous for posterity. This is the problem on the regeneration of rabbits.
The Rabbit Problem
Figure 12 shows how the problem was stated (with the marginal note included):
Beginning 1 A certain man had one pair of rabbits together in a certain enclosed place, and one wishes to know how many are created from the pair in one year when it is the nature of them in a single month to bear another pair, and in the second month those born to bear also. Because the above written pair in the first month bore, you will double it; there will be two pairs in one month. One of these, namely the first, bears in the second month, and thus there are in the second month 3 pairs; of these in one month two are pregnant and in the third month 2 pairs of rabbits are born and thus there are 5 pairs in the month; in this month 3 pairs are pregnant and in the fourth month there are 8 pairs, of wh ich 5 pairs bear another 5 pairs; these are added to the 8 pairs making 13 pairs in the fifth month; these 5 pairs that are born in this month do not mate in this month, but another 8 pairs are pregnant, and thus there are in the sixth month 21 pairs; to these are added the 13 pairs that are born in the seventh month; there will be 34 pairs in this month; to this are added the 21 pairs that are born in the eighth month; there will be 55 pairs in this month; to these are added the 34 pairs that are born in the ninth month; there will be 89 pairs in this month; to these are added again the 55 pairs that are born in the tenth month; there will be 144 pairs in this month; to these are added again the 89 pairs that are born in the eleventh month; there will be 233 pairs in this month. To these are still added the 144 pairs that are born in the last month; there will be 377 pairs and this many pairs are produced from the abovewritten pair in the mentioned place at the end of one year. You can indeed see in the margin how we operated, namely, that we added the first number to the second, namely the 1 to the 2, and the second to the third and the third to the fourth and the fourth to the fifth, and thus one after another until we added the tenth to the eleventh, namely the 144 to the 233, and we had the abovewritten sum of rabbits, namely 377 and thus you can in order find it for an unending number of months."
First 2 Second 3 Third 5 Fourth 8 Fifth 13
Sixth 21 Seventh 34 Eighth 55 Ninth 89 Tenth 144 Eleventh 233 Twelfth 377
Figure 12
To see how this problem would look on a monthly basis, consider the chart in figure 13. If we assume that a pair of baby (B)
26
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
rabbits matures in one month to become offspringproducing adults (A), then we can set up the following chart:
Month
Pairs No. of Pairs of Adults ~A} No. of Pairs of Babies ~B! Total Pairs
Jan. 1 Feb. 1 Mar. 1 Apr. 1 May 1 June 1 July 1 Aug. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 1 Nov. I Dec. 1 Jan. I
A
A J /t t\
B
A
/:) t:::, /\
A B
/"" /'" ~
""
0
2 2 3 5
B
3
2
\
5
B
\
A
B
A
B
\ A
A
t\ \ \"'"
B
A A
3 5
8 13 21 34 55
8
13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377
8
13 21 34 55
89
144 233
89
144
Figure 13
This problem generated the sequence of numbers: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, ... , which is known today as the Fibonacci numbers. At first glance there is nothing spectacular about these numbers beyond the relationship that would allow us to generate additional numbers of the sequence quite easily. We notice that every number in the sequence (after the first two) is the sum of the two preceding numbers. The Fibonacci sequence can be written in a way that its recursive defmition becomes clear: each number is the sum of the two preceding ones.
1+1=2 1+2=3 2+3=5 3+5=8 5+8= 13 8+ 13=21 13 + 21 = 34 21 + 34 = 55 34 + 55 = 89 55 + 89 = 144 89 + 144 = 233 144 + 233 = 377 233 + 377 = 610 377 + 610 = 987 610+987= 1,597 ...
A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS
27
The Fibonacci sequence is the oldest known (recursive) recurrent sequence. There is no evidence that Fibonacci knew of this relationship, but it is securely assumed that a man of his talents and insight knew the recursive l3 relationship. It took another four hundred years before this relationship appeared in print.
Introducing the Fibonacci Numbers
These numbers were not identified as anything special during the time Fibonacci wrote Liber Abaci. As a matter of fact, the famous German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler (15711630) mentioned these numbers in a 1611 publication 14 when he wrote of the ratios: "as 5 is to 8, so is 8 to 13, so is 13 to 21 almost." Centuries passed and the numbers still went unnoticed. In the 1830s C. F. Schimper and A. Braun noticed that the numbers appeared as the number of spirals of bracts on a pinecone. In the mid 1800s the Fibonacci numbers began to capture the fascination of mathematicians. They took on their current name ("Fibonacci , 15 numbers") from FranyoisEdouardAnatole Lucas (18421891), the French mathematician usually referred to as "Edouard Lucas," who later devised his own sequence by following the pattern set by Fibonacci. Lucas numbers form a sequence of numbers much like the Fibonacci numbers and also closely related to the Fibonacci numbers. Instead of starting with 1, 1, 2, 3, ... , Lucas thought of beginning with 1, 3, 4, 7, 11 .... Had he started with 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, ... , he would have ended up with a somewhat truncated version of
13. The recursive relationship comes from the notion that each number is generated from its two predecessors. This will be explored in more detail later in the bookin chapter 9. 14. Maxey Brooke, "Fibonacci Numbers and Their History through 1900," Fibonacci Quarterly 2 (April 1964): 149. 15. Lucas is also well known for his invention of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle and other mathematical recreations. The Tower of Hanoi puzzle appeared in 1883 under the name of M. Claus. Notice that Claus is an anagram of Lucas. His fourvolume work on recreational mathematics (18821894) has become a classic. Lucas died as the result of a freak accident at a banquet when a plate was dropped and a piece flew up and cut his cheek. He died of erysipelas a few days later.
1856) developed a fonnula for finding any Fibonacci number given its position in the sequence. SD 57007. Brookings. 17.ca/Fibonacci/. . (We will have the opportunity to use this fonnula in chapter 9. Through The Fibonacci Quarterly." Still one may ask. Department of Computer Science. (We will inspect the Lucas numbers later in this chapter.28 THE FABULOUS FiBONACCI NUMBERS the Fibonacci sequence.fr/. "The Fibonacci Quarterly is meant to serve as a focal point for interest in Fibonacci numbers and related questions. these numbers still hold the fascination of mathematicians around the world.dal. That is. Pennission of Francis Lucas http://edouardlucas. what is so special about these numbers? That is what we hope to be able to demonstrate throughout this 16.EdouardAnatole Lucas. applications.) Figure 14 Fran~ois. Bergum.mses . with Binet's fonnula we can find the I I 8th Fibonacci number without having to list the previous 117 numbers. research proposals. http://www.17 their official publication.'6 Today. especially with respect to new results. many new facts.) At about this time the French mathematician JacquesPhilippeMarie Binet (1786. According to its official Web site. and innovative proofs of old ideas.free. editor. and relationships about them can be shared worldwide. Gerald E. challenging problems. The Fibonacci Association was created in the early 1960s to provide enthusiasts an opportunity to share ideas about these intriguing numbers and their applications. South Dakota State University.
Let us look at the first thirty Fibonacci numbers (figure 15).418 = 31 7 . as we say. 711 = 28. 811 = 514. The French mathematician Gabriel Lame (17951870) proved that in the Fibonacci sequence there must be either at least four numbers and at most five .025 = 121. in every case after them.229 = 832. = 2 =3 ~ ==5 Fi6 Fi7 Fi8 Fi9 F20 F21 F22 ~=8 F. and Fn to represent the nth Fibonacci number.393 = 196. F8 F9 = 13 F23 F24 = 21 = 34 F2S F26 F27 Fio = 55 Fil = 89 Fi2 = 144 Fi3 == 233 Fi4 = 377 Fis =610 F28 F29 F10 = 987 = 1. the general Fibonacci numberthat is.946 = 17. You may discover certain wonders there. F4 == 1 F. let us begin by simply inspecting this famous Fibonacci number sequence and some of the remarkable properties it has. any Fibonacci number. each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. Before we explore the vast variety of examples in which we find the Fibonacci numbers. Notice that after we begin with the first two 1s.597 = 2. For example.584 = 4. to represent the seventh Fibonacci number. or. We will use the symbol F.040 Figure 15 In appendix A we provide you with a list of the first five hundred Fibonacci numbers.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 29 book.657 = 46.181 = 6. if you look at the list. F I =1 F.765 = 10. you will notice that (as you would expect) the number of digits of the Fibonacci numbers increases steadily as the numbers get larger.368 = 75.
1. 7 which shows a continuous repetition of the digits 142857. 1. which mathematicians call "periodicity. can also be written as ~ = 0. = 0 and F. This form of a pattern of repetition. 3. You will notice a curious pattern emerging with their last digits. instead of writing..o . 18 This will continue on and on. 13. nor would there be as many as six Fibonacci numbers with a specified number of digits. 21. 8. We can also begin the Fibonacci sequence with Fa F.142857 .30 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS numbers with the same number of digits. We are writing quotients in a multiplication form. That is. with the bar above the digits representing the endless repetition of the digits it covers. Lame did not use the name "Fibonacci numbers. Let's look at the first thirtyone Fibonacci numbers (plus the one preceding them. with a remainder of 6. 34. A fraction such as 1 . Interestingly. we obtain the following sequence displaying the quotients and remainders. which we call F60 and F.. In other words. = 1. 5. instead of 19. there would never be only three Fibonacci numbers with a certain number of digits. = 1 and F.== 0. 19 18. they were often called "Lame numbers" because of his proof. say. Another oddity that is easily noticeable by a quick inspection of the Fibonacci numbers is seen if you look at the sixtieth through the seventieth Fibonacci numbers." So. Yes. 2.142857142857142857142857142857 . 55. See figure 16. . The Fibonacci numbers also exhibit a less obvious periodicity. which we will call Fo). When Fo through F31 are each divided by 7. 55 divided by 7 is 7." can be seen most readily with rational numbers those that can be written as common fractions. = 1. Here the period is one involving six repeating digits. we will write this fact as 55 = 7 ·7 + 6 . as a consequence. they form the Fibonacci sequence (last digits) starting from the beginning: 0.
(2 + 6 = 7 + 1). 5.6.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fo =0=0·7+0 F=I=0·7+1 I F=I=0·7+1 2 F=2=0·7+2 I F=3=0·7+3 4 F =5=0·7+5 <. but taking only the mainders when the number generated is divided by 7. If you do the same recursive procedure as used on the original Fibonacci numbers. 7 + 1 FIX = 2. .711 = 2.025=10.657=4. 1 There is a sortofFibonacci recursive relationship here..229=73.624 . 31 F16 =987=141·7+0 F 17 = 1. 5. 6. 6. 3. 6.418=28. 1. 7 + 0 F25 =75. (1 + 6 = 7 + 0). 1. 7 + 1 F=8=1·7+1 6 F=13=1·7+6 7 F=21=3·7+0 X F = 34 = 4·7 + 6 <) F21 =28. though a bit hidden.597 = 228 . (5 + 6 = 7 + 4). 2. (6 + 6 = 7 + 5). 6. 7 + 4 FIl = 233 = 33 . and F24 in this list. Notice the pattern of the remainders (since each Fn is the sum of the two preceding Fibonacci numbers): 0. 7 + 2 F14 = 377 = 53 . 6. 6.946= 1.269 = 192.181=597·7+2 F20 = 6. as with: Fa. where 7 divides the numbers.324·7 + 1 " Figure 16 You can see where we have 0 remainders. .393=17. 1. 0. 401 . 7 + 6 F15 =610=87·7+1 F29 =514.7 + 5 F12 = 144 = 20 .093·7+6 F24 = 46. (5 + 4 = 7 + 2). 2. 6.461·7+2 F. 5. (8 = 7 + 1)..530 . 7 + 4 F10 FII = 55 = 7·7 + 6 = 89 = 12 .5737+5 F22 = 17. alwe rethe 0.040 = 118.0 = 832.059·7+5 F2X = 3 17 .341·7+6 F27 =196. 1.584 = 369 .368 = 6. 3. we get following.346. 4..872·7 + 6 F = 1.8 1 1 = 47. 1. 765 = 977 . F:.717·7+6 F26 =121. 7 + 3 F21 = 10. 6. 7 + 1 F19 =4. that is. 2. Fg. This is the pattern seen in figure 16.
That is. You might want to search in appendix A for other evidences of these Fibonacci numbers.32 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The bold numbers in the line above are precisely the numbers that we see as the sequence of remainders.) n 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 Fn 5358359254990966640871840 8670007398507948658051921 14028366653498915298923761 22698374052006863956975682 36726740705505779255899443 59425114757512643212875125 96151855463018422468774568 155576970220531065681649693 251728825683549488150424261 407305795904080553832073954 659034621587630041982498215 Figure 18 . they form a recursive sequence much the same as the Fibonacci number sequence. n 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Fn 1548008755920 2504730781961 4052739537881 6557470319842 10610209857723 17167680177565 27777890035288 44945570212853 72723460248141 117669030460994 190392490709135 Figure 17 When you get to the 120th (F. And there will be other sightings! (Hint: look at F.20)' the same will be true (see figure 18). 80 .
20 This can be seen by mere inspection.160.040 = 2.598.) 2. where we have listed the first forty Fibonacci numbers 20.393 + 196.368+75.418 = 2. We can convince ourselves that this may be true by considering some randomly chosen examples. which means that they are said to be relatively prime.160. You could also try to prove the statement. we refer you to appendix B.657+46.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 33 Some Properties of the Fibonacci Numbers To warm you up.563 which just happens to be divisible by 11.025+ 121. For those who care to see proofs of these relationships. Or take any two consecutive Fibonacci numbers and factor them. we will present some of the countless curious characteristics of the Fibonacci numbersworking inductively. other than 1. since 11 . 196. The sum of any ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is divisible by 11. since 11 . Are you convinced that the sum of any ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is divisible by II? You really shouldn't be convinced without further evidence. 233 == 2. Let's take another example: the sum of another ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers. from F21 to F30: 10. say. Take.811 + 514. One way to go about persuading yourself of the truth in this "conjecture" is to keep on taking the sum of groups of ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers.418 + 317. . 1. Two consecutive Fibonacci numbers do not have any common factors.946+ 17.711 +28.229 + 832. the sum of the following ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers: 13+ 21 + 34 + 55+ 89 + 144 + 233+ 377 + 610 + 987 = 2. mathematically. and you will see that they have no common factors. So let's begin our inspection of these numbers. for example.563. (See appendix B.598 which also is a multiple of 11. Two numbers (integers) are relatively prime if they have no common factors. Take a look at figure 19.
417 3 .711 28. 2.418 317811 514. 1 13 .207 2·89· 19.178.571 5 .930. 13 . 2.161 Figure 19 .040 1.1141 2· 13 . 61 557· 2.53 .578 5.765 10. 11 prime 24·32 prime 13·29 2·5·61 3·7·47 prime 23 .5 . 7 . 32·7·23 52 . Enough examples of this should convince you.817 39.3. 17 . 47 .524. Notice that no two consecutive Fibonacci numbers have any common factors.801 1. 281 prime 23 .181 6. 107 73 .352 24.465 14.349 2·233'135. 149 . 7 . 17 .961 24 . 2.521 2 .986 102. 109 3 .025 121..597 2.946 17.887 9.309 3. 3 1 .5. 13 .227.657 46. 11 .155 Factors Unit Unit prime Prime prime 23 prime 3·7 2· 17 5 . 33 .421 89· 199 prime 25 .221 37 . 19 37 .229 832.001 233 . 141.721 3 .157.) n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Fn 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1. 5 .702.334.9.368 75.29 .393 196. (However.346.34 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS and factored those that are not prime. 113 3.269 2. 3. 41 .245.169 63. for those who require a proof to be convinced that this is true for any pair of consecutive Fibonacci numbers. 19 .584 4.088.597 . 1 1 . 17 . see appendix B.
5th. By that we mean. the 6th. 12th. 18th. (See appendix B. those in the prime positions. nonprime) positions are also composite numbers. 21. 22. Fibonacci numberswhich are all nonprimes. .A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 35 3.. A quick inspection (figure 110) shows that the Fibonacci numbers in the compositenumber (i. That is. would then also have to be prime. namely. 17th. Again. 20th.) F6 Fg =8 = 21 F9 = 34 Fio = 55 Fi2 = 144 Fi4 = 377 Fi5 = 610 Fi6 = 987 Fi8 = 2.418 F26 = 121. 9th. it is divisible by numbers other than itself and 1. For the factors of these Fibonacci numbers. 16th. 711 Fil = 10. that the Fibonacci numbers in primenumber22 positions are also prime. if we look at the list of the first thirty Fibonacci numbers above.584 Figure 110 Fio F22 = 6. A prime number is a number (other than 0 or ±1) that is divisible only by itself and 1.946 Fi4 = 46. you may be convinced of this property. the 2nd. 23rd. we refer you to figure 19 and for further evidence see the much longer list in appendix A. 81 1 = 832. but to really make it a fact. 10th.368 F25 = 75. that is. A composite number is one that is not prime. 765 = 17. 13th. 3rd. 15th. 8th.025 = 196. 14th. and so on. Consider the Fibonacci numbers in the compositenumber21 positions (with the exception of the 4th Fibonacci number).e.393 F27 F28 F10 = 3 17 . 11th. we have to prove it mathematically.040 One could conjecture at this point that the analog of this is also truenamely. 7th. and 29th Fibonacci numbers. 19th.
Nothing further to prove.597 13 ~1=89 F I9 =4.36 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS They are: F2 = 1.where n > 1 Or F==Fn+2 Fn+l n By substituting increasing values for n. and therefore this analog situation does not hold true. 4.=~~ ~=~~ ~=~~ F4=~~ F111 =F11+1 F11 Fn =Fn+2 Fn+1 .181 =37·113 F 23 = 28. we get: F.657 F 29 = 514. you will notice that the 2nd and the 19th Fibonacci numbers are not primes. Remember the basic rule (or definition of a Fibonacci number. One counterexample suffices to draw this conclusion. A simple formula would be helpful as opposed to actually adding all the Fibonacci numbers to a certain point. not a prime F3 =2 ~ =5 F7 = FI3 = FI7 233 = 1. To derive such a formula for the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers. With all these lovely relationships embracing the Fibonacci numbers. there must be a simple way to get the sum of a specified number of these Fibonacci numbers. we will use a nice little technique that will help us generate a fonnula.229 However. We can write this definition formally as F n+ 2 == F n+ I + F n .
+ F4 + . There is a shortcut notation that we can use to signify the sum: F. . + F..1. and that is This reads: "The sum of all the F I L F.F2 = Fn+2 . . we have the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers: F. you will notice that there will be many terms on the right side of the equations that will disappear (because their sum is zerosince you will be adding and subtracting the same number). + F2 + ~1 + F4 + . let's see if we can discover a pattern when adding these consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers." So we can then write this result as: L~ = F. we get the following: which says that the sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is equal to the Fibonacci number two further along the sequence minus 1. .1 i=1 n 5. + Fn = Fn+2 1 i=1 n or simply: L ~ = Fn+2 .A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 37 By adding these equations. i=1 n terms where i takes on the values from 1 to n. + F. + Fn .. + Fn ' which is what we are looking for. . Suppose we now consider the sum of the consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers. What will remain on the right side will be Fn+2 . + F2 + F. On the left side.. Therefore. beginning with the first such Fibonacci number. + F4 + . . F2 • Again.
by considering a few examples of these sums. we would have to prove it. the Fibonacci number that follows the last even number in the sum. . + F 2n .1. = 1+2+5+13=21 +F. where n > 1 or L F. But how do these sums relate to the series that generated them? In each case the sums are the next Fibonacci number after the last term in the sum of oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers.38 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS F2 +F4 =1+3=4 F.2 + F2n = F2n + 1 . we will look for a pattern.. where n > 1 i=l Again. +~ +~ +F. + F4 + F6 F2 + F4 + ~ = 1+3+8= 12 + ~ = 1 + 3 + 8 + 21 = 33 ~ F2 + F4 + F6 + + ~o = 1+ 3 + 8 + 21 + 55 = 88 We may notice that each sum is 1 less than a Fibonacci numbermore particularly. To accept this as general truth. +F. +~ = 1+2+5+13+34=55 These sums appear to be Fibonacci numbers.n+1 .+~=1+2+5=8 ~ ~ +F.1. F+F3 =1+2=3 I ~+F. this looks to be the case for all Fibonacci numbers. We can write this symbolically as: F2 + F4 + n ~ + ~ + .i = F.) 6. Once again. (See appendix B. Now that we have established a shortcut method to get the sum of the initial consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers. but remember we only looked at the first few. it is only fitting that we inspect the analog: the sum of the initial consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers..
11 = F2n + 1 . Having established relationships for various sums of Fibonacci numbers. we should get the sum of the initial consecutive Fibonacci numbers: F2 + F4 + ~ ~ + ~ + .n .. . + ~ + F7 + . F.where n > 1 The sum of these sequences is: or which is consistent with what we concluded In item 4 (above).1..) If we add the sum of the initial consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers and the sum of the initial consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers. Here we will see another astonishing relationship that continues to make the Fibonacci numbers special. + + F. Since we are talking about "squares.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 39 This can be symbolically written as or L F21 _ = F211 1 n 1=1 (See appendix B. where n > 1 + F2n _ 1 = F.. we shall now consider the sum of the squares of the initial Fibonacci numbers." it is fitting for us to look at them geometrically. 7..
we . to a certain point in the sequence. we can generate a series of squares. That is. if. for example.2 12 + 12 + 22 = 2·3 12 + 12 + 22 + 3 2 = 3·5 12 + 12 + 22 + 3 2 + 52 = 5·8 12 + 12 + 22 + 3 2 + 52 + 8 2 = 8·13 12+ 12+22+3 2 +5 2 +8 2 + 13 2 = 13·21 From this pattern we can establish a rule: the sum of the squares of the Fibonacci numbers. 12+ 12+22+3 2 +5 2 +8 2 + 13 2= 13·21 If we express the sum of the squares making up the smaller rectangles. we get this pattern: 12 +1 2 =1. beginning with a 1 x 1 square (see figure 111).40 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 21 13 21 13 2 1 3 8 T 2 1 3 5 5 Figure 111 We find that. Let us now express the area of each rectangle as the sum of its component squares. is equal to the product of the last number and the next number in the sequence. We can continue on this way indefinitely. the sides of which are Fibonacci numbers.
Indeed. this product gives us 1.040 2 = 1.040 ·1.£. 34.=1 = F. However.2 .120. This neat relationship makes the task very simple. the sum of the squares: 30 L F.229 2 + 832.2 + . 1..346. + F. 55) .120. That is.J I = F n Fn+l i=1 Imagine you would want to find the sum of the squares of the first thirty Fibonacci numbers. That would mean that this sum can be found by multiplying 34 by 55. 5.760 Or simply.149.658. We can write this with our summation notation as n " F2 . 2.2 + F.l = 832. 13.o· F.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 41 choose to find the sum of the squares of the following portion of the sequence of Fibonacci numbers: 1.870 (= 34 . using our newly established formula.~ = 12 + 12 + 22 + 32 + 52 + 8 2 + 132 + . we would get: 12 + 12 +22 +3 2 +5 2 +8 2 + 132 +212 +34 2 = 1870 . 30 LF... 3.2 = F.=1 .~ + F.658. we can apply this amazing rule that tells us that this sum is merely the product of the last number and the one that would come after it (sometimes known as its immediate successor).149. . in the Fibonacci sequence. + 514. Instead of finding the squares of each and then finding their suma rather laborious task all we need to do is multiply the thirtieth by the thirtyfirst Fibonacci number..760 .269 = 1. 21. 8.
that it actually works for any appropriate pair of Fibonacci numbers.13 = 1. However. Will this work for any pair of alternating Fibonacci numbers? To answer this we would have to do a mathematical proof (which is provided in appendix B). and the square of the Fibonacci number that is two before it. Subtracting these 2 2 two squares. Let's take the square of a Fibonacci number. but rather. 13. This can be written symboli F7 2 = ~6' It is nice to see that by subtracting the squares of two alternating 23 Fibonacci numbers. say. the 4th and 6th members or the 15th and 17th members are called alternating members.F}_2 = F2n .2 . for example. While we are talking about the squares of Fibonacci numbers.169 = 987 . = 13) to get the sixteenth Fibonacci number (~6 cally as: ~2  = 987). . You might want to try to apply this 23. 34. That is. This would lead us to make the following generalization: Fn2 .811= F2X By inspecting the three subscripts for each of these examples. we get: 34 . Alternating members of a sequence will be those that are one member apart from one another. we notice that the sum of the first two equals the third.) 8. we can begin to convince ourselves by inspecting some examples that this result was no fluke. we seem to get another Fibonacci number. Let's look at a few now and see if we can determine a pattern: F6 2  F4 2 = 8 2  32 = 55 = F10  F7 2  F2 = 132 5 52 = 144 = F12 2 2 ~52 ~32 =610 233 =317. which is also a Fibonacci number! So we squared the ninth Fibonacci number (~ = 34).42 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS (For the more advanced reader we offer a proof of this relationship in appendix B. and subtracted the square of the seventh Fibonacci number (F. consider the following relationship.156 .
25 == 39.) 9. The next natural question would be to look at the sum of the squares of two Fibonacci numbers.I . above. To establish a pattern. Their squares. 5. Perhaps we are onto something here. or Fn + F. 169 and 441. But what is the pattern? To be able to predict which Fibonacci number will result from the sum of the squares of a consecutive pair of Fibonacci numbers.52 == 64 . which is again a Fibonacci number. we arrive each time at another Fibonacci number. say.921. F7 (==13) and Fg (== 21). It appears that the sum of the subscripts of the two Fibonacci numbers whose squares we are adding will give us the subscript of the Fibonacci number representing their sum. 3.946. say. have a sum of 610. and we found that the sum of their squares was F. Here is an engaging relationship that takes another look at the unexpected patterns we find among the numbers in the Fibonacci sequence. have a sum of 10. and then find the difference of the squares of the middle two numbers: 82 . which is also a Fibonacci number.) 10. F21 • It appears that as we try this for several other pairs of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.025 and 7.2+1 = F 2n + l • (The proof may be found in appendix B. Suppose we consider two consecutive Fibonacci numbers. (A proof is in appendix B. we will want to inspect their position in the sequence. Then find the product of the outer two numbers: . we will look at the two Fibonacci numbers Fio (== 55) and Fi I (== 89)..A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 43 rule to a few more such pairs to further convince yourself if you wish. 3. That is. the sum of the squares of the Fibonacci numbers in positions nand n + 1 (consecutive positions) is the Fibonacci number in place n + (n + 1) 2 = 2n + 1. 13. Take any four consecutive numbers in the sequence. In the next example we used the Fibonacci numbers Fio and Fi I . 8. and the sum of their squares was Fis. we used the Fibonacci numbers F7 and Fs . In our first example. Fis. Their squares. Let us we try another consecutive pair of Fibonacci numbers and see what the sum of the squares of these numbers is.
Well.21. which is 1 more than the square of the Fibonacci number 3: F4 2 + 1 = 3 2 + 1. which is 1 more than the square of the Fibonacci number 8: F6 2 + 1 = 8 2 + 1.) 11. then the product of the outer two numbers must be 272. Fs = 2 . Symbolically.13 2 = 441 . 8 = 24. If the pattern will continue to work. Again. which is 1 less than the square of the Fibonacci number 13: F7 2 . 13 = 39 . F6 . This .Fn = Fn. Another curious relationship is obtained by inspecting the products of two alternating members of the Fibonacci sequence. Fs .44 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 3 . 5 = 10.1 = 52 . this as Fn:l .1. say.1 . By now you should begin to see a pattern emerging: the product of two alternating Fibonacci numbers is equal to the square of the Fibonacci number between them ±1. Amazingly the same result is attained! Was this by strange coincidence or was it a pattern that will hold for all such strings of four consecutive Fibonacci numbers? We can try this again with another group of four consecutive Fibonacci numbers. and when it is in an oddnumbered position. and so the pattern still holds. (See appendix B. We still need to determine when it is + 1 or 1.34. F 6 = 3 . F8 = 8 . Consider some of these products: F3 . Fn+h and F. 13 = 65. 21 = 168. we find the sum of the squares of the two middle numbers: 212 .169 = 272. which is 1 less than the square of the Fibonacci number 5: Fs2 . 8. 8· 34 = 272 . F7 = 5 .+2. it is not sufficient to merely try many groups of four consecutive Fibonacci numbers and find that the pattern holds for each of your tries. Fn+ 2 • To really convince yourself that this is always true. 2 Fn. you would have to do a proof.I. F4 . we can write for any four consecutive numbers. 13.. When the number to be squared is in an evennumbered position.h Fn. we subtract 1. rather. we add 1.1 = 13 2 .
13 == 26. Let's see how the product compares to the square of the Fibonacci number in the middle. four. and 1 to an odd power is 1. and the square of 8 is 64. We can write this symbolically as: where n > 1.IFn+ 1 == F2 n +(_I)n where n > 1. Although we "convinced" ourselves that this appears to be true. and you will find the following to hold true. and so on removed on either side of a designated Fibonacci number. The difference between the square of the selected Fibonacci number and the various products of Fibonacci numbers. say. then the product of the two numbers removed on either side is 2 . Suppose we now use Fs == 5. Symbolically. since that will do exactly what we want: 1 to an even power is + 1. three. You can now try this by comparIng the product of Fibonacci numbers two. we would take the two Fibonacci numbers that are one removed in either direction. They differ by 1.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 45 can be generalized by using (_l)n. (See appendix B. we must actually do a proof to be sure it is true for all cases. Suppose instead of taking the product of the two Fibonacci numbers on either side of a particular Fibonacci number as we did above.) This relationship can be expanded. this may be written as: F n. By now you may begin to recognize the pattern in the chart in figure 112. ~ == 8. which are equidistant from the selected . the product of the two Fibonacci numbers one removed on either side of 8 is 3· 21 == 63. which differ from 52 by 1. If we take a specific example from the Fibonacci numbers.
Symbolically we can write this as Fnk Fn+k .l_I Fn+1 2 Fn 8·21 = 168 13 = 169 2 2 2 13·34 = 442 212 = 441 ±1 ±1 ±4 ±9 ±25 ±64 +F..+17 2 n . Before we embark on a more structured study of these amazing numbers.F2 . let's take another look at the sequence (figure 113).k Fn_2Fn+2 2 Fn 5·34 = 170 3·55=165 13 = 169 = 169 = 169 = 169 = 169 8·55 = 440 212 = 441 3 4 Fn _ F n + 3 3 F2 n 13 5·89 = 445 212 = 441 F F n4 11+4 Fn .2 Figure 112 There are endless properties that one can observe with the Fibonacci numbers.1+5 F2 n 212 = 441 212 = 441 F F n6 n+6 2 Fn 1 . . is the square of another Fibonacci number.rk where n > 1 and k > 1. 2 ·89 = 178 1·144 = 144 13 13 2 2 3·144 2 233 1 377 = 432 = 466 212 = 441 5 6 k F n _ 5 F. Many of them can be found by simple inspection.46 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci number. 2 .. Number (k) of Fibonacci numbers removed on either side of selected Fibonacci number Symbolic Representation for the case of Fn Example for F7 Example for = 13 F8 = 21 Difference between: Fnk ·F n+k and F2 n 1 2 F. 233 = 233 13 2 = 377 F n _ A Fn+k f:.
24 ~. Here. We could restate this by saying that these numbers are all divisible by 2 or by F. and F:. 55.946 17. and 832.xare all even numbers.o' and F24 are each divisible by 3. . 24.711 28. 610.393 196. Notice that every fourth number is divisible by 3.2' F. notice that every third number is even.584 4. We can again restate this by saying that F4 ..4 are each divisible by F4.. ~. They are the following numbers: 5. itself is divisible by 3.o' and F.368 75. ~. Using patterns to see where we go from here. If and only if the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 3.229 832.811 514.. we ought to try to check for divisibility by 5the next number in the Fibonacci sequence.s. Fg.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 47 FI F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 Fg F9 Flo Fll F12 F13 FI4 F 15 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 F16 F17 FI8 FI9 F 20 F21 F22 F 23 F24 F 25 F 26 F27 F 28 F 29 F30 897 1.6' F.040 Figure 113 12. then.181 6. in good Fibonacci style. F. 765. F. F:. then the number 75.2' F:.657 46. we would see that the first divisibility was by 2.o' F:.5' F 20 ..597 2. That is. Searching for Fibonacci numbers that are divisible by 5 is easy. which correspond (symbolically) to Fs. Let's look further at this list of Fibonacci numbers. F:. F:. Fg. or by 3.418 317. Beginning with the first Fibonacci number.025 121.025.2' F:. You can check this quite easily by using the popular rule for divisibility by 3.040. then by 3.765 10.6' F.
1x2 I i i i 5x8 8x 13 . andF.o' Checking for divisibility by 8 (the next Fibonacci number). we find that ~. where i has values from 1 to n + 1. Yes. ___.F:. 1 1 . .___ .oare each divisible by 8. ________ J Figure 114 Fibonacci square with an odd number of rectangles. we are able to say that F:.o. 13x21 2x3t ' 1x1 i~ . and F._ ___ __ . You can either say that a Fibonacci number Fnm is divisible by a Fibonacci number Fm . _ . or by ~. Figure 115 Fibonacci square with an even number of rectangles. Fibonacci relationships. The rectangles have dimensions of F.8' F24 .._ .. which . _ . can also be seen geometrically. ! 13x21 ~ 21 x34 2x3 1x2 8x 13 I'" I I I 3x15 3x5.48 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS F25 . as noted earlier. F:.l I I • . (A proof of this wonderful relationship is in appendix B.+I . We can consider Fibonacci squares as arranged as in figure 114 and figure 115..o are each divisible by 5 or by Fs. or you may state it as the following: If p is divisible by q. You might now try to generalize this finding. F25 . and F.. then Fp is divisible by ~. or F. where n is a positive integer. 'T~ x 5x8 'I· . Fs. ____.. ____ . The square then has sides of length Fn+1 • The area of the square is equal to the sum of the rectangles. every seventh Fibonacci number is divisible by 13. Thus.2' F:.5' F20 . Figure 114 shows an odd number (n == 7) of rectangles into which the Fibonacci square is divided.) 13.. and F..
156 = 342 = F 29 14. This can be written symbolically as: ~ n+1 £.1 n+1 I i=2 when n is even.47.29. when n the areas of the rectangles is == 7 the sum of F2FI + F3 F 2 + F4 F 3 + FsF4 + F6 F S + F7 F 6 + FgF7 = 1 +2+6+ 15+40+ 104+273=441 =212=Fg2 On the other hand.) We can find the sum of the Lucas numbers much the same way we found the sum of the Fibonacci numbers. As you can see in figure 114.. Earlier in this chapter.7. 11. a unit square remains that is not used. the sum of the rectangles is ~~+~~+~~+~~+~~+~~+~~ = 1 + 1 +2+6+ 15+40+ 104+273+714 = 1. there must be a simple way through a formula to get the sum of a specified number of these Lucas numbers. that is. n == 8).. In figure 115.4. This indicates that the Fibonacci square is 1 unit larger than the sum of the rectangles.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 49 can constitute a geometric proof. (See appendix A for a list of the first two hundred Lucas numbers.J i=2 FFiI == F2 n+1 I when n is odd.. They are: 1. when n is even (in figure 115. where n == 8. we mentioned the Lucas numbers. . Again. . when a Fibonacci square is constructed using an even number of Fibonacci rectangles. we will use a nice little technique that will help us generate the formula.3. To derive such a formula for the sum of the first n Lucas numbers..J F FII == F2 . which gives us the following adjusted relationship: n+1 ~ £.. 18.
Therefore. . we get the following equation: L.3 . .L2 = Ln+2 . and that is we can then write this result as: L L/ .which says that the sum of the first n Lucas numbers is equal to the Lucas number two further along the sequence minus 3. . + Ln = Ln+2  3 . . + L2 + L3 + L4 + ..L2 L2 L4 = L4 = L6  L3 Ls L3 = Ls . There is a shortcut notation that we can use to signify the sum: L\ + L2 + L. What will remain on the right side will be Ln+2 . . So 1=1 n L Li = L) + L2 + L3 + L4 + i=) n .50 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The basic rule (or definition) of a Lucas number is Ln+ 2 = Ln+ 1 + Ln. we have the sum of the first n Lucas numbers: L) + L2 + L3 + L4 + . we get: L) = L3 . +Ln = Ln+2 . . + Ln . you will notice that there will be many terms on the right side that will disappear because their sum is zero. .L4 Ln) =Ln+' Ln Ln =Ln+2 Ln+) By adding these equations. which is what we are looking for. where n > 1  or L n = Ln+ 2 L n+ ) By substituting increasing values for n. + L4 + . + L n . On the left side. This occurs since you will be adding and subtracting the same number.3.
too.3 ~ f i= 1 15. 11 18 11 11 7 3 3 1 1 18 f. beginning with the three small 1 x 1 squares.=[n+ .A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS or simply: n 51 "'L. can we find the sum of the squares of the Lucas numbers. Let us now express the area of the rectangle as the sum of its component squares minus the two small squares (shaded). we can generate a series of squares the sides of which are Lucas numbers. [. We can continue on this way indefinitely. Just as we found the sum of the squares of the Fibonacci numbers. Here we will uncover another astonishing relationship that continues to make the Lucas numbers special. .1 3 f.1 1 4 4 7 4 7 18 Figure 116 We find in figure 116 that. [' + [' + [' + [' + [' + [' 1 2 3 4 5 6 = I' +3' +4' +7 ' +11 ' +18' = 522 .2 = 520 = 18·29 = [6 . so.
72 12 + 32 + 4 2 + 7 2 = 7 11.346 + 2. which make up the smaller rectangles.47.LID = 76 ·123 = 9.£.348 = 9.2 From this pattern we can establish a rule: the sum of the squares of the Lucas numbers to a certain point in the sequence is equal to the product of the last number and the next number in the sequence minus 2_ In other words.76.182 12+32 +42+72+112+18 2 =18292 12 + 32 + 4 2 + 7 2 + 112 + 18 2 + 29 2 = 29 47 . we choose to find the sum of the squares of the following portion of the sequence of Lucas numbers: 1. this product gives us the following: L9 . we can apply this amazing rule that tells us that this sum is merely the product of the last number and the one that would come after it (sometimes known as its immediate successor) in the Lucas sequence.J L? = L n Ln+ 12 .2 12+32 +42+72+112=11. we get this pattern: 12 + 32 = 3·4 . Indeed.11. 4. We can concisely summarize this as: n ~ I .18.=1 This will help you find the sum of the squares of the Lucas numbers without having to first find all the terms below it. That would mean that this sum can be found by multiplying 76 by 123 and subtracting 2. for example.29.346 However.7.2 12+3 2 +42=4. 3.52 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS If we express the sum of the squares progressively. if. we would get: L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 + L2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 + 4 2 + 7 2 + 112 + 18 2 + 29 2 + 47 2 + 76 2 = 12 + 3 = 9. .
their greatest common divisor is 1. n > 1): O. . are reasonable enough to convince you of the veracity of these statements. FIl + 2 Ln + 2 = Fn + Fn + = Ln + Ln + I I 1. Before having you explore more unexpected sightings of these lovely Lucas numbers. . This neat relationship makes the task very simple. . although geometric.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 53 Imagine you would want to find the sum of the squares of the first thirty Lucas numbers. Instead of finding the squares of each and then finding their suma time consuming taskall you need to do is multiply the thirtieth by the thirtyfirst Lucas number and subtract 2. Definition of the Fibonacci numbers FIl and of the Lucas numbers Ln: FI LI = 1. we provide you with a summary of the properties we have noted thus far. Fibonacci numbers in a composite number position (with the exception of the fourth Fibonacci number) are also composite numbers. A Summary of the Properties Here is a summary of the Fibonacci (and Lucas) relationships we have seen (let be n any natural number. = 1. F2 L2 = I. Consecutive Fibonacci numbers are relatively prime: That is. (See appendix B for a proof of this relationship. + Fn + 8 + FIl + l)) 2. = 3. The sum of any ten consecutive Fibonacci numbers is divisible by 11: 1 I I (FIl + Fn + 1+ Fn + 2 + .) These proofs. 3.
.e.=F. The difforence of the squares of tvvo altemate25 Fibonacci numbers is equal to the Fibonacci number in the sequence whose position number is the sum oftheir position numbers: F2 . The sum of the consecutive oddpositioned Fibonacci numbers is equal to the Fibonacci number that follows the last odd number in the sum: n LF2i .J F2 I = Fn F n+ 1 i=1 8.£.1 = FI + F3 + Fs + ... + F 2n .2 + F 2n = F 2n + 1  1 6. I. since F4 = 3.F2 = F2n2 n n2 25.=1 = F2 + F4 + F 6 +··· + F 2n .+~+ .54 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Another way of saying this is that if n is not prime..+F.+F. . 4. The sum of the squares of the Fibonacci numbers is equal to the product of the last number and the next number in the Fibonacci sequence: n ~ ... The sum of the consecutive evenpositioned Fibonacci numbers is 1 less than the Fibonacci number that follows the last even number in the sum: n LF2i . then Fn is not prime (with n"# 4. +Fn =Fn + 2 1 i=1 5.1 = F 2n i=1 7. a Fibonacci number with number n and the Fibonacci number two before it. which is a prime number). The sum of the first n Fibonacci numbers is equal to the Fibonacci number two further along the sequence minus 1: n LF.3 + F 2n .
and q are positive integers) .F2 n+1 11 = Fnl . where n > 1. the d~f(erence 0. The product of tvvo alternating Fibonacci numbers is J more or less than the square ofthe Fibonacci number betvveen them ±J: FIl _ I Fll + I = Fn 2 + (. 55 The sum of the squares oftvvo consecutive Fibonacci numbers is equal to the Fibonacci number in the sequence whose position number is the sum oftheir position numbers: 10. m.) The difference between the square of the selected Fibonacci number and the various products of Fibonacci numbers equidistant from the selected Fibonacci number is the square of another Fibonacci number: Fn_k Fn+k . we can write this as F2 . p. Symbolically.1)" (If n is even. and k > 1 12.Fn = + F/. the product is 1 more. the product is 1 less. n. For any group offour consecutive Fibonacci numbers.( the squares of the middle two numbers is equal to the product of the outer two numbers. if n is odd.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 9. then Fp is divisible by Fq or using our symbols: (in the above. A Fibonacci number F mn is divisible by a Fibonacci number Fm. 2 We can write this as Fm I F mn' and it reads Fm divides Fmn Or in other words: If p is divisible by q. Fn+2 11.
.131 F71l • . as mentioned. 1 1Ff!" 1 1F4. + Ln = Ln + 2 .... 51 F"ill' ..... i. .. but he also introduced to the .. . 131 F 35 • I I F6.. 1 I F 2.e.e. .. 1 I F 2.. 1 1F6. . i. .. The sum of the squares of the Lucas numbers is equal to the product of the last number and the next number in the Lucas number sequence minus 2: ~ L. 131 F 2f!" 1 I Fs~ 1 I FlO' 21 F IS ' 31 F20' 5 1F 2S . when n is even ~ / n+ i=2 14... F6 1F6n .e. 21 F6. F21 F 21l ..e... 13. i.. 8 1F 36 .• 2 I FJn .. 51 F IS ' 51 F20' 81 Fib 81 F 18 .. F}I F}n . 13 I F 2]. n+1 ~ FF ~ i=2 1 1 1 = F2 I' when n n+ is odd n+l ~ F.3 15.. we should not think of Fibonacci as a mathematician who is known only for this nowfamous sequence of numbers that bears his name..F/. 21 F}...1= F2 11. 81 F6.e. 21 F9 .. i. 1 1F211' . 51 F s. F4 1F4n ~ Fs I Fsn .g.. i. 81 FJo. 5 I FlO. F7 1F7n . .e.e.. . 11 F}. i. . 1 1F 12 • .2 i=1 Although our focus IS largely about the Fibonacci numbers.. the numerals heretofore known largely to the Eastern world). . The product of consecutive Fibonacci numbers is either the square of a Fibonacci number or I greater that the square of a Fibonacci number.2 ~ I n = Ln Ln+ 1 . 11 F I .IFn . He not only provided us with the tools to do efficient mathematics (e.. .• I I Fn. 131 F42 ... II F4.. . 31 F4n . was one of the greatest mathematical influences in Western culture. i. 21 Fib 31 F 8 . Fibonacci.56 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Here is how this looks for specific cases: F.. 13 I F7. . 5 1FlO. 13 1F 14 .. 31 F4.. The sum of the first n Lucas numbers is equal to the Lucas number two further along the sequence minus 3: L Li = Ll + L2 + L3 + L4 + i=1 n . 8 I F 24 .. 3 I Fib 31 F 16 . . 21 Fig. 3 1F 24 . 81 F6n .. .
innocently embedded in a problem about the regeneration of rabbits.A HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS 57 European world a thought process that opened the way for many future mathematical endeavors. within the realm of the numbers. Figure 117 A statue of Fibonacci in Pisa. It is our intention to fascinate with applications of these numbers as far afield as one can imagine. are truly mindboggling! It is this phenomenon coupled with the almost endless applications beyond the sequence that has intrigued mathematicians for generations. . Notice how the origin of the Fibonacci numbers. The surprising relationships of this sequence. seems to have properties far beyond what might be expected.
.
Here we will go back to the original manifestation of the Fibonacci numbers: in nature. and the queen bee.Chapter 2 The Fibonacci Numbers in Nature ibonacci numbers. we first have to understand the peculiarities of the male bee. We first saw them evolve in the regeneration of rabbits. the female bees (called worker bees). have amazing properties. Let's see if there are other living creatures whose regeneration might result in an application of the Fibonacci numbers. an inspection of the family tree of the male bee will reveal our famous numbers. To examine the family tree closely. which lives in a bee hive and has a family. who does no work. which means it has only a mother and no father (but does have a grandfather). as we have seen briefly. In a bee hive there are three types of bees: the male bee (called a drone). F The Male Bee's Family Tree Of the more than thirty thousand species of bees. So let us take a closer look at this type of bee. Curiously enough. who do all the work. who produces eggs to generate more bees. We will continue to explore the wide variety of applications and relationships that these numbers hold. the most well known is probably the honeybee. A male bee hatches from an unfertilized egg. whereas a 59 .
It then continues with this pattern: the immediate ancestor of every male is a single female and the ancestor of a female is a male and a female. you will recognize the familiar Fibonacci numbers. so only a female was needed to produce him. which generated the first recognition of the Fibonacci numbers.60 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS female bee hatches from a fertilized egg. At the right. Surprised? If not. In the table (figure 21. This is clearly a surprising appearance of the Fibonacci numbers. so the third line has both a male and a female. unless they have taken some of the "royal jelly" that enables them to become queen bees and begin new colonies of bees elsewhere. Geneological Table of a Male Bee (Drone) Female Bees Ma~ 0 . Y 8eeI Tutal Bees 0 1 1 0 ~ d 2 <. However. thus requiring a mother (queen bee) and a father (one of the drones).? ~ {~ 0 ? y A0 ~~ ~ I ('{ ~ 9 ~~ A I 0 ~ I 9 )1 5 3 8 /~ 0 13 5 13 I « o I I 1\ 9 1\ 1\ ?I 9 91\(f 9 1\ y () ~ 21 8 21 Figure 21 Had Fibonacci been aware of the relationship that unfolds as we inspect the genealogy of the drone (male bee). the eggproducing female must have had a mother and a father. you ought to be. then he could have . where d' represents the male and ~ represents the female) we begin with the male bee whose ancestors we are tracking. As you look down each column at the right.? 9 ~ ~<3 I ~ 9 0 <.~ ~ cr I !1? 2 3 I 9 9 /~ <3 3 2 5 A (~ ~ /\ 9 A 1\ 1\() S? S? I <. The female bees end up as worker bees. is a summary of the number of bees in each row. As we said. Even the biology here is quite different from the rabbit's reproductory pattern. the male bee must come from an unfertilized egg.? <.
The message (i. Walser. Huber. which will generate the Fibonacci numbers. M. which. The regeneration of the rabbits and the genealogy of the drone are described with the recursive formula Fn+2 := F n + Fn+ I. means that each number in the sequence is the sum of its two immediate predecessors. 1993. 1. Specifically: (1) If person x is told the rumor. We can create a model l for the spread of a rumor. So his rabbit problem was close to accurate. Manz.. A chart of this stream of events should expose the Fibonacci sequence. the rumor) will be passed on to only one person at a time. and H.e.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 61 used it in place of what some consider as a lessthanrealistic example of the regeneration of rabbits in his Liber Abaci. 57. so person x does not go on spreading the rumor any further. (3) After person x has passed the rumor twice. he is not interested in it any more. the earliest he will pass it on is the next day. as we have seen. not so far off from reality. Bericht No. However. p. rabbits can produce offspring and can reproduce them on a monthly basis. (2) Person x passes the rumor to only one person per day. After age three months. 9301. in fact. If we extend our theme here from the "Fibonacci numbers in nature" to the "Fibonacci numbers in society"which could be stretched to be the nature of man!then we can use the example of the spreading of rumors in society as an example of the Fibonacci numbers at work. . the rabbit problem is. Anniiherung an den Goldenen Schnitt (Approaching the Golden Section) ETH ZUrich. U.
4a = 7 DayS 1.14.8. 3a = 6.6.3.4.6.9.2.2 .15. 2.2.9a= 17.7.12.2.62 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Distribution of a Rumor (x passes the rumor on to xa and xb) Day 1 1 Day22 1. 6b = 14.3.2.10.7.11.2a=4 Day 4 1.lb=3. Day 7 1.18.4. 10a= 18.4.1. 16a = 29.3b=8. . 18a= 31.8b = 21.4.4b=9.3.10.16.5. 19a = 32. 15a = 28.17. lOb = 23. 7b 8a= 16. so that the last number after the last equal sign is the total number for that day. 12b = 25.9. 12a=20 = 15. 7a= 12 Day 6 1. 13a = 26. 2b = 5. 7.5. 11a= 19. The number after each of the equal signs indicates the running total of people with the rumor. lIb = 24.3. on the second day to q people.8. if step (2) were to be changed to the following: (2) At first person x passes on the news to p people.12.13. 14a = 27.2.20.6a= 11. 20a = 33 Daysn Personsp Difference 1 1 (1) 2 2 1 3 4 2 4 7 3 5 6 7 12 20 33 5 8 13 Figure 22 8 54 21 9 88 34 10 11 12 143 232 376 55 89 144 We find Pn = F n. la =2 Day 3 1. 17a = 30. 19.11.5.5a= 10. The rumor would be spread so much faster. 9b = 22.6. 5b = 13.
In figures 23. 24. Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 . and 26 you will notice that in the three directions there are 5. and 13 spirals. 8. for example. 25.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 63 Fibonacci Numbers in the Plant World Perhaps you would be most surprised to discover that these ubiquitous numbers also appear in the plant world. These are three consecutive Fibonacci numbers. The hexagonal bracts on a pineapple can be seen to form three different direction spirals. the pineapple. It might even be worth your while to get a pineapple and see for yourself that the Fibonacci numbers are represented on the pineapple. Take.
. .. where we have numbered the hexagons. The Pinecone There are various species of pinecones (e. In spiral phyllotaxis. Douglas fir or spruce. which is related to the golden ratio (see chapter 4). The connection between the golden angle and the Fibonacci numbers can be seen in the ratio 137 50 . .'. the second will have hexagons 0. The numbering has been done by the following rule: the lowest hexagon was assigned the number 0. and so on. . This is the most common pattern. . The number of spirals in each direction will be most often two successive Fibonacci numbers. Figure 27 26.g. and 13once again Fibonacci numbers. . and most often the divergence angle d is close to the golden angle. 5. . Most will have two distinct direction spirals. When this occurs. each at a constant divergence angle d from the previous one... then the next higher is assigned the number 2. W h· h b ecomes lmme d' IC late Iy c Iear w h en we re d uce th e 360 0 fraction (see chapter 5) as: 3. . The latter case gives rise to Fibonacci phyllotaxis. Notice that hexagon 42 is slightly higher than hexagon 37. 13. You should be able to identify three distinct spirals: one will have the hexagons 0. Norway spruce. ..64 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Consider the drawing of a pineapple (figure 27). Spiral arrangements are classified by the number of visible spirals (parastichies) that they exhibit. 8.3 the angle between successive leaves or botanical elements is close to the "golden angle"about 137. 16. 10. not visible in the picture). Now look at the common difference between the spirals and you will find the differences to be 5. 8. .5°. and the third spiral would include hexagons 0. larch). . . the next higher one gets a 1 (remember this continues on the back side. . botanical elements grow one by one.
but you may want to convince yourself by getting some actual pinecones and counting the spirals yourself. Brousseau. Actual1y bracts can be lined up into sequences in many ways. . Again. Brother A.5 0 360 0 55 144 The two pictures in figure 28 will bear this out. for example. 85. Figure 28 These pinecones have eight spirals in one direction and thirteen in the other direction. "On the Trail of the California Pine Spiral Patterns on California Pines. Tree (Species) Norway spruce Douglas fir (spruce) larch pme Number of spirals in one direction 13 3 5 5 Number of spirals in the other direction 8 5 3 8 More details can be found in an article by Brother Alfred 4 Brouseau. (As for notation. The following designations of spiral patterns do not make any pretense of completeness. no.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 65 137. I (1968): 76. means that starting from a given bract and proceeding 4. you will notice these are Fibonacci numbers. The fol1owing are simply some of the more obvious patterns that have been observed." Fibonacci Quarterly 6.
Arum. 35. Pinus Sabiniana (Digger pine). 85 135. 83 85. Dieffenbachia.) Pinus albicaulis (Whitebark pine). You may well want to search for other examples yourself. 85. Pinus Coulteri (Coulter pine)." Fibonacci Quarterly 9. 38. Pinus Murrayana (Lodgepole pine. Pinus edulis.58 58 813 85. Pinus contorta (Beach pine). Pinus monticola (Western white pine. 5. Pinus Torreyana (Torrey pine). Pinus Jeffreyi (Jeffrey pine). 135. 83 85. "Fibonacci System in Aroids.321 35 35. 53. 135. 53. 38 53 53 85. 53. no. Bose. Pinus Lamberttana (Sugar pine). Anthurium. Antony Davis and T. 58 138. Pinus monophylla (Oneleaved pinon). and Spathiphyllum species. Caladium. 85 85. 35. Philodendron. Pinus quadrifolia (Fourleaved pinon). Tamarack pine). K. 135. 83. 5 Spirals are also found on a variety of plants. Pinus attenuata (Knobcone pine). Pinus ponderosa (Yellow pine). Pinus flexilis (Limber pine). Alocasia. 138 85. Scindapsus. Pinus aristata (Bristlecone pine).66 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS along two spirals. . 3 (1971): 25355. Pinus radiata (Monterey pine). 135 85. 138. Monstera. 135. 135 138. Pinus remorata (Santa Cruz Island pine). Colocasia. 53. Here are a few representative examples. Pinus Balfouriana (Foxtail pine). 83 813. especially 58. 38 138 138 In a similar detailed article we find spiral patterns. 8 bracts will be found on one spiral and 5 on the other when going to the next intersection of the spirals. Silver pine). T. 138. 313. The Aroids (family Araceae) are a group of attractive ornamental plants which include the very familiar Aglaonema. Pinus muricata (Bishop pine). in Aroids.
10 and 16 spirals)_ Figure 213 Knautia arvensis has twice 2 and 5 spirals (i_e_.e_. 4 and 10 spirals)_ Figure 214 This anonium has 3 and 5 spirals_ .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 67 Figure 29 Mammilnria huitzilopochtli has 13 and 21 spirals_ Figure 210 Mammilnria magnimamma has 8 and 13 spirals_ Figure 211 Marguerite has 21 and 34 spirals_ Figure 212 Gymnocalcium izozogsii has twice 5 and 8 spirals (i.
. . ".... .. ~: ~ . ....••••••t... 89:44... ~" ' "'~ ::: J. Figure 218 Sunflower 2. .. ..::.•• ·.. ' .... the more spirals they develop... '" .. "  . "... ."............ has a variety of different spiral numbers..." .... • II • • • "" ""... ~ . . . ........ ..•• '.... Figure 220 Sunflower 4. . t ~. .... o •• ..68 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 215 Anonium_ Figure 216 Anonium_ The sunflower.· . 55:89.:. The older the flowers get..~..:::.~..... ' . . ... In any case..... ..' . 21 :34. ...... on the other hand.·tI·... however.t '#~?J.. .~ . .. . 3 •... .. ::. 34:55.... "'''. r 'r. :. '~4 . " Figure 219 Sunflower 3....... · ..... ~ .:... .. '''.. • JI . the number of spirals will be a Fibonacci number.  .... 21 (rightoriented spirals)...... 10 t l · ..... "..." 'l'!::... .. . They usually will take on the following pairs of Fibonacci numbers: 13 (leftoriented spirals). Z a··. •• · . ~ . . Figure 217 Sunflower 1.
" The stamp depicts the logarithmic spiral.. Sehoute. .34. . "Early Binding Whorls. C. 9.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 69 In 2004 the principality of Liechtenstein 6 devoted an entire postage stamp series to science.13.. no. Bal. ." Rec. .. among plants dis6. 8. 7.42. Roger V.85) Mathematics.I. II. ).500 specimens.. Jean9 estimated that. 18. An independent state between Austria and Switzerland. For sunflowers there exists three kinds of spirals: 82 percent are Fibonacci spirals (8. ). and the 39th Mersenne prime number. The 39th Mersenne prime number was found in 2001. Phyl/olaxis: A Syslemic SIudy in Plant Morphogenesis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and 2 percent are Fibonacci bijugate spirals (10. 16. 1994). 2004.917  I One of the subjects highlighted a sunflower.466. )..21. 7 2 13 . exponential growth. called the "Exact Sciences.26. Trav. J. Neer I. Jean. (CHF. 8 Figure 221 Based on a survey of the literature encompassing 650 species and 12. 35 (1938): 416558. and in 2005 we have come as far as finding the 42nd Mersenne prime number 2 25 964 951 .29... 14 percent are Lucas spirals (7. R.
.... and taxis means arrangement.. ....... '. .. /. . . . . ........ .....:ii(..... ..:·:i~.. . ....~...... .lo about 92 percent of them have Fibonacci phyllotaxis. . ... · . • : ! {.. ... . Certainly mathematicians did not influence this phenomenon.... ..... .. .... . . . .. . . ..... Artificial FibonacciFlower Spirals ..~.. "\ : .. One may wonder why this happens.. . ... .. .. .• •• : : • • : : : ....'.. . ..... • • • • • • a... .. . ..::. ' ..... .. " '  . . .. : Figure 222 10..... . . " ~~ . ... . .• "...... .. '.. ..a •••••••••••• •••••••••••• • • • • • •a "..... . ..: /.~::: .... ......... ........ ... ... : j I j : · a. .... . :... . ::: :... .. .. which almost always translates into adjacent Fibonacci numbers.:.. .._""'.. . . ".. •••• as \ \ ! \ . • ••••• a •••••••••• : :.. ....:~~... . .... .: :... '.. ... The reason seems to be that this arrangement forms an optimal packing of the seeds so that. .... ' ./ . ..... . ..: ......' .... ".sa. From the Greek: Phyllo means leaf... ....... .. . ...:.. . with all the seeds being the same size.. ... ..... .. . .... .. .: ... . ::' :..... .... s... . We "see" this packing as spirals.70 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS playing spiral or multijugate phyllotaxis.•..' .. .. . .... no matter how large the seed range.. \ . ......:' : ... . . ....: :~.. " .. . . .... . ..! \ ~.. .... ... ~ : '..... . .. .::.::·::·::::~::~~~\~. .. . this means no crowding in the center and not too sparse near the edges.. . . .:' . . s·." ' .. · . " . .. . ... . . . \ • . .. . : : . : : I a. ..:: . . ... '.....~}lWi:/:~ :....... . . . ..a..':' • :. . . . .. . a : · ... .... . . they should be uniformly packed at any stage. a. . .. .' ...... as a. .. . ./ / } • . ... ... .... . .. • . :.. .. ...... .. .... .. . aa : : . '..~l:(~. ..... .... · .. ::. • • • • • • • • • • • ..... ......:..:..s.. ... .... . ' ' ' .
are very precise about the number of petals they have. ragwort 21 petals: aster. also apple blossom. buttercups have 5 petals. each time going 11. See P. larkspur. but others have petals whose numbers are very near those abovewith the average being a Fibonacci number! Having now inspected the parts of flowers. Here is a short list with some flowers arranged by the number of petals they generally have: 3 petals: iris. chicory. com marigolds have 13 petals. some delphiniums have 8 petals. lily (some lilies have 6 petals formed from two sets of 3) 5 petals: buttercup. or. cineraria. 89 petals: michaelmas daisies and other Compositae (asteraceae family) Some species. For example. you will discover that most plants will have the number of such petals corresponding to a Fibonacci number. . Begin with the bottom leaf. wild rose. some asters have 21 petals. we can look at the placement of the leaves on a stem. Take a plant that has not been pruned and locate the lowest leaf. and daisies can be found with 34. Cosmos bipinnatus. hibiscus 8 petals: delphiniums (larkspurs). 55. Helianthus annuus 34 petals: pyrethrum and other daisies 55. Again. lilies and irises have 3 petals. These are species of Compositaeone of the largest families of the vascular plants. snowdrop. pinks." Fibonacci Quarterly 14 (1976): 97100. Majumder and A.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 71 Leaf ArrangementPhyllotaxis Having now concentrated at the center of the sunflower. II Coreopsis tinctoria 13 petals: com marigold. Chakravati. some daisies. "Variation in the Number of Rays and DiscFlorets in Four Species of Compositae. the daisy. or 89 petals. such as the buttercup. we can now inspect the petals surrounding the center. columbine (aquilegia). P. for that matter. and count the number of rotations around the stem.
This phyllotaxis (i. until you reach the next leaf whose direction is the same as the first leaf you identified (that is.72 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS through the next leaf up the stem. The number of rotations will be a Fibonacci number.TURN' _ 4th TURN  3rd TURN _ 2nd TURN  1st '''N  _ _ _ . If we refer to the rotationlleaf number ratio for this plant." Which is directly above"" flrst_ I • '". it took five revolutions to reach the leaf (their eighth leaf) that is in the same direction as the first one. above it and pointing in the same direction). it would be about ~. In figure 223. Furthermore.e. leaf arrangement) will vruy with different species. the number of leaves that you will pass along the way to reach the "final" leaf will also be a Fibonacci number.. One also describes the CUIVe marked in figure 223 as the 8 "genetic spiral of a plant.J Figure 223 . but should be a Fibonacci number.
while the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) bears eight spirals. On stout trunks of the Canary island palm (Phoenix canariensis). 10. Why do these arrangements occur? We can speculate that some of the cases may be related to maximizing the space for each leaf. or the ornamental Ptychosperma macarthurii palm. while in the sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera). T. sedges. apricot. 9. such arrangements may be crucial for availability of space. as well as in a number of other species of palms. spruce 5/13: pussy willow. some grasses roses. 6. twentyone spirals can be found. For example. . 12 This phyllotaxis ratio of Fibonacci numbers is not guaranteed for every plant. or Arenga pinnata. "Why Fibonacci Sequence for Palm Leaf Spirals?" Fibonacci Quarterly 9 no. The wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris) and a few other species of palms also show eight spirals. some roses alders. poplar. cabbages. over many generations. 7. cherry. In the case of closepacked leaves in cabbages and succulents. Antony Davis. lime. thirteen spirals can be observed. hazel. in the arecanut palm (Areca catechu). almond 13/34: some pine trees Different species of palms display different numbers of leaf spirals. or Corypha elata. or the average amount of light falling on each one. blackberry. Even a tiny advantage would come to dominate. two spirals each are visible. plum. In the palmira palm (Borassus flabellifer). linden. apple. common groundsel 8/21: fir trees. beech. but it can be observed on most plants. oak. some grasses asters. The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) as well as Copernicia spirals have five spirals. holly. only a single foliar spiral is discernible. hawkweed. 12. pear. three clear spirals are visible. or 12 obvious leaf spirals are not known.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 73 Here are some phyllotaxis ratios: 1/2: 3/8: 1/3: 2/5: elm. birches. Also in some of these plants. Palms bearing 4. 3( 1971): 23744. but the numbers always match with Fibonacci numbers.
The spiral arrangement does not require any special botanical explanation. Rather they dealt with the geometry of the arrangements. Last. and other plant aspects. made of the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers. Stephane Douady and Yves Couder. many scientists were of the opinion that the golden section was a divine. (This will be covered in chapter 4 in great detail. Leonardo 13. l/J. Therefore you have a good chance of finding a Fibonacci number purely by coincidence. no. "Phyllotaxis as a Physical SelfOrganized Growth Process. you might ask. and 5 fingers on each armthese are all Fibonacci numbers. it does not go on like this! Moreover. 13 (1992): 2098101. Douady and Couder 13 also found a dynamic explanation for the golden angle (137. the "small" Fibonacci numbers are just pure coincidence. They obtained this angle as a consequence of simple rules of dynamics and did not postulate it as many of their predecessors. The percentage of Fibonacci numbers among the rest of all other numbers changes dramatically if we look at bigger intervals of numbers. if you can find two different large Fibonacci numbers in one sunflower. how this could be? (See page 68). there are five Fibonacci numbers. and 3 finger joints. . because among the eight numbers from 1 to 8. but not least. that is. universal law of nature. can be seen as a limit of a sequence. Wow! But. They developed a theory of the dynamics of plant growth using computer models and laboratory experiments in relation to the Fibonacci pattern. 2 arms. the "pride of creation." not have been designed by the rules of the golden section?! Some see it as if it were. petals. actually. but earlier works were just descriptive and did not explain any connection between numbers and plant growth." Physical Review Letters 68. Particularly at the end of the nineteenth century.5°). we can continue our search for Fibonacci numbers on the human body: A human being has 1 head.74 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Much has been written about the arrangement of leaves. On the other hand.) So. Yet the golden section. who saw it as a consequence of a spacesaving arrangement. how then can the human being. The most dramatic insight comes out of a recently published work by the French mathematical physicists Stephane Douady and Yves Couder.
13 and 21. He then established that the ideal proportions were those nearest 1. Italian painter. 3 and 5. Martin Gardner. and vol. 1854). and chin.615384615. 1627. Furthermore. Bruxelles 184815. 15. '~About Phi. and engineer. poet and philosopher Adolph Zeising (18101876)16 measured the human body and saw its proportions related to the golden section.2. da Vinci partitioned the face vertically into thirds: forehead. August 1959. Plastic surgeons further divide the face horizontally in fifths.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS IN NATURE 75 da Vinci (14521519)14 constructed the proportion of the human body based on the golden section.1. "Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen K6rpers" (Leipzig: R. By another 113 measurement of the same features he got an analogous ratio of 176cm ::::: 109cm 1. 58093. we see once again the presence of the two Fibonacci numbers. . 16. a very close approximation of ¢ . 1. 2." Scientific American. 18871965) assumed that human body proportions are based on the golden section. 17.610619469. playwright. pp." Bulletin de I 'Academie Royale des sciences. The ratio of height to navel height is ~::::: 1. The French architect Le Corbusier (CharlesEdouard Jeanneret. vol. or ~~ 1. In 14. Looking furthermaybe a bit too far!the American Frank A. critic. or approximately the golden section. pp. architect. and thus greatly influenced future generations. navel height 113 cm. Weigel.15. Le Corbusier formulated the ideal proportions in the following way: height 182 cm. des lettres et des beauxarts de Belgique. In this way.618."Des proportions du corps humain.6147. fingertips with arms upraised 226 cm. come into play. middle face. The Belgian mathematician and astronomer and founder of the social statistics Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet (17961874)15 and the German author. sculptor. 12834. l/J (see pages 25760). Lonc l7 measured sixtyfive women to substantiate the work of da Vinci and Zeising by determining the mean ratio of a woman's height to her navel. pp. which is another good approximation of the ratio = of two Fibonacci numbers.
Germany. "Golden Mean of the Human Body.615. The ubiquitous appearances of the Fibonacci numbers in nature are just another piece of evidence that these numbers have truly phenomenal qualities. no." Fibonacci Quarterly 17. Antony Davis and Rudolf Altevogt l8 claimed that the value of "a goodlooking human body" based on Le Corbusier for both boys and girls of a similar age is approximately the golden ratio. and 252 youngsters from Calcutta. using 207 pupils in Munster. . India.76 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS deed T. they derived the value 1. Specifically. 4 (1979): 34044. 18.
5. B Some Sequences So far we have seen that the Fibonacci numbers emanate from a nicely defined sequence. as in the case of many of their appearances in nature. 4. the sum of every two consecutive members of the sequence gives the next number in the sequence. . originally determined by a problem dealing with the regeneration of rabbits. 2. when you least expect them to appear. Not only will they appear. This may not be the usual kind of sequence to which we are accustomed. 7. We usually like sequences such as: 1.Chapter 3 The Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle y now you probably expect the Fibonacci numbers to appear in the most unexpected places.. "Sightings" of the Fibonacci numbers can either be of individual members of the sequence. We know they follow a rulethat beginning with two 1s. 3. or as a sequence of numbers appearing where you least expect them. 6.. 77 . We will begin with some unusual sequences and then bring the Fibonacci numbers into the discussionyes. but they will interact with various other fields in a very meaningful way.
4. we could check the differences between terms to see if there is a common difference (or perhaps a common factor). Original Sequence First Difference Second Difference 1 3 4 5 9 7 16 9 2 25 11 36 2 2 2 Figure 31 However.15. 4. Suppose we didn't recognize that the above was the sequence of perfect squares.25. 2. . Look at the chart below (figure 31) and notice that the second differences are constant.. .30.. .9. we expect the next number to be 32. 14. We can even easily accept: 5. 36. Yet if we were told that it is 31. 10. 8.20. 25..6. then you could try to get the next row of differencesthat is. . when we get the sequence 1.10. either 32 or 31 "works" to create a viable or meaningful sequence.78 or THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 2. or 1.35. if there is a common difference.7. or even the sequence of perfect squares: 1.3... we might cry out "wrong!" Much to many people's surprise. 16. then you can easily get the next number. . 9. 16. between the terms of differences.13. 4. 12. .11.. but if there is no common difference. .5.40. For example. 8.
. and then the differences of the differences. 2. 2.. 16. . and if no pattern emerges.. That is. 2.e. The second row. this will enable us to determine the rule for deriving succeeding members of the sequence. The first row of differences leaves us without much of a clue of a pattern.. We will do this in exactly the same way: take differences between the terms and look for a pattern.. 4. 4. we can reverse the process (i. say. Just as we might have done for the first four sequences above.. tum the table upside down as in figure 33) and extend the third differences a few more steps. we shall try to find a pattern in the new sequence formed by these differences. Original Sequeoce First Difference Second Difference Third Difference rourth dIfference 1 I 2 2 I 4 4 2 8 8 4 2 16 15 7 31 I I 3 I Figure 32 With the fourth differences forming a sequence of constants. likewise. . 8.. . we take the differences of the terms in the given sequence. 16. Fourth Difference Third Difference Second Difference First Difference Onginal Sequence 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 5 6 1 1 7 8 1 9 37 93 130 256 t 2 2 4 4 4 4 7 II 16 26 42 57 22 29 64 46 2 2 8 15 16 8 31 99 163 386 Figure 33 . we shall set up a table of differences.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 79 Yes. However. 1. 31. up to 9. a clear pattern emerges: 1.. since again the last term ruins what may have developed into a pattern. 31. can be a legitimate sequence. We will set up a chart (figure 32) showing the differences between terms of the sequence 1. 3. 8. . To show that this is a proper sequence (one that has a rule for getting additional members of the sequence). what may be much to your amazement. and so on until a pattern emerges. at the third sequence of differences.
1 After we have just taken you from what you expected would be a comfortable and familiar sequence. A geometric interpretation of this unusual sequence should help convince you of the consistency we enjoy in mathematics. is easy to find. 4. 99. 163. . . 64. since we had to go to the third differences to get a constant. 1. 32. is a fourthpower expression. Let's count the number of regions in each circle successively.. the nth tenn) of the sequence 1. to a rather strangelooking one. 8. 4.. 31.. . 16. 99.. each with successively more points highlighted on it. The general tenn of the sequence 1.256.386. 8. you should not think that this sequence is contrived and is independent of other parts of mathematics. We have omitted the actual "first circle"the one with only one point on it. So the next numbers of the given sequence are 57. 4.I. 2... . . 8. and give you reason to better appreciate the beauty inherent in mathematics. 256. each with successively more points on it. Beginning with the first circle. Consider a sequence of circles. we will join these points with straight line segments to form the greatest number of regions in each of these circles. IS T(n) = n 6n +23n 18n+24 24 4 3 2 . The general tenn . In figure 34 we show five circles. 256. . 1. 16. 32.80 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The bold numbers are those that were obtained by working backward from the sequence of third differences. 16. 2. 4. 8. 2'. 128.. The general tenn (that is. We marked the regions with consecutive numbers so that the number of regions can be easily counted. since it would show only one region formeda trivial case.] . 163. 16. 31. 2. 1.. and it is T(n) = 2 n . 57. and 386. [But also the general tenn T(n) = n+(:) + C~I) = (:) + C) + I is for all natural numbersn (wheren>O) a de scription of this sequence.
or else you will lose a region. meet at one point). Number of points on the circle I 2 Number of regions into which the circle is partitioned 1 2 3 4 5 6 4 8 16 31 7 8 57 99 Figure 35 Notice that the number of regions listed on the chart gives us (what originally appeared to be) this unusual sequence.e.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 81 1 8 2 1 3 . make sure no three lines are concurrent (i. .. If you do this independently for further cases.4 2 5 6 7 Figure 34 To summarize this circle partitioning we will make a chart (figure 35) of the number of regions into which a circle can be partitioned by joining the highlighted points on the circle.
If we complete the chart in figure 36 using the relationship F: = F:+2 . as well as along the diagonals. second.3. It appears to reproduce itself in almost all directions! Such a characteristic is one of the many reasons that this sequence has these unusual properties. . 3.13.82 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci Differences By now you might be asking how this relates to the Fibonacci numbers. 1. .. 3.2.1 2 1 0 ~ 8 3 13 21 8 13 34 21 55 34 13 89 55 21 144 Fir. the sequences of sums generate the Fibonacci sequence again. F_I = 1.3. Sc=cond D!ncrcncc~ 5 I I 2 1 0 3 2 I 5 3 1 8 5 2 34 Third Differc=nces rourth Dlncrem... F_2 = 1. .1. 1. we quickly notice that everywhere on this chart of differences. this might "de legitimatize" the Fibonacci sequence in your mind.Fn+l . ..5.8. (Notice that Fo = 0. 1. 1. .1. .. . 1. 2. ) Furthermore. 13. you will see the Fibonacci sequence.0. 1. 13.13. which comes from the definition of the Fibonacci numbers (i. fourth.8.. 2. It is in the first. 0. . But.8. the list of differences would be: Fibonacci sequence: sequence of first differences: sequence of second differences: sequence of third differences: sequence of fourth differences: 1.. First of all..e~ 8 3 13 5 IS Figure 36 Using the same procedure for inspecting the above sequences. we know that the Fibonacci sequence does not have a common difference between its terms. although a bit shifted over (see figure 37).1.5. .. 2.2.0..t DIfTerence. Fn + Fn+1 = Fn+2 ). 8.1. 1. 5. 5. Its appearance could overwhelm us.. . After our previous discussion on sequences. 8.3.13.5..e.2. Original ~ucnce 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 .0. 1.1. before drawing such rash conclusions. let's take a look at the differences between the terms of the Fibonacci sequence (figure 36). differences. third. .1.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 83 Sequence of Sums 10.765 4.597 987 610 377 233 144 144 233 89 55 34 21 144 89 55 34 a+b a b 5 2 3 8 5 13 21 8 5 13 Fn 1 1 2 3 1 0 8 3 1 0 13 5 2 1 1 2 5 21 8 3 1 0 1 3 8 34 13 5 2 1 1 2 5 89 34 13 5 2 1 1 2 5 ~ ba 0 1 2 1 1 21 8 3 1 0 1 3 8 1 1 2 1 3 13 21 Sequence of Differences 13 34 Figure 37 Their appearance in the realm of sequence differences is quite amazing.584 1.181 1.597 2.181 2.946 4. but how does the Fibonacci sequence relate to the other sequences we just inspected? Or put another way: does the Fibo .584 610 233 89 34 55 13 21 34 377 987 1.597 610 377 233 144 89 55 987 610 377 233 144 89 55 6.
8. The Fibonacci sequence: 1. 163. Yet in the Western world Pascal is credited with having discovered it without reference to any previous documents. In order to help his father process huge amounts of data in his position as tax commissioner. 2.. named after the famous French mathematician Blaise Pascal (16231662). he developed a mechanical calculator (called "Pascaline") that by 1645 was on the market for purchase. 128. This famous triangular ar2. Even though mathematics books were forbidden to him as a child. 16. 32. 512.024. To do this we will introduce you to the Pascal triangle.5. .99. 256.2. 8. . This triangular arrangement of numbers was first described by the Arabian mathematician Omar Khayyam (10481122). 57. 1.55. The sequence of circle partitions: 1. 386. the answer should be an unexpected "yes.233. 31. 256.3. establishing the angle sum of a plane triangle. 64.8. he independently proved Euclid's thirtysecond proposition. The sequence of powers of2: 1. Through his own inventive construction. 4.1. his desire and talent for mathematics could not dampen. 16. 4.84 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS nacci sequence relate to these seemingly unrelated sequences? If the past gives us a clue about the future.144." Let's see if we can draw a connection between these three unrelated sequences. but first appeared in print in a 1303 manuscript "The Valuable Mirror of the Four Elements" by the Chinese mathematician Chu ShihChieh (12701330).89. Pascal showed his genius for mathematics as a child. who developed his "arithmetical triangle" as an aid for his work on probability.13.2. The Pascal Triangle In 1653 Pascal invented his arithmetical triangle.2 although it was not published until after his death.21.34..
Namely. placed below the interval between the 1s of the previous row. The fourth row is obtained the same way: after the end 1s are placed. The Pascal Triangle 2 3 4 3 6 4 5 6 10 15 20 35 56 70 )26 210 252 10 15 35 56 126 210 5 6 7 R 21 28 21 28 84 120 7 8 36 45 9 9 36 45 120 84 J 10 10 Figure 38 Let's look at some of the hidden gems in the Pascal triangle (figure 38). then the third row is obtained by placing 1s at the end positions and adding the two numbers in the second row (1 + 1 = 2) to get the 2. 1. the 3s are gotten from the sum of the two numbers above (to the right and left).that we have arrived at the successive powers of 2 (figure 39). that is. we notice . This pattern then continues to get the succeeding rows.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 85 rangement of numbers (figure 38) is formed by beginning at the top with 1. then the second row has 1. . Ifwe take the sum of the numbers in each row. 1 + 2 = 3 and 2 + 1 = 3.
ers of2) 2 2 3 4 5 4 3 6 R 4 10 16 10 15 5 15 32 6 6 7 20 35 64 7 21 28 56 ~4 .. 1 +5+ 10+ 10+5+ 1 =32=2 5 . 1 + 3 + 3 + 1 = 8 = 23 .86 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 1= 1= 2 0 . 1 +6+ 15+20+ 15+6+ 1 =64=2 6 . Row sums (Po..5 70 21 128 R R 9 JO 56 126 84 210 28 36 120 256 () 36 126 210 252 512 \0 45 120 45 1. 1+ 2 + 1 = 4 = 22 . 1 + 4 + 6 + 4 + 1 = 16 = 24 .024 Figure 39 ..024=2 10 This is the first sequence of the three we will connect through the Pascal triangle. 1 +9+36+84+ 126+ 126+84+36+9+ 1 =512=2 9 . 1 + 10+45+ 120+210+252+210+ 120+45 + 10+ 1 = 1.. 1 + 8 + 28 + 56 + 70 + 56 + 28 + 8 + 1 = 256 = 2 8 . 1+1=2=21 . 1 +7+21 +35+35+21 +7+ 1 = 128=2 7.
8.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 87 Now. Pascal's original use was to exhibit the coefficients of successive terms of a binomial expansion. The Pascal triangle contains many unexpected number relationships beyond the characteristics that Pascal intended in his original use of the triangle. . The ubiquity of this triangular arrangement of numbers merits just a bit of further elaboration before we relate the third of our sequences of numbersthe Fibonacci numbersto the others. 163 What a coincidence! So the Pascal triangle provides us with a connection between the first two of the sequences that we wanted to connect. 4. taking a binomial such as (a + b) to successively higher powers. There. strangely enough. 16. consider only the horizontal sums of the rows in figure 310 that are to the right of the bold line drawn through the Pascal triangle. the sequence of circle partitions emerges! 1. 57. 31. Sum of the numbers to the right of the line I 2 4 8 4 16 5 31 IS 6 21 7 57 99 56 84 210 28 8 36 <) 163 256 10 120 45 386 Figure 310 That is. 2. 99.
+ L:J n I n ab . we use n) (7) 7! (k = = 3!·(73)! = 3 7! 4!·5·6·7 5·6·7 5·6·7 3!·4! = 3!·4! = ~ = 1. By the way.4 n! k (~) = 1.) anI b + (..88 (a THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 1 + b)o = (a+b)1 =a+b (a + b)2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 (a + b)3 = a 3 + 3a 2b + 3ab2+ b 3 (a + b)4 = a 4 + 4a 3b + 6a 2b 2 + 4ab 3 + b 4 (a+b)5 =a5 +5a4b+ 10a 3 b 2 + 10a2b 3 +5ab4 +b 5 (a+b)6 =a6 +6a5b+ 15a4b 2 +20a 3b 3 + 15a2b 4 +6ab5 +b6 (a + b)7 = a 7 + 7a 6b+ 21a 5b 2 + 35a4b 3 + 35a3b4+21a2b5+7ab6+b7 (a + b)8 = a 8 + 8a7b + 28a6b 2 + 56a5b 3 + 70a4b 4 + 56a 3b 5 + 28a2b 6 + 8ab7 + b 8 (a + b)9 = a 9 + 9a8b+ 36a7b 2 + 84a 6 b 3 + 126a5b 4+ 126a4b5+84a3b6+36a2b7 +9ab8+ b 9 (a + b)IO = a lO+l0a9b+ 45a 8 b 2 + 120a7b 3 + 210a6 b 4 + 252a sb 5 + 210a4b 6 + 120a 3b 7 + 45a2b 8 + 10ab9 + b 10 Notice how the coefficients of each binomialexpansion line is also represented as a row of the Pascal triangle. to get the fourth entry in the eighth row. n. so we offer it here: (a+br = (:) an + (. the binomial coefficient (:) tells us how many ways n coin tosses come up with k heads.2.3 3.2.+ (:) b . .. Some may be interested in the general term of the expansion of (a + b).b + . There is a pattern also among the variables' exponents: one descends while the other ascends in valueeach time keeping the sum of the exponents constantmaking it equal to the exponent of the original binomial taken to a power.3. We should note that we define F or example.andn!=1.. where (n)= k! ·(nk)! .) a n . + 2 2 L:2) 2 n 2 a b . ..3 = 35. This allows us to expand a binomial without actually multiplying it by itself many times to get the end result.
5.6.35...3.286.15. Tetrahedral numbers represent the number of points that can be arranged to form a regular tetrahedron. 10. Consider the Pascal triangle in figure 311 with the various cells shaded.7. parallel lists) we get the list of triangular numbers: 4 1.. All you need to do is locate the number in the cell that is immediately below and to the right (or left) of the last 4.15.10.1. I. I.78.126. I. .4. Suppose you would like to add the numbers in one of these sequences of numbers.. . The next list of numbers in the same direction is the list of tetrahedral numbers: 5 1...330.. 10.9. 70.3.2.. The next list in the parallel direction is the list of natural numbers: 1.56.. .45. 120.66. 1. I.220.20.495.21.e. 1. Continuing in this pattern (i.12.13.THE FIBON ACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 89 There are many more intriguing surprises embedded in this wonderful triangular arrangement of numbers.715. 5. I. Triangular numbers represent the number of points that can be arranged to form an equilateral triangle.4. 165.6.11.55.8.210.35. 1.5.84.36.. .28.. We then come to a lesserknown sequence of numbers that exists in the fourth dimension called pentatop numbers: 1. . . I. I. Figure 311 First we notice the list of I s on both sides of the triangle: 1.
There you have the Fibonacci numbers! We have then connected. . • " M ~ .. Look at the sums of the numbers along each of the indicated lines (see figure 313). Yes.~ nl' " ... ~ "  " n '" . after all.. . Figure 312 Fibonacci Numbers and the Pascal Triangle By now you must be wondering where on the Pascal triangle are the Fibonacci numbers hiding. with the help of the Pascal triangle.90 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS number in the list of numbers you are adding. the Fibonacci numbers are embedded on the Pascal triangle. For example. isn't that what you expect by now? They seem to crop up everywhere. the three sequences we sought to relate. » ~ . even when we least expect to see them. for. '" m ~ • . consider the triangular numbers (see figure 312): I + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 = 56 The same holds true for the sum of tetrahedral numbers: I + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 + 28 + 36 + 45 + 55 + 66 = 286 • • " • " " " ~ . . • » N • • ~ ~ • 'M . indeed.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 91 I I 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 6 35 56 36 84 21 56 7 70 126 126 28 84 36 8 9 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 Figure 313 This may be easier to visualize if we left justify the triangular arrangement of numbers as in figure 314: Sum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 1 3 6 10 15 21 28 36 45 1 4 10 20 35 56 84 1 5 15 35 70 1 6 21 Figure 314 Ron Knott. a British mathematician who has provided some interesting insights into the Fibonacci numbers. found the Fibonacci numbers appearing as sums of "rows" in Pascal's triangle. .
By doing this we find that the column sums again yield the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 316). which shows the Fibonacci numbers as sums of columns. (See the last row in figure 315. we have a clearer arrangement.) We could also rewrite this version of the Pascal trianglemoving each row over to the right by one columnand writing each row twice. .92 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS o o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1I 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I I 234 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I I I I 2 I I 3 3 I 4 6 5 4 10 6 10 15 7 5 20 21 8 15 35 28 9 I 6 35 56 36 I 21 7 28 8 36 9 120 462 792 45 330 924 10 165 792 55 495 1716 3003 1820 680 153 19 70 56 84 126 126 84 II 10 45 120 210 252 210 55 165 330 462 12 I 66 220 495 13 78 286 I I 715 1287 1716 364 1001 2002 105 16 120 17 560 136 18 14 91 15 455 1365 3003 I 235 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 Figure 315 By drawing Pascal's triangle with all the rows moved over by one place.
003. 2. we can easily discover a nice group of palindromic numbers: 6 1.331 and 14.003.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 93 22 2 J 0 4 5 6 7 X 9 10 II 12 U 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 1 1 I I 1 2 2 3 1 2 I 1 3 3 4 6 4 5 4 0 4 5 4 10 10 10 5 6 5 10 5 15 20 35 21 28 g 6 7 8 15 20 6 15 7 8 7 21 6 15 35 )5 56 28 36 9 10 0 21 35 70 56 84 )0 7 21 56 70 126 X4 120 45 55 II 12 7 28 56 126 12tl 210 120 165 55 66 8 2X 84 12tl 252 210 330 165 220 66 78 13 1 8 36 X4 210 252 462 330 495 220 9 10 1I 12 9 9 3tl 120 210 9 45 120 330 462 45 10 10 45 165 330 792 924 1716 1287 2002 1001 1365 455 560 120 136 17 18 10 55 165 495 792 1716 1716 3003 2002 3003 1365 1820 560 680 130 11 462 462 792 495 715 286 364 924 792 1287 715 1001 364 455 105 120 16 17 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 I 2 ) 13 286 78 91 14 15 14 91 105 15 16 153 H< 19 5 X 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 9X7 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711 Figure 316 If we revert once agaIn to the leftjustified Pascal triangle (figure 317).641. 5. 3. 6. or from the Pascal triangle: 1.001. .008. such as 3.002. Palindromic numbers are those that read the same in both directions. and 8.005.
an American mathematician living in London..008 = 8·1 .3 10 48620 II 220 66 286 100 1 XlOJ 12 78 13 91 14 10' S6IJ 2380 455 1365 560 1820 StMI5 11440 136' 4368 "" 4368 680 2380 8 16 3060 6188 12376 19448 8568 18564 3 1824 19448 4 3758 """ 1820 6 1118 '" 120 680 3060 " 12376 136 " 17 I 18 153 I 19 17 . They are: 1..001 3. who has analyzed many aspects of recreational mathematics to secure them into the realm of serious mathematics 7discovered 8 that the fifteenth row is the only one in which three consecutive numbers will be in the ratio I : 2 : 3.001= 1·1.001 as their common factor. They all have 1.002 = 2·1.. .003. 1.005 = 5·1.005 3. and 3. 5..86.001. 3. I 7 21 " 20 35 35 . American Mathematical Monthly 78 (1971): 385. It should not be lost on the reader that coincidentally the numbers under these three are also palindromes in a Fibonacci ratio! (See figure 318..001.) Notice that 1.003 8.001.5OOS !4. 31824 75582 1S564 8.003 = 3·1.~)(J.008 2. 2.002.001. 2.002 5. 81' m IS 969 3876 11 628 27 132 50388 92378 92378 5038827 132 11 628 3876 969 171 19 I I 20 190 1140 4845 15504 38760 77520 125970 167960 184756 167%0 12597077520 3876() 15504 4845 11 40 190 20 I Figure 317 In 1971 .001. 8. Such as the Rubic ' s Cube.001.. " 6 21 '6 126 7 28 84 I 8 28 I 9 36 I 10 III '6 84 70 126 330 8 36 120 330 792 11 16 9 112 66 220 49' 113 78 286 114 91 I IS 105 I 16 120 I 17 136 364 lOOt " " 120 21 0 16' m 462 792 1287 210 462 924 17 16 16' 49' 1287 " 10 '" 2002 .94 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS I I 3 6 10 I 2 I 3 I 4 I I 6 4 10 . and 8. David Singmaster. .I .()8 3432 6435 I J440 300J 6435 12870 243 10 4 3758 75582 " '" 2002 24.003 Figure 318 7.
8. . 1. consider this. for instance. . 5. 1 .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 95 Lest you worry about our quest for a relationship between the Fibonacci numbers and the Pascal triangle. Using our earlier symbols to represent the Fibonacci numbers. 3. 9. + 28·Fn_2 + 56·Fn_3 + 70·Fn4 + 56·FIl _ 5 + 28·FnfJ + 8·Fn_7 + l·Fn_s Figure 319 At first glance. . we can also represent the Fibonacci numbers in terms of the members of the Pascal triangle as shown in figure 319. but reserve your judgment until you begin to substitute the Fibonacci values to verify the relationship. Fn+S= 1·Fn+8·FIl _ . 13. 2. 13. 8. . 1. . the sequence of fourth differences and the diagonal in figure 37 (from left to right). 3. 0. . See. this may look artificial and contrived. and considering that we can extend the Fibonacci number sequence in the negative direction as follows: 9 . . 5. 1. 2. .
96 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS You can see from the negatively extended Fibonacci sequence that Fo == 0. still holds true for all integer values of k. Furthermore. F_ 2n == . the recursive definition from before (the actual basis for the Fibonacci numbers). we will substitute the appropriate Fibonacci numbers in the listing shown in figure 320. Fk +2 == F k+ l + Fk . let's check the case where n == 5 (figure 320): FI3 = 1·Fs +8·F4 +28·F3+56·F2 + 70·F 1 +56·Fo +28·F_ 1 +8·F_2 + 1·F_3 Figure 320 To get a better "feel" for this. This allows us to calculate the "generated" Fibonacci numbers at the right in figure 321.1 for all natural numbers n. .F 2n . and F2n+1 == F 2n . To get a better understanding about this unusual relationship.
.. 2. but he began with 1 and 3 instead of 1 and 1... So he got the sequence 1. Lo = 2). developed the sequence of numbers with the same recursive rule as the Fibonacci numbers. 3. instead of beginning with the first Lucas number. To make things even more interesting. 5. 1. we should realize a direct connection: The nth Lucas number (n > 0) is . L2 = 3 (and as we said earlier. instead of the Fibonacci numbers 1. We will represent the nth Lucas number as Ln so that LI = 1. Recall that Edouard Lucas (18421891). 3.. 4. 8. 7. L). That is. 11. we will begin with L o ' which is 2. the Pascal triangle also enables us to connect in yet another way the Fibonacci numbers to the Lucas numbers that we mentioned in chapter 1. however. 18. . In figure 322 we list the Lucas numbers. and Ln +2 = Ln+l + Ln. we will begin the sequence one number earlier than the traditional beginning.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 97 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FlO FII = = = = = = = 1·5 1·5 + 1·3 1·5 + 2·3 + 1·2 1·5 + 3·3 + 3·2 + 1·1 1·5 + 4·3 + 6·2 + 4·1 + 1·1 1·5 + 5·3 + 10·2 + 10·1 + 5·1 + 1·0 1·5 + 6·3 + 15·2 + 20· I + 15·1 + 6·0 + 1·1 7·1 + 1·(1) = = = = = = = FI2 = 1·5 + 7·3 + 21·2+ 35·1 + 35·1 + 21·0+ = FI3 = 1·5 + 8·3 + 28·2 + 56·1 + 70·1 + 56·0 + 28·1 + 8·(1) + 1·2 = Figure 321 Lucas Numbers and the Pascal Triangle As if this weren't enough. . a French mathematician. As we begin to relate the Fibonacci and the Lucas sequences.
765 10.778 9.127 Figure 322 In figure 323 you can observe this relationship (Ln F n+ l ) with the two sequences placed next to each other.364 ~ 3.571 5.181 6.l + 0 J 1 2 2 1 3 3 4 5 2 5 8 3 11 6 7 8 34 9 55 10 JJ J2 13 14 15 16 J7 18 19 20 F•• 1 13 2J 5 18 89 144 233 377 610 987 34 1. 1 3 4 .946 610 987 + Fa_ J = L.597 2.584 4. it is only fitting. that is written as: Ln= F nl + Fn+l.127 Figure 323 Since these two sequences are so closely related. II = F n. 8 13 21 76 55 89 144 233 377 1597 2584 4181 19 4' III 199 322 521 843 1. that we can also represent the Lucas numbers in the arrangement of the Pascal trianglejust .778 9. Symbolically.364 2. n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Ln 2 1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1.571 5.349 15. and not particularly surprising.98 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS equal to the sum of the (n 1)st Fibonacci number and the (n + l)st Fibonacci number.207 3.349 15.
Keep in mind that Lo = 2. which is the basis for the Lucas and the Fibonacci numbers.1 . .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 99 as we did with the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 324). for all natural numbers n. To accomplish this. so that we get the listing shown in figure 326 with the Lucas numbers generated at the right. For that we consider the case where n = 5. We can see that in figure 325. we will substitute the actual Lucas numbers in the listing of figure' 324. and L2n +1 = L2n. Ln+1 = l·L + 1·Ln_1 ll Ln+7= l·L n+ 7·L n_1+21·Ln_2 +35·L II _ 3 + 35·Ln4 + 21·Ln_5 + 7·Ln6 + 1·Ln_7 Figure 324 Moreover. still holds true for all integer values of n. L2n = L 2n . We are now ready to experience the beautiful Pascal triangle relationship with actual Lucas numbers. the recursive definition. Ln+2 = Ln+l + L n.
35·1 +21·2 t 7(1) + 13 + 8·7 + 28·4 + 56·3 . 5·1 + 1·2 LII LI2 LI3 = 1·11 = III = 1·11 + 6·7 + 15·4 + 20·3 .207 3.15·1 + 62 t 1(1 ) + 7·7 + 21·4 + 353 .70·1 + 56·2 t28(1) + 8·3 + 1·(4)  = 322 = 521 Figure 326 .100 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Ln 2 1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1.571 Figure 325 Ls = III = = II = = = = = 18 29 47 76 123 199 L6 L7 Lg L9 III + 17 + 27 + 14 + 37 + 3·4 + 13 + 4·7 + 6·4 + 4·3 t 1·1 = III = 1·11 = 1·11 LIO == 1·11 + 5·7 + 104 + 10·3 .364 2.
336 2 2 156 294 1. See figure 328. +62+1S(.11 ) L.18 +818 +)(. L. Consider the case where n = I. we would want to be able to find the Lucas numbers on the Pascal triangle. . L. ) · 1 +2·2+ )(. L. with the Lucas numbers generated at the right.1) + ) 3 )1 )1 )1 )1 +4·2+ 6(. = = = = = = = = = ) ·1 )·1 +1 2 = = = = = = = + 1. 10 II 6 1 21 35 112 11 2 20 . 2 2 12 24 . We then get figure 327.. we will modify the original Pascal triangle by replacing the right side I s with 2s and then carrying on the calculation as we did for the original Pascal triangle to generate the rows. L.536 '" Figure 328 Before we search for the Lucas numbers.29) 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 L.I) + 203 + )5(4) + 6·7 + ) (11 ) +72+2) (.11) = Figure 327 For the sake of consistency.1) +353 +35(4) +21·7 + 7 (. = ) 1 +82+28(1) +563 +70(4) +567 + 28(. '" % 192 " 105 2 J K4 196 31.1) + 10·3 + 5(4) + )7 4 L. 2 2 2 .2 2 54 . 1. To do so. we should take note of some interesting features of this type of Pascal triangle.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 10 I We can also get the initial Lucas numbers in the same way. Looking .1) + 4 ·3 + ). and substitute the values of the appropriate Lucas numbers in figure 324. ..1) ) 1 +3·2+ 3(.(4) +52+10(.
a natural result of the Pascal triangle's construction. if you inspect the diagonal rows in the other direction. and the pyramidal numbers. so. . the square numbers. notice the sum of the numbers along each of the lines drawn in figure 329. To locate the Lucas numbers. we can get the column sums to generate the Lucas numbers. you can see the odd numbers. 2 I 3 2 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 11 55 36 91 196 140 336 204 49 64 81 13 15 17 19 2 2 2 2 2 77 44 11 54 156 112 294 182 105 378 Figure 329 By writing this triangular arrangement of numbers in a leftjustified fashion (figure 330). too. This is analogous to the way in which we located the Fibonacci numbers on the Pascal triangle. you will find a progression followed by sequences of progressive differences. will we now locate the Lucas numbers in the second type of Pascal triangle. In addition.102 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS at the diagonal rows in figure 328. As we found the Fibonacci numbers in the original Pascal triangle.
as in figure 331.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 103 20 o 1 234 o2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 12 132 14 5 2 I 5 9 7 2 2 1 6 14 16 9 I 7 20 30 25 8 27 50 1 9 35 10 1 II 55 77 44 11 2 36 13 2 105 91 49 112 182 196 54 156 294 12 65 210 13 77 14 15 140 378 450 275 90 15 2 64 336 672 660 352 104 16 17 2 204 19 81 714 540 285 1122 1386 1254 935 1782 2508 442 1287 2717 119 546 1729 17 135 665 18 152 19 2 100 825 2640 4290 4004 2275 800 170 20 2 1 347 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127 Figure 330 If we repeat this with double entries. as we have for the Fibonacci numbers on the Pascal triangle. we can again generate the Lucas numbers by taking the column sums. .
via this array. as we have just seen. to show how. are not always what we might expect upon a first inspection. We have now taken one of the most ubiquitous arrays of numbers in mathematics.104 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 0 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 2 I 2 1 3 I 2 3 I 2 1 4 5 4 2 5 1 5 9 5 I 2 7 9 2 7 2 6 14 16 6 14 9 16 2 9 2 1 7 20 30 25 7 20 30 8 27 8 27 9 11 25 50 35 2 II 2 50 55 36 55 13 36 2 13 2 9 35 77 105 91 49 91 15 49 2 15 2 77 105 1 10 44 112 182 I 10 44 112 1 11 1 II 196 182 140 196 64 140 17 64 2 17 2 54 156 294 54 378 336 156 294 378 450 210 204 336 81 204 19 81 2 19 12 1 65 12 210 65 672 450 275 714 672 540 714 285 540 100 285 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 (2) 3 4 13 77 13 275 77 660 1122 1386 660 1122 352 104 935 442 1254 1386 1782 825 1254 14 90 352 14 90 15 104 15 935 1782 2508 442 1287 119 16 2640 2508 2717 1287 4290 2717 16 546 119 1729 546 4004 1729 17 135 17 18 665 135 152 18 2275 665 800 152 19 170 19 20 7 II 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127 24476 Figure 331 Sequences of numbers. They can be related even if they appear completely unrelated. the Pascal triangle. number sequences that are seemingly entirely unrelated can In fact have some .
This is just the beginning.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE PASCAL TRIANGLE 105 commonality. The modified Pascal triangle relates the Lucas numbers to other wellknown sequences. . The Fibonacci numbers and many other familiar sequences are embedded in the Pascal triangle. It shows a very strong connection between the Fibonacci numbers and the Lucas numbers. We invite you to search for others in this amazing array of numbers.
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as well as other related figures along the way. which has generally been observed in the golden section. But. we viewed the Fibonacci numbers as a sequence. at the start. We can see that. and the golden triangle. as the numbers get larger. the beauty of which has been appreciated in many fields. In any case. We will show the relationship between the Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio. We will now inspect the Fibonacci sequence of numbers by considering the relationship of consecutive members of the sequence. the golden rectangle.Chapter 4 The Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Ratio t is time we ought to consider the geometric manifestation of the Fibonacci numbers. as the numbers get larger. rather than as individual numbers. this geometry excursion is well worth the journey! I Fibonacci Ratios In the previous chapter. what is this number that the ratios are approaching? 107 . seemed completely unrelated to it. the ratio seems to approach a specific number. We noticed how the Fibonacci sequence related to other sequences of numbers that. Such a relationship is best seen by taking the ratio of these consecutive numbers.
: = 1.108 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS ._1_ F.625 F.=1.2 F 233 == == 1. 2.2 F2 1 =  F.619047 21 F _10 55 == ..1_2_ 3 = ~ 1.= .== 1. .618 55 144 F _11 F. A reminder: the bar over the digits after the decimal point indicates that these digits repeat endlessly.l F _13 89 F.6 ~ 3 =  ~ 8 = 1.o F .61797752808988764044943820224719101123595505 Fi.== 1.6153841 13 = F... 2 1..61764705882352941 ~ 34 89 == . 1 .1 F." F7 F _8 =  5 13 = ~ 8 21 ====1.61805 144 ~ ==  377 233 F.6 1.5 F3 2 F 5 2. which then repeats endlessly. ~ ~ 34 = 1.3 == 1.:= . The period of the decimal expansion of 377 is 233 618025751072961373390557939914163090128755364806866952789699570815450643 776824034334763948497854077253218884120171673819742489270386266094420600 858369098712446351931330472103004291845493562231759656652360515021459227 4678111587982832.6180257510729613733905579399142 .!l. The period has length 232 [=233 1].
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 109 We could have also considered the ratio of the numbers of the Fibonacci sequence in the inverted order.= 1.619047619 21 21 .618181818 55 55 .= 1.= 2.=0. Take a look at the two sets of ratios in figure 41.= 0.= 1.617647059  89 55 = 1. Can you see anything curious about the respective numbers they are approaching? It should begin to become evident with the larger numbers The Ratios of Consecutive Fibonacci Numbers3 Fn+1 Fn . .= 0.= 1.600000000 3 5 5 .615384615 13 13 .500000000 2 2 .666666667 3 .615384615  34 21 = 1.619047619  55 34 = 1.= 1.625000000 8  21 13 = 1.= 0.617977528 89 8 5 13 .000000000 Fn Fn+1 1 .= 0.= 1.625000000 8 8 =0.= 0.= 0. Rounded to 9 decimal places.617647059 34 34 .666666667 3 .000000000 1 1 .= 0.618181818 3.600000000 1 1 .500000000 3 2 5 .000000000 2 1 .
618032787 610 610 =0.617977528 89 233 = 1.61803 .618032787 610 Figure 41 Both columns are each approaching a specific number (with the right column lagging one ratio behind). .5 who produced the 4. Even though there is a lagby onein the right column..618034448 987  610 377 == 1. while the right column appears to be approaching 0. we might conclude that4 n FF+ 1 = Fn n Fn I + 1.. This is called the golden ratiowhen the Fn+l Fibonacci numbers used reach their limitless "largeness.. The left column seems to be approaching the value 1. . We can thus say that.618037135 377 377 = 0.110 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 144 = 1. But as the numbers get larger and larger.618025751 233 89 = 0. the one step lag that we observed in figure 41 becomes negligible. As the numbers in the ratio become very large.618025751 233 144 233 = 0.." The Golden Ratio The limit of this ratio is perhaps one of the most famous numbers in mathematics.. when the numbers get larger this lag becomes relatively insignificant.618055556 144 =0.61803 .618037135 987 = 1.618055556 144 377 = 1. in general. There is reason to believe that the letter ¢ was used because it is the first letter of the name of the celebrated Greek sculptor Phidias (490430 BCE). In Greek: <PI~IAL. Convention has it that the Greek letter ¢ (phi) is used to represent this ratio. Fn+l Fn ~ ~ + 1. 5.
This should not be confused with the universally true mathematical relationship that t/J. by saying that they are really called the Phibonacci numbers or tfJbonacci numbers!) A somewhat more accurate estimate of t/J would look like this: ¢ ~ 1. . is true for all num bers other than zero. For those wanting a more precise value of ¢. . (In a lighthearted way. which is what the Fibonacci number ratios in figure 41 seem to be getting ever closer to.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO III famous statue of Zeus in the Temple of Olympia and supervised the construction of the Parthenon in Athens. this is the only number where such a relationship is true.6180339887498948482045868 343656 . The unique characteristic that we can observe from this chart is that t/J = ~ + 1.6180339887498948482045868343656. by merely subtracting 1. or ~ = t/J 1 . to get: ~= 0. of course. some like to relate the Fibonacci numbers to ¢ [phi]. Greece. . This way.618033988749894848204586834365638117720309179805762862 13544862270526046281890244970720720418939113748475408807 53868917521266338622235369317931800607667263544333890865 95939582905638322661319928290267880675208766892501711696 20703222104321626954862629631361443814975870122034080588 79544547492461856953648644492410443207713449470495658467 88509874339442212544877066478091588460749988712400765217 05751797883416625624940758906970400028121042762177111777 80531531714101170466659914669798731761356006708748071013 17952368942752194843530567830022878569978297783478458782 28911097625003026961561700250464338243776486102838312683 30372429267526311653392473167111211588186385133162038400 52221657912866752946549068113171599343235973494985090409 . we offer it here to one thousand places: ~=1. As a t/J matter of fact. we can calculate the value of the reciprocal of ¢ from the value of it given above. ~ = 1 . His frequent use of the golden ratio in this glorious building (see chapter 7) is likely the reason for this attribution. This.
To further solidify the 6. ~=. 7 The two numbers differ by one.112 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 47621322298101726107059611645629909816290555208524790352 40602017279974717534277759277862561943208275051312181562 85512224809394712341451702237358057727861600868838295230 45926478780178899219902707769038953219681986151437803149 9741106926088674296226757560523172777520353613936 Since the relationship between if> and ~ is so spectacular. or repeating decimal. we repeat (for emphasis and to highlight our amazement) that the decimal portion of these two values is the same. 6 and it is also irrational.1.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057628621 tfJ 35448622705260462818902449707207204189391137484754088075 38689175212663386222353693179318006076672635443338908659 59395829056383226613199282902678806752087668925017116962 07032221043216269548626296313614438149758701220340805887 95445474924618569536486444924104432077134494704956584678 85098743394422125448770664780915884607499887124007652170 57517978834166256249407589069704000281210427621771117778 05315317141011704666599146697987317613560067087480710131 79523689427521948435305678300228785699782977834784587822 89110976250030269615617002504643382437764861028383126833 03724292675263116533924731671112115881863851331620384005 22216579128667529465490681131715993432359734949850904094 76213222981017261070596116456299098162905552085247903524 06020172799747175342777592778625619432082750513121815628 55122248093947123414517022373580577278616008688382952304 59264787801788992199027077690389532196819861514378031499 741106926088674296226757560523172777520353613936 It is not periodic. Therefore we get ~ = 1> . An irrational number is a real number that cannot be expressed as an integer or a quotient of integers. . is a decimal that is finite or infinite and has a finite block of digits that eventually repeats indefinitely. 7. A periodic decimal.
let's take a short journey back to elementary algebra to solve the equation =</>1. 4 . Powers of the Golden Ratio It is interesting to examine powers of </> . To do so we first must find the value of </>2 in terms of </>.S .S = 1. Therefore.~ </>l/J=1. = 1+. l/J I Ifwe multiply both sides of the equation by </> we get: 1 = </>2 .61803398874989484820458683436564 . but also Bear in mind that </> and ~ are the roots of the equation l/J x 2  xI = 0.1 = 0 .. we can calculate v5+1 2 ~ = i: = J51 :::: 0.</> . 1 = 1 (obviously!). not only does tjJ..1 is really true.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 113 connection between q> and the Fibonacci numbers. They will further link the Fibonacci numbers to </>. Then </>2 .. we get: tjJ = The positive value of tjJ 1±.</> . which appears to bear out our conjecture about the reciprocal relationship.6180339887498948482045868343656 . Applying the quadratic formula. Just to check our earlier presumption ( above) that the relationship ~ l/J = tjJ . a property we shall examine later.
You should try to follow each step (it's really not difficultand yet very rewarding!) and then extend it to further powers of l/J .114 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS We now use this relationship (l/J2 = l/J + 1) to inspect the successive powers of l/J by breaking them down to their component parts in detail. As we take further powers of l/J. By this point you should be able to see a pattern emerging. Further inspection shows that the coefficients of powers of l/J and the constants are all Fibonacci numbers. . where a and b are special integersthe Fibonacci numbers. we can write all powers of l/J in a linear form: l/Jn == a l/J + b. Furthermore. The Fibonacci numbers appear both as the coefficients of l/J. the end result of each power of l/J is actually equal to a multiple of l/J plus a constant. but they are also in their Fibonacci sequence order. and as the constants as we take powers of l/J. So you ought to be able to extend the list as we havebegun in figure 42 to get the powers of l/J: l/J = ll/J + 0 l/J2= Il/J + 1 l/J3= 2l/J + 1 l/J4 = 3l/J + 2 l/J5= 5l/J + 3 Figure 42 l/J6 = 8l/J + 5 l/J7 = 13l/J + 8 l/J = 21l/J + 13 l/J9 = 34l/J + 21 l/J = 55l/J + 34 10 8 Voila! Once again the Fibonacci number sequence appeared where you may have least expected it. It may at first appear more complicated than it really is. Not only that. l/J = l/J ol/J2 = l/J(l/J + 1) = l/J2 + l/J = (l/J + I) + l/J = 2l/J + 1 2 l/J 4 = l/J el/J = (l/J + I) ( l/J + I) = l/J + 2l/J + 1 = (l/J + I) + 2l/J + 1 = 3l/J + 2 1 2 2 l/J5 = l/J3 ol/J2 = (2l/J + 1)( l/J + I) = 2l/J2 + 3l/J + 1 = 2 (l/J + I) + 3l/J + 1 = 5l/J + 3 l/J6 = l/J3 el/J3 = (2l/J + 1)(2l/J + I) = 4l/J2 + 4l/J + 1 = 4(l/J + I) + 4l/J + 1 = 8l/J + 5 l/J 7 = l/J 4 'l/JJ = (3l/J + 2) (2l/J + 1) = 6l/J2 + 7l/J + 2 = 6 (l/J + I) + 7l/> + 2 == 13l/> + 8 and so on.
" has also proved to be the most pleasing to the eye. This ideal rectangle. 9. His findings were published in 1876. books. a German philosopher. Fechner's findings seem to bear this out. Zur experimentalen Asthetik (On Experimental Aesthetics) (Leipzig. windows. 1854. What Gustav Fechner actually did was to ask 228 men and 119 women which of the following rectangles is aesthetically the most pleasing. 9 Fechner made thousands of measurements of commonly seen rectangles.) The book Der goldene Schnitt (The Golden Section) was published postumously (by the LeopoldinischCarolinische Akademie: Halle. AdolfZeising (18101876). after all. Germany: Breitkopf & Hartl. etc." It is. Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen Korpers (New theories about the proportions of the human body) (Leipzig. = w~l . For example. Gustav Fechner (18011887). The golden rectangle is one that has the following ratio of its length and width: . Germany: R. He found that most had a ratio of length to width that was close to </J. such as playing cards. 1876). inspired by Adolf Zeising's book Der goldene Schnitt8 began a serious inquiry to see if the golden rectangle had a special psychological aesthetic appeal. a square! On the other hand. Take a look at the rectangles in figure 43.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 115 The Golden Rectangle For centuries. The desirability of this rectangle has been borne out by numerous psychological experiments. Weigel. 8. 1884). consider the rectangle 21 :34. a German experimental psychologist. artists and architects have identified what they believed to be the most perfectly shaped rectangle. often referred to as the "golden rectangle. which can be appreciated at a single glance and is therefore more aesthetically pleasing. rectangle 2:5 (the other extreme) is uncomfortable to look at since it requires the eye to scan it horizontally. . Finally. Germany. Gustav Theodor Fechner. writing pads. He also tested people's preferences and found most people preferred the golden rectangle. Which rectangle would you choose as the most pleasing to look at? Rectangle 1: 1 is too much like a squareconsidered by the general public as not representative of a "rectangle.
0 2.5 1.0 .00 Figure 44 .80000 3:4 = .116 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS D D D 1:1 5:6 4:5 D CJ CJ I I 2:3 21 : 34 13: 23 D D Ratio of sides of rectangle 1: 1 = 1.5 100.8 2.02 2.00000 5:6 = .7 9.83333 4:5 = .00 Percent response for worst rectangle 27.7 20.2 0.0 0.5 1.8 19.50000 2:5 = .4 2.56522 1:2 = .68966 2:3 = .40000 3:4 1:2 20: 29 I 2:5 Figure 43 Fechner's rectangles.6 35. Here are the results that Fechner reported: Percent response for best rectangle 3.0 20.5 35.5 7.4 0.61765 13:23 = .0 7.66667 21:34 = .75000 20:29 = .7 100.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 117 Fechner's experiment has been repeated with variations in methodology many times and his results have been further supported. or w 2 + wi == 12 . or w 2 + wi .... carried out similar experiments. = W~l · B.... ... once again the Fibonacci numbers.. [. .. In general. x = . w = 1+J5 .. with analogous results. w. 10. Consider a rectangle (figure 45) where the length. lor e genera qua · . . Because we are dealing with lengths.. c. Ifwe let I == I.4ac 2a .. Do those numbers look familiar? Yes. 2 Using the quadratic formu1a.12 == O. then w2 + wI == o. J51 I .61764705882352941 approaches the value of ~ . in 1917 Edward Lee Thorndike (18741949)..b±~b 2 .. For example. The ratio :~ l/J = 0.. the rectangle with the ratio of 21 :34 was most preferred.. ... The quadratic formula presented in the high school algebra course.10 we get w = 1±. and the width. C I w A D Figure 45 By cross multiplying in this proportion we get w (w + 1) = [2.Js . an American psychologist and educator. the negative value is of no interest here. Th erelore. are in the following proportion: . IS C: th I d ratlc equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 .2 . and gives us the socalled golden rectangle.l/J' an d t h e go ld en ratIo agaIn 2 emerges..
. Without loss of generality. 8 E C . Then with radius ME and center M. 2' I giving us a golden rectangle. The perpendicular at D intersects BE at C./5+1 2 .J5+1 . our objective is to get the length to be . 2 Perhaps one of the simpler ways to construct this golden rectangle is to begin with a square ABEF (see figure 46) with M. the midpoint of AF. Let's see how this rectangle may be constructed using the traditional Euclidean tools: an unmarked straightedge and a pair of compasses.J5+I. in fact. so that 2 the ratio of the length to the width will be cjJ._ =~= . a golden rectangle. Therefore EF = AF = 1 and MF = 2 .. which equals . we let ABEF be a unit square. So we now know that the ratio of the rectangle's dimensions is w = _.118 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS I This is the same equation that gave us l/J above.) With a width of 1 unit. draw a circle to intersect ifF at D. J I r r 1 J5 2 I I I I I I I r r I I A  M F  J5 } 2 0 2 2 Figure 46 Let us verify that figure 46 is./51 w+ I tfJ or i= w+! = cjJ w = . We now have ABCD (which turns out to be a golden rectangle). I . (Another way would be to use a computer geometricconstruction program such as Geometer's Sketchpad.
. but nothing more: 3.1+15+1 2 which is a true equality! Johannes Kepler (15711630). 1992). AD = J5 J5+1 2 . that CD = AD . we shall mention that Underwood Dudley12 drew a "cute" relationship between the golden ratio and 1t. We can do AD CD+AD this by substituting the above lengths into this proportion to get 15 + 1 1 2 2 15+1 . Therefore. 11 we get ME = 2 .. we would want to show that the ratio of the lengths and the widths follows the relationship mentioned earliernamely.1416407864998738178 . Mathematical Cranks (Washington. said that "geometry holds two great treasures: one is the Pythagorean theorem and the other is the golden section. DC: Mathematical Association of America. . The first we can compare to a bushel of gold and the second we can call a priceless gem. 5 11. To verify that ABeD is a golden rectangle." As we like to relate mathematical phenomena to each other. = 1t = 6 ¢2 = 3. He showed that the following is just a good approximation.1415926535897932384 . Applying the Pythagorean theorem gives us: (ME)2 = (MF)2 + (EF)2 (MEf=(~r +12 ( ME)2=~ 4 (ME) = '1fi = J5 4 2 12.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 119 By applying the Pythagorean theorem to ~E. the revered astronomer and mathematician...
i is the imaginary unit of the complex numbers (square root of . Notice that l/J is missing.e1ti (from Euler's equation). e. ~ eH . shown in figure 47. 1 is the unit of the natural numbers (all numbers> 0 are produced by 1 and adding). The first.[5+1 and I = . .. It is attributed to Leonhard Euler (17071783).1. where e is the base of natural logarithms (Euler's number). =  2 .120 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Furthermore. is attributed to Heron of Alexandria (1070 CE). It is: e 1ti + 1 = 0. So now we have an Constructing the Golden Section There are many ways to construct the golden ratio with Euclidean tools (i. Well. as we continue to connect mathematical values. and i. and 0 is the neutral element of the addition.e. 2 so we can incorporate l/J into this equation by replacing the 1 in the first equation with (. The beauty of this relationship is that the simple equation contains each of the most significant values in mathematics. an unmarked straightedge and a pair of compasses) besides the method shown in figure 46. . one of the most prolific mathematicians in history. With each method we have an opportunity to see how many lovely geometric relationships are brought into play in our quest for the golden ratio. rI).e1t1 ) to get: l/J exact way to relate l/J to 1t. consider one of the most famous relationships in mathematics. We shall show a few of them here. we can fix that! We know that cp = . 1t is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (Ludolph's number).
You begin with AB and construct AB .618033988. Then draw the circle with center at C and radius length CB to intersect the hypotenuse of the right triangle ABC at D.1 BC (. You complete the construction by drawing the circle with center A and radius AD to intersect the other leg at E. r15 AC 2 The result IS . ~  . we find that the hypotenuse. which is the point on AB that divides the segment into the golden section.) Another Construction of the Golden Section Another construction of the golden section along AB. (Further details and justification can be found in appendix B. are shown to be tangent at D and AB . This is a start for justifying our conclusion.1 is the symbol used to denote perpendicularity). using Euclidean tools. Here the two circles. that  AE = = . can be seen in figure 48. By using the Pythagorean theorem on triangle ABC...= BE rx 2 x 15+1 l/> 1. .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 121 c rl2 E A B Figure 47 You may be able to see from figure 47 how the construction is to be done to get AB divided into the golden ratio. with the line segment lengths indicated.= ..1 A C .
J5+ I = f/J :::. Then extend CA to meet the circle at D.618033988. Next draw the circle with center A and radius length AD. 1.) c I a 2 A E B x o Figure 48 Yet Another Construction of the Golden Section The construction shown in figure 49 will have two segments that reflect the golden ratio: f/J =.J5 + 1 2 and ~ = J5 . That is.122 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS To do the construction. begin with the larger circle (center at C and radius length AB) and construct a right triangle ABC where B is on the circle. AE BE ax =~= . . We then can conclude that point E divides the line segment AB into the golden ratio.1 t/J 2 They are BQ and BP . (The justification 2 for this construction can be found in appendix B.
. Begin with an equilateral triangle ABC inscribed in a circle. construct a line that will intersect the circle.) • 1 B Q A Surprising Construction of the Golden Section We can construct the golden ratio along a line and then. (See appendix B. You start off with a right triangle ABC. 13. is of length 1.) For convenience. as is the justification. BC. (See figure 410. It is easy to establish 13 that the line joining the midpoints of the two sides of the triangle is half the third side and. therefore. The construction is simple.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 123 '1* t2 A p 2 Figure 49 The construction is rather simple. of course. Then all that remains is to construct the angle bisectors of LACB and the exterior angle at C. Through the midpoint of two of its sides. where AB = 2 . we will let the sides of the equilateral triangle be of length 2.J5. BDEF is a rhombus with each side of length 1. thus making the hypotenuse AC = . use the segments to construct the golden rectangle. To do this. draw a line segment through E parallel to AB and intersecting Be at F. The figure formed.
if AF = 1 and AD = C/>.1 = ~.124 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS A Mt#~__ftN Figure 410 Using the relationship that the products of the segments of two intersecting chords of a circle are equal. When two chords of a circle intersect. We now can establish 14. . 1 = (x + 1) x r+xl=O X = . Golden or Fibonacci Spirals Let us continue our discussion with golden rectangle ABeD. from the previous constructions of the golden section. then FD = C/> . We established in figure 46 that when a square is constructed internally (as shown in figure 411).[. which is .1 2 . the product of the segments of one chord equals the product of the segments of the other chord. . t/J ] So. but now in a very curious way.14 we get: AE· EC=ME· EN 1 . we can say that the Fibonacci numbers appear even when there is no golden rectangle.
2 .. we get :.~ = . In golden rectangle CD FE . If we inspect the ratio of length to width of rectangle CD FE ..THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 125 that rectangle CDFE has dimensions FD = ~ and CD = 1. This thereby establishes rectangle CHGE also as a golden rectangle... square DFGH is constructed (figure 412).. We find that CH = 1. and it is.E. l/J B ._ _ _ _.= l/J . therefore.. c 1 1 A F t/J D ~~y~~ Figure 411 Let's continue this process of constructing an internal square in the newly formed golden rectangle. ._ _ _ _ _ _ _.. = +. so the ratio of the length to width of rectangle CHGEis (having multiplied both numerator and denominator by l/J2).. also a golden rectangle.
1 = ~.126 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS B c  1 L ~ ¢4 G Sr N M T R K 1 1 A  1 t/J t/J F o ~v~~ Figure 412 Continuing this scheme. This time the length to width ratio is Once again. this time rectangle EJKG. __ := lfJl :=!L:=_l l lfJ lfJ2 lfJ2 lfJ2 lfJ3 We now inspect the ratio of the dimensions of rectangle EJKG. t/J . By continuing this process. and so on. golden rectangle MNST. . therefore. we have a new golden rectangle.. we construct square CHKJ in golden rectangle CHGE.. golden rectangle NMKR. we get golden rectangle GKML. 15. We showed earlier that t/J  ~ = 1. We find 15 1 EJ:=!.
The spiral in figure 413 seems to converge (i. of ..e. Suppose we locate the center of each of these squares.__~___.... radius NL center S.... This point is at the intersection P.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 127 center E. B rr~. radius KH center M.. radius MJ center N... radius EB center G. radius GF center K. radius SR The result is an approximation of a logarithmic spiral (figure 413). We can draw arcs through each of these points and then see that the centers of these squares lie in another approximation of a logarithmic spiral (figure 414).(figure 415).. end) at a point in rectangle ABC D...and .. AC ED .""'"1 H R K A F o Figure 413 The symmetric parts of this complexlooking figure are the squares. E J C G 1..
Thus LEPC must be a right angle.. Therefore LCED is congruent to LDCA.128 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS B~______~____________~E____~J ______~C GI''+t H A F o Figure 414 Consider once again golden rectangle ABCD (figure 415).1 ED. And LDCA is complementary to LECA. B~____________~E~______~C p G~. rectangle ABCD is similar to rectangle CEFD. Earlier we established that square ABEF determined another golden rectangle CEFD.fH A F o Figure 415 Since all golden rectangles have the same shape. Therefore LCED is complementary to LECA. or AC . This implies that MCD is similar to i1CDA. .
we can prove that rectangles CEFD and CEGH are reciprocal rectangles. Furthermore. . rectangles. Clearly P ought to be the limiting point of the spiral.. In this case. then the rectangles are said to be reciprocal rectangles... We have a golden rectangle ABCD.. with sides of length a and b 16. We could simply begin with golden rectangle ABCD and construct a perpendicular from D to AC and from its intersection E with BC construct a perpendicular to AD to complete the second golden rectangle. we see that reciprocal rectangles have corresponding diagonals that are perpendicular...THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 129 If the width of one rectangle is the length of the other and the rectangles are similar. This may be extended to each pair of consecutive golden rectangles shown in figure 416. in this case. In figure 415 we see that rectangle ABCD and rectangle CEFD are reciprocal rectangles._______" E J C ~~I H A F o Figure 416 We can use this relationship of the diagonals to construct consecutive golden rectangles.~_"... Their diagonals ED and CG are perpendicular at P. In the same way as before. B r. The ratio of similitude is the ratio of the corresponding sides of the two similar figures. This process can be repeated indefinitely.. the ratio of similitude 16 is l/J.. Let's take another look at the spiral we generated by drawing quarter circlesone that approximates the golden spiral (see figure 417).
We shall then construct the spiral with the quarter circles as before. band b = l/J 1 · a. This diagram merely gives us a good and easily understood approximation..h6 73J5 ·a 2 SJ511 = 2 ·a  = = = = lSSJ5 ·a 2 = l/J I . D c E:i . where it follows that a = l/J. Length a =ao a l = bo a 2 =b l a3 = b2 a4 = b 3 a 5 = b4 a 6= b 5 a7 = b6 ••• Width (quarter circle radius) b = bo = l/JI· a =l/JI' al = l/J I .b2 b4 = a 3 .... a 2 = l/J 1 • a 3 = l/J I ..b 5 b 7 = a6 . e.130 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS (a > b).. a6 = l/J I ..== A a Figure 417 The actual golden spiral does not evolve from these quarter circles.. a 4 l/J I • a 5 = = = = J51 ·a 2 3J5 ·a 2 2J54 ·a 2 = =  IJ51 ·a 2 b l = ao . This will allow us to get the length of the spiral that approximates the golden spiral.b o b2 = a l  IJ53 ·a 2 2J54 ·a 2 3J57 ·a 2 SJ511 ·a 2 SJ51S ·a 2 bl b3 = a2 . The table in figure 418 provides a progressive calculation of the length of the spiral.b3 b 5 =a4 b4 b6 = a 5 .+:3I.. a 7 13J529 ·a 2 4721J5 = 2 ·a  13J529 2 ·a 21J547 ·a 2 Figure 418 .
" since the radius keeps a constant angle with the curve. who is famous for his work with prime numbers. .21. the French mathematician. Descartes mentioned this spiral in 1638 correspondences with another French mathematician Marin Mersenne (15881648). you will see the Fibonacci numbers.3. It was named such by Rene Descartes (15961650).2.8. 11. The apparent spiral (which consists of quarter circles) touches it. also called a logarithmic spiral. 47. 13. . 29.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 131 Amazingly. He was so enchanted with it and its properties that he requested it as his epitaph .. ). Ln (1. D~ _ _ _ _~_ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~C A B Figure 419 It is sometimes called an "equiangular spiral.. This could justify calling this spiral the FibonacciLucas spiral. The real golden (logarithmic) spiral cuts the sides of the squares at very small angles.5. Fn (1. 4. 18. as you inspect the results. 1. ). who is responsible for the field of analytic geometry that is done on a "Cartesian plane"named for its founder. So the sides of the golden rectangles aren't tangents to this golden spiral (as in the case of the approximation). as the product with . as well as the constants highlighting the Lucas numbers. they are each cut twice. The real golden spiral. looks something like that in figure 419.J5. The Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli (16551705) referred to this spiral as the logarithmic spiral. 3... 7.
The spiral part crosses at 1. and yet remain unchanged).8.3.8. 1. . on the positive axis. I \ \ . 17 In nature the nautilus shell exhibits such a golden spiral (figure 420). The oscillatory part crosses at 0. 13. on the negative axis./ .3. 1. . 13. and so on. 1. and 0. and so on. 2.132 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS with the words: "Eadem mutata resurgo" (It changed me. etc. \ • •   '/ Figure 421 17.5.2. The sculptor who then created the epitaph chiseled not a logarithmic spiral. Figure 420 Figure 421 shows a curve that crosses the xaxis at the Fibonacci numbers. but rather an Archimedean one! . on the positive axis.. 5.
I ~ 0. which means R is 4>. The justification for this claim is as follows: The area of a circle of radius r is. be R. .618 . 4> 18..THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RA no 133 The curve is strangely reminiscent of the shells of nautilus and snails (figure 422).ab ~ O..) So the outer circle has radius a. say. we have the equation of a circle of radius a(~b): (x/a)' + (y/a)2 ~ I. the area of the ellipse that is tangent to each of the circles gets larger. the inner circle radius b. When a ~ b. This is equal to the area of the ellipse when" (b' . and b' . In figure 423. since the curve tends to a logarithmic spiral as it expands. it becomes a circle and the two formula are the same. we have R' . The equation of an ellipse is (x/b)' + (y/a)' ~ I. Strangely enough.a 2 .R .a') ~ "ab.a'). This is not surprising. then dividing the equation by a 2 .? The area of an ellipse with "radii" a and b (as shown above) is "ab (Note how when a ~ b in the ellipse. and the area of the ring between them is therefore: " (b' . you will notice that as the area of the ring gets smaller. or ~. If we let the ratio oj the two circles' radii ~ alb.. the ellipse will be equal in area to the ring lS when the ratio of the radii of the two circles is 0. Figure 4·22 A Surprising Sighting of the Fibonacci Numbers We typically call the area between two concentric circles a ring. At some point the ellipse will be equal in area to the ring.
come up to greet you.134 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Again. the ¢ Fibonacci numbers.that is. Then by the Pythagorean theorem. or for that matter. if! or ~ . Figure 423 Let's look at the right triangle and consider when the tangent of an angle would be equal to the cosine of the same angle. B a e__________________________ C I ~~A Figure 424 . we get: AB = Ja 2 +1 . when you least expect it. when is tan LA = cos LA ? Consider the right triangle ABC (figure 424) with AC = I and BC = Q .
.Ja 2 2 +1 Solving this equation for a : a~a2 + 1 = 1 a (a + 1) = 1 2 + a 2 1 = 0 We shall let p = a 2.fo. a 4 at which point you should recognize this equation. Again. the tangent of an acute angle of the right triangle will equal the cosine.1 = 0. or a 1 2 = .1 = . . if you wish. the Fibonacci numbersappears when you least expect it. . and a = ~. 1 c ~~A 1 Figure 425 So you can see that when a triangle has sides of lengths: 1. the golden ratioor.Ja 2 +! = ~i+! =. 2 B Then p = 15 .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 135 a tan LA =1 cos LA = ~ 1 a +1 2 We want to have tan LA = cos LA : a 1 I . so that we then get the equation p2 + P . l/J l/J Let's use these values for the sides of right triangle ABC (see figure 425).
We begin (using the markings in figure 426) by setting the areas of the three triangles equal to one another.136 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Another Emergence of the Fibonacci Numbers in Geometry An engaging problem that was posed by 1. Area~2 = qr Area~3 = s(p + q) 2 s(p + q) 2 2 ' Since Area~l  = Area~2 = Area~3. Hunter 19 asks us to determine the points on any rectangle ABeD that will leave three triangles of equal areas when the center triangle (triangle 4 in figure 426) is removed from it. H. or p(r+s)=qr. "Triangle Inscribed in a Rectangle." Fibonacci Quarterly 1 (1963): 66. A. . A p q B 2 r r+s s D p+q c Figure 426 You can guess by now that this will in some way result in the Fibonacci numbersanother sighting in geometry of this wonderful sequence. p(r + s) 2 Area~l = . p= qr r+s p( r + s) = s( p + q) pr=sq 19. qr 2 ' p(r + s) 2 and and and p(r + s) 2  .
. with the value of p shown in the first equation: qr )r = sq ( r+s r =s(r+s) 2 If we divide both sides of the equation by S2 . _ 1+15 _ A\ equatIon IS r . Again.. q > p) that the solution of this .1 = 0): We can see (because r > S. ¢ and! t/J are the roots of the equation x 2  x .+ 2 2 S S S r2 r2 sr r s s2 =+1 S2 Putting this in a more recognizable form (remember. s r which tells us that the two sides of the rectangle were divided proportionally.. above.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 137 From the second equation we can set up the following proportion: p = q . the Fibonacci numbers are involved! . But what is that proportion? (Can you guess by now?) Let us replace p from the second equation.'Y ( _ q) • s 2 p Therefore. the points on the sides of the rectangle that will determine the triangles that must be removed to leave the three triangle of equal areas must be placed so that they partition the sides in the golden ratio ( ¢ ).. we will get: r2 s(r+s) S 2 S 2 2 = .
and MSC). rather elegantly. AC is a straight line. Consider the golden rectangle ABCD. SB.138 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The Diagonal of the Golden Rectangle We have done quite a bit with the golden rectangle. For example. If we now draw segments SA. that point S divides the diagonal in the golden ratio. whose sides AB == a and Be = b. for each of the right triangles: . the golden rectanglethe relationship of whose sides are in the golden ratioallows us a neat way to find the point along the diagonal that cuts it into a ratio related to the golden ratio. As shown in figure 427. two semicircles are drawn on the sides AB and BC to intersect at S. It is only because of the unique properties of this special rectangle that we can do this so easily. we get the following: We use the segment length markings in figure 427. so that : = 1>. yet there never seems to be an end to what you can do. D c Figure 427 From the mean proportional ratios (obtained from similar triangles MBC. We can now show. namely. we find that LASB and LBSC are right angles (since they are each inscribed in a semicircle). the diagonal. MSB. and SC . Therefore.
Figure 428 We seek to find the ratio of the radii of the large semicircle to one of the smaller circles.') and.] Thus the point S divides the diagonal of the golden rectangle in a ratio involving the golden section (1/l. AB = 2R and AM = R .+ 1 and the powers of ¢. Consider right . In figure 429. the Another Curiosity That Will Generate the Golden Ratio Consider the semicircle in figure 428 with the three congruent circles inscribed so that the tangency points are as shown. in turn. I/l. a b a 2 2  e f a 2 But since b [Recall: ¢ = ¢.2 or Fibonacci numbers. Each of the congruent small circles has a radius r. then 2 = ¢2 = ¢+ 1 b 1 l/J = .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 139 ~SB: a == e(e+ f) b == f(e+ f) 2 2 M3SC: Therefore.
So we now have MK = r. R = + 1 = 2l/J .J5 . 20 He posed the following problem: the square on the left side of figure 430 has an area of 64 square units and is partitioned as shown. See Stuart Dodgson Collingwood. 20. Put another way.J5 and PK = r.140 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS triangle CKM with legs rand 2r. 3161 7. and therefore.J5 + 1) = R. pp. we find the ratio of their radii is related to the golden ratio. ed.. who. where the hypotenuse then has length r. MP = r(. J5 B Figure 429 Fibonacci Nuntbers and a Curious Dilemma This discussion of the role of the Fibonacci numbers in geometry can also take on other entertaining aspects. wrote The Adventures of Alice in Wonderland. under the pen name of Lewis Carroll. Diversions and Digressions of Lewis Carrol (New York: Dover. . Toward this end. we will examine a rather curious problem. r Out of this seemingly unrelated situation with three congruent circles inscribed in a semicircle. It was made popular by the English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (18321898). 1961).
. Remember.. is not so. This rectangle has an area of 13 ...... . The "error" lies in the assumption that the figures will all line up along the drawn diagonal... they ought to be equal if they lie on the diagona1.. a "narrow" parallelogram is embedded here.. and it has an area of one square unit (see figure 431). ______ ."". . .~...0 + ! 3 .... Where did this additional square unit come from? Think about it before reading further. Figure 431 We can discover where the error lies by taking the tangent function of a and f3 so that we can discover the measure of these angles..._ _. it turns out. n' 5 5 i 5 ! •••••• 1. . 2 : : l 1{ A ' ! 1 5 ______ 2_______ . This. In fact.. . we'll relieve you of the suspense.0 • ••••••• •• _!.. Alternateinterior angles of parallel lines are congruent..0 • •0 : 5 5 i 5 3 : Figure 430 These four parts are then reassembled to form the rectangle at the right of figure 430. 5 = 65 square units.. All right.. ... .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 141 5 3 ••••• 1 t··· • 3 '8 ! 5 _ . ~ 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • _ . _______ ~____ ._ ... i 3 I 3 5 3 51 + I i.. . 21 21. " • •_ •••• '(0'0' .._..
. where n > 1. is merely 1.:H' .6°.~. and F. (3 . Chapter 1. . ··2 3 3 3 ' I • I j ! ! i  .. . page 55.a.. The rectangle has dimensions 5 and 13.'j '" '':' . the parallelogram will be even less noticeable.8.5. then a ~ 20. 5 The difference. But if we use smaller Fibonacci numbers.. 3 .. 8 Since tan J3 =. . _ _.2°.e. sixth. yet enough to show that they are not on the diagonal. . and the square has a side length 8..8°.. .. These are the fifty. then (3 ~ 21. 'j . This relationship tells us that 5 ·3= 82 + 1 65 = 64 + 1 This puzzle can then be done with any three consecutive Fibonacci numbers as long as the middle number is an evennumbered member of the Fibonacci sequence (i.142 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Since tan a =~ . . then our eyes cannot be deceived as in figure 432: 3' i 3 .:. and 13 all Fibonacci numbers..·r·.3.. item 11.. . 3 5 3 t . Moreover. .  I'  "j.~ .". and senenth Fibonacci numbers: ~. we already discovered22 that Fn_1Fn+ I = Fn 2 + (1 ) n. . i  Figure 432 22. in an even position). You will notice that the segments above were 2. If we use larger Fibonacci numbers.
6180339887 . ... To do this properly. without the missing area. the only partitioningamazingly enoughis with the golden ratio. ¢ = </i = ¢ + 1 = J. 1 = l/J + 1 = J... + 3 = 2. l/J as is seen in figure 434. Thus the areas of the square and the rectangle under this partition are equal. as we shall show as follows: The area of the square = ¢. 1 </}1 1 </}1 1 1 (/>1 </}l 1 1 cp (/>2 = (/>+ 1 Figure 434 The areas of the rectangle and the square are equal here (figure 434).THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 143 Here is the general fonn of the rectangle (figure 433). +3 2 = 2.6180339887 . 2 The area of the rectangle = (l/J + 1) .
To do this. the golden ratio. We shall now let AD = x . we could also have simply begun with an isosceles triangle whose vertex angle measures 36°. Construct the bisector BD of LABC (figure 436). we are ready to consider the golden ratio as it pertains to a trianglethe golden triangle. which has the Fibonacci numbers embedded within it.144 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The Golden Triangle Now that we have thoroughly investigated the famous golden rectangle. much like the golden rectangle. we may get a configuration as in figure 435. and therefore a = 36° . Since isosceles triangles with congruent vertex angles are similar. and consequently. then MBC is similar to MCD. Let's consider a triangle that contains this golden ratio. does this golden triangle exhibit the Fibonacci numbers. As you would expect. so. We will begin with an attempt to place an isosceles triangle into another similar isosceles triangle in a somewhat analogous way to the way we embedded our similar golden rectangles earlier. The sum of the measures of the angles of triangle ABC is a + a + a + 2a = 5a = 180° . A A ~o x B x \ x Figure 436 c Figure 435 Aside from placing the two similar triangles the way we did above. too.
in figure 49: A B = 2 and Be = 1. B Figure 437 .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 145 and A B = I. · I 2 . (The negative root cannot be used for the length of AD. On this x = ~ . angle bisectors provide the points P and Q with BP = ~ and BQ = l/». as shown in figure 437. x 1 We therefore call this a golden triangle. side base In MBC the ratIo of  = . Ix =0 and x As before.) Remember that 151 = q. We draw a circle around 0 with radius 1. helps to determine a golden triangle (compare also with figure 436). However since ~A DB and ~D B C are isosceles. for example. . From the similarity above. The intersection point(s) of the two cirl/J circle we choose a point A and draw around this center a second circle with radius cles. One easy way to construct a golden triangle is to first construct the golden section (done earlier in this chapter. we get a (hopefully by now) familIar equatIon: x . BC=BD =AD =x.= l/> . I = x . this gives us: x 2 + xI = ~1 .
72° triangle. and M'GH. 72°.. 1 1' GF l/J Similarly for golden MFG: FE GF = if> . but FE 1 l/> FE = l/J . we get a series of golden triangles (see figure 438). CE. Obviously. had space permitted.= . MFG. 8. we find that for golden M'GH: GF l/J =.CDE:  DC ED l/J = . We proceed in pursuit of the Fibonacci numbers. A B c Figure 438 Let us begin by having HG = 1 (figure 438). 72°) are: MBC. DF.therefore DC = l/J 4 . EG.. and FH of a base angle of each newly fonned 36°. 72°. Since the ratio of side of a golden triangle is b ase l/J. for 8. 1 In golden WEF: . These golden triangles (36°. so FE = l/J 2. but GF = l/J. 1 .CDE. MJEF. 2 3 AgaIn. HG 1 or . but ED = l/J 3 .and GF= l/J.146 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS By taking consecutive angle bisectors  BD. we could have continued to draw angle bisectors and thereby generate more golden triangles. Our inspection of the golden triangle will parallel that of the golden rectangle. therefore ED = l/J . ED = . MCD.
therefore BA = ¢ 6. . we draw circular arcs as follows: AB (circle center at D) Be (circle center at E) CD (circle center at F) DE (circle center at G) EF (circle center at H) FG (circle center at J) Figure 439 . This can be summarized by using our knowledge of powers of ¢ (developed earlier) as follows (this time we point out the Fibonacci numbers): HG = l/J = Ol/J + 1 = Fol/J + F = l/J' = l/J2 4 0 I GF FE ED DC = = ll/J + 0 = Fl/J + F0 I ll/J + 1 = F l/J + F 2 1 = l/J3 = 2l/J + 1 = F l/J + F 3 2 = l/J = 3l/J + 2 = F4 l/J + F3 CB = l/J5 = 5l/J + 3 = F5l/J + F4 BA = l/J6 = 8l/J + 5 = F l/J + F 6 5 As we did with the golden rectangle.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 147 For MCD: CB DC = q. but DC = 1 ¢ \ therefore CB = ¢ 5. That is. we can generate an approximation of a logarithmic spiral by drawing arcs to join the vertex angle vertices of consecutive golden A triangles (see figure 439). Finally for MBC: BA CB = q. but CB = 1 ¢ 5. .
After you have been exposed to the golden triangle.. You will then see that the golden ratio abounds throughoutas do the Fibonacci numbers. one that divides a complete circle..148 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS There are many other truly fascinating relationships emanating from the golden ratio. since these are essentially composed of many golden triangles.A I '" = 3600 _ 360° _ 137.4922359 . q> = 360° "" 222. into the golden ratio. The Golden Angle Let us first take a side step and look at the golden angle.50 l/J _.. 360 0 .5077640 .0 _ 137.. l/J q> = 360° = 222. ° "" 222. .50 I l/J B Figure 440 23.. the next logical place to tum for more applications is the regular pentagon 23 and the regular pentagram (the fivepointed star).5°. A regular pentagon is one whose sides have the same length and whose angles are all the same measure. Notice in figure 440 the angles 'V and <p are in the ratio that approaches the golden ratio: '" = 3600 _ l/J 360° = 137.50.
the golden ratio is approximated. all geometric shapes could be described in terms of integers. In the regular pentagon. Hippasus of Metapontum (ca. these are numbers that cannot be repressed as a ratio of two whole numbers. This secret society was a bit troubled by this. carried over to their symbol: the pentagram. hence the name irrational.5 0 0 1.618 and . So it would have come as a great disappointment to him when one of his followers. which just happened to be the symbol of the Pythagoreans. The Pentagon and the Pentagram We now come to the beautiful geometric shape that sums up much of the golden ratio in one configuration. According to Pythagoras.. . then. by the quotient of successive Fibonacci numbers. 1/1. In each case. as it can be.618.e. this ratio is not rational! This.which today can be seen as the very beginning of our concept of irrational numbers. But which irrational number did he find? Yes. the ratio of the side to the diagonal is irrational. That is. in other words. 450 BeE). showed that the ratio of a diagonal of the regular pentagon (i. a side of the regular pentagram) to the side length of the pentagon could not be expressed as a fraction of integers.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 149 The ratio of circle = 360 ~ larger angle 222. ~ Figure 441 Figure 442 The golden triangle is embedded many times in the regular pentagram. you guessed it! It was the golden ratio. larger angle ~ smaller angle 1.
we use the relationship that in a regular pentagon every diagonal is parallel to the sides it does not intersect. xI which then can be converted to the quadratic equation x 2 d a xI == 0. so they are similar to each other. In the regular pentagon.150 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS To show that this length relationship is actually irrational. In figure 443 the triangles AED and BTC have therefore parallel sides. therefore. the following ratio holds: diagonal: side == side: (diagonal .TD == BD AE. (Remember: 2 ¢ = . da or d a 1 If we now let x == d a we get the equation x ==  _1_.[5+1 . Symbolically.Js is irrational!) . we can write this as d a a d 1 a (with d as the length of the diagonal and a the length of the side). AE BT But BT == BD . of which is a positive root and just happens to be the irrational number .side). A D Figure 443 Therefore AD=BC.
As the irrational number 1t = 3. and ~TDA (d) The triangles 8DAC and 8QCD are similar (as are many others figure 443). Here are some for you to appreciate and perhaps ponder over.. MCE. . and ~CEA MEA. MCD. MBD. (f) Every side of the pentagon is parallel to the diagonal "facing" it..6180339887 498948482 . MCE. ~CAB. You might look for other such properties. the irrational number l/J = 1. so. too.1415926535897932384 . MDA. and MDE MEB.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 151 This is what we claimed at the outset: the ratio of the diagonal to the side of a regular pentagon is irrational. ~QAC. For figure 443 the regular pentagon ABCE has the following properties: (a) The size of every interior angle is 108°: LEAB =LABC =LBCD =LCDE =LDEA = 108° (b) The size of the angles of a golden rectangle are: LBEA=LCAB=LDBC=LECD=LADE=3~ LPEB =LQAC =LRBD =LSCE =LTDA= 36° LCDA =LDEB =LEAC =LABD =LBCE = 72° (c) The following triangles are all isosceles: WAC. WBC. MBD. is connected inseparably with the regular pentagon! The regular pentagon ABCDE (figure 443) is a fascinating figure with lots of useful properties. is connected inseparably with the circle... ( e) All diagonals of the pentagon have the same length.
Yet we know that the ratio of adjacent Fibonacci numbers approaches the golden ratio. With the obvious loss of accuracy.152 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS (g) As an example. (i) PQRST is a regular pentagon. We say the segment relationships are incommensurable. Which of the triangles are golden triangles in the regular pentagon? At this point we can bring in our Fibonacci numbers. We already established that the various line segments of a regular pentagon cannot be measured in integers. AD : DC = CQ : QD. the side length of the larger pentagon (89 mm) might have been obtained from the sum of these . Figure 444 These conditions can be approximately interpreted as follows: If the side and the diagonal of the little pentagon were approximately of lengths 34 and 55 mm. we can display the regular pentagon and pentagram in terms of the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 444). (h) The intersection point of two diagonals partitions both diagonals in the golden section.
and 144 (mm). was that. 144 89 and 55 34 have a value of about 1. There again. This is only an approximation of the actual irrational value. 89. Yet all this fame did not come without his attackers. c . A E~. In figure 445 the regular pentagon has side length 1.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 153 values (34 + 55). Plato. then all the fame Hippasus of Metapontum garnered would have been ignored. Laws for an Ideal State. Had the line segments been exactly 34. Similarly. 24 The pentagram (fivecomer star) inscribed in a regular pentagon abounds with the golden ratio l/>.55. we can generate the other lengths as shown in figure 444. since it is composed of lots of golden triangles. which made the Pythagoreans a bit disturbed. we have the Fibonacci numbers! Remember.618. and I am not only ashamed of me but for all Greeks. for example.~~B o Figure 445 24. A remark by the Greek philosopher Plato (427348/347 BeE) shows how terribly the discovery of Hippasus moved the Greek: I thought such an ignorance befits not people but rather a herd's pigs. the irrationality Hippasus of Metapontum encountered. So he remains the "originator" to have stumbled on irrational numbers.
The ratio of the area of the larger pentagon ABCDE to the area 3 4 of the pentagram is q. q. See also figure 412. ¢ ¢' I I .= . In the golden MEH we get base side = if! A£ AH Therefore AH = ~ ...EF = 1. . The ratio of the area of the larger pentagon ABCDE to the area of the smaller pentagon is ~.¢ . consequently.' .154 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Since the golden triangle is everywhere to be seen in the figure. q. E c Figure 446 25.I = 0. . With ase DC DC = I . This comes from the nowfamiliar equation: q. You can see the continued pattern in pentagrams and pentagons (figure 446) harboring the golden ratio and. I I 25 The golden ratio is also involved with various area comparisons in figure 445. the Fibonacci numbers. therefore AD = if! . Smce EH=DC= I.2 .= . side we have for each golden triangle: b = if!. q. we get AD = if! . then FH= EH . and then we divide both sides by 1// to get: 1..
Perhaps the most important artist Germany has contributed to Western culture is Albrecht Durer (14711528). . we would find ourselves in a dilemma. Geschichte. 259. pp. Scriba and P. He offered this very easy construction to the mathematical community as an alternative method to get a "regular" pentagon. Menschen (Berlin: Springer. but that cannot be 26. Joining the intersection points gives us a regular hexagon. As you can see in figure 447. It is so nearly perfect that its inaccuracy is not visually detectable. which he knew was an approximation of a regular pentagon but extremely close to perfect. only four such circles are needed. The regular hexagon is easily constructible. A much forgotten work by this artist (in 1525) is a geometric construction (using a straightedge and a pair of compasses) of a regular pentagon. One need only draw circles around the circumference of a given circle with the same radius as the given circle. with the full knowledge that is was off by about half a degree. J. 2000). Kulturen. 5000 Jahre Geometrie. C. Schreiber. 28990. Figure 447 Were we to try to construct a regular pentagon in a similar way. 26 Its deviation from a perfect regular pentagon is minuscule.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 155 Constructing a Regular Pentagon The construction of a regular pentagon is more complicated than most other constructible regular polygons.
with radius AB to intersect at D. '. Five circles of radius AB are constructed as follows: 1. 5. We shall provide an explanation of the method here. The polygon ABCDE is (approximately) a regular pentagon. engineering books still provided it as a method for constructing a regular pentagon. 2. In figure 448 we begin with a segment AB. 3. 4. Draw the circles with centers at E and C. SP and RP intersect circles with centers at A and B at points E and C. Figure 448 27. respectively.27 6. Until recently. Then the circle with center Q is drawn to intersect circles with centers at A and B at points Rand S. " '. . . '.0. E C : . despite its being slightly inaccurate. Notice we only need one of the points of intersection (D) of these two circles.156 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS ignored.. respectively." . :Q '. QN intersects circle Q with center at at P. Circles with centers at A and B are drawn and intersect at QandN. since it is instructive and has been used for many years.
..... .... ".3661202° .... . /......... ABQR.. . for ABCDE to be a regular pentagon..... Instead we will show that mLABC ~ 108. ... R / ...\.. ......./ \ N \ C " " " '\ \ ...THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 157 Joining the points in order (figure 449).........) ......... has LARQ = 60° and BR = AB. '.... . ....... In other words........ E f : . n ............./ Figure 450 The rhombus in figure 450..{j since BR is actually twice the length of an altitude of . •••. ......... we get the pentagon ABCDE..•• •• ••••••••••••••••••••·•·•••• •••••••••••• ••••••·••••• ......~. it's mLABC is about 22 60 of a degree too large.. . each angle must be 108°. Figure 449 Although the pentagon "looks" regular.. ........
3 SIn 150 .and then mLBRC = 15° .n .mLBRC . Since MRQ is an isosceles right triangle.mLABR ~ 138. sin LBC'D .26.37°.3661202° Thus. we would first construct a golden triangle and then simply mark its base off along a given circle as shown in figure 451. .15° . mLPRQ = 45° . BR _ BC · sin LBCR sin LBRC ' = sin 15 . ABJi.mLBCR ~ ~ 180° .661202° . since mLABR = 30°. To construct a proper regular pentagon.63387984° 138. mLBCR ~ 26.AB 0 ' · r:. and mLEDC ~ 107. In MCR. mLBCD = mLAED ~ 107.38°. mLRBC . or SIn LBCfn = ". M Figure 451 . as it should be in order for it to be a regular pentagon! The results of Diirer's construction: mLABC= mLBAE ~ 108.63387984 . We shall apply the law of sines to MCR: · that IS.94°.30° ~ 108.158 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS equilateral MRQ.n Therefore. mLRBC = 180° .3661202° and not 108°.
you should see the pentagram inside the pentagon that you formed. We leave you in this chapter with a series of regular pentagons that are placed so the vertex of each divides the side of another in the golden ratio (see figure 453). Take a strip of paper. You can tear off the end flops as in picture 4. 5 Figure 452 We have shown the many geometric sightings wherewhen you least expect itthe Fibonacci numbers appear and sometimes in the form of the golden ratio. You have now formed a regular pentagon. and fold it into a regular knot.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND THE GOLDEN RATIO 159 We can even create the golden ratio by paperfolding methods. Then carefully pull it taut so that it looks like picture 3 in figure 452. if you wish. . making sure the sides are parallel. If you hold this pentagon up to the light and look through the knot. we can generate a series of spirals reminiscent of those we encountered in chapter 2. Figure 453 Ifwe join specific points (figure 454).
we can use the Fibonacci numbers to render the appropriate approximation.160 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 454 In figure 455 the sides of neighboring (or adjacent) pentagons are in the ratio equal to t/J: I. Figure 455 There are many more such appearances in geometry that we will leave the reader to discover. . Once again.
A continued fraction is just another form of a fraction that allows us to look at the nature of numbers in a different way. Once again. we will investigate their relationship to the Fibonacci numbers. W Continued Fractions We will begin with a brief introduction to continued fractions. We will introduce you to continued fractions. They also can be seen in the study of continued fractions.Chapter 5 The Fibonacci Numbers and Continued Fractions e have seen the Fibonacci numbers as they appear in nature. We can take an improper fraction such as ~ and express it as a mixed 7 number: 6 6 1=1+7 7 Without changing the value. and as they can be seen in geometry. we could then write this as 161 . as they manifest themselves among other numbers and sequences. after you are comfortable with continued fractions. A continued fraction is a fraction in which the denominator has a mixed number (a whole number and a proper fraction) in it.
This is done by considering the value of each portion of the continued fraction up to each plus sign. the unit fraction is ~). 6 So that you can get a better grasp of this technique. we are essentially finished. Notice that at each stage.. .. 1. We will convert g to contin7 ued fraction form.1 we get closer and closer to the actual value of the original fraction.as we will do in the example that follows). when a proper fraction is reached. successively. but when we reach a unit fraction (i. change ~ to _1 . we take the reciprocal of the reciprocal (e. which 5 5 2 does not change its value: 12 5 =1+=1+ 7 7 1 7 5 =1+ 1 2 1 +5 =1+ 1 1 1+5 2 =1+ 1+ 1 1 1 2+2 If we break up a continued fraction into its component parts (called convergents).g.e. we will create another continued fraction. in this case. We could have continued this process. without any value change) as: 1+1 1+6 1 This is a continued fraction.162 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 1+=1+ 6 1 7 7 6 which in tum could be written (again. a fraction in which the numerator is 1 and the denominator is a positive integer.
which are equivalent to rational numbers (those that can be expressed as simple fractions).2. Although we show it here. We have a short way to write a long (in this case infinitely long!) continued fraction: [1. or when there are J.== 2 1 1 Second convergent of  7 Third convergent of g 7 ==1+ ==1+==1==1+~ 3 3 3 2 1 12 1 2 2 5 Fourth Convergent of  12 717 1+1 2+2 == 1+ . these endless repetitions.2.2. It would then follow that an irrational number would result in an infinite continued fraction. J2==I+I1 2 + 1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+1 2+2 + .2.2. That is exactly the case... . we can even write it in a shorter form as .2. The above examples are all finite continued fractions.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 163 F Irst convergent 0 f o 12  7 12 == 1 == 1+ . A simple example of an infinite continued fraction is that of J2 ... we will actually generate it just a bit further on...2.
164 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS [ 1.2J.an_pan] .. where the bar over the 2 indicates that the 2 repeats endlessly. . . 1 1 a nI +an where ai are real numbers and ai ~ 0 for i > O. As we said before.J2 = 1 + 1 1 1 r...J2] 1+J2 Replace J2 with . Begin with the identity: J2 + 2 = J2 + 2 Factor the left side and split the 2 on the right side: J2 (1 + J2) = 1+ J2 + 1 Divide both sides by 1+ J2=I+ J2 to get: 1 =[I. we will generate a continued fraction equal to 12.I. In general. • • • .al'a2 .a3 . We can write this in a shorter fashion as: [aO . we can represent a continued fraction as: 1 1 1 a 3 + . J2 ] J2 = 1+ 1+(1+ 1+J2) Continue this process. and simplify the terms: l+v2 = 1+ 1 2+ 1+ J2 1 = [1. The pattern now becomes clear. I. 2.
2. . .. 2.+:f. 1. we conclude with the following: J2 == 1 + _ _ __ _ = [1. 1 1 1 1 = [2.. 2. . ] 1 2+1 2+2+ . and in 1873 the French mathematician Charles Hermite (18221901) proved e is a transcendental number.J2 : (.2.. 1.. 2+ 1 2 + ::= 1+J2 Eventually.. 1.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 165 J2 == 1 + ___ 11.. 1] 2. then e is the limit of the sequence (.1415926535897932384 . The number e is the base of the system of natural logarithms..7182818284590452353 . 1.. 2.. meaning that it is not an algebraic number of any degree. ): 1 e = 2 + 1 1+ .... 2]) There are continued fractions equal to some famous numbers such as Euler's e(e:= 2.. This definition guarantees that every transcendental number must also be irrational. 2. 2n.8.10. 1. The symbol e was introduced by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (17071 783) in 1748. 2.. and so on.J2 = [ 1.4.. 2.. ] = [2.. 1.1. . In 1761 the German mathematician Johann Heinrich Lambert (17281777) showed that e is irrational.6. . 2.= [1.. 1.. . 2 + 1 1+ 1 1+4+1+1+6+ . )2 and the famous 1t (1t:= 3. ] = [1.. 1... 1. When n increases without limit.1.. 1 Thus we have a periodic continued fraction for . A transcendental number is a number that is not the root ofany integer polynomial equation.J2].
.I.15. 3 For more on the various representations of 1C see A. 4 Can we express this Fibonaccirelated ratio as a continued fraction? Let's try to use these continuedfraction techniques with </J..2. 1C= [3..1+1+1+ 2+1+3 + ..1.1. 1+2 3 2+ 2 52 2+2 7 2+2 2+ 9 Sometimes we have continued fractions representing these famous numbers that do not seem to have a distinctive pattern: = 3 + 7 +  1C 15+1+ . 1C: A Biography of the World's Most Mysterious Number (Amherst.....1.. 7... 292 + . 2004). .2.. 3 1t = ...2.2.84...... J. Remember </J = 1. Lehmann. S. We have now set the stage for the golden ratio.166 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Here are two ways that fraction.2..3....}2 1C can be expressed as a continued 4 _1C =1+ _ _ _ _1 _ __ _ 1·2 1+2·3 1+3·4 1+4·5 1+1 + ..14.... 1.... Posamentier and I.2.1.I.1.. 4. NY: Prometheus Books.61803 39887498948482 .1.2.292. ....
1 . 1 Th IS gIves us: l/J = 1 + . we will use our now wellknown relationship for l/J to produce one of the nicest continued fractions_ Begin with this relationship: t/J = 1 + ~ · We can now replace the l/J in the denominator on the right side with its equal: 1 + ~.. 1. 1. l/J] l/J 1 l/J= 1 + 1 = [1.l/J] l/J=I+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1+ 1 1 1 +l/J = [1.l/J] 1+l/J 1 l/J=I+ 1+ 1 1 1 +l/J =[ 1. 1. .1. 1.l/J] .1. 1.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 167 Actually. 1. 1. 1. 1+l/J Continuing this process will give us the following: 1 l/J= 1 + = [1.l/J] l/J=I+ 1+ 1 I 1+ 1 I 1 +l/J 1 = [1.
. 1... 1. 1. I. ]=[1] and so on. Thus we now have a continued fraction equal to l/J from our val ue for l/J : 1 I . 1. 1..41] 41=1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1+41 = [ 1. .41] 41=1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 + . 1] 1  1 1+1+1 1+1 ..1. 1.1. 1. I. 1. . 1. I. 1. 1... 1.= [0.168 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 41=1+ 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1+ 1+ 1 1 1 1 +41 = [1. 1... 1.. =[ 1. 1. 1. 1.. ] = [0.
.4 = 1.= I += 1 += 1+=== 1.= I + . though elegant.= .= .= .= .= 2 1 F. since the golden section continued fraction (l/> = J5 + I 2 ::::: l..625 1+1+1 I 5 F4 ~ 13 F6 ~ 8 8 ~ 1+1 1 +1 .6 1 + __1__ 1+1 1 +I 1 F38Fs 5 lP1 5 F4 F4 lPs = 1 + .. reciprocal (~ = ~I ::::: 0.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 169 This has to be the nicest continued fraction of all.. these continued fractions. are very slow to approach their true value. We will do this with the help of the Fibonacci numbers: lP) = I + .. 2 F2 2 F2 1 lP3 = I + 1 = 1+ 1 1 + _I_ 1 lP2 2 F 5F = 1 + ..= 1 + ..= 1 += 1 += I + .61803398874989) are comprised of all On the other hand. 6 3 F3 3 F3 1 +1 1 1 3 lP4 = 1 + .= .= .= 1. I Fi lP2 = 1+ .. You will need many terms to get a good approximation..= 1.2 = .= 1 += 1 += 1 + .6180398874989) and its Is.= .5 1+ I I Fa 2 F2 1 1 Fi 3 F3 ~ lP.
= ...= 1 += I +~=2±..= 1+ ___ 1___ l/1 s 13 F6 13 F6 1 1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1 = 1.170 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 1 1 8 Fs 21 F7 l/1 6 = 1 + ..!.J5+1 A\ equals .." . n ...) 5.. 1+l/1n1 ~.. This reads "the limiting value of Fn+l . 619047 The nth case is then: l/1n = 1 1 F F 1 + .........= 'f' 2 . as n gets larger and larger and Fn approaches 00.....= 1 += 1 += 1 + .= 1 += 1 += 1 + .= . F J5+1 2 = <P (See chapter 4. ..= 1 + _ _ _ _1____ l/16 21 F7 21 F7 1+1 1+1+1+1 1 +1 1 1 1 = 1..... We then see that the limiting value of the continued fraction for 5 <Pn is: 11m ~ = n~oo Fn . Fn 1+1+1+1+1+ . 615384 1 I 13 F6 34 Fg l/17 = 1 + .
was the first to recognize that the ratio F 1!±. which is largely responsible for the development of the foundation of the high school geometry course taught in the United States. no.....l.l < .. the continued fraction 1 J.55 34+144 89+377 233+= 1. Consider the following list of fractions (figure 51) to see the value of l/> being approached...l is l/> < J.3 4 56 7 Figure 51 6..!.. The famous Scottish mathematician Robert Simson (1687.3941865502287836729028896495777209667374096430683 ....2 +  3 8 5+ 21 13 + . ... We see that the terms of this continued fraction are successive Fibonacci numbers... ($ 0) $1 $2 Numerator Denominator (J) C/>3 $4 $5 $6 $7 .. HRecreational Mathematics... Madachy6 introduced a new constant J..l = 1 + .." Fibonacci Quarterly 6.. Fn of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers will approach the value l/> of the golden ratio...1768).J2 a rough estimation (inequality).. 6 (1968): 38592.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 171 In 1968 Joseph S. For this constant J.. who took Euclid's Elements and wrote an Englishlanguage book on it. $ 8 5 13 21 34 21 2 ] 3 2 5 (I) 3 8 13 J 2 .
you have the true golden rectangle for comparison.. b a. and the rightside rectangle is the golden one.625 is a good approximation for 8 </1 == 1. 2. b a= '2.6 a. While for </17 == 34 21 == 1. (/).98 21 21 Figure 53 . At the far right.. a2 34 .6180339887498948482 .. you can see the development of the golden rectangle (figure 52).b 13 a"'i3 21 b all·b ...". The width b remains constant. while the length a varies. 7).7·b .172 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS In order to see how the shape of the resulting rectangle gets to look more and more like a golden rectangle.5+1 b Figure 52 You will notice that </15 ==.•. .!1. we provide you with a series of drawings. 3. a.1·b a. == 1. a. .. .".s·b a. 619047 .b II.b J a= 8 s·b a.21 33. (with i == 1. .. we can hardly see the difference between the rectangle formed and the actual golden rectangle. In figure 53 the leftside rectangle is the approximation.••. So with the numerator and denominator of lP. Each time the rectangle takes on the dimensions of the successive Fibonacci numbers.2·b a...
xI = o. This is an analogous method to the one we used to evaluate an infinite continued fraction. The positive value of x is then 1+. So we then have Aha! Another surprising appearance of the golden ratio! .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 173 A Nest of Radicals Interestingly enough. since this nest also goes on infinitely long. the 1s play another role in the value of l/J • Consider the "nest of radicals" and let's see how we might find the value of it. = cf>. which can be written as x 2 . So we begin by setting this value equal to x : We then square both sides of this equation to get: Since we can replace the nest of radicals in the above equation with x to get x 2 = 1+ x.
We would expect to find a relationship between the ratios of consecutive Lucas numbers and the golden ratio. Rounded to nine decimal places.. But for now we have had the pleasure of using this technique to further explore the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. . 1. With that being the case. 1. .. 7. The study of continued fractions holds many other fascinating surprises.rather than 1 as it is with the 2 Fibonacci numbers.. Consider the following ratios of consecutive Lucas numbers: 3 2 1 =1+=1+1 1 1 2 4 1 1 1 =1+=1+ =1+3 3 1+2 1+_1 1 2 731 1 = 1 + = 1 + . .. in a short version. we ought to be able to use continued fractions with the Lucas numbers also to generate the approach to the golden ratio. becomes relatively insignificant as the continued fraction increases in terms.1 4 4 4 1+ 1 3 1+1 2 1 This. 1. you will notice that both sequences 7 approach the golden ratio. can be written as [1.= 1 + . In figure 54. ]. 2 The fact that the last term here is ~ .174 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers Let us return now to the Lucas numbers. just as we have for the Fibonacci numbers.
620689655 29 29  21 = 1.6182181618 55 144 = 1.618025751 233  521 = 1.617977528 89  199 = 1.= 1.364 . = 1.= 1.636363636 11 18 5 13 8 = 1.666666667 7 5 3 8 .615384615 47 13 = 1.618012422 = 1.000000000 1 .= 2.500000000 2 .000000000 1 L n+1 Ln .618421053 .619047619 21  34 76 .= 1.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND CONTINUED FRACTIONS 175 Fn+1 Fn 1 .= 1.618032787 Figure 54  987 610 2.= 1.618035191 843 = 1.= 1.617021277 47  55 34 = 1.618055556 144 233  521 322 843 = 1.618090452 89 = 1.618037135 610 377 1 364 .618030842 = 1.611111111 18 = 1.571428571 7 .625000000 .= 1.207 1.000000000 3 1 4 .618042226 377 = 1.617886179 123  322 199 = 1.= 3.= 1.= 1.= 1.750000000 4 3 .= 1.617647059 123 76 = 1.600000000 11 .333333333 2 3 .
.
These examples are merely a sampling of the wide variety of uses and appearances in which the Fibonacci numbers have been found to manifest themselves. This is by no means meant to be a complete collection. N. a little 177 . Elliott Investor confidence was at an alltime low after the stock market's Great Crash of 1929. Such a collection would be limitless! Business Applications We have seen evidence of the Fibonacci numbers popping up in the most unexpected places. Some will be serious and others lighthearted. All human activities have three distinctive features. all of which observe the Fibonacci summation series R. time and ratio. whereupon many Americans viewed the stock market as a costly roll of the dice. Now. pattern. Nonetheless. we go searching for them in the volatile world of the stock market.Chapter 6 A Potpourri of Fibonacci Number Applications W e will now take a brief tour through some rather unusual and sundry applications and sightings of the ubiquitous Fibonacci numbers.
As his research progressed. Although Elliott's insistence that all market decisions should be based on wave theory prevented Collins from directly employing Elliott. which included R. Figure 61 Ralph Nelson Elliott. or rather. of market behavior. the publisher of a national market newsletter of the day with an extensive following. Collins was impressed by the accuracy of Elliott's analysis and invited him to Detroit to explain the process in greater detail. the enthusiastic Elliott wrote that there was "a much needed complement to Dow theory" that he called his "wave theory. distinct and repetitive zigzagging patterns began to emerge as Elliott studied the ups and downs. Ralph Nelson Elliott (1871 . He dubbed these patterns "waves" and categorized them as either "impulsive" or "corrective" waves that could be measured and used to forecast market behavior. Elliott.178 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS known. albeit successful. In a letter to Charles Collins.1948). accountant and engineer. he did help him to estab . decided to pore over decades of stock performance charts and trace trader movement in an attempt to make sense of the crash." This correspondence began in November 1934 when Elliott wrote to Collins about his "discoveries" with the hope that he would find support from Collins. ebb and flow. N.
it was only when Elliott . including publication in the Financial World magazine. or lack thereof. a bull market has 21 intermediate waves. in 1946. In layman's terms. for a total of 3 waves (sound familiar?). Elliott's wave principle also states that each "major" wave can be further subdivided into "minor" and "intermediate" waves. A complete cycle would be the total of these moves. Elliott's famous. his research showed that a bull market usually jumps upward in 3 impulsive waves and 2 corrective waves. What may be surprising is just how pervasive the Fibonacci numbers are in Elliott's analysis of the stock market. in 1938. he found that they move in a series of 2 impulsive waves and 1 corrective wave. At this point." However. Then. titled The Wave Principle. influential booklet." moves in predictable cycles once its patterns of behavior have been established and made visible to the trained eye. for a total of 34.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 179 lish an office on Wall Street. or 8 waves. for a total of 5 waves (recognize these numbers?). Tracing most bear markets. Elliott felt the market. Elliott went on to further publicize his theory through various letters and magazine articles. Collins wrote a booklet. A regular bear market has 13 intermediate waves. The relationship of the Fibonacci sequence to the wave principle does not end there. is based on the belief that market behavior should not be seen as random or chaotic but rather as a natural reflection of investor confidence. Elliott expanded on The Wave Principle with a book called Nature's LawThe Secret of the Universe. Continuing on with the sequence. under Elliott's name. Later. for a total of 144. Yes (as you might have suspected). there are 55 minor waves in a bear market and 89 in a bull market. it should come as no surprise that the Fibonacci numbers should be visible within those patterns. On the other hand. (impulsive waves) and selfsustaining market mechanisms (corrective waves). The Wave Principle. Elliott himself was not at all surprised to find the Fibonacci sequence while tracing these market waves because he had always believed that "the stock market is a creation of man and therefore reflects human idiosyncrasy. like "other things in the universe.
3820 and . or the proportional relationship. can you see a pattern emerge after the first several calculations? (See figure 62. along with other Fibonaccigenerated ratios. and the last two percentages (. 61. or what market analysts call a "retracement" of the initial surge. In order to understand how he reached this conclusion. to be Fibonacci percentages of the initial price surge. a fact that can be proved algebraically. more often than not.' which may have been constructed 5. it is important to investigate what these Fibonacci ratios are. Elliott found that an initial wave up in price was usually followed by a second wave downward.2360. these numbers translate to: 23. Once again.) Of course. Elliott believed that this most famous of ratios.000 years ago. Elliott's premise. 38. that he realized his new discoveries were based on "a law of nature known to the designers of the Great Pyramid 'Gizeh." (See chapter 7.8 percent as the highest retracement. could be used to predict stock prices with astounding accuracy.) It is clear that after the first several columns. with. .8 percent and are called Fibonacci percentages.2360 + . Upon closer inspection.6 percent.6180). Nature's LawThe Secret of the Universe. Consider the results when dividing the Fibonacci numbers by their two immediate successors.180 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS began to study the relationships between the size of the waves for his second work. and 61. the results in each of the succeeding columns approximate . is that the ratio. these retracements seemed. and the golden ratio.2 percent. between two waves could be used to indicate stock prices. he was talking about the golden ratio. Written as percentages. . It is interesting to notice a very curious property: the sum of the first two percentages equals the third percentage (.6180. the golden ratio reigns supreme! .6180) happen to have a sum of 100 percent.3820. or the Fibonacci indicator.3820 = .
. .=.= .618055555 144 12 144 144  89 = .236065574 233 233 377 610  ::::.20000000 5 2 .33333333 3 1 F.236051502 144 11 89 ::::..618181818 55 10 55 55 34 .+2 .= .::::.235955056 89 .236363636 55 21 .= .382352941 34 13 .625000000 8 6  ::::..+3 .= .::::: .380952381 .236111111 = .500000000 2 3 2 2 .37500000 8 5  ::::.= . .33333333 3 2 .615384615 13 7 13 8  ::::.617647059 34 9 34 .236074271 233 377 13 233 ::::. .00000000 1 2 1 1 = . .236068896 377 610 987 Figure 62 .= . .382022471 89  34 = .= .666666667 3 4 3 3 =.381967213  233 ::::.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS n Fn  181 F" F" F.= 1.238095238 21 8 5 13 8 8 . .381944444  55 89 89 144 233 ::::.= .384615385 . . .= .= .600000000 5 5 5 5 ..+I 1 1 I .381818182 55 34 21  ::::.618037135  233 = .= .= 0.617977528  55 = .381962865  144 = .= 0.25000000 8 3 .= .= . ..381974249  89 = .618025751  144 = .500000000 2 1 1 1 F" F.40000000 5 3 .230769231 13 .235294118 34 13 21 .619047619 21 8 21 21 13 .::::.
exploring its appearance in many of the fields discussed here. by using the author's logarithmic spirals. or as few as 21 or 13 days between minor fluctuations. while considering the applications of the Fibonacci numbers in the financial world. Before you scoff at the importance of the Fibonacci numbers in the stock market. It is a complete.182 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS While many of today's market analysts incorporate wave patterns and retracements to forecast the market. The book claims to enable you to calculate and predict key turning points in the commodity 1. then introduces the Fibonacci sequence. by using the logarithmic spiral. You can learn how to accurately analyze price targets on market extensions. There might be 34 months or 55 months between a major high or low. A book by Robert Fischer. and how. He explains how to act on these analyses. the credit card. They scan previous dates and results looking for the Fibonacci numbers.l expounds on the use of the Fibonacci numbers in investment strategies. consider that Elliott. handson resource that shows how to measure price and time signals quickly and with accuracy. and then in stock and commodity trading. (New York: Wiley. Fibonacci Applications and Strategies for Traders. even one of the main vehicles by which many of these trades are made.and longterm correction targets. measures very close to the golden rectangle55 mm by 86 mm is actually only 3 mm short in the length from fitting a Fibonacci ratio approximation. Fischer then explains how the Fibonacci sequence is used to measure equity and commodity price swings and to forecast short. at the age of sixtyseven and without the aid of any computers. 1993). This innovative trading guide first takes a fresh look at the classic principles and applications of the Elliott wave theory. A trader might look for repetitive patterns and try to establish a Fibonacci relationship between dates to help forecast the future market. some analysts take the Fibonacci numbers a step further. to develop price and time analyses with some precision. . forecast the end of a bear market decline from 19331935 to the exact day_ By the way.
analyze business and economic cycles. . the Fibonacci numbers appear in the rightside column. namely. or the thirteenth number in the Fibonacci sequence. The Vending Machine A completely different type of application would be setting up a vending machine to dispense a variety of candies.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 183 market. and discover entry and exit rules that make disciplined trading possible and profitable. We need to calculate how many different types of candy the machine can accommodate. But the Fibonacci numbers continue to fascinate some in the investment field. a quarter and a halfdollar (QH). a curious set of numbers appears. The answer would be 12 times 25 cents. for a 75cent candy selection there are three possible ways to pay: three quarters (QQQ). When we make a chart (figure 63) of the various amounts of money that the machine can accept. seemingly out of nowhere. Each type of candy will be a different arrangement (order) of coins deposited. or a halfdollar and a quarter (HQ). Y ou are told that the cost of each of the candies is to be a multiple of 25 cents. Can you guess what that might be? Once again. Each of these payments will result in a different type of candy. 233. Put another way. We are not suggesting that this is a foolproof method for becoming rich. we need to determine the number of different ways each multiple of 25 cents can be arrived at using the machine's coin slot. This would help the manufacturer of the vending machine predict the number of ways that one could deposit $3. so that the amount of money deposited into the machine and the arrangement of the order in which the coins have been deposited will determine which of the candies has been selected. which accepts only quarters and halfdollars.00. indicating the number of ways by which the various amounts of money can be deposited. For example.
QQQQHQQ~ QQQQQHQ~ 34 QQQHQQQ. HHQQ~ HQHQ. QQQHQQ. HHQ. QQQQHQ~ 21 QHQQQQ~ HQQQQQ. HHQH. QQHQQQQ.QHHQ~HHH $1. HQQQQQQ.HQQ.HQQH. HQQHH.QHQ 5 QQQQQ. QHHH QHHQQ~ QQHQH~ HQQQH. QQQQQQH.00 $1. HQQHQ. QHQQH. QQHQQQ. QHQQ. QQQQH.75 7 QQQQQQQ. QHHHQ~ HHQHQ. HQQQQ~ QQQHQ~ QQHQQ. HHQQQ. QQHHQ. QHQQQ.50 6 QQQQQQ. HQH~ QQQH~ 8 HQQQ. QQQQHH~ QHQQQQQ. QQHHH.75 $1. HHHH Figure 63 Climbing a Staircase An analogous situation arises with the following problem.25 $. $2.25 List of ways to pay Number of ways to pay 1 2 3 4 QH 3 5 QQQQ. HQHH. QQQQHH. HQHHQ.QHQH. HQ~ Cost of the candies $. HQHQH.HH~QQH. QQHQ $1. QHQHQ. QQQQQH.00 8 QQQQQQQQ. QHQHQQ~ HQQHQQ~ HQQQHQ~ HQHQQQ. QHH. QQQHH. QQHQHQ. Suppose you are about to use a staircase with n stairs and you can either take one step at a time or two steps at a time. QQQHHQ~ QQHHQQ~ HHQQQQ~ QHHQQQ. .50 $. QQHQQH. HQHQQ. QHHQH. HHHQ. QHQQHQ. QHQHH.184 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Number of multiples of 25 cents 1 2 Q QQ.H QQQ. QHQQQH~ HHQQH~ HHHQQ~ HQQQQH. 13 QQHH. The number of different ways of climbing the stairs ( en ) will be a Fibonacci numbermuch the same way as the previous situation with the vending machine.
90 1.333.547. 1 step + 2 steps.760.402.656.015.866.568.674.861.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 185 Suppose n = 1.453 feet 8 and 9/16th inches tall from street level to its highest pointa lightning rod. 131.954.054. there are n .151. 728.976.373.714. which means there is only one stair to climb.2 • Does this remind you of the Fibonacci recursive relationship? The values of C n will follow the Fibonacci pattern. There are annual races up the building's 1. If you begin your climb with a double step (i.290. the number of ways of climbing them is C n • After you take the first step up on a single stair.717.860 = FJ.232.464.146.217.325. In how many ways can an Empire State Building stairs runner reach the topmost step? It is an unbelievably large number: C n = C1.1 stairs left to climb.7 71494711 · 10388 .662.544.2 ways to climb the rest of the staircase.931.431.749..352. we can inspect a rather large example.615.112. If n = 2.802.843. This can be generalized (now that you are experts at counting these stairclimbing possibilities).741. For the staircase of n steps (where n > 2).968.351.260.232.624.732. The Empire State Building is 1.571. then there are two different ways to climb the steps: two single steps or one double step.322.325.530.e.296.947. or you can compare this to the previous vending machine problem and see that it is the equivalent of thatwith the 25cent units analogous to the stairs.744.623.616. 131. 142.507.469.632. 306.475 . and there are two stairs.283.750.540.936.480.833.392.443. 190.657. 156.580. 049.968.518.814.521.431.850.780.609.133. 680. If n = 3.412. On the other hand.431.008. Then the answer is easy: there is only one way to climb the stair.327.823.090. or 2 steps + 1 step.738.425. and there are three steps.120.544.036.509.916.687.128.683.268.714. 680.852. 164.395.320.896.820. 193.860 stairs. So the number of ways to climb the remainder of the staircase is Cn _ l . then there are C n . then there are three different ways to climb the steps: 1 step + 1step + 1step.738. 464.328.861 = 37.298. Thus the number of ways to climb the staircase of n steps is the sum of these: C n == C n _ 1 + C n .243.224. with Cn == Fn + 1 • You can check this with smaller numbers of stairs and see that it works. 657.917.912.764.920. 2 steps have been climbed).761 ~ 3.871.942.517.797.275. 239.945.867. 136.
Therefore. The fifth story can be painted either yellow or blue. you will see the possible ways to paint a house of various story heights. then the remaining stories can be painted like a fourstory house.186 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Painting a House Creatively The stories of an nstory house are to be painted blue and yellow. If it gets a yellow color. We will let an represent the number of possible colorings for a house with n stories (n > I). I story: 2 possibilities 2 stories: 3 possibilities 3 stories: 5 possibilities 4 stories: 8 possibilities Figure 64 In figure 64. we find that a5 = a4 + a3 = 8 + 5 = I3 = F6 + F5 = F 7. If it is painted blue. both of them may be yellow. . Now suppose we have a building with five stories. Do you recognize the recursive pattern here? It should be reminiscent of the pattern used to generate the Fibonacci numbers. the fourth story must get yellow and the first three stories can be painted like a threestory house. However. with the stipulation that no two adjacent stories are blue.
For all n > 2. . This yields Fn+l = Fn + F n.2.1 or n . the representation of n ends with 1 or 2.1.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 187 Ordered Sum of Ones and Twos Another nice application of the Fibonacci numbers can be seen from the following challenge: In how many ways can a natural number. be written as an ordered sum of ones and twos? Let's inspect the chart in figure 65 and count the ways in which we can fulfill this task. n. n Fn Fn+1 ordered sum of ones and twos 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 1+1 1+1+1 1+2 2+1 4 3 7 13 21 5 8 1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 5 5 6 8 13 1+1+2 1+2+1 2+1+1 2+2 1+1+1+2 1+1+2+1 1+2+1+1 2+1+1+1 1+2+2 2+1+2 2+2+1 1+1+1+1+2 1+1+1+2+1 1+1+2+1+1 1+2+1+1+1 2+1+1+1+1 1+1+2+2 1+2+2+1 2+2+1+1 2+1+2+1 1+2+1+2 2+1+1+2 2+2+2 2+1+1+1+1+1 1+2+1+1+1+1 1+1+2+1+1+1 1+1+1+2+1+1 1+1+1+1+2+1 1+1+1+1+1+2 2+2+1+1+1 2+1+2+1+1 2+1+1+2+1 2+1+1+1+2 1+2+2+1+1 1+2+1+2+1 1+2+1+1+2 1+1+2+2+1 1+1+2+1+2 1+1+1+2+2 2+2+2+1 2+2+1+2 2+1+2+2 1+2+2+2 Figure 65 We might conclude from the pattern that seems to be evolving in the chart (figure 65) that the natural number n can be written in Fn+l different ways as an ordered sum of ones and twos. n > 2. The previous terms add up to n . where Fn is the nth Fibonacci number.
4 In the above example. This will be possible for all natural numbers. What you should find (with enough examples) is that there will be only one way of representing any natural number with nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers. is the only representation of 27 with nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers. This was proved by the Belgian amateur mathematician Edouard Zeckendorf (19011983). 2. 3 You might want to try it for other randomly selected natural numbers. 4. the first illustration. the Fibonacci numbers can describe the number of ways to tile a 2 by (nl) checkerboard with 2 by 1 dominoes. 5. Let's take a look at how that can be done for the first few examples of these. 2..188 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Representing Natural Numbers as the Sum of Fibonacci Numbers Suppose we take any natural number. 3. 27. . Here are some examples of the unique representations of natural numbers with nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers: 1 = F2 2 = F3 3 =F4 4 = F2 + F4 = 1 + 3 5 =Fs 6 = F2 + Fs = 1 + 5 7 = F3 + Fs= 2 + 5 8 = F6 9 = F2 + F6= 1 + 8 10 = F2 + F6= 2 + 8 11 = F4 + F6 = 3 + 8 12 = F6 + F4 + F2 = 8 + 3 + 1 Covering a Checkerboard Strangely enough. and the theorem is known as the Zeckendorf theorem. that is. and with other combinations as well. . There is a proof of this in appendix B.2 say. each domino will cover exactly two adjacent squares on the checkerboard. We could do it as 27 = 21 + 5 + 1.. 27 = 21 + 5 + 1. A natural number is one of the counting numbers: 1. or even as 27 = 13 + 8 + 5 + 1.. 4. 3. or as 27 = 13 + 8 + 3+ 2 + 1. and try to represent this number as the sum of some Fibonacci numbers.
A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 189 There is only one way to tile a 2 x I board: Figure 66 There are two ways to tile a 2 x 2 board: n c U ::J Figure 67 There are three ways to tile a 2 x 3 board: Figure 68 There are five ways to tile a 2 x 4 board: c n :J U n c n :::J U ::J C U c C ::J :J Figure 69 There are eight ways to tile a 2 x 5 board: n n n n n :::J n c n u u U C U :::J n :::J n :::J ::J n n C U c: C :::J U nC :J :::J c c n :::J ::J Figure 610 .
there is a cute problem with a very useful problemsolving message. Suppose you have an 8 by 8 checkerboard with a pair of oppositecomer squares missing.190 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS There are thirteen ways to tile a 2 x 6 board: n n n u u u n c n c n c nne n ::I :::J U :::J U U ::J C :::J n c: c U ::J :::J C C U U U ::J n U n C ::IU n ::J n c n n c u U c c ::J ::J c ::JnC :::JU Figure 611 :J U U C l: n ::J ::J U ::J There are twentyone ways to tile a 2 x 7 board: nn::Jn u c u ncn::J U ::J n u n u n u n nu nU nc ::J nne:::J n U U n n U C n ncr::::Jn U :J c ::J ::J C :J :J C n c n n U :J U n:::Jnn n C U U n:J:J:J c c n n ::J ::J c n c n ::J U ::J U c c c C C n ::J U U n n n c ::J U C n :J C n n :J C n ::J U C ::J C C :::J :::J :::J ::J ::J c c ::J ::J U n r::: :::J r::: :::JnC :J Figure 612 U n C r:: c While we are on the topic of checkerboards. each of which is capable of covering exactly two adjacent squares of the checkerboard? . (See figure 613 .) Can you show how to cover it with 31 dominoes.
But before long. the question is often misread and interpreted as "do it. most people try various arrangements of square covering. Are there an equal number of black and white squares on the truncated checkerboard? No! There are two fewer black squares than white squares. Yet. Asking the right questions as you begin to solve a problem and inspecting the problem posed are essential aspects of being successful in problem solving in mathematics. since there must be an equal number of black and white squares. This may be done with actual tiles or by drawing a graph grid on paper and then shading adjacent squares two at a time. Here the issue is to go back to the original question. A careful reading of the question reveals that it does not say to do this tile covering.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 191 Figure 613 As soon as the question is posed. Ask yourself this question: When a domino tile is placed on the checkerboard. because of the way we have been trained. frustration begins to set in. it asks only if it can be done. what kind of squares are covered? A black square and a white square must be covered by each domino placed on the checkerboard." A bit of clever insight helps. it is impossible to cover the truncated checkerboard with the 31 domino tiles. Therefore. since this approach cannot be successful. .
Here the product of 5 and 8 is 40 then we double this to get 80. Add the squares of the inner two numbers to get the third member of the Pythagorean triple. and c. Yet much to our amazement. we can use the Fibonacci numbers to generate Pythagorean triples. 12." An example of a nonprimitive Pythagorean triple is 6. 13 as well as 8. 5. since 3 2 + 4 2 = 9 + 16 = 25 = 52. 52 + 122 = 25 + 144 = 169 = 13 2. (This is one member of the Pythagorean triple. We now follow these rules: 1. and 8 2 + 15 2 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 17 2 • Such groups of three numbers that satisfy the Pythagorean theorem are called Pythagorean triples. is a 2 + b 2 = c 2 • We may further recall that there are groups of three numbers. Here the product of 3 and 13 is 39. They were discovered independently and have no subsequent connection. To make a Pythagorean triple from the Fibonacci numbers. we will not consider the number 1. (This is another member of the Pythagorean triple. . such as 3. 15. 10. 4. From the start. we take any four consecutive numbers in this sequence. 17. Let's see how this can be done.5 such as the three examples above.192 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci Numbers and Pythagorean TrianglesGenerating Pythagorean Triples Perhaps the one mathematical relationship that most adults can recall is the famous Pythagorean theorem.) 2. Multiply the middle two numbers and double the result. then we call them "primitive Pythagorean triples. Here and for future references to common factor. and 13. 8. we can state that the Fibonacci numbers have nothing in common with the Pythagorean theorem.) 3. 5. which is always a common factor. since all the members of this group have a common factor of 2. such as 3. which established that the relationship among the sides of a right triangle. whose sides have lengths a. Here 52 + 8 2 = 25 + 64 = 89. b. When the three numbers have no common factor. that satisfy this relationship. 8. 5 and 5. Multiply the two outer numbers.
and c. that is. a Pythagorean triple (a.921 == 89 2 • (A proof of this delightful and surprising procedure can be found in appendix B. if a.456. 80. 3. b = 2mn. then we can get a Pythagorean triple as follows: a == m 2 .400 == 7. c) is called primitive. We can verify that this is. with m > n. if m = 5 and n = 2.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 193 So we have found a Pythagorean triple: 39. 29). 21. b. These three equations.709. Remember.825).367. and c are relatively prime. b. in fact. 18. and of different parity. where m and n are natural numbers. and c: 2 a=m 2 n.4 == 21 b == 2mn == 2 ·5· 2 = 20. a Pythagorean triple by showing that 39 2 + 80 2 == 1. and ( 12.500. For example. sometimes referred to as Babylonian formulae. 4.' 29 which yields the Pythagorean triple (20. b.n 2 == 25 .541). and 2 c=m 2 +n. were already known to have helped the Babylonians generate such Pythagorean triples as (3. 13. This occurs when m and n are two relatively prime natural numbers.) Another Connection between the Fibonacci Numbers and Pythagorean Triples There is an established method for generating integer sides for a Pythagorean trianglethat is. and c == m 2 + n 2 == 25 + 4 = . b. . there is no common factor among a.6 6. Two (integer) numbers have the same parity if they are both even or both odd. a right triangle whose sides satisfy the Pythagorean theorem: a 2 + b 2 == c 2 • This method uses the following set of equations to generate the appropriate values of a.521 + 6. 89.
n = 2 2 ~2+2  Fl+1 . as you can see in Figure 614. Consider the general case for the two consecutive Fibonacci numbers: Using the formulas from above.194 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS By now you must be wondering where the Fibonacci numbers come in.597 4. we get the following: ak =m . beginning with m = 2 and n = 1. F. which according to relationship 9 in chapter 1 (page 43) is always equal to another Fibonacci number.553 87.682 c = m 2 + n2 5 13 34 89 233 610 1.896 12. k 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 m 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 n 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 a=m 2 n2 3 5 16 39 105 272 715 1. You will find to your amazement that in each case C turns out to also be a Fibonacci number.740 9. bk = 2mn = 2Fk + 2 F k + I.181 10.790 25. and 2 2 2 Ck = m + n = ~2+2 + ~2+1 F k + 2 + F k +)2.869 4.946 28.418 Figure 614 We can easily justify this phenomenon.632 67.k+3. Well.657 75.840 b=2mn 4 12 30 80 208 546 1. suppose we let m and n take on the values of Fibonacci numbers sequentially.104 175.428 3.815 33.025 196. .
1 + Fs = Fs+l and Fr < F s.. and c. Fn + Fn+l = F n+ . +1 < Ft.. and 5also made up of Fibonacci lengths. for a triangle with side lengths a. 85. if the numbers we select to represent the sides of a triangle are all different Fibonacci numbers. F r. then the result is quite different. 8 It is actually quite simple. 7. and F n +2 • In general. we have Fr + Fs < Ft. However. This can be easily established7 by invoking the triangle inequalitynamely. perhaps even primitive. Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. V. b. and Fr. F n + 1. and since Fs+l < Fr. 2 and so there can be no triangle with sides having measures F n. the following relationships would be true: a + b > c. and c + a > b For any three consecutive Fibonacci numbers. There is also evidence that this algorithm was used by the ancient Egyptians. F s. or you can have an isosceles triangle with sides 13. and Ft. a Fibonacci number.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 195 Can a Triangle Have Sides with Lengths Represented by Fibonacci Numbers? Clearly. yet somewhat cumbersome. E. consider Fibonacci numbers.. there can be no triangle with sides having measure F r . method to multiply two numbers.\.. Therefore. < F s+1. Hogatt Jr. 13. Let's take a look at it. I and F. + F. No such triangle can exist! We can show that a triangle can never have all three sides with lengths represented by three distinct Fibonacci numbers. we have F. where Fr < F. F s . for a triangle to exist.. A Multiplication Algorithm Using the Fibonacci Numbers It is said that the Russian peasants used a rather strange.1. . p. you can have an equilateral triangle each of whose sides have length 5.. Since F S . the sum of any two sides must be greater than the third side: hence. b + c > a. 8. 1969).
080. then the process becomes trivial as you will see from the example of 65 . We shall now consider the problem of finding the product of 43·92 . our first column (the leftside column) will be the doubling column. For convenience.080 = 2. 9.080 32 16 8 4 2 6S· 32 = 2. and the second column will be the halving column. where one of the factors is a power of 2. The rest of this halving process should now be clear. We do this in the following table: 65·32 = 65 130 260 520 1.040 2. One column will be formed by doubling each number to get the next.196 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS We shall begin with a simple case.9 We can see that the product of two integers remains constant if one factor is doubled and the other factor is halved. This time we are not using a factor that is a power of 2. We place the numbers 43 and 92 at the head of the columns. since we can read off figure 615 that I· 2. If we take the product of two integers. Thus we have found the product of 65 and 32. while the other column will take half the number and drop the remainder. We begin by setting up a chart of two columns with the two members of the product in the first row (figure 616).080 Figure 615 So products in which a factor is a power of 2 are particularly simple to calculate. Remember 32 is a power of2: 2 s = 32. . Let's work this multiplication together. 32. Notice that by halving an odd number such as 23 (the third number in the rightside column) we get II with a remainder of I and we simply drop the I.
These are highlighted in bold type. This gives us 43·92 = 92 + 184 + 736 + 2. See figure 617.956.376 2. with the Russian peasant's method.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 197 43 86 172 344 688 1.752 92 46 23 11 5 2 1 Figure 616 Find the odd numbers in the halving column (the right column). 43 21 10 5 2 1 92 184 368 736 1. we find the odd numbers in the halving column (in bold type). we get 43 ·92 == 172 + 344 + 688 + 2.472 2. we chose to have the first column be the doubling column and the second column be the halving column. it should be fun to observe how this primitive system of . In other words. This sum gives you the originally required product of 43 and 92.752 == 3. and then get the sum of their partner numbers in the second column (now the doubling column). Obviously. you are not expected to do your multiplication in this hightech era by copying the Russian peasant's method. We could also have done this Russian peasant's method by halving the numbers in the first column and doubling those in the second.944 = 3. However.956 In the example above.944 Figure 617 To complete the multiplication. then get the sum of the partner numbers in the doubling column (the left column).
you should at least now have a deeper appreciation for the multiplication algorithm you learned in school. 2 .472 + 2 .2 ·368 + O· 368 = 5· 736 + 5 . yet the one shown here is perhaps one of the strangest.2 + 0).956 10 ·368 = (5 . Now let us bring in the Fibonacci numbers. .2 ·2. 1o 43 . 184 + 1· 184 = 10· 368 + 184 = 3.472 = 1 . base 2).92 = 2° ·92 + 2 .2 4 + 1· 2 3 + 0.2 2 + 1· 21 + 1· 2°). It is through this strangeness that we can appreciate the powerful consistency of mathematics and that allows us to conjure up such an algorithm.944 + 1 .2944 = 0 + For those familiar with the binary system (i.198 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS arithmetic actually does work. 2.944 2. 2 + 1)· 184 = 10 . recursive computational procedure for solving a problem in a finite number of steps.680 0 = 2. 43·92 = (1· 2 5 + 0. we can develop an analogous multiplication algorithm. The Fibonacci multiplication algorithm will use addi10.2· 1. 92 = (21 .944 1 3 5 = 3. 736 = ( 2· 2 + 1)· 736 = 2 .944 3.956 Whether or not you have a complete understanding of the discussion of the Russian peasant's method of multiplication.472 + O· 1472 = 1.956 21 . With the aid of these numbers. There are many other multiplication algorithms.472 = (1 .680 736 = 3..368 = 5 .864 0=3. Explorations of this kind are not only instructive but also entertaining. 2 + 1)· 92 = 21· 2 .2 + 1)· 2. one can also explain this Russian peasant's method with the following representation.1.944 = (0 . 2 . Here you see what was done in the above multiplication algorithm. even though most people today multiply with a calculator.e.944 = 0 .2. 1. We have defined an algorithm as a stepbystep problemsolving procedure. 2 + 0). especially an established.92 + 2 ·92 + 2 ·92 = 92 + 184 + 736 + 2. 92 + 1· 92 = 21· 184 + 92 = 3.944 + 1. 736 + 1· 736 = 2· 1.944 = 2. 184 = (10 .
would exceed 43. we double 92 to get the next number. On the left side we will begin with the second 1 of the Fibonacci sequence and list the members of the sequence until we reach the Fibonacci number that is just less than the other number to be multipliedin this case.196 = 1.196 1. and then add every pair of numbers to get the succeeding one (just as we do with the Fibonacci numbers). We now select the numbers in the leftside column that will give us a sum of 43 (the original multiplier).196 + = 1.128 = 92+ 92 92 184 276 = 184 + = 276 + = 460+ = 736 + 460 736 1. 55. The sum of their partners in the rightside column is our desired product: 92 + 736 + 3.932 3.956 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 92 184 276 460 736 1.128 = 3. Let us use the same two numbers that we used for the multiplication example above: 43· 92 .A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 199 tion instead of doubling. . since the next Fibonacci number. 43.932 + Figure 618 This may not be the algorithm of choice. So we list the Fibonacci numbers to 34. We have selected 1 + 8 + 34 = 43. This time we will place the 92 at the top of the rightside column (figure 618). but it is fascinating to observe how our Fibonacci numbers can even enable us to do multiplication. In the rightside column.
. Its length was determined to be one tenmillionth of the distance from the North Pole to the equator along a meridian going near Dunkirk. The name furlong derives from the Old English wordsfurh (furrow) and lang (long). A furlong is a measure of distance within Imperial units and US customary units. Umberto Eco. France. so the Roman mile was about 5.12 Clearly. . and is therefore equal to 201. and Thomas Pynchon. 1994). who redefined the mile from 5. the 11.000 feet.168 meters." derived from the Greek word. Mason & Dixon (New York: Henry Holt. One of these paces was about 5 feet. Longitude (New York: Walker & Co. in modem terms it equals 660 feet. Such conversions can be done with specially designed calculators or by some "trick" method. 1995). This requires a conversion of units when one travels in a country in which the measure of distance is not the one we are accustomed to. There are three fascinating books on this subject: Dava Sobel.000 paces (which is 2. This is where the Fibonacci numbers come in. and from. while the United States still holds on to the mile.200 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Using the Fibonacci Numbers to Convert Kilometers to. 12. There are eight furlongs in a mile. The term is used today for distances horses run at a racetrack. The unit of length they called a "meter. The Island of the Day Before (New York: Harcourt Brace. Although its definition has varied historically. Miles Most of the world uses kilometers to measure distance. It represented the distance that a Roman legion could march in 1.000 feet to 8 furlongsll (5. It originally referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a ploughed open field (a medieval communal field which was divided into strips). Before we discuss the conversion process between these two units of measure. 1997).000 steps). The Romans marked off these miles with stones along the many roads they built in Europehence the name. which means measure. metron. and Barcelona. The mile derives its name from the Latin for thousand: mille. The metric system dates back to 1790 when the French National Assembly (during the French Revolution) requested that the French Academy of Sciences establish a standard of measure based on the decimal system.280 feet) by statute in 1593. "milestones"! The name statute mile goes back to Queen Elizabeth I of England. which they did. let's look at their origin. Spain.
621371192 == 4. One the other hand. might come into play here.. and thirteen kilometers is about eight miles.04672 ::::: 8 We could also check to see what the equivalent of eight kilometers would be in miles: 8 .609.618 and has a reciprocal of approximately . 1.970969536 ::::: 5 This allows us to conclude that approximately five miles is equal to eight kilometers. Remember. since the relationship between miles and kilometers is very close to the golden ratio. the ratio of whose consecutive members approaches the golden ratio. Therefore. we need to see how one mile relates to the kilometer. The statute mile (our usual measure of distance in the United States today) is exactly 1. Using this relationship. or court proceedings" (though it has not been used that often). dealings.621371192 mile long. 8. By an act of Congress in 1866 it became "lawful throughout the United States of America to employ the weights and measures of the metric system in all contracts. The ratio of a Fibonacci number to the one before it is approximately l/J. Let's see what the equivalent of five miles would be in kilometers: 5 . Similarly. it is the only number whose reciprocal differs from it by exactly 1. And there is no such law establishing the use of our mile system.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 201 metric system is better suited for scientific use than is the American system of measure. .609344 == 8. Now to convert miles to and from kilometers.609344 kilometers. This would tell us that the Fibonacci numbers. Here we have two of our Fibonacci numbers.618.344 meters long. one kilometer is . which is approximately 1. This translated into kilometers is 1. we would be able to approximately convert thirteen kilometers to miles. Replace 13 by the previous Fibonacci number. The nature of these two numbers (reciprocals that differ by almost 1) might remind us of the golden ratio. they appear to be almost in the relationship of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.
since it is not a Fibonacci number. . To use this process to achieve the reverse. we write the number of miles as a sum of Fibonacci numbers and then replace each by the next larger Fibonacci number. Representing Numbers as Sums of Fibonacci Numbers: It is not a trivial matter for us to conclude that every natural number can be expressed as the sum of other Fibonacci numbers without repeating anyone of them in the sum. which. we could also have represented 13 as the sum of 2 + 3 + 8. we get 20 miles ~ 21 kilometers + 8 kilometers + 3 kilometers == 32 kilometers. For example. Let's take the first few Fibonacci numbers to demonstrate this property: n I The Sum of Fibonacci Numbers equal to n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lO II 12 13 14 15 16 2 3 1+3 5 1+5 2+5 8 1+8 2+X 3+X 1+3+8 13 1 + 13 2 + 13 3 + 13 You should begin to see patterns and also note that we used the fewest number of Fibonacci numbers in each sum in the table above. By the way. It will be fun to see the patterns that develop. since the ratio of these larger consecutive numbers gets closer to tP. 13. to convert miles to kilometers. Try to express larger natural numbers as the sum of Fibonacci numbers. Edouard Zeckendorf (19011983) proved that each natural number is a (unique) sum of nonconsecutive Fibonacci numbers. Now. and 2 by 1. is approximately equal to twelve miles. Each time ask yourself if you have used the fewest number of Fibonacci numbers in the sum. The higher Fibonacci numbers will give us a more accurate estimate. Thus.202 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS five kilometers is about three miles and two kilometers is about one mile. Thus. 20 kilometers == 13 kilometers + 5 kilometers + 2 kilometers. that is. Let's convert twenty miles to kilometers.l3 convert each number separately. 20 miles == 13 miles + 5 miles + 2 miles. replacing each of the Fibonacci numbers with the next larger in the sequence. We have selected 20. and then add them. Now suppose you want to convert twenty kilometers to miles. or as 5 + 8. by replacing 13 by 8. We can express 20 as a sum of Fibonacci numbers. 5 by 3.
You can use any combination of numbers whose sum is the number you are converting." Fibonacci Quarterly 1. 14 Suppose you place two glass plates face to face (figures 619 and 620) and wish to count the number of possible reflections. "Problem B6. Figure 619 Figure 620 The first case. . Fibonacci Numbers in Physics The field of optics provides us with a nice application of the Fibonacci numbers. Moser and J. forty kilometers is two times twenty kilometers." Fibonacci Quarterly I. at the back side. This problem was posed by L. is where the light source passes right through both plates of glass (figure 621). This might be achieved by intermittently covering a surface. L. no. or twentyfour miles (approximately). and we have just seen that twenty kilometers is twelve miles. say. So forty kilometers is two times twelve miles. 1 (December 1963): 75. no. For instance. where there are no reflections. 1 (February 1963): 74. we shall number the various surfaces of reflection as in figure 620. o Figure 621 14. Brown. Moser and M Wyman. There is one path the light ray takes. "Some Reflections.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 203 There is no need to use the Fibonacci representation of a number that uses the fewest Fibonacci numbers. and solved by L. For convenience.
Then there will be three possible reflections (figure 623). now. then there will be five possible paths that the ray can takeas seen in figure 624. that the ray of light is reflected twice within this set of two plates of glass.204 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The next case is where there is one reflection. Figure 623 If the light ray is reflected three times. Figure 624 . It can reflect off the two surfaces shown in figure 622. There can be two possible paths that the light can take in this case. Figure 622 Suppose.
The previous reflection had to be off faces 2 or 4. Therefore. (figure 626). will result in eight possible pathsas seen in figure 625. 1 23 4 Figure 626 Suppose the last reflection occurs at face 1 or 3. if you do. or n . you may want to be able to generalize this with a mathematical argument. as it did with the even number of reflections. of n reflections. This began with zero reflec . that of the light ray taking four reflections. Figure 625 You may be tempted to generalize this situation to the Fibonacci numbers. we get the number of paths as (n . Let's try to justify this in a mathematical fashion. And.1 reflections prior to this one. If the last reflection. If the last reflection (of n reflections) was off face 3.2 reflections prior to this one.1) + (n . was off face 1. and must have had n .2 possible paths. right! However. in fact.2). then the previous reflectionthe (n . then there were n . since both reflectionsoff face 1 or 3can be considered the last reflection.1 possible paths (see figure 626). which would indicate that F" is the number of paths. And so there were n .A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 205 By now you will surely anticipate that the next case.1)stmust have occurred off face 4. you are.
01. 1. and three reflections.4.F.393. we can conclude the following: . as the second 60 Fibonacci numbers. For the next few groups of terminal digits.657.28.40' and so on for each group of 60 Fibonacci numbers. F. ~l .946.81 . which gave us 3 paths. then one reflection.46. F.21. 05. if we were to look at ~OO' we would find the pattern continuing.181.987.2.13..6.610.377.21 .01.. this period is 300 numbers long. we find the last two digits repeating beginning with the 301 st Fibonacci number.02.233.025.08.144. Again the Fibonacci numbers appear! LastDigit Patterns We mentioned in chapter 1 that there is a pattern among the final digits of the Fibonacci numbers. which gave us 2 paths.80 ' the fourth 60 Fibonacci numbers.) Suppose we now consider the last two digits of each of the Fibonacci numbers (which are below in bold). we won't make you struggle with this computation.03. 10. Yes.~20' the third 60 Fibonacci numbers.F. they have a period of 60.F60 .765. Namely. 121. . (You can check this with the list of the first 500 Fibonacci numbers provided for you in appendix A. have the same last digits (or sometimes called terminal digits). Well. If we look at the 300th Fibonacci number in appendix A. You might be speculating about the period of repetition of the last three digits of the Fibonacci numbers. ~ . That is.34. Hence. respectively.584.206 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS tions giving us 1 path.368.89. the first 60 Fibonacci numbers. This implies that Fn+2 indicates the number of paths for n reflections. 17.55.711. 00.597.75.
The period of the last five digits of the Fibonacci numbers repeating is 150. you will find that the most frequent numeral is 1. Figure 627 provides a summary of the frequency of the initial digits of the first one hundred Fibonacci numbers.500. let's turn to the initial digits. and the least frequent is 9. The period of the last four digits of the Fibonacci numbers repeating is 15.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 207 • • • The period of the last three digits of the Fibonacci numbers repeating is 1. Initial di2it 1 Frequency (Percent) 30 18 2 3 4 13 9 8 5 6 7 8 6 5 9 7 4 Figure 627 Quite surprising! The bers (as you will see in formula) are expressible counts for the uneven reason lies in the fact that Fibonacci numchapter 9 when we investigate the Binet as powers of J5.000. The First Digits of Fibonacci Numbers Now that we have inspected the relationship among the terminal digits of the Fibonacci numbers. in part. One would assume that there would be an even distribution of the nine numerals among the initial digits of the Fibonacci numbers. also acdistribution of the Fibonacci numbers . you can verify this.000. Or else you can take our word for it. If you do have the time. This. If you take the time to inspect the first five hundred Fibonacci numbers in appendix A.
As we look further down the list of natural numbers.. we find that among the next three hundred natural numbers there are only two Fibonacci numbers.584) still can be read on the graph in figure 628 the nineteenth Fibonacci number (F 19 == 6. 2500 2500 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 . The visualization shows how fast (and steeply) the values grow. among the next hundred natural numbers (from 101 to 200) there is only one Fibonacci number (144). Amazingly enough.e. The eighteenth Fibonacci number (F I8 == 2. and further there are only two Fibonacci numbers between 500 and 1. the numbers from 1 to 100).... 610 and 987). 20 20 Figure 628 . This paucity continues.765) is far off the scale shown in figure 628.e. there are eleven Fibonacci numbers.000 (i. Who would have expected this strange distribution! This is even made more dramatic when seen through a graph.208 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS throughout the list of natural numbers. What does this actually mean? Within the first one hundred natural numbers (i. and you can see it clearly in appendix A.
no. . "A Fibonacci Curiosity." Fibonacci Quarterly 14. is equal to n.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 209 A Fibonacci Curiosity of Digits 15 Here is a strange "coincidence" (or is it one?) that seems to occur for some of the Fibonacci numbers.879.881 498.537.227. Leon Bankoff. Examining Relationships between Successive Fibonacci Numbers While we are examining the characteristics of the members of the Fibonacci sequence. n 0 1 5 10 31 35 62 72 Fn 0 1 5 55 1.346.465 4.011. we might look at the relationship between two 15.269 9. 1 (1976): 17.264 Sum of the Digits 0 1 5 10 31 35 62 72 Figure 629 This is just a curiosity to further entice you to appreciate these intriguing numbers.739.454.052. The table in figure 629 lists the Fibonacci number where this relationship holds true. And it is that the sum of the digits of these Fibonacci numbers. F n .
• Therefore. you know that the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers gives us a good approximation of the golden ratio. all the members of the sequence Fn and Fn+1 are relatively prime. but that is absurd! • Therefore. y . or that there are two odd Fibonacci numbers between every two consecutive even Fibonacci numbers. would also have a common factor. A quick look at appendix A will verify that no two consecutive Fibonacci numbers are even. which is just equal to x. there are other relationships worth noting. This is because if y and x + y had a common factor. • We know that F:. then all pairs of consecutive members of the sequence are relatively prime. Another way of saying this is that they do not have a common factor of 2. you will notice that every third Fibonacci number is even.2. (We call two numbers that have no common factor "relatively prime numbers.(x + y).6' . As a matter of fact. then it is also a factor of yx.. Although we already noted this in chapter 1. Every fourth Fibonacci number has a factor of 3. then their difference. we can enhance this by stating that no two consecutive Fibonacci numbers have a common factor. • If x and y have no common factor. • If x and y have a common factor. if the first two members of a sequence are relatively prime. . Of course. by this point.") We can do a simple proof of this fact here. and F2 are relatively prime (since they have no common factor). This little proof is a fine example of how a mathematical truth is established. then y and x + y also have no common factor.~. Looking at the Fibonacci numbers that have a factor of 3.F. • If x and y have a common factor..210 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS consecutive Fibonacci numbers. you will find they are ~.F. then it must also be a factor ofx + y. . However.
New York. and 17.21. 11.21. or specifically. which are the first seven prime numbers. and helped found the American Library Association in 1876.3).6. he began the field of library science in the United States. 7. is best known as the inventor of what came to be called the "Dewey Decimal System of Classification. 3. Devised in 1876 as a system for small libraries. 13.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 211 A Cute Curiosity! Consider the four consecutive Fibonacci numbers F 7 . The product of these numbers is 510. The system is based on ten classes of subject (000999). Now let's look at these numbers in another form. Ifwe rearrange this list of factors in ascending order. When Dewey created Columbia University's School of Library Economy in 1887. 13.34. born Melville Louis Kossuth Dewey. and 28. which are then further subdivided. As shown below.11). 3. 2. 5. We will break each one down into its prime factors: (13). American librarian Melvil Dewey. 28 • • ••• 3 • • • •• • •• • •••• • • •••••• • •• •• •• •• 10 15 6 • •• ••• •••• ••••• •••••• 21 •• ••• •••• ••••• •••••• ••••••• • Figure 630 A triangular number IS one that is an integer of the form n(n+l) _ 2 ' where n .. . F 9 ." which is used in most local and school libraries to catalog books. which just happens to be the Library Dewey Decimal classification number l6 for mathematics! This is a coincidental fun fact! Special Fibonacci Numbers Those numbers representing dots that can be arranged to form an equilateral triangle are called triangular numbers. (7. (2. 16.3. Dewey also promoted the use of the metric system.17). and (5. 1851. 15. the first few triangular numbers are 1. .. on December 10. and FlO. in Adams Center. it has the advantage of a limited number of general categories and short call numbers. 10.. and 55. F g .1. we get: 2.
So even in the realm of triangular numbers. This unusual number also offers some nice number relationships. And the analog for the subscripts: 1 . (Many associate it with the devil. 3 . and 5. which just happens to equal 666.) The sum of the squares of the first seven prime numbers is 666. this number. They are 1. Of course. 2 . That is. is also related to the Fibonacci numbers. there are only four Fibonacci numbers that are triangular numbers. There are only three Lucas numbers that are triangular numbers. 666.212 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS However. 3 . and 55. 3. 21. 22 + 32 + 52 + 7 2 + 112 + 132 + 172 == 666. the Fibonacci numbers make an appearance. such as: 666 == 16  2 6 + 36 666 == 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 3 + 6 3 + 6 3 666 == 2 . consider the first six Roman numerals written in order: DCLXVI. a number that has captured the popular imagination for a long time. The thirtysixth triangular number = (36)(36 + 1) = 18·37 = 666. The thirtysixth triangular number 17 is 666. 37.778. 3. and 6 + 6 + 6 == 2 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 7 And just for the sake of entertainment on the number 666. They are 1.9 + 11 + 15 = 6 + 6 + 6 Similarly for the cubes of the Fibonacci numbers: FI 3+ F2 3 + F4 3 + F5 3 + F6 3 = 1 + 1 + 27 + 125 + 512 = 666 And the analog for the subscripts: 1+2+4+5+6=6+6+6 17.
19 We will show how this works in a few cases: 18.. but this is via the number 89.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057 .. which then takes you into a loop back to 89: 4 2 = 16 12 + 6 2 = 37 3 2 + 7 2 = 58 52 + 8 2 = 89 . This number has many unusual characteristics.[sin (666°) + cos (6 . which is l/> = 1. 26. places the number 666 in an unquestionable connection with the golden ratio! The Curiosity of the Eleventh Fibonacci Number The eleventh Fibonacci number. no. Wang published the following mysterious equation in the Journal of Recreational Mathematics 18with the title "The Sign of the Devil": l/> = . This would continue as: 8 2 + 9 2 = 145 12 + 4 2+ 52 = 42 4 2 +22=20 22 + 0 2 = 4 . If you take this further you will be led to the number 4.. and continuously repeat this process. you will either end up with 1 or 89. this equation.I' is 89.6180339887498948482045868343656381177203091798057 . 19. F. in 1994 Steve C. a very close approximation of the golden ratio.. Finally. For example. 6 0)] While earlier we had a fine approximation of the golden ratio. 3 (1994): 201205. then. if you take any number and find the sum of the squares of the digits.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 213 Now let's have this curious number 666 connect to the Fibonacci numbers with the golden ratioas is fitting to do in this book: 2sin( 666°) = 1.. 6 .
try this with some other numbers. consider the reciprocal of 89: 1 89 = 0.214 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS For the number 23: 22 + 32 == 13 12 + 32 == 10 12+0==1 For the number 54: 52 + 4 2 == 41 42+12==17 12+72=50 52 + 0 == 25 22 + 52 == 29 22 + 9 2 == 85 8 2 + 52 == 89 For the number 64: 6 2 +42==52 52 + 22 22 + 92 = 29 = 85 8 2 + 52 == 89 To convince yourself of this peculiarity. = 0. If you are still piqued by this Fibonacci peculiarity.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191 .01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191 01123595505 61797752808988764044943820224719 011235955056179775280898 87640449438202247191 011235955056179775280898876404494382 02247191 ...
00000000055 +. 1. perhaps. and 5.01 +. 0.0000000000144 +.00003 +.01123595505617977528089887640449438202247191 Its unusual Fibonacci property is even more surprising.+ .. are the first few Fibonacci numbers. consider the following: 1 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 .000005 +.= .00000000000000987 .. 89 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 105 106 10 7 lOX This may be seen. Curiously. 0.00000000000233 +.+ .00000013 +. or as we say.+ . it has a period of 44.0000000034 +.000000021 +.0002 +.001 +. 2.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 215 You will notice it repeats after fortyfour decimal places. So what happens after that? To see this continue. Notice the first few digits of the period.+ .0000000000000610 +.. 1. But the question might be asked: Why does this happen? We can do some numerical manipulations that will show how the . 7 89 10 10 10' 10 10 5 106 10 108 IFF F F F F F F _=_0 +_1 +_2 +_3 +_4 +_5 +_6 +_7 + .+ . This will continue to generate the above period of fortyfour digits if we take the decimal approximations further.000000000000377 +. more concretely when written as decimals: o +. at the very middle of this period of fortyfour digits you will notice there is the number 89..0112359550561 7977 .1+ 2+ .0000008 +.. 3..000000000089 +.4+ .
10 2 +89.10 2 +2. 10 2 + 89 . 10 + 3 105 =89(1. We begin with the following equality: 10 2 = 89 + 10 + 1 (I) We will multiply both sides of (I) by 10: 10 3 = 89 . 10 3 + 89 . 10 104 =89.10 3 +2.10+3)+5.2. 10 + 2 . 10 + 2 Continuing this process gives us the following: 10 5 =89. 10 2 + 1 .10 3 +89. 10 2 + 89 .216 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Fibonacci numbers tie in with this remarkable number 89itself the eleventh Fibonacci number. 2 + 3 .10+3 (III) (IV) and 106 =89(1.10 2 +3.10 2 +2. 10 + 10 2 + 10 and then substitute (I) in the resulting equality to get: 10 3 = 89·10 + 89 + 10+ 1 10 3 = 89·10 + 89 + 2·10 + 1 (II) Continuing this process. 3 + 5 . we will multiply both sides of (II) by 10: 104 = 89 .10 3 +89.10+5)+8.10+2(89+10+1)+1.10 4 +1.2.10 10 5 =89.10 2 +89.10+3. 2 .10 3 +1.10 2 +89.10+5 (V) . 10 + 89 . 10 and then substitute (I) again. where appropriate to get: 104 = 89 . 10 2 + 89 . 10 + 89 .10+3(89+10+1)+2.10 105 = 89 .
it is the only Fibo nacci number that is also a square number. F:. Aside from the first two numbers of the Fibonacci sequence. We then divide both sides by IOn + 1 to get: We can establish that lim can be found in appendix B. = 1.2 = 144 = 122 . and F2 = 1 . Displaying a Watch What might the Fibonacci numbers have to do with the way a watch is displayed in a showcase or in an advertisement? Well. . namely. You may notice that advertisements and window displays often show a watch with the hands set at 10: 1o. the proof of which As we conclude our brief discussion of the eleventh Fibonacci number. F:.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 217 and this can be generalized to: for all positive integers n. lOF 10 n+l n +F n n~oo + 1 = 0. the golden rectangle. let us take note of its successor: the twelfth Fibonacci number. here we are using the geometric form of the Fibonacci numbers.
A"'____r_ _.=_6_ =~ which is 115°. Therefore.. n ' ___7iB • . at minute markers 2 and 10 ~ .? of a minute marker. D c Figure 632 Figure 633 20.6 degrees (figure 633). that is. Now consider the rectangle formed by placing its vertices at points at which the hands indicate 10: 10.!. Then fonn a rectangle (figure 632) with these two points as two adjacent vertices and with the point of intersection of its diagonals at the center of the watch face. Thus the angle at 6 115 60 10: 10 is 19..20 which is the equivalent of 155 degrees (figure 631). whose diagonals meet at an angle of about 116. To find the degree measure of that angle.of 5 6 I minute markers. we simply find the part of 60 that 19 .!. from 10:00 to 10: I O.218 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 631 The hands make an angle of 19 ~ minutes.Q.. Since IO minutes is .!. is. the hour hand moved . 6 360' . of an hour. min6 ute markers. the hour hand moved'!' of the distance 6 6 between 10 and 1 1. or I 1960 . This rectangle is very close to the golden rectangle.
Prague I .28 degrees.' ("'1''''\~. 1 . t·" '.56 0 . .A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 219 This can be determined by using the golden rectangle (figure 633) and finding the measure of the angle whose tangent function is ¢ tanx = That FE FB = 2" = I/J I 2 angle.I.' . . .AEB = 116.' . mL. Consider an advertisement at the Prague airport (figure 634).~ ""'l>In. a recent United States postage stamp that exhibits the "American Clock." . has measure 58.' / t .. ''V'' .. for another example.. t_·c One Central European Exhibition Centre ~'\ Figure 634 Take. Brattslava .' .. in unobstructed fashion. x./. the brand name of the watch. ' . Therefore..' . Once again. which is very close to the 115 0 that is felt by many exhibitors to be the ideal placement of the hands of a watch. Some might have suspected that the 10: I 0 time placement was to allow the observer to see. . the time 10: lOis shown. where there was no need to highlight a brand name. '''enna "V' . Not necessarily so. . Wtl'5aw . "V' .
then.75° + 60 ° = 70.75° = 121.220 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 635 Here the time shown is about 8:21 Y2. Something to ponder! 2 I." or 30minute marker. we will do it in two parts. the angle formed between the "6.75°. The angle formed by the hands of the clock is. First.21 which is not exactly the angle ofthe diagonals of an ideal golden rectangle. 6° = 5 I 0. they were instructed to hold the steering wheel at the positions of the 10 and 2 of a clock. The golden rectangle seems to have again determined the ideal! Some may recall that when they were taught to drive a car. where the hands form an angie of about 121. the angle formed by the 30minute marker and the hour hand at 8:21. 51 ° + 70.) = 8. But it is close enough for the naked eye to appreciate.5minute marker L (30 21 Y. To find the angle formed. or 2~5 of 30°.75°.5 of the 5 min60 ute markers between the 8 and 9 on the clock. which is 10. In 21.5 .5. The angle between the hour hand and the 30minute marker is 10. . and the 21.75°. Perhaps those points present some sort of special balance. Second.75°.5 minutes the hour hand moved 21.
CQQCC. . Figure 637 displays the various acceptable arrangements and shows us that the Fibonacci numbers give the number of ways this seating can be done. BGGB. GBGBG.QQCQC.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 221 Fibonacci Helps Us Determine Seatings There are often interesting mathematical phenomena that arise from problems that stem from seating arrangements. CQQQ. QCCQQ. CQCQQ. (This is not meant to be an indication that if two boys sit together. QQQCC. QQQCQ. 5 8 4 5 GGGG. ~. BGGGB.GGBGG. GGBGB. BGBG. With six chairs. our Fibonacci numbers will emerge. QQCC. CCQQQ. Suppose that from a school full of boys and girls.GBGG GGGGB. ggg.~. QQCQ. CQQC. QQCGB. GGGB. BGGBG. BGGG. GB. gg GGB.CQQQG. GCCQQ. BGGGG. QQQQQ. CCQQC. Number of Chairs 1 2 3 Arrangements Number of Ways to Seat Students 2 3 B. BGB. QQCCC. you will be placing a number of chairs on a stage and you want to know how many ways to seat the boys and girls so that no two boys sit together. they will misbehave!) The chart in figure 636 will summarize the various seatings.G BG. BGBGG. QQCQQ. CQQQQ. in each case the number of seating possibilities is a successive Fibonacci number.GGBG. GG.GBGGG 13 Figure 636 As you can clearly see. QQQC. once again.BGG. CQQCQ. QCQQ. QQQQC. GBGGB GGGGG. GBG. QCQQQ. GCQQ. beginning with 2. We will consider one here in which. GBGB. Let us now change the restrictions and insist that no boy or girl sits without someone from the same sex next to him/her and that the first position must be a girl. ~.GGGBG. there are five possible seating arrangements. GGG. QGQQC. BGBGB.
CQCGC Figure 637 Fish in a Hatchery Consider a fish hatchery that is partitioned into sixteen congruent regular hexagonsarranged in two rows (figure 638)with pathways between each adjacent hexagon.CCQ~.CQC~ 2 5 ~~CCR. QGGGQ. QQQQQ. QQ~~. 2 3 GG. CQQQ. QQQQG. QQQC. QQQGQ. GGBB. QCCR. 22 A fish begins a journey at the upperleft side of the double row of hexagons and ends up at the lowerright hexagon. cCCQC. ~Q.QCQQ. ~. GQQCQ. .RCQQC. CQCQQ. QCQ~.CQCQC. Reccc.GGQCQ. QGGQQ. QCCQC. 4 GGGG. This example may not be too realistic.GQc~Q 3 GGGGG. CCQQC. ggg. ~QGQ. QQCCC. ~. if he can only move to the right. QCQGG. but it provides us with a nice application of the Fibonacci numbers. QQCQ. QCCC. ~QQ~. GGGBB. GGBBB.CGQCC. gg BGg. QQGGQ.~.~. CQQQG. Our problem is to determine the number of paths the fish can take to complete his journey to reach hexagon K. QQQQ. x y z A B D E F G H I J K Figure 638 22. QQCQC. GcCQ.QCQQQ.QQQGC. GGG. QQCQQ.222 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Number of Chairs 1 Arrangements Number of Ways to Seat Students 0 1 I ~ Q~. CQQCG. GQQQQ. QCQCQ.~.
XV. Figure 640 For the fish to get to hexagon Y. and one through W (figure 640). since if he were to go horizontally first.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 223 As the fish begins his travels. " y Figure 641 . there is only one path he can take to hexagon W (figure 639). he would no longer be traveling to the right to get to hexagon W. one directly to the right. there are three paths: hexagons WXY. there are two paths. and WY (figure 641). Figure 639 To get to hexagon X.
They are: WYZ. x Figure 642 It would be correct to assume that this pattern will continue as we increase the number of hexagons for the fish to traverse. as shown in figure 642.. and XYZ. Yes. Kalways traveling only to the right. there are five paths. Thus.. n 2 8 Figure 643 So we might conclude that for the fish to reach the sixteenth hexagon. XZ. . WXYZ. To summarize.224 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Perhaps you will anticipate the next number of possible hexagon paths that the fish can travel when there are five hexagons available. we provide the following chart: Number of hexagons for the fish's journey Number of different paths 1 1 2 1 3 4 3 5 5 6 7 13 . which is 987. K. we would need to find F 16 . there are 987 possible paths for the fish to travel from the first hexagon to the sixteenth hexagon. WXZ.
You move first: you can win from the initial position. but don't make any mistakes! The questions before us. We are merely representing the number by showing all the Fibonacci numbers: those for inclusion in the sum are multiplied by 1 and those not included in . 24. Thus 20 == 113 + 08 + 15 + 03 + 12 + 0·1 == 101010. 23 Here is a method for doing this: pick the largest Fibonacci number not exceeding the given integer. then subtract that Fibonacci number and continue the process with the difference. Just as we can use binary notation to represent every positive integer as a sum of distinct powers of 2. to write 20 in terms of Fibonacci numbers. which itself is a Fibonacci number. The player who removes the last penny wins. The winning strategy for this game involves removing the smallest of the Fibonacci summands. subtract 13 from it to get 7. is based on the Fibonacci numbers. we can use a similar process to write integers as a sum of Fibonacci numbers (see page 188). A summand is one member of a sum. are: Will the number of pennies at the beginning determine which player will win the game? What strategy should be used in playing the game? And what might this have to do with the Fibonacci numbers? The strategy for this game. Subtract 5 from 7 to get 2. The first player may remove any positive number of pennies. but not the whole pile. as we begin to play the game. each player may remove at most twice the number of pennies his opponent took on the previous move. Thereafter. as you might have expected. perhaps we shall have the enjoyment of playing a game where the winning strategy is dependent on the Fibonacci numbers. 24 23. The Rules: • • • • There is one pile of pennies. For example. The rules of the game are as follows.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 225 The Game of Fibonacci Nim At this point in the chapter.
Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies 101010 101001 101000 100101 100100 100010 100001 100000 10101 10100 10010 10001 10000 1010 1001 1000 101 100 10 1 Number of penntes In pile 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The smallest of the Fibonacci summands 2 1 5 1 3 2 1 13 1 3 2 1 8 2 1 5 I 3 2 1 Number of pennies that remain after the move 18 18 13 16 13 13 13 0 I1 8 8 8 0 5 5 0 3 0 0 0 Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies that remain 101000 101000 100000 100100 100000 100000 100000 0 10100 10000 10000 10000 0 1000 1000 0 100 0 0 0 Figure 644 Compare the Fibonacci representations in the second column with those in the fifth column in figure 644. This is equivalent to taking the rightmost 1 in the Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies in the pile. and thus the winning move involves taking two pennies. Try this strategy with a friend.226 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS We can express 20 = 13 + 5 + 2. Note: We do not use the first I of the sequence and begin with the second 1. Note that the winning move in this game is equivalent to taking the rightmost 1 in the Fibonacci representation of the number of pennies in the pile. . Less obvious is that the second player cannot make a similar move. Are there initialpile sizes for which the first player cannot be assured of a win with this strategy? the sum are multiplied by O.
. which compare these two numbers. The only solutions are F==L==l I I F==L==l 2 I F 4 ==L2 ==3 By this point in the book. we have that Lm > Fm+ I ' and in the second case we get: L m < F m+ 2. try to prove them true. The applications or sightings of these fabulous Fibonacci numbers seem to be boundless. even where they may be least expected. For m > 3. as well as those they have with the Lucas numbers. Lm? Let's consider some of the relationships we have established earlier. Fn == Lm only when m < 3. For m > 3 In the first case. Besides these kinds of appearances. We will close this chapter with a sample listing of some of these amazing relationships.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS 227 When Is a Fibonacci Number Equal to a Lucas Number? What we seek to determine is when might a Fibonacci number. or for the more ambitious reader. you are probably expecting the Fibonacci numbers to appear. we have Fm+l < Lm < F m 2 • + Therefore. be equal to a Lucas number. the Fibonacci numbers can also surprise us by the many interrelationships they have. Convince yourself that they hold true by applying them to specific cases. Fn .
k F n+ k  F n2 = + Fk2.. L n+2 = L n + L 11+1 (Fn .1 = F 2n ~ F2 =Fn F n+ I ~ 1=1 I n F2 . + F 2n  3 + F 2n ... F n+l ) = 1. where n > 1 and k > 1 .. + F. + F.228 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS A Plethora of Fibonacci Relationships Let k.. m. + F 21l 2 + F 2n = F21l+1 1=1 n I L F 2ii=1 n 1 = F) + F3 + Fs + . The greatest common divisor of Fn and Fn+1 is 1 (they are relatively prime) L F. = F. where k.1 L F21 = F2 + F4 + F6 + . n be any natural numbers.F2 == F 11 112 2n2 F 11. + ~1 = Fn+2 . n > 1: LI = 1. L2 = 3. + ~ + i=l n . m..
. + Ln = Ln+2 ..(_I)m Fnm = Fm Ln FnLmLnFm =(I)m2Fnm F n+1 L n =F2n+l 1 .. when n is even L Li = LI + L2 + L3 + L4 + .F.A POTPOURRI OF FIBONACCI NUMBER ApPLICATIONS n+1 229 ~ / £.2 F22k = F 2k..1 F 2k+ .1 1 F=FFn+lm +FmI Fnm n m FnI +Fn+1 =Ln Fn+2 Fn2 =Ln Fn +Ln =2Fn+ 1 F 2n =FLn n Fn+l Ln+1 FL=F2n+1 n n Fn+m +(_I)m Fnm = LmFn Fn+m .3 ..=1 n ~ / £.1 = F2 I' when n is odd n+ i=2 n+1 LF.J L2 i=1 = LnLn+ 1 .l i=2 n = F}+I 1..J FF/.
2 = 5F2 n L4n + 2 = L~n Ln_J+ Ln+J = 5Fn LmFn +LnFm = 2Fn+m Ln+m (I)mLnm =5FFn m L2 2L2n = 5F2 n n L2n 2(I)n=5F2 n Ln = Fn+2 + 2Fn_1 Ln = Fn+2 .F3 = 3F3n n+1 n nJ .Fn_2 Ln = LJFn + LOFn_J 2 LnJ L n+J + FnI Fn+1 = 6Fn F3 + F3 .230 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS 3Fn + Ln = 2Fn+ 2 5Fn +3Ln = 2Ln+ 2 Fn+ ILn = F2 n+ 1+1 L n+m + (_I)m Lnm = L mLn L2n + 2( _1)n = L2 n 2 L4n .
often seen in their relationships with other numbers. This is how the golden section came into prominence.Chapter 7 The Fibonacci Numbers Found in Art and Architecture T he golden ratio seems to be ever present in both art and architecture. Here. The golden section. used the golden section in their sketches and construction plans. sculpture. we can only speculate. During the Renaissance. was already known in antiquity and by the Pythagoreans when they constructed a regular pentagon and a regular dodecahedron. whose ratio is also considered beautiful. We have already established that it has been proclaimed the most beautiful ratio of all timeboth numerically and geometrically. we will provide a brief survey of its apparent sightings in these two aesthetic fields. And we will look at the visual art in both two and three dimensions. the study of proportions in architecture. this aesthetic bias frequently manifested itself as the 231 . In particular. intuitively or deliberately. Why this is. There are countless articles and books that attempt to show that outstanding art and architecture derived from. Many architects through the ages. the principle of the golden section. in one form or another. and painting as an aesthetic mathematical device was based on the notion that harmony and beauty in art can best be determined through particular numbers. either for the entire work or for the apportionment of parts of the work.
232 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS golden rectangle. as we already know. It was erected to thank Pericles (500429 BeE) for saving Athens during the Persian War (447432 BeE). the larger these numbers. The purpose of this temple was to house the statue of the goddess Athena. generated from the structure of the building. the golden rectangles that were constructed typically involved dimensions that were Fibonacci numbers. It is believed that the current designation for the golden ratio. l/>. Fibonacci Numbers in Architecture For years. the Parthenon fits nicely into a golden rectangle. you will notice a number of golden rectangles. The golden ratioan idealwas very nearly achieved. with the greater the magnitude of the Fibonacci numbers. in figure 7 1. as you now know. the closer the ratio is to l/>. And. . use lengths of the sides of a l/> . the l/> are the Fibonacci numbers. since. Perhaps the most famous structure that exhibits the golden rectangle is the Parthenon on the Acropolis in Athens. architects have used the golden ratio. came from the first letter of Phidias's name (in Greek: <I>~IAL). To circumvent the difficulty of using the irrational number (l/». Furthermore. l/>. The artistic concept for building this magnificent structure came from Phidias (460430 BeE). the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers approaches the golden ratio. tjJ = J5 +1 . the closer the approximation of l/J. is an irrational 2 number. other times as a partition indicator. in their drawings. Since the golden ratio. We must stress at this point that we have no evidence today that Phidias was aware of the golden ratio. architects were known to rectangle whose ratio approximated most common approximations for Moreover. sometimes as the golden rectangle. As you can see in figure 7 1. we can only assume it from the shape of the structure.
To what extent ancient architects consciously used the golden rectangle is still largely a mystery. Figure 72 exhibits the golden ratio throughout the Parthenon. 1111111111111111111111111111 4>  i i Figure 72 If one takes measurements of various ornaments above the columns.. the golden ratio keeps cropping up.....THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 233 Figure 71 ... Some believe that we moderns are just looking for ways .
234 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS to superimpose a golden rectangle over a specific structurethough no one can deny its presence. E Figure 73 Figure 74 (Co pyright Wolfgang Randt. (Notice the M represents the major portion of the golden section... Used with permission.) . The arrangement of snails and other ornaments at the top of the arch further exhibits the golden ratio through a regular pentagon that can be superimposed as in figure 73 . 0 co ~ ~ ..) E ~ ~ I~ . also situated on the Acropolis. Another example of the golden section can be seen on Hadrian's Arch on the Propylaeum temple.. while the m represents the minor portion.
2 1 2 a a 2 h I!.. where the square of the height is equal to the area of the lateral triangle. Using our superimposed triangle in figure 74 (and the Pythagorean theorem).L = ht! 1 . we get: The area of one of the lateral triangles is A = a . we get the following: 2 hI!.. Using today's measurement capabilities.. =+ hp 4 a 2 2 2 According to the construction principle introduced by Herodot (above).!.' 2 4 2 we get: _ hI!. = h~ ~ by a hI!. this great pyramid has the following dimensions. we get the equation: 1 = x .. . which just hapx  x pens to generate the equation x 2 ready known to us as XI x . the Khufu (Cheops) Pyramid at Giza was constructed in such a way that the square of the height is equal to the area of one of the lateral sides... whose solution is al = </J and x 2 = .. =A = . so we won't consider it here.. hI!.. By making the following substitution of h" a 2  = x by first changing 1 a its form to . a a h p = hI!. .. .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 235 According to the Greek historian Herodot (ca. 490425 BCE). By now you have realized l/J that x 2 is negative and holds no real meaning for us geometrically.. hI!. 4 2 2 2 2 Ifwe divide both sides of the equation a hI!..1 = 0.
236
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Length of Height of the side of lateral triangle: the base: a hI). measurements 230.56 m 186.54 m
Cheops pyramid
Pyramid height hp 146.65 m

h/),. a


C 2hp
2
1.61813471 3.144357313
Figure 75
Lo and behold, the ratio of the height of the lateral triangle to half its base is
h
2.
a
= 1.61813471.
2
Was this done intentionally by the design of an ingenious architect? This is a question that you'll have to answer for yourself. We can only point out what has been found by measurement and historical clues. We assume that the Egyptians did their measurements with cubits, which was defined as the length of a man's forearm (i.e., from fingertip to elbow) and measured as a length of 52.25 cm. A British Egyptologist, W. M. F. Petrie (18531942), established measurements for this famous pyramid as follows:
; = 220 cubits
hp
=
(= 114.95m)[i.e. a=440cubits=229.90m]
280 cubits ( ::::: 146.30m)
h/),. = 356 cubits (::::: 186.01m)
The angle formed by the lateral height ( h/),. ) and the base yields a cosine measure, which is a quitesurprising result: cosL( ~, h/),.)
2
= ~~~ = :~ . You would almost think that there is some sort of "fix"
in this analysis. However, we are just reporting the facts as they have been recorded. From the above, we can speculate that the base of the pyramid, whose side is 230.56 m, has a perimeter of 922.24 m. If we divide this perimeter by twice the height of the pyramid, we get, curiously
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
237
enough, an approximation for one of the most famous numbers in mathematics, n. 1 Spectators have noted the golden section on Mexican pyramids, Japanese pagodas, and even Stonehenge (ca. 2800 BCE) in England. There is, moreover, speculation that the Arch of Triumph in ancient Rome was built on the basis of the golden ratio. The oldest stone structure in Germany, stemming back to the postRoman period (770 CE), is the "Konigshalle" in the town of Lorsch (figure 76). This magnificent example of architecture from the early Middle Ages has an impressive openair ground floor. The interior space of this building exhibits practically a perfect golden rectangle. We still don't know today what purpose this building had and how it was used. Perhaps if one day the building plans could be found, we might be able to see if the dimensions might have intentionally been Fibonacci numbers.
Figure 76
The Cathedral of Chartres, France (built from 11941260), clearly exhibits the golden rectangle. In figure 78, you can see the front portal, and figure 77 shows a window from the Cathedral of Chartres exhibiting this famous rectangle.
I. For more on It, see Alfred S. Posamentier and Ingmar Lehmann, 11:: A Biographyofthe World's Most Mysterious Number (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2004).
238
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
Figure 77
Figure 78
Figure 79
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
239
Figure 710
Throughout the Renaissance, the designs of many construction projects used the Fibonacci numbers or the golden ratio. They can be found in the plans of the dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral in Florence (see figure 79). The rough sketch by Giovanni di Gherardo da Prato (1426) exhibits the Fibonacci numbers, 55, 89, and 144, as well as 17 (which is half the Fibonacci number 34) and 72 (which is half the Fibonacci number 144). The dome was actually constructed in 1434 by Filippo Brunelleschi (13371446) and has a height of 91 m and a diameter of 45.52 m, which (sadly) does not give us the golden ratio. The remainder of the Cathedral in Florence further demonstrates the Fibonacci numbers. But the most dramatic proportions are those shown in figure 7 11, where the ratio of 89: 5 5 (== 1.6181818 ... ) has an extremely close approximation to the golden ratio 1.618033988 ....
240
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
•
"
~~
Tf,7
i89
144
•
II
.
*..
Figure 711
Let ' s move to more modern times. Le Corbusier (18871965),2 was a FrenchSwiss architect who between 1946 and 1952 designed the unites d'habitation in Marseille, France (see figure 712), which again exhibits the golden ratio. Here it is exhibited in the tower, which divides the remainder of the building into the golden ratio. This was not done by chance, but rather by specific design! He displays the golden section throughout.
Figure 712
2. His actual name was CharlesEdouard Jeanneret.
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
241
Furthermore, all of the measurements in the apartments are based on a theory of the proportions that Le Corbusier developed in 1948, and published in a book titled The Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale Universally Applicable to Architecture and Mechanics. 3 This stringent rule caused somewhat of a furor in the art world. Le Corbusier developed his scheme on the basis of the golden section. This included his decision that the height of a door was to have a measure of 2.26 m (7.4 feet),4 so that a person of height 1.83 m (6 feet) can touch the top with outstretched arms. Le Corbusier supported his ideas with the following: "A man with a raised arm provides the main points of space displacementthe foot, solar plexus, head, and fingertip of the raised armthree intervals which yield a number of golden sections that are determined by Fibonacci." The Modulor (see figure 713), a model of how the human proportions should be standardized for use by architects and engineers, consists of two scales or bands, which are marked with two sequences of natural numbersthe sequence:
(*)
6,9,15,24,39,63,102,165,267,432,698,1130,1829
and an intermediate sequence:
(**)
11,18,30,48,78,126,204,330,534,863,1397,2260
Usually, at second glance, we can see the relationship to the golden section, l/J.
3. Le Corbusier, The Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale Universally Applicable to Architecture and Mechanics and Modulor, 2 vols. (Basel: Birkhauser, 2000). 4. 1 meter = 3.28 feet.
242
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
1.829 1.130 698 432 267 165 102 63 39 24 15 9
6
2.260 1.397 863 534 330 204 126 78 48 30 18
II
(*)
( •• )
Figure 713
If we divide the members of the sequence (*) by 3 and those of the sequence (**) by 6, we get:
(*), 2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55,89, 144,232 ~ , 376f, 609
~
and
(**)' 1.83, 3, 5, 8, 13,21, 34, 55, 89, 143.83, 232.83, 376. 83 If we round off the fractional members of each sequence, we
are then dealing exclusively with the Fibonacci numbers. This relationship to the Fibonacci numbers results from the fact that Le Corbusier's sequences almost approximate a geometric progression with the common ratio of the golden section, rp. In his
Modular, Le Corbusier claimed to have found a scale that adapted exceptionally well to the visual arts. Le Corbusier was substantially influenced by the ideas of the Romanian lawyer, engineer, and diplomat Matila Costiescu Ghyka
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
243
(1881  1965),5 whose writing about the golden ratio connected the religious aspects of Luca Pacioli (1445 1517)6 with the aesthetic writings of Adolf Zeising (1810 1876).7 Ghyka interpreted the golden section as a fundamental secret of the universe and supported this position with examples from nature. This perspective further inspired Le Corbusier, whose aim was to create a harmonic design over a specific living space. He seized on the same philosophy in creating resident apartments.
Figure 714
In 1947 Le Corbusier was a member of the architectural commission that planned the building of the UN headquarters in New York (see figure 714). He was ultimately responsible for the basic concept of the plans for the thirtyninestory Secretariat building. As you might expect, the height and the width of the building are close to the ratio of 1.618: I. Yes, once again the golden ratio stares us in the face! Last, but not least, an obvious exhibit of the golden ratio can be found in an aerial view of the Pentagon in Washington, DC (see
5. Matila Ghyka, Esthetique des proportions dans la nature et dans les arts (Paris, 1927); Matila Ghyka, The Geometry oj Art and Life (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1946; reprint, New York: Dover Science Books, 1977). 6. Fra Luca Pacioli, Divina Proporzione A Study oj the Golden Section First Published in Venice in 1509 (New York: Abaris Books, 2005). 7. Adolf Zeising. Neue Lehre von den Proportionen des menschlichen K6rpers (Leipzig: R. Weigel, 1854); the book Der goldene Schnitt was printed posthumously at the expense of the LeopoldinischCarolinischen Akademie: Halle, 1884.
244
THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS
figure 715). By now you might (rightly) expect that the intersection point of two diagonals divides each of the diagonals in the golden ratio, as is the case with any regular pentagon.
Figure 715
In the field of architecture, there are countless illustrations of the use of the golden ratio, which, of course, employ the Fibonacci numbers. The lingering question persists: Are these coincidences or are these golden sections marked off deliberately? In the case of some buildings such as those designed by Le Corbusier, we have enough evidence to know that the use of the golden ratio was intentional. As for the ancient architecture, we can sometimes speculate or assume that if an architect had a connection with a mathematician, then he might have used it by design. Still, there is always the notion that this ratio delivers the most beautifying partition in geometry and therefore the "trained eye" might have simply landed on the golden ratio through artistic prowess.
Fibonacci Numbers and Sculptures
The golden section, 1/>, endows a work pleasing and "beautiful" shape. The serves as the bridge to the Fibonacci ratio of consecutive members of the proximates the golden section: of art with a particularly golden section, 1/>, also numbers. Recall that the Fibonacci sequence ap
THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE
245
5. 1.666... ,
3
~ = 1.6,
5
.!2 = 1.625, ~ = 1.615 ...
8 13
The roughest approximation occurs with the smallest Fibonacci numbers, and yet even then its greatest deviation from the actual value l/J is less than _1 ,or 5 percent.
20
In 1509 the Italian Renaissance scholar Fra Luca Pacioli (ca. 14451517), in his book on regular solids, titled De divina proportione,8 stressed the importance of the golden section and enthusiastically called it "De Divina Proportio" (i.e., divine proportion). The use of the adjective divina shows the level of aesthetic significance he attached to the golden section. In the first part of the twentieth century, two important books on the subject were published: in 1914 The Curves of Life 9 written by Sir Theodore Andrea Cook, and in 1926 The Elements of Dynamic Symmetry by Jay Hambidge. 1o Both books had a great effect on artists, in particular the latter work. Hambidge' s primary discovery was that there were two types of symmetrystatic and dynamic. His thorough study of Greek art and architecture, particularly of the Parthenon, convinced him that the secret of the beauty of Greek design was in the conscious use of dynamic symmetrythe law of natural design based upon the symmetry of growth in man and in plants. The scholar Otto Hagenmaier 11 pointed out that the Apollo Belvedere (a Roman copy of Leochares; Vatican Museum, Rome)12 is an example of a famous sculpture with proportions that reflect the golden section. In figure 7 16 you can see how the sculpture measures up in its golden ratio proportions.
8. Luca Pacioli, De divina proportione (Venezia, 1509; reprinted in Milan in 1896, and Gardner Pelican, 1961). 9. (London, 1914; reprint, New York: Dover, 1979). 10. (New York, Dover, 1967). The dynamic symmetry is based on the laws of thermodynamics. II. Otto Hagenmaier, Der Goldene SchnittEin Harmoniegesetz und seine Anwendung (Grafeling, Germany: Moos & Partner, 1958); 2nd ed. (Mi.inchen: Moos Verlag, 1977). 12. Attic sculptor of the fourth century BeE; the Roman copy was found at excavations in Rome toward the end of the fifteenth century.
Her navel partitions the entire figure into the golden ratio.246 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 716 Roman copy of Apollo Belvedere. Figure 717 Aphrodite of Melos. but it opens our eyes wider to the mysteries of aesthetics. The Gaussian curve is the nonnal curve. He marked the significant points of a Gaussian curveD on the face of Apollo in order to discover the secret of its beauty. Was this by chance or by design? We will never know for certain. Is this really what we expect from mathematics? Maybe not. The Aphrodite of Melos (also called Venus de Milo) in the Louvre museum in Paris was created at about 125 BeE (see figure 7 17). . The great mathematician Felix Klein (1849.1925) could not rest until he tried to explain the beauty of this magnificent sculpture mathematically and beyond the golden ratio. 13.
Whose actual name was Gaston Duchamp. La Serie d'Or (Paris: Edition Chanth. 2 1." At the end of this book. Etienne Beothy. during the late Cubism period. Beothy supported his theoretical groundwork further by providing a detailed construction plan for all his sculptures. . 1. Beothy concludes that the best sequence of numbers that can represent the golden series is the additive sequence: . In 1926 Beothy wrote in the preface to the Hungarian version of his book La Serie d'Or. . 3. The association's name itself already highlights its belief in the golden section. but rather was the theoretical starting point. Etienne Beothy: Ein Klassiker der BildhauereiRetrospektive (Sculpture Museum. What works for music will also be achieved for the visual arts through the golden series. Germany. 34. 13. Its stated goal was to create absolute painting purely from numerical ratios in which the golden section was not just nominally used. and other proportions in his works. 0. Marl. . Etienne Beothy... Dr. but expanded his work to the threedimensional realm. 89. curves. 1939). .THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 247 The artists' association Section d'Or was founded in 1912 by Jacques Villon (18751963)14 in Paris. 1. ed. 15 "It [the golden series] has the same significance for the visual arts as harmony has for music . . 8. . 144. French painter and graphic artist. 16 14. The FrenchHungarian sculptor and painter Etienne Beothy (18971961) did not confine himself to the twodimensional painting that the Section d'Or community did. 2. 16. and Helga MullerHofstede. Uwe Ruth. 15.. He relied in large measure on the "golden series"apparently a reference to the Fibonacci numbersfor the distances. Exhibition 1979. 5. Uwe Ruth). 55.
Marl. It is out of this mathematical basis that the sculptor derived a work of great beauty. Some works by Timm Ulrichs (b. Der Goldene Schnitt: Ein Harmoniegeselz und seine Anwendung.) Beothy's wood sculpture. composed in 1936 (Sculpture Museum. He also sliced up a book with the title The Golden Section by Otto Hagenmaier 17 into the golden section! 17. It appears as if it were a flame. Germany). ¢. 2nd ed. he cut bread and vegetables in the proportion of this number. 1940) rely entirely on the golden section. (Grafe ling. Germany: Moos & Partner. Essor 11 (op. Through the minimalist art movement in the 1960s the use of the Fibonacci numbers became fashionable. For a sculpture (figure 719). 1958). appears to grow from a narrow footing and twists upward (see figure 718). Yet behind this sculpture lie exact plans based on the Fibonacci numbers.248 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI N UMBERS Figure 718 (Used wilh permission of Uwe RUth . 77). .
) In 1969 Ulrich wrote "I took several food productsbread. It involved the installation of twenty highgrade 18." Jo Niemeyer (b. created works according to plans that were based on the golden section. http://www. Ulrich Grevsmiihl. and then emblazoned it in gold.20 Steps. Once again. Der goldene Schnitt (Application example). (Photo by Timm Ulrichs.niemeyer. 20 Punkte. Ein LandArt Projekt von Jo Niemeyer.and deliberately partitioned them into the golden section. a German graphic artist and architect. the golden section is the key element of the project. He even called his works Geometric Compositions. 20 Steps around the Globe ls was a breathtaking "countryart" project that he completed in 1997.jo. . 1969. sausage.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 249 Figure 719 Timm Ulrichs. 1946). Used with permission. and pickles that one usually divides with a knife.com. Niemeyer is still moving onin the true sense of the word! His work. See 20 Steps around the Globe.
Point 3 is then 1.. 1.niemeyer. The golden angle (see p. Then the distance of point 2 to point 3 was determined by l/J . The first column was placed in Lapland (Finland).jo. and says. This is near the Swedish border and north of the polar circle.250 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS steel columns once around the earth." 19. 1 • • 2 3 • • 4 Figure 720 • 5 The distance from point 1 to point 2 was determined to be . The distance from point 4 to point 5 is obtained by l/J . 20.198 m = 1. 21. The great circle of a sphere is the largest circle that can be drawn on a sphere and has its center at the center of the sphere. Ulrich Grevsmilhl (Hinterzarten). 148) = 137.niemeyer.137 m = 5.214m from point 1.198 m from point 1. he found that point 20 would coincide with point 1 (with all points along a great circle).023 km. whose circumference was given as 40..741 m. http://www. 0. . The columns were placed at carefully calculated points along a great circle. The eighth column can be seen on the photo of the starting point (figure 722). Yet the golden ratio played a crucial role in determining the position of the points . By continuing in this way. See 20 Steps around the Globe. The distance from point 3 to point 4 was determined by l/J. 458 m = .com.jo. the computer program was by Jorg Pfeiffer.com. 3. Then point 5 is 8. The specific positions of the columns were more exactly carried out with the help of the golden angle 20 (see figure 721). Jo Niemeyer believes that only the proportions are essential for the perception and understanding of this feat. 19 These twenty points were determined by dividing the great circle around the earth.939 m.458 m (see figure 720). The complete route (figure 721) is described with all necessary data in the project 20 Steps around the Globe 21 at the Web site http://www.507 764050 .. That means that point 4 is 3.137 m from point 1. "There are no measuresonly the proportions exist. The geodesic draft was carried out under the scientific advice of Dr.077 m.
• D ) Positions 112 Ropinsalmi Lapland Finland 018 km 13 Kautokeino District Norway 47 km 14 Anarjokka Norway 124 km 15 Pitkajarvi/Nickel Russia 325 km 16 The Barents Sea Int.229 km 18 Baotou [nner/Mongolia China 5..837 km 19 Westernport Bay Australia [5..THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 251 . I • • •.282 km 20 = 1 Ropinsalmi Lapland Finland Figure 721 .. Water 851 km 17 Noryj Urengoj Siberia Russia 2. .....
2000) are his best known.) The Italian artist Mario Merz (19252003) set up a monument to the Fibonacci numbers in several works of art. (Reprinted with permission of Jo Niemeyer. ) Figure 723 . which distinguishes itself by the meager materials and simple gestures it employs. For him the Fibonacci numbers were a guiding light as well as an inspiration. as an example of his work in a blackandwhite format. Position 68°40'06"N 21°36'21"E. his drawing Ivy may more graphically illustrate his respect for the simple elegance of the Fibonacci numbers (see figure 723). Yet.252 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 722 The starting point: RopinsalmiILaplandiFinland. It is the European answer to the American minimalist art. He is the doyen of the arte povera (the poor art). His works Fibonacci Napoli (1971) and Animali da 1 a 55 (I 997.
on this he mounted adhesive pieces of tape with (white) numbers. and a smokestack in Turku.. 22 Figure 724 (Reprinted with permission of Kunstmuseum Wolfsburg. "The Fibonacci numbers are in a rapid expansion .) Obviously Merz was quite fascinated with the Fibonacci numbers. Essen. to ease walls. The eight arms of the igloo are connected to each other with joints at the distances that reflect the Fibonacci proportions (see figure 724." This is how Mario Merz describes the peculiarity and effect of this historical design system. central railway station with the Fibonacci numbers. Germany. p. 75. . 1979. Die FibonacciZahlen und die Kunst. He also used the Fibonacci numbers to decorate smokestacks: the 52 m smokestack at the Center for International Light Art in Unna. as is further evidenced by his having decorated the great hall in the Zurich.The numbers have the power. Switzerland. Mario Merz. Merz assembled his sculpture Igloo Fibonacci (1970) with the help of brass pipes and steel hinges. Germany. Finland.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 253 By reaching out to the Fibonacci numbers. in Mario Merz's Exhibition catalogue of the FolkwangMuseum. . in 1994 (figure 726).) On eight marble plates.. 22. Merz relegates to nature a reason for its power. in 2001 (figure 725).
144 cm. in seeing what these numbers can do to enhance his artistic possibilities.) It is said that these lengths enabled him to create the most astounding shapes of tangible and evident harmony. 233 cm. . and 729. Bruch has said that through these numbers he tries to show the fullness of forms and the variety of nature and tries to understand them. Bruch is not only interested in demonstrating the Fibonacci series but. 377 cm. 1936) was also greatly influenced by the Fibonacci numbers as evidenced by his many designs that clearly reflect the Fibonacci numbers in the relative lengths of their components (see figures 727. exhibit through their lengths a portion of the Fibonacci sequence (89 cm. 610 cm). 728. more important.254 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 725 Figure 726 The Austrian artist Hellmut Bruch (b. The columns. The name Hommage it Fibonacci is an eloquent testimoniaL Employing the Fibonacci sequence in nearly all of his work. made of stainless steel.
is 6. ~ "\ Figure 730 (Reprinted with permission of C laus Bury. 1946) heralds the theme of his sculpture merely with its name: Fibonacci's Temple. is made of raw spruce wood and is 15 m long. .70 m high at the center (figure 730) . The structure.) The German sculptor Claus Bury (b. and 5.3 m wide. Germany.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 255 Figure 727 Figure 728 Figure 729 (Reprinted with permission of Hellmut Bruch. ::t . built in 1984 and located in Cologne.) .
256 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The preparation for this structure reveals that Bury was already fascinated with the Fibonacci numbers and in particular with the theoretical writings of Le Corbusier in Modular (see pages 24142). Yet we still remain uncertain about the conscious influence that these fabulous numbers have had on the ancient artists.. .. or did they do these works intuitively and they just happened to fit the golden ratio? This leads us to look for further answers in the twodimensional medium of painting..... . .2 3 • • • • 5 32 J • 1 .. 2 ' Z .) The Fibonacci numbers clearly have inspired modem artists in their sculptures.! "• e > • ..3'2' ~fZ 0<> 00 ... . . .  Figure 731 (Reprinted with permission of C laus Bury. Were they aware of these numbers or of the golden ratio... • Ii S • • • : • ~ 6·'S~ ·l ~ .. An inspection of Bury ' s plans demonstrates that he clearly constructed this work according to the Fibonacci numbers (see figures 731 and 732)... . . ..) 2·3·~~ ~ ~s . ... • • z 5 '" 00 _'" Figure 732 (Reprinted with permission of Claus Bury. • • L 1 • T• [.
Roman armed forces technician and engineer. Famous Italian painter.1519i 3 illustrated the book De divina proportione24 by the Franciscan monk Fra Luca Pacioli (ca. and engineer.. . Luca Pacioli. The ratio of the square side to the circle radius in this wellknown picture (figure 733) corresponds to the golden section with a deviation of 1. Gardner Pelican.. • • Figure 733 23. natural scientist.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 257 Fibonacci Numbers and Paintings Leonardo da Vinci (1452. 1445. Actually Vitruvius Pollio. . 24. 1961).7 percent . This drawing supported Pacioli's discussion of the Roman architect Vitruvius (ca. . He published ten books about architecture and civil engineering and developed a theory of proportions. . architect. .1517) with an anatomical srudy of the "Vitruvian" man. De divina proportione (Venezia.27 BCE)25 whose documents about architecrure suggest that he believed the proportions of the human body are a basis for architecture. 84 BCE. sculptor. 1509. 25. reprinted in Milan in 1896.
258 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The respected German painter and graphic artist Albrecht Durer (1471 . This can be seen in figure 734.1642) among them. as opposed to aesthetic ones. The chin also divides the height of the entire picture into the golden ratio (in the other direction). where Durer actually superimposes the triangle and several other guidelines over the selfportrait. fortress building.1528) also relied heavily on Vitruvius's work when he wrote his Four Books on Human Proportions in 1523. The base of the equilateral triangle divides a height of the entire picture into the golden ratio. Here he refines the earlier works and expresses them as a system of proportions. and human proportions. where the unit of measure is the human body with the parts expressed as fractions thereof. the outlines of which create an equilateral triangle.Johannes Kepler (15711630) and Galileo Galilei (1564. Durer drew himself with a head of wavy hair. In his famous selfportrait (ca. he supported all of his ideas with theoretical (mathematical) arguments. In Durer's books on geometry. Figure 734 . his works in descriptive geometry influenced some of the greatest thinkers of the Renaissance. As a matter of fact. 1500).
. He superimposed a number scale on the figure of Venus. we stumble on fractions that approach the golden section and immediately assume that the golden section was intended.26 since at age twentynine he had constructed the golden section in his selfportrait. Many scholars collected information in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to search for applications of the golden section. Oftentimes. These applications need to be critically and sensitively inspected. We must be careful not to draw conclusions where they aren't necessarily warranted. As earlier. in our review of architectual and scultpural applications of the Fibonacci numbers.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 259 It remains unclear why Durer never connected the golden sec tion to his drawing of the regular pentagon. Cook (1867." one that looks regular but is just slightly inaccurate. Figure 735 26. Another classic work of art is Sandro Botticelli's painting The Birth of Venus (1477). we are faced here with a similar problem to determine whether conscious use was made of the golden section or the Fibonacci numbers. See page 155ff for a discussion of DOrer' s construction of the " regular pentagon. which had the first seven powers of ¢ (see figure 735). Sir Theodore A.1928) analyzed it with the aid of the golden section.
in Figure 738. it can be assumed that he was consciously guided by this magnificent ratio. First. which emanates from the eyes of Pope Sixtus II and the head of Saint Barbara. which was painted between 1503 and 1506 and is on exhibit in the Louvre museum in Paris.260 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Let us analyze a few samples where the golden section appears. King Frant. Figure 736 Figure 737 Figure 738 Another great painter Raphael (1483. In figure 737. the most famous painting in Western civilization. Since da Vinci illustrated Pacioli's book Da divina proportione. you will notice several triangles. Let's look at this masterpiece from the point of view of the golden ratio. though you could unearth countless examples from the past several centuries in which you could find similar "sightings.1520) also exhibits the golden section in his Sistine Madonna (1513). perhaps. In figure 740. divides the height of the picture into the golden section and also partitions the figure of the Madonna into two equal parts.3 kilograms of gold for this painting. The horizontal line indicated in figure 739. one can draw a rectangle around Mona Lisa's face and find that this rectangle is a golden rectangle. you will observe specific points on the body of Mona Lisa as golden sections." We will begin with. which thoroughly discussed the golden section. you will notice that the lines emanating .ois I of France paid 15. the two largest ones are golden triangles. Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa (figure 736). Furthermore.
. Whether Raphael consciously selected these dimensions with the golden section in mind. superimposed on the picture in figure 740 exactly encases the four heads.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 261 from very selected points in the figure aid in detennining the golden ratio from another point of view. Figure 739 Figure 740 In figure 741 a regular pentagram has been superimposed over Raphael's Madonna Alba (15111513). or whether these were merely the product of an artistic eye. the Madonna's figure is divided by the golden section. the ratio of whose base and altitudes closely approximates the golden ration. remains the master's secret. too. You will also observe that the isosceles triangle. This geometric fonn is clearly visible along appropriate linear parts. here. This once again demonstrates Raphael's penchant for the golden sectionwhich we already know is embedded in the regular pentagram.
) Let's jump a few hundred years ahead to the French painter Georges Seurat (J 8591891). which thereby helped set the groundwork for modem art. Seurat wanted to highlight his use of geometric space as the main attraction. Washington. Figure 742 .262 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 741 (Natio nal Gallery. DC. Although he used colors to a dramatic extent. who was known for having a strict geometric structure to his works.
2004). Figure 743 Jo Niemeyer (b. Walser. Others find that a golden rectangle is formed by these two lines and the horizontal line just below the nine lights at the top of the picture. H. Tate Gallery. 1946). p. In Seurat's Bathers at Asnieres (1883. 135. There is also speculation that the golden spiral is embedded in this picture. created works according to plans that were based on the golden section. London). He even calls his works Geometric Compositions. In figure 744 you will see that his work titled Utsjoki displays several golden sections.LE. Der Goldene Schnitt (Leipzig: EAG. and in the vertical direction by the line that is just to the right of the main figure. Metropolitan Museum of Art) by Seurat (figure 742) is replete with evidence of the golden section. 27. Some observers see the golden section produced by the horizontal line at the top edge of the banister. New York. .THE FIBONACCI N UMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 263 The painting Circus Parade (1888. the golden ratio can be seen as well as several golden rectangles (figure 743). 27 The 8 x 3 unit rectangle (at the upperleft side) gives further evidence to the possibility that the artist was aware of the relationship of the Fibonacci numbers to the golden section. the German graphic artist and architect mentioned earlier.
1987 (figure 745). but rather he sketches them from a mathematical basis. Notice that he even marked the right side of the sketch (figure 745) with the golden ratio (.61803).) Niemeyer does not restrict himself to only twodimensional art. Again with the sketch of his Modulon (figure 747) we are given clear evidence of the mathematical underpinnings of his work. Modulon is an art object (a . we have clear evidence that Niemeyer does not intuitively create his works.264 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS I • Figure 744 (Used with permission of Jo Niemeyer.) For the painting Variation VI. should our visual assessment of his sketch not suffice. Figure 745 Figure 746 (Used with permission of Jo Niemeyer. he also works in the third dimension.
as well as black and white..JO .. ~ ~.a'"~ .. The coloring is restricted. ". /' ./ \' . .\ \ . Figure 747 c 1 AS 2 8 Major E Minor A I=1F : FR EB : J:lB . however. The Modulon has been in the collection of the Museum of Modem Art in New York since 1984. .. '~~"x\ ~ ~ . red.. and filling spaces are practically unlimited. The possible variations that can be achieved by placing. . to the primary colors: blue... " v ".. ../ " " .r . and yellow.. grouping.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 265 cube) divided into sixteen building blocks according to the golden ratio (see figure 748).r . ordering. _ .r .. Figure 748 .".
5. 3. ). called Fibonacci. I.. with the help of the famous mathematical series of the Leonardo Pisano.. p. Lingen (Ems.. This is art based on the golden ratio throughout. she exhibits her graphics as representing the Fibonacci numbers. Vaduz) can be seen in figure 749. 13. Germany . . 1943) clearly based his art on the golden rectangle and the golden spiral.. 21 . 1935).) Another example of an artist's conscious effort to use the Fibonacci numbers as the basic structure of her work is that of the German artist Rune Mields (b. His work called Untitled (\988.266 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS The Icelandic artist Hreinn Fridfinnsson (b. It was an assumption that the arising form should be respectively subject to the laws of the symmetry. who developed it at the beginning of 13th century. 2. (0. Kunstverein Lingen Kunsthalle [April 3.May 29. I.28 28. Figure 749 (Used with permission of Hreinn Fridfinnsson.SANCTA RA no. Kunstverein Lingen. 8. The artist stresses in the accompanying text of the catalog that "[i]n an ascending line. Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein. a progression of triangles is generated. Kunsthalle. 2005. 45. August I7. In her Evolution: Progression and Symmetry 111 and IV (figure 750). Germany). Catalog on the occasion of the exhibitions: Rune Mields.Novem: Buxus Verlag. ed. 2005).
'" Figure 750 (Used wilh permission of Rune Mields. Assisi. Italy) The fresco Trinity by Masaccio (l4011429)3o{Santa Maria Novella. Rome) The fresco St. Italian painter and master builder. Florence.) There is some evidence that the golden section has been embedded in the composition of the following works of art. 30. Whether it was intentional or intuitive is for you to decide. or for the world traveler: in person! • • • The relief Dionysius' Procession (Villa Albani. Many of these works can be found in books.1337)29 . Italy) 29.(Basilica San Francesco. The Trinity fresco advanced the art of mural painting and the development of the altar because of the central perspective. Francis Preaching to the Birds by Giotto (1266. Actually Tammaso di Giovanni di Simone Gujdi . Italian painter who is regarded as a founder of Renaissance painting. Actually Giallo di Bondone. . on the Internet.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 267 .
Krakow. New York.268 • • • • • • • THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS • • • • • • • The Deposition from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden (ca. Also called Roger de Le Pasture. Spain) The Baptism of Christ by Piero della Francesca (1415/14201492)32(London. however. . architect. National Gallery) Madonna and Child by Pietro Perugino (ca. 33. and Gelmeroda XII. Rome. Saint Jerome. Actually Pietro di Benedetto dei Franceschi. Prado. In 1508 Michelangelo also designed the uniforms of the Swiss Guard for the Vatican. Actually Michelangelo Buonarroti. sculptor. Rome) The fresco The Triumph of Galatea by Raphael (Villa Farnesina. Italy) The painting Crucifixion (with the Virgin Mary. Rome) The painting The Girl with the Ermine by Leonardo da Vinci (National Museum. London. 1534). 14551523)33 (Vatican Museum. 35. England) Gelmeroda by Lyonel Feininger (18711956)( Gelmeroda VIII. 34. Michelangelo was. Mary Magdalene. Madrid. also Pietro Borgliese. Spain) The painting The School ofAthens by Raphael (Vatican Museum. Italy) The round painting of Madonna Doni by Michelangelo (14751564)34 (Uffizi Gallery. and poet. 14001464)31 (altar piece. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Italy) The copper engraving Adam and Eve by Marcantonio Raimondi 35 The painting A Selfportrait by Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn (16061669)(N ational Gallery. Actually Pietro Vannucci. Florence. Milan. London. painter. Flemish painter. England) The panels Adam and Eve by Albrecht Durer (Prado Museum. Italian painter. Madrid. 32. New York) Half a Giant Cup Suspended with an Inexplicable Appendage Five Meters Long by Salvador Dali (19041989) 31. Poland) The wall painting The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci (Refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Whitney Museum. and John the Baptist) by Raphael (National Gallery. 1480ca. Italian copperplate engraver (ca.
Painting I and Composition with Colored Areas and Gray Lines 1 (1918). So if this art historian eliminated 8 some art from the "golden section list. as well as Composition with Gray and Light Brown (1918. Whether the use of the golden section was conscious or not. and wood engraver. and Pankok have flatly denied using it. There are many ways to use these fractional partitions. Texas) and Composition with Red Yellow Blue (1928)." we can still claim them to the "almost golden section" since they used two Fibonacci numbers that can generate a rough approximation of the golden section. German painter. for example. Actually Jose Victoriano Gonzalez Perez. are often quoted. ~ is selected. yet more often than not. but he also indicated it in his sketches. In contrast. 38. Museum of Fine Arts. Many admirers of l/J and Fibonacci would be disappointed to learn that the careful examination by the art historian Marguerite Neveux at the end of the twentieth century removed many pictures from the "golden section list. Houston. 36. 37. Mondrian. graphic artist. It is truly fascinating how this "magical" golden ratio has inspired artists over the centuriessometimes deliberately and at other times intuitively. no one can deny its prevalence in many of the great masterpieces of the Western world." She analyzed xray pictures ofvarious canvases and came to the conclusion that most of the artists divided their canvases into eighths before starting their work.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS FOUND IN ART AND ARCHITECTURE 269 The following is a partial list of artists who are often mentioned in connection with the golden section: • • • • • Paul Signac (18631935) Paul Serusier (18641927) Piet Mondrian (18721944)36 Juan Gris (18871927)37 Otto Pankok (18931966)38 Paul Serusier not only knew about the golden section. . Gris. Spanish painter and graphic artist.
.
thIS stuff now shows up all over the place. While 11 IS true that the violin IS a beaullful example oflhe application of the golden ~ect]()n to eighteentheenrury italian Instrument making. but what you generally find is often confusing or msipu.:'1e:ho~na.~e7:t~~:tt:~:~tO~~. most of the inronnation that shows up on your screen is not meaningful or even accurate. This may be the result of some wellIntentioned authors who were writing for elementary school kids and tried to spoonfeed them somethlllg about F1bonacci and music that IS easily digestible.Chapter 8 The Fibonacci Numbers and Musical Form Fibonacci Data on the Internet C:~e:~ya~:~::ot~:t r:i. Unfortunately. :1~~:~::~ sequence and lIs relationship to musIc?] Some of the Web sites one encounters are most fascinating. Well.l. and It docs not tell you anythmg generally sigmficant aboul the relationship. the discus 271 .
a step . What about the major third (5:4) and minor third (6:5) that are the triadic foundation of all the popular music you have stored in your iPod? And last. The golden section has been successfully employed by composers mainly in two areas of the compositional process. His book contains twentyfour of the most extraordinary musical miniatures. The fact that the black notes on the piano are divided into twos and threes has nothing to do with the Fibonacci sequence. not eight.272 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS sions about eightnote scales are completely erroneous. 3. each one a world unto itself The fust of these is based on an interesting game that Chopin is playing with himself In figure 81 we see the essential melodic activity of the right hand. The first relates to the location of the climax and the second relates to form. especially if you were not forced to take piano lessons. two or three. So let us talk about Fibonacci applications that really matter. because they relate to nothing except the white notes that separate them. Now that would be something! It is also misleading to suggest that certain pleasing frequency ratios. which is simplified for purposes of illustration. Let us talk about the climax first because that is an easier concept with which to deal. since it is impossible to tell which one comes first. because number 8 is a repeat of number 1 and continues the scalar motion into the next octave. you get to hear music that is perhaps interesting on first hearing. but not worth a second play. are related to anything like the Fibonacci sequence because they are only a few among a multitude of ratios that contribute to the rich intervallic (harmonic) essence of the music we know and love. Each measure (except the final six) contains two notes. The Chopin Preludes One of the great collections of nineteenthcentury piano pieces is the Preludes by Frederic Chopin (18101849). The diatonic scales we all know and love have seven notes. 5. A true Fibonacci keyboard would have 2. and 8 black notes in every octave. such as 5:3 (a major sixth) and 8:5 (a minor sixth). if you listen to the pieces that are generated by Fibonacci applications to pitch and/or rhythm.
1 in C major. Sometimes it happens and sometimes it doesn't. . . is constructed of two dramatic arches of differing sizes.. The melody begins on the notes GA and rises to the ED in measure 5. they are true members ofthe Fibonacci sequence! Also recall that 34· .. I • 10 = • ft . The wonderful climax of this miniature masterpiece comes exactly in measure 21 at the golden section of its 34 measures.. . Still. It then begins its descent to the GA in measure 25 at which point it leaps twice to ED before coming to rest on five Cs with AG pairs below them.."I....I. where it remains for three measures and then descends back to the GA in measure 9. 9 in E major. Chopin found that it was not necessary to use l/J to guarantee musical success. 1". t 28 f ...THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 273 apart.I.. I. which lasts only about a half a minute... . . <> $g. Apparently."I.) The same accurate placement of the climax at the golden section occurs in Prelude No. (Remember these numbers? Yes. . 1". 1". This piece is twelve measures long and contains fortyeight beats. .. the exact location of the climax does not always have to conform to a prescribed mathematical formula. I . 21.. Most of the Preludes are not in a golden proportion.. and they work perfectly well in their lessthanperfect condition. one of which harmonizes with the left hand accompaniment (the whole note) and one that does not (the black note). 1" I.. The climax occurs exactly on beat 29 ( 48· . In any case." I . . Figure 81 Chopin: Prelude No."I" ...618 '" 29) at the beginning of the eighth measure.618".I .I." 1 1" I .. in a large number of cases it occurs in close proximity to the golden mean. d • d • f I. From here the melody rises even farther and climaxes on the DC in measure 21... This piece.I .. 1".
while unequal binary form is divided into two parts of which the second is significantly larger than the first. the question arises as to the relative proportions of both parts.274 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 82 is the graphic equivalent of figure 81 and shows the placement of the golden climax in the sequence of pitches. There are two kinds of binary form: equal binary form is divisible into two parts of relatively equal size. It was designed for those of you who are not familiar with musical notation. Music whose structure contains two parts is said to be in binary form. We imagine their creations to be the . it will be worth it. For a very long time composers have been perfectly happy with the results of using equal binary formboth halves seem to balance each other very nicely. We often think of great composers as highly inspired creative types who sit alone in garrets by candle light drawing their inspiration from a distant muse. and this is where the golden section enters the equation. When they use unequal binary form. This may prove to be more taxing. but rest assured. which may be equally successful. 21 ••• • ••• • • •• •• • • •• • • •• • ••• TIME • 34 • •••••• • Figure 82 Chopin: Prelude No.1 in C major. Binary Form Now let us talk about musical form.
The difficult job of the composer is to control the elements of the piece so that it maintains an integral logic but still sounds like it was just made up on the spur of the moment. was especially fond of this application. and the other thing. who loved numbers and all kinds of games. Most important. When they put pen to paper (or make music by moving a mouse). Some of the rules of this game are derived from its style and some are unique to this specific piece. that. most of the time they are drawing upon years of training and experience that has fostered a technical craft that allows them to make music that "works. most composers are very bright people who have worked hard to hone their skills and refine their craft. the second was slow and . he always had the same plan in mindto try to use the proportions of the golden section to create formal elegance and balance.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 275 result of some reverie when. they are making very deliberate choices about the sequence of sounds and silences that tells their musical tale. While it is true that there are moments in the creative process when they listen to an inner voice that tells them to do something out of the ordinary. Composers are not only tunesmiths and harmonists. Quite often. With very few exceptions. The Mozart Piano Sonatas One of the interesting games that have been played by a number of famous composers relates to the use of the golden section in determining the form of a piece. the music must present a smooth. the solo keyboard sonata was comprised of three movements. or separate pieces. The first was spirited and energetic." By "works" we mean that it conforms to a general game plan that is selflimiting and keeps the piece from becoming a hodgepodge of this. most of what they do tends to be quite rational and deliberate. In Mozart's time. they are often game players. Apparently. when he sat down to write his piano sonatas. the process of composition takes on gamelike qualities. continuous narrative that entertains its audience. in fact. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (17561791).
since both can be tantalizingly elusive when it comes to understanding the likes of Mozart. . Even the most adept theorists never feel completely satisfied when trying to discover and report on the internal workings of creations like Mozart sonatas. Such is the case when we study the form of the first movements of his piano sonatas. a viola. chopped up.276 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS lyrical. and tempo. This name is derived from the fact that it was used almost exclusively in the first movements of all major instrumental forms. Music theory is as complicated as physics and mathematics. we move to the second part that contains the development and the recapitulation. The section is repeated so you can hear all that stuff over again since you probably did not catch it all the first time because it went by so fast. each of which is repeated. and the third was the fastest of all and brought the sonata to an exciting conclusion. When the repeat is accomplished. One of the most significant contributions to the music of the late eighteenth century was the development of what we call the sonataallegro form. Before we go any further. and a cello. The development does what it saysit is where the materials of the exposition are distorted. A composition for one or more solo instruments. be warned that music theory can be a fascinating line of study for those who wish to spend a lifetime in pursuit of truth and beauty. It is here that the increasing level of tension brings us to the climax of the piece. but it also has the aesthetic element that seems to take it into the realm of the mystical or magical. one of which is usually a keyboard instrument. all of which may be considered a type of sonata. mood. We aim for complete understanding and always settle for something less. we return to the beginning of 2. and a concerto is a sonata for a soloist and an orchestra. As used in the sonatas. Mozart seems more the magician than the musician. Quite often. usually consisting of three or four independent movements varying in key. The first part is the exposition where the musical materials of the piece are presented. and tossed about. As the tempest subsides. It is often quite tumultuous and exciting. 2 A symphony is essentially a sonata for an orchestra while a string quartet is a sonata for two violins. it is a form that has two basic parts.
*~ 0. It looks something like this: II: A :11: AI A :11 Mozart wrote eighteen piano sonatas and all but one employ sonataallegro form in the first movement (the remaining one uses theme and variations form). of the seventeen. and they expanded this form into what we now know as the sonataallegro form. Along come the composers of the classical period (17501825). 3 . This fraction is built by the quotient 0. And three 3. As may be seen in figure 83.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 277 the piece. This is what we call a rounded binary form because it features a return of the opening section in the latter part of the second. was in equal binary formboth halves were approximately the same size..3819661 It should be pointed out that in the baroque period (16001750) a great deal of music. but a little extra knowledge won't hurt you.. and were usually repeated. As we have seen. That is what recapitulation meansa return to the head. Much has been changed. and ~: ~ 16. but it is often quite subtle and goes unnoticed..618033988 .. Now you have learned more about sonataallegro form than you wanted to know." Eight (47 percent) are very close and are identified in the Measures column by numbers ranging from 3 to +4.~~ ~ . That is the significant factor.6180339 provide a possible solution. This is where a lot of the sleight of hand takes place. the first movement is in binary form (two parts) although the parts are not of equal size. Enter the Fibonacci sequence and the golden mean whose proportions of . but we are not. contained similar music.3819661865 . These quantities represent the displacement of the golden section. because if we are not paying close attention. especially dance forms. we think we are hearing a repeat of the exposition. And the next time you hear a symphony or a sonata you will have some idea of how the first movement is put together.. The question for Mozart and his contemporaries was how to get these two parts in balance even though they are not the same size. six (35 percent) are exactly divisible by the golden section and are identified as such in the Measures column by the word "golden.
Sonata No. 12.442 Accuracy golden golden ·2 I No.5.3. K. I. that certainly leaves one with the impression that the use of the golden section was important to Mozart. 310 No.348 0.417 0. Here is what it looks like: Exposition 38 MEASURES : I I: Development Recapitulatiori :II 62 MEASURES Figure 84 Those of you who know something about the music of the late eighteenth century might be asking yourself whether Franz Joseph Haydn (17321809) was just as keen to use the golden section in his piano sonatas. K. Mozart Sonata No. 280 281 282 283 100 144 109 36 120 127 Exposition 38 Proportion No. 284 NO.367 0.378 0.363 0. No. there is one.389 0. 14. Statistically. K. eight. K. K.279). 330 No. No.38 0.384 0. K.457 K. No. (K. 13. K. K. II. 332 K.S45 170 185 No. No.9. 309 No.S70 No. and because it is the first. it serves as a kind of declaration of purpose.7. K.371 0.429 ·1 4 golden golden ·2 12 Figure 83 Mozart Piano Sonatas. 10. No.2. he is the other giant of the classical .378 0.4 0. 16. that is exactly 100 measures in length and the exposition ends in measure 38.8.333 K. K. K. 17. and twelve measures too long. K. 576 No.278 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS (18 percent) are really not close enough for serious consideration because the expositions are six. 533 Cminor C major Bb major o major F major 73 209 160 240 0.4. 311 G major o major C major A minor o major C major IS6 J3J 112 56 40 15 53 51 59 49 39 57 55 93 63 74 28 79 S8 103 0. golden ·1 ·3 golden No.6. K. K. 279 Key Length C major Fmajor Bb major Eb major No. No.368 0. K. After all.383 Theme & Var. Of the six that are right on the money. 18. 15. 331 A major F major Bb major 149 135 229 OA02 0.406 0. It just does not get more obvious than that.
364.389 .636 . 1776 26. 1776 27. 42. No.32. 1780 1780 1786 1786 )793 172 100 103 77 112 116 golden golden 5 I Figure 85 Haydn Piano Sonatas.39 0. and 29 percent (. Haydn Sonata No.38 0. 1767 No. In analyzing an equal number of randomly chosen piano sonatas. we find that only 18 percent (~) of his sonataallegro forms are golden. 1767 No. while Haydn's only ranged from 6 to +2.\10. 19.611 as compared However. Mozart's placement of the double bar relative to cp ranged from 3 to +12. 49.339 0. 1780 No. 14.371 Accuracy 2 6 6 No. 1767 Key E major Length 84 110 116 103 150 127 143 Exposition 30 36 38 42 57 46 57 52 31 69 45 68 33 40 30 38 43 Proportion 0. 1773 25. 1778 141 90 195 127 No.357 0.408 0.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 279 period and it would be interesting to see his approach to sonataallegro form. 31. . ~o.353 0. are the Mozart movements better than those of Haydn? Can a statistical analysis help us arrive at a reasonable conclusion? The proportions of the average Mozart movement are to Haydn's . Perhaps there are other ways of using the data to help us. 43. No. 1773 o major Bb major o major C major Fmajor major Eb major Fmajor o major I: minor Cmajor C# minor Dmajor G minor Abmajor Eb major (J golden 3 2 4 6 4 5 No. 1767 No.327 0. But it is also possible that numbers may have nothing to do with the quality of the music. 17. while 53 percent (~) are close. Make of it what you will. No. Even though . his adherence to cP did not match Mozart's. 'No. 34. As it turns out.1778 . So. Here is a suggestion: listen to all of the thirtyfour movements under consideration in pairsone Mozart followed by one Haydnand see how it goes.369 0.344 0.395 0.33 0. 15.354 0.388 0. No.327 0.) are out of consideration.362 0399 0.1776 No. No. 35. 16. 33. 21.
125/ 249 182/ :J06 248/ 372 '268/ 392 374/ 498 47f1/ 602 626 em/ Exposition : II Developmenl IVlsas!lemhl) Recapitulation Coda Codetta I Oboe caden7. 5. let us try to contain our enthusiasm and stick to the topic (it may not be easy). Beethoven's Fifth Symphony The opening five measures of the first movement of this symphony forms probably the most universally recognized musical statement in classical music. the exposition. Before you get dazzled by the data. at least you will have heard a lot ofterrific music.280 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS you may be as confused at the end of the test as you were at the beginning. the reca . Surprisingly. development.a Figure 86 Beethoven. Since this is a book about the Fibonacci sequence. Few of the millions who adore this piece realize how extraordinary and revolutionary it is in the history of Western classical music. There are so many aspects to this work that are worthy of discussion that countless authors have written tomes about it. Instead of bringing the first movement to a conclusion. Symphony No. and recapitulation in this astounding work are all essentially the same size. you need to understand how the form of this movement differs from those in the sonatas and symphonies of Mozart and Haydn.jirst movement. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770\827) was born into the generation of musicians that followed these two pillars of AustroHungarian musical culture and proved to be the most revolutionary and influential composer of the Romantic period. thus preventing a golden section of these three sections.
The first occurs in the development. the arrival of the recapitulation in measure 372 is the golden section of the entire piece without the shocking second coda. As may be seen in figure 86. add a significant and unprecedented fifth section. Without the codetta. but close enough for music. The lit 4. when taken together. as it did in the analogous spot in the exposition.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 281 pitulation rushes headlong into a coda4 that turns out to be another development sectionsomething his predecessors never contemplated. The end of the repeat of the exposition (measure 124 . in measure 392.618 = 372 . where the fournote motive begins to break into two notes and then into one. A coda is a section of music added at the end of a composition. Two very special compositional events occur at points of critical proportion.396) . this newly expanded sonataallegro form contains three golden sections that may have been part of a deliberate attempt to apply the principle in new ways. except for the oboe. This disassembly of the fournote motive. Right on the mark! The rest of the evidence hits the targetnot exactly in the bull's eye. ( 626 In a generous mood we could credit Beethoven for that one too. This is a new kind of sonataallegro form. ( 626 If we remove the two measures of rest at the end of the 12324) the proportion is even closer exposition (measures 244 =. First. This tail is big enough to wag the dog! Therefore. Compounding that is the addition of a codetta (little tail section) to the coda which. that has remained intact so far. the entire orchestra stops. 498 One of the most inspired moments in the entire symphony occurs in the recapitulation when.614). we end up with five sections. This is a golden section of the movement up to the end of the recapitulation in measure 498 (306=. . the piece would be 602 measures in length: 602· . all of which are between 124 and 128 measures. 2 = measure 248) is almost a golden section of the entire movement 248 =.389). not four. introduced to bring it to a satisfactory close. occurs at measure 306.
Richard Wagner (18131883) sat down to write a mythic opera about the delays and disappointments of tragic love. "Close. however. Wagner's Prelude to Tristan und Isolde When. Well. By "key" we mean what scale. or collection of notes. The process of continually reediting his music was Beethoven's usual practice. which are easier to play. for he wrestled mightily until his almost indecipherable scores were finally finished and could be sent to befuddled copyists and publishers. but no cigar. has no precedent and is dramatically shocking and perplexing to those familiar with sonataallegro form. This astounding solo occurs only six measures from the golden section of the entire movement (626· . which the oboe plays. F." you say. like Mozart. E. is being used as the primary material of a piece of music. and get to the I/J at the heart of the prelude that opens this masterpiece. At the beginning of every line of music there is what we call a key signature. in the heat of creation. in effect. measures were added and subtracted with the final result as we see it now. in the late 1850s. he had a plan to force a gigantic leap in the art of musical composition. C major is a scale that contains the notes C. Anyway. G. was a composer who liked to play games. Perhaps the most extraordinary evidence of Wagner's game playing is his deliberate use of the golden section to delineate significant keys in the Tristan prelude. Wagner. So revolutionary is this work that today theorists are still arguing about its construction. B. Beginning pianists like this scale because it is comprised of only white notes. We will bypass all that extraordinary stuff. a piece that is in C major uses the notes of that scale as the building blocks of its composition. but it is tantalizingly close.618 = measure 386). 0. we will never know if Beethoven had intended this special moment to occur at a golden section. This is a collection of flats or sharps that composers put there so they do not have to notate the flats and sharps next to every note. and C. A.282 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS tle cadenza. a form of musi . and it is possible that. It is.
but revolutionary. it looks like this: 1. it is A minor. In measure 43. if you see a sharp (#) on the F line of the staff in the key signature. like so many composers. For example. So the question is. but would not have let slip that he was using this principle. In this case. the key signature changes to A major (three sharps) even though the key is not A major.42 measures . It should be mentioned that European intellectuals in the 1850s were familiar with the principle of the golden section. music you hear is never actually in any keythe tonal orientation moves frequently from key to key. What is strange about this is the fact that the beautiful. indicating that the scale being used is either C major or A minor. Why would Wagner go to the trouble of changing key signatures twice in a piece that really isn't in any key? The extreme fluctuation of keys does not seem to call for a key signature.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 283 cal short hand. not F naturals (white notes). He. Wagner certainly knew about it.41 measures I Figure 87 Look familiar? Have you done the math? The double bar at the end of measure 70 divides the III measures by a section that is extremely close to the golden section (~=630). it means that the performer should play only F sharps (black notes).II . since it had come back into vogue around this time.28 measures . did not like to tell his audience how he did his tricks of musical magic. An examination of the score of the prelude reveals something very strange. If you chart this phenomenon. and both changes take place in the middle of phrases. most Wagner theorists did not realize that the golden section applications were at work in this piece. Until recently. and the double bar III . In measure 71 the key signature returns to A minor.II . The key signature of the piece has no flats or sharps. They lay undiscovered for more than 140 years. These composers assumed that trained musicians who were curious would dig into their scores in order to unearth the hidden secrets.
Figure 88 Wagner: Prelude to Tristan und Isolde. why not? While it is true that he placed the double bars at the end of measure 70. these events are critical to the construction of the piece. The question is: Should we expect Wagner to do something really special at the golden mean? The answer is: Sure. The harmonic events that take place at each of these points of demarcation may not mean much to you unless you are a scholar of Wagner's chromaticism and shifting tonal centers. Wagner knew what he was doing.618 = 68. There are applications of the golden sections all over the place. measures 6869 are significant be . (obtained by: 111· . it is not at the golden section (measure 68).6). The following information is only for musicians. threequarters of the way through the piecevery late in the game by traditional standards.6).284 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS at the end of measure 42 does the same thing for the first 70 measures (~=. If you are wondering where Wagner put his climax. but in measure 83. the foolishly curious. as you can see by looking at the diagram in figure 88. This is only one of the many fascinating ways this piece is organized in terms of key structure. But rest assured. or mathematical sticklers. The golden mean of a piece 111 measures long is calculated to be measure 68.
What he produced was the Music for Strings. harp. 7. It is a piece that uses no woodwinds or brass instruments in its ensemble. also known as an interval. and Celesta When. This masterpiece is comprised of four movements. Just in case you forgot what you learned in Music 10 I. and Celesta. At this point you hear the fugue subject in the second voice. and this final dominant is preceded by a supertonic Bo. This is the only true iiV progression in the tonic kel (Am) in the entire piece! The strategic importance of measures 6971 is reinforced not only by the return to the opening key signature but also by the shift away from E9 to G 9 . accompanied by a countermelody in the continuation of the 5.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 285 cause they contain the last of the dominants 5 in A minor (E 9 ) that began in measure 63. Percussion. . tamtam. he decided to provide the wealthy conductor with something very special. snare drum. It is quintessential Bartok. or the chord built on that note. tympani. A dominant is the fifth note ofa scale. as well as the arrival at the apexthe only consecutive return of the opening AF dyad 7 in either the melody or the bass line! Bartok's Music for Strings. A dyad is any two notes or pitches (consecutively or simultaneously). xylophone. celesta. additive musical process that begins with a solo statement of the fugue subject (melody). in 1936. 6. cymbals. When the statement ends (it can be anywhere from a few notes to a protracted melody). bass drum. the first of which is a fugue. and piano. Percussion. Bela Bartok (18811945) was commissioned by Paul Sacher (19061999) to write a work for chamber orchestra. one of the seminal works of the twentieth century. Its sound is totally unique. This instrumentation had never been used before. A tonic is the first note of a scale. a fugue is a contrapuntal (two or more melodies at the same time). or has been since. it is imitated in another voice (or instrument) at a different pitch level (higher or lower). but dyad sounds better when the two pitches in question are important. the dominant of C major. What we hear is a small string orchestra in combination with a variety of percussion instruments: side drum.
something we call stretto. we move on to the development section. and we have three or four countermelodies all playing together. That is left to the composer's imagination and invention. and each of them gets to state the subject in the opening section we call the exposition. and are so far in the twentyfirst century. Two centuries after Bach. The most striking update is the presentation of the fugue subject on all twelve steps of the chromatic scale (all the black and white notes within one octave) beginning with A. The arrival on the twelfth pitch (E flat) in measure 56 is also the climax of the piece and is very close to golden in its proportion (~=63). but fugues were relatively rare in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It is not an easy thing to write because it is the musical equivalent of a crossword puzzle that makes sense both vertically and horizontally at the same time. The first statement begins on A and the second is a fifth higher on E. Bartok provides us with one humdinger of a fugue in the first movement of his Music. It is a form that was quite popular in the baroque period. There is no prescription for what should be done.286 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS first voice. Composers since Bach have tried their hand at this complicated contrapuntal challenge. The third entrance is a fifth lower than A (D) and is followed by an entrance a fifth high than E (B). the statements work their way back through all twelve pitches until the final statement on A. There may also be a lot of overlapping of subject statements. Figure 89 shows how the subject entrances are related by pitch. The subject may be played by one or more voices in inversion (upside down). The pattern of fifths continues until measure 56. where we find all the strings . a super fugue for the twentieth century. What he did was take an old idea and dress it up in new clothes. It is. and Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750) was undoubtedly its master. When each of the voices has had a chance to present the subject. From this point to the end of the piece. It is here that just about anything can happen. in effect. backward. it may be rhythmically altered or chopped into pieces. Most fugues have three or four voices.
There are other games at work in this score. This simultaneous. But. The scheme works backward from there until the end: EI G# c# F# B E AI c# F# B E 56 A D A D G C G C F F BI EI BI Figure 89 If you take a good look at the diagram in figure 810. you will notice that it bears an uncanny resemblance to figure 88. This diagram (figure 810) displays the significant golden section and its relationship to subject statements or entrances of new instrumental colors. The fugue subject is comprised of four little phrases.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 287 playing in unison E flats. When we come to the last phrase of the fugue. with Bartok being more of a traditionalist than was Wagner seventyseven years earlier. It is obvious from the pitch scheme and the use of the golden section that this piece is one enormously complicated game. . but they require more training and patience on the part of the reader than may be appropriate here. one or two more delicious morsels couldn't hurt. each of which rises and falls like a miniature version of the grand scheme of the piece. mirrored bow form (AE flatA) looks and sounds like a miniature version of the diagram you see below. we find the second phrase of the subject played by the first violin. The major difference is the placement of the climaxes. while the second violin plays its inversion. lest you feel cheated.
many luminaries in the generation that included the likes of Pierre Boulez (b. It was his . mood. passion. His music had a new technology clothed in an outofdate aesthetic. not sacred brains). While it is true that all composers play mind games with themselves in the process of creating music. or musical narrative that can move an audience to tears or rapture. Percussion. He was always the Romantic. 1916) lost sight of the fact that people are mostly emotional beings. Too many of the works from that period are brilliantly calculated but are devoid of the color. he imbued his soundscapes with the nineteenthcentury Romanticism of his youth. Here was a brilliant mind that was searching for a replacement for the diatonic tonal system and. When Arnold Schonberg (18741951) applied his twelvetone method (formulated in 1924). in the process. created exquisitely crafted works that few people wanted to hear. 1925) and Milton Babbitt (b. Good Math. not numerical calculators (sacred hearts.288 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS tlml'd"j Figure 810 Bartok: Music for Strings. Bad Music A possible reason that much contemporary music has never been well received may be that too many composers got lost in the number games of twentiethcentury compositional practice. and Celesta.
What this music often lacked was modesty. Over many decades the musically adventurous among us have attended too many concerts where minds were dazzled. UNIVAC is an acronym. too. His music invites us to sing along. we spend a lifetime trying to figure out how he did it. Music is a communication from heart to heart and mind to mindit must tell us what it means to be a human being. Anton von Webem (18831945). it did not. 8 The most difficult part of being a composer is trying to balance the heart and the mind. tuneful lyricism disguised his underlying machinery. Too often they heard a vast amount of musical data without hearing anything that seemed to be meaningful. who believe otherwise. . Mozart played as many mind games as anyone who ever lived. Here is a fellow who has employed a great deal of mathematical calculations in his compositional process with questionable results. Many art forms in 8. like minimalist composer Tom Johnson (b. and their performances reflected that ignorancethey were insipid. 1939). who seemed to apply an aesthetic that was truly modem. but hearts were unmoved. once we are seduced by his magic. UNIV AC was one of the eight major computer companies throughout most of the 1960s. only he hid his calculations where only the refined ear and eye could find them. He just disguised his romanticism better than Schonberg. more in tune with the times and the new notepicking system. There are those. standing for UNIVersal Automatic Computer. was a Romantic. and it does not take much to tilt slightly in the wrong direction with results that are brilliantly insipid and vacuous. Well. and.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND MUSICAL FORM 289 student. His outfront. Often they went home unable to remember a single musical gesture. His sparse textures must be performed with the same passion that one would apply to the music of Johannes Brahms (18331897) and Gustav Mahler (18601911). only the attention is focused on far fewer notes. For a long time performers of his music did not realize that he. not a UNIV AC. This misunderstanding of W ebem' s underlying Romanticism led a lot of young composers that followed him to believe they could play all those wonderful numerical and structural mind games and everything would work out just fine.
but an hour later they are hungry for something more profound. for wanting to work with a minimum of musical materials.9 This is in tune with the philosophy originally promoted by John Cage (19121992).org/johness4. but have not found wide acceptance. Many who have heard Johnson's music feel that he fulfills his minimalist intentions most effectively. Sometimes 1 explain that my reasons for being a minimalist. is because it also helps me to minimize arbitrary selfexpression. when listening to his music.html. a highly influential thinker whose music has never found wide acceptance with a paying audience. something outside myself. something that doesn't try to manipulate the emotions of the listener either. Pieces such as his Narayana's Cows.ChronicleoftheNonPopRevolution. not to compose it. and that 1 am seeking something more objective. http://www. For them. you 9. it means that you are of stout heart and firm mind because. The Coda If you are still reading..Kalvos. They experience the musical equivalent of eating a vegetarian snackwhile at the concert they are entertained by a skillful array of sounds.. It's too often the case that good math doesn't make good music.290 THE FABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS the twentieth century have had practitioners who eschew their own humanity. for a book that was supposed to be about math. "I want to find the music. something that doesn't express my emotions. . Johnson admits this denial of the personal element as follows: 1 have often tried to explain that my music is a reaction against the romantic and expressionistic musical past. Sometimes 1 say. Many people. come away disappointed that they have not been touched by the personal revelations of a sentient being. emotion plays no part in the artistic process. are pleasing to some. a composition that employs the Fibonacci series as a pitch generator.
It is. unquestionably. here are the Fibonacci proportions to get you started. Antonio Stradivarius ( 1644. can be an extraordinary conveyor of passionate expression. it is by no means the whole story.THE FIBONACCI NUMBERS AND M USICAL FORM 291 have been inundated by an awful lot of music theory. Today. you can see that though the golden mean plays a significant role in music. the most famous maker of violins. if you got this far. components. and assembly of his instruments have been studied and imitated by a ll those attempting to replicate an instrument that sings freely and projects to the farthe st reaches of the concert hall. Be low you will find a little reminder of Fibonacci in music: a picture ofa violin with its proportions re lated to 4>. If you can ' t make the payments on a "Strad" and want to go out to the shop to see what you can paste together. His instruments set a standard that is still being fo llowed today. But. Good luck! Figure 811 . a lovely shape to behold and.1737) is. The proportions. hi s instruments cost severa l mill ion dollars on those rare occasions when they come on the market. undoubted ly. when put in the right hands.
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we will gently take you through some elementary algebra. 3. explaining all of our steps along the way. examine a simple and very wellknown kind of numberthe square numberto determine what it means to work with a recursive sequence of numbers such as the Fibonacci numbers. 1. 34. thus. 21. This would give us 55 as the tenth Fibonacci number.Chapter 9 The Famous Binet Formula for Finding a Particular Fibonacci Number ntil now. we usually inspected the Fibonacci numbers by their location in their sequence. we would write the sequence to 10 numbers. 2. After all. Well. If we wanted to find the tenth Fibonacci number. U 293 . we would simply list them as 1. if we seek. we need to understand what it means to derive such a formula. We will. 13. the French mathematician JacquesPhilippeMarie Binet (17861856) provided us with a formula for finding any Fibonacci number without actually listing the sequence as we just did. however. But before we embark on this somewhat tedious task. In other words. the fiftieth Fibonacci number. and then we would have the tenth number. listing fifty Fibonacci numbers is no easy matter if you don't have the list handy that we after you in appendix A. Such a procedure can be somewhat cumbersome. 8. 5. 55 and count to the tenth number in the sequence. say. To develop this formula.
we would get the fol 10wing: 1 I. We know that SI = I. .9. then wc simpl y square 6 to get 36.36. then we square 118 to get 11 8 · 11 8 = 13. the Oth square number. O.64 .294 THE F ABULOUS FIBONACCI NUMBERS Figure 91 JacquesPhilippeMarie Binet. This is an explicit d efin ition of the square numbers. 16. Using this definition. + (2n + I) . 81.25. 4.49. Suppose we seek to find the s ixth square number (remember. Let 's try 10 set up a recursive defin ition of the square numbers. the square numbers are 1. The recursive nature o f the Fibonacci numbers comes from the defin itive relati onsh ip: Fhl = F~ + F"~I' w here we know that F.. If we are call ed on to find the 11 8th square number. and so on). We ean a lso usc that. We are accustomed to finding any Fibonacci number in the sequence as long as we know its two preceding numbers.1 = s.924. = I and Fl = I. and we wi ll see that 5. We begin with the defin ition of S• • which wi ll represent the nth square number.so ..
which leads us to the recursive re lationship as d isplayed below. Since 1 + 3 + 5 + .. Even tho ugh we can easily prove this by the technique known as mathematica l induction. and (n + 1)2 = n 2 + (2n + I). we are trying to show that there is a recursive relati onship from which one can also generate square numberseven though it is ridiculously more compl icated. 3 "'S"7"'~ )6 ~ I ')+ 5 +7+9+ 11 4~ . which can serve a similar purpose . we can see this in a geometric representation (figure 92). + (2 · 4+ This tells us that we can get a square number by adding to its predecessorsquare number a number that is one greater than twice the position number of that square.. I + I) = I + 3 = 4 = Sz+(2· 2 + 1) = 4 + 5 = 9 = S}+(2· 3 + 1) = 9+ 7 = 16 1) = 16+9=25 S~= S.1I + IJ + 15 +!7 100 .1. SJ S... Of course. From this we can a lso conclude that the sum o f consecutive odd numbers (beginning