P. 1
Fluid-Dynamics

Fluid-Dynamics

|Views: 4,265|Likes:
Published by madmax2222

More info:

Published by: madmax2222 on Mar 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/19/2013

pdf

text

original

Use of Lagrangian-coordinate formulations for the equations of fluid motion is very natural in light

of the fact that Newton’s second law applies to point masses, and it is reasonable to view a fluid

parcel as such. The equations of motion that arise from this approach are relatively simple because

they result from direct application of Newton’s second law. But their solutions consist merely of

the fluid particle spatial location at each instant of time, as depicted in Fig. 3.1. This figure shows

two different fluid particles and their particle paths for a short period of time. Notice that it is

the location of the fluid parcel at each time that is given, and this can be obtained directly by

X

z

y

2

(1)
2

X

x


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡


¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢¡

¢

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£¡

£

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤¡

¤

particle path #1

(2)

particle path #2

X

(0)
1

X1

1

(2)

X

(1)

X2

(0)

Figure 3.1: Fluid particles and trajectories in Lagrangian view of fluid motion.

solving the corresponding equations. The notation X(0)

1 represents particle #1 at time t = 0, with

X denoting the position vector (x,y,z)T

.

There are several important features of this representation requiring some explanation. First,

it can be seen that the fluid parcel does not necessarily retain its size and shape during its motion.

Later, when we derive the equation for mass conservation we will require that the mass of the

fluid element remain fixed; hence, if the density is changing, which might well be the case, the

volume must also change. Second, we can think of the changes in shape as having arisen due to

interactions with neighboring fluid elements (not shown, but recall Fig. 2.9); we will treat this in

more detail when we derive the momentum equations. We next observe that although the velocity

is not directly calculated, it is easily deduced since, e.g.,

dx

dt = u.

Thus, if a sequence of locations of the fluid parcel is known for a period of time, it is easy to

calculate its velocity (and acceleration) during this same period. Furthermore, we can think about

obtaining values of any other fluid property (e.g., temperature or pressure) at this sequence of

locations by simply “measuring” them as we ride through the fluid on the fluid parcel. Finally,

it must be emphasized that in order to obtain a complete description of the flow field using this

approach it is necessary to track a very large number of fluid parcels. From a practical standpoint,

3.1. LAGRANGIAN & EULERIAN SYSTEMS; THE SUBSTANTIAL DERIVATIVE

47

either experimentally or computationally, this can present a significant burden. Furthermore, it is

rather typical in engineering applications to need to know fluid properties and behavior at specific

points in a flow field. In the context of a Lagrangian description it is difficult to specify, a priori,

which fluid parcel to follow in order to obtain the desired information at some later time.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->