Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh ਭਗਤ ਿਸੰਘ ‫ب ھگت سنگ ھ‬

Bhagat Singh in prison 28 September 1907 Born Lyallpur, Punjab, British India 23 March 1931[1][2] (age 23) Died Lahore, Punjab, British India Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Organization Kirti Kissan Party, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association Influenced by Anarchism, Communism, Socialism Political movement Indian Independence movement Religion Sikhism (early life), Atheism[3][4][5][6][7][8] (later life)
Bhagat Singh (Punjabi: ਭਗਤ ਿਸੰਘ ‫[ ,بھگت سنگھ‬pə̀ɡət̪ sɪ́ŋɡ]) (28 September 1907[9] – 23 March 1931[2][1] ) was an Indian freedom fighter, considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of theIndian independence movement. He is often referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh (the word shaheed meaning "martyr"). Born to a Jat[10] Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary activities against the British Raj, Singh, as a teenager, became an atheist and had studied European revolutionary movements. He also became attracted to anarchism and marxist ideologies.[11] He became involved in numerous revolutionary organizations. He quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) and became one of its leaders, converting it to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Singh gained support when he underwent a 64-day fast in jail, demanding equal rights for Indian and British political prisoners.[12] He was hanged for shooting a police officer in response to the killing of veteran freedom fighter Lala Lajpat Rai. His legacy prompted youth in India to begin fighting for Indian independence and contributed to the rise of socialism in India.[13]

• •

1 Early life 2 Later revolutionary activities

2.1 Lala Lajpat Rai's death and the

1 Mahatma Gandhi 4.4 Death 4 Controversy ○ ○ 4. .2.2 Bomb in the assembly 2.Saunders murder ○ ○ • 2.2 Saunders family ○ ○ • • • • • 5.2 Conspiracy theories   • 5 Legacy 4.1 Indian independence movement 5.2 Marxism 3.2.1 Anarchism 3.1 Last wish 4.3 Trial and execution 3 Ideals and opinions ○ ○ ○ ○ • 3.2 Modern day 6 Criticism 7 Quotations 8 See also 9 References 10 External links [edit]Early life Bhagat Singh's ancestral home.3 Atheism 3.

Bhagat Singh was the secretary of the meet. and he was nicknamed "Bhaganwala" by his grandmother. His later revolutionary activities were carried out as a leader of this association. Uttar Pradesh.[18] Unlike many Sikhs his age. Following Gandhi's withdrawal of the movement after the violent murders of policemen by villagers from Chauri Chaura.000 after about five weeks of his arrest. because his grandfather did not approve of the school officials' loyalism to the British authorities. He also joined the Hindustan Republican Association through introduction by history teacher. but returned to Lahore for unknown reasons. Singh did not attend Khalsa High School in Lahore. Bhagat famously won an essay competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. joined the Young Revolutionary Movement and began advocating a violent movement against the British. Chandrashekhar Azad and Ashfaqulla Khan. Singh.Bhagat Singh was born into a Sandhu Jatt[11] family to Sardar Kishan Singh Sandhu and Vidyavati in the Khatkar Kalan village near Banga in the Lyallpur district of Punjab. His uncles. Bhagat Singh started studying at the National College in Lahore. He read a lot of poetry and literature which was written by Punjabi writers and his favourite poet was Allama Iqbal from Sialkot. an Arya Samajist school.[22] In his teenage years. and Bhagat Singh was arrested for his alleged involvement in this Dasara Bomb Case in 29 May 1927. was a follower of Swami Dayananda Saraswati's Hindu reformist movement. a meeting of various revolutionaries from across India was called at Delhi under the banner of the Kirti Kissan Party. meaning "The lucky one".[15]He came from a patriotic Jatt Sikh family.[23] but ran away from home to escape early marriage. Ajit Singh was forced to flee to Persia because of pending cases against him while Swaran Singh was hanged on 19 December 1927 for his involvement in the Kakori train robbery of 1925. [17] which would carry a heavy influence on Singh. Singh began to followMahatma Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement.[24] which had prominent leaders like Ram Prasad Bismil.[25] It is believed that he went to Kanpur to attempt free Kakori train robbery prisoners from the jail. Arya Samaj. At this age.[30] In September 1928. his father enrolled him in Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School. disgruntled with Gandhi's nonviolence action.[11] In the Naujawan Bharat Sabha. as well as his father were members of the Ghadar Party. he quoted famous Punjabi literature and discussed the Problems of the Punjab.[16] His grandfather. and became a member of the organisation Naujawan Bharat Sabha ("Youth Society of India"). Ajit Singh and Swaran Singh. Arjun Singh. led byKartar Singh Sarabha Grewal and Har Dayal.[21] In 1923.60.[20] At age 13.[19] Instead. At this point he had openly defied the British and had followed Gandhi's wishes by burning his government-school books and any British-imported clothing.[14] Singh's given name of Bhagat means "devotee".[28][29] He wrote for and edited Urdu andPunjabi newspapers published from Amritsar. [edit]Later revolutionary activities . some of whom had participated in movements supporting the independence of India and others who had served inMaharaja Ranjit Singh's army. Professor Vidyalankar. a bomb was blasted in Lahore.[27] and was released on a bail of Rs.[26] On the day of Dasara in October 1926. This grabbed the attention of members of the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan including its General Secretary Professor Bhim Sen Vidyalankar. Singh and his fellow revolutionaries grew popular amongst the youth.

However. Jai Gopal and Sukhdev Thapar. the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association planned to explode a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly where the ordinance was going to be passed.[31] Bhagat Singh. but the police responded with violence. vowed to take revenge. Lahore. Saunders. who was an eyewitness to this event. instead of Scott. the British government enacted the Defence of India Act to give more power to the police. To avoid recognition. a violation of the sacred tenets of Sikhism. [31] He later succumbed to his injuries.[edit]Lala Lajpat Rai's death and the Saunders murder A rare historical photograph of students and staff of National College. while Batukeshwar Dutt should carry on the bombing with Sukhdev. Shahid Bhagat Singh quickly left Lahore to escape the police.[34] Bhagat Singh also disapproved that the two should be escorted after the bombing by the rest of the party. was shot.[34] It was decided that Bhagat Singh should go to Russia.[33] The purpose of the Act was to combat revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh. [33] However. in a case of mistaken identity. Shivaram Rajguru. that Batukeshwar Dutt and Bhagat Singh would carry on the bombing. he shaved his beard and cut his hair.[34] Sukhdev then forced Bhagat Singh to call for another meeting and here it was decided. The Indian political parties boycotted the commission because it did not include a single Indian as its member and it was met with protests all over the country. against the initial agreement. The British government created a commission under Sir John Simon to report on the current political situation in India in 1928. In response to this act. This idea was originated by Bhagat Singh. Thus. who was influenced by a similar bombing by a martyr anarchist Auguste Vaillant in the French Assembly. Saunders. When the commission visited Lahore on 30 October 1928. Gopal signalled Singh on the appearance of J. Lala Lajpat Rai led the protest against Simon Commission in a silent nonviolent march. the Act was then passed under the ordinance that claimed that it was in the best interest of the public. in a plot to kill the police chief. Shaheed Bhagat Singh can be seen standing fourth from the right. P. Scott.[32] He joined with other revolutionaries. Jai Gopal was supposed to identify the chief and signal for Singh to shoot.[34] .[31] Lala Lajpat Rai was beaten with lathis at the chest. a Deputy Superintendent of Police. which was started by Lala Lajpat Rai for education of students participating in the non-cooperation movement. [edit]Bomb in the assembly In the face of actions by the revolutionaries.

[36] The bomb neither killed nor injured anyone. Bhagat Singh decided to use the court as a tool to publicise his cause for the independence of India. This created an uproar amongst Singh's supporters as he could no longer publicise his views. and the other members of HSRA were arrested. helping the police to connect Bhagat Singh in the murder of J. and by the fact that the bomb was thrown away from people.[35] This was followed by a shower of leaflets stating that it takes a loud voice to make the deaf hear. This pen was used by the judge to write death sentences to the three martyrs. On 15 April 1929.[39] The case was ordered to be carried out without members of the HSRA present at the hearing.[37] He and Dutt were sentenced to 'Transportation for Life' for the bombing on 12 June 1929. Birmingham. [edit]Trial and execution Front page of The Tribune announcing Bhagat Singh's execution. Hinks Wells & Co. a claim substantiated both by British forensics investigators who found that the bomb was not powerful enough to cause injury. United Kingdom.[38] Bhagat Singh. The Latem. Saunders.On 8 April 1929. and Sukhdev were charged with the murder.[37] Singh and Dutt gave themselves up for arrest after the bomb. P. Singh and Dutt threw a bomb onto the corridors of the assembly and shouted "Inquilab Zindabad!" ("Long Live the Revolution!"). Singh and Dutt claimed that this was deliberate on their part. Rajguru. the 'Lahore Bomb Factory' was discovered by the Lahore police. . the broken nib has the name of the manufacturer. out of which 7 turned informants.

that shifted the Lahore Conspiracy Case Trial from the court of Rai Sahib Pandit Sri Kishan to a Special Tribunal of three judges.[52] According to the Superintendent of Police at the time. he also wrote a pamphlet entitled "Why I am an atheist".[44] this tribunal convicted Singh among others and sentenced him to be hanged till death. as he was being accused of vanity by not accepting God in the face of death. who. the availability of books and a daily newspaper.[40] During this hunger strike that lasted 63 days and ended with the British succumbing to his wishes. one of the politicians present when the Central Legislative Assembly was bombed. Bhagat Singh and other prisoners launched a hunger strike advocating for the rights of prisoners and those facing trial.[50] It is also said that he signed a mercy petition through a comrade Bijoy Kumar Sinha on 8 March 1931. The reason for the strike was that British murderers and thieves were treated better than Indian political prisoners. who had been protesting against the hanging. which is resented by the people".While in jail.[41] Muhammad Ali Jinnah. the hanging was advanced: . and he believes in the justice of his cause. by law. as well as better clothing and the supply of toiletry necessities and other hygienic necessities. by declaring an emergency. This Special Tribunal was given the power to proceed with the case in the absence of the accused and accept death of the persons giving evidence as a benefit to the defence.commenting on the hunger strike he said "the man who goes on hunger strike has a soul. he gained much popularity among the common Indians. He also demanded that political prisoners should not be forced to do any labour or undignified work.[45][46] An abortive plan had been made to rescue Bhagat Singh and fellow inmates of HSRA from the jail. this damnable system of governance. He is moved by that soul. The aims in their strike were to ensure a decent standard of food for political prisoners.[49] While in the condemned cell. On 7 October 1930. immediately declared him as ashaheed or martyr. Prominent in his diary were the views of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. His supporters. In this diary he made numerous notes relating to the quotations and popular sayings of various people whose views he supported. Also. V. but died making them as they exploded accidentally. Smith. it is the system. the verdict of this special court could not be challenged in higher court. for the purpose of which Bhagwati Charan Vohra made bombs. which he eventually made to fill 404 pages. an ordinance was passed by Lord Irwin.[51] On 23 March 1931. Before the strike his popularity was limited mainly to the Punjab region. were meant to be given better rights.[43] On 1 May 1930.[48] The comments in his diary led to an understanding of the philosophical thinking of Bhagat Singh. [42] made no secret of his sympathies for the Lahore prisoners . Bhagat Singh was hanged in Lahore with his fellow comrades Rajguru and Sukhdev.N." And talking of Singh's actions said "however much you deplore them and however much you say they are misguided.[47] Bhagat Singh also maintained the use of a diary.

" He wrote about the growth of anarchism. the Bhagat Singh Memorial commemorates freedom fighters of India..[57] Singh was an atheist and promoted the concept of atheism by writing a pamphlet titled Why I am an Atheist. "The people are scared of the word anarchism. There will be no chains on the body or .[11] He expressed concern over misunderstanding of the concept of anarchism among the public. according to which no one will be obsessed with God or religion. Lenin. worked hard to spread the doctrine.[60] Some of his writings like "Blood Sprinkled on the Day of Holi Babbar Akalis on the Crucifix" were influenced by the struggle of Dharam Singh Hayatpur." As anarchism means absence of ruler and abolition of state. Bhagat Singh serially published several articles on anarchism in Punjabi periodical Kirti. not absence of order. the Sanskrit sentence vasudhaiva kutumbakam etc. but it was decided to act at once before the public could become aware of what had happened. interpreted as a signal that the final curtain was about to drop. Today. has the same meaning. 1928. Bakunin. Singh tried to eradicate the misconception among people about anarchism. The word anarchism has been abused so much that even in India revolutionaries have been called anarchist to make them unpopular.[54] [edit]Ideals and opinions Bhagat Singh was attracted to anarchism and communism.Normally execution took place at 8 am. Singh explained. He was followed by Prince Kropotkinetc. This was correctly. After him a Russian.[61] [edit]Anarchism From May to September. He wrote. Trotsky andBakunin."[11] Singh explained anarchism in the article: The ultimate goal of Anarchism is complete independence. where sand and newspaper stained with his blood and his half burnt bones are preserved.[11] Both communism and western anarchism had influence on him.[59] When Bhagat Singh's father petitioned the British government to pardon his son.[58] Bhagat Singh was also an admirer of the writings of Irish revolutionary Terence MacSwiney.At about 7 pm shouts of Inquilab Zindabad were heard from inside the jail."the first man to explicitly propagate the theory of Anarchism was Proudhon and that is why he is called the founder of Anarchism.. Engels. "I think in India the idea of universal brotherhood.[53]  Bhagat Singh Memorial Singh was cremated at Hussainiwala on banks of Sutlej river. nor will anybody be crazy for money or other worldly desires. He read the teachings of Marx.. Bhagat Singh quoted Terence MacSwiney and said ""I am confident that my death will do more to smash the British Empire than my release" and told his father to withdraw the petition.[52]  Bhagat Singh Museum A museum by the name "Shaheed-e-azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum" has been built at his maternal village.[55][56] Bhagat Singh did not believe in Gandhian philosophy and felt that Gandhian politics would replace one set of exploiters with another.

he replied that he was studying the life of Lenin and he wanted to finish it before his death.[63] He did not understand how members of these two groups. N.[11] [edit]Marxism Bhagat Singh was also influenced by Marxism. God and Religion. but he declined to sign it.[62] [edit]Atheism Singh began to question religious ideologies after witnessing the Hindu-Muslim riots that broke out after Gandhi disbanded the Non-Cooperation Movement. Indian historian K.control by the state. He supported his own beliefs and claimed that he used to be a firm believer in The Almighty. Panikkar described Singh as one of the early Marxists in India.[67] Singh is himself considered a martyr for acting to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai. he wrote a pamphlet entitled Why I am an Atheist in which he discusses and advocates the philosophy of atheism. In the leaflet he threw in the Central Assembly on 9 April 1929. This means that they want to eliminate: the Church. visited him in the jail on 20 March. four days before his execution. Bhagat Singh's friend. This pamphlet was a result of some criticism by fellow revolutionaries on his failure to acknowledge religion and God while in a condemned cell. the state. the accusation of vanity was also dealt with in this pamphlet. Trotsky — all atheist revolutionaries.[57] From 1926. Lenin. he wanted to die so that his death would inspire the youth of India which in turn will unite them to fight the British Empire. He also took an interest in Niralamba Swami's[64]book Common Sense. but could not bring himself to believe the myths and beliefs that others held close to their hearts. Prannath Mehta.[11] In written documents.[68] After engaging in studies on the Russian Revolution. Bhagat Singh studied the history of the revolutionary movement in India and abroad. Singh used quotations from Vladmir Lenin (on imperialism being the highest stage of capitalism) and Trotsky on revolution. In his prison notebooks. he stated that It is easy to kill individuals but you cannot kill the ideas. and began studying the works of Bakunin. Singh dropped his religious beliefs. Private property.[65] While in a condemned cell in 1931. At this point. when asked what was his last wish.[66] [edit]Death Bhagat Singh was known for his appreciation of martyrdom. Great empires crumbled while the ideas survived. which advocated a form of "mystic atheism". with a draft letter for clemency. In this pamphlet.[69] [edit]Controversy . Bhagat Singh and two others had written a letter to the Viceroy asking him to treat them as prisoners of war and hence to execute them by firing squad and not by hanging. While in prison. since he believed religion hindered the revolutionaries' struggle for independence. he acknowledged the fact that religion made death easier. could be at each others' throats because of their religious differences. but also said that unproved philosophy is a sign of human weakness. His mentor as a young boy was Kartar Singh Sarabha. initially united in fighting against the British.

[70][71][72] Bhagat was condemned on 7 October 1930 contradicting his presence in condemned cells on the 4 October. much less arrange it. He also said that he was opposed to Singh's execution (and. A variation of this theory is that Gandhi actively conspired with the British to have Singh executed. Gandhi's supporters say that Gandhi did not have enough influence with the British to stop the execution. Furthermore. Gandhi's supporters assert that Singh's role in the independence movement was no threat to Gandhi's role as its leader. the desire to get "amrit" from Randhir Singh and to once again adorn the 5 k's."[80] Gandhi also once said.[74][75] He had expressed. for that matter. capital punishment in general) and proclaimed that he had no power to stop it. "I cannot in all conscience agree to anyone being sent to the gallows. when Randhir Singh was released from the jail. his last wish. [69] . "The government certainly had the right to hang these men. Bhagat mentioned to him. he did plead several times for the commutation of the death sentence of Bhagat Singh.[citation needed] According to a report in the Indian magazine Frontline. during his lifetime.[75][76] However. always maintained that he was a great admirer of Singh's patriotism. including a personal visit on 19 March 1931. Randhir Singh being the only source of information about sudden change in Bhagat Singh's point of view towards religion casts doubts. that he (Bhagat Singh) had shaven "hair and beard under pressingcircumstances" and that "It was for the service of the country" that his companions "compelled him to give up the Sikh appearance" adding to it that he was "ashamed". [edit]Last wish Many believe that Bhai Randhir Singh. On Singh's execution. as mentioned in his book "Jail Chithiyan" by Randhir Singh himself. However."[77][78][79] [edit]Conspiracy theories Many conspiracy theories exist regarding Singh. and in a letter to the Viceroy on the day of their execution. there are some rights which do credit to those who possess them only if they are enjoyed in name only. pleading fervently for commutation." Gandhi had managed to have 90. not knowing that the letter would be too late. Gandhi. prison inmate and a known figure in Sikh circles. as Bhagat Singh had been a strong critic of religion. God alone can take life because He alone gives it.[73] According to Randhir Singh. a revolutionary of 1st Lahore Conspiracy Case and Gadhar. as his last wish before being hanged. Gandhi said. of getting "amrit" was not granted by the British.[76]Some scholars are skeptic about this meeting as. and so Gandhi would have no reason to want him dead.000 political prisoners who were not members of his Satyagraha movement released under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Rajguru and Sukhdev. met with Bhagat Singh in condemned cells in Lahore Central Jail on 4 October 1930.Bhagat Singh's life is the subject of controversy. especially the events surrounding his death: [edit]Mahatma Gandhi One of the most popular ones is that Mahatma Gandhi had an opportunity to stop Singh's execution but did not. on capital punishment.

Gandhi did appreciate Bhagat's patriotism and how he had overcome the fear of death. youths in regions aroundNorthern India rioted in protest against the British Raj and Gandhi.[86] [87] [89] Possibly the first is Shaheed-e-Azad Bhagat Singh (1954). in which Ajay Devgan played Singh and Amrita Rao was featured in a brief role. I reflected first on what significance it surely was that the apostle of non-violence should so earnestly be pleading the cause of the devotees of a creed so fundamentally opposed to his own. the Viceroy.[82] [edit]Legacy [edit]Indian independence movement Bhagat Singh's death had the effect that he desired and he inspired thousands of youths to assist the remainder of the Indian independence movement.[88] followed by Shaheed Bhagat Singh (1963). and Sukhdev were deliberately hanged in such a manner as to leave all three in a semi-conscious state. in particular. Two major films about Singh were released in 2002. Another major film Shaheed-E-Azam. also was produced by Iqbal Dhillon under the banner Surjit Movies. The Legend of Bhagat Singh is Rajkumar Santoshi's adaptation. Manoj Kumar portrayed Bhagat Singh in an immensely popular and landmark film.S.[83] [edit]Modern day Singh's contribution to Indian society[84] and. but did not support the violence involved. Maanav Vij. Rajinder Gupta. but I should regard it as wholly wrong to allow my judgment to be influenced by purely political considerations. Two years later. I could not imagine a case in which under the law. Rajguru. the future of socialism in India.[81] [edit]Saunders family On 28 October 2005.Lord Irwin. penalty had been more directly deserved. a group of intellectuals have set up an institution to commemorate Singh and his ideals.[90]  Movies on Bhagat Singh . Shaheed. starring Shammi Kapoor as Singh. Sindhra was released. The Legend of Bhagat Singh and 23rd March 1931: Shaheed. with Sunny Deol and Aishwarya Rai in supporting roles. The book asserts that Singh. starring Sonu Sood. 23rd March 1931: Shaheed was directed by Guddu Dhanoa and starred Bobby Deol as Singh.[69] However. so that all three could later be taken outside the prison and shot dead by the Saunders family. Kooner and G. The book says that this was a prison operation codenamed "Operation Trojan Horse.[85] Several popular Bollywood films have been made capturing the life and times of Bhagat Singh. and Sadhana Singh. After his hanging. and directed by Sukumar Nair. a book entitled Some Hidden Facts: Martyrdom of Shaheed Bhagat Singh—Secrets unfurled by an Intelligence Bureau Agent of British-India [sic] by K." Scholars are sceptical of the book's claims. Gandhi putting the case for commutation before me. To celebrate the centenary of his birth. later said: As I listened to Mr.S.

but to make the best use of it here below. according to the governor “Singh was the first martyr of the subcontinent and his example was followed by many youth of the time. but to develop it harmoniously."[91][92] [edit]Criticism Bhagat Singh was criticised both by his contemporaries and by people after his death because of his violent and revolutionary stance towards the British and his strong opposition to the pacifist stance taken by the Indian National Congress and particularly Mahatma Gandhi. Khalid Maqbool. Basanti referring to the light-yellow color of the Mustard flower grown in the Punjab and also one of the two main colours of the Sikh religion as per the Sikh rehat meryada(code of conduct of the Sikh Saint-Soldier) ). beauty and good only in contemplation. but also in the actual experience of . Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna (translated as "the desire to sacrifice") and Mera Rang De Basanti Chola ("my light-yellow-coloured cloak".[93] The methods he used to make his point —shooting Saunders and throwing non-lethal bombs—were quite different fromGandhi's non-violent methodology. The movie revolves around a group of college students and how they each play the roles of Bhagat's friends and family. are largely associated to Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and have been used in a number of Bhagat Singh-related films. and not to realise truth. not to achieve salvation here after.   Shaheed-e-Azad Bhagat Singh (1954) Shaheed Bhagat Singh (1963) Shaheed (1965) The Legend of Bhagat Singh(2002) 23rd March 1931: Shaheed(2002) Shaheed-E-Azam(2003) Rang De Basanti(2006)     The 2006 film Rang De Basanti is a film drawing parallels between revolutionaries of Bhagat Singh's era and modern Indian youth. while created by Ram Prasad Bismil. announced that a memorial to Bhagat Singh will be displayed at Lahore museum.[87] In September 2007 the Governor of Punjab province. It covers a lot of Bhagat Singh's role in the Indian freedom struggle.[93] [edit]Quotations Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Bhagat Singh  "The aim of life is no more to control the mind. The patriotic Urdu and Hindi songs.

http://books. Diamond Books.Bhagat Singh. 1930 4. ISBN 9788128808272. pp. NIC.http://india. ^ [4] Philosophy of Bhagat Singh 8. universal brotherhood can be achieved only when there is an equality of opportunity . ^ [5] "Bhagat Singh's prison diary. and was slowing becoming a Marxist ^ a b Bhagat Singh :Indian revolutionary and freedom fighter.daily life. 2005. October 5– 6. books? id=PEwJQ6_eTEUC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA124#v=onepage&q &f=false. ^ [2] Understanding Bhagat Singh 6. Government of India." — from Bhagat Singh's prison diary. 2. ^ [3] Bhagat Singh on Atheism 1930 7. his 1929 statement in the trail court and a booklet he p." ^ Why I am an Atheist (Esay) . 124. "Why am I an atheist?" contain clear indications that the revolutionary hero was man of great reflection.of opportunity in the social. political and individual life. ^ [1] Celebrating Bhagat Singh 5. 124  "Inquilab Zindabad" (Long live the revolution)[94] [edit]See also      Sukhdev Thapar Chandrashekar Azad Udham Singh Rajguru Batukeshwar Dutt [edit]References 1. ^ a b "Indian History: Indian Freedom Struggle (18571947)". social progress depends not upon the ennoblement of the few but on the enrichment of democracy.php.

p30. Niraja (April 1997).http://www. 26. Delhi. Retrieved 1 January 2008. ISBN 81-7488-313-4. (2006). Retrieved 1 January 2008. K. Publications. Modern Asian Studies. New Delhi. 19. p. "Bhagat Singh and the Revolutionary Movement". 'Bhagat Singh as Satyagrahi'. 172. p. ^ India:Encyclopædia Britannica. ed (2002). ^ a b c d e f g h Rao. Students' Britannica India. p188. ^ "He left a rich legacy for the youth". p349. ^ Sanyal (2006). Dale H. 15. 14. vol.htm. "What if Bhagat Singh had lived". Vol. Ralhan. p20. Gurgaon. ^ Sanyal (2006). Bhagat Singh: Making of a Revolutionary: Contemporaries' Portrayals.http://www. Panjab Under the British Rule. Jitendra N. Kuldip (2006). New Delhi. ^ Neeti Nair. 2008.http://www. 20. The Martyr: Bhagat Singh Experiments in Revolution. B. ISBN 0-85229-760-2. Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. 1934 (Page 611) 11. ^ [6]"Bhaganwala" 16. (India). ISBN 81-7871-059-5.. 20–21. New Delhi. ISBN 8124107009. 18. ^ Reeta Sharma (21 March 2001). ^ Nayar. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Problems of the Punjab . 25. ^ Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi). ^ Sanyal. India: Anmol Publications. 19 March 2006. 21.Revolutionary Democracy 3 (1). Indu Ramchandani (2000). 13. ^ Nijjar. The Tribune.tribuneindia.tribuneindia. The Tribune. 10. 1849-1947. Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan. P. India: Hope India Publications. ^ dv3n1/bsingh. Inc. 22. 17.revolutionarydemocracy. 12.9. htm#2. Haryana. India: Har-Anand Publications. Bakhshish Singh (1974). pp. 1. htm#6.

^ a b [12] Defence of India Act 34.Ministry of Information. ^ [11] Additional Citation for Dusara Bomb Case Arrest 30.Page 441 of The Martyr: Bhagat Singh . 187. 24. ^ Sanyal (2006). ^ Sardar Bhagat Singh (1907-1931) . ^ [8]"Attempt to save Kakori case prisoners" 27. ^ [7] "Introduction into HRA" 25.Daily Times Pakistan 36. ^ [10] Arrest and bail details in 1927 . ^ a b [14] Statement on bomb thrown away and giving up for arrest 38.The Jail Notebook and Other Writings By Bhagat Singh . ^ Shahid Bhagat Singh Writings Leaflet Thrown in the Central Assembly Hall 37. 32. ^ [15] Discovery of Lahore Bomb Factor .Explanation to selection of candidates for bombing the assembly" 35. p23. ^ a b c d [13]"Encyclopaedia of Political Parties by Om Prakash Ralhan.Experiments in Revolution by Kuldip Nayar 39.Camana Lāla. p. ^ a b c Raghunath Rai.By Mahir Ali 33. ^ [9] Date of arrest in Dusara Bomb case in an article by Professor Chaman Lal 28. Anmol Publications (Page numbers 438 &439 . VK Publications. Bhupendra Hooja 29. ISBN 8187139692. History. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt's Demands from the British Government . Government of India 31. ^ Hindustan Socialist Republican Association 26. ^ Bhagat Singh remembered .23. ^ Requiem for a freedom fighter . ^ [16]"Professor Jagmohan Singh's research on the publicity done by HSRA through court" 40.

^ Terence MacSwiney"Terence MacSwiney" 60. India's Struggle for Independence. 58. 3. ^ The Tribune India Excerpts out of Martyrdom of Shaheed Bhagat Singh 54. p. Korea. 3 of 1930" 46. ^ In context to the Sections 1. ^ [17]"Date of judgement and ordinance details" 45. Japan & India 57. ^ [23]"Bhagat Singh infulenced by Terence MacSwiney" 61. ^ [21] "Mercy Petition" 52. ^ Asian Anarchism: China. 10 & 11 of the Ordinance 54130400. ^ [20] Why I am an Atheist 51. Retrieved 1 January 2008. ^ Bipan Chandra (1989). 4. says Panikkar". Penguin Books India. ^ [18]"Ordinance no. ^ The Tribune stood up for Bhagat Singh 43.21 December 2007 56. 258 59. ^ When Jinnah defended Bhagat Singh . ^ [19]"Plan to save Bhagat Singh and friends" 48. ^ Communist Party of India (Marxist) Bhagat Singh Remains Our Symbol of Revolution 42. ^ Shahid Bhagat Singh Jail Note Book of Shahid Bhagat Singh 49. ^ a b "Bhagat Singh an early Marxist. ^ Shahid Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh quotes from his jail note book 50. ^ a b CPIM Bhagat Singh Memorial Day Observed 53. 14 October 2007.http://www. ^ Bhagat Singh no terrorist: Govt Times of India . The Hindu.The Hindu 44. ^ [24]"Blood Sprinkled on the Day of Holi Babbar Akalis on the Crucifix" .hindu.41. 9. ^ [22]"Bhagat Singh Museum" 55.

62. 66. ^ a b c Frontline . "Although born into a Jat Sikh family and returning to the turban just prior to his execution. 1930 67.Bhagat Singh. 65. ^ Why I am an Atheist (Essay) . Randhir Singh: I was glad to see Bhagat Singh repentant and humble in his present attitude towards religious symbols" 75. ^ Bhagat Singh Documents Leaflet thrown in the Central Assembly Hall. ^ Niralamba Swami was the name taken by Bengali revolutionary Jatindra Nath Banerjee. p26. It was for the service of the country that my companions compelled me to give up the Sikh appearance. "Bhagat Singh: I'm really ashamed and am prepared to tell your frankly that I removed my hair and beard under pressing circumstances. Photos of the Gods: The Printed Image and Political Struggle in India. an early member of the Anushilan Samiti. October 5–6. ^ [27] Meeting in condemned cells in Lahore Central Jail 73. Trilochan (1971).. Christopher (2004). ^ Nayar. ^ [25] Autobiography of Bhai Randhir Singh "Jail Chithiyan" 71. 64. Reaktion Books.Of Means and Ends by Paresh R. Vaidya. ISBN 1861891849. ^ [26] Randhir Singh's confirmed release and possible meet with Bhagat Singh 72. New Delhi 69. ^ a b Pinney. ^ Nayar. after he gave up his political activism and became anascetic.. Autobiography of Bhai Randhir Singh (Translated by Trilochan Singh). p27.Mainstream Weekly 63. under the influence of Bhai Sahib Randhir . 70. ^ Impact of Lenin on Bhagat Singh’s Life .. ^ [28] Date on which Bhagat Singh was condemned 74. ^ Singh. ^ Tribune India What if Bhagat Singh had lived 68.

^ a b Punjabi Lok Sukhdev's letter to Gandhi 94. ^ a b Singh. ^ Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. ^ [31]"Shaheed-e-Azad Bhagat Singh" 89. ^ Sonu Sood .Singh. ^ Bhagat Singh (Character) Internet Movie Database. ^ Memorial will be built to Bhagat Singh. Ahmedabad. ^ Bhagat Singh Remains Our Symbol of Revolution 25 January 2006.359-61 (Gujarati) 81.IMDb 90. that he be administered amrit. 3 June 2003. ^ The Tribune Chandigarh In memory of Bhagat Singh 86. ^ The Martyr: Bhagat Singh . Page 32. ^ The Idea of Bhagat Singh 80. his popular visual incarnation has nearly always been a mimic of the English sahab" 76. letter to Manmohan Singh 85. eros@erosintl. says governor Daily times Pakistan 92. 88. p. 45. Navjivan. ^ [29]"Gandhi's appreciation of Bhagat's patriotism and bravery" 91. Sangat (1995). ^ Why I am an Atheist 79.Experiments in Revolution By Kuldip Nayar. The Sikhs in History. Sikh baptism. S. ^ a b A non-stop show The Hindu. by a group of five including Bhai Randhir Singh was not fulfilled by the British" 77. Singh. ^ The Sunday Tribune Was Bhagat Singh shot dead? 83. ^ Why I Am An Atheist by Bhagat Singh 78.. "Bhagat Singh's last wish. 87. [edit]External links .co. ISBN 0964755505. ^ Requiem for a freedom fighter 93. vol. ^ EROS Multimedia (Europe) Ltd. ^ [30]"Protest against British and Gandhi on Singh's death" 84.

Bhagat Singh .org Bhagat Singh Biography and Contains letters written by Bhagat Singh  Why I Am An Atheist.comic Freedom fighter Bhagat Singh Bhagat Singh at freeindia.Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bhagat Singh Wikisource has original works written by or about: Bhagat Singh      Shaheed Bhagat Singh in Jail . an essay by Bhagat Singh  Martyrdom of Sardar Bhagat Singh by Jyotsna Kamat [show]v · d · eIndian independence movement Categories: Punjabi people | Revolutionary movement for Indian independence | Indian revolutionaries | Indian communists | Indian atheists | Indian anarchists | Indian Sikhs | Executed revolutionaries |People executed by hanging | 20th-century executions by the United Kingdom | Executed Indian people | People executed by British India | 1907 births | 1931 deaths • • • • • • Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction • Help • About Wikipedia .A different perspective.

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