MANUAL ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT

(SECOND EDITION)

Prepared In}:

THE EXPERT COMMITTEE
Coristituted blj:

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

CENTRAL PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINf:ERING ORGANISATION

MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT NEW DELHI
DECEMBER, 1993

PPHEE 0·8 10,000-1994 (DSK-IV)

Price : (Inland) Rs. 210.00 (Foreign) £ 24.49 or $ 75 60 Cents.

PRINTED BY THE MANAGER, GOVT. OF INDIA PRESS, NASIK-422 006 AND PUBLISHED BY THE CONTROLLER OF PUBLICATIONS, DELHI-I 10054

1995

FOREWORD

tr;\ fcfq;ffi 1-11TII ,,"fir( MINISTER OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT GOVT. OF INDIA New Delhi. December 1993

mtt

Safe water supply and hygienic sanltatron facilities are the two basic essential amenities the community needs on a top priority for healthy living. While provision of safe drinking water takes precedence in the order of provision of basic amenities to community, the importance of hygienic sanitation facilities through low cost on-site sanitation, conventional sewerage and sewage treatment can no longer be allowed to lag behind, as about 80% of water used by the community comes out of houses in the form of waste water which unless properly collected, conveyed. treated and safely disposed of may eventually pollute our precious water resources and environmental degradation. cause

As of now about 45% of urban population has been provided with reasonable hygienic sanitation facilities in our country and as such there is still much to accomplish so as to reach 100% coverage. While it is necessary to adopt conventional sewerage and treatment methods in our metro and mega cities. it is economical to go in for low cost option wherever feasible particularly in small and medium towns, Yet another important area which needs the urgent attention of our Public Health and Environmental Engineers is possibility of re-use and recycling of waste water after necessary treatment for various beneficial uses so as to reduce the ever increasing demand for fresh water. It is hoped the revised Manual on Sewerage and Sewage

Treatment brought out by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation of this Ministry will meet the professional needs of the practising Engineers dealing with sanitation sector in the country for achieving the goal of "sanitation for all" within a reasonable time frame.

(SHEILA KAUL)

PREFACE
The first Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment was published by the erstwhile Ministry of Works & Housing (presenfly Min.strv of Urban Development) on the basis of recommendations of an Expert committee in 1977_ The sard Manual has been in use widely by field Engineers who are ennaged in the field of sewerage and sewage treatment However, over a period of time there has been an advancement in the technoloqy and as such the need for revisinq and updating the said manual has beon keenly felt for quite some time. The conference on Mid-Decade Review of Water Decade Programme held in October, 1985 recommended the setting up of Expert Committee for undertakrnq this task. Accordinqly the Mirustry of Urban Development, Govt. of India constituted an Expert Committee in December. 1985 with the following cornpcsitiorrL

Shri, V.Venuqopalan Adviser(PHEE) Central Public Health & Environmental Enqinefjring Orqanisation, Ministry of Urban Development Nrrman Bhavan, New Delhi.
Shri.KR, Bulusu, Acting Director. National Environmental Engg. Reset"uch Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur-20_
Director All India Institute of Hygiene & Public Health or hrs representative, Cruttaranjan Avenue. Calcutta.

Chairman

Member

Member

4_

Cruet Enqineer [Urban}, Maharashtra Water Supply & Sewera98 Board,

Member

CID_c.O .. Bhavan.
South Vv'ing, 2nd Floor, New Bornbavt-t.
5.

Chief Enqineer (Urban Services) Tamil Nadu Water Supply & Drainage Board, TWAD Buildlnq, Chepauk. Madras, Director (En'lg), Madr<Js Metropolitan Water Supply & Sewerage Board, Pumpmq Station Road, Ctundaripet. Madras.
Chief Engineer, Local Sf-;!f Govt. and Urban Development Deptt.. Govt. of West Benqal, No,1, G;:Hlstlll Place,
CiJlcutta-1

Member

G.

Member

7

Member

(v)

8.

Dr. R. Pitchai, Prof. & Director, Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Madras. Shri M. R. Parthasarathy, Dv. Adviser (PHE) CPHEEO, Ministry 01 Urban Development, Nirrnan Bhavan, New Delhi. Chief Engineer, Gujarat Water Supply & Sewerage Board, Near Mayur Hotel, Sector-16, Gandhinagar-382016. Director or his representative Central Ganga Authority, Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi. Chairman or his representative Central Board for Preventation and Control of Water Pollution, Nehru Place, New Delhi. Dr. H.C. Arora, Deputy Adviser (Trg.) CPHEEO. Ministry of Urban Development, Nirman Bnavan, New Delhi.

Member

9.

Member

10.

Member

11 ,

Member

12.

Member

13

Member-Secretary

Since some of the members of the Expert Committee including the then Chairman had reured, it became necessary to reconstitute the said Expert Committee in March, 1990 with the followmg composition:Adviser (PHEE). Ministry of Urban Development CPHEEO, New Deihl. Chairman (Sri.P,S,Rajvanshy, had taken over the charge of the Post of Adviser since November, 1990)

2.

Shri. S.S. Patwardhan Member Member Secretary, Maharashtra Water Supply & Sewerage Board, Bombay. Shri. S,K, Neogi. Chiet Engineer, Govt. of West Bengal, Municipal Engg. Deptt. Calcutta. Member

3,

(vi)

4.

Shn. J.D. Seth. Chief Engineer, Gujarat Waler Supply and Sewerage Board, Gandhinaqar: Gujarat.

Member

5.

Shri, L,Panneerselvam, Deputy Director, Ganqa Project Directorate, New Delhi.
Dr K.R.Ranqanathan, Memher Secretary, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Shri. A.K.Awasth!. Deputy Director, Indian Standards Institute, New Delhi. Dr.S.R. Shukla, Dy. Adviser (PHE), C.P.H.EEO., Ministry of Urban Development
New Delhi.

MHmber

6.

Member

7.

Member

B.

Member

9.

Sbri. R.Sfltburaman, Asstt. ArJv!sflr(PHEj, Ministry of Urban Development CPHEEO Shri. V.B. Rarna Prasad, ov, Adviser (PHE) Ministry ef Urban Development, C.PH.EEO. Dr. SD. Badrinath Asst. Director, NEERI, Nagpur.

Membflr

10.

Member Secretary

11-

Member

12.

o-. D. M, Mohan, Director (Project), HMWSS Board, Hyderabad.
Dr. t.C.Aqarwat, Professor of Environmental Engg. Moti/al Engineering Cottege, Allahabad, Dr. R.Guruswamy, Professor, Anna University, Madras.

Member

13.

Member

14.

Member

(vii)

15.

Shri. S. Deivarnani. Rtd. Engineering Director, Madras Metro Water Supply & Seweraqe Board, Madras. Shri. S.Shankarappa, Chief Engineer, Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay, Bombay. Shn. M.R.Parthasarathy, Rtd. Dy.Adviser (PHE), Ministry of Urban Development C.P.H.E.E.O., Bangalore. Shri D'Cruz, Rtd. Enqineer-in-Chief, Delhi Water Supply & Sewerage Disposal Undertaking, Delhi. Shri. S.D.Mundra, Director, Gee-Millers & Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Shri. S.J. Arceivala, Managing Director, Mis. Associate Industrial Consultants (India) Pvt. l.td., Bomhay. Dr. R. H. Siddiqi. Professor, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. Shri. S.l.Abhyankar, Hony. Technical Adviser, Indian Pump & Pump Mfg. Assocn., Bombay.

Memher

16.

Member

17.

18.

Member

19.

Member

20.

Member

21.

Member

22.

Momber

The originally constituted Expert committee met 5 times and the reconstituted Committee held 16 meelings in all, to discuss and finalise the draft Manual. Later, in October, 1992 the Ministry had constituted a three members Editorial Committee consisting of the following members for editing and finalising the said draft document:·

1.

J.D'Cruz, Consuitant, WAPCOS Dr. I.G.Agarwal, Head of the Dptt. of Civil Engineering, MNREC. Allahabad. Dr. D.M. Mohan, Director (Projects) HMWSS Board, Hyderahad (A.P.). (viii)

2.

3.

The said Editorial committee met :3 times to complete tho task assigned to it. In all there, are 26 chapters in the Manual covering various important aspects such as Planning, Legal. Financial and Administrative aspects, Desiqn and Construction ot Sewers, Sewage Treatment Plants, Sludge Treatment and Disposal, Tertiary Treatment ot Sewaqe for Rouse, Effluent Disposal and It's Utilisation, On-Site Sanitation, Corrosion Prevention and it's control, Operation arid Maintenance of Sewerage System, as well as Treatment Plants etc, It IS pertinent to mention that several modifications have been suggested in various chapters mentioned above. For instance, since conventional sewerage is very It has to be contlned to Class-l cities and capitals of States/U'Ts. Even In such cities, sewerage has to be confined to core areas only and the fringe areas have to be provided with less expensive on· site sanitation systems, Similarly, takinq into account the hydraulics and other relevant factors, the design of sewers has been modified to make it economical. In so far as treatment of sewaqe is concerned, Anaerobic method such as USAB technology has been introduced since it is less encl'fJY intensive and economical in operation and maintenance. Similarly, duckweed ponds have been suqqested tor treating sewage in an economical way with impressive cash returns. Adequate emphasis has bt::en given to reuse and recyclinq of sewaf/H effluent after tertiary treatment. kGepinq In view the ever increasing demand for fresh water for various beneficial U$(:$. Operation and Maintenance of Sewerage Systems and 8(;wago Treatment Plants is often neqlected due to inadequate funds and lack of trained technical manpower. Therefore, these aspects have been given due emphasis and discussed in detail. Later, in November, 1992 the draft Manual was circulated to various State Public Health Enqineerinq Deptts. and Water Supply and Sewerage Boards with a view to have thelf valuable suqqestions on the same before it's trnatisation and printing. Finally the contents ot the Manual were thoroughly discussed in greater detail, topic by topic at a special conference of Chief Enqineers Incharge of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Sector held at Thiruvananthapuram (Kerata) on 24th and 25th September, 1903 orqanisod hy the Ministry of Urban Development and Kerala Water Authority, The Said Contemnce was well attended and valuable suqqestions that ernerqed durinq the discussions huve been incorporated to the extent possible to make this Manual useful trorn the practisinq Enqineer's point of View, There are no two opinions that the said Manual will be a boon to the field Enqineers in the country. The Expert Committee thanks the Ministry of Urban Development Govt. of India for providing all tacitities The initiative taken and srncere ettorts made by ShriVVenuoopalan, the then Advlser(PHEE) m gettmq the anginal Expert Committee constituted is gratefully acknowledqed, The Committee expresses its appreciation to Shn,V,B, Rarna Prasad, Ov.Adviser (PHE) and Member, Secretary for his untiring efforts in making possible the completion of the manual in it's finest fonn despite his arduous normal duties. Special mention is made of the services of ShrLR.Sethuraman, Dv.Advisert'Trq.] and Shri, M,Sankaranarayanan, Asst. Adviser(PHE) who unstlntlnqly devoted their time rn all phases of this work, The valuable contribution of DrS,A, Shulka. Dy.Adviser (PH E), Shl!'B,B,Uppal, Asst. Adviser (PHE) and Shn.Sukanta Kar, Scientitlc Officer in CPHEEO are qratefully acknowledqed. The committee thanks Dr.D,M, Mohan, Presently Director (ProJects), Hvderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Seweraqe Board tor £jetting the final draft computerised. Thanks are also due to the Govt. of Kerala and Kerala Water Autnorrty for hosting the aforesaid conference. Last but not the least, the committee desires to record their deep appreciation ot the services rendered by different Officers and statt members ot the PHE and Accounts Section ot the Ministry and the Secretanat of CPHEEO,

PSRAJVANSHY ADVISER (PHEE) CPHEEO

(ix)

CONTENTS
1
1.1 1.2 1.3

PLANNING
OBJECTIVE NEED FOR PLANNING BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

1 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
9 9 9

1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4
1,4

Engineering Considerations Environmental Considerations Process Considerations Cost Considerations
DESIGN PERIOD POPULATION FORECAST

1.5

1.5.1 1.5.2
1.6

General Considerations Final Forecast
ESTIMATION OF WASTE WATER FLOW

1.6.1 1.6.2
1.7

Sources of Waste Water Per Capita Waste water Flow
SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS

1.7.1
1.8

Effect of Industrial Waste
SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION

1.8.1
1.8.1.1 1.8.1.2 1.8.1.3 1.8.1.4

Basic Information
Physical Aspects

Developmental Aspects

Fiscal Aspects
Other Aspects

10 10 11 11 11 11

1.8.2
1.8.2.1 1.8.2.2 1.8.2.3

Project Surveys
Preliminary Project Surveys Detailed Project Surveys Construction Surveys

II
1.9
PROJECT REPORT

12 12 12 12 14 14 14 15
Ii

1.9.1
1.9.1.1

General
Project Reports

1.9.2 1.9.3
1.9.3.1 1.9.3.2 1.9.3.3 1.9.3.4 1.9.3.5 1.9.3.5

Identification Report Prefeasibility Report
Executive Summary Introduction Project Area and The Need for The Project Long Term Plan for Wastewater Disposal Proposed Waste Water Project Conclusions and Recommendations

19
20

1.9.4
1.9.4.1 1.9.4.2 1.9.4.3 1.9.4.4

Feasibility Report
Contents Background The Proposed Project Institutional and Financial Aspects

21 22 22 22

25
25

1.9.4.5

Condusions and Recommendations

2
2.1

MANAGEMENT, ADMINISTRATION, LEGAL AND FINANCIAL ASPECTS
MANAGEMENT

27 27

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3
2.2

Government of India (G.O.l) Level State Government Level Local Body Level
COMMON ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT

27 27 27
27

2.2.1
2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2

General Administration
Supervisory Staff
Operating Staff

28
28 29 30 30

2.2.2 2.2.3

Personnel Administration Inventory Control

5 Municipal Bylaws Prevention of Pollution FINANCIAL ASPECTS 2.1 2.2 2.3.3 2.7 Design Period Population Forecast Tributary Area Percapita Sewage Flow Flow Assumptions Storm Runoff Ground Water Infiltration .6 3.3.2 Financial Control Accounting Budgeting 31 31 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 37 37 37 38 39 39 39 40 40 2.4.4 2.1 3.4.2.5.4 3.4.2.1 2.5 3 3.3 3.1 2.2.5.5 3.III 2.4 Inservice Training Long Term Planning LEGAL ASPECTS 2.2.2 3.2 2.2.1 2.2.4 2.2.2 General Scope Sources for Raising Capital Financial Appraisal Statutory Water and Sanitation Boards DESIGN OF SEWERS INTRODUCTION ESTIMATION OF SANITARY SEWAGE 3.2.2.5 2.5.2.1 3.3 Public Relations OTHER ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT 2.5.2 2.5.4.2.

3.2.3.4 3.4 3.3 ESTIMATION OF STORM RUNOFF 40 41 41 41 41 43 3.3.4.4.4.2.IV 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.4.4.4.1.1 3.1.3.5 3.8 Sewer Transitions Non Uniform Flow Specific Energy Hydraulic Jump Back Water Curves Sewer Transitions 56 56 57 57 Bends Junction Vertical Drops and Other Energy Dissipators .1 3.1.2.5 3.4.7 Type of Flow Flow .1.2 3.4.3 3.4.1 3.4 3.1 3.4.4.3 3.4 Rational Method Runoff .2 3.2.4.3 3.4.4.Friction Formulae Mannings Formula Darcy Weisbach Formula 45 45 45 46 48 48 49 49 52 52 53 53 53 53 54 54 55 Hazen-wnnems Formula Friction Coefficients Modified Hazen-Williams Formula Depth of Flow Formula for Self Cleansing Velocity 3.4.2 Velocities Velocity At Minimum Flow Erosion and Maximum Velocity 3.4.3.5 3.Rainfall Intensity Relationship Storm Frequency Intensity of Precipitation Time of Concentration Coefficient of Runoff 43 45 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS 3.4.7 3.3.4.4 3.1 3.5 3.4.2.4.4.4.4.3.4.2.4.5 3.4.4.2 3.4.4.1.2.3.

6 Inverted Syphon Hydraulic Calculations Velocity 67 61 61 61 61 61 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 66 66 66 66 66 70 70 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 72 Size and Arrangement of Pipes Inlet and Outlet Chambers General Requirements 3.3.6.4.6.6.6 Relief Sewers Force Mains Sulphide Generation DESIGN OF SEWER SYSTEMS 3.4.5.3 3.V 3.5.5.4 3.6.6.1 3.6.1 3.4 System Description Components of the System Applicability Limitations .3 3.1 3.1 Introduction Available Head Layout of Systems Plans 3.7.6 Design Approach Design Steps SMALL BORE SEWER SYSTEMS 3.4.6.6.4.4 3.5.5 3.6.2 3.8 3.7.1 3.4.6 3.2 3.1 3.6.4.3 3.6.3 3.7.4 3.5.6.2 3.7 System Description Components of System Suitability of the System Design Criteria Appurtenances Disposal of Effluent Limitations SHALLOW SEWERS 3.6.7.4.7 3.4.6 3.5 3.2 3.4.4.7 3.

1.3 Ordinary Manholes Spacing Constructional Details Covers and Frames 4.Through Manholes Junction Manholes Side Entrance Man Holes Drop Manholes Scraper (service) Type Manhole Flushing Manholes INVERTED SIPHONS HOUSE SEWER CONNECTIONS STORM WATER INLETS 4.1 4.3 4.VI 3.7.2.5.2.2 SEWER APPURTENANCES INTRODUCTION MANHOLES 4.3 4.5 4.2.9 4.2.3 4.6 4.8 NON CIRCULAR SEWERS 72 74 74 74 74 74 74 78 78 78 79 79 79 81 81 82 82 8:.7 Curb Inlets Gutter Inlets Combination Inlets CATCH BASINS REGULATOR OR OVERFLOW DEVICE 4.5 Types of Manholes Straight .2.6 4.2 4.2.2 4. 83 83 83 83 84 84 84 84 84 85 85 4 4.2 4.4 4.1 4.2.2.2 4.2.8 4.2.3 4.1 4.1.2.5.2.1 4.1 4.1 4.2.2 4.5.2.10 Side Flow Weir Leaping Weir Float Actuated Gates and Valves FLAP GATES AND FLOOD GATES MEASURING DEViCES SEWER VENTILATORS .7.2.2.7.1.4 4.2.

1 5.2.3.3.5.2.3 Pitch Fibre Pipes JOINTING IN SEWER PIPES 6 6.2 6.2.3.2.1 5.2 6.1 6.2.3.1 6.7 5.6.2.1 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipes Fibre Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipes (FRP) 5.6.3 5.2 5.2.2.1 5.5.2.4 5.1 6.3 6.VII 5 5.3.2 5.2.2.1 5.5.2.6.2.2.2.8 5.6 5.2.3 Stoneware or Vitrified Clay Asbestos Cement Iron and Steel Cast Iron Steel Ductile Iron Pipes 5.2 Brick Concrete Precast Concrete cest-in-suu Reinforced Concrete 5.2.2.3.2.2 MATERIALS FOR SEWER CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION TYPES OF MATERIAL 87 87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 95 95 104 107 111 5.3 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BURIED SEWERS INTRODUCTION TYPE OF LOADS LOADS ON CONDUITS DUE TO BACKFILL 6.2.3 Plastic Pipes General PVC Pipes High Density Polyethylene (HOPE) Pipes 5.2.5 5.2 5.4 Types of Installation or Construction Conditions Loads for Different Conditions Embankment or Projecting Conduit Condition Trench Condition Tunnel Condition Effect of Submergence 2··-51 CPHEEO/ND/94 .2 5.2.7.2.1 5.

1.5.4 7.4.1.1 6.4 6.1.5.1.1 7.2 6.5 Concentrated Load Distributed Load Conduits Under Railway Track SUPPORTING STRENGTH OF RIGID CONDUIT 6.1 CONSTRUCTION OF SEWERS CONSTRUCTION METHODS 126 126 126 7.2.2 Tunnelling Shafts Methods of Tunnelling 128 128 .4 LOAD ON CONDUIT DUE TO SUPER IMPOSED LOADS 111 113 113 115 115 116 116 116 116 118 118 120 120 6.1.1.1 6.1.2 7.1.3 7.3 6.6 6.1 6.4.1.6 Trench Dimensions Excavation Shoring Underground Services 126 126 127 127 127 127 Dewatering Foundation and Bedding 7.5.2 7.1.1.4.4.5.2 Supporting Strength in Embankment Conditions Classes of Bedding Load Factors 6.1 7.5.VIII 6.3.5.5.8 Conduits Under Simultaneous Internal Pressure and External Loading RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN RECOMMENDATiONS ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES 122 123 123 124 126 7 7.1.1 6.2 6.1.1.1.2.3 6.1.5.5.5 6.7 6.32 Laboratory Test Strength Field Supporting Strength Supporting Strength in Trench Conditions Classes of Bedding Load Factors 6.4.5 7.1 7.

1.5 Laying of Pipe Sewers Stoneware Pipes RC.1. Pipes 129 129 129 129 130 130 130 Cast-In-situ Concrete Sections Construction of Brick Sewers Cast Iron Pipes 7.3 7.5.4 7.1.3.4.2 7.1.1.1 7.1.2 8.1 7.5 7.4.7 7.1 7.1.1.IX 7.3.1.7 .1 8.1.1.5.6 8. Pipes 130 130 131 131 131 132 132 132 133 133 133 134 134 134 134 134 135 135 135 7.8 7.1.1.9 7.1.5 8.6 7.4.2 7.1.3 Jointing of Sewers Stoneware Pipes Concrete Pipes C.C.3.3 Check for Obstruction Construction of Manholes Sewer Connections Backfilling of the Trenches Removal of Sheeting MAINTENANCE OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION ryPES OF MAINTENANCE NECESSITY OF MAINTENANCE ORGANISATION FOR MAINTENANCE PROVISIONS IN DESIGN HOUSE CONNECTIONS PLANNING FOR SEWE~ MAINTENANCE 8.3 7.!.1.3.4 7.1.1.10 8 8.2 Hydraulic Testing of Pipe Sewers Water Test Air Testing 7.3.4 8.

1 8.6 8.2.8.10.8.2 8.9 Velocity Cleaners (Jetting Machines) Suction Units (Gully Emptier) Pneumatic Plugs HAZARDS 8.11.5 8.8.5 8.3 8.4 8.10 8.8.4 8.8.1 8.1 8.8.11 8.8.8.8 8.11 Traffic Control Manhole Safety Infection Precautions of Pumping Stations Precautions Against Electrical Shocks SAFETY EQUIPMENT 8.18.9.8.8.1 8.8.8.8.1 8.11.2 8.8.11.2 8.9 8.7 8.8.8.3 8.10.10.10 Gases In Sewerage System PRECAUTIONS 8.8.X 8.1 Gas Masks Breathing Apparatus Air Hose Respirator .8 SEWER CLEANING EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 141 141 141 141 142 142 142 144 144 144 145 145 145 146 146 147 147 147 148 148 8.2 8.10.3 Portable Pump Set Manila Rope and Cloth Ball Sectional Sewer Rods Sewer Cleaning Bucket Machin" Dredger (Clam-shell) Roding Machine with Flexible Sewer Rods Scraper Hydraulically Propelled Devices Flush Bags Sewer Balls Sewer Scooters 8.

2 8.1 8.1 8.2 8.11.12 Portable lighting Equipment Nonsparkinq Tools Portable Air Blowers Safety Belt Inhalators Diver's Suit EMERGENCY MAINTENANCE INSPECTION 148 148 148 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 150 150 151 151 151 151 152 152 152 153 153 153 153 153 153 153 8.15.14.16.15.15.5 8.8 8.11.4 8.11.13.1 8.13 8.11.6 8.5 8.4 8.1 8.4.15.4 8.13.13.3 8.3 8.7 8.15.2 Maps and Profiles Data .3 8.15 Methods Sewer Renovation SAFETY PRACTICES 8.XI 8.16.11.14.11.15. Working Methods Motivation and Training Changing Working Habits RECORDS 8.4.2 1l.13.2 8.16 Safety Practice Programme Keeping Records of Injury Searching out Hazards Safe Equipment.13.14 Necessity for Inspection Type of Inspection Direct Inspection Indirect Inspection Planning for Sewer Inspection SEWER REHABILITATION 8.1 8.

1 9.7.£ Provision of !"ssential Accessories Provisions for Functional Requirements Ventilation Safety Measures Other Facilities DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DRY AND WET WELLS 9.2 9.1 9.7.4 9.7.7.6 9.6.5 9.5.7. Helical Rotor Pumps Installation of Pumps Operation of the Pumps Maintenance of Pumps 169 .5 Capacity Size of the Pump Pump-Types Centrifugal Pumps Computation of the Total Head of Pumping System Head Operating Point of a Centrifugal Pump Parallel Operation Stable Characteristics Cavitation 161 161 163 163 153 165 165 156 169 9.3 9.5.2 9.5.5.2 -S.5.7.7.1.7.1 9.3 SEWAGE AND STORM WATER PUMPING STATIONS GENERAL CONSIDERA noss LOCATION CAPACITY TYPES OF PUMPING STATIONS STRUCTURE AND LAYOUT OF THE PUMPHOUSE 154 154 154 1M 9.8 9.5 154 155 155 155 155 155 156 156 156 156 158 158 158 158 158 9.9 Progressive Cavity.2 9.5.2 9.5.XII 9 9.2.7.2.1 Dry Well Wet Well PUMPS 9.5.4 9.7.7.7.3 9.1 9.3 9.6.1 9.4 9.2 9.7 9:1.2.1 9.5.5.

11 9.7.}' .1 Check Chart for Centrifugal Pump Troubles Check-Chart for Reciprocating Pump Troubles Check-Chart for Rotary Pump Troubles 171 174 175 176 176 176 s."11.5 9.10 9.9.9."'2' for Maintenance and Repairs 9.8.11.11.2 9.49.XIII 'if.9.10.6 of Enclosure Class 01 Insulation Margin in Brake KiloWlitts (BkW) ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 177 178 17S 176 9.1.11.9.S :1 9].1 IU1.e 9.6 Seml-Annuat Annual Bi-Armua! 183 183 184 .2 9.2.3 Switch Gear Starters 9.1i.9.2 1iI.7 s.a 9.8.2.1 9.a.2.10 Cables CONTROLS MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 180 180 181 181 0.5 9.1 9.4 9.3.1 Facilities for Maintenance and Repairs Preventive Matntenance Daily Monthly Quarterly 181 182 182 182 9.11.2 Semi-Annual Annual Inspection 9.9.8.4 '""'.2.8.4 9.3 9.2 9JL3 PRIME MOVERS Selection Criteria Constructional Features of Induction Motors Method 01 Startino 177 177 9.1 Daily Obaervatlons 169 170 170 170 171 0].9 178 179 179 180 9.a.9.11.2.7.2.

12.9.5.9 10. PROCESSES AND REACTOR DESIGN PRINCIPLES 10.9.12.1 10.2 10.5 Population Equivalent SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS 10.6 10.5.10 Unit Operations and Processes Reactors Biological Reactor Design Design of Process Flow Sheets CHOICE OF PROCESSES .1 9.9.7 10.7 10.5.12.5.4 Motor gets overheated Motor gets overloaded Starter/Breaker Trips Vibration in Motor Cables Get Overheated BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DEGREE OF TREATMENT DESIGN PERIOD POPULATION SERVED SEWAGE FLOWS 186 186 186 187 187 187 187 187 187 188 188 188 188 188 188 188 189 189 189 190 190 190 190 192 195 199 10.4 9.3 10.2 10.5.5.8 10.12.5.5.3 10.5.4 10.3 10.4.9.1 10.1 10.1 10.5.4 10.XIV 9.12 TROUBLE SHOOTING FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS 184 184 184 184 185 185 9.6 10.3 9.2 9.5 10.10 10.2 10.9 Temperature Hydrogen Ion Concentration Colour and Odour Solids Nitrogen Phosphorus Chlorides Biochemical Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand Toxic Metals and Compounds EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES DUMPING CHUTES FOR NIGHTSOIL EFFLUENT DISPOSAL AND UTILISATION UNIT OPERATIONS.8 10.5 10 10.12.

1.2.1.2.2.1.5.1 11.6 1\.2.5 11:V:U Aerated Grit Chambers Design Data Design of Grit Chambers Settling Velocity Surface Over Flow Rate Detention Period Bottom Scour and Flow Through Velocity Velocity Control Devices Number of Units Dimensions of Each Unit '11.5.XV 1\ PRETREATMENT .1.SCREENING AND GRII REMOVAL SCREENING 2tO 200 200 201 201 201 201 201 201 202 202 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 204 204 205 206 208 209 209 209 213 213 213 213 214 214 214 11.2.4 11.3 11.1 11.2.4 11.2.1.1 11.5.1.2.1 11.2.2 .11 11.2.1.6 11.5 11.t.3 11.3 11.2 11.6 11..1 11.5.1 12 12.5 11.2 11.2.2.5.5.2.2 11.2.11 Coarse Screens Medium Screens Fine Screens Comminuting Devices location of Screens Housing of Screens Hydraulics Velocity Head Loss Quantity of Screenings Disposal of Screenings GRIT REMOVAL rs.1.1 Loss of Head Disposal of Grit SEDIMENTATION GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SETTLEABLE SOLIDS 17.1.1.7 11.2.4 11.2.2.10 11.2 Composition of Grit Types Mechanically Cleaned Grit Chambers Manually Cleaned Grit Chambers 11.2 11.s 11.

6.2.oadlng Rate Mixing Regime F'Jow Scheme 226 226 .2 12.3.1.4 12.2.3 TYPES OF SETll.3 12.6.4.XVI 12.3 Chemicals Used Iron Salts Aluminium Salts 220 221 221 lime and Sodium Carbonate 221 221 221 '12.2.4.2.2 13.1 12.1 12.4.4.6.4.3 Unil Operations Mixing Flocculation 221 222 Sedimentation 13 13.2.5 12.2 12.6.2.1 13.7 12.4.8 12.1 12.lNG 12.3 AEROBIC SUSPENDED GROWTH SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS VARIABLES 223 223 223 224 L.1 12.4.6.4 12.3.1.9 12.4 Discrete Settling Flocculent Settling Hindered or Zone Settling Compression DESIGN CONSIDERATiONS 21£ 215 715 215 215 12.5 Factors Influencing Design Design Criteria Overflow Rate or Surface Loading Rate Detention Period Solids Loading Rate Weir Loading Depth 216 211 217 217 Sludge Removal Inlets and Outlets 218 219 219 220 220 Scum Removal Types and Shapes PERFORMANCE CHEMICAL·AIDED SEDIMENTATION 12.4.2.2.6.2 13.2.2 12.4.3.1 12.6 12.2 12.3.2.3 12.2.2.2 12.1 12.2.2.6.4.1.1 13.4.6.2.5 12.2 12.

" Nitrification AERATED LAGOONS DESIGN VARIABLES 13.6 13.1 13.3.4.4 13.6.8 '13/U 13.:1 Diffused Air Aeration Surface Aerators 232 232 233 233 233 234 234 235 236 237 238 241 241 242 242 242 Mixing Requirements 13.3.3 13.2 13.2 Oxygen Requirements Aeration Facilities '13.'eratioil OESIGN CONSIDERATION 228 229 230 231 232 Aeration Tank 13.3 13.1'1.: 1J.6 lU Mixing Conditions Substrate Removal Rates Power Level Effluent Characteristics Sludge Accumulation CONCLUSION .4.:1.3.6..1 13.6.6.XVII 226 227 228 228 CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM AND MODIFICATIONS tss.4 ConV'~mtjonal System Completely Mixed Extended .1 13.4.4.32 13.4.'U 13.~ Measuring Devices Seconda!)' Settling Siudge Recycle Excess Sludge Wasting 13.4.5 13.4.

10 14.2 14.2.2.2 14.2.8 Multiple Units Plant Hydraulics Pumping Arrangements Operational Problems .11 Constructional Features Shape of Filter Provision for Filter Flooding Fitter Walls Filter Floor Under-Drainage System Main Collecting Channel Ventilation Filter Media Plastic Media Fitter Dosing Flow Distribution 14.4.4 14.2.4.3.3.7 14.5 14.9 14.2.2.4 Process Description Types of Filters Process Design Rankin's Equation National Research Council (Canada) Equation EckenfeJder Equation 243 244 246 246 247 248 249 249 249 249 249 249 250 250 250 251 251 251 252 253 253 253 Applicability of the Different Equations 14.4.1 14.3.2 14.2.4.5 14.1 14.1 14.4.4.8 14.2.2.2.XVIII 14 14.4.2.4.2.1 14.2.2.4.6 14.2.3.5 14.7 14.3 14.4.4.2.2 AEROBIC ATTACHED GROWTH SYSTEMS GENERAL CONSIDERA nons TRICKLING FILTERS 242 A 242 A 242 A 242 A 14.2.3 14.2.2.2.3 14.2.4 14.2.2.

4.3 15.3 15.1 15.4 15.1 Process Description Constructional Features Design and Operational Parameters STABILIZATION PONDS CLASSIFICATION 15.3.1.2 14.3 15 15.4 15.3.3 Aerobic and Anaerobic Reactions Diurnal Variations Odour Control Algae DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 268 268 269 290 15.3.2.3 15.3.2 15.2.4 Areal Organic Loading Detention Time and Hydraulic Flow Regimes Depth Sludge Accumulation Bacterial Reduction CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 290 290 290 290 15.4.3.2.2 15.1.1 15.4.3 15.2 15.1 15.4.2.1 15.2 Aerobic Anaerobic Facultative MECHANISM OF PURIFICATION 15.1.5 Site Selection Pretreatment Construction in Stages Multiple Units Pond Shape 281 281 261 261 .3.4 15.XIX 14"3 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR 254 254 254 255 256 256 256 265 256 256 257 257 257 257 14"3"1 14"3.2 15.4.5 15.

6 16.2.5 Organic Load and Sludge Retention Time Hydraulic Load Effect of Temperature Excess Sludge Production and Nutrient Requirement Toxicity Recirculation Gas Yield and Utilization PRETREATMENT EFFLUENT QUALITY AND POST TREATMENT 268 268 268 268 268 269 269 .2 16.3 Anaerobic Contact Process Anaerobic Filter Anaerobic Fixed Films Reactor Fluidized and Expanded Bed Reactor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor DESiGN AND OPERAnONAL CONSIDERATiONS 266 266 2BB 266 266 2GB 16.3.4 16.4 16.5 15.6 15.4.7 Embankment Pond Bottom Pond Inlets Pond Outlets Pond Interconnections Other Aspects OPERA TION AND MAINTENANCE PERFORMANCE APPLICATIONS 261 262 262 262 263 263 263 263 16 16.4.4.3.2 ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASTEWATERS INTRODUCTION HIGH RATE ANAEROBiC SYSTEMS 265 256 255 265 16.3.1 16.7 16.3 16.2.10 15.xx 15.3.1 16.4 16.4.3.2 16.8 15.3 16.5 16.5 16.2.1 16.3.4.2.6 15.3.7 15.11 15.2.4.9 15.

4.3 17.4.1.4.1 17.3. DIGESTION AND DISPOSAL lNTROiJUCTION SLUDGE THIGKENING 270 270 270 270 271 272 272 17.2 11. 1. i SLUDGE THICI<ENING.2.2 17.2 17.4 17.5.1.4 17.6 17.2 Mechanical Methods Sludge Conditioning 274 275 276 277 277 277 277 277 279 280 283 285 285 292 293 293 294 294 295 295 295 Equlpments 17.:'1.4 Sludge as Fertilizer Sludge Lagooning Land Fill Disposal in Water or Sea .1.1 'l7.:1.4.1.4.2 17.2 17.3.4.1 Sludge Drying Beds Design Criteria 272 272 11. DEWATERING.2.XXI 11 17.1.3.5.2.4.1 17.2.4 Heat Drying Incineration SLUDGE DIGESTION 17.5.2 17.4.1.sters Sizing of High Rate Digesters Digester Elements Performance of Digesters 17.3.5 Aerobic Digestion Merits and demerits of anaerobic digestion SLUDGE DISPOSAL 17.3 17.3 17.2.4.4.7 Anaerobic Digestion Microbiology of the Process Types Digester Capacity Sizing of Low Rate Dige.3 Gravity Thickening Air Floatation Centrifugation "UJDGE DEWATERING 17.3 17.3 17.1 17.5 17.5.1:1 17.1 17.3.

2 18.7.3.7.7.1 18.5 18.2 18.7.4 18.4 18.3 18.6 18.3 18.7.3.3 18.6 18.7 18.3 SLUDGE PUMPING GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS SLUDGE-PUMPING SLUDGE PUMPS 296 296 296 297 18.7 Centrifugal Pumps Air-Lift Pumps Screw Pumps Reciprocating Plunger or Diaphragm Pumps OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS REQUIREMENT OF STANDBY UNITS SLUDGE CONVEYING PIPING PUMP APPURTENANCES 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 300 300 300 300 300 301 301 18.4 TERTIARY TREATMENT OF SEWAGE FOR REUSE GENERAL BASiC APPROACH TERTIARY TREATMENT METHODS DESIGN CRITERIA 305 .2 19.7.7.3.5 18.7.1 19.8 Air Chamber Revolution Counter Gland Seals Valves Gauges Sampling Devices Washouts and Drains Time clocks Measuring Devices PUMP DRIVE EQUIPMENT 301 301 301 302 303 303 303 304 19 18.3.9 18.4 18.2 18.7.XXII 18 18.8 18.1 18.1 18.

3 Management of Water in Sewage Fanning Hydraulic Loading Organic Loading Irrigation Interval 3-111 CPHEEO/NO/ll4 .1 20.5 REUSE FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES 305 306 310 313 315 315 318 318 318 318 318 318 319 319 320 320 320 320 320 321 322 324 324 325 325 326 326 327 328 328 19.1 20.1 20.3 20.2 20.2.2 20.5.7 As Cooling Water As Boiler Feed Water As Process Water REUSE FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES REUSE BY GROUND WATER RECHARGE 20 20.8.3.5.1.3 20.8.8.1 20.5.7.1 20.4 20.3 19.2 20.XXIII 19.7.1.7.2 19.4 20.7.1 19.7 Sewage Fanning WATER QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR IRRIGATION WATERS 20.1 20.1 20.2.3.4 20.2 Osmotic Effects Toxic Effects Impainnent of Soil Quality Sodium Hazard Organic Solids 20.7.2.8.8 Other Considerations DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF SEWAGE FARMS 20.6 Disposal into River Disposal into Estuaries Disposal into Ocean Basic Infonnation RECLAMATION OF TREATED EFFLUENT PISCICULTURE ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF AQUIFERS DISPOSAL ON LAND 20.3 20.6.2 EFFLUENT DISPOSAL AND UTILISATION GENERAL DISPOSAL INTO WATER BODIES 20.5 2D.6 19.7.1.2.

8.2.3 Design and Materials Squatting Pan.3 21.3.1.2.1.2 20.3.1 21.2.2 21.2.3.2 21.3.4 21.3.2 21.2.3.2.1 21.3 20.2.3.2 21.11 Management of Soil Utilisation of Plant Nutrients Land requirements ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENTS DURING NON-IRRIGATING PERIODS PROTECTION AGAINST HEALTH HAZ4RDS STANDARDS 328 329 329 330 330 331 333 333 333 333 335 335 337 337 338 338 338 339 338 339 21 21.2.4.3 21.2.3.8.2.2.2.3 21.1 21.3.9 20.4 20. Footrests and Connecting Drain Super Structure Leach Pits 341 343 343 349 349 21.3.3.3.3.1 21.2 21.4 Pollution Safeguards Safe Distance From Drinking Water Sources Safe Distance From Water Supply Mains Location of Pits Sub-Soil Conditions 349 350 350 350 351 .3 21.3.8.2.3.3 21.6 Construction of Pour Flush Latrine Squatting Pan and Trap Poet-Rests Pit Lining Pit Bottom Pit Cover Leach Pit Connection 349 349 349 21.1 21.4 21.3.2 21.4. Trap.1 21.3.3.2 ON-SITE SANITATION BACKGROUND SEPTIC TANK 21.4.3 Design Construction Details Sludge Withdrawal and Disposal Secondary Treatment and Disposal of Effluent Soak Pits Dispersion Trenches up-stow Anaerobic Filter POUR FLUSH WATER SEAL LATRINES 21.3.3.5 21.1.10 20.1 21.20.

3 22.5.4.4 22.2.2.2.4 Materials of Construction Sewer-Protection Liners Protective Coatings Cathodic Protections Protection by Sacrifical Anode .2 22.4 AN OVERVIEW OF OTHER ALTERNATIVE ON-SITE SANITATION METHODS 351 351 352 352 352 352 352 353 353 353 354 354 354 354 355 355 355 355 356 356 356 356 356 357 357 358 358 358 359 359 359 360 362 21.4 21.1 22.4 Sulphide Control Procedures Design of sewers Control of Sewage Character Cleaning of Sewers Chlorination 22.1 22.2.2.3.5.2.5.4.2.2 21.1 21.2.6 Design Criteria MINI PACKAGE TREATMENT PLANTS 22 22.1 22.3 22.7 Corrosion due to Biological Reactions Factors Influencing Sulphide Generation Temperature Strength of Sewage Velocity of Flow Age of Sewage Hydrogen Ion Concentration Sulphate Concentration Ventilation 22.3 22.5.2.2.2.1 21.2.2.5 Bucket/Dry Latrine Trench Latrine (Shallow Type) Bore Hole latrine Dug well Latrine Aqua Privy Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine (VIP Latrine) NIGHT SOiL DIGESTERS 21.3 22.3 21.4.3.2.5 22.2.5.3.2.5 22.2.4.2.2.2.4.2.2.4.6 22.1 22.3.xxv 21.2 CORROSION PREVENTION AND CONTROL GENERAL CORROSiON OF SEWERS 22.1 22.6 21.2.2 22.2.2.2 22.5 21.2A 22.2 22.2.

2.4 22.3 CORROSION OF TREATMENT SYSTEMS 363 363 363 363 364 364 364 366 366 366 367 367 366 368 369 369 369 369 370 370 370 370 371 371 371 371 371 372 372 372 372 372 373 22.8 22.1 23.1 23.7 22.1 23.2.2.6 22.3 22.3.2.4.2.4 23.2.3.2 23.2 23.2 23.5.3 23.6 Screens Grit Chamber Sedimentation Tanks Sludge BUlking and Rising of Sludge Skimmings Structures and Mechanical Equipments Records 23.4.3.3.3.7 Aeration Tanks Sewage Flow Air Supply Mixed liquor Suspended Solids Return Sludge Foaming Microscopic Examination Records 23.2.5.XXVI 22.2.1 23.2 22.2.4.2.2.2.2.4.2.5 23.4 23.3.2 Neutralisation Tanks Sedimentation Tanks Sludge Digestion Activated Sludge Trickling Filters Sewage and waste water pumps Preventive Maintenance Piping Requirements In Treatment Plants Modification of Materials TREATMENT PLANT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE INTRODUCTION TREATMENT UNITS 23.3 23.5 22.3.2.2.9 23 23.5 23.3.2.3.4.4.2 23.3.2.4.5.6 23.3.3 Trickling Filters Distributors Ponding Underdrains .3.1 22.4 23.2.3.2.1 23.3 23.3.

2.2.2.23.2.2.12 24.1.5 23.6.11 24.1.2.1 24.3.2.5 24.2.1.1.3 Sludge Drying Beds Stabilization Ponds Operation and Maintenance of Facultative Pond Records BUILDING AND EQUIPMENT 23.1.2.2 PLANT CONTROL LABORATORY GENERAL PLANNING OF LABORATORY FACILI11ES 24.6.2.2.7 23.4 23.2 Sludge Digestion Tanks Digester Operation Records 23.3.5.13 Physical Facilities Size of The Laboratory location Floor space Well.2 23.6 23.1 23.2.9 24.2.3 24.1 23.2 24.2.6 Odour Filter File.6 23.4 23.1.2. Supply Space for Analytical BaJance .2.1.1 23.1.1.2.8.7 Building and other Structures Equipments SAFETY IN THE PLANT TRAINING OF PERSONNEL RECORDING AND REPORTING CHECK LIST 24 24.2.2. 373 373 373 373 373 374 374 376 376 376 378 376 377 377 378 378 379 390 380 380 380 380 380 380 382 382 382 382 382 382 382 383 383 383 Records 23.6 24.4 24.6 23.2.5.1.7 24.10 24.8 24.1 24.5.1. lighting Power Supply Floor Work Tables and Benches Reagent Cabinets and Cupboards Sinks Fume Hoods and Chambers Ga.1 24.2.2.2.2.8.1.1.8 23.2 23.

2 24.4.8 24.4.3 24.4.2 24.4.2 Methods of Sampling Grab Samples Composite or Integrated Samples 24.2.4.2.4.4 Sample Volumes Selection of Sampling Points TESTS PERFORMED IN THE LASORATORY 24.2.10 24.1.2.7 24.3.2.XXVII 24.11 Raw Sewage Primary Sedimentation Tanks Trickling Filters Activated Sludge Aeration Tanks Secondary Settling Tanks Septic Tanks and Clarigesters SlUdge Digester Stabilization Ponds Digester Gas Residual Chlorine Special Tests .1.3.3.4.1 24.4 24.1 24.3.4.2.1 24.1 24.1.17 24.4.3 Equipment and Chemicals Equipment Required Storage SAMPLING OF SEWAGE AND WASTEWATER 24.2.3.2.18 Constant Temperature Room 383 383 383 383 383 384 384 384 384 385 385 385 385 385 386 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 387 387 387 Sample Preparation Room Media Preparation and Sterilization Rooms Space for Records Wash and Toilet Facilities 24.16 24.2 24.6 24.2.5 24.1.4.9 24.14 24.1.2 24.4.3 24.1.2.1.15 24.

1.1.5 25.1 25.12) Magnetic Flow Meters Ultrasonic Flowmeters Volumetric Measurement Dilution Method Constant Rate Injection Method 25.2.1.2 25.2 24.1.5.10) Flow Nozzles (Fig.1.6 24.7 25.1 25.2.3 25.11 25.2 25.1 25.2.1 25.1 24.25.6 25.2.2.2 FLOW MEASUREMENT INTRODUCTION METHODS OF FLOW MEASUREMENTS 25.1.5 DISPOSAL OF LABORATORY WASTES 388 388 388 388 388 388 389 390 390 390 390 390 399 400 403 403 404 404 404 407 407 407 413 414 414 414 414 415 415 415 24.2.25.6 Velocity-Area Methods Current Meters Float Measurements Pitot TUbes Chemical and Radioactive Tracers Dye Tracers Conclusion .2.2.2.3 24.25.2.2.XXIX 24.2.2 25.2.2.2.3 25.5.5 25.1.5.2.1.2.12 Direct Discharge Methods Notches and Weirs Flumes (Free Flowing) Venturi Meters Drops (Fig.25.2.2.8 25.2.10 25.9 25.2.1.2.7 24.2.8 Solid Waste Liquid Wastes Radioactive Wastes ANALYSIS OF DATA COMPUTERISATION OF LABORATORY DATA PERSONNEL 25 25.1.9) California Pipe (Fig.2.2.11) Orifice Plate (Fig.4 25.1.1.2.4 25.

3.3.2 26.5.3.xxx 26 26. 41. 417 417 417 417 417 416 418 418 418 26.1 26.4 26.1 26.2.2.2 26.1 26.3 26.2.4 26.3 26.2 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEWAGE TREATMENT PREAMBLE DUCKWEED POND TECHNOLOGY 416 416 416 416 416 26.3 General Process Process Flowsheet Research and Development Needs VERMlCULTURE TECHNOLOGY 41.5.2 26.6 General Process Description Research and Development Needs RAW SEWAGE UTiUSATION FOR TREE PLANTATION ROOT ZONE TECHNOLOGY 26.2.1 26.6 Process Research and Development Needs CONCLUSION .

2 492 486 12.1 440 441 1.2 473 474 462 8.6 DESiGN OF GRAVITY SANITARY SEWER NETWORK USING COMPUTER PROGRAMME IN BASIC THREE EDGE BEARING TESTS FOR PIPE STRENGTH ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BURIED CONDUITS CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON GASES CAUSING HAZARDS EQUIPMENT AND SIMPLE TESTS FOR DETECTION OF GASES AND OXYGEN DEFICIENCY EXAMPLE FOR HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF MECHANICALLY CLEANED BAR RACK AND SCREEN CHAMBER DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR GRIT CHAMBER WITH PROPORTIONAL FLOW WEIR AS HYDRAULIC CONTROL DEVICE DESIGN OF SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION TANK DESIGN OF CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS DESIGN OF FACULTATIVE AERATED LAGOON DESIGN OF TRICKLING FILTER DESIGN EXAMPLE OF ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTOR DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FACULTATIVE STABILIZATION POND DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET REACTOR DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR ANAEROBIC FILTER DESIGN EXAMPLE OF SLUDGE DIGESTERS 463 6. A ABBERVATIONS AND SYMBOLS CONVERSION FACTORS LIST OF INDIAN STANDARDS RELATING TO SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR VARIOUS METHODS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT ESTIMATION OF FUTURE POPULATION COMPUTATION OF STORM RUNOFF AND DESIGN OF STORM SEWER MANNINGS CHART HAZEN WILLIAM CHART CALCULATION OF BACK WATER CURVE DESIGN OF SANITARY SEWER SYSTEM 419 420 423 B C 1.1 13.3 3.XXXI APPENDICES Appendix No.2 14.1 3.1 8.1 500 502 504 620 521 624 526 626 .2 3.2 15.2 17.2 11.1 14.1 13.1 16.4 467 458 460 3.1 15.1 466 11.2 3.1 6.

4 23.2 23.1 23.2 Centrifugal Pumps Electrical Motors Power Transformers Switchgears (Air or Oil Circuit Breakers) Sedimentation Tanks with Clarifier and their Drive MINIMUM LABORATORY EQUIPMENTS NEEDED FOR TESTS TESTS RECOMMENDED TO BE CARRIED OUT ON UNITS OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR VENTURI METER 544 546 560 25.3.1 27 BIBUOGRAPHY .1 24.3 23.1 23.2 23.XXXII 17.2.5 24.2 21.2 DESIGN EXAMPLE OF SLUDGE DRYING BEDS SOIL PERCOLATION TEST DESIGN EXAMPLE OF LEACH PIT OPERATION TROUBLES IN SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT SCHEDULE OF PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 531 533 534 536 540 540 540 541 541 542 543 23.3.3.1 21.2.

Design period. they are not amenable for comparative study and appraisal. When projects are assessed for their cost benefit ratio and for rnstitutional or funding purposes.CHAPTER 1 PLANNING 1.1 OBJECTIVE The objective of a public waste water collection and disposal system IS to ensure that sewage or excreta and sullage discharged from communities is properly collected. It is necessary therefore to specify appropriate standards and design criteria and avoid different approaches.Environmental .Engineering .Process .1 Engineering Considerations Topographical. regional and community. staqe wise population to be served and expected sewage flow and fluctuations . Though the responsibility of various organizations in charge of planning public waste water disposal systems is different in each case. treatment and disposal systems.3 BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS In designing waste water collection. The waste water disposal projects formulated by the various State Sponsonng Authorities at present do not always contain all the essential eJements for appraisal. 1. treated to the required degree and finally disposed off without causing any health or environmental problems. engineering and other considerations which figure prominently In project design are noted below: 1. 1. transported. planning generally begins from the final disposal point going backwards to give an integrated and optimum design to suit the topography and the available hydraulic head. Once the disposal points are tentatively selected. state.3. at times different standards are adopted by the Central and State agencies regarding various design parameters. 1. further design is guided by the following baSIC desiqn considerations: .2 NEED FOR PLANNING Waste water disposal systems can be either the on-site type or the kind where water-borne wastes are disposed off-site into a water body or on land. To keep overall costs down. most urban systems today are planned as an optimum mix of the two types depending on various factors Planning is required at different levels: national. Also.Cost These considerations are discussed below in detail. they itill have to function within the priorities fixed by the national and state governments and keep in view overall requirements of the area. supplemented by pumping if essential.

pumping stations and disposal works Tentative sites 3. Available hydraulic head in the system upto high flood level in case of disposal to a nearby river or high tide level in case of coastal discharge or the level of the Irrigation area to be commanded in case of land disposal Ground water depth and its seasonal fluctuation affecting construction.oil and grease. uptake of refractory and persistent substances in the toed chain. especially in bays where natural circulation patterns might keep the nutrients trapped in the water body. and protection of other legitimate uses to which the river waters may be put b) Ground Water Quality Another environmental consideration is the potential for ground water pollution presented by the treatment units proposed to be built For example.frequency of floods and drought conditions. especially at low flow conditions in the river. Special consideration may be given to the presence of public bathing ghats downstream. . its slope and terrain. nutrients.2 2. The presence of nutrients could also promote algal growth in coastal waters. available for treatment plant. special precautions may be needed to intercept seepage of sewage from lagoons and ponds. 1. The aquatic ecosystem (includinq fish) may also need protection in case of rivers through minimum dissolved oxygen downstream. 6. in certain soils. Land irrigation would also present a potential for ground water pollution especially from nitrates. travel times to downstream POints 01 Interest navigation etc. Topography of the general area to be served. ground water pollution may need special attention if the ground water table is high and the soil relatively porous. structural design (uplift considerations) Soil bearing capacity and type of strata expected to be met in construction. though treated. could lead to bacterial and viral pollution and affect bathing water quality of beaches. suspended and floatiny solids. including the possibilities of seggregating the sullage water and sewage and reuse or recycle sullage water within the households 4 5. Therefore. coliforms etc. In case of low cost sanitation methods involving on-site disposal of excreta and sullage waters. On site disposal facilities. Surface water quality considerations include compliance with treated effluent standards at the discharge point with respect to parameters like BOD. the following aspects should be considered during design: a) Surface Water Hydrology and Quality Hydrological considerations affect the location of outfalls to rivers with regard to protection of nearby water supply intake points either upstream or downstream. sewer infiltration. Hydrological considerations also help determine expected dilutions downstream.3. Discharges have to be made sufficiently offshore to benefit from dilution and natural die-away of organisms before they are washed back to the shoreline by currents. c) Coastal Water Quality Shoreline discharges of sewage effluents. flow velocities.2 Environmentaf Considerations The environmental and socio-economic impacts of a sewage treatment plant may prove adverse during the operation stage.

1. some considerations need to be given to sites fOI disposal of screenings and grit in an inottensive manner. The various parameters to be determined are described in other sections of this manual. general sanitation in the plant area and provision of a green-belt around the treatment plant. public health and well being and general utility of amenities may be threatened. Apart from the usual development of a small garden near the plant's office or laboratory. Some aspects have already been referred to earlier. . regulations and codes of practice which must be observed. These factors have to be considered in selecting sites for location of sewage treatment plants and treated sewage irrigation fields.3 Process Considerations Process considerations involve factors which affect the choice of treatment method. particularly in the down-wind direction of prevailing winds. such as: i) effluent discharge standards including permissible microbial and helminthic quality requirements standards for control of toxic and accumulative substances in the food chain potential for nitrate and microbial pollution of ground waters deterioration of drinking water resources including wells deterioration of bathing water quality control measures for health and safety of sewage plant operators and sewage farm workers who are exposed to or handle raw and/or treated sewage. its design criteria and related requirements such as the following: a) Waste water Flow and Characteristics This constitutes the primary data required for process design.3. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) f) Landscaping Sewage treatment plant structures need not be ugly and unsightly. Public health concepts are built into various bye laws. At no real extra cost.3 d) Odour and Mosquito Nuisance Odour and mosquito nuisance in the vicinity of sewage treatment plants. e) Public Health Public health considerations pervade through all aspects of design and operation of sewage treatment and disposal projects. can have adverse impacts on land values. some architectural concepts can be used and the buildings designed to suit the main climates (humid 01 dry) generally met within India.

It is to be noted that. thus. ability to withstand power and operational failures. whatever may occur. The selection of a treatment process thus. also form important considerations in choice of process. impose a high level of operation and maintenance skills. methane qas collection. It is often not enough to aim only at BOD removal and let other items be left to unspecified. a trade-off is often possible. or-mtmtcipal sewage. This could well be exploited to get an optimum solution for meetinq treatment requirements and qivin(J a dependable performance. helminths etc.tm. Land disposal generally has to meet less stringent discharge standards than disposal to surface waters. The operatinq equipment and its ancillary control equipment should be easy to operate and maintain (with indigenously available spare parts) as far as possible. Under Indian conditions. scrubbinq to remove hydrogen sulphide wherever necessary and its conversion to electricity. preferred wherever it is feasible. Between land and power requirements.1 d) Other Process Requirements various other factors affecting the choice of a process include requirements in terms of: land power ( and its dependability) operating (and control) equipment requirement and its indigenous availability skilled staff nature of maintenance problems extent of sludge production and its disposal requirements loss of head through plant in relation to available head (to avoid pumping as far as possible) ease of stage wise extension of plant with time. The choice has to match with the discharge standards to be met in a specific case. depends on the extent of removal efficiency required for all important parameters and the need to obviate nuisance conditions. Other processes like digesters. lagoons and ponds may be sensitive to temperature. the extent of mechanisation adopted should qenerally he the minimum possible. . this is considered. Land disposal also has the advantage of giving nutrient removal and is.4 b) Deg(ee of Trei. The performance characteristics for some methods of sewage treatment are mdicated in Appendix 1. c) Performance Characteristics The dependability of performance of a process inspite of fluctuations in effluent quality and quantity are very useful attributes in ensuring a stable effluent quality. in terms of removal of BOD/COD. The more high-rated process. From this view point. coliforms. nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous). The option of gas collection and supply to a nearby industry or area should be favoured during the site selection stage wherever possible. for example.entlilequired lri case-otdorrrest«. based on actual costs of the two items. Similarly. incidental removal. the more sensitive it is in operation.

. such as: amortisation and interest charges on capital borrowings direct operation and maintenance costs on start chemicals fuel and electricity transport maintenance and repairs Insurance overheads. "'" Vf"'. 1. so that expenditure tar ahead at its utilisation is avoided.1. Where expensive tunnels and large aqueducts are involved entallinq large capital outlay tor duplication.'. U . The project components may be designed to meet the pen ods mentioned In Table 1. the overall costs (capital and operatinq) nave to be determined in order. commercial.5 1.~- Finally trom among the tew selected options. they may be desiqned for ultimate project requirements.5.1 POPULATION FORECAST General Considerations The desiqn population will have to be eslimated with due regard to all the factors governing the tuture growth and development ot the project area In the industrial. educational. It any engineering design and supervision charges Interest charge on loan during construction period. such as: civil construction. 1. Necessary land tor future expansion/duplication ot components should be acquired In the beginning itself.4 Cost Considerations .. Operalinq costs after start up ot plant Include direct operatinq costs and fixed costs.4 DESIGN PERIOD t'~''"''". .social and .to arrive at the most optimum solution. . " Seweraqe projects may be deslqned normally to meet the requuernents over a thirty year period after their complelion The penod between design and completion should also be taken into account which should be between three to six years dependinq on the type and size at the project. equipment supply and erection costs tand purchase costs Including legal tees. Capital costs include all Initial costs Incurred upto plant start up..5 1. ... The thirty year period may however be modified in regard to certain components at the project dependinq on their useful life or fhe facility tor carrying out extensions when required and rate of interest.(.3...

4. The construction may be in a phased manner as initially the flows may not reach the designed levels. Pumping Stations (Civil Works} 30 3. (Refer Chapter 10. A judgement based on these factors would help in selecting the most suitable method of deriving the probable trend of the population growth in the area or areas of the project from out of the following mathematical methods. Life of pumping machinery Is generally 15 years. projections of net migration are prepared before projections for naturai increase. Collection System i.6 administration spheres. Component 1. if deaths exceed births). Duplicating machinery within the pumping station would be easier/cost of civil works will be economical for full desiqn period. Elfluent disposal and utilisation 30 This method thus takes into account the prevailing and anticipated birth rates and death rates of the region or city for the period under consideration. An estimate is also made of the immigration from and immigration to the community.1 DESIGN PERIODS FOR COMPONENTS OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM AND SEWAGE TREATMENT Recommended Design Period in years 30 Clarification SI.(i) by births (population gain} (ii) by deaths (population loss} or (iii) migration (population loss or gain depending on whether movement out or movement in occurs in excess). as its replacement is not possible during Its use. 2. TABLE 1. a) Demographic Method of Population Projection Population change can occur only in three ways. Provision of design capacities in the initial stages itself is economical. Annexation of an area may be considered as a special form of migration. its growth area wise and the net increase of population is calculated accordingly considering all these factors by arithmetical balancing. The net elfect of births and deaths on population is termed natural increase (natural decrease. Pumping Machinery Sewage Treatment Plant 15 30 5. No. and it will be uneconomical to build the full capacity plant initially.2}. Migration also affects the number of births and deaths in an area and so.e. Population forecasts are frequently obtained by preparing and summing up of separate but related projections of natural mcreases and of net migration and is expressed as below. Sewer Network The system should be designed for the prospective population of 30 years. Special factors causing sudden immigration or influx of population should also be foreseen to the extent possible. graphically interpreted where necessary. .

Addition of sector wise population gives the population of the city. In one. c) Incremental Increase Method In this method the increment in arithmetical increase is determined from the past decades and the average of that increment is added to the average increase. This extension has to be done carefully and it requires vast experience and good judgement. Then the percentage increase is modified by deducting the decrease in rate of growth. h) Method of Density In this approach tile trend in rate of density increase of population for each sector of a City. This method increases the figures obtained by the arithmetical increase method. 4-51 CPHEEOINOl94 .e. d) Geometrical Increase Method In this method percentage increase is assumed to be the rate of growth and Ihe average of the percentage increase is used to find out future increment in population.7 b) Arithmetical Increase Method This method is generally applicable to large and old cities. This method gives a low value and is suitable for well settled and established communities. This method is applicable only in such cases where the rate of growth of population shows a downward trend. only the city in question the second. other similar cities are also taken into account. a qraph between population and decades IS plotted and extrapolated. t) Graphical Method IS In this approach there are two methods. In this method the average increase of population per decade is calculated from the past records and added to the present population to find out population in the next decade. The line of best fit may be obtained by the method of least squares ii) Graphical method based on cities with similar 9roWU1 pattern In this method the city in question is compared with other cities which have already undergone the same phases of development which the city III question IS likely to undet qo and based on this comparison. I) considered and in Graphical melhod based on single city In this method the population curve of the city (i. e) Decreasing Rate of Growth In this method it is assumed that rate of percentage increase decreases and the average decrease in the rate of growth is calculated. is found out and population forecast is done for each sector based on the above approach. g) Logistic Method The S shaped logistic curve for any city gives complete trend of growth of the city right from beginning to saturation limit of population of the city. This method gives much hlghel value and is mostly applicahle for 9rowin9 towns and cities having vast scope for expansion. the population vs past decades) is smoothly extended for getting future value. This method is applicable for very large cities with sufficient demoqraphic data.

Domestic sewage is the wastewater from kitchen. the density and distribution of such population within the several areas.2 1. The water supply to the communities already contains mineral organic matters to which human excreta.dirt.1. Some are so objectionable that they should not be admrtted to the public sewerage system. toilet and laundries.2 Final Forecast While the forecast of the prospective population of a projected area at any given time during the period of design can be derived by anyone of the foregoing methods appropriate to each case. deciding the extent of treatment. Worked out examples for estimation of the future population by some of the methods are gIven in Appendix 1. Some are relatively clean rinse waters.1 ESTIMATION OF WASTEWATER FLOW Sources of Wasle Waler Sanitary sewage is mostly the spent water of the community draining into the sewer system with some ground water and a fraction of storm water from the area draining into it.6 1. other fluid wastes and other substances are added. zones or districts will again have to be made with a discerning judgement on the relative probabilities of expansion within each zone or district. or with corrosive.7 SEWAGE CHARACTERISTICS Characterisation of wastewater is essential for an effective and economical wastewater management programme. ill For estimation of wastewater flow in the case of a network designed for carryiog only rnurucipal wastewaters. i) Separate system.6. If helps in the choice of treatment methods. flammable. the decision regarding the design population should take their figures into account. 1. papers. allowance is generally made for infiltration of ground water through [ornts 1.8 1.2 Per Capita Wastewater Flow Rate of wastewater flow depends upon rate of water supply to the community and the rate of ground water infiltration.5. The details of estimating the quantities of wastewater flow are discussed in 3. where one is designed to cater to the municipal wastewaters and a second to take care of storm water flows and Combined system where both municipal wastewater as well as storm water are earned in one network. While analysis of waste in each particular case . or explosive substances. Wherever population growth forecast or master plans prepared by town planning or other appropriate authorities are available. There are two types of sewerage systems viz. assessing the beneficial uses of wastewater and utilising the waste purification capacity of natural bodies of water In a planned and controlled manner. bathroom. others are heavily laden with organic or mineral matter. Others contain so little and such unobjectionable waste matters that it is safe to discharqe them into storm drains or directly to natural bodies of water. Industrial waste flow should tallow the gurde lines ot the Pollution Board or any other competent authority. according to its nature of development and based on existing and contemplated town planning regulations. Industrial wastewaters vary in composition with industrial operations. poisonous. lavatory.6.

quantity and character of the waste and their variations which may affect the sewerage system or the sewage treatment process. a broad knowledge of the problems likely to be faced during the various phases of implementation of the project is essential. existing maps and plans showing streets from revenue or town surveys or Survey of India maps. gas lines and Location of streets and adjoining areas likely to be merged or annexed. depth of ground water table and its fluctuations. trends of population growth and demographic studies b) .1 PHYSICAL ASPECTS These would necessitate the collection of information relating to: a) Topography 01 elevation difference needed for design of sewers and location of out fall and disposal works Subsoil conditions. photographs ot complex surfaces tor supplementing the existing instrumentat surveys by concerned authorities like Municipalities and Roads Departments. developmental.8. aerial photographs. 1.8 SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION Survey and investigation are pre-requisites both for framing of the preliminary report and the preparation of a detailed sewerage project. such as commercial.5 1. 1. mdustrial. It is therefore necessary to collect detailed data about nature of industries.8.1. Quality parameters for which sewage is to be tested are discussed in 10.7.1 Effect of Industrial Waste Waste from industries can form an important component of sewage flow both in volume and composition.9 is advisable.2 DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS The following should be taken into account: a) types of tand use. data from other similar cities may be utilised during initial stages of planning. such as types of strata likely to be encountered.1 Basic Information For an effective investigation.8. In the absence of any records. city survey stones. residential and recreational. electric and telephone cables. extent of areas to be served density of population.1. Quality and character of waste water are to be based on flow measurements and laboratory analysis of the composite samples. The engineering and policy decisions taken are dependent on the correctness of the data collected and its proper evaluation. preliminary data should be collected by putting atleast 3 trial bores or trial pits per hectare Underground structures like storm drains and appurtenances. b) c) d) Possible sources of information are. Information on physical. Other sources. 1. utility services like house connections for water supply and sewerage. 1. fiscal and other aspects has to be collected. are topographical maps of Survey of India if available with existing spot-levels.

meteorological data and Pollution Control Boards. operation and maintenance. Some of the information can be obtained from the records relating to Municipal and State Tax Levies. the economic condition of community with respect to their tax-paying capacity and factors affecting the cost of constructions.4 OTHER ASPECTS The considerations that are likely to influence are: a) changes in political boundaries by physical acquisition or merger of adjacent communities or by possible extension of limits feaSibility of multi-regional or multi-municipal systems prevailing water pollution prevention statutes.3 FISCAL ASPECTS The various factors that will have an important bearing are: a) existing policies or commitments of obligation which may affect the financing of the project outstanding loan amounts and instalments of repayments availability of Central and State loans.other rules and regulations relating to discharge of industrial and domestic wastes present status of the governmental. semi-governmental or mumcipat authority sponsoring the project. loans from other financing bodies such as Life Insurance Corporation. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and other Banks and Institutions present water rates.1. size of property plots and land holding. 1. adequacy.flow gauging records. sewer-tax and revenue realised from them.10 c) type and number of industries for determining quantity and nature of wastes and location of their discharge points existinq drainage and sewerage facilities and data relating to them flow in existing sewers and sewers of similar areas to assess the flow characteristics historical and socio-economic data basis of design and information on the maintenance of existing sewers and effluent disposal sites and their availability. procedures for financing projects and registers and records of the authorities maintaining water supply and sewerage systems. effectiveness and the desii ability of its modification or necessity of a new organisation to satisfactorily implement and maintain the project and b) c) d) . Industrial Development Corporation. grant-in-aid. its capacity. d) e) f) g) h) Possible sources of information are census records. Acts and Rules governing loans. land use plan. regional planning records. town and metropolitan master plans.8. HUDCO.8.1. b) c) d) e) 1. stream flow records.

2. All layout work must be completed and checked before construction begins. shall be collected to prepare an engineering report describing the scope and cost of the project with reasonable accuracy. by-passes and protective tencinq snould also be laid out and constructed prior to undertakinq sewer construction work.3. b) Setting Line and Grade The transfer of line and qrade from control points. The methods generally used for set1ing the line and grade of the sewers are discussed in 7.11 e) the inconveniences likely to be caused to the community during execution and the feasibility of minimising them by suitable alignment or location of the components of the system. to the construction work should be the responsibility of the executing agency till work is completed. It should include.1 PRELIMINARY PROJECT SURVEYS This is concerned with the broad aspects of the project Data on aspects such as capacity required.3 CONSTRUCTION SURVEYS All control points such as base lines and bench marks for sewer alignment and grade should be established by the engineer along the route of the proposed construction. Inter-alia. While extreme precision and detail are not required In this phase.2 DETAILEO PROJECT SURVEYS Surveys for this phase form the basis for the engineering design as well as for the preparation of plans and specifications for incorporation in the detailed project report. All these points should be referred adequately to permanent objects. negotiation or clearance. all the basic data obtained must be reliable.8. minutes of the past meetings of the municipal or other governing bodies and discussions with officials. The procedure for establishing line and qrade where tunnels are to be employed in sewer system are discussed In 7. Possible sources of information are National Acts. physical features affecting general layout and design. obtain better bids and prevent changing and rerouting of lines. 1. network of bench marks and traverse surveys to identify the nature as well as extent of the existing underground structures requiring displacement. . municipal councillors and other local leaders.8.2. In contrast to preliminary survey this survey must be precise and contain contours of all the areas to be served giving all the details that will facilitate the designer to prepare design and construction of plans suiting the field conditions. 1.1.2 Project Surveys 1.minimise utility relocation costs. due consideration must be given to the escalation of pnces of basic materials and their availability. 1. State and Municipal Laws and Byelaws. basic arrangement and size. Approach roads. established by the enqineers.2.8.8. riqhts-ot-way. availability of effluent disposal facilities. detours. probable cost and possible methods of financing. Such detailed surveys are necessary to establish rights of way. clearing limits and pavement cuts should be laid out clearly to ensure that the work proceeds smoothly.1.2. a) Preliminary Leyouts Before starting the work. work areas. In framing such estimates.

Report at the end of each stage should include a time table and cost estimate for undertaking the next stage activity and a realistic schedule for all future stages of project development. to be carried out relying primariJy on the existinq information.9. . mobilising personnel or fixing agency (for the next stage of project preparation) data gathering. socially.2 Identification Report Identification report is basicallv a desk study. Therefore the Institutional arrangements through which a project will be brought into operation. It can be prepared reasonably quickly by those who are familiar with the project area and needs of project components. Project reports should be prepared in three stages viz. since these activities can be carried out during the implementation phase of projects. physical surveys.9. The various stages are: Pre-Investment Planning Identification of a project Preparation of project report Appraisal and Sanction Construction of facilities and carrying out support activities Operation and Maintenance Monitoring and feed back 1. it may be convenient to include detailed engineering in the project report. all projects should normally proceed through three stages and at the end of each stage a decision should be taken whether to proceed to the next planning stage and commit the necessary manpower and financial resources for the next stage. It is therefore necessary to identify a singJe entity to be responsible for overall management and coordination of each stage of project preparation. environmentally. financially. Projects for small towns or those forming parts of a programme may not require preparation of feasibility reports.12 1. The basic design of a project is influenced by the authorities/organisations who are involved in approving. providing funding for the next stage. For big projects economical feasibility may also have to be examined.1 PROJECT REPORT General All projects have to follow distinct stages between the period they are conceived and completed. 1.9. however. it is desirabJe that the impJementing authority is identified and those responsibJe for operation of a project are consulted at the project preparation stage.9 1. Arrangements in this respect snould be finalised for each stage of project preparation. if standard design and drawing can be adopted.(i) identification report (ii) pre-feasibility report and (iii) feasibility report. For small projects. implementing. legally and institutionally.1 PROJECT REPORTS Project reports deal with all aspects of pre-investment planning and establish the need as well as the feasibility of projects technically. culturally. Since project preparation is quite expensive and time consuming. must be considered at the project preparation stage. operating and maintaining the project. Detailed engineering and preparation of technical specification and tender documents are not necessary for taking investment decisions. taking into consideration time required for review and approval of the report. This report is essentially meant for estabJishing the need for a project.1. site investigations etc. Some times more than one organisation may have a roJe to pJay in the various stages of preparation of a project. Similarly responsibility for project preparation may change at various stages.

educational. if any establish the need for taking up a project in the light of existing and future deficiencies In waste water disposal services. clearly indicating the design period identify project components. Central Government.g. cost of operation and maintenance identify source for financing capital works and operation and maintenance. cost estimates for preparinq project report and sources of funds to finance preparation of project reports indicate time table for carrying out all future staqes of the project and the earliest date by which the project might be operational indicate personnel strength required and trarning needs for implementation of the project. It any. how tile project would fit in with the national/regional/sectoral strategies and With the general overall development in the project area Identify a strategic plan for long term development of waste water disposal services in the project area. work out annual burden (debt servicmq + operational expenditure) indicate Institutions responsible Jor project approval. feasibility report]. in terms of population to be served and the impact of the project after completion. pointing out deficiencies. financing. physical distribution and socio-economic analysis present wastewater disposal arrangements in the project area. with alternatives if any. The report should be brief and include the following information: a) b) identification of the project area and its physical environment commercial. according to existing and future land use plans or master plans. in system of collection and freatment population projection for the planning period. in the context of existing regional development plans and such other reports. Implementation. It also provides an Idea of the magnitude of cost estimates of a project to facilitate bringing the project in the planning and budgetary cycle and makes out a case for obtaining sanction to incur expenditure for carrying out the next stages of project preparation. Local Body. water Supply Boards) indicate orqanisation responsible for preparing the project report (pre-feasibility report. on a time scale bring out. operation and maintenance (e. cultural and religious importance and activities in and around the project area (also point out special activities or establishments like defence or others of national importance) existing population. Zilla Panshad. Indicate if any particular/peculiar difficulties of policy or other nature that are likely to be encountered for implementing the project and how these could be resolved I) m) 0) 0) p) . pointinq out adverse impacts of non-implementation ot the project.13 indicating likely alternatives which would meet the requirements. indicatinq phases of development state the objectives of the short term project under consideration. industrial. State Government. both physical facilities and supporting activities c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) preliminary estimates of costs (component-wise) of construction of physical facilities and supportinq activities.

The pre. and to select an appropnate alternative for carryinq out detailed feasibility study. A pre-feasibility report can be taken to be a Preliminary Project Report.14 q) recommend actions to be taken to proceed further The following plans may be enclosed with the report: i) an index plan to a scale of 1· em =2 Km showing the project area. the structure and component of which are as follows: i) executive summary introduction the project area and the need tor a project long term plan for wastewater disposal proposed wastewater disposal project conclusions and recommendations tables. Local Body. agency responsible for promoting the project .2 INTRODUCTION This section explains the origin and concept of the project. approach adopted In developing the project and the salient features of financial and administrative aspects.9. ii) 1.feasibility study helps in selecting a short torm project which will fit in the long term strategy for improving services in the context of overall perspecti~e plan for development of the project area. which may be a central planning and design cell of the Dept. In the latter case terms of reterence tor the study and its scope should be carefully set out. giVing Its essential features. Pre-teasibility study may be a separate and discrete stage of project preparation or it may be the first stage of a comprehensive feasibility study. basic strategy. the work of preparation of pre-feasibility report should be undertaken by an appropriate agency.9.1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY It is a good practice to provide an Executive Summary at the beginning of the report. how it was prepared and the scope and status of the report.3 Prefeaslbility Report After clearance is received. or professional consultants warkinq in the water supply-sanitation environmental areas.3.3. existing works. 1. In either case It is necessary that it precedes takinq up of a feasibility study because the prefeasibility study is essentially carried out for screening and rankinq of all project alternatives. on the basis of identification report trom the concerned authority and/or owner of the project and commitments are made to finance further studies. dealing with Wastewater Board. figures/maps and annexes" ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) 1.9. These sub-sections may be detailed as under: a) Project Genesis I) descrrbe how the idea of the project originated. proposed works and location of community/ township or institution to be served a schematic diagram showing the salient levels of project component.

climate. indicating the sources of data or the baSIS for the esnrnate review previous population data. agencies responsible for carrying out the various elements of work and their role in preparing the study time table followed for the study.3 PROJECT AREA AND THE NEED FOR THE PROJECT This section estahlishes the need for the project It should cover the tollowinq: a) Project Area i) ii) give geographical description of the project area with reference to maps describe special features such as topography. etc" which may effect project design.9. culture. land use plan. state and the entire country ii) iii) iv) v) diSCUSS factors likely to affect population growth rates .3. rniqration. cultural or religious aspects of the communities which may have a bearinq on the project proposal. histone qrowth rates and causes estimate future population growth With different methods and indicate the most probable growth rates and compare WIth past population growth trends compare qrowth trends within the project area. implementation and operation Iii) IV) map showinqadministrative and political jurisdiction describe any ethnic. b) Population Pattern i) Estimate population In the project area. public heath care and wastewater management programme etc. 1.15 ii) list and explain previous studies and reports on tile project. religion. Including the project identification report and agencies which prepared them describe how the project fits in the regional development plan. Ii) c) Scope and Status of the Report I) Ii) Iii) iv) how the pre-feasibility report fits in the overall process of project preparation describe data limitation list intenm reports prepared during the study explain it tile pre-feasibility report IS intended to be used for obtaininq approval tor the proposed project. long term sector plan. Iii) b) How was the Study Organised i) explain how the study was carried out. with those for the region.

in relation to water supply and sanitation (This may also be Indicated on a diagram). Disposal Systems and Population Served Describe each of the existing wastewater disposal systems in the project area. literacy and un-employment by age and sex provide data and make projection on housing standards and average household occupancy in various parts of the project area describe public health status within the project area with particular attention to diseases related to water and sanitary conditions provide data on maternal and infant mortality rates and life expectancy discuss the status of health care programmes In the area. f} Drainage and Solid Wastes .16 vi) estimate probable densities of population in different parts of the project area at future intervals of time e. financing. as well as other projects which have bearing on improvements in environmental sanitation. poverty groups and ethnic concentrations and the present and future land uses (as per development plan) information on housing conditions and relative proportions of owners and tenants provide data on education.pumping stations. on site latrines etc. ii) e} Existing Wastewater. Private waste water disposal methods such as septic tanks. indicating the details as under: Area served. preparing projects. treatment works and effluent disposal methods etc. components of the system such as collection network. ii) iii) IV) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) d) Sector Institutions i) tdentify the institutions (Government. responsibilities and limitation (territorial or others) of all the identified institutions. implementation.q. Non-Government) which are involved in any of the stages of water supply and sanitation project development in the area. five. vii) viii) c) Econorntc and Social Conditions i) describe present living conditions of the people of different socro-econorruc and ethnic groups identify locations according to income levels or other indications of socio-economic studies show on the project area map location-wise density of population. Semi-Government. operation and maintenance and evaluation) comment on roles. quantity and quality of wastewater collected. (Planning. ten and twenty years ahead discuss pallerns of seasonal migration if any within the area indicate implication of the estimated growth pallern on housing and other local infrastructure.

(which may include rehabilitation or developing a new system) Indicate priorities to improvement of existing system.3. assessment of the need for consumer education in hygiene and comments on urgency of project preparation and implementation. A long term plan may be prepared for a period of 30 years and alternative developmenl sequences may be identified to provide target service coverage at affordable costs. Such a long term plan or the strategic plan should be consistent with the future overall development plans for the areas. This calls for definition of the following: i) population to be covered with improved waste water management facility target dates by which the above mentioned coverage would be extended within the planning period.4 LONG TERM PLAN FOR WASTEWATER D. ii) iii) 1.17 Briefly describe existing systems of storm water drainage and solid waste collection and disposal. Since all needs cannot be satisfied in immediate future. b) ii) iii) c) It must be noted that availability of funds is one of the prime factors which will ultimately decide the scope and scale of a feasible project d) Selection of a Strategic Plan Each of the alternative development sequences. It is this project which then becomes the subject of a comprehensive teasibrlity study.9. it IS necessary to carefully determine priorities of target groups tor Improvement rn services and staqes ot development and thus restrict the number of alternatives e) Planning for system requirement includes consideration of the following: i) ii) possibilities at rehabititatinq and/or ce-bottleneckmq the existinq systems alternative treatment systems and pumping schemes f) It may also be necessary to ascertain if supporting activities like health education. From these alternative development sequences. starr traininq and institutional improvements etc. are necessary to be included as essential components of . consists of a series of improvements and expansions to be implemented over the planned period. Alternative development sequences should he identified in the light of the coverages to be achieved during the planning period in phases. construction of new system.. g) Need for a Project i) Comment as to why the existing system cannot satisfy the existing and projected demands for services with reference to population to be served Describe the consequences of not taking up a project. expansion of systems. a pnonty project to be implemented Itl short term can be selected. which can overcome the existing deficiencies and meet the present and future needs. In SUitable phases consistency and co-ordination to be maintained between projections for both water supply and sanitation services.SPOSAL a) Wastewater disposal services have to be planned as a phased development programme and any short term project should be such as would fit in the long term strategy. This discussion should be focused in terms of their impact on wastewater management and environment.

5 PROPOSED WASTEWATER PROJECT a) Details of the Project The project to be selected may consist those components of the least cost alternative of development sequence.9. detailed engineering. fund mobilisation. construction supervision. discounting future costs to present value. which can be implemented during the next 3 to 4 years. taking mto consideration time required for all further steps to be taken. selecting the sequence with the lowest present value g) As stated above. equipment and other measures necessary for operation and maintenance of the existing and expanded systems consultancy services needed (if any) for conducting feasibility study. implementation. Components of the setected project may be as follows: i) ii) rehabilitation and de-bottleneckinq 01 the existing facilities construction of new facilities for improvement and expansion of existinq systems support activities like training.3. disposal system iii) c) Implementation Schedule A realistic implementation schedule should be presented. These may then be evaluated for least cost solution by 'net present worth' method. which involves expressing all costs (capital and operating) for each year in economic terms.18 the project. appraisal of the project. costs are to be expressed in economic terms and not in terms of their financial costs. iii) iv) v) b) Project Components All project components should be thoroughly described. d) Cost Estimates . support activities. trial and commissioning. All the physical and supporting input need to be carefully casted (capital and operating) after preparing preliminary designs of all facilities identified for each of the development sequences. This is because the various alternatives should reflect resource cost to the economy as a whole at different future dates. In preparing this schedule due consideration should be given to all authorities/groups whose inputs and decistons can aftect the project and its timing. 1. such as conducting feasibility study. Costing of the selected project may however be done in terms of financial costs. dUly supported by documents such as: i) ii) location maps technical information for each physical component and economic analysis where necessary preliminary engineering designs and drawings in respect of each physical component. sanction to the project. such as collection network. consumer education. public motivation etc. treatment plants. socio-economic studies. pumping stations. duly considering inflation during project implementation.

taking into consideration the likely annual progress of each component. The possible sources of funds include: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) cash reserves available with the project authority grant-in-aid from government loans from government loans from financing institutions like Life Insurance Corporation. identifying all the sources from which funds can be obtained and likely annual contribution from each source. communication. funding. Due allowance should be made for physical contingencies and annual mtlation. This exercise will result in arriving at total funds required annually for implementation of the project. e) Pre-feasibility Report The pre-feasibility report should bring out any major environmental and social impact the project is likely to cause and if these aspects will affect its feasibility. approval. Quantitative estimates of all these resources should be made and included in the project report. HUDCO etc. transport. (Refer to 1. they may also be worked out on annual basis throughout the implementation period. Banks. open market borrowings loans/grants from buateral/international agencies capital contribution from voluntary organisation or from consumers. taking into consideration construction schedule and allowances for physical contingencies and inflation. i) Recurring Expenditure . h) Interest on Loan If the lending authority agrees. power. sanction. spare parts etc. After estimating component-wise costs. implementation. until the project IS completed. Annual cost should be suitably increased to cover escalation during the construction period.19 Cost estimates of each component of the project should be prepared and annual requirement of funds for each year should be worked out. funds. operation and maintenance of the project and indicate also the manpower needed to implement and later operate and maintain the project.3. g) Financial Aspects The capital cost of a project is a sum of all expendifure required to be incurred to complete design and detailed engineering of the project. Financing plan for the project should then be prepared.2) f) Institutional Responsibilities The pre-feasibility report should identify the various organisations/departments/agencies who would be responsible for further planning and project preparation. Total of such escalated annual costs determines the final cost estimate of the project. in respect ot availability of skilled and technical staff. interest payable during implementation period can be capitalised and loan amount increased accordingly. chemicals. construction of all its components including support activities and conducting special studies. It should also discuss special problems likely to be encountered during operation and maintenance. Basic item costs to be adopted should be of the current year.

should include a summary of: i) ii) iii) iv) v) VI) existing coverage review of the need for the project long-term development plans considered the recommended project. transportation. vii) viii) ix) The administrative difficulties likely to be met with and risks involved during implementation of the project should also be commented upon. tariffs etc. coordination with the various agencies. while carrying out feasibility study.3. spare parts and other materials for system operation. It will be necessary at this stage to ascertain if and how much finance can be made available for the project under consideration and to estimate annual availability of funds for the project till its completion This exercise has to be done in consultation with the concerned department of the Government and the lending institutions. b) Recommendations . The annual financial burden imposed by a project comprises the annual recurring cost and payment towards loan and interest(debt-servicing) less the revenue derived lrom taxes. who would see whether the project fits in the sector policies and strategies and can be brought in an annual planning and budgetary cycle taking into consideration the commitments already made in the sector and the overall financial resource position. 1. survey and revalidation of assumptions and judgements.6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS a) Conclusions It This section should present the essential findings and results of the pre-feasibility report. chemicals. energy. This would include expenditure on staff. acceptance of service by the beneficiaries. j) Financing Plan Every State Government and the Government of India have schemes for financing water supply and waste water disposal schemes in the urban and rural areas and definite allocations are made for the national plan periods. These may pertain to boundary question for the project area. timely availability of funds for implementation of the project and problems of operation and maintenance of the facilities. its scope in terms of coverage and components Priorities concerning target-groups and areas to be served by the project Capital costs and tentative financing plan Annual recurring costs and debt servicing and projection of operating revenue Urgency for implementation ot the project Limitation of the data/information used and assumption and acknowledqements made and need for mdepth investigation.9. supply of power. implementation of support activities involving peoples' participation. up-keep of the systems and administration. shortage of construction materials. Tile project may be finally sanctioned for implementation if the financing plan is firmed up. availability of land for constructing project facilities.20 The next step is to prepare recurrent annual costs of the project for the next few years (say 10 years) covering operation and maintenance expenditure of the entire system (existing and proposed).

legally. the pre-feasibility report can be considered sufficient for obtaining investment decision for the project if: a) the results of the pre-feasibility study are based on adequate and data/information analysis of the data and situation is carried out fairly intensively no major environmental and social problems are likely to crop up that might jeopardise project implementation and no major technical and engineering problems construction and operation of the facilities are envisaged during reliable ii) iii) b) c) d) iv) In that case the pre-feasibility study with suitable concluding report. detailed engineering of priority components may be planned simultaneously.9. socially. though the details necessary for construction of project components may be collecfed during execution of works. It is a good practice to keep the authority responsible for taking investment decision. pending undertaking feasibility study formally In respect of small and medium size projects. Enough additional data/information may have to be collected to examine the above mentioned aspects. to see if it is feasible technically. If found necessary and feasible. in much greater details.4 Feasibility Report Feasibility study examines the project selected in the pre-feasibility study as a short-term project. rntormed of the stage and salient features of the project. cornprehensive teasibrlrty study may have to be taken up before an investment decision can be taken. Such works may be identitled and cos ted so that detailed proposals can be developed for implementation It may also be indicated if fhe project authority can go ahead with taking up detailed investigations. The feasibility study. should be processed for obtaining investment decision for the project. A detailed time table for actions to be taken should be presented. environmentally and institutionally. v) 1. can then be taken at the beginning of the implementation phase and If results of the study are noticed to be at variance with the earlier ones. identifying the agencies responsible for taking these actions. taking up of works for rehabilitating and/or de-bottlenecking the existing sysfem should be recommended as an immediate action. If there are good prospects of the project being funded immediately after the feasibility stucly is completed. suitable modification may be introduced dunng implementation In respect of major projects however and particularly those for which assistance from bilateral or international funding agencies is sought for. financially. data collection and operational studies. . economically.21 i) This should include all actions required to be taken to complete project preparation and implementation.

project objectives. only a brief summary of the information covered in prefeasihility report should be presented. need for a project and strategic plan for the same. human resources development. their screening and ranking.9. service coverage. In respect of the project area. Information presented here is based on extensive analysis and preliminary engineering designs of all components of the project.4. c) Rehabilitation and De-bottleneckinq of The Existing Wastewater Disposal System Rehabilitation. quantification of future demands for services.3 THE PROPOSED PROJECT This section descnbes details of the project recommended for Implementation. The summary intormation should include planning period.9.feasibility report are valid and if not. should be planned for execution prior to that of the proposed project. b) Project Users Define number of people by location and institutions who will benefit and/or not benefit from the project area and reasons for the same. highlighting such additional data/information if any collected for this report. 1. necessity of undertaking the rehabilitation/irnprovementlde-bottlenecking works should be explained. users involvement during preparation. community preferences and affordability. recommended strategic plan and cost of its implementation. ease in disposing wastewater. if necessary. It should also brinq out if the data/information and assumptions made in the pre. improved environmental conditions. The detailing of this section may be done in the following sub-sections a) Objectives Project objectives may be described in terms of general development objectives such as health improvements. . service standards considered and selected for long-term planning and for the project.22 1. improvements and de-bottlenecking works.4. how this report is related to other reports and studies carried out earlier. If so these activities should be mentioned in the feasibility report if however these works are proposed as components of the proposed project. changes in this respect should be hiqhlighted. institutional improvements and also terms of specific objectives such as coverage of various target groups. alternative strategic plans.1 CONTENTS The feasibility report may have the following sections: Backqround The Proposed Project Institutional and Financial Aspects Conclusions and Recommendations 1.4. References to all previous reports and studies should be made. implementation and operation of the project. and in particular its setting in the context of a pre-feasibility report.9.2 BACKGROUND This section describes the history of project preparation.

if required.23 d) Project Description This may cover the following items in brief: i) definition of the project in the context of the recommended developrnent i3ltfJrrlative (strategic plan) and explanation for the priority of the project brief description of each component of tho project. sanction of loans. and transport problems if any estimate number and type of workers and their availability procedures for fixing aqencies for works and supplies and the normal time it takes to award contracts vii) viii) ix) list of imported materials. improving billin\) and accounting. technical sanction. and terms of t'f:'ference ii) iii) iv) v) vi) regulations and procedures fOI procurinq key materials and equipment. g) Agencies Involved in Project Implementation and Relevant Aspects i) desiqnate the lead aqency identify other agencies includinq government agencies. approval to annual budget provision. health education. and timing of undertaking these components and the agencies involved. outline arrangements to coordinate the working of all agencies designate the operatinq agency and its role during irnplernentation staqe role of consultants if necessary. scope of their work. e) Support Activities Need for and description of components such as staff training. procurement of materials and equipment etc. with maps and drawings functions. design criteria and capacity of each component technical specification (dimension. power. material) and performance specifications ii) iii) IV) v) vi) vii) stage of preparation of designs and drawings of each component constructmq in-house facilities method of financing. consumer education. who would be involved in project implementation. location. f) Integration of the Proposed Project with the Existing and Future Systems Describe how the vanous components of the proposed project would be integrated with the: existing and future works. community involvement etc. procedure to be followed for Importing them and estimation of delivery period 5-51 CPHEEO/ND/94 . describing their role. such as granting administrative approval. construction of facilities.

taking into consideration expected coverage and escalation. 11ightension power lines. period required for procurement of material and equipment. maintenance of electrical/ mechanical equipment. laid down by government or With those for similar projects. trials of individual components and system and commissioning of the facilities etc. as well as those for each component should be prepared. A detailed PERT/CPM network showing implementation schedule for the whole project. Annual cost estimates should be prepared for a penod of 10 years from the probable year of commissioning the project. festing. routine maintenance of civil works. time required for preparing tender documents. xi) h) Cost Estimates i) Outline basic assumptions made for unit prices. Including normal cost of replacement of parts and supervision charges. iii) iv) i) Implementation Schedule Prepare a detailed and realistic implementation schedule for all project components. actual construction period. cost per unit of wastewater disposed and compare these With norms. in forest area and defence or other such restricted areas comment on the capabilities of contractors and quality of material and equipment available indigenously. such as those pertaining to environmental clearance. if any. along roads and railways. the period required for completion of their work should also be estimated. . taking into consideration stage of preparation of detailed design and drawings.. and their linkages with completion of physical components and commissioning of the project should be established. notice period. contingencies and escalation physical contingencies. price ii) summary of estimated cost of each component for each year till its completion and work out total annual costs to know annual cash flow requirements estimate foreign exchange cost if requrred to be incurred work out per capita cost of the project on the basis of design population. additional field Investigations required if any.24 x) outline any legislative and administrative approvals required to implement the project. prescribed effluent standards. Procedure for monitoring and evaluating the project pertormance with reference to project objectives should be indicated. transport. processing of tenders. If consultant's services are required. j) Operation and Maintenance of the Project Estimate annual operating costs considering staff. energy. permission to construct across. showing linkages and Inter-dependence of various activities. award of works/supply contract. chemicals. consumers' education etc. acquisition of lands. Implementation schedule should also be prepared for support-activities such as training.

costeffectiveness. (present and proposed). its structures. . atlordabihtv. so that effective and efficient periormance is expected. 1. tariff proposed after the project is commissioned. relationship between different functional groups 01 the organisation and with its regional offices. explain H1e procedures involved in obtaining funds from the various sources.9.4. salary ranges of the staff and their comparison with those of other public sector employees staff requirement (category wise) for operating the project Immediately after commissioning. ratio of staff proposed for maintenance and operation of the project to the population ser ved. demonstrate ability to cover all operating and maintenance expenditure and loan repayment workout rate of return on net fixed assets and the internal financial rate of return of the project ii) iii) IV) v) vi) vii) b) Financing Plan Identify all sources of funds for implementation of the project. balance sheets and cash flows) for the project operating agency for five years after the project IS commissioned.25 1. expected tariff and revenues in future years. procedure required to be Iotlowed to adopt new tariff. its functions. in terms of Its objectives. The designated orqanisatiorus) must fulfil the requirements in respect of organisational structure. proposal to meet shortage in revenue accruals prepare annual financial statements (income statements. state how interest during construction will be paid. financial. indicatinq year-by-year requirements from these sources. organisational chart.9. to meet expenditure as planned for completing the project as per schedule. accounting of expenditure and revenue. legal baSIS. future requirements. facilities available for traininq actual tariffs for the last 5 years.4 INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL ASPECTS a) Institutional Aspects It is necessary to examine capabilities of the organisations who would be entrusted with the responsibility of implementing the project and of operating the same after it is commissioned. its relation with government agencies and other organisations involved in sector development public relations in general and consumer relations in particular.4. comments on number and quality of staff in each category. present tariff. personnel. internal and external subsidies. health and management procedures. internal and external audit arrangements. wiuinqness of the beneficiaries to accept the services and eftect 01 not proceeding with the project. or whether it will be capitalised and provided for in the loan. extension services available to sell new services. This can be done by describing the following aspects'.5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This section should discuss justification of the project. policies regarding staff training. i) history of tile organisation. explain all basic assumptions for the financial forecast and the terms and conclitions of tappinq financial sources. tacilities for conducting consumer education programme and settlinq complaints systems tor budgeting for capital and recurring expenditure and revenue. duties and powers. inventory management present positions and actual staff.

tariff. should be mentioned.26 Issues which are likely to adversely affect project implementation and operation should be outlined and ways of tackling the same should be suggested. . Definite recommendations should be made regarding time-bound actions to be taken by the various agencies. Effect of changes in the assumptions made tor developing the project on project implementation period. benefits. including advance action which may be taken by the lead agency pending approval and financing of the project. costs and demand etc.

2. The expenditure on annual operation and maintenance of these schemes has however to be met by the local body out of its own revenue to be generated from taxes. follow up and decision making. financial assistance tor specific inservice training programmes of the States is also offered. village panchayat etc. In a few specific cases these are managed by State Government Departments/Statutory Boards set up by State Governments. for capital investment.1. General progress in providinq these services in the urban and rural areas is monitored.3 Local Body Level It is obligatory responsibility of every local body (Municipality.1 Government of India (G.1 MANAGEMENT In India.. (iii) Inventory Control. (iv) Financial Control and (v) Public Relation. Apart from offering specific inservice training programmes for the employees of wastewater authorities in the States. Implement and operate the systems.) to collect. Trained Engineers and skilled workmen are sometimes deputed to local bodies on request.O. software programmes developed by the Central Public Health Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) under Management Information System as well as by other agencies can be profitably used.O. In special circumstances the State Governments assist the local bodies in operating and maintaining their wastewater disposal schemes through their own departments or through the statutory boards. As per the respective acts of local bodies. review. For proper maintenance of data.2 State Government Level The State Governments offer to assist the local bodies in planning and implementation of wastewater disposal schemes at individual or a group of local bodies.2 COMMON ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT The aspects considered in this chapter refer to management of wastewater disposal systems. 27 . implementation. Financial assistance is also given for these schemes in the form of Grant-In-Aid and loan etc.1. Assistance from financial institutions and other bodies like HUDCO.1.1.I) Level Broad polices on sector development of Water Supply and Sanitation in urban and rural areas are formulated and circulated to State Governments and Union Territories as guide lines. LEGAL AND FINANCIAL ASPECTS 2. are available. ADMINISTRATION. to plan. There are five important aspects of management that could be considered namely Ii) General Administration (ii) Personnel Administration. Technical manuals are drafted and published for use by the Water and Wastewater authorities. 2. they have been empowered to levy and recover tax trorn the community to whom wastewater disposal facility is provided by the local body. transport and properly dispose wastewater produced in the area under their respective jurisdictions. The development of the sector is assisted at three levels. 2. Depending upon financial status of each local body. This service facility falls under the water supply and sanitation sector. the State/Central Governments come to Ihe help of these local bodies to meet a part/whole of their capital investment cost on schemes in the form of Grant-In-Aid and/or loan.CHAPTER 2 MANAGEMENT. wastewater disposal systems are usually managed by local bodies. for major projects fulfilling certain norms. operation and maintenance. External aid is also procured through the G. The State Governments monitor general progress of schemes of local bodies in respect of planning. LlC etc. 2.

M. work pertormance and money spent on work establishment Periodically (say monthly/quarterly) inform the owner about the status of 0. These units are an Engineering Division Unit and an Engineering SubDivision Unit. These Engineering Units would be administratively controlled by the local bodies of the town or village and their Committees.M.28 The system has to work as a unit management organisation. 2. i) . programme and budget Prepare special reports as required to ensure economical and efficient use at resources e) t) g) h) Schedule.1. 2.2.2.programme using appropriate planning and schedUling techniques To keep accounts.O.1 General Administration (b) Operational. assign and monitor work being done by personnel in the organisation Purchase equipment.1 SUPERVISORY STAFF The duties and responsibilities of the supervisory uruts could be listed as under. The This could be sub-divided into two categories viz. Hence it is a general practice to set up an Engineering Supervisory Organisation on the considerations of annual work load and expenditure to be handled by the organisation. Wastewater disposal works IS an Engineering service. a) b) c) d) To supervise and manage the wastewater disposal systems To develop annual operation and maintenance (A.O. The management in general should aim at the following achievement: a) b) Proper collection of wastewater discharged by the community Adequate treatment of wastewater to achieve the desired (prescribed) effluent standards Safe & efficient operations and as far as possible self supporting Sound financial management. The supervisory administration is expected to control all the functions of management. records of the materials and tools.) programme and the budget To implement A. tools and supplies required to carry out the programme ot the system Provide inservice training. c) d) An efficient and effective management of wastewater disposal systems is most essential for their proper functioning.& M.ta) Supervisory and operational level is to be subordinate to supervisory level.

2. e) f) g) h) Office operations include answering telephone calls.2 OPERATING STAFF The establishment required at operating level of a wastewater disposal system IS deterrnrned on the basis of physical work output to be expected from each individual. handling correspondence. manual could be developed to include (i) Description of system (ii) System operation (iii) Special items to be considered (iv) Lubrication and Maintenance (v) Repairs etc. qeographical locations and the like. schedules could be prepared assigning works to individuals Works could be checked to see that these are being done as required/expected 0. typing letters/ statements. i) Number and nature of complaints received j) k) Compilation of statistical infnrmation and producinq necessary reports Documentation of how specific problems in implementation and 0 & M were overcome and dissemination of the same to other agencies. The requirements are expected to vary accordinq to Individual circumstances. (Ii) Job descriptions. Each function may be assigned to a group of workers Wherever found necessary and in the interest of work. (iii) Statements etc. records. powers could be delegated to suhordinates The organisation could be flexible in order to enable it to respond to changing work load and work conditions b) c) d) Orqanisation manual and charts could be developed containing (i) Role of orqanisation. . Some other additional tasks that the supervisory units may handle could be briefly stated as under: a) The entire work of the organisation could be grouped into logical tasks or functions. standardising work forms for transmission of information etc.2. 0.& M.1.29 In addition to the above they should also look into the following aspects: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) That there are adequate maintenance facilities That the operations are smooth That the maintenance is efficient and economical That the administration is efficient and responsive (task assigned to the manager) That the equipment and supplies are controlled properly That good public relations are established That appropriate plans for future expansions are drafted.& M.

& M. Materials of stock would pertain to items which have frequent usage and items of ernergency ropairs. of the system. ReqtJiren'lonts have to be cllecked at intervals. although new purchases for these rnay not be as frequent as for stock materials for repairs and replacement.2. Many of the iaitures in uie systern require spare parts or supplies available instantly to put the svstern back in vJorkinq order.2. Inventory control cards [He vital documents to serve the purpose of accountability and stock demand by mflectinn usage pattern. The tasks should be identified and achievements mentionecl against each task. d) 2.2 Personnel Administration The personnel administration can be classified into tour categories namely: al Doscnbinq and classifying work by developing lob descriptions.30 For optimum output from each of the operating staff certain modern business principles could be introduced such as: a) Unity of Command . The evaluation may inter alia refer to (i) Knowledge and skill (ii) Punctuality (iii) Quality of work (iv) Dependability (v) Initiative ancl (vi) Tolerance of criticism lnservice trainlnq of employee (described separately hereafter). These supplies have got to be ready at hand any time the failure occurs for repairs to be carried out. They enaolo stock control and record purchasing information. Inventory control would inclucle tools required for O. h) c) d) e) f) q) 2. One person incnarqo may not have more than 8 to 10 persons for direct control Each worker must have a clear understanding as to the expectations of the lob from him by the supervisory units The worker should he given the relevant extract of the operatinq manual Regular work forms should be maintained by each worker and submitted to controlling person incharqe Service records of each worker should be kept upto date by supervisory section and all duos paid to him on time All possible service tacinties should be provided to the oporannq staff so that they can devote their full attention to work entrusted to them Personal grievances of workers should be attended to promptly.3 Inventory Control Inventory control IS the process of manaqinq supplies required for day to day management of wastewater works. It involves (3) decidIng what supplies to stock (b) keeping a record of supplies and theil locations and (c) accountlnq 10r all receipts and issues of supplies. establishinq qualifications find qoals for each position and developing waDe and salary structure Rb\Crulting and selectinq employees by evaluation b) c) Evaluatinq the! work of the employee by a system of evaluation norms such as contidentia] reports etc. .Each worker should report to only one person incharge. General assessment made on these basis and report prepared.

4 Financial Control 2.1 ACCOUNTING Accounting is the process of recording and summarising business transactions that affect the financial status of the organisation of the wastewater disposal system. based on facts and figures.2. shortialls if any and assistance required Objective interpretation of articles in the news papers M. say quarterly. Accounting system would involve the following functions: a) b) A basic chart of accounts for the organisation Accounting reports such as income and expenditure statements.2. budget A frequent review.4. balance sheets and cash flow statements.5 Public Relations The object of public relations is to develop a) b) Satisfaction of the community served Opportunity for the community to know how works are planned.owner and management Art of keeping owners informed about day to day working of the system. It should be used to control the financial activities of the organisation.. c) d) It would be desirable to keep financial records of the system on commercial lines to include: a) b) c) d) e) f) Updated valuation of the system Depreciation Operating expenses Investments in new capital improvements Long term debts.& c) d) e) .& M. executed and managed Frequent dialogue between the community.2.2 BUDGETING BUdgeting is the art of interpreting the goal of 0. about 0.4. Organisation in meaningful monetary terms.& M.deficiencies. Annual 0. of income analysis is desirable. deviations etc. 2.31 2.situation. their servicing Appropriate schedules of taxes. It is an important tool for monitoring revenues and expenditure activities and for interpreting the financial results of the organisation.2. debt servicing etc. 2.

R.. Information could be given in newspapers.etc. difficulties experienced and cooperation required from public to make good the deficiencies. A.health and educational bodies Pamphlets on the wastewater disposal works are periodically published and distributed. Appropriate talks could be given on TV. social. In addition to the above activities publicity of 0.3 2.32 Sufficient publicity needs to be given to the work being done by the management. a) every employee of the management who makes public contacts adopts a helpful and courteous attitude towards consumers and public Personal attention is paid to complaints and problems and these are dealt with promptly with courtesy and commensense Community is encouraged to visit wastewater disposal works which should be kept clean. b) c) d) The subjects to be included in the training could be a) How to perform a number at specific jobs well . All criticism in the press about 0. if any. of the system could be promptly attended to and appropriate replies published.3.I.. preferably in the same newspapers in which criticism appeared.& M.1 OTHER ASPECTS OF MANAGEMENT Inservice Training The object of well founded short term in-service training for the employees of wastewater disposal undertaking is i) II) iii) To Improve group level operational efficiency To acquaint the group with the new developments To develop amongst the members of the group a better understanding of human relations and concept of their individual responsibility to the community To bring about an increased community appreciation in the operation of wastewater disposal works iv) The training could include a) Orientation courses to describe duties and responsibilities of individuals rn the orqanisation Providing an employee with a hand book On the fob training to work with an experienced employee for some time Work shops.& M. work is automatically enhanced if. tidy and in good repairs Good relations are established With the media by providing fullest possible information on the system Contacts are established with benevolent. b) C) d) e) f) 2. short courses and seminars on concerned subjects.

Academic Institutions and Consultants for development ot future plans and implementation programmes as required. It is therefore obligatory that fhe wastewater is properly treated and safely disposed off. determine the areas and the population to be covered and the likely future contribution b) c} Co-ordinate construction and financing It is much better to keep up and improve the system through small construction programmes undertaken yearly than to allow deficiencies to accumulate The yearly improvement should be planned to fit in with the prospective objectives and requirements d) The planning for future expansions require knowledge of original designs and basis for present system Local bodies may solicit assistance from external agencies such as Governments. the management should review periodically.1 Municipal Bylaws Most municipal bylaws provide for the owner of any property to dispose off his wastewater in a proper manner without causing any nuisance to others. 2. present adequacy and future requirements. it is obligatory that the wastewater ot the property is discharged into it. c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 2. budgeting and financial management. without causing problems to the needs of the community Forecast 'future requirements.4.4 LEGAL ASPECTS Municipal wastewaters contain organic/inorganic and other toxic matter which are injurious to the general health of man apart from being of immense nuisance value. Wherever municipal sewers exist within some specified distance. The bylaws provide for action against defaulting owners. e) 2.2 Long Term Planning One of the important functions of a wastewater disposal system management is to develop technical and financial plans for future expansion" For this purpose.b) Lectures on practical aspects of subjects covered under wastewater disposal work including 0 & M Laboratory control tests Physical. Some of the aspects to be reviewed could be: a) Analyse the ability of the system to cater.3. However in the case of areas not oriqinally served with . Boards. chemical and bacteriological examination of sewage and interpretation of results Disinfection Design of component works of scheme Supervisory control Systems management and administration Accounting.

in 1974.5. ii) Apart from the above.2 Prevention of Pollution The early law regulating pollution was enforced almost entirely through the process of individual suits for what was termed a private nuisance. viz . This demands. It may also constitute a crime. The concept of public nuisance has also been used to some degree to control pollution. design. safety. construction and administration. no discharge of wastewater can be made m the environment without obtaining consent from the State Pollution Control Board (from the Central Pollution Control Board. the owners may have to be persuaded to avail of the facilities provided to dispose off their wastewaters and In some cases it may even become necessary for the local body to show some incentive like loan/subsidy for getting the works necessary to dispose the wastewater into such municipal sewers. changes in living habits and also increasing discharge of wastewater due to emphasis on mdustrialisation. by resolution passed in that behalf under clause (I) at Article 252 of the Constitution. in respect of Union Territories). In our country until recenlly the pollution was regulated through state factory acts and rules and also by some sections (section 28) of the Indian Easement Act. i) The equitable spre adinq of the cost of wastewater disposal system by means of approprrate scales of taxes/cess and The economic aspects of development and execution of the schemes. the Union Government enacted the Environment (Protection) Act 1986.1 FINANCIAL ASPECTS General The aim of any wastewater disposal project should be to provide the lowest cost wastewater collection.34 sewerage facilities. the Union Government enacted the Waler (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. transportation. the methods of providing the capital needed to finance such schemes and the manner of providing for the redemption of such capital outlay. A public nuisance is subject to abatement at the behest of state officials. treatment and disposal facility to the community. or inconvenience. 2. A consent prescribes the volume and quality of wastewater in terms of concentration of various pollutants which can be permitted for discharge III the environment. for protection and improvement of environment and the prevention of hazards to human beings. a sound understanding of the elements of financial policy. which is applicable to all Union Territories and has been adopted by all the States. Under the provision of this Act. In 1986.4.5 2. As the scope of these acts is limited in its extent and does not provide much guidance in respect of water pollution prevention. A public nuisance is an act which causes inconvenience or damage to the public as distinguished from one or a few individuals and includes any interference with the public health.. financing in the wastewater disposal sector requires consideration of expanding requirements due to increase in population. . The Act empowers the Union Government to make rules providinq standards In excess of which environmental pollutants shall not be discharqed or emitted in the environment and to take direct action aqarnst defaulters 2. in addition to Ihe knowledge of wastewater works planning. plants and property. other liVing creatures.

budgeting.3 Sources for Raising Capital The various sources available for raising capital are: i) accumulated funds with the local body ii) iii) grant from government.2 Scope The salient features of wastewater disposal financing are: a) methods of raising capital for the installation of the system and provision for redemption of loans where needed methods of raisinq revenue to meet the annual expenses of wastewater disposal includinq the determination of tax/cess as well as their collection/recovery the formation and use of reserve and continqency funds accountinq in connection wifh income and expenditure wages.35 2. el) Direct beneficiaries Bilateral assistance International agencies such as the World Bank. 2. whether there Will be adequate working capital.5.5. International Development Authority (IDA). whether the project atong with any cross tinancinq from water supply scheme can generate funds from internal resources to make the scheme self supporting . store and cost accounting b) c) d) e) f) financial orqanisation and control such as ordering of goods. which means investing the surplus funds of the authorrty Itself from its various accumulations which is the cheapest source as the rate of interest would be the lowest and external borrowings from IV) a) b) c) Government with stipulated terms of repayment Open market borrowings through bonds National Financinq institutions like Life Insurance Corporation. insurance etc. HUDCO. e) f) 2.5. donations from individuals/agencies internal borrowinq. debt servicing. Nationalised Banks etc.4 Financial Appraisal Financial appraisal of wastewater disposal scheme is necessary: i) to ensure that the project is financially viable whether the project will meet all its financial obliqations including Operation and Maintenance. Asian Development Bank.

5. such boards would encompass all activities includinq production. 2. and cash flow. It is. any attempts by them individually to raise loans in the open market to finance a local wastewater disposal project may not attract encouraging response. conveyance and distribution ot water within their statutory areas and also for the collection. possible that some local bodies may prefer to purchase water in bulk from the statutory boards and arrange for the internal distribution themselves and may also prefer to have the statutory Board take over sewage in bulk from the local area and arrange for its treatment and disposal. These Boards should be empowered and equipped to raise such capital from local resources and the open market borrowings to supplement the resources provided by the Government at the State and Central level. in its prefinancinq stage and in the fund raising stage as well. . Saddled as they are with responsibilities beyond their capacity and circumscribed by limitation of finance and procedures. This problem may be solved by the creation of autonomous water and sanitation Boards. These boards are devices by which State Government will be able to establish corporate public entities to construct. however. manage and operate water and sanitary services on a fully commercial basis in large metropolitan areas as well as in smaller urban communities. to raise the capital needed to provide the facilities and to exercise all other corporate powers necessary to act on behalf ot the local bodies within their jurisdiction. This should be avoided as far possible as the supply and distribution of water as also collection and disposal of sewage are two interdependent functions and the divisions of such functions amonqst two independent agencies miqht lead to inefficiency and avoidable difficulties fo! both parties. The finances of a project are closely reviewed through projections of the balance sheet. Where financial accounts are inadequate a new accounting system has to be established. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) A statutory Water and Sanitation Board may be set up at State level with regional boards if and to the extent necessary within the State. Any local body managing its systems satisfactorily need not necessarily come under such a Board. when need arises to ensure recovery of investment and operating costs from the project beneficiaries. income/expenditure statement. to provide water and sanitation services and to collect revenues to meet such services.5 Statutory Water and Sanitation Boards Most of the local bodies at present face serious handicaps in the promotional stages of a project. treatment and disposal of sewage from that area as well as other sanitation services. Such Boards may have the advantage of: i) an increased efficiency resulting from financial autonomy improved ability to raise capital with confidence affording better opportunities for small municipalities grouped together to fmance and operate their schemes as a business proposition the economies implicit in a common authority which may be made to serve several undertakinqs a better and fuller realisation of Taxes/Cess when this duty is divorced from local politics the economies possible by pooling technical and administrative staff to serve a number of municipalities and the opportunities for equalising the rates in every region.36 ii) iii) to adjust the level and structure of faxes/cess charged. Normally.

suffers from several disadvantages such as sluggish flnw during non stormy clays. Because the flow is largely a function of population served. without resorting to costly crash programmes. the anticipated rate of growth of the population with due regard to Increase in industrial and commerciat needs and the economic [ustification linked to the rate of interest and inflation. it is advisable to construct initial facilities for more than a limited period. lateral and sub-main sewers are usually designed for peak flows of the population at saturation density as set forth In tile Master Plan. Trunk sewers. Thus. Anticipation of future qrowth in any community in terms of population or commercial and industrial expansion should be based on a long-range Master Plan. The estimation of flow is based upon tile contributory population and the per capita flow of sewage. industrial wastes and storm water.CHAPTER 3 DESIGN OF SEWERS 3. In fixing a period of design. primarily to carry the spent water of a community with some ground water and a fraction of storm run off and the community's industrial wastes to the point of treatment and disposal. In ViHW of this.1 INTRODUCTION Sewerage systems may be classified as sanitary sewers designed to receive domestic sewage and industrial wastes excluding storm water. The connection of roof. A plan of this type will permit the orderly and timely expansion of the facilities on a sound technical and financial basis. the combined system is normally not recornrnended. These systems may also be part storm sewers and part combined sewers. back yard. The sewer capacity to be provided must be determined from an analysis of the present and probable quantities expected at the end of design period. leadinq to deposition of sewage solids causing foul odours and increased cost of eventual sewaqe treatment or purnpinq costs. The combined system of sewerage though may be economical initially. population density and water consumption. In the case of trunk sewers serving relatively undeveloped areas adjacent to metropolitan areas. the ease or difficulty of extending or increasing or addition of the works includinq a consideration of their location. 3. which shall form the basis for preparation of plan for providing the amenities includinq installation of sewers in the area to be served. 3.2. and foundation drains to tile sanitary sewers should be avoided and hence shall not be considered for the estimation of sanitary sewage.1 Design Period The length of time upto which tile capacity of a sewer will be adequate is referred to as tile design period. the population estimate is guided by the anticipated ultimate 37 . associated with disposal of sewage. interceptors. both the factors being guided by the design period. taking into account obsolescence as well as wear and tear. Nevertheless right of way for future larger size trunk sewers can be acquired or reserved. design constraints. The provision tor future should not however be much in excess of the actual discharqs in the early years of its use to avoid deposition in sewers. and outfalls are difficult and uneconomical to be enlarged or duplicated and hence are designed for longer design periods. consideration must be qiven for the useful life of structures and equipment employed.2 ESTIMATION OF SANITARY SEWAGE Separate sanitary sewers are provided. storm sewers designed to carry off storm water and ground water but excluding domestic sewage and industrial wastes and combined sewers designed to receive domestic sewage.

The densities of population on this concept may be worked out as in the followinq example Assume that a particular development plan rules provide for the following reservations for different land uses. These may difter in different zones of the same town.000 20. = 0.00. FSI or FAR is the ratio of total floor area (of all the floors) to the plot area.00.2 Population Forecast Methods of estimation of population for arnvmq at the design population have been discussed in 1.000 to 1. Assuming an FSI of 0. 350 350 . 1000 5. 3. Number of persons or density per hectare.000 In cities where Floor Space Index (FSI) or Floor Area Ratio (FAR) limits are fixed hy the local authority this approach may be used for working out the population density.000 50. 150 150 . the anticipated population can he based on the ultimate densities and permitted floor space Index provided for in the Master Plan.5 311 9 .000 to 20. 44) Actual total floor area 56% Area for residential development x FSI.000 Density of population per hectare. Size of town (Population) Upto 5.38 growth rates of each community.5.56 x 10.000 to 50. 300 300 . Where a Master Plan containing land use pattern and zoning regulations is available for the town. A design period of 30 years (excludinq construction period) is recommended for all types of Sewers.5 and floor area of 9 m'/person. 250 250 .2. Roads Gardens Schools (including playgrounds) Markets Hospital anel Dispensary Total 20% 15% 5% 2% 2% 44% Area available for Residential Development (100 .000 x 0. 75 . In the ahsence of such Information on population the tollowinq densities are suqgested for adoption.000 Above 1.

The probable amount has to be evaluated carefully 3. Industries and commercial buildinqs often use water other than the municipal supply and may discharqe their liquid wastes into the santtarv sewers. ----- Contrihutorv population Upto 20. mean sewage flows may be as little as 40 percent of water consumption. However.4 Perea pita Sewage Flow The entire spent water of a commurutv should normally contribute to HH? total flow in a sanitary sewer.000 20. the observf~d Dry Weather Flow quantities usuallv are slightly 1(. pipe joints and structures.5 Flow Assumptions The flow In sewers vanes conSiderably from hour to hour and also seasonally.()(JO 50. there is usually an economic advantage in providing adequate capacity initiLIl!y for a certain period of time and adding additional sewers. the sewers should be desiqned for a minimum waste water flow of 100 litres percapita per day.S5 than the per capita water consumption.d. seepage into grouncL lE?akage etc. Some time. determine the tributary area. In arid regions. However. political boundaries. 3. The need to finance projects within the available resources may necessitate the desiqn to be restricted to political boundaries. flows may be as high as 90% due to industrial wastes.S(J. when the pattern at growth becomes established. However in designing sewers for lafner areas.000 to 50. chanqed water use habits etc. Estimates 01 such flows have to be made separately.. thouqh it is desirable that the sewer capacities to be designed for the total tributarv area. depends upon contnbutary population and the followinq values <:1re reccHnrn(~ncl(. political boundaries and legal restrictions prevent the sewers to be constructed beyond the limits of the local authority. For some areas.2. economic factors etc.25 Peak Factor ---- Above 7. For larger drainage areas. marked on a key plan and the area can be measured trorn the map. In WE':II devetopco areas.2.2. Generally 80(.000 to 750. It is desirable that ali sewers serving a small area be designed on the basis of saturation densitv.0 25 2. The tributary area for any section under consideration has to be. layout of buildings. Infiltration into sewer may occur through pipes. it is safe to as sume that th(1 future: density of population for design purpose to be equal to the saturation density.O(J(J ------- 6-51 CPHEEO/NO/94 . The peak factor Of the ratio of maximum to avoraqe flows.>0 of the water supply may be expected to reach the sewers unless there is data available to Hw contrary. The details of requirements of water tor Institutions and Industries is discussed in Chapter 2 of Manual on Water Supply and Treatment.(J(JO -------------3. but for the purposes 01 hydrautic desitjll it is the estimated peak tlow that is adopted. since some water is lost in evaporation.39 3.3 Tributary Area The natural topography. Industrial wastes have to be treated to the standards prescribed by the regUlatory authorities before being discharged into sewers.

if required. These values should not mean any relaxation on the. 3.ss test requirements in 7.d liters/KJn.000 500 250 VVith improved standards of workmanship and quality and availability of various construction aids.3. topography of the site.1. whicn bas to be permitted.000 5. The storm water flow fOI this purpose may be determined by using the rational method.2. raintall-runotf correlation studies. J.5 (Hydraulic testing of pipe sewers). forecast. The frequency of such permissible flooding may vary from place to place. The empirical tormulae that are available for estimating the storm water runoff can be used only whon cornparaolc conditions to those.2. Estimation of such runoff n:. Thus. tiles!? value's should tend to the minimum.40 The tactors also depend upon the density 01 population. Suggested estimates for ground water infiltration for sewers laid below qround watcH taLile ar(~ (IS follows' Minimum Maximum --_.6 Storm Runof! Sf:tnitary sewers are not expected to receive storm water. for which the equations were derived initially can be assured. demands a study of the existing precipitation data of the area concerned to permit .JS once in 10 years or more but it is necessary to provide sufficient capacity to avoid too frequent f100dinq of the drainaqe area. 3. rather than the maximum._-----------litc. The quantity will depend on workmanship in laying of sewers and level of the ground water table.\ rational approach.000 500 50.) with reference to the concerned section. inlet method or empirical formulae.rs/Ha. such . 3. depend inn on the importance of the area. Though such flooding causes inconvenience. hydrograpb method.7 Ground Water Infiltration Estimate of flow in sanitary sewers rnav include certain flows due to infiltration of ground water throuqh [oints. then~forC!. The maximum runott.3 ESTIMATION OF STORM RUNOFF Storm runoff is that portion of the precipitation which drains over the ground surface. characteristics of the') tributary aJea and the time required for such flow to reach the sewer.d lpd/rnanhole 5. hours of water supply and thcncfore it is desirable to estimate the same in individual cases. Sirlce sewers are deaiqned for peak discharges. it may have to be acceptert once in a while considerinq the economy effected in storm drainage costs. for . suitedJlc. The minimum flow may VElrY 1TCH'l) 1/3 to 1/2 of averaqe flow. allowance for ground water infiltration for the worst condition in thz:: arc~a should !)(~ made.. Storm sewers are not desiqned for the peak flow of rare occurrence. diqital computer models.'achinq the storm sewers therefore is dependent on intensity and duration of precipitation. There may be some flooding wben the precipitation exceeds the desiqn value. which has to be carried in a sewer section should be computed for a condition when the entire basin draining at that point becomes contributory to the flow and the time needed for this "is known as the time of concentration (t. Strict inspection and vigilance and proper desiqn and construction of sewers and manholes should eliminate this flow or bring it down to a very insignificant quantitv.' watc~r tiSlhtn(.

1. such as. the more dependable is the forecast.1. 3. topography including depressions and water pockets.2 STom~ FHEOUENCY The frequency of storm for which the sewers are to be designed depends on the importance of the area to be drained. The runoff reachinq the sewer is given by the expression.1. o " 10 CiA Where Q is the runoff in m':'/hr. intensity of raintall adopted in desiqn is usuatly in the range of 12rnrn/hr to 20mm/hr. the intensity of rainfall which lasts for the period of time of concentration is the one to be considered contributing to the flow of storm water in the sewer.:lses with duration Analysis of the observed data on intensity duration of rainfall of past records over <'I period of years in the area is necessary to arrive at a fair estimate of intensity-duration tor given frequencies. the rational method is more commonly used.3.41 estimating the fiow to be carried In the storm sewer.1 RUNOFF· Rr"NFALL INTFNSITY RELATIONSHIP The entire precipitation oVHr the drainage district does not reach the sewer.3. Of th" different methods. imperviousness.3. Table 3. .3. In Indian conditions. The suggested frequency of floodinq in the diHerent areas is as follows: a) Residential areas I) Peripheral areas Central and comparatively hiqh priced areas twice a year once a year Ii) b) Commercial and high priced areas 3.1 Rational Method 3.1 gives the analysis of the frequency of storms of stated intensities and durations elurino 26 years for which rainfall data were available tor a given town. Commercial and industrial areas have to be subjected to less frequent flooding.3 INTENSITY OF PnECIPITATION once in 2 years The intensity ot rainfall decre. This fraction known as the coefficient of runoff needs to be determined for each drainage district. The longer the record available. (31) 3. 'C' is the coefficient of runoff: 'I' is the intensity of rainfall in rnrn/hr and 'A' is the area of drainage district in hectares. The characteristics of the drainage district. shape of the drainage basin and duration of the precipitation determine the fraction of the total precipitation which will reach the sewer.

C ###BOT_TEXT###quot;.62 8.50 14. zo !OJ n au :'.42 TABLE 3. several forms of which are available. The following two equations are commonly used: i) (32) ii) .2. TABLE 3.. _a __ t + b (3.e. i.75 36.48 28. so ci The stepped line indicates the location of the storm occurring once in 2 years. 13 times in 26 years.12 35 40 45 50 GO 75 The relationship may be expressed by a suitable mathematical formula.57 18.1 ANALYSIS OF FREQUeNCY OF STORMS J() II" 125 Minutes .. The time intensity values for this frequency are obtained by interpolation and given in Table 3.3) .67 43.2 TIME INTENSITY VALUES OF STORMS I (mmlhr) 30 t (min) 51.

3. Time of concentration (tJ is equal to inlet time (t) pius the time of flow in the sewer (t. It is to be computed for each length of sewer to be designed.1.1. the Iollowinq may serve as a guide.. a) Imperviousness The percent imperviousness of the drainage area can be obtained from the records of a particular district In the abseoce of such data. intensity of rainfall (mrn/hr] duration of storm (minutes) and a. j .5 COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF The portion of rainfall which finds its way to the sewer. (t._.3. The available data on i and t are plotted and the values of fhe intensity (i) can then be determined for any given time of concentration. the shape._ (34) A + A7 + . The time of flow is delermined by the length of the sewer and the velocity of flow in the sewer. ~111-±-tk. 3._. The inlet time is dependent on the distance of the farthest point in the drainage basin to the Inlet manhole.).b and n are constants. Type of area Percentage of Imperviousness Commercial and Industrial area Residential Area: I) ii) 70 to 90 High density Low density 60 to 75 35 to 60 Parks & undeveloped areas 10 to 20 The weighted averaqe imperviousness ot drainage basin for tl1e flow concentrallnq at a point may be estimated as :.). In highly developed sections.43 Where. is dependent on the imperviousness and the shape of tributary area apart from the duration of storm. 3.1_. characteristics and topography of the basin and may generally vary from 5 to 30 minutes. the inlet time may be as low as 3 minutes.4 TIME OF CONCENTRATION It is the time required for the rain water to flow over the ground surface from the extreme point of the drainage basin and reach the point under consideration..

Althouqh these are applicable to particular shapes of areas. d) Computation of Runoff Coefficient The weiqhted averaqe runoff coefficients for rectanqular areas.1. Runoff from an area is siqniticantly Influenced by the saturation of the surface nearest the point of concentration. nature of development and shape of the drainage basins. The boundaries of each tributary are dependent on topography.44 Where. c) Duration of Storm Continuously 10nSj IiSjht rain saturates the soil and produces hiqher coefficient than that due to heavy but intermittent rain In the same area because of the lesser saturation in the latter case. The incremental area may be indicated separately on the compilation sheet and the total area computed.3. The runoff coefficient of a larqer area has to be adjusted by dividinq the area into zones of cnncentratlon and hy suitablv decreaslnq the coefficient With the distance of the zones. rather than the flow from the distant area. b) Tributary Area For each lenqth of storm sewer. . Errors due to difference in shape of drainage are within the limits of accuracy of the rational method and of the assumptions on which it Is based. land use. A typical example of the computation of storm runoff is qiven In Appendix 3. they also apply In a qeneral way to the areas which are usually encountered in practice. drainage areas tributary to the section under consideration imperviousness of the respective areas and weiqhted average imperviousness of the total drainage basin. of lenqth four times the width as well as for sector shaped areas with varying percentages of impervious surtace for different times of concentration are qiven in Table 3. the drainage area should be indicated clearly on the map and measured. A" A.

837 .065 .3 RUN OFF COEFFICIENTS Duration. the steady open channel flow is said to be unitorrn flow..1 HYDRAULICS OF SEWERS Type of Flow Flow in sewers is said to be steady. The unsteady and non-uniform waste water flow characteristics are accounted in the desiqn by proper sizinS) of manholes./(J 1 SG9 482 622 . Most sewers have turbulent tlows with stream lines following the boundaries. or where surge or water hammer is predominent as in pumpinq mains.571 399 .585 414 618 454 185 277 312 330 382 2) Rectangle (length 4 x width) concentrating in stated time (a) Impervious (b) 50% Impervious (c) 30% Impervious (d) Pervious 550 350 .711 768 808 590 502 371 .636 522 287 334 398 445 4"" 3. A properly functioning sewer has to carry the peak flow for which it is desioned and transport suspended solids in such a manner that deposits in a sewer are kept to a rnlnirnum.648 .771 .598 .0 . minutes 10 20 30 45 60 75 90 100 Weighted Average Coefficients 1) Sector concentrating in stated time (a) Impervious (b) 60% Impervious (c) 40% Impervious (d) Pervious .535 362 656 682 597 429 285 125 446 . I.795 813 641 554 82B 840 670 S50 .45 TABLE 3. 552 422 .499 .531 .5:. 10 larS)e storm channels.4. depth or both are changing. The hydraulic analysis of sewers is simplified by assuming steady flow conditions. if the rate 0'1 discharge at a point in a conduit [ernains constant with time.856 639 869 657 572 819 !33/ 892 694 .618 .4 3. The desiqn for waste water collection system presumes flow to be steady and uniform. .614 .269 149 .601 4/9 /13 .346 .512 . the flow can be unsteady.414 551 .642 477 395 230 700 . and non uniform if either the velocity.740 . it is unsteady. while in turhulent flow the fluid moves in irregular paths. In laminar flow the flUid moves along in smooth layers.903 442 360 236 . and if the discharge varies with time. 525 .365 588 427 . Jt' the velocity and depth of flow are the same from point to point along the conduit.464 1m 588 463 6133 .

care Is required to select an accurate friction flow formula as to avoid compounding errors.2 Flow > Friction Formulae The available head in waste water lines is utilised in overcoming surface resistance and.2. A reduction In the value of 'n' has been reported with increase in diameter.2.1 MANNINGS FORMULA v " [(1 / n) ] x [ R" ! (3. (3.2. In attaining kinetic energy for flow. However.4. s H L IV' 29D (38) Where H head loss due to friction over length L In meters dimension-less friction factor V velocrtv In m/s acceleration due to gravity In m/sec" D Internal diameter in meters .4. Estimated desiqn flows depend to a larqe extent on the assumptions.968 x 10 3 ) (3. 3. 3.46 3. Insplte of this.6) and Q Where Q (1/ n) (3.2 DAnCY WEISBACH FORMULA Darcy and Welsbach suqqested the first dimension· less equation for pipe flow problems as. The values at Mannlnq's coefficient for dlflerent pipe materials are given In Table 3.7) S D R V n discharge In Ips slope at hydraulic qradient internal dia of pipe line in rnm hydraulic radius in m velocity in mps Manning's coefficient of roughness A chart for Manning's formula Is given In Appendix 3. the accuracy of which Is variable.4. in small part. the design practice Is to use the Mannlngs formula for open channel flow and the Hazen Williams and Darcy-vveisbach formulae for closed conduit or pressure flow.118 x 10' s'.4.5) For circular conduits V (1 / n) (3.

017 0.018 0.015 0.47 This formula is not normally used in the desiqn of sewers.011 Cement Concrete Pipes. Reference may be made to IS 2951 for calculation of head loss due to friction accordinq to Darcy Weishach formula.020 0.013 0015 0.steel troweled Concrete.020 0025 0030 0035 0.wood troweled Brick in good condition (f) Brick in rouqh condition (g) Masonary in bad condition 0.4 COEFFICIENT OF ROUGHNESS FOR USE IN MANNING'S FORMULA Type at Material Salt glazed stone ware pipe Condition (a) Good (b) Fair (a) Good (b) Fail n 0.. well packed qravel (8) (b) (c) (d) (e) Earth Rc.gular sudace in good.017 0.]n Value) Masonary (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Neat coment plaster Sand and cement plaster Concrete.013 0.020 0. dressed ashlar (b) Rubble set in cement (c) Fine.020 0. (with collar joints) Spun concrete pipes (RCC & PSG) with Sncket Spigot Joints (Des.012 0015 0.011 0013 0011 0011 0011 Stone-work (a) Smooth.015 0.050 0. TABLE 3.014 0.015 0.condition In ordinarv condition With stones and weeds In poor condition Partially obstructed with debris or weeds Welded Riveted Sliqhtly tuberculated With spun cement mortar lining Steel (a) (b) (e) (d) Cast Iron (a) Unlined (b) With spun cement mortar IIninq Asbestos Cement Plastic (smooth) .017 0.015 0.

:c discharqe in cum per hour internal diameter of pipe in mm zz: Velocity in rnps hydraulic radius in 111 R S C slope of hydraulic gradient and Hazen Williams coefficient A chart for the Hazen-Williams formula is given in Appendix 3.48 3.9) tor circular conduits. Reynolds number.10) and 0 Wher(~< 1.3.4.3 HAZEN· WILLIAMS FORMULA is expressed as follows: v 0849 C (3.4-2. size and shape of conduit and depth of flow.2. 3..5.292 x 10' C (311) 0 D V ::. velocity of flow and viscosity. The values of Hazen-Williams coefficient C for new conduit materials and the values to be adopted for design purposes are furnished in Table 3.567 X 10" C (3.4 FRICTION COEfF'CIENTS Frictiun coefficients for various materials and conditions have been determined based on laboratory and field experiments. whereas to be representative of friction conditions these coefficients must depend on relative roughness of pipe and Reynolds Number. ii) . Factors which affect the choice of a friction coefficient are conduit material. thu expression becomes V 4. Errors inherent in the use of Manning's formula and Hazen-Williams formula are i) Both formulae are dimensionally inconsistent The friction coefficients used in the formulae namely Hazen-williams C and Manning's 'n' are usually considered independent of pipe diameter.

All sewers are to he designed to flow O. welded joints Steel.49 3. sewers should not be designed to run full.5 MODIFIED HAZEN-WILliAMS FORMULA The Modified Hazen-Williams formula has been derived from Darcy Weisbach and Colebrook-White equations which overcomes the limitations of Hazen-witliarns formula.2.6 DEPTH OF FLOW From considerations of ventilation in waste water flow. welded joints lined with cement or bituminous enamel 150 2. 5. 3.1 for hydraulic elements of circular sewers and to Fiq. < 1 for rough pipes) hydraulic radius in m friction slope 143.3. 12) CH R S 0 For more detailed information reference may be made to Chapter G of Manual on Vvater Supply and Treatment. 4.S full at ultimate peak flow. No. Reference may be made to Fiq. 1. The modified Hazen. and hence Higber values may be adopted for desiqn purpose if reliable field data is available to Justify such revision.2. Conduit Material Recommended values for New Pipes Design 120 Concrete (ReC & PSG) witb socket & spigot Joints Asbestos cement Plastic pipes Cast iron Steel. 3.6 shows the hydraulic' properties of circular sections for Manning's Frornula.4. 120' These pipe materials are less likely to loose their carrying capacity with age. Table 3.Williams formula is derived as V in which V Velocity of flow in mps Pipe mughness coefficient (1 for smooth pipes. 150 150 130 140 150 120 120' 100 100 6.3.2fof hydraulic elements of circular sewers that possess equal self cleansing velocity at all depths.534 CR (S) u ssas 13. TABLE 3.4.5 HAZEN· WILLfAMS COEFFICIENTS SI. .

. t C8 07 ~ / V ." . Ii-.0 12 1G l8 VALUES OF f HI ]./ " z-« 02 .-..I /V // ' -?/ ~.... Rf FIG. -'" .....-'./:" '>: ..x:--0·9 Of Af ./ .\ ~.50 10 1..2 ff Ar-(l.. ."['0109" 0..weisbcc c..9 Ji 02 0·' c ~ 01 0 fl.6 2·8 3·0 3·2 34 3G o ~' 9~ I I Or f vafnb(e with I I dopth . .. .-' .''"'....'C 2·4 "f]. I~ I I I if ' ·'A/1 . . VetccitJ'..ELEMENTS CIRCULAR SEWERS.mcependent of n..A . GRAPH FOR . " V" "-Areo.. f constant .-I ~j:~ bU~IC :E !k 0-4 '0 0.n." A V .1:_ H x \·2 13 0·3 0·4 OS 0·6 07 Q{e ments 0·8 Vf \.- --".<.. AND HYdraulic Y..'. X . ~0.. _...' --z. r-.. .\L .j/ ! sI ~ ~ 2 0·6 0- E " I \ Darcy ..3 . . !7 V .- / ~.. .'/ ' .....1' HYDRAULIC . . 0·5 r- o c .." /~ /... V . ". ~ V ~. B. 3.. r /

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    ~/~r/ V ~-V .

    .> '" /7 .. 0 0 2 OF 51St 3 4 5 6 / 09 08 07 .0 6 v/' ) RATiO Os/Ot FOR N VARIA WITH DEPTH _·_~V iL£/. 3./ .> J : I i ! I IFOR n VARIA'"I E RAnD W Vt II WITH DEPTH W' 10 j 2 FIG.2: HYDRAULIC ELEMENTS OF CIRCULAR SEWERS THAT POSSESS EQUAL SELF:CLEANSING PROPERn ES AT ALL DEPTHS./ / / / '" 7 .51 VAWES ..

    329 '1/0 1.4.09mm with a specific gravrty of 2.021 nin 1.08a 0.06G 0. it is estimatc:d peak flow that is adopted.22 vN 1.0 0.890 o 712 0. d p is practic!e size and K s is a dimension less constant with a value of about 0.713 0..21 1.04 to start motion of qranutar particles and about 0.405 0.27 1.52 3.00 107 1.056 1003 0. '1/0 1.4 1000 0.776 0.902 0. The Shields formula indicates that velocity required to transport material in sewers is only slightly dependent on conduit shape and depth of flow hut mainly dependent on the particle size and specific weiqht.7 FORMUL.500 0.8 for adequate self cleansing of sewers.000 1.000 1.6 HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS FOR MANNING'S FORMULA Constant (n) Variable (n) diD ------.153 0070 0. However it is to be ensured that a minimum velocity is maintained in the sowers even cimino minimum flow conditions.020 0..6 rnps for present peak flow is recommended in the sanitary sewers.8 rnps at desiqn peakflow and 0.140 1 120 1. but for purpose of hydraulic desiqn.615 OAOl CU o c: 'j 01 Wl1ere.486 0..-"'~---_ vN . Manning's coefficient at depth 'd' 'I -z: Discharge at depth 'd' 3.000 1.072 OJ 06 0. Camp derived the formula v In which Ss is specific Wavity of particle.557 0.65 Hence a minimumvelocity of 0. At the same time the velocity should not be excessive to cause erosion.:.266 0. D V n Full Depth of 1I0w (internal dra) Velocity at full depth Manninq's coefficient at full depth 0" Discharqe at full depth d " Actual depth of flow v = Velocity at depth 'd' n d .27 1.14 118 1. TABLE 3.810 0. .5 0.3 Velocities The tlow in sewers varies widely from hour to hour and also seasonally.337 o 196 0. A velocity of 0.2.28 1.9 o..4.017 1.A FOF1 SELF CLEANSiNG VELOCITY From findinn of Shields.605 0.G71 0.124 1.890 0.952 0.24 1.e 1.968 083e O.(30 mps would be required to transport sand particle of 0.000 1.

    4.60 mps in the early years.3.4.4 Sewer Transitions 3. TABLE 3.4. the energy and hydraulic grade lines are not parallel. 3.7 RECOMMENDED SLOPES FOR MINIMUM VELOCITY Present peak flow in Ips Slope per 1.3. so as to avoid steeper gradients and deeper excavations. because of necessity of adopting the prescribed minimum size of sewer. the slopes g1ven in Table 3.3fE) prevalent. the minimum size in hilly areas. In non uniform flow. This is done on the assumption that although silting might occur at minimum flow. In such situations flushing arrangements may be provided in the initial years. where the depth of flow during early years is only a small fraction of the full depth. the silt would be flushed out during the peak flows.53 3. It has been shown that for sewers running partially full. Velocity in a sewer is recommended not to exc8f::d 3J) rnps.3 1. it is a good practice to plot the hydraulic profile for various reaches. where extreme slopes . Similarly upper reaches of laterals pose a problem as they flow only partly full even at the ultimate design flow. There will be re£j!o!1s of uniform and non uniform flow. recommended that for present peak flows upto 30 Ips. It is.7 may be adopted. Flow in sewers is not uniform in all reaches. The minimum diameter for a public sewer may be 150mm.000 2 3 5 10 15 20 30 60 40 3. which would ensure a minimum velocity of 0.1 20 1.4. therefore. In the design of sanitary sewer an attempt should be made to obtain adequate scourinq velocities at the averaqe or at least at the maximum flow at the beginning of the design period. velocity is little influenced by pipe diameter. for a given flow and slope. the pipe size should be decided on the basis of ultimate design peak flow and tile permissible depth of flow.1 VELOCITY AT MINIMUM FLOW It is necessary to size the sewer to have adequate capacity for the peakflow to be achieved at the end of design periods.1 NON UNIFORM FLOW For uniform flow in sewers the slope of the energy and hydraulic grade lines are same as the slope of the invert and the depth of flow will adjust to produce a velocity in proportion with the frictional losses. may be 100mm. Profile calculations have to begin at a point .2 EROSION ANO MAXIMUM VELOCITY Erosion of sewers is caused by sand and other gritty material in the sewer and also by excessive velocity. 3. However the problem of silting may have to be faced in the early years particularly for smaller sewers which are designed to flow part full at the end of design period. However. For longer sewers.4. It is desirable to design sewers for higher velocities wherever possible.2 10 Alter arrivinq at slopes for present peak flows.

    the flow is supercritical Fo! arrivinq at the profile. the flow is subcritical '> and if F '1. In either case thGfG is a backwater or draw down curve tram the jump to the break in grade. depending on channel slope. 3. The most important consideration IS the location o! JLHnp. This IS known as critical flow or flow at critical depth. (flg. In many cases the hydraulic profile can be calculated from a control section where total energy above the Invert Is a minimum for a given discharge or the rate of flow Is maximum for a given total energy. For a flow from a steep to a mild slope. Tho loss of head in hydraulic jump may be calculated by the principle. The upstream slope which Is less than the critical slope Is called subcritical slope or a mild slope.the hydraulic jump occurs which results in a ioss of head.3. .14) where d.4 shows non unltorm flow hydraulic profile.3. where Froude's number F is equal to unity. a specific energy curve Is obtained..4.3. If the depth of flow Is plottod against specific energy. the jump must take place on the steep slope. Fronde's Number is defined as F v (3. The control section is located in the vicinity of break In grade and critical flow occurs there. Flg.4. 3. Where a flow passes trorn a subcritical on a gentle sloping channel to a supercritical stage in a steeply slopinq channel it must pass a control section.3) which shows that fOI all flows except critical flow there are two possible alternate stages or depths at which flow may occur tor any value of specific ennf£jY h8('1(1 and discharqe. The downstream slope which IS qreater than the critical slope Is called a supercritical slope or a steep slope.e where F ::: 1 and proceeds upstream when upstream flow is subcriticat and proceeds downstream when downstream flow is supercritical.4.5 depicts tne energy conditions to Sl10W that the jump must take place on the mild slope. friction and location of control section.4. Fig. it the required down stream total energy necessary to transport the flow is greater than that which would result if the jump occurred on the mild slope. The hydraulic jump may be evolved as a device for dissipation of enerqy such as where a steep sewer enters a larqe sewer at a junction. If F <: hydraulic mean depth 1.54 where depth and velocity are known. the analysis beqins at control point i.3 HYDRAULIC JUMP Hydraulic Jump IS a phenomenon where a flow In a channel abruptly changes from supercritical flow at a shallow depth to subcntical flow at a weater depth.2 SPECIFIC ENERGY For a given section and dishcarqe the specific energy head is a function of depth of flow only.

    "' (ci. 3.~~ 4d. L Portion of reach of conduit d » depth offlow hv velocity head S9 Sa average slope of energy grade line slope of invert and 7-51 CPfjEEOINO/94 .d.6.1 d. Most frequently encountered curves for mild and steep slopes are given in Fig. thus possibly avoiding over head structures. and ci.4 BACK WATER CURVES Back water or draw down curves occur from abrupt changes in sewer slopes.4. .55 ci.. H. .16) /!.3.A)'. In which d. It is possible in some cases to make a saving in cast by reducing the size of conduit or lowering the roof. are depths before and afterjump. Hence it is desirable to know the amount by which the depth is increased at various points atong the curve and the distance upstream upto which the back water curve extends. H" H. (3.15) /!'H H". F..4. are specific heads of flow before and afterjump. IS Froude' s Number upstream of flow. The following formula is used for stepwise calculations of the reach of conduit between cross sections of given depth. 2 1) (3. when there is a tree fall or an obstruction to the flow. /!'H is loss ofhead.

    Ib) Ie) 400 mrn. The crowns of sewers are always kept continuous. of different characteristics are connected. 2/3 the difference in dia. aliqnment and conduit material. Allowance tor the head loss that occurs at these transitions has to be made in the design. since standing waves at consicierable rnaqrutude may occur or in long transitions air entrainment may cause backing of flow.(d'h) is the change of specific energy between cross sections.6 BENDS The) lload loss in bends is expressed by (318) . shape. K = 0. taking care of the headloss and also to help in maintenance. (.lcvation are noted and working from Energy grade line. qr ade.2 for expansions. 3. additional factors must be considered. For design purposes it is assumed that energy In depth. the crown of the outqoinq sewer should not be higher than the crown of incoming sewer.4.4. Abnve 900 rnrn. v~locity and invert elevation occur at the centre of transition and after wards ale distributed throuqh out the lenqth of transition. VV1'1ero conduits. The vertical drop may he provided only when the difterence between the elevations is more than 60 em. In no case.1 for eon tractions and In transitions for supercritical flow.56 t:. An illust-auve example for backwater curve is given in Appendix 3. The followinq invert drops are recommended: (0) For sewers less than 400 mrn. The energy head. the required invert drop or rise is Cl\:jtcITnHv:'::d However if the calculations indicate a rise in invert it is i£jnored since such a rise will clc:ale a c. For open channel transition in subcritical flow the loss of onergy is expressed as H('}i:1d Loss K (V' i 2g ) IS (3.4. 4i5 the ditterence in dia. chanqo of velocity head before and after transition.17) WIH"" (V'/2q) 0. Transition trom Iarqer to smaller diameters should not be made. with a combination of one or all characteristics Ir ansitions may be in the normal cases streamlined and gradual and can occur suddenly Head lost in a transition is a function at velocity head and hence assumes importance Doposits also Impose significant losses. to 900 rnrn.'tiecl leading to deposition at solids. below which it can be avoided by adjustinq the slope in the channel and in the manhole connoctinq the two inverts. arOd.-'md Hlvelt a:. sewer transitions occur. piezometric head . Half the difference in dia. The difference rnE1Y be tkwj. the hydraulic flnwline in the large sewers should be higher than the incoming one. To avoid backinq up. Manholes should be located at all such transitions and a drop should be provided where the sewer is intercepted at a hiqher elevation for strearnlininq the flow.

    cross section of flow. The hydraulic design is in effect tim design of two or more transitions. whenever ratio of branch sewer diameter to main sewer diameter is 0118 half or less. two or more pipes not less than 200mm dia are provided in parallel so that .4 for 90 degrees and 0.s In developed areas. Another type of vertical drop incorporates a water cushion to absorb the Impact of a falling Jet. Water cushion required has been found to be equal to h'!2 d"} in which h is tile height of fall and d is depth of the crest Special chutes or steeply inclined sewers are constructed instead of vertical drops.5 Inverted Syphon When a sewer line dips below the hydraulic grade line. it may be desirable to terminate the drop in the branch to dampen Ihe flow before it enters the main flow. To ensure selt-cleansinq velocities for the wide variations in flows. 3. 3.32 for 45 degrees and can be linearly proportioned for other deflection angles. generally. As the siphons are depressed below the hydraulic qrade line.8 VERTICAL DROPS AND OTHER ENERGY DISSIPATor. one for each path of flow. Reynolds Number and refative roughness. Two considerations which govern the profile of a siphon are provision for hydraulic losses and ease of cleaning. The purpose is to carry the sewer under the obstruction and regain as much elevation as possible after the obstruction is passed. It is necessary to ascertain the minimum flows and the peak flows for design.57 Where k.4. These pipe drops are designed with an entrance angle of 30 degrees with the main sewer.4. well rounded junctions are required to prevent deposition. a series of steps may be provided in the branch to produce a cascade or it may be designed as a hydraulic jump to dissipate energy in the branch before entering main sewer. it is called an inverted siphon. The angle of entry may be 30 degrees or 45 degrees with reference to axis of main sewer. Because of difficulty in theoretically calculating the hydraulic losses at junctions. Entrapped air may not be able to flow along the sewer and escape through another ventilation shaft Air problems can be minimised by designing a shaft with an open vortex in the middle for full depth of drop. If the vertical drop is likely to cause excessive turbulence. Vertical drops must be designed so as to avoid entrapment of air. it may be sometimes necessary and economical to take the Trunk Sewers deep enough like tunnels. is approximately equal to 0. Hydraulic problems encountered with such deep vertical drops may be difficult to solve and may be some times solved by model studies. IS a bend ceefficient which is a function of the ratio of radius of curvature of the benel to the width of conduit deflection anqle. 3. the flow is to be inducted tangentially into inlet chamber at the head of the shaft. All drops cause release of gasses and maintenance problems and hence should be avoided where possible. Air entrapped in a shaft can result in surges which may reduce the capacity of intake. maintenance ot self cleansing velocity at all flows is very important. Apart from hydraulic considerations. To accomplish this. K. some general conditions may be checked to ensure the proper desiqn of junctions. Vertical pipe drops are used frequently at junctions for which main sewer lies well below the branch sewers. They should be resorted to only where other means of passing the obstruction are not feasible as they require considerable attention in maintenance.7 JUNCTION A junction occurs where one or more branch sewers enter a main sewer. In such cases the interceptors and laterals may be dropped vertically through shafts to the deep trunk sewers or Tunnels.4.4. particularly if the ratio of branch sewer diameter and main sewer diameter is small. If considerable energy is available in long sewers at a junction. If available energy at junctions is small gently sloping transitions may be used.4. Junctions are sized so that the velocifies in the merging streams are approximately equal at maximum flow.

    a. 3.l FIG...:: Constant t+---+--H-+----.58 \S<i>Crilical ftow (UI'\Of stage flow) u ::c ..3~ SPECIFIC ENERGY CURVE .. w a 9 Q.

    ..4: NON-UNIFORM FLO\N HYDRAULIC PROFILES .. de I / CONTROL SECTION ~ -- ~ . \ (0) DAAINlJOWtl MILD TO STEEP \b} BACK WATER TO MILO€R SLoPE FIG...MILD SLOPE ~ - L EN:Y GRACE LINE .59 r .. 3. dn.

    60 MILD 5LlPE .

    4.25 to 1.5.2 VELOCITY It Is necessary to have a self-cleansing velocity of 1.7 gives the general arranqement for a three-way siphon.5. If it Is possible" blow off may be installed at the low point 10 Iacilitate mnerqency maintenance operations. The design criteria for inverted siphons are given In IS:411 Part·111.4.4.4 'NLET AND OUTLET CHAMBERS The deslqn ot Inlet and outlet chambers should allow sufficient room for entry for clealllnq and maintenance of siphons.1 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS As the inverted siphon Is a pipe under pressure.5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Provision should be marie for isolating tile Individual pipes as well as the siphon to facilitate cleaning. Siphons may need cleaning oftener than gravity sewers and hence should not have any sharp bends either horizontal or vertical..5. 3. Proper bypass arranqements should be provided from the inlet chamber and If requimd special arrangements should be made for pumping the sewage to the lower reach of sewer line. the inlet should be such that the pipes come Into action successively as the flow Increases.61 upto the average flows. the pipe Is used and when the flow exceeds the average. This head should be sufficient to cover the entry.5.3 SIZE AND ARRANGEMENT OF PIPES In the multiple pipe siphon. In the two-pipe siphon.0 mps for the minimum flow to avoid deposition In the line 3. into the siphon. It is desirable to provide a coarse screen to prevent tile entry of rags etc. a difference In the water levels at the Inlet and outlet Is the head under which the siphon operates. The rise. 3. The outlet chambers should be so deslqned as to prevent Ihe backflow of sewage Into pipes which are not being used at the lime of minimum flow. The Hazen-Williams formula. 3.5. This can he done by providinq suitable penstocks or stop boards at the Inlet and outlet of rwch pipe and by providinq stopvalve at its lower point if it is accessible. oxIt and friction losses In pipes. 3. the balance flow Is taken by the second and subsequent pipes. Further there should be no change of diameter In the barrel since this would ham per cleaning operation. The fnction loss through the barrel will be determined by the deSign velocity.Williams Formula can be used for calculation of head less. A manhole at each end of the.4.4. siphon should be provided with clearance for roddinq. out of the siphon for small pipes should be on a mod mate slope so that sand and other deposits may be moved out of the siphon. This may be achieved by providing lateral weirs with heights kept in accordance will) the depth of flow at whrch one or more siphon pipes function. the first pipe should take 1. . 3. Only smooth curves of adequate radius should be used.5 times tim everaqe flow and second should take the balance of the flow. or the Modified Hazen. Fig. The rlSlnO should not be so steep as to make It difficult to remove hoavy solids by cleaning tools that operate on hydraulic principle. Altc.rnativelya vacuum pump may be provided at the outlet to overcome maintenance problems ansing out of cloqqlnq and slltlnq of syphons. Some of the important criteria are given below.

    ' "....fi/ACI(WA1ER FROM RESERVOIR OR FROM CHANt-iEL OF M\LOCR SLOPE (d?.0< ) n ro ." '" _" M" .'" si.POOL NORMAL DEPTH i .."'. ~ ..~ or M _ . ........"'~"' ." "" '" . . '" ."". '".. ~ .. ' ..._"...... 'CO" '" ~ ..... ~'" '0 "''''' . do ) .. . _ " ". ~ "r~I' " ....W_..r_DOV!NSTREAM PROFILE AFTEIl 14YDRAUL\C JUMP 01'1 STEEP SLoPE ( d'<' de ) >...'" ~'" """ . CRITICAL DEPTH -c C '- .. .." os .0< ~'" ~'~"'7'""".."0..'"" ~._NOW " .f CRITICAL DEPTH v s.- . 'r"''''''''''' s.<sc MI.'" (.d . . dV'7".."'.."~ MW >0 .co S.--. >0 " " ~'" <cO< . os o>..

    4. Relief sewers are also called supplementary sewers.In some cases it mrght be better to make the new sewer large enough to carry the total flow and to ahandon the old one. This air tends to exhaust from the manhole at the siphon inlet. Each individual case needs to be studied from various aspects such as operation of pumps within the specified limits.4. The exiting air can cause serious odour problems.9). However.63 Positive pressure develops in the atmosphere upstream of a siphon because ot the downstream movement of air induced by the sewage flow.3. the inlet structure to the relief sewer must be designed to divide the flow. 3. Sulphide buildup in force mains can be prevented by . the excess flow may be discharged through a weir to the reliGf sewer. Losses in valves. 3. enlargements and tapers are given in Manual on Water Supply and Treatment. However this causes depletion of oxygen in the sewer and leads to sulphide generation. with the relief sewer constructed parallel to the existing line. etc. Self cleansing velocities have to be maintained in either or both sewers even after diversion of flows. If the flow rs to be diverted in the upper reaches of a system. besides velocity head. 3. it may not be necessary to compute the losses individually but the same may be assumed arbitrarily as 10% of the total frictional losses depending upon the number of bends.8 Sulphide Generation Sewage when out of contact with air results in sulphide production.4. Attempts can be made to close the inlet structure tightly so that the air gets out at manholes or vents upstream. are dependent upon the velocity head v'/2g. At pH 5 it is nearly all of H.5. the entire flow at the point of diversion may be sent to the relief sewer or the flow may be divided in a diversion structure. To avoid this.4. sufficient ventilation arrangements have to be provided. The losses in bends. In the design it must be decided whether (a) the proposed sewer is to share all the rates of flow with the existing sewer or (b) it is to take all flows in excess of predetermined quantity or (c) it is to divert a predetermined flow from the upper end of the system. Otherwise nursance conditions may result. For economic design of force marn a reference may be made to Chapter 6 of Manual of Water Supply and Treatment.7 Force Mains Sewage may have to be carried to higher elevations through force mains. The size of the main should be determined by takrng into account the initial cost of pipeline and cost of operation of pumping for different sizes. fittings. A decision as to the method of relief to be chosen depends on available velocities. The size of force main can also be determined by using Modified Hazen· Wiiliams formula mentioned in 3. If flows are to be divided according to a ratio. Loss due to sudden enlargement depends upon the the ratio of diameters. tapers and other fittings. Velocities may be upto 3m/s. The topography and available head may dictate which alternative is selected.2. Conversely air is drawn in at the siphon outlet. Hazen Williams formula is generally used for computing the frictional losses (Eq. for shorter mains with a large number of bends etc .6 Relief Sewers An overloaded existing sewer may require relief.S and at pH 9 it is HS (Hydrogen Sulphide ion). the actual loss may be computed and expressed as equivalent length. Loss in bends and elbows depend upon the ratio of absolute friction factor to dia of pipe. It the relief sewer is designed to take flows in excess of a fixed quantity the relief sewer itself will stand idle much of the time and deposits may occur. If the relief sewer is to take all flows in excess of a predetermined quantity. In the actual design of the force mains.. availability of land required for duplicating the main in future etc..

    3.2 Available Head Generally the total available energy is utilized to maintain proper flow velocities in the sewers with minimum head loss. The cost of construction. Sewers must resist erosion and corrosion and its structural strength must be sufficient to carry backfi!l impact. It is desirable to have discharge boundaries following the property limits. The rnost common location of sanitary sew(:. economy. However in hilly terrain excess energy may have to be dissipated usinq special devices. The discharge point may be a treatment plant or a pumping station or a water course. safety to the personnel and the public during its life as well as durinq construction also must be considered.5. Where differences in elevations are insufficient to permit gravity flow. It can also occur in parltull sewers if the rate of oxygen transfer at the surface is Insufficient to keep with the demand. operation. but also build the system at lowest cost ensuring durability over the life of the system. Velocities of about 1m/s may be required to prevent sulphide build up. and live loads satisfactorily. and depth of sewer and sewer material and other appurtenances to be added such as manholes.5 3. Hence the sewer system design is limited on one hand by hydraulic losses which must be within the available Head and on the other to maintain self cleansinq velocities. slope. and maintenance of pumping stations are compared with the cost of construction and maintenance of gravity sewers.5. Junctions and other structures to minimize turbulence and save head loss and prevent deposits.5. Deep flow is more conducive to sulphide generation. The size and slope of sewer must be adequate for the flow to be carried and sufficient to prevent deposition of solids Ease and economy of maintenance.3 Layout of Systems The sewerage system layout Involves the following steps i) Selection of an outlet 01 disposal point Prescribing limits to the drainaqe valley or Zonal Boundaries Location of Trunk and Main Sewers Location of Pumping Stations if found necessary iI) iii) iv) In general the sewers will slope in the same direction as the street or ground surface and will be connected by Trunk Sewers. size.64 injection of compressed air Into pump discharge.1 DESIGN OF SEWER SYSTEMS Introduction Sewers are meant to transport storm water or waste water from one location to another location by gravity and therefore have to be laid deep enough to receive all the flows. It becomes difficult to meet both conditions with increasinq variation in rate of flow. The aim of design is not only to make the sewer system functional. 3.r is in the centre of the street A single sewer serves both sides of the street with approximately same length for each house connection. at the rate of 10 Umin for each em of pipe diameter. Trunk and main sewers are located in the valleys.or other practical consideration. In the design ot a sewer system the decisions are location. which may necessitate a gravity system even at a higher cost. In very wide streets . a trunk or intercepting sewer. 3. Sulphide generation usually occurs in force mains. Apart from the cost considerations the consequences of mechanical and electrical failures at pumping stations may also be considered. The boundaries of sub zones afe on the basis of topography. pumping may be required. and hence sulphide generation may be minimised by designing sewers with shallow depth of flow if economical.

    Aliiongitudinai sections should be indicated with reterence to the same datum line. reckoning against the direction of flow.2. The first numeral (from the left) Is the number of the manhole on the trunk sewer.500 1:20 or 1:50 or 1:100 orr 1:200 . Tees or Wyes should be provided for all house connections both for present and future locations so as to avoid breaking a hole into the side of a sewer. The same nomenclatore is used for representinq the sections e.e line near to the left or right they am suitably designated as L. Sometimes sewers may be iocated in the back of property lines to serve parallel rows of houses in residential area.1.3 and the adjoininq downstream manhole.000 1:2.1 PLANS The following procedure is recommended for the nomenclature of sewers: The trunk sewer should be selected first and drawn and other sewers should be considered as branches.2.2 represents the second manhole on the main sewer from the manhole nO. Whenever two sewers meet at a point. 3. the sizes and gradients of tilt: sewers and so forth.000 or 1:20.3.2..5. However access to such locations becomes difficult and hence sewer locations in streets are often preferred.g. one on each side meeting the main sewer Of the branch sewer.3.g.000 1:10. the manholes on the further branches to the branch mains are similarly given distinctive numbers.2. again commencing with the lower end. The manholes of the trunk sewer are designated as 0. commencing at the lower end (outfall end) of the line and finishing at the top end. in such case the sewer may be adjacent to curb or under the footpath. respectively. RA. The numerals on the rfght of this numeral. branch respectively.R4.000 1:500 or 1:1. Letters to the left in their order represent subrnain.3 identifies the section between the manhole L. Once the rough sections have been prepared the designer should go over the work for irnprovinq the spacing of manholes. The following scales may be adopted for the van nus plans and drawinqs (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Index Plan Keyplan & genmal layout Zonal Plans Longitodinal sections of sewers Structural drawings 1:100. If there Is more than one sewer either from the R" R" the subscript referring to ti. the main sewer is the larger of the incoming sewers.. When all the sewer lines connected to the main line have thus been covered by giving distinctive numbers to the manholes. Manholes on the mains or submains are again numbored 1.500 or 1:5.8) will pinpoint a particular manhole on the submain from which the flow reaches manhole number 4 on the trunk sewer through a submain and a main.3 (Figure 3.3 etc. etc. The sewers should have a minimum cover of 1 m at the starting point or otherwise adequately protected with cement concrete encasing. ietter 'L' (to represent left) or letter 'R' (to represent right) is again pretixed to the numbering system. submain etc. When such situations are unavoidable the sewers may be encased in sleeve pipes or encased in concrete. If there are two branches. represent the manhole numbers in the main.2. Section L". prefixing the number of the manhole on trunk/main sewer where they join (e..250 or 1:2.65 it may be economical to lay a sewer on each side. Thus L. sewer taking away Ihe discharge from the manhole.3 on the trunk sewer). The vertical scale of the lonqitudinal sections should be magnified ten times the horizontal scale. The trunk sewer should be the one with the largest dia that would extend farthest from the outfall works. in order..R. Sewers as a rule are not located in proximity to water supplies. economising on materials and excavafion to the extent possible but at the same time making sure that the sewer will serve all users and that they can be actually laid according to the alignments shown in the drawing and have sufficient gradients.3. Interference with other utilities has to be avoided.000 or 1:200.4. The first letter immediately preceding the numeral denotes the main and that It is to the right of the trunk sewer.

    The numbering of the network may be adopted as shown in the diagram enclosed (Fig. Sewer network design computations are repetitive and hence can be easily done by Tabular form or by using suitable computer soft ware programmes.66 The sewers should be shown as thick lines and manholes as small Circles in plan. In case of a decimal number. Ips for sewage flows and cumec for storm flows is recommended.4. size AO and A1 (trimmed size 841 x 1t89 mm and 594 x 841 mm respectively) should be used while submitting the project drawings for approval. 3. Critical levels such as basements of low lying houses and other buildings.6 gives a design of sewer network using a computer programme in BASIC.29431) In case of design of sewer network using computer programme. etc.80 full at ultimate peak flow Appendix 3. size and material of pipe. ground and invert levels and extent of concrete protection should be indicated as shown in Figure 3. units would be obvious and in certain cases writing of m or mm with the figure can be omitted.1 DESIGN STEPS The first step in the hydraulic design of a sewer network is to prepare a map showing locations of all sewers and measure the contributory area to each point. For design of sewer network the slope and diameter of sewers should be decided to meet the following two conditions: 1) 2) A self cleansing velocity is maintained at present peak flow A sewer runs at 0.1 SMALL BORE SEWER SYSTEM System Description Small bore sewer system is designed to collect and transport only the liquid portion of the domestic wastewater for off. design calculations. It is sufficient to give node numbers as well as pipe (link) numbers in any manner in the sewer network for design of the network for using computer software. The solids are separated from the wastewater in septic . Profiles along each sewerline are also to be marked.. Normally.). 47342. 3:6 3.6. The flow should normally be indicated in Iitres per second (Ips) or cubic metres per hour (m'/hr) except for very large flows which may be indicated in cubic metres per second (cumec). areas in sewer plans and design calculations may be indicated in hectares (ha).g. measurement sheets of estimates.site treatment and disposal. Appendix 3. Similarly. For uniformity. In section the sewer may be indicated by a line or two lines depending upon the diameters and scales adopted. 3. Standard vertical plan filing systems are now available and are very convenient for storing of plans and taking them out quickly for reference. there is no restriction in the nomenclature of the sewers and manholes as required for the manual design. If this practice is followed. length should be indicated either entirely in metres correct upto two decimals or entirely in millimetres (for thickness etc. levels of existing sewers to be intercepted high water levels in trunk sewers or disposal points have to be noted. should be in metric system.5. Grade. All documents including drawings.9).4 Design Approach 3.10.5. this grouping may be on either side of the decimal (e. In drawings.5 gives a worked example of designing a sewer system. While writing figures they should be grouped into groups of three with a single space between each group and without comma.

    7= INVERTED SIPHON OR SUPPRESSED SEWER FOR COMBINED SEWAGE. 3. . _ WEIRS P -LAN -- :~l~~ rl1 1 CLEANOUT INLET CHAMBER WEIR WEIR OUTLET CHAMBER VERTICAL SECTION FIG.67 WEIRS 3 1 STORM FLOW IN EXCESS OF 1AND 1.

    2.2. 3.1 l2 R 4.2.3 FIG.1 (l2)SUB MAIN 4.2.8: NOMENCLATURE OF SEWERS .1 R 4.2 R 4.68 TRUNK SEWER 2 3 4 R 4.3 l2 R 4.

    3.69 10 10 o o f'IG.9:EXAMPlE SEWER NODE NUMBER L I Nl< NUM'&ER NETWORK .

    6. A vent cleanout to release air may be provided at every hump.6.3 Suitability of the System This system is suitable unde! the tollowinq conditions: Where 1. . The sewer may be constructed with any profile as long as the hydraulic gradient remains below all interceptor tank outlet inverts. where flow occurs by gravity utilising the heEld resultinq from the difference in elevation of its upstream and downstream ends. Maintenance of strict sewer qr adients to ensure minimum selt-cleansinq velocities is not necessary. The effluent from the tank IS oischarqed into the small bore sewer system. Desiqn decisions reqardinq the location.5 Appurtenances Cloanouts are used in place of manholes. 4. small bore sewers may be installed with sections ciepresseci below the hycirauiic qrade tine. 3. 3. the sewer is to fiow fuii. size and qladlent of Ihe sewer must be carefully made to hold hydrauiic iosses within tile limits of available head. except at major junctions and should be located at all upstream ends. at 111911 points and at intervals of 60-100 m In straiqht reaches to lonq flat sections Pumplnq may be provided to overcnme elevation conditions or to raise collected wastewater from one drainaqe zone to another.6 m/s may be used. effluent from pour-flush toilets and household sullage cannot be disposed off on. Long pumping intervals should be avoided to prevent excessively surcharqed conditions in the small bore sewers. The sewer should be set deep enouqh to carry these flows. sewers.4 Design Criteria Each house sewer is usuatlv connected to an interceptor tank which is designed as a septic tank. Minimum pipe diameter of 100 mm IS recommended. the peak flow rate wiii IJ" equal to the pump discharge rate. unless the purnpinq cycle is iess than live minutes. This system also provides an economical way to upqrade the existinq on-site sanitation facilities to a level of service comparable to conventional sewers.3 . Where conventional sewers would be inappropriate or infeasible. 2. Since the small bore sewer collects only settled wastewater.6. material and treatment. cleanouts and manholes. 3. intersections of sewer lines.70 tanks or aqua privies installed upstream of every connection to the small bore sewers. The optimum number of house sewers to be connected to an interceptor tank can be worked alit for each case.2 Components of the System The small bore sewer system consists of house connections. vents and in some cases lift stations. Minimum velocities in the ranqe of 0.0 is adopted. it needs reduced water requirements and reduced velocities of flow. if they are laid on a fallinq gradient. Where pumping is to be done. depth. this system provides an alternative. Ventiiation is not necessary for smaii bore sewers. 3. This in turn reduces the cost of excavation. 0.6. At peak fiow. especially for fnnge areas a planned sequence of incremental sanitation improvements with small bore sewers as a first staqe IS conternplated existing septic tank systems have failed or where there are a number of septic tanks requirinq tile effluent to be dlscharqed but soil and qround water conditions do not permit such a discharqe 3. interceptor tanks. A desiqn peak flow facto I of 2.site rnstatlation of new schemes IS taken up. major changes in direction. Unlike conventional qravitv sewers which are designed for open channel flow.

    the street sewers should be designed as small-bote sewers. any other low cost treatment tollowed by fish ponds. However two or more l'lOUSE'S rnay share a single inspection chamber.6.6 Disposal of Effluent The effluent from small bore sewers can be discharqed into conventional seweraqe system if possible: otherwise the effluent frorn small bore sewers can be treated through waste stabilisation ponds. This requires an organisation for maintenance of these interceptors to ensure satisfactory pertorrnance of the system.aninn purpose.4 rn. Usually one chamber is provided for each nouse. pumping stations where necessary and treatment plants. as tar as possible.100 mrn) and of stoneware or concrete which an? buried in a shallow trench. 2.7 3. Pumping stations should. The inspection chamber however is located is an open area. 3. The street collector sewer bas a usual minimum diameter of 150 rnm.8 rn. The sullage water generated In the house is also connected to the inspection chamber directly when water consumption is more than 75 Ipcd. inspection chambers.2 Components of the System The shallow sewer system likc~ the conventional sewer system consists of house connections. Whf::re vehicular loading is present and the invert depth of sewer is less than 0.1 SHALLOW SEWERS System Description Shallow sewers are desiqned to receive domestic sewage for off-site treatment and disposal.1 tight"fittrnq RCe cover. community septic tanks are provirted at the exit of lateral sewers.7. it is connected through a qrit/qrease trap. The chamber is provided with .dirninatc:d. however 100 mrn sewers may also be used if hydraulic capacities permit. ln general.6. a concrete encasement is provided for the sewer. 3. or land treatment with the usual precautions. They may even pass under property boundary walls and also under future building areas. When:.4 rn. They are usually laid at a minimum depth of 0. A vertical ventilation column of the same diameter is provided on the house connection. cleanouts and manholes. sidewalks and lanes of planned and unplanned settlements}.7. laterals. be c. The laterals are of small diameters (min. 3. The minimum depth of pipe invert is 0. they have straiql'\t aliqnrnent between inspection chambers and me suitably aligned around existinq buildmqs.:. Where the water consumption is lesser and where grit IS used for c!(. street collector sewers. The interceptor tanks need periodical cleaning and disposal of solids. Low volume pour-flush or cistern-ttush water-seal toilets are connected to the inspection chamber by means of a 75 mm diameter sewer. 8-51 CPHEEOINDI94 .7 Limitations 1. Special precautions should be taken to prevent illegal direct connections into sewers without interceptor and dumping of solid waste into interceptors. One or more houses mav be connected to an interceptor tank through house: connections. Inspection chambers Eire provided along tllG street collector Sf)WNS and along the lenqth of tllf~ laterals at intervals not exceeding 40 rn. They am a modification of the surface drain with covers and consist of a network of pipes laid at flat gradients in locations away trom heavy imposed loads (usually in backyards.71 3.

    7. Otherwise these sewers rnay qet donned and require frequent cleaning.4 Limitations Shallow sewe-rage system is suitable where adequate ground slopes are available. 3.3 Applicability Shallow sewers are suitable where t.8 NON CIRCULAR SEWERS The Manninqs Formula alonqwith appropriate cootticients ot rouqhness (Table 3. .72 3. Since these sewers are laid at flat qradients the solids are likely to get deposited unless flushed at peaktlow conditions.4) can be used for desiqn of box type ducts tor convevinq Sf. 3. hiqll density slums and squatter settlements (usually 100 to 160 persons per hectare) exist adverse ground conditions exist and on-site disposal is not possible sullaqe also has to be disposed ott and where the minirnurn water consumption rate is 25 lpcd 2. 3.'.7.\Vaqe and open drains tor carrying storm water.

    --.116.--r-r --.--r--r--.--..00 60 I 260.10: A TYPICAL SEWER SECTION .00 4 6 I 6 o 2 HORIZONTAL VERTICAL FIG.---.00r----r--.00 1.00 t---t--j--t--t--t--+-+-+-t----'--+-+-t--t---f--I114.--.--r--.---rr--.00 0 20 ~ 220.3.00 10000 20 140.00 300.800 10e-00 1 60. ~50 / 108.00 1\ 107.73 I16..--..

    '11 SPACii\lG ~.vith rner.. tor the 5('.) The dis lance upto vv'l'lich 5111 or ()\hel obstruction may have to be conveyed alonq the sower to the !')(}ares! fllEHIhole for removal The eJistiulcC: upto VJhicl: rna!c. storm or combined sewers.:Hlc(iC. qradient or diameter.15 of mar-holes on to be cleaned manuallv: Sc. CJi.)ITH:dcl cd rni.nchr.ilpIIHI v/(~irs_ venturi-flumes and outfall structures. A IT).. at the head at hr.::IS various types of manholes. s(.ri. should he of such size as will ntiow necessary clearwiD and of rnal'liiii!'.Jy further be IncrH(I~\ed upto 300m tor sewers of over 2m diameter.ral rule in Case of very lar90: sewers.:. !C. On sewers which are to be

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      ihich cannot lie entc}rc!d for c:lcanlnfJ or inspection.CHAPTER 4 SEWER APPURTENANCES 4.Ad.asins street inlets... They include structures and devicos such .S and at every of two or more sewers.:::. requ1ators.'HlI10Ic IS EHi constructed on the aliqnment of a sewer for facilitating a person acccns to tll(. cleaning and removal of obstructions from the SCvVC.\v(.CW(HS Ul 1 Ej tel ~2.rl0uld ue m Th(. They are circular..c.hamcal oovices.nh()k. side flow weirs. for the proper tunctioninq of any system 01 sanitary. purpose ot inspection. in addition to pipes and conduits.lil 5Cv/crs LU1C) cl(. allowed on straiqht runs for ~. larnpholes. cotts trucled 01 r.d r.[ !tn(. wlw:ll rli. siphons.qunrc in r

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        ~iHll'i(:des over the ccnu e lmo of the: sewer. 4.rs above 900mm diameter is governed by the following i3. flushing tanks. . . intercepting chambers.)n!'ICli(:~. A iJi!OWi::UiCC: IOlj '100m pc:'r1ITl did of sewer IS a ~lerH. Llbovc 90 lu150rn may be Elllmved on straiGht runs for sewers of Inr!] (If manholes at 150 to 200 ITl may l)f.() III dia. testinq.\/(.ecJ tor cleanltlSJ sewers..wur tC)! the.S 74 .1 INTRODUCTION Sc:vvor appurtenances .s .::He' devices necessary. grease traps. the spaclllD of manholes will to be w:. \t/l'ilC:h arc tu up '1!1 the: lypc~ ell ill" \.:ils for ropaus rnay he conveved throuqh the sewer and V(~nji:atlon h) CI I'ln.. the maxunurn distance !Jetween rnanhcdcs ~.r Sf Vh I'~:.'nll tOI rnell w()rkinn in the sewer iF) CIC~iHH.. ventilation shatts. gully traps.anc~d should be built at every of aliqnment.

        ..'t.C.- .. I I . :: f :..-. f<-8 PLAN FIG.C. j J -4 .C . -B~-- A ' -' I '- ::-:::~::------PLAN 1. 3. I 'I t:r-B-->j l:'f~.' ..~ L I I R.f . 'I or '" .. *-B r---. = ~ I. THIC~ CC _ _ MS ~- £OO'~~ 1.• "U _ . ' ". 42: TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF RECTANGULAR MANHOLE FOR DEPTH FROM 0...: ~ .8 seCTION B8 . ' ~'i" . --.5M (SIZE 1200xSoommi .1.. .. ~... i .-.•. A II il .• <j-CC SECTION AA seCTION B 8 . COVER 11'.L c.g CC "2:4 .4 .. . 41: TYPICAL ILLUSTRATiON OF RECTANGULAR MANHOLE FOR DFPTH LESS THAN 090M (SIZE: 900x800 rnm) FIG...L ---lJ :: ..' -."i.'j.90M UPTO 2.~~. ~ =29= SECTION AI> "4.4'6 Ii> J -..-1_ .\ • . ~. . . 1:2 '.

        .1 lJ ~...~ -g-C C 1'4. It> 1500) FIG 4.008..COVER ~rCC124 i POINTING~ CEMENT CEMENT PLASTER M.' '" ~l::.'....~q--~ WALL --' 'T WALL HEIGHT OF SPRINGING :!f' ~---~----....8 -L I" I.Cd.--. ..oFf .cT!ON AA A A PLAN (It> 1. ' L .(..~t ~. • .=..\. ' ..---==:::P=F. .S T FOOTRES FRAME AND COVER r' ---. I I -:L A 8 L Jl \.1 .B-- I I : I J . FIG.. ~ GL -Dr-:-- "_. It: / I I L : +-. 'r. I SECTION AA A L 1<-8 l-----------: : I -l'---~ I I \ .....-r 'I .--_.1 I I SECTION 86' 0-L2.~...:I _ I-<....4.4 TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF CIRCULAR MANHOLES (ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN mm) .... AND SECTION B8 BENCHING CC 1'2'4 '" \i :::....3:TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF ARCHED TYPE MANHOLE . 1>~... '~CHANNEL CEMENT PLASTER 1'4 BRICK MASONRY IN CEMENT~ ~ MORTAR "I ..

        the manhole.Om. Suitable steps usuarlv of malleable cast iron shall be provided for entry. Circular manholes are straiqht down in lower portion and slantlnq in top portion so as to narrow down the top opening equal to internal dia of manhole cover. O. 900 x SOO.90m and upto 1. and shall have a minimum internal dia of 750rnrn.mn and For depths of manholes from 0. arch type manholes (Fr9A. The operunq for entry Into the manhole (without cover) should be of such minimum dimensions as to allow a workman with HI(~ c!c.9rn and upto 2. .65rn and upto 230m. The width/diameter of the manhole should not 1)(:. should be suitably increased to 900mm or more so that benchinq width on either side of channel is atloast 200mrn. If the sewer is constructed in a tunnel. Dependinq upon the depth of manhole. Access Shafts for larqe Sewers Access shaft shall be circular in shape.n.l)C1Vf. the dimensions ot the maintenance equipment likely to be used in the sewers.:1$ c) alternative to Circular manholes are stronqer than rectangular and arch type manholes and thus tnose are preferred over rectanquiar as \vell as arch type manhoros The circular manholes can be provided tor all depths starting from o. 1200 x 900mrn b) Arch Type Manholes For depths of 2.3) can be provided and HH? internal sizes of chambers between brick faces shall be 1400 x 900mm.s. Some types of circular manholes have been shown in FigAA.90rn. The width of manhole chamber on bends and junctions of pipes with diameter greater than 450mm.G5m. The Internal diameter of circular manholes may be: kept as tollowinq for varying depths: i} For depths <:1. 900rnrn di. 1500mrn diameter For depths above 9. where the depth of the shaft oxceeds 3m suitable drrnonslons shall be provided to facilitate cleaninq and maintenance. 1200mm diameter For depths above 2.Om aoel upto 14. less than internal cJi::Hneter of the sewer + 150mrn benchinq on both sides (150rnm + 150rmn). A minimum clear openinq of 60cm is recommended. Access shaft where: built of brickwork should be corbelled on three sides tel reduce it to the: size of the opening in the covor trame and to provide easy access on the fourth side to step irons or ladder In determining sizes.5m. shall be kept in view. 1S00rnrn diameter. .:1metel ii) iii) iv) For depths above 1. the diameter of manhole changes.4.2) betwnon brick faces should be as follows: i) ii) For depths of manholes less than 0.T1 a) Rectangolar Manholes The minimum internal sizes of rectanqular rnanholes (Fig. Circular Manholes The circular manholes may be constructed re ctanqular and arch type manholes.anino oquiprnents to got access into tho interior of the manhole without difficulty.1 & FiqA. A circular opening is nenerally preferred.5rn and above.30rn and uplo 90m. should be located at the access or workinq shafts and the manhole cnarnber may be constructed of a size to suit the worklnq shah or vice-versa.

        The sioevvalls ot the manhole are usually constructed of cement brick work 250rnm thick and corbelled SUItably to accommodate the frame of the manhole cover.1. fleflefally of plain cement concrete atleast 150mm thick should be provided at the base to support the walls of the manhole and to prevent the entry of ground water.78 Where the diameter ot the sewer is increased. with adequate reinforcc:ment provided to withstand excessive uplift pressures.2.S.rever such covers are available. It is dt:sirabh:. Where more than one sewer enters the manhole the flow throU~lh channel should be curved smoothly and should have sufficient capacity to carry the maximum flow..1ru:! outside of the brickwork should be plastered with cement mortar 1:3 (1 cement: 3 coarse sand) and inside finished smooth with a COCl. the crown of entering sewer may be fixed at lower level but in such cases too the peak flow level of the two sewers shall be kept the same.1 quantity as per rnanufacturer's specifications. A slab.M. manholes may be constructed in r(:intorcf::. . In exceptional cases and where unavoidable.rnanhole covers. sewers. The inside {. 4. After completion of thf) work. to place thE~ first pipe joint outside the manhole as close as practicable. the crown ot the entering and leaving pipes shall be fixed at the same level and necessary slope is given in the invert of the manhole chamber.ulllOle is that built on <-:1 straight run of sewer with no side junctions. The thickness of the base also shall be suitably increased upto 300rnm. The pipe shall be built inside the wall of the manhole flush with the internal periphery protected with an arch of masonry or cement concrete to prevent it from being crushed. INhere sewers are to L)e lElid in high subsoil water conditions. The frames of manhole shall be firmly embedded to correct aliqnment and level in plain concrete on tilC~ top ()f masonrv. However Precast Cement Concrete COV(:f'S !(. Reintorcinq materials other than Mild Steel are beinq tried.d cement concrete of wade M 20 or 1:1 1/2:3.2. m. When cast Iron manhole covers Emd frarnc. for manholes on large dia.intorced by materials other than Mild Steel should be used provided that those are properly test"-:d & certified for use by competent authority. manhole covers shall be sealed by means of thick Drc~asc). The manholes in this type of construction shall be preferably cucular type (FlqA 5). In the case of larqer manholes. a richer mix may be used and it shall further be waterproofed with addition of approved water proofing compound in {.t of neat cement Where subsoil water condition exists.s are usee they shall conform to IS: 1726 (parts 1 to 7). The adjacent floor should have a slope of 1 in 10 draininSI to the channel.1E::S Tho size: of manhole covers should be such that there should be clear opening of not less than SGOrnrn diameter tor manholes excc.9m depth. Fibre Reinforced Plastic covers (FRP) contormrnq to relevent I. 4.2 Types of Manholes The sirnplost typE? 01 rn. the flow in the SeWHf' should be carried in U~shaped smooth channel constructed integrally with the concrete base of the manhole.cding O. of the larqest sewer pipe. The side of tht:: channel should be equal to the dia.3 COVEHS AND Fr:::.3y he used v/hr. HeEwy reinforced concrete covers with suitable lifting arrauqements could also be used instead of C.I.

        A pipe connectinq the two levels is often concreted under the . unless of cast iron. a continuation of the: sewell should be built throuqh the shaft wall to form a roddinq and inspection eye. The diameter of the back drop should be atle ast as larqe as that of tile rnc0I11Inq pipe.3 SIDE ENTRANCE MAN HOLES In large sewers or where it is diHicult to obtain direct vertical aCC(0SS to the seWf~1 horn 9!ound level. The gradient of the smaller sewer may be steepened from the previous manhole SUfficiently to reduce the difference of invert if.4.. which should bo provrdod with a half blank flange. The drop pipe should terminate at its lower end with a plain or duck-toot tJenc! turn(~d so as to discharqe its flow at 4S deqrees 01 less to the direction of the flow in the:. should be surrounded with 150rnrn of concrete.2. If the drop pipe is outside the shaft. the tunnel being broken out from the end of the headinq. a drop connection shall be provided for which a manhole may be built incorporating a vertical or nearly vertical drop pipe from the lligher sewer to the lower one.4 DROP MANHOLES When a sewer connects with another sewer. should enter the chamber not lower than the soffit level of tile sewer.2. water.2. and connected to the manhole chamber by a later al passaqe In the tunnelled sewers the shaft and lateral access headinq may tJ8 usod as a workinq shaft. in order to avoid the surcharging of the former when the latter is runninq full. The soffit of the smaller sewer at a junction should be not lower than that of the larger sewer.2. the tunnel bemg broken out from the end of the hcuJding. or alternativelv the shaft and heading may be constructed after the main tunnel is complete. the cham her may be huilt of a shape other than rectangular. or iJ!ternatively the shaft and rlc"ading may be used as a working shaft. In large sewer where the floor of the side entrance passage is above the soffit either steps or a ladder (Which should bc: protected either by a removable handrail or by safety chains) should be provided to reach tbe benclllrlCj 4.2.2. and the hycff0ulic desir. and H1e curved portions of the inverts of tributary sewers should be formed within the manhole. provision havinq been made for breakinq in from the access heading to build the chamber. 4. it should bp in cast lion and It would Il(} advantaqeous to provide adequate means for roddinq and water cushion of 150mm dc. the access shaft should be constructed in thc~ nearest convenient position oft the line of sewer.v(~1 at the point of junction to a convenient amount. etc.1Wers. owing to existing services. In the case of sewers of the following methods (Wet' 450rnm in diameter the drop in level mav be accomplished by one a) A Cascade" This is a steep ramp composed c:f steps over wl'lIch the flow is broken up and rotarded.. which should fall at about 1 in :30 towards the sewer. The floor of the side-entrance passage. To achieve this with the best economy of space. This pipe may be either outside the shaft and encased in concrete or supported on brackets inside! the shatt which should be suitably enlarnod. main sewer iJnc) the pipe.pth should also be provided. A typical illustration of a drop manhole is shown in Fig. 98S.2 JUNCTION MANHOLES A manhole should be built at evory junction of two or more SE. If tlw drop pipe is Inside Ihe shaft.G. except where special conditions require otherwise. 4. where the difference in level between water lines (peak flow levels) of main line and tho invert level of branch line is more than GOOmm or a drop of more than GOOmm is required to be qiven in the same sewer line and it is uneconomical or Impractical to arranqe the connection within GOOrnm.79 Where there is a change in the size of sewer the soffit or crown level of the two sewers should be the same.n usually ass urnes such a condition.

        80

        C.LFRAME AND COVER

        CEMENT PLA STER "V?"-'/-1:-::3mm Min.

        1800

        q

        11.

        W

        a:

        C MENT CONCRETE

        ...1.- .

        l-~==~ttJ , 2600 -+
        B _ THICKNESS OF WALL ALL DIMENSION IN MILLIMETRES.

        FIG.L..S: TYPICAL

        ILLUSTRATION
        (CONCRETE NOT

        OF

        R.C.C.MANHOLE

        SHOWN)

        81 to allow small flows to pass without trickling ovor tho stops. Tho cascade slops may be made of heavy duty bricks of Class I quality (lS:2180·1985). cement concreto with granolithic finish or dresseci granite b)

        A Remp : A lamp may he formed by increasing the wade of thEl last lenSlth of the upper sewer to about 45 dc:greos or by constructing a steeply gr'::lcJ(:d channel or culvert leading trom the high level to the low level sewer. In order to break up the flow down the ramp and minimize the turbulence in tile main sewer, the flour of tl culvert ramp should be obstructed by raised transverse ribs of either brick or concrete at 1.15m intervals and a stilling pool provided at the bottom of the ramp and

        c)

        By Drops in Previous Successive Manholes· Instead ot providing tho total rtrop required at the junction manhole, the same may be achieved by niv"lnq smaller drops in successive manholes preceding the junction manhole. Thus, for example, If a total drop of 2.4m is reqUired to be given, O.6m drop may be ~Jiven in each of the pn~vious three manholes and the last O,Gm drop may be qiven a: tht? junction manholo

        4.2.2.5 SCRAPER ISEHVICE) TYPE MANHOLE All sewers above 450mrn in diameter should have one manhole at inlerVtlls of 110 to 12()rn of scraper type. This manhole should have clear opening of 1200 x 90Gmen at the top to faCilitate lowering of buckets. 4.2.2.6 FLUSHtNG MANHOLES Where it is not possible to obtain self cleansinq velocities due to flatness of the qradienf especially at the top ends of branch sewers which receive very little flow, it is essential that some form of flushing device be incorporated in the system. This can be done by makinq qroove s at mtorvals of 45 to SOm in the main drains In which wooden planks are inserted and water allowed to head up and which will rush on with great velocity when the planks aro removed. Alternatively, an overhead water tank is built from which connections are made throuqh pipes and flushing hydrants to rush water to the sewers. The relevant Indian Standard is IS:4111 Ipart2) Flushing can be very conveniently accomplished by the use of a fin:? hydrant or tanker and hose. Where flushinq manholes are provided. tnev are located gen(~rally at the head of a sewer. Sufficient velocity shall be imparted in the sewer to WElSh away the deposited sonds. The flush IS usually effective upto a certain distance after which the imparted velocity qets oissipated. The automatic systems which are operated by mechanical units net ottc;n corroded by the sewer gases and do not generally function satisfactorily and hence ar() not rE;comrrl(;ndpd In case of hard chokages in sewers, care should be exercised to ensure tnat there IS no possibility of backflow of sowaqe into the water supply mains.

        B2 Approximate quantities of water needed tor flushing are as follows:

        Quantity of Water (Litres) Slope
        200mrn din.

        250rnm dia,

        300rnrn din.

        0.00"0
        u.OO75

        2300 '''00 1300

        2"00

        3000 2300 2000 1000
        700

        1BOO
        1"00

        00100 0.0200
        0.0300

        SOO
        400

        BOO
        "00

        4.3

        INVERTED SIPHONS

        An inverted siphon or depressed sewer is a sewer that runs full under gravity flow at a pressure above atmosphere in the sewer the profile being depressed below the hydraulic wade line. Since the inverted siphon is in no sense i] true siphon, an attempt has been made. but with indifferent success, to populanse the term oenressed sewer for this device. In sewerage practice the word siphon has come to mean an inv(,r\c:cl siphon unless otherwise qualified, Siphons, both true and inverted are used in sewers to pass 01/(,,1 or under obstacles sucn as buried pipes, subways and stream beds, As the siphon is an appurtenance rE.lquirinq' considerable attention for maintenance, it should be used only where other means of passinq an obstacle in line of the sewer are impracticable, The relevant Indian Standard is 18:4111 (pi:ut-3) More details of inverted siphons are discussed in 3.4,5.
        4.4 HOUSE SEWER CONNECTIONS

        For larqe diameter of sewers, house connections may be qrven through rider sewers. Sewers should be connected througt) manhole or drop manhole. Where there is no Y or T left for new connections, insertion elf new Y or T is not prescribed, House sewer connections should preferably be 150rnm or more in dia with a minimum slope ot 1:GO laid as tar as possible, to a straight line and grade. Connections to the main street sewer should norrnally be made with Y branches. For sewers-Cleeper than Sm. tees are preferable to facilitate connections at hiqher elevations, particularly where simultaneous discharqe of house sewers into the street sewer is not expected and also prevent darn age while roddinq. The Y Of tee may be installed with the branch turned about 4S degrees from the horizontal so that back-tloodinq of the house connection will not occur when the collecting sewers flow fulL Connections 10 k'lrge sewers are for Hlf~ same reason made above the spring line of the main sewer. The house connection tor deep sewers. where made by means of a vertical pipe riser. shall be encased in concrete at least 75mm thick and upto the tu!llength of the pipe to prevent damage during backfilling. Ail possible practical provision should be made for future connections In the original construction. Wher£-.:' possible, property connection chambers shall be constructed close to the property line to facilitate easier future connections. If possible more refined methods of cutting the sewers may be used to make the house connections without disturbing sewage flow. Connections to existing Sewers, particularly these of small diameter, should wherever possible be rnade with these tees or Ys. The frec: end of the service nnes or branches should be closed with a carefully fitted stopper, when service lines are not yet connected to buildings or where intermediate connections are not yet made with the t(~e or Y branches.

        83
        The recent practice is to make the h01.1SC: connection directly without provtdtnq mtcrceptinq traps. The deletion of the: intt;rceptinq traps at the sCV,Jef connection providos effective vc:ntil<lticm of the seW8f system without the: use of ventilators. Intercepting traps may be useful fen rnultistoried houses,

        4.5

        STORM WATER INLETS
        de\/icf~S

        These are part of the svstem

        meant to adrnit the surface runoff to the sewers and tonn L1 vc!ry important Their tocnnon ano deslqn should therefore be Diven Ciuelul consldc:latJon

        Storm water inlets mav be? cateqorised under three major groups viz. curb inlots, tluttCH inlets and com hi nation inlets. each hf~inD either depressed or flush dependinq upon Hleir elnvalion with reterence to the pavement surface The actual structure 01 an inlet is USULllly mack: of brickwork NorrnLlily, cast non qr arinqs contorrninq to l.S,.59G1 shall b(; used, In case thE:re IS no vehicular uattic. tatJric;:J(C:d stec:! may be used. The clear opening Shell! not be more than 25mnl, The connectinq pipe: trom the street in1(;1 to the main strc:ct S(!VJer should not be less than ~!OOrnm 1tl din. and should have sufficient

        Maximum spacinq ot inlets would depe:nd upon various conditions of rO,:'j(j surtaco. ::;17(; and type of inlet and raintall. /J.. maxunum spacHlfJ of 30m is recommended 4.5.1 Curb Inlets

        Curb inlets i:Hf! verlicai openinqs in the road curbs throuqh which the storm water tlows ;::lnCl ;:J.re preferrc;,d where heavy unttic is anticipated. They are tc.'nneci <1:; clc!flector inlets \Nhen equipped witt' diaqonal notches cast mto Uie;, qut'tE~r alonq the curb opc'ninq to torm a series of riclqes or cleflectors. This type of Inlet doc~·s not mterferE.' WIth the HovII or traffi'c as tile.' top le\/(,I of the deflectors he in the plane of the pavenlL,;nt

        4.5.2

        Gutter Inlets
        ~Jutter

        'These consrst of horizontal openinqs in the through which the tlow passes

        which is covered by one: or more

        4.5.3

        Combination Inlets

        These arc; corn posed of a curb and quttm inlet actinq as a sinqle unit. NonllElily, the \Jutler inlet is placed riqht in front ot thc:; curb inrets but it may bc.' displaced in an ovc'!lclpplnq or end-to-nnd position. Fiqure 4.7 shows diftere nt types of inlets.

        4.6

        CATCH BASINS

        Catch basins are structures meant tor the rc~tention of heavy dctms In srorm \';':ltcu which otherwise 'v;Joulci be earned into the sewer system. Their use is not recommended srnce they are mort? of a nuisance and a S{)lHC(; of mosquito breedino apart frorn posinq substantial maintenance problems, VI/here a main sewer is laid and the S£N/{H network is not yet laid. the eiry wcatner ttow horn the open drains may be: connected to the sewers t)y rntlkinD a provi-sion for a catch basi:l ;::uvJ overncw weir.

        84 4.7 REGULATOR OR OVERFLOW DEVICE

        These are used for preventing overloadinq of sewers, pumping stations, treatment plants, or of dispos al arrangements, by divertillq the excess flows to relief sewers etc. The overtlow devices rnay be sidetlow or leaping weirs according to the position of the weir, siphon spillways or float actuated qates and valves. 4.7.1 Side Flow Weir

        A side flow weir constructed alonq one or both sides of a combined sewer delivers excess flows durinq stonn periods to relit:;f seW(HS or natural drainage courses. The crest of the weir is set at an elevation corresponctinq to the desired depth of flow in the sewer. The weir length must be sufficiently 100lq for (;fiective requlation. The lenqth of the side-tlow weir is given by the formula devised by Babbitt h

        L

        7f:ixl()'VDioq

        WII()r" L

        V D
        h, and h.

        the the the' the

        ftJquirecJ lennth in m velocity of approach in mps dia of th(~ sewer in rnm and heads in m above the crest of the weir upstream and downstream.

        The: formula is lnruted to conditions in which the weir is placed in the side of a circular pipe at a distance above the bottom, qreator than d/4 and less than d/2 where'd' is the diameter of the pipe and the edqe of the we:ir is sharp and parallel to the invert of the channel. Its usefulness is limited in that it was devised tor pipes between 450 and 600rnm in dia and where the depth of flow above the weir should not exce ed 3dJ4, 4.7.2 Leaping Weir

        A Ic:apwlD \tJelr IS termed by a nap in the invert of a sewer through which the dry-weather flow tatts and over which a portion of all ot HIe storm leaps. Leaping weirs have the advantage of operating as rc)qulators without movmq parts. but they offer the disadvantage of concentrating grit in the low flow channel. Sonw formulae based in empirical findings are available for design of leaping weirs. However, from practical considerations, it is desirable to design the weirs with moving crests to make the openinq a_djustable as indlci:lted in Fi~Jure 4.8

        4.7.3

        Float Actuated Gates and Valves

        Control of the nC)W II) sewers can also be regulated by means of automatic mechanical requlators. These arc) actuatc.t by the water level in the surnp interconnected to the sewers. These renulators involve rnoving parts which are actuated by the varying depths of flow in the sewers. They require periodic inspection ano maintenance. . 4.8 FLAP GATES AND FLOOD GATES

        Flap gates or backwater g'ates are instal!ed at or near sewer outlets to prevent backflow of water durinq hiqh tide or at hinh staqes in the reC(:lvrng stream. Such gates should be designed so that the flap should 0P0I1 at a very small bead differential. With a properly operated tlap gate it is possible 10 continue to pump a quantity eqUivalent to the sanitary sewage flow from tbe combined sewer to the troatment plant even thouqh flood conditions prevail in the stream at the sewer outlet.

        85
        In case of a sea and estuary outfall, the outfall sewer should be able to discharqe at full rate when the water level in the estuary or sea is 3/4th the mean annual tide leve1. Adequat() storage to prevent backflow into the system due to the closure of these gates at the time of high tides is also necessary if pumping is to be avoided. To control the flow from the storaqe tank, flood gate or penstocks are provided which can be opened and closed quickly at the predetermined states of tide. The gates are generally etectricany operated and are controlled by a lunar clock.

        Many flap or back water qates are rectangular and may consist of wooden planks. Circular 01 rectangular metallic gates are commercially available. Flap gates may be of various metals or alloys as required by the design conditions. Flap gates are usually tunqed by a link-tvpe arranqornent that make-s it possible for the gato shutter to get seated more tirmlv. HinDe pins, linkagc')s and links should be of corrosion resistant material, There should be a screen chamber to arrest floating undesirables on the upstream side of the flap gate, The maintenance of flap qates requires regular inspection and removal of debris from the: pipe and outlet chamber. lubrication of hinge pins and cleaning of seatinq surfaces

        4.9

        MEASURING DEVICES
        This along with measurement of flow has been discussed in detail in Chapter 25.

        4.10

        SEWER VENTILATORS

        In a modern, well designed sewerage system, there is no ne(~d to provide ventilation on such elaborate scale considered necessary in the past specially with the present day policy to omit interceptinq traps in house connections. The ventilatinq columns are not necessary where interc(;ptin~J traps are not provided. It is necessarv however, to make provision for the escape of air to take care of the exigencies of full flow ,Hld also to kE:ep the sewage as fresh as possible specially in outfall sewers, In case of storm sewers this can be done' by providing ventitatinq manhole covers.

        86

        ,
        I

        rfr
        x :
        I

        HIA"-'...f _
        IL.._

        I

        1
        x

        ¥
        SeCTIONAL PLAN ZZ

        DFPTH OF MANHOLE

        SECTION XX

        SECTION YY

        TYPICAL ILLUSTRATION OF DROP MANHOLE (ALL DIMEI'SIONS IN MILLIMETRES) FIG. 4-6

        (0.)

        UNDEPRESSED

        ({I.I

        DEPRE SSED

        rei DEFLECTOR INLET

        GUTTER INLET

        'w "
        Z

        3:

        (d.)

        UNDEPRESSED

        Ie) DEPRESSED

        " " « "
        0u,

        '"

        UJ

        ...J

        d'l GRATE PLACED DIRECTLY IN FROhT (DEPRESSED)

        '9JGRATE PLACED END TO END

        (hJ G!<ATE PLACED

        ro srno«

        (UN DEPRESSED)

        OVERLAPPING POSITION ( UNDEPRESS ED)

        87

        CHAPTER 5

        MATERIALS FOR SEWER CONSTRUCTION
        5.1 INTRODUCTION

        Factors influencmq the selection of materials for sewer construction are flow characteristics, availability in the sizes required indudinq fittings and ease of handling and installation water tiqhtness and simplicity of assembly, physical stronqth. resistance to acids, alkalies. gases, solvents etc., resistance to scour, durabilitv and cost including handling and installation, No single material will meet all HH? conditions that may be encountered in sewer desiqn. Selection should be made for the particular application and different materials may be selected tor parts of a sinqle project. 5.2 5.2.1 TYPES OF MATERJAL Brick

        Buckwnrk is uSf:dlc)f construction of SE~Wet'S_ particularly for larger diarneters . Many old brick sewers ,1m stll! In use, the fallur",;s are mainty due to the disinteqration 01 ltH0 bucks or the mortar joints. Because 01 the cOrnpLlIjitlvfdy 111~Jher cost, larqer space requirement, slower prooress of work and other factors. brick is now u;~ed for sewer construction only in special cases. Tile advantaqe of brick sewers is that these' could be constructed to any required shape and size. Brick sowers shall have cement concrete or stone for invert and 12.5mrn thick cement plaster with neat finish for the: remaintnq surface. To prevent urounel water infiltration, it is dosirable to plaster the outside surface. Under special conditions protections aqainst corrosion may be necessary.

        5.2.2

        Concrete

        Concreto pipes rnay bt,:: manufactured to any reasonable strenqth required by varying thc~ wall thickness and the pC'fcentau(: ot reintorcernent and shape of the reiutorcmq cage" A number of jC)lflting methods are availoble dependHl~J on the tiqhtness required and the operatinu pressure within the sewer line, The advantages ot concrete pipes are the relative ease with which the requirc;d strength may be provided, teasibility of adoptinq a wide ranqe of pipe sizes and the rapidity with which HH0 tf(~nch may he opened and backfilled However, lh(:;se pipes are subject to corrosion where E1CId discnarqes afe earr'led rn the sewer or where velocities [Ire not sunicient to prevent conditions or where the soil is hiqhly acidic or contains excessive sulphates. Protc~clive lininqs Or' coarinqs as discussed in 22.2.5.2 should be used inside ,and outside whem exceSSive corrosion is liketv to occur. Only hiqh alumina cement concrete should be used when it is to corrosive: SC'\Vi3qE: or industr.al wastes. When Sp(;cifyinO concrete pipe, the pipe diameter. CI"lSS or strc;!luth. the nl(~thod of jointing and the type of protective COcltrnq and linin9, if any, should he stipUlated. Structural renu.rements of RCe <mel other pipes are disCUSS(0d in 6.1,

        9-51 CPHEEO/ND/94

        88

        Precast concrete pipes can be either plain or reinforced. Plain cement concrete PIP(;$ are used in sewerage systems on '::1 lirnitf,'j(l scale only and fjenerally reinforced concrete pipes are used, Non pressure pipes are used for qri::1vity flow and pressure pipes are used for force mains, subrnerged outtalts. inverted siphons and for 9ravity sewers where absolute watertight joints are required. Nonpressure pipes used for the construction of sewers and culverts shall conform to 18:458-1988. Certain heavy duty pipes which are not specified in ISASS should conform to other approved standards.
        5.2.2.2 CAST-IN-SITU REINFORCED CONCRETE

        Cast-in-situ reinforced concrete sewers are constructed where they are more economical. 01 when non-standard sections arc; requirec1. or when a special shape is required or when the headroom and wor kinq space are lirnitecL The sower shape should be of an economic design, easy to construct and maintain and should have qood hydraulic characteristics, Wide flat culvert bottoms should be provided with 'Vee;', of atleast 15crn depth in the centre, All tounwork for concreto sewers should be unyieldinq and tlght and ~;tlould product; a smooth sewer interior. Collapsible steel tonns will produce the: dosirable sewer surface and may he us(;d when the sewer size and length justify the expense. ReinforC8rnent steel. concrete aggf(;gatf;s, cement and sand should conform to Indian Standard Specifications, It is desirable tel specify a minimurn clear cover of 50rnrTl over reinforcement steel and a minimum slump consistent with workability should be used 10r obtaining a dense concrete structure tree of voids. ThE: distance for chutmq concrete should be kept to a minimum to avoid seureqatlOn and the vibt atinq of concrete done by approved mecharucal vibrators, Air entr aininq cement 01' plasticizinq aqents may t)e USF:d to improve workabititv and ensure a denser concrete. Concrete: should conforms to IS: 456-1978. 5.2.3 Stoneware or Vitrified Clay

        Salt ~Jlaznd stoneware pipes are rnanutactured in sizes 80mm to 1OOOmrn lI) nia but SIZt-::S qrc;';ltel than 3BOmm dia are not qenerally used because of economic considerations. Specitications for the AA and A classes are identical except that in the case at Class AA pipes, 100':;'0 hydraulic testinq has to be carried out at the manufacturing staqe whilE) in the case of Class A only 5'};;' of the pipes are tosted hydraulically (IS:G51 1971). The leng1hs of Vitrified clay pipes ale socm. 75cm and 90cm. the preference bc;inO for the lonqer pipes tor obvious reasons, Standard pipe tittinqs of vitrified clay are available to meet most requirements. WhfH) specitvinq vitrified clay p.pos. the pipe diameter class or strenqth. the method of jointinq (lI)d the type of protective coatinq or lining if any, ahould be stipulated. The resistance of vitnfled clay pipes to corrosion frorn most acids and to erosion due to grit and hiqh velocities qives it an advantaqe over other pipe materia!s in handling those wastes which contain high acid concentrations, Thcuqh a rnuumurn cruslllrlq strength of 1600K~}/rn is usualtv adopted tor all sizes manufactured prt)s(~ntly. vitrified clay pipes of crushing strength 2800K~,1/rn and over are manufactured in sizes uplo 750rnm din in other countries The strength of vitrified clay pipes often necessitates special beddinq Of concrete cradlinq to improve field supporting strength. 5.2.4 Asbestos Cement

        For seweraqe works, Ashestos cement piPf0S are usually used in sizes ranging from 80mm to 1000rnm in ora (15'.1592·1970)
        01

        alf:: trom electrolytic corrosion qood flow cuUinq, onltinq threadinq and fittinq with Cct.Specials , allowance with nv:'(',!1:1I,lc,d east: of h;:uldl:ng. tlqht [cuus. and quick

        NO!1-COfrOSiVer'l()s::,; to most flatl,lrat SC)II coud.trons , treedom

        charactcrtstics , linht w(~iqhL ease of qreatc:r deflection up to 12 1;::lyin~J and backfillinq

        III

        139
        A,C, pipes cannot. however, 51<:1I1tj hlqh super.mpos ed !(lElds and may be broken F~Ejsily They are subject to corrosion by i:lcids, hiqhtv septic sew;:lgc' and by highly acidir: or fllqtl sulphate soils. Protective measures as outlined in 22.2.5 Shi]!! be; provided in such cases. While usinq A.C_pipc:'s strict enforcement of approved beddlrln practices will n::duce possibility of flexure fiJi/me. \/VIH',re grit is present, hiqh velocitips such as thosf: (~ncount(,rf~d on steep grades may cause erosion.

        5.2.5

        Iron and Steel

        52.5.1 CAST IflON

        Cast iron pipes with a vari(~ty of jointinq methods are useo tor pressure $(:!wers, sewers above ground surface, subrnerqed outfalls , piping in sewaqe treatment plants and occasionally on qravity sewers where absolutely water tiq/lt joints ar(~ essential or where special conslderations require thHir use. 1.5:15361989 and 1.S:1537-1976 qiw: the spocitications for spun ,Jncl ve-rtlcally cast PIP(;~) respectively.
        The advantaqe of cast iron pipes are lonq layinq len~Jths with ti~Jht Joints. ao.l.rv wncn prc)perly desiqned to withstand H-:datively hiqh Internal pressure and (;x-lenli?tI 1c)(]cJs and corrosion res!st:Jnce Ir'I most natural soils. They are however sUiJiect to corrosron LlY acids or 11igrl1y sepuc sewiHJe ;,H1d ,Jcidic soils.
        Whenevc:~r it is necessary to deflf,,:ct pipes trorn a straiqht line (:ither in the norizontat or HI the vertical plane, the amount of detlect'lon allowed should not normanv exceed 2.5 deqrees tor lead caulked joints and for rnpchanical joints. tile detlection should !Je limited to 5 for 80 to Snurnm dia, 4 deqrees for 350 to 400rnrn (lia and :3 upto 7SUnliTl did pipes,

        When sp(~cifyinq cast iron pipe, it is necessary to the pipe class. H1F:' type of joint the type! of lin inn and the type of exterior Necessary (;;'He should bE? tdkt.Hl dunnq transport and handling of the pipes ,olq,Wlst ;lnd crack s

        525.2 STEEL
        PrE!ssure S()WC~r mains, under water river crossings, bridne crossinqs, necessarv connections for pumping stations, self supportinq spans, rtlilway crossinq and penstocks aro some of the situations where steel pipes are prelerr(:!d Steel pipes can v/ithstand internal pressure. impact load ,Jncl vibrations much tletter n.an ClIl(J withstand water harnrner better.

        C.!.pipe. They are more ductile

        The disaovantaqe of ~tecd pipe is that it cannot withstand hiqh external load. Further. the mam is likely to collapse Wf)C!t1 It is :.;ubJected to neqativ(; pressure.

        Steel pipes are susceptible to various types 01 corrosion. Therefore steel pipes should not be used for partially full sewers, A thorouqh soil survey is necessary all along the aliqnment where steel pipes are proposed. Steel pipes should be protected aqainst both internal and external corrosion.

        St"el pipes should conform to IS:3C,fl9. Elecrrically w"lded St",,1 pipes (200mm to 2000mm) for gas, water and sewaqe and layln(j should conform to IS5822.
        5.25.3 DUOTILE IRON P,PCS

        Ductile Iron PlPC;S rL;cellfly elevelclj)(:d are also ti!lding application III systems. For further details reterence may be rn.:l(J(! to IS:1228H . 19B7.

        sewaqe conveyance!

        90

        5.2.6

        Plastic Pipes

        5.2.G.1 Gr.::NEt-i/\L

        Plastic pipes are produced by extrusion process followed by calibration to ensure maintenance of accurate internal dia with smooth internal bores. These pipes generally corne in lengths of 6 metres. A wide ranqe of injection moulded tittinqs, including tees, elbows, reducers, caps, pipe saddles, inserts and throElded adopters for pipe sizes upto 150mrn are available. 5262 PVC PIPES
        The Chief
        (lclvanla~Jc'.,::,;

        of PVC are:

        Resistanco to corrosion liqht Weight Touqhness

        Econonucal III L3Ylnq. !C)l!11mq and maintenance

        Ease of tabncation
        Ri~lid PVC pipes weinh only 1/5 of conventional steel pipes of comparable sizes. PVC pipes are available for drainaqe works 111 sizes 01 outer dia.. 75.90.110,140,160.250,290,315mm at workinq pressures of 2.5. 4, 6 and 10 k~J!cm2. PVC pipes are not very suitable for seweraqe works. Pipes stored should not exceed three layers and should be so stacked as to prevent movement, It is also recommended not to store one pipe inside another.

        5.26.3 HIGH DENS!TY POIYETHYlENf! (HOPEI P,PES Arnonq the reCE.:nt developments, is the use of High Density Polyethylene pipes in special situations. These pipes are not brittle like AC and other pipes and hence a hard fall at the time of loading, unloadinq, handlinq etc. cannot do any harm to it. HOPE pipes upto 630mm dia can be Joined with detachable joints ann C<111 he detached at the time of shifting the pipe line from one place to another. HOPE pipes can be JOII)()cl also by weldinq. For turther details of PVC and HOPE pipes, reterence may be made to IS ! IS! IS ! IS ! IS ! 5.2.7 7834· 8008 . 7tJ34 . 3076 ' 4984· 1975, Parts 1 1976, Parts 1 1975. Parts 1 1985 1987 8 7 3

        Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Pipes

        G,R.P. Pipes are widely used in other countries where corrosion resistant pipes are required at reasonable costs. GRP can be used as a !inino material for conventional pipes which are subject to corrosion. Fibre glass coating can resist external ?lnd internal corrosion whether the corrosion mechanism is galvanic or chemical in nature

        91 5.2.7.1 FIBRfe GLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC PIPES (FRP) Fibre ~J!ass reinforced plastic pipe is a matrix 01 composite of qlass fibre, polyester resin and fillers. These pipes possess helt"r strength, durability, 11igh tensile strenqtn, low denstty and are l1ighly corrosion resistant. Fibre glass pressure pipes are manufactured in diameters upto 2400rnm and lenqth upto 18m. These pipes are now beinq taken up for manufacture in India. Standard specifications have been framed by the BIS and for further details of F.RP.pipes reference may be made to IS: 127091989. 5,2,8 Pitch Fibre Pipes

        The pitch irnprennated fIbre pipes ana of light weight and have shown their durability in service. The pipes can 1)8 easily jrJinted In any weather condition as internally tapered couplings join 1I'i8 pipes without tim use of joirltinq compound. They are flexible, resistant to heat freezinq and tnawinq and earth currents which SHt up (~leetrolytic action. They are also unaffected by acids and other chemicals, water softeners, sewer gases, oils and greases and laundry detergents. They can be cut to required length on the site, Because of the larger lengths, cost of jointing. handling and laying is reduced, These are generally recommended for all drainage uses such as house connection to sewers and septic tanks, farm dr<:-linage, down pipes, storm drains, industrial waste drainage etc These have recently been manufactured in India, These are manufactured in 50,75. 100. 125, 150.200 and 225mm nominal diameter and length varies from 1.5m to 3.5m, These pipes me jointed by taper coupling joints or rubber ring JOints, The details of the pipes and tittinqs such as dimensions etc, have been covered in IS: 11925· 19H5 5.3 JOINTING iN SEWER PIPES

        From the consideration 01 structural requirements, joints may be classified as nnid and flGxible joints. Joints such as cement mortar, lead, flanged and welded joints are under the category of rlqid Joints as they do oat withstand any angular rotation. All types of mechanical [oints such as rubber gasket joints are flexible as they take rotation to the extent of a few degrees and thus reduce the undue settlement stress. Flexible joints are preferable to rigid joints, particularly with granular beddinq. Chapler 6 of the CPHEEO Manual on Water Supply and Treatment gives the types of Joints used for G.I, Steel AC, concrete and plastic pipes. The socket and spigot type of JOint IS the most widely usert joint for Vitrified clay pipes. Internal flush joints have also been occasionally used,

        C. tC) (·xICiilal loads is of utmost Importance and may be the only one considcned in the 8f?Sldes. laying and backfilling are in accordance WIth design assumptions as set forth in the project specifications. MOVlfifl loads rriav he .slqn supportlnq strc~nqth thus obtained is qrcator than the maximum load to be applied It) ill) Spec:lfYlllD the mnxunurn uench Wlc!U1S to be perrnitteri.. specified usinq a suitable factor of safety and making certain the dc. and tile.'S . subqrado work. chi(.HE} '

        Related Interests

          lc...1 INTRODUCTION The structural desiqn of a sewer ioS'.'H(:.quate and ennineednq supervision that all trench widths.5(. For trus reason thorough and competent insp(.:f tI.CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BURIED SEWERS 6.vhich are considored as nqld p. if used.ny superimposed loads. the type of PIP(~ bedding to be obtained and the manner In wruch the backfill is to be: made In accordance with the conditions usc'd tor the dC}Slf]f) eacll !llpe for structlHcll clE0ff:. unifol"111ly distributc:d lead.:lrm:rn ioad that will be applied to the pipe based on the trench and backfill cc)nditlOI1~:. The.s':. arc not considc:t"(.. Ef1ectiv(: value of these depends on the degree to which the dc:sign assumpticns are rC-:llised in Llc!ual construction.'ci as 1'11(' of the pIpe affects the I'oad Imposed on the pipe and the stresses mr:luce(J In it .:. _sIn . concF:ntrateej load and distnbuted load.cts before Installation and rnakinq sure that only sound pipe's .ucc:d external loads and also by internal pressure in case of a pressure 11')311"1. Sevier lines '::U8 mostly consnucted cd stCitieV/.:t. 5. The essential steps in the deslqn and construction 01 buried sewers or conduus to provide safe installations are theretoro.ctl'on IS neCeSSdJY to enS(ire that the installation contorrns to the deSI~jrl requirements. \':il have tu he taken into consideration particularly In case of metallic pipes.pes (while steel pipes. Hve loads to be encountered computation of the sate load carrYH1g capacity of the pipe when installed and bedded rn the manne: to be:. I) determmation of tho rn.:Sf.Hls . Proper deslqn and adequate specifications alone are not enouqh to ensure protection from dangerous or destructive o'lcfickldinq of PIPC>.' stn. based on the relationship: the supporting strength of the sewer as Installed divided by a suitable factor of satety must equE-il or exceed HH~ load Imposed on it by the weight of earth and i3.(> SC'

          Related Interests

            /i/l I'S exposed tel sunliqht. .n 'IlL load dUG hj backfill rnateria: known as backtill load and !\):i::J \v[1!ch viz. concH::tc' 01 Cdst non \. temperature stresses Induced may be considc:rable dt1cl Ih(.:onSHi(~red (l~.2 TYPE OF LOADS In a hUlled seWF'. beddinq.n instalied d\V! IV) v) ensunnq by arh. The (':xterna! in.

            called the interior prism of earth prus 01 minus the frictional sh(.d conduits due to flravity earth forces in all cominonly (~ncountpr(:d conditions (IS dc:!velopc:!d by A. There are three classifications for the construction conditions ViL 1) embankment condition 3) tunnel condition 2) trench condition and Embankment condition prevails when tf1l:.:arinfJ forces tr<ll1sfened to the prism by the adjacent prism of earth.111 friction does not attcct the load on the' pipe.1 Types of Installation or Construction Conditions The accepted tvpcs Of Installation or construction conditions art: shown in Fig.6. Theoretically stated.:'lqrHlude of HH:l lateral pressure causing the Rankine's t!lc:ory 'Ind there IS ne~lllnlhie shc.1.1) vertical load in kqs per meter length actinq on the conoun due' to qravitv earth loads w B Width of trench or conduit in meters dep eridinq upon the type of installation c-onditions C cllrnensionless cCH':tflcient that mr . the load on a buried conduit is equal to the weiqht of the prism of earth dlfectiy over the conduit.3 LOADS ON CONDUITS DUE TO BACKFILL Methods for cletennlninq the vetticat load em bunc. The considerations <'ll('- a) the cllcukltc'd load due to the backfill is the load which will develop when ultimate settlcllnent has taken pl(1ce the: fil. Marston (He qenerally accnptE:d as the most suitable and rf:li. The embankment conditio!l rs further classified. ccndun IS covered with fiB above the: oriqina: ground surface or when a trench in undisturbed qround IS so wide that trench \. (6. as i) ii) iii) iv) positive projecting condition zero projectinq condition neqative proJf?ctinq condition and imperfect tr()nch conciltion .93 6.:lhlp tor corrtputatmn.3.surtace./.arin~] b) force IS computed by c) cohesron except tor tunnel conditions The general form of Marston's formula is W Where W c».1) .. dependinq upon the position of the top of conduit in reiation to the uriqlnEll qround.)S(HCS ltv' i'ffect of ' ratio of heiqht of fill h) Width cd trench or conduit b) c) shear-inq forces bc:tvJeen interior end aoiacent e'lrth pnsrns and d:rection and amount of relanve settlement bc:tw(~en mtenor and adjacent C)(":lrtl1 prisms for embankment conditions 6.

            ~ .1: CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION CONDITIONS .}.' NATURAL GROUND TOP OF NATURAL GROUND Fir 1 I TOP OF EMBANKMo/ I TOP OF EMBANKMEN I TOP OF f· I -/:~b::_::'-. '" rico~JtJf._I' EMBANK~ TOP OF NAT URAL_ GROUND~~ .CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION CONOmONS FOR DETERMINATION OF LOAD ON CONDUITS TRENCH EMBANKMENT TUNNEL I POSITIVE PROJECTING TOP OF TOP OFNATURjll TOP OFNATLI<AI. BACK ZERO PRDJECTlNE I NEGATIVE PROJECTIHlj I I MPERFEl:1 TRENCH . ~%i t. ~:'6~ ~~ .g.. EMBANKMEl( BACK FILioJ.l iCONPACTED IFILL LlOP OF NATURAL GROUND 0' NOTE: NORMAL GROUNO WATER LEVEL WITH REFERENCE TO THE INVERT LEVEL IS TO BE TAK EN NOTE OF IN THE DESIGN. ~ROUND ~~RAL g:.(::1" ..< '~ ~TOP OF) NATURAL GROUND '. TOP OF GROUND. FIG. 6.Y2..'/~/'.:.::..!!. GROUND.

            . . When (5. p. . the shearing forces act downwards..2. These vertical sheanng forces ordinarily do not exfend to the top 01the embankment but terminate in a horizontal plane at some elevation above the top of the conduit known as the plane of equal settlement as shown in Fig.) is qroater than (Sj+dJ. r. IS less than (S.) Load Producinq Forces The load on the positive projecting conduit is equal to the weight 01 the prism of soil directly above the structure plus Of minus vertical shearing forces which act in a vertical plane extending upward into the embankment from the sides of the conduit. Settlement ratio f Sci Settlement of critical plane-settlement of fop of conduit Compression of height of column H of embankment (_.95 Trench condition exists when the pipe or conduit is installed in a relatively narrow trench (not wider than twice Uw external diameter of the pipe) cut in undisturbed soil and then covered with earth backfill upto tho original ground surface.2). Therefore the loaet on conduit is equal to weight of critical prism plus shear force. deflection of conduit or shortening of its vertical height under load.d is positive i.d is negative and the shear force acts in til" upward The settlement ratio rS d therefore.5rn·. r. is outside width of conduit compression column of height H of embankment Settlement of natiual ground adjacent to the conduit 8m 59 5.+dJ. When (5".3.2 which also shows the elements of settlement ratios. 6.2 Loads for Different Conditions 6. + 8. indicates the direction and magnitude of the relative settlement of the prism at earth directly above and adjoining the conduit.1 EMBANKMENT OR PRO. Tunnel condition exists when the sewer is placed by means at jacking or tunnelinq. where p is the projection ratios and B. " " settlement of the bottom of conduit and d..6. B.) direction.e.5i_(s(+~J Sm (62) where H heiqht of top of conduit above adjacent natural ground surlace (initial] or the bottom of a wide trench _.3.JECTING CONDUIT CONDITION a) Positive Projecting Conduit A conduit is said to be laid as a positive projectinq conduit when the top of the conduit is projecting above the natural ground into the overlying embankment (figure 6.+5.

            II II MENT ACTS II I IIDOWNWARD I: I WHEN II IISm+ Sg". ·l7 ~ {~-- ::7 --"j CRITI CAL PLANE Srn+ S-.. . AND Sf" SETTLEMENT OF BOTTOM .EQUAL SETTLEMENT II II I Sg=SETTLEMENT OF NATURAL GROUND ADJACENT TO CONDUiT Hr =-r=~T?---'=-"':::':P Be ---·_··1············· _ S.2:SETTLEMENTS PROJECTING THAT INFLUENCE LOADS ON POSITIVE CONDUITS.Sf + de l l II AND VICE IIVERSA II II Ii :: I: sm· COMPRESSiON HEIGHT OF COLUMN OF SOiL OF Ii pilc OF CONDUIT Dc ..DEFLECTION OF THE CONDUIT.96 PLANE ----n--OF ----rr----. (TOTAL SETTLEMENT) c······ ..L+ de IISHEAR INCRE. INITiAL FiNAL ELEVATION / H=O ELEVATION FIG.6.

            6. C unit weight of backfill material in kg/rn 3 outside width of conduit in rn. When f so x p ::: 0.... Rigid Rock or unyielding foundation Ordinary foundation Yielding foundation Negative projectinq installation Poorly compacted sidefill Well compacated sidefill 10 + 2. recommended design values based on actual experience are given in Tahle 6. It is not practicahle to predetermine this L.. Flexible Flexible o ii) Computation of Loads IS Marston's formula for positive projecting conduits (both rigid and flexible) as follows: (6. 4. However.1 TABLE 6.....13 respectively. The value of C..1 RECOMMENDED DESIGN VALUES OF SETTLEMENT RATIOS . Sugqested values for K" for positive and negative settlement ratios are 0... 6. o to + 0.19 and 0 ....3 to -05 0..97 The product r S ej multiplied by p qives the relative heiqht of plane of equal settlement and hence of the magnitude of the shear component of the load..3 .J + 1... H18 plane of equal settlement coincides with the critical plane and there are no shearing forces and the load is equal to the weight of the central prism. Rigid RICJld Rigid + 05 to 0._•. and 10a(1 coefficient.... can be obtained from Fig..4 to 0 5.. It is also Influenced by the coefficient of internal friction of the backfill material and the Rankine's ratio of lateral pressure to vertical pressure K".8 3.2) C w B' Where load on conduit in kq/m w B.j value. Type of Conduit Type of Soil Settlement Ratio (t.. which IS a function of the product of thE: projection ratio and the settlement ratio and ratio of the heiqht of fill above the top of the conduit to the outside width of the conduit (HIS).5 ·0.

            _1f._+_-+_-+_ 11 I'ROJf. C o 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 VALUES OF COEFFICIENT ce FIG.f.3:DIAGRAM FOR COEFFICIENT CcFOR POSITIVE PROJECTING CONDUITS ..13 7 'tj.J 5 W :::> 4 > 3 2 « __+-h4~.6.1~ 6 1L..98 10 9 8 K. 0 lfl .&~~:-COlo!!\.A-O.

            J' r sd ' and p' are given in Fig. Elements of settlement ratios are (c) Imperfect Trench Conduits An impertect trench conduit is employed to minimise the load on a conduit under embankments of unusual heights.GA).6. The conduit IS first installed as a positive projectinq conduit.3 shown in Fig.(J given by the expression. I) Computation of Loads Marston's formula for negative projectinq conduits is given by W Where W. will settle more than the prism over the adjoininq areas thus generating upward shear forces which relieve or reduce the load on the conduit. ~ (6. Values of en' for various values of H/S.99 b) Negative Projecting Conduit A conduit is said to be laid in a negative projecting condition when it is laid in a trench which is narrow with respect to the size of pipe and shallow with respect to depth of cover and the native material of the trench IS of sufficient strength that the french shape can be maiotained dependably during the placing of the embankment. for design purposes.7) . This trench is retilled with loose compressible material and the balance of the embankment completed in a normal manner (figure 6.5 Exact determination of the settlement ratio is very difficult Recommended value of r'. A trench of the same width as the conduit is excavated directly over it down to or near its top. the fop of the conduit being below tho natural ground surface and the trench refilled with loose material and the ernbankment constructed above (Fig.1 is -0.6. The prism of soil above the conduit. The embankment is then built up to some heiqnt above the top and thorouqhly compacted as It IS placed.3) load on the conduit in K9/m width of trench in rn the unit weight ot soil in kg/m 3 and load coerticient. which IS a function of the ratio (H/B d) of the heinht of fill and the WIdth of trench equal to the projection ratio p (Vertical distance from the finn ground surface down to tfle top of the conduit/width of the trench) and the settlement ratio r~.. settlement of natural ground-settlement of critical p.6.lane compression of the backfill within the heiqht p B" B" w en (64) s. being loose and greater in depth compared to the adjoining embankment.

            4: NEGATIVE PROJECTING CONDUIT . . FIG.6.100 ··iNATURAL GROUND SURFACE • .

            / ~ F"" -II CO~ 1/' ~ i "'I."01 -..y 1###BOT_TEXT###lt;--:..-::::. i ::> ~ V> W > 0« > 0« ~ 3 2 I I .65:COEFFICIENT Cn I~ V I -.ION > 3 0« .- 2 3 " S 6 7 -----'-8 9 10 11 VALUES OF HIB FOR NE6A TIVE PROJE C TIN6 CONDUITS AND TRENCH CONDITIONS IMPERFECT . P::20 2 l/ o 23" S 67 89101112 VALUES OF HIB L/ o FI6.E..- o w " 3 2 I . S l.%1. . 0 V> " u. TRENCH CONOITIONI.11 w ::> " ~ /1 /~ ~ eND .. . -.fl.<~~t.:a~':---I'( b I. 6 1.5 23" S 678 OF HIB 9tll112 VA LUES c: u u.' I I.E1 " p'.nil nloN LEl 11< I "." J<>/ INCOMPLETE V -'" ~ J4C<':1/ 1/ /K/~~~~ i/ . lit'" .-::: k:: ~..VII V-". \. IP / COlA I.. / .CH... V" )3:1 V [:. 1// I .../ C0:~Vt::)7 / 8 7 I .1.. ! 1/ ./ u. u " I 6 S u 6 I. I 6 S o V> w ::> ~ " I 3 > 0« f-f-+---J.' /1../ V:~8::: ~ biiJ..t.' 1R1 p. 1. (/ VI ~ / o ~ ~ i o V> S I iJ/ 1/.0 I/.. / o 8 7 2 3 " S 6 VALUE S 7 8 Of HIB 9 10 11 12 ~/ o .-< / /' . 12 2 I GO. v:: t::---' -- 1 P 1..J~.8 7 8 7 INCOMPLE TE I / TRENCH CONDITION I.d"'./~ I . INeOMPLE IC RENCH CONDIT! bN lONE /' 5 u..1// I~ ~ ~ ~ r..

            66:SETTLEMENTS ON NEGATIVE THAT INFLUENCE PROJECTING LOADS CONDUITS . CRITICAL PLANE 1 Sf + de Sf r FIG...!:. ~ET~LEMENT 1 T-.L __ CD 0.1 + "D C II HI H~ 1 PLAN~ ~F_ EQUA.102 T OF EMBANKMENT 0.'::-u'EARING r-fNDUCED _ FORCES BY SETTLEMENT :r: :r: 1 1 Sd + 1 Sf • de NATURAL GROUND 1 +-+---'1f --------4" 1 1 #-R<.

            .QMPACTED FIL L 'MI~.'Si'fl:)\J###BOT_TEXT###quot;'0t pi Be p:::>. 6. FILL H TOP OF STA6E CONSTRUCTION L(..7: IMPERFECT TRENCH CONDITIONS 10-51 CPHEEO/ND/94 . . .l!jCOMPACT ED TRENCH DU6 IN FILL ~~~~~ilnIl NATURAL 6ROUND F16.2GC>~~.103 TOP OF EMBANKMENT COMPRESSIBLE BACK .

            I and of the friction coefficient between the backfill and the sides of the trench.G. The first component is the weight of the prism of soil within the trench and above the top ot tile pipe and the second is due to tile friction or shearing torces generated between the prism ot soil in the trench and the sides ot tile trench produced by settlement of backfill The resultant load on the horizontal plane at the top of the pipe Within tile trench IS equal to the weight of the backfill minus these upward shearinq forces as shown in Fig.2 WEIGHTS OF COMMON FILLING MATERIAL Materials Dry Sand Ordinary (Damp Sand) 1 600 1 840 Wet Sand Damp Clay Saturated Clay Saturated Top Soil Sand and Damp Soil 1 920 1920 2080 1 840 1 600 ---- .2 and 6.B.51 Tile values of C" in this case also may be obtained from Fig. TABLE 6.2. b) Computation of Loads The load on riqrd conduits in trench condition is given by the Marston's formula in the form (66) W the load on the pipe in kn per linear metre w 8() the urut weiqht of backfill SOil in kCl/m" the width of trench at the top of the pipe in m and the load coefficient which IS a function of a ratio of height of fill to Width of trench (H/B.104 The Marston's torrnula for this installation condition is again given by C" w B (6. for common soil conditions encountered are given in Tables 6. a) Load Producing Forces The vertical dead load to which a conduit is subjected under trench conditions is the resultant of two major forces. Bd on the assumption that the trench till is no wider than the pipe.3. Weights of common filling materials (w) and values of C.3 respectively.6. 6.5 tor negative projecting conduits taking B.2 TRENCH CONDiTION Genorallv sewers Eire laid in ditches or trenches by excavation in natural or undisturbed soil and then covered by refilling the trench to the oriqinal ground level.

            6.---F BD P=WEIGHT OF BACKFILL ABCD ·H t t t WC.::::...105 P A B t t 1--.. FIG.2F ~ 1-h-77rr.h::.8: LOAD PRODUCING FORCES .l. LOAD ON PIPE F= UPWARD SHEARING FORCES ON AD AND BC AND We= P.----+.-~~~7'lt..

            . the formula rnay be rnoditie\J as 'IV Co.. (G7) \i'v'here B.dures will qivc the same results.3 FOR CALCULATING LOADS ON PIPES IN TRENCHES (W. In the transition width horn B. WB'd) -------------.. the assumption made in the trench condition of !oadinq holds Hood.. computation of load by both the fJfOC(. c... (. 38.8 if the pipe is riuicL For flexible conduits. = VALUES OF c. is tile outside width of the: conduit in rn.---------'---.. If the width of the trench qoes beyond three times the outside dimension of the conduit.. 2B.---- 3.. w B. c) Influence of Width of Trench It has bf:'en expenrnent<:llly seen that when the width of trench excavated is not more than twice the external width of tile conduit..G) gives the total vertical load clue to backfill in the horizontal plane at the top at the conduit as shown in FiqU1C.3:n ... to B.. Sl1 "' ' 4 22' ----------------. TABLE 6.106 Equation (G. it IS necessary to apply tho embankment condition of loadinq.----------------- 1 973 ..

            9) minimises the load on the pipe by redocinq the value of B. (wB 2C) (6.107 W ~ c. a) Load Producing Forces The vertical load acting on the tunnel supports and eventualty the pipe in the tunnel is the resultant of two major forces VIZ tile weight of file overhead prism of soil wltilin the width of tllo tunnel excavation and the shearing forces qenerate:d between the interior prisms and the adjacent material due to friction and cohesion of the soil.:1y the conduit. Use these values as safe for all ordinary cases of sand filling.2. (6. These values ~Jive the loads generally imposed by granular filling materials before tamping or settling. the provision of a sub-trench (Fig. soil above the: tWH1Dl in kq/rn' maxunum INicHh of thE? tunnEd excavation in m coetficHHlt of coheston in kg/nY' and load coefficient which is a function of the ratio (H/S!) of the distance horn the ground surface to the top of the tunnel to the maximum width of tunnel excavation and of the coefficient of internal friction of the material of the tunnel. The space between the conduit and the tunnel is finally filled up with compacted earth Of concrete qrout as indicated in Fiq. 6. and different soil conditions cue to he obtained from Fin" 11. Value of C. If the length of tunnel is short say G 10 meters the entire circular section can be constructed as one unit For longer tunnels construction may be in segments with refilling proceeding simultaneously. . ": : W.. C<JS(~ of installation of conduit IS gIven by C.3. it may be more economical to place the conduit by means of tunnelling. B. Use these values as safe for all ordinary cases of clay filling. In case of excavations with sloping sides (possible in undeveloped areas). load on the pipe or tunnel support in Kg/m unit weiqht (If w B. B • (j ~ load on pipe in k9 per lineEir metre Coefficient Weight of trench filling mater ial in kq/rn ' Width of trench a little he low the lop of the pipe in metres.8) Whore W.6).6. the formula reduces to the same form as In trench condition Eq. When the coefficient of cohesion is zero..6. C C. Completely saturated.10. Ratio of heiqht ef till above top of pipe to width of trench a little below Ihe top of the pipe. to support the earth by suitable means and then to 1. Use these values only for extremely unfavourable conditions. for various values of H/8. Thoroughly wet. such that it is difficult to construct the pipeline by the conventional procedure of excavation and backfilling. b) Load Computations Marston's formula to be used In this W. The general method in this case is to excavate the tunnel.3 TUNNEL CONDITION When the conduit is laid more than 9 to 12 meters deep or when the surface obstructions arE.:.

            108 FIG. 6.9: EXAMPLES OF SUBTRENCH .

            109 TOP OF NATURAL GROUND H r SPACE BETWEEN CONDUIT AND NATURAL GROUND FILLED WITH COMPACTED MATERIAL LIMIT OF .TVNN EXCAVATION FIG.JO:CONDUIT IN TUNNEL .6.

            <0( I ~ .w ill.....6. 0 ~ r-ig '" ~ !12 '" 'E! ·0 2:: s-..J •~ 9 «( '-0 V) <..110 15 14 13 12 11 S :r 5 il' 3E 0 <I 10 ! ~ u.• - ~f 3/ f ... c '" '<f V) ci 6 .::' «( lJ) 8 7 - ~ N ~ ~.g rl .....lllDIAGRAM FOR COEFFICIENT Ct FOR TUNNELS IN UNDIST URBED SOl L. 0 ~ ~ ~ i2 -~ f--.......-: l._ .. i.. .. 5 1 2 3 4 VALUES OF COEFFICIENT Ct FIG... ~2~ ~ //// v 'l" ~'l~ ~. .. :5 z ( -. CD I u.. l!! " (J) w 5 :::> « > 4 3 I- -l 2 1 --. --.- -~........~ u-i : 0 fi ./ V ~ 0' 'I r. 0 ~ '<f ~ ff .

            effect of submergence could be Ignored which provides an additional factor of safety. minimum height of ttlI material in m :::: the saturated density of the soil in kg/rn:! 111 w.3.9) Where Hrn. W. Wherever sut/icient height of fill material is not available.4 EFFECT OF SUBMERGENCE Sewers may be laid in trenches or under embankment in areas which may be temporarily or permanently sUbmerged in water. However.4 COHESION COEFFICIENTS FOR DIFFERENT SOILS Type of Soil Soft Clay Medium Clay Hard Clay Loose Dry Sand Silty Sand Dense Sand Saturated top soil Kg/tn' 200 1200 4700 o 500 1400 500 6. 6.4 are given in TABLE 6. the minimum height of the fill material that will btl requirod to prevent flotation ignoring the frictional forces in the fill can be determined from the equation.n Ws :::.6. . The fill load in such cases will be reduced and will-correspond to the buoyant weight of the fill material.2. 8( = the density of water kg/me = the unit weiqnt of the empty pipe in kq/linear meter and the outside width of the conduit in rn.4 LOAD ON CONDUIT DUE TO SUPER IMPOSED LOADS The types of superimposed loads which are generally encountered In buried conduits may be categorised as (a) concentrated load and (b) distributod load These are explained diaqrarnatlcallv In Fig. anti-flotation blocks should he provided. (As shown in Example iX in Appendix 6.12. Under submergence.2). (6.111 Recommended values of coefficient of cohesion for different types of soils Table 6. but it may be necessary to check whether a pipe is subject to flotation.

            J o .. w « > U o Z « U j::: 0:: ~ o ID « (9 it: . 0:: :::E w ..:0 0:: (f) OZ z o o U ~ :::> (f) u.: x <.. ffi > a. 0 uJ U Ol ::':4 u.J ~ I- m « .J ID (9 IJ.. 0:: 4 « ..J . (f) w o :::> a: > I- o ~l :::> z « \ \ IZ W I- o 0:: Z c W U w 0:: \ W U .....J >- { - .. ll:: > o W W W I- o o Z m I- :::> ll:: IW rt (\I U !i2 o •• >.112 '"E :::...J o o o LtJ 0 4 40:: :::> Lf1 -'z o S W o (f) 0ll:: W 0- l- :::.: S o o z w o (f) o U e..

            1?) is given in the tollowinq form by Hall's integration of Boussinosq's formula C.2 Distributed Load For the case of distributed superimposed 10tlCJS.4. This is qenfJrally taken as 1m or tho actual lenqth of the conduit if it is less than 1rn.113 6. the load contticient wluch is a function of 8.f.l0) the impact factor (1. ..( P F the load on the conduit in kq/rn the concentrated load in kg actlrlg on the surface (G.. Cs Values of tor various values of (Be j 2H) and (L / 2H) are obtained frorn Table 65 The effective length of the conduit is defined as the length over which the averane load due to surface traffic units produces the same stress in the conduit wall as does the actual load which varies in intensity from point to point.5 tor highway traffic and air fifJld taxi ways. 1.11) Where Wy j the load on th(" conduit in kq/rn the intensity of tim distributed load in kg!n)' 0 P F the impact facto! The width of the conduit in III 8.: B. the formula for load on conduit is qIVl:::n by (6. and L 2H 2H Where H:::.4.0 for air field runways. L:::. (PF!L) Where W. and the effective length of the conduit to which the loael is transmitted in rn. 6.5 The height 01 the top of conduit to the ground surfaco in rn and D and L are width and length in m respectively of the area over which the distributed load acts. ~ Cs H 0 The load coefficient.. 175 fnr railway traffic) and C.: the heiqht of the top of the conduit to qround surface in rn the outside Width of conduit 'WI m.1 Concentrated Load The formula for load dUG to superimposed concentrated load such as a truck Wf)()()1 (Flq. a function of D/2H and L/2H from Table 6.

            .

            (6. Cs " B. tile two axles (1. The maqnitude of the supportinq strenqth of a pipe as installed in the field is dependent upon the distribution of the vertical load and the reaction aqainst the bottom ot the pipe. the conditions ot which are. different from the fielclloacl conditions.5 3214 C. the intensity of distributed load with wheel area 300mm x 150mm is given by P ~~_ in T/m' O. . 2A" 2B W.0: 1.:.3 Conduits Under Railway Track The load on conduits under railway track is given by (6.3xO.84m for broad gauge) -x: weiqht of the track structure in tonnes/rn (0.75 lenqth of the sleeper in m (2. For broad quaqe track the tormula will reduce to: W 6.5 tonnes for Broad guage) impact factor tor railroad . (614) SUPPORTING STRENGTH OF RIGID CONDUIT The ability of a conduit to resist safely the calculated earth load depends not only on its inherent strenqtn hut also on the distribution of the vertical load and bedding reaction and on the lateral pressure acting against the sides of the conduit The inherent strength of a riqid conduit is usually expressed in terms of the three edge bearing test results. c axle load in tonnes (22. in the critical case of wheel load of 6.25 tonnes.7m fOI Broad quage) distance belwer".8 4AB 4AB PF 2A W.12) Where U is the uniformly distributed load in tonnes/m~' from the surface directly over the conduit and equal to u PF -i-2VV.13) Where P F _. It also depends on the magnitude and distribution of the lateral pressure acnnq on the sides of the pipe.15 6.3 tonnes/m for broad qauqe) load coefficient which depends on the heiqht of the top of sleeper from the top of the conduit and width of the conduit In rn.115 For class AA IRC loadinq. however.4.

            J!f::fia! is most effective tor stabilizinq trench bottom and has a !f]SSer tendency qraded nlaterials. Well to flew/ than COfT1!Jact above rn./f)! However.B. A.ddlnq may be either concrete cradle or concrete arch.1 6. CI. Class Bore becldlnq With a qranutar is tvmeraHy recommended. Ti. can be used for pipe bc.116 6. however does not Include any factor of safety.13. The ratio of the strenqth of a pipe under any stated condition of loadinq and bedding to its strength measured by the three: edne befnin£l test is called the. ranqinn horn a rnaxunum to a minimum size. unitonntv £jrE1dc:d material is easier to place and .C and 0 of !)edding used most often tor pipes in trenches are illustrated in figure C. pea gravel. Class B is a heckling having a bottom or compacted qranutar bccJdinq with a carefully compacted backfill.dding. Shaped bottom is irnpracucablo and costly ano hence IS not reC()!Tlrnended.coarse sand.2 Field Supporting Strength The field supportmq str ength of a rinicl conduit is the maximum load per unit lenqth which the pipe will support while retaininq complete serviceability when installed under specified conditions of beddinq and backtittmq. C!.5. The pipe buddlnD materials must remain firm and not permit displacernent of pipes. Class C is an ordinary t)edding havinq a shapecl bottom or compacted granular bedding but with a lightly compacted backfill. Methods of test and minimum strenqth for concrete (unreinforced and reinforced) stoneware and AC pipes and other details are given in Appendix 6.5. Fine materials or screenings are not satistactory for stabnisinq trench bottoms and are difficult to compact in a unitorm manner to provide proper PIPC! beddinq. crushed screenings... Well graded materials containinq several sizes ot particles in stated proportions. Load factors have berHj determined experunentallv and analvticatlv for thf: commonly used construction condition for both trench and emoankment conduits 6. SCV'. crushed gravel.:'lSS D IS one with Hat bottom tre:!nch with no care beinq taken to secure compaction of backfill at the sides and immediately over the pipe and hence is not recommended. The load factor does not contain a factor of safety.e field supportinq strength.5. load factor.3 Supporting Strength in Trench Conditions Four classes.1 Laboratory Test Strength All nqid pipes may be tested for strenqth In the Laboratory by the three edge bearinq test (ultimate load).JSS A ~)C. The material has to be unrtormtv w-aded 01' wellqraded. Uniformly graded materials include pea gravel or one size materials \vith a low percentaqe of over and undersized particles.

            TRENCH BEL OW THE BELL CONCRETE CRADLE IS EXC AVAT ED ATLEAST 15 Cm FOR CONDUIT OF THE PIPE EXCEPT WHERE IS USED .I.".~A~TE~RI~A~L~_~~~ • D ..-.?e / 10 CM MIN PLAIN DR REINFORCED CONCRETE CONCRE'2T. IN ROCK...' 20 em MIN 1.o... v III 0: '" e-..G13: CLA SSES OF BEDDING IN TRENCH NOT .. '6- SHAPED RECOMMENDED) t. COMPACTEO ... w_ L1GHTLY COMPACTED BACK FILL N '" 0 ...0:% 00:- -' <cO>' .11.25 Be l' ..MIN L..Y~~O>25 CONCRETE CRADLE CAREFULLY TAMPED SACK FILL O.~i. M ..B % O>'w .[..- t Be.'..4 . CONCRETE ARCH CLASS.--....117 Be ·20 ern MIN PLAIN OR REINFORCED "T7T7:".~ l ' ."E.-.....=rov '¥cm LIGHTLY COMPACTED BACKFILL •.25 Be 1= • iU..25.".j.--_~R' 11 0.-:t~0..:.QDSE BACK FILL FLAT BOTTOM IMPERMISSIBLE BEDDING (NOT RECOMMENDED) CLASS .g OlD 01'..1'..:..2S 8e " .~ D 10Cm MIN ~_ d .. <> -.2~e<./11°".... D FIG.. 30 Cm f 1.' ::: GRANULAR v..A CAREFULLY COMPACTED BACK FILL 025 Be MIN FINE FILL GRANULAR CoMPACTED GRANULAR MATERIAL T COMPACTED GRANULAR BEDDING SHAPED BOTTOM WITH TAMPED BACK FILL (NOT RECOMMENJED) CLASS.H.... COMPACTED 'GRANULAR MATERIAL GRANULAR BEDDING .

            4 Supporting Strength in Embankment Conditions The soil pres sure aqalflsl !he SKins of a pipe placed in an embankment {nay ue siqniticant In resistinn the vertical load on HII'. Class B or C: The hard unyleldinu material should be excavated below the bottorn of the pipe and pipe bell to .6.ped bottom 01 compacted qr':1nulal bedding with carefully 1.3. 6. TABLE 6.ll Total encasement of non-reinforced flqid pipe in concrete may be necessary where the required safe supporunq strenoth cannot be ob!ainc~d by other beddinq methods.4 c d 28 upto 3.118 6.1 depth of atleast 15clTL The width of the excavation should be atleast 1.1(.4% RCC with p.(\cl1 1..5.8 upto 3.6 LOAD FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT CLASSES OF BEDDING Class of Bedding A A A A a b Condition Load Factor Concrete cradle-plain concrete and lightly tamped backfill Concrete craoleptau: concrete with carefully tampled backfill Concrete cradle· RCC with P·O. Class A: The hard unyicldinq material should be excavated down to the bottom of the concn-t« cradle. .4 uptu 48 CP' is the ratio of the area of steel to 1IH:.·200 concrete encasement of various thicknesses on supportinq strenqth of pipe under trench conditions is qiven in Fiq 6. The ettect of M. area of concrete at the' crown) B C Sha.9 cornpHctc:c1 backfill Shaped bottom or compacted qranular beddinq with lirlht1y compacted backfill Flat bottom lr(.1% 22 2.2 LOAD FACTORS The load factors for the dIfferent classes of Beddino are given in Table G.14. structure. beddinn may bf: accordinq to one of the Classes AS or C but with the following additional requirenH:~nts.5.5 o 1 1 The grElnular mateuiet used must st<:1bilizfJ the trench bottom In addition to prOViding a tirm and uniform support for ttle pipe We'll ~Jraclcd crushed rock or £jf8vol with the maximum size not exceedinq 25mm is recornmended for the purpose.4% Arch type-plain concrete liCC With P-O. Where rock or other unyieldmq foundation material is encountered.25 times the outside dia of the pipe and it should be refillc:d wltli qranulal rnLl!eri. The load factor for concrete encasement varies with HIC~ thickness of concrete.

            j~JL o.-·~I - -'I--~--r....-~-.!l z 0: ..:EFECT ON OF M _200 CONCRETE ENCASEMENT OF UNDER VARIOUS THICKNESS CONDITIONS SUPPORTING STRENGTH OF PIPE TRENCH 11-51 CPHEEO/ND/9._.. <.. a....: <. 0: 0 (... .!) 18 15 12 ___ .-.. :::> tJ) z tJ) 9 6 w 0: ~ U w « 3 0 25 50 THICKNESS 75 100 125 150 OF ENCASEMENT IN m m 175 200 2 5 FIG.61L. / w 21 tJ) z .---r--rccI I 24 :r: ... 01 ~ a a a Z 27 --.119 ..

            the magnitude of the active lateral soil pressure and on the area of the pipe over which the active lateral pressure acts. The conduit is laid on earth not shaped to fit the bottom of tl1e conduit. .431 (6. The load factor for projecting circular conduits may be calculated by the torrnula 1. CLASS C: In this type of beddinq the conduit is laid on accurately shaped earth to fit the bottom surface of the conduit. For rock foundations the conduit is laid on a layer of granular cushion and the sides of the conduit are filled up.15) Nzq Where L.1 CLASSES OF BEODING The beddings which are generally adopted for projecting conduits laid under the embankment conditions at installation are illustrated in Figure 6.4. The value ot N for different types of beddings for circular pipes are given in Table 6. rocky soil the conduit is laid on a shallow granular cushion.120 6.33. The classification of the beddinqs are as under: CLASS A: CLASS B: In this case the conduit is laid on a mat of concrete. N z the load facto! a parameter dependent on H'le type of bedding a parameter dependent upon the area over which the lateral pressure acts ertectivelv and the ratio of total lateral pressure to total vertical load on pipe q a) Positive Projecting Conduits The ratio' q' for positive projecting conduits may be estimated by the formula q Where k (rnk ! CJ l (H!BJ ' (m!2) ] (616) the' Rankine's ratio which may be taken as 0. In case of CLASS D: The load factor for rigid pipes installed as projecting conduits under embankments or in wide trenches is dependent on the type of bedding.7.15.5. The conduit is laid on accurately shaped earth to fit the bottom of the pipe and the sides are fiIIerj with thoroughly tamped earth.

            DIAMETER ACCURATELY SHAPED TO FIT PIPE CLASS." ~'~ 4 r ~ I.5HALLOW GRANULAR CUSHION CLASS. A EARTH ACCURATEL Y SHAPED TO FIT PIPE D .2M 5M.G1S: CLASSES OF BEDDING FOR PROJECTING CONDUITS .C(EARTH) 5M.C (ROCK) EARTH ROCK NOT SHAPED TO FIT PIPE CLASS_D (EARTH) --.~.B CLASS.0.0..'" ~N-8£ ~ ..121 M 150 CONCRETE BETTER EARTH OR ROCK Be .... <-:::/..OF fi GRANULAR CUSHION CLASS.a.. I ' • Be + 20CM ~ - MIN Y4 INSI!2L:. P Be '" '-><=rA'Nd T~ MIN Be 10 ---'fi fi CLASS.{:'~>. .:.04M PER M.D(ROCK) FIG.~.

            5 0.000 0.15) and (6.638 Other Beddings 0. Plain concrete cradle 'B' C' D' --> 1.8.678 0.51 0.9 1.84 'A' . the relation between the internal pressure and external loads which will cause failure may be computed by means of the formula (6.1 G) with a value of k of 0 15.3 0.31 The value of z' in case of circular pipes is qiven in Table 6.743 0856 0811 0.7 Value of 'z' tor A' Class Beddinqs 0.51 to 0.-----_.71 0.N' -----_.594 0655 0638 0.7 VALUES OFN' FOR DIFFERENT PIPE BEDDINGS Value of . c) Imperfect Trench Conditions The equations for pos._---'--'A' . TABLE 6.17) .64 0. provided the side fills are well compacted.42 to 0.122 TABLE 6.8 VALUES OF ·Z' FOR DIFFERENT PtPE BEDDINGS Fraction of conduit on which lateral pressure acts 'rn' 0.5.5 Conduits Under Simultaneous Internal Pressure and External Loading Sirnultaenous action of internal pressure and external load gives a lower supporting strenqth of a pipe than what It would be II the external load acted alone If the burstinq strenqth and the three edqe strenqtn of a pipe are known. 6.0 b) Negative Projecting Conduits The load factor tor negative projectinq conduits rnay also be determined by the equations (6.217 0423 0.trve projecting conditions will hold good for those conditions a's well.0 0. F~elnforcecl Type of Beddln[J concrete cradle 0.150 0.

            3. Width of the trench specified for a particular job should he minimum In consonance With the requirements of adequate workinq space to allow access to all parts and joints of pipes Specification should lay proper emphasis on the limit of the width of trench to be adopted in the field which should not exceed that adopted in the design calculations.arinq Tests. Til" Field En[llllP'" should keop in touch witl1 1110 Desiqn Engineer tnrouqh out the duration of the Project and any deviation from the design assumptions due to the exiqencies of work.:§Hl(l!!l Factor of safety Safe field suppo.\ctlnq. when no external load is sunultaneouslv acting ttuee-edqe benrinq L.twc~en the (jifferent design elements arB as follows for riqid pipes 88f8 workinq strenqth ld.:110 supporting strenqth of pipe for this condition of loadinq by adopting suitable beddinq or such other methods when necessary.6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN The basic desi(Jn relationships l)f'.l. 2.rn~Je three eeJcl(:.ssure (mel Three ed~Je bearinn load (It tailure in kq/linclar metre when tl1ere is no internal prc:ssure sunultaneouslv . it becomes imperative to quurantoe that the. 6. S 6.ven installation conditions In order to achieve this objective the tollowinq procedures art? rf. in T s burstinq strenqth of (I at failure wilen external load is sirnultaneoustv actinq pipe in kn/cm.123 internal pressw(:.tinq strenqH1 Safe workinq strength x Load factor Appc"ncllx (3. bearil}ILsJ.oad at failure in kg/linear metre when there is simultaneous action of internal prc.5' which is considerably less as compared to that for most c:nginpering structures which hav(.. As the rnarqin of safety aqainst the ultimate failure is low. Any deviations from this requirement during the construction should be investiqated for their possible (~ffect on the load corninq on the pipe and steps should bo taken to improve Hl() 8. 1.!!.7 RECOMMENDATIONS The factor of safety recornmendecl for concrete pipes for sewers is '1. should bo immediately investigated and corrective measures taken in time.~). loads imposed on sewer pipes are not qroater than the desiqn loads for the q..l..:coll'ltnCmded. . a factor of satetv 01 attoast 2.1 9iv(~!s thfl dc~t(1ils of three edfjP bc.

            the pulling out of planks on completion of work. All pipes used on the work should be tested as per the IS specifications and test certificates of the manufacturers should be furnished for every consignment brought to the site.8 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES Illustrative examples for structural design of Buried Conduits are given in Appendix 6. methods of placing and proper compaction should be in general agreement with the design assumptions. should be carried out in stages and this should be properly supervised to ensure that the space occupied by the planks is properly backfilled. 5. Proper backtilling methods both as regards to selection of materials. .2. Whenever shoring is used. 6 6.124 4.

            CONSTRUCTION OF SEWERS .

            In case the presence of water is likely to create unstable soil conditions.1 DIMENSiONS The width of trench at and below the top of a sewer should be the minimum necessary for its proper installation with the due consideration to its bedding. In narrow trenches of limited depth. the same shall be filled and stabilised. Continuous sheeling shall be provided outside the wall plates to maintain the stability . A well point system consists of a series of perforated pipes driven or jetted into the water bearing strata on either side of a sewer trench and connected with a header pipe leading to a pump. Tho sides of the trench shall. be supported by shorinq whero necessary to ensure proper and speedy excavation. In undeveloped areas or open country.1. to reduce the construction cost and to achieve a quality workmanship. 7. excavation with side slope shall be permissible from the top of the sewer to the ground surface instead of vertical excavation with proper shorinq In developed areas. The width of the trench at different levels from the top of the sewer to the ground surface is primarily related to its effect upon the adjoining services and nearby structures.1 CONSTRUCTION METHODS The desiqn and the construction of sewers are so interdependent. The rnaterial excavated from the trench shall not be deposited very close to the trench to prevent the weiqht of the materials from causinq the sides of tho trench to slip or tall. 7. it is essential to restrict the trench width so as to protect the existing tacilities and properties and to reduce the cost of restoring the surface. however. 7. however. a wellpoint system shall be employed to drain the immediate area of the sewer trench prior to excavation operation. Barring unforeseen conditions it shall be the responsibility 01 the supervising enqineer and the "contractor to complete the work as shown on the plans at minimum cost and with minimum disturbance: of adjacent facilities and structures. working space required in the lower part of Ihe trench and tho type of ground below the surface. Hie width of the road or lane where the work of excavation is to be carried out is so narrow as to warrant tne stackinq of materials near the trench.1.TloN Excavation for sewer trenches for laying sewers shall be in straight lines and to the correct depths and qradients required for tile pipes as specified in the drawings.126 CHAPTER 7 CONSTRUCTION OF SEWERS 7. In case. Increase in width Over the minirnum required would undutv increase the load on the pipe. a simple form of shoring shall consist of a pair of 40 to 50mm thick ami 30cm wide planks set vertically at intervals and firmly strutted. In the event of excavation being made deeper than necessary. The inqenuity of the designer and supervising engineer is continually called for.3 SHORING The shoring shall be adequate to prevent cavinq in of the trench walls of subsidence of areas adjacent to the trench. The width of a sewer trench depends on the type of shoring (single stage or two stage). the same shall he taken away to a place to be decided by the Enqmeer-in Charqe This excavated material shall be brought back to the site of work for fillin[J the trench. L2 ExcAvA. the knowledqe of one is an essential pre . '1.1. requisite to the competent periormance of the other. For wider and deeper trenches a system of wall plates (wales) and struts of heavy timber section is commonly used.1.

            Where a trench is to be retained dry for a sufficient period of time to tacilitate the placement of forms for sewer construction an underdrain shall be laid of granular material leading to a sump for further disposal. The number and the size of the wall plates shall be fixed considering the depth of trench and type of soil. 7. excavation and shoring may be done in stages. the trench shall be excavated deeper than what is ordinarily required. For details regarding bedding types and materials reference may be made to 6. an R. mains and other services exposed due to the excavation shall be effectively supported.1. In the areas subject to subsidence. The pumped out water from the trenches shall be disposed off in existinq storm water drainage arrangement nearby.C. Precautions are to be taken to arrest floating of sewers laid. In bus y and high activity zones crowded condition of the surface. In the absence of any such arrangement the pumped water may be drained through completed portion of sewer to a permanent place of disposal. 7. arising out of induced buoyancy during rainy season Reference may be made to 6. In non-cohesive soils combined with considerable ground water. concrete or wooden crib. in case of very bad soil the trench bottom shall be filled in with cement concrete of appropriate grade.1.1.5. . the pipe sewer should he laid on SUitable supports or concrete cradle supported on piles. 7. if conditions demand. tunnets may be adopted at lesser depths. section with both transverse and longitudinal steel reinforcement shall be provided when intermittent variations in soil bearing capacity are encountered. cables. it may be necessary to use continuous interlocking steel sheet piling to prevent excessive soil movements due to ground water percolation. In case of deep trenches.5 DEWATERING Trenches for sewer construction shall be dewateredfor the placement of concrete and laying of pipe sewer or construction of concrete or brick sewer and kept dewatered until the concreto foundations.1. however. Each situation has to be analysed in detail before any decision to tunnel is taken.4 UNDERGROUND SERVICiCS All pipes.1.C.6 FOUNDATION AND BEDDING Where a sewer has to be laid in a soft under ground strata or in a reclaimed land. considering the nature of soil to be excavated and surface conditions with reference to the depth at which tile sewer is tn be laid. soil stabilization shall be done either by rubble.2 Tunnelling Tunnels are employed in sewer systems when it becomes economical.4 for more details III this regard. In rocks.32.1. 7. ducts. tn the case of cast-in-situ sewers. pipe joints or brick work or concrete bave cured.5m below the bottom of the trench unless the lower part of the trench is in fine material. The cross struts shall be fixed in a manner to maintain pressure against the wall plates which in turn shall be kept pressed against the timber sheeting by means of timber wedges or dog spikes. The french bottom shall be stabilised hy the addition of coarse gravel or rock. In case· of long stretches of very soft trench bottom. Such sheet piling shall extend at least 1. Generally in snff soils the minimum depth is about t Orn.1.3. expensive pavements or presence of other service facilities near the surface sometimes make it advantageous to tunnel at shallower depths.127 of the treoch walls.

            Bonng machines of different types have been developed for tunnel excavation in clay and rock. b) Jacking In this procedure. dependinq upon the conditions of soil and the location of the line. Jacking operation should continue without interruption as otherwise soil friction may increase. the leading pipe is provided with a cutter or edge to protect the pipe while [ackinq.128 7.1. c) Mining Tunnels larger than 15 m are normally built With the use of tunnel shields borinq machines or by open face rnining depending on the type of material met with. Earth excavated is usually carried by a conveyor system. The size of shaft depends on the type and size of machinery employed for tunnellinq irrespective of the size of the sewer> 7. Rock tunnels normally are excavated open-lace with conventional mining methods or with borinq tools. Presence ot boulders is a serious deterrent for adoption of this method.1. Though the machines are useful in fairly long runs through sunilar materi al. . The most common pipes used for this are reinforced concrete or steel.2. The pipes selected should be ahlo to withstand the leads exerted by the Jacking procedure. In this method. As the excavation continues the lining may be Installed either aqainst the earth. a primary lining of adequate strenqth to support the surrounding earth is installed to provide proqressive backstop for the jacks which advance the shield. Tunnel shields are used as a safety precaution in mining operations in Vf::ry soft clay or in running sand especially in built up areas. ritl'd steel or concrete pipes are pushed into ground to reasonable distances and tho earth removed by mechanical means from the shaft or pit location. Some machines ale also equipped with shields. They are usuEilly provided with cutters mounted on a rotating head which is moved forward as !JorinO operations continue. Soil is S1radUiJlly excavated and removed through the pipe as successive lengths of pipes are added between the leading pipe and the jacks and pushed forward taking care to limit the jackinn upto thc~ point of excavation.:lcking of permanent tunnel lining is generally adopted tor sewers of sizes varying trorn 750 to 2750 mrn.2. jack inn and mininq. Open face rnininq without shields are adopted in particular instances where the conditions permit such operation as in rock. cement or concrete.2 METHODS 01' TUNNELLING The tunnellinq methods adoptee! for sewer construction can be classified nenerally as auger or borinq. difficulties are encountered when the material to be excavated varies. This method usually results in minimum distribance of the natural soils adjacent to the pipe.1 SHAf'TS Shafts are essential in tunnellin£j to gain access to the depth at which tunnetlinq is to be done to remove the excavated material. Seqrnental support of timber or steel is used for the sides and the top of the tunnel. in which case it may be more economical to first install an oversize lining by conventional tunnelling or jacking and fill the space between the pipe and lining with sand. fillinq the annualr space by grouting with pea qravel or the Enrng may be expanded against the earth as the shield advances: the latter eliminating need for any qroutinq. a) Auger or Boring In this method. making the operation more difficult J.

            C. The lifts are qenerally desiqnated as the Invert. would SI?-rVCcl the purpose.c.C.1 STONEWARE P. stakes set in the trench bottom itself on the sewer line. All the pipes shall be laid perfectly true. the centre of each manhole shall be marked by a peg. PIPES The R. IS excavated. 7. The top ed£le of the cross pieces shall be fixed at a distance below the top edqe equal to. pipes shall be laid 111 manner sirnllar to stoneware spiqot and socket pipes. The posts and the siqht rails shall in no case be removed until the trench pipes are laid.1. the abuttinq faces of the pipes being coated by means of a brush with bitumen in liquid condition. tne end of the pipe should be protected by a close titling stopper 7. on desired bedding.3. The structural requirements as discussed in Chapter 6 and 15:783-1967 may be followed.129 7. both to lIoe and qradient. The boning rods with cross section 75mm x 50mm of various lengths shall be: prepared from wood.1. The siqht rails shall be painted half white and half black alternately on both the sides and the tee heads and cross pieces of the boning rods shall be painted black. pipes shall be laid In position over proper beddinq. These vertical posts and the sight rails shall he perfectly square and planed smooth on all sides and edqes.5). When the sewers cooverqinq to a manhole come in <:11 various levels there shall be a rail fixed for every different level. . hunching or encasinq may be provided whore conditions so demand (as discussed in 6. The boninq staff shall be marked on both stdes to indicate its full lenqth. (15:4 t n ·1ge:1) At the close of each day's work or at such other times when pipe is not beinq laid. Special bedding. Each length shall be a certain number of metres and shall have a fixc:d tee head and fixed intermediate cross pieces.3. care) beinq taken to see that concentricity of the pipes and the levels are not disturbed during the operation.c. as the case may be. each about 300mm lonq. the outside dia. as rough grade for tho sewer is completed.PES The stoneware pipes shall be laid with sockets facinq up the qrudient. the type ot which may be> determined in advance.3. of the pip". Two wooden posts 100mm x 100mm x 1800mm high shall be fixed on either side at nearly equal distance from the peg and sufficiently clear of all intended excavation. The sight rail when fixed on these posts shall cross the centre of manhole. the side wall and the arch. jointed and tho fillimj is started. The wedqe shaped groove in the end of the pipe shall be filled With sufficient quantity of either special bituminous compound or sufficient quantity of cement mortar of 1:3. the choice dependinq upon the relative costs worked out for the specific project.3 laying of Pipe Sewers In laying sewers. the thickness of the concrete beddinq or the bottom of sxcavatron. Spigot and socket R.3 CAST-IN·SITU CONCRETE SECTIONS For sewer sizes beyond 2m internal dia cast-in-situ concrete sections shall qenerally be used.1. Th" collar shall then be slipped over the end of the pipe and the next pipe butted well aqainst the plastic rinq by appliances so as to compress roughly the plastic rin~J or cement mortar into the grooves. the When large sewer lines flre to be laid or where sloped trench walls result in top-of-trench widths too greatfor practical use of siqht rails or whore soils are unstable. The concrete shall be cast in suitable number of litts usually two or three.C.2 R.C. The sight rails made from 250 mm wide x 40 rnm thick wooden planks and screwed with the top edge against the level marks shall be fixed at distances more than 30m apart along the sewer alignment The centre line of the sewer shall be marked on the sight rail.1. 7.

            4 Jointing of Sewers Joints of pipe sewers may generally be any of the following types: i} ii) Spinot and socket ioint (rinle] and semi flexible) Collar Joint (riqid and semi flexible) Cast Iron detachable jornt (sem: flexible) Coupling [omt (semi fleXible) Iii) iv) Cement joints are rigid and even a slif:lht settlement of pipes can cause cracks and hence teakaqe. by passlnq completely round it. To avoid this problem it is recommended that semi flexible joints should be used All the pipe Joints shall be caulkerl With tarred qasket in one length for each jOint and sufficiently long to entirely surround the spiqot end of the pipe.4 CONSTRUCTION O~'-' SHiCK S[VVEHS Sewers larger than 2m arc' generally constructed in brick work.1. IS: 3114-1985 should be followed rn settmq out the sewers. A concrete collar sufficiently wide to cover and overlap the joint is fixed on it . Construction shall conform to IS:2212-1962 in genora!. 7. Any deviations either in plan or in elevation of less than 111/4 degree shall be effected by laying the straight piPHS round the flat curve! of such radius that the minimum thickness of lead in a lead joint at the face of the socket. a wooden onuge notched out to the correct depth of lead and the notch beinq held close up aqainst the face of socket. shall not be reduced below Smrn. 7. Rubber gaskets may also be used tor joinhnn.PES The pipes shall be laid in position with the socket ends of all pipes facing up gradient. The spigot shall be carefully pushed into the socket with one or more laps of spun yarn wound round it Each joint shall be tested before running the lead. Large size concrete sewers have 'agee' joints in which the pipe has mortise at one end and a tenon to suit at the other end and are jointed with cement or asphalt.4.3. A change in the alignment of brick sewer shall be on a suitable curve cenforrning to the surface alignment of road. 7.1.5 CAST IRON P.3.1983).1. detachable joints.1.130 7. The socket shall then be filled with a mixture of one part of cement and one part of clean fine sand mixed with just sufficient quantity of water to have a consistency of semidrv condition and a fillet shall be formed round the JOint with a trowel torrninq an anqle of 45 deqrees with the barrel ot the pipe (IS:4127 .2 CONCRETE PiPEs Concrete spiqot and socket pipes are laid and jointed as described above for glazed stoneware spigot and socket pipes with yarn or rubber qasket and cement Asbestos cement pipes are [omted l')y couplinq joints or C.'. The gasket shall be caulked liqhtly horne but not so as to occupy more than <1 quarter of the socket depth. zomm thick both from Inside and outside. The brick work shall be in cement mortar of 1:3 and plastered smooth wilh cement plaster of 1:2.

            partial covering of the pipe is not necessary.I pipes several types of joints such as rubber gasket known as Tyton joint.1985. the quantrty of For brick sewers. the leakage for a period of 24 hours if feasible.4. R. The pipe line under pressure is then inspected while the funnel is still in position. it is desirable to backfill the pipes upto the top keepinq atleast !JOcm length at the pipe open at the Joints. There shall not be any leaks in the pipe or the joints (small sweating on the pipe surface is permitted). 7. It is necessary that the pipelines are fill(~d with water for about a week before commencing the application of pressure to allow tor the absorption by pipe wall. of pipes per kilometre lenqth per day For non-pressure pipes it is better to observe. the permissible leakage of water shall not exceed 10 cubic meters for 24 hours per krn. Any plastic solution or cement mortar that may have squeezed in shall be removed to leave the inside of the pipe peric:ctiy clean.5 Hydraulic Te stinq of Pipe Sewers 7.131 The collars shall be placed symmetrically over the end of two pipes and the annular space between the inside of the collar and the: outside of the pipe shall be filled with hemp yarn soaked in tar or cement slurry tamped with just sufficient quantity of water to have a consistency of semi clry condition.I PIPES For G. reqardless of their dia. With concrete encasement or concrete crade. pipes shall be tested three days after the cement mortar joints have been made. The leakaqe or quantity of water to be supplied to maintain the test pressure during the period of 10 minutes shall not exceed 0.. mechanical joint known as screw gland joint and conventional joint known as lead joint are used. Any sewer or part there of that does not meet the test shall be emptied and repaired or relaid as required and tested aqam.1. and Asbestos cement pipes of more than 600mm dia.5. However. Exfilteration test for detection of leakage shall be carried out at a tinle when the qround-water table is low. For concrete. The joints shall be finished off wifh a fillet slopinq at 45 degrees to the surface ot the pipe. tile stop cock is closed and water level rn tile funnel is raised to 2. this may not be feasible in the case of pipes of shorter lenqth.G. The sewers are tested by plugDing the upper end with a provision for an air outlet prpe With stop cock. length of sewer . To prevent change in aliqnrnent and disturbance after the pipes have been laid. The water IS filled throuqh a funnel connected at the lower end provided with a pIUD. In case of concrete and stoneware pipes with cement mortar joints.5m above the invert at the upper end.1 WATER TEST Each section of seW£H shall be tested for water tiqhtness preferably between manholes.1. well packed and thoroughly rammed with caulking tools and then filled with cement mortar (1:2) prop. The finished Joints shall be protected and curod for atleast 24 hours.G. 7.3 G.1.2 litres/rnrn dia. Water level in the funnel is noted after 30 minutes and the quantity of water required to restore the original water level in the funnel is determined. For details CPHEEO's Manual on Water Supply & Treatment and relevant Indian Standards may be referred to. such as stoneware and ReG pipes. water inflow can be increased by 10% for each additional 100mm of pipe dia. After the air has been expelled throuqh the air outlet. For more details of jointin~} procedure reference may be made to IS:783.

            2 A. The masonry shatt or tne manhole shall be provided on the top with a heavy air tight cast iron frarne and cover contorrninq to IS: 1726 or any other approved type 01 frame and cover.8 Sewer Connections These shall be: laid in the same manner as the sewer. to form an arch.7 Construction of Manholes The manholes shall be constructed simultaneously with the sewers. Where the depth of the manhole exc8f:ds 90cm below the surface of the qround. A drop in water level not mom than 50rnfn per 24 hours shall be permuted. The distance between the two consecutive steps shall not be more than 40cm.. when a tee is used. 75rnm less in dimension than the internal dimension of the sewer shall be run through the stretch of the sewer to ensure that it is free from any obstruction. fhis end can be made lise off Ior melinq purposes. The top end of the drop arranqement in the manhole.1. . Tho ends ot the pipes shall be built in and neatly finished off with cement mortar.1. a double disc or solid or closed cylinder. a vertical drop arrangement cornprisinq of 90 degrees bend or a double tee junction encased in 112 bnck thick brick work shall be provided. 7. pipes when the required quantity of water is not available tor testinq. plastered With 20mm thick cement plaster from outsiele III cement mortar 1:3. shall be plugged with brick work with a conspicuous mark thoro on so that in case a serious sewer choke occurs in the incoming line.5.132 7. the projection of concrete beinq IOcm on all sides of the external face of bnck work. It is done by subjectinq tile stretch of pipe to an au pressure of 100mm of wafer by means of a hand pump. The' floor of the manholes shall be in cement concrete of appropriate grade. 1:3. All round the pipe there shall be a joint of cement mortar 12mm thick between the pipe and the bricks. The exact point of leakafj8 can be detected by applying soap solution to all the joints in the line and looking for air bubbles 7. Both sides of the channel pipes shall be benched up in concrete and rendered smooth in 20mm tl1ick cement mortar and torrned to a slope ot 1 in 10 to the channel. Tile drop arran Dement shall be In brick work in cement mortar 1:3. The manholes shall normally be of brick-work in cement mortar 1:3 and plastered both inside and outside with 20mm thick cement plaster in cement morta.n TESTING Air testinq becomes necessary particularly in larue dia. Salt qlazed or concrete half channel pipes of the required size and curve shall be laid and embedded in cement concrete base to the same line and fall ElS tho sewer. The lowest bend may preferably be of cast iron and the entire vertical pipe line encased in concrete.6 Check for Obstruction As soon as a stretch of sewer is laid and tested.1. In case the drop is more than 2511111) the leaking joints shall be traced and suitably treated to ensure water tiqhtness. steps of cast iron or of any other approved material shall be built Into tile brick work. If the pressure is maintained at 75mrn the joints shall be assumed to be water tight.1. In case the connection IS at a level higher than 60cIT1. In case of hiqh subsoil water it should be ensured that there is no leakaqe of wound water into the manhole by observinq the manhole for 24 hours after emptyinq it 7. The top of manhole shall be flush with the finished road level (13:4111 Part I -1967 Manholes) The entire heloht of the manhole shall be tested for water -tiqhtness by closinq both the incorninq and outgoing ends of the sewer and filling fhe manhole with water. Bncks on edge shall be cut to a proper form and laid around thE! upper haJf of all tile pipes onterinq or leavinq the manhole. The foundation of manholes shall be 15crn thick cement concrete of appropriate grade and thickness may be Increased to 30cm when subsoil water is encountered.

            . Similar soft material shall then be put upto a height of 30cm above the top of the pipe and this will be moistened with water and well rammed. cables. partly fill(.9 Backfilling of the Trenches Backfilling of the se'vver trench is a . The remainder of the trench can be filled with hard matenal.3.4 for more details in this regard. water mains. Before and during the backfilling of a trench.. gas mains. To avoid any damaqe to buildings. However. partial fHlinq may be done keeping the joints open to avoid disturbance. No trench shall be filled in unless the sewer stretches have been tested and approved fen water tiqhtness of joints. in stages.. Some of the! backfilled earth is forced into the void created by withdrawing the sheeting by means of a water je't. . tile charactor of the material excavated. the method of excavation and the degroc-: of compaction required.1. a high degree of compaction is n:.. In open country it may be sufficient to mound the trench and after natural senlernent return to ronr.near the excavation or to avoid disturbance to the sewer already laid portions of the sheeting may be loft in the trenches. each not exceeninq GOcrn. The method of backfilling to be used varies with the width of tho trench.(cry important consideration in SC)W8r construction. consolidated and completely saturated with water and then only further filling shall be continued.2. sewers etc. Reference may be made to 6..1. precautions shall be: taken against the floatation of the pipe line due: to the entry of large quantities of water into the trench causing an uplift of the empty or the.::ldo the areas. Upon completion of the backfill. a more moderate specification for back fill may be justified.quired to minimise the load while in less important streets. the surface shall be restored fully to the level that existed prior to the construction of the sewer 7.133 7. The refilling shall proceed around and above the pipes.d pipe line. In developed streets. Soft material screened free from stones or hard substances shall first be used and hand pressed under and around the pipes to half their height..10 Removal of Sheeting Sheetinq driven helol/v the spnnq line of a sewer shall be withdrawn a littlE: at a timo as the back-flllinq proqresses. At each staqe the filling shall be well rammed.

            8. gas and watermains. Such attitude towards sewer rnaintenance is found even in large cities. particularly where expensive appliances are located in the basements. The primary effort of the staf is to maintain sewers free tlowinq and unobstructed. it will be appropnate to provide sufficient tunds to take care ot men. The S8\Ver system with its components properly designed and installed is handed over to the person in charge of maintenance who assumes the responsibility to make it function satisfactorily tor the benefit of the community.CHAPTER 8 MAINTENANCE OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS 8. equipment and materials to keep the systern in good condition. Proper inspection and preventive maintenance is a necessity. which would be very rare it proper maintenance is carried out will also have to be provided for. A serious health hazard results when sewage backs up through the plumbing fixtures or into the basements. It is necessary that preventive or routine maintenance are carried out to prevent any breakdown of the system and to avoid ernergency operations to deal with clogged sewer lines or over flowing manholes or backing up of sewaqe into a house or structural failure of the system. Adequate budgets are seldom provided for supervision.1 INTRODUCTION Quality maintenance of sewerage system consists of the optimum use of labour. equipment and machinery required tor efficient maintenance. The larqer the Municipality. Preventive maintenance is more economical and provides for a reliability in operations 01 the sewer facilities. material. 8. whose understanding and support are essential for the success of the facility. Emergency repairs.4 ORGANISATION FOR MAINTENANCE The organisation responsible for the maintenance of the sewerage system will vary wilh the size and type of the sewerage systern and the relative age of the system. It also helps to build up and maintain cordial relations with the public. One has not only to be a technical man but hE1S also to deal with human relations In order to be successful in rus work. Maintenance helps to protect the capital investment and ensures an effective and economical expenditure in operating and maintaining the sewerage facilities. Considering the health hazards that the public at large has to face.2 TYPES OF MAINTENANCE There are two types of maintenance of a sewerage systern . Extensive property darnage rnay also occur. 8.3 NECESSITY OF MAINTENANCE Sewer maintenance functions are too otten neglected and given attention only as emergency anses. telephone cables. manpower and equipment unlike the case for maintenance of other utilities like electric cables. The householder is confronted with the unpleasant task at cleaning the prerruses after the sewer line has been cleaned. so that it can accomplish efficiently its intended purpose of collection and trasportation of wastewater to the treatrnent plant. All efforts should be made to see that there is no failure in the internal drainaqe system of a prernises. One should have sufficient experience in the design and construction of the system to enable hirn to perform his task efficiently with an understandinq and appreciation of the problems that may arise durino maintenance. mservice training shall be unparteo 134 .preventive and ernergency. The size of the organisation will vary from a couple ot employees to several hundred regular employees. the larger and more complex will be its maintenance organisation.

            depth to which it is laid. new connections done. The area under each 9anq will do pend on the size of the sewer. the spacinq of manholes. may be reported to be handled by a separate construction qanq of mason and helpers. repairs etc. Care has to be taken that brick bats or other materials of construction are not allowed to tall and lie in the manhole. chom. hOUSH gully traps are to be maintained.u\(. The sewers shall be laid at a sufficient grade to provide self cleansinq velocity. the connection to the manhole must be properly done and closed.5 PROVISIONS IN DESIGN Maintenance really begins with the design and construction of the sewerage system. flow. which fall in the 12-51 CPHEEO/ND/94 . which are placed under a maintenance gang. In case. 8. The work of each sewer maintenance gang would consist of the following: a) Check manhole condition for deposition of silt. 8. It should also be ensured that the house tittinqs are properly trapped not only to prevent the ingress of sewer gases into the: houses but also to ensure that large objects do not find their way into the sewers. Similarly. clogged vertical pipes in drop manholes etc.7 PLANNING FOR SEWER MAINTENANCE Sewer inspections and rnarntenance should be planned. Similarly. The generat public IS also to be made aware of do's and don'ts to help In keepmg the sewers free flowing and unobstructed. will be undertaken by the gang. it should be ensured that any liquid or material which is likely to be injurious to the material of the sewer lint? or to prejudicially int(:riere with its contents or be a hazard to the workmen engaged in H18 fl1aint('?n. The maintenance gang prerer<:lbly consists of a supervisor or mate with atleast () skilled sewer men. manhole covers.135 to the maintenance personnel to improve upon the methods adopted based on the latest trends.:e of the sewer lines. the size 01 the manholes must he designed to permit safe access and sufficient working space. It IS this extraneous material that is largely responsible for persistent dog~1ing of the sewer lines. It is preferable that the repair gang comes out on the work when the sewer cleaning or maintenance qang is working. like very hot water. rules or regulations are not existing. extreme care must be taken when breakinq the sewer pipe line and Inserting the Y 01 T saddle. the condition of sewer line (whether surcharged or not) whether cleaninq is being done by manual labour or by mechanical sewer machines etc. then reference may be made to the relevant IS code of practice House connections may be of minimum size of 150mm in din and should preferably be connected to the Municipal or Public sewer through a manhole. If such byelaws.. 8. pipes etc . acids. Failure to develop a better understandinq of hun-Jan relations and also lack of development of the concept of service to the community generally results in the maintenance part becoming unpopular. The whole seweraqe systems should be marked on a plan and divided into sections and areas. When 'V' or 'T connections are allowed. damaged walls or steps.6 HOUSE CONNECTIONS House connections or service connections to the public or municipal sewer should preferably be approved by the Maintenance Engineer. Since sewer maintenance has to commence from manholes which are located in the streets.cals c~t( " are not allowed. While the cleaninq of the manhole. It is necessary to see that the fittings and pipes in the houses are according to the hyelaws or rules or regulations in force. debris mortar etc. special gang of one 01 two persons who wi!! clean these traps regularly in a phased or planned manner is necessary. Inverted Siphons and eccentric manholes should be avoided wherever possible. Hence due consideration shall be given to maintenance requirements at the time of designing sewerage systems. so thai brick bats.

            qully empt. shovels etc. non-cloq submersible pumps may be used. silt drums. 8. manila rope and cloth balls. such as when pumpinq out flooded basements and dewatering deep trench excavations. tripod stands. a thick manila rope is tied to the rear end of the bamboo splits. iron hooks. observation rods. Such pumps should be 01 noncloqqlnq type preferably on tour wheel tr ailers for the larqer sizes and should be provided with a self priming urut to save time and effort. This operation is repeated hetween the next manholes until the stretch of Sewer line is cleaned.1 Portable Pump Set In cases where sewers are blocked completely and sewage has accumulated in manholes. a dredqer. corkscrews. In case of very deep manholes.8 SEWER CLEANING EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES Sewer cleaninq works reqUlre usual implements like pick axes. This will cause a major blockage if the same is allowed to flow into the sewer line. which usually occurs when repairs are done separately. lanterns.8. As the rope is pulled. 8. s()wer balls. WOOdE.. Srn811 pneumatic pumps can be used where high lifts are required and the volume of liquid to be pumped is not ItHfJe. a roding machine with flexible sewer rods and cleaninq tool attachments sucn as auqers. 8. scraper. the collected sewaqe has to be pumped alit to tackle the sewer blockage.136 manhole are removed there and then. The bamboo spilts are then pulled by another man in the downstream manhole and pushed throuqh tile sewer line. In addition.lS Hush bags. ropes. sewer cleanlnq work calls for the following special oquipments and devices like a portable pump set tunninq on either diesel or petrol enqine. danger tlaqs. hand carts. . sluice gates or stoppage in the sewer lines. lead acetate paper. hedgehogs and sand cups. If necessary. batteries. safety lamps. a sewer clearunq bucket machine. another man inside the manhole helps in pushing the rod through the sewer line. and hvdraulicallv propelled devices such . Flexible bamboo strips tied together are inserted Into the sewer line by a person on top. Wilen tile front end of the bamboo strip reaches the next manhole. overflow arrangements etc c) d) A record of daily work done by the gang.!) ball and sewer scooters.sectional sewer rods. plunqer rods. sewer jetting machine.2 Manila Rope and Cloth Ball The most common way of clearunq small diameter sewers upto 300mm dia is 'by the use of a manila rope and cloth ball.ers (mel pneumatic pluqs. and also a record of work done on the sewer lines should be maintained so tnat chronic trouble spots may be investigated and rernedial action taken.8. a couple of sewer men should be deputed to clean the manhole of the debris immediately after repair work is completed b) Check the sewer 11[18 between two successive manholes for silting and flow conditions and remove the deposited silt and Check for any harmful and extraneous matter entering into tile sewer line so that further investiqation for the cause and location can be determined Check air release valves in rising or force mains. In such cases. manhole guards. the ball sweeps the sewer line and the accumulated qrit is carried to the next manhole where it is removed out by means of buckets.

            1).3 Sectional Sewer Rods These rods (up used tor c!c:c. Ihe winch is then thrown out of qc. the machine also is drawn towards the manhole The roo is pulled in and out 111 quick succession when the tool is engaging the obstruction.5 Dredger (Clam-shell) It consists of a grab bucket on a wire rope which is lowered into tho manhole in open condition with the help of a crane and pulley.d to be chis elled out. The front or thf-} advancing end of the sewer rod is qennrally fitted with a brush.4 Sewer Cleaning Bucket Machine Tile bucket machine consists of two powered winches with cables in between.6 Roding Machine with Flexible Sewer Rods This consists of a machine wrucn rotates a flexible rod to which is attached the cle aninq tool such as auger. corkscrew or hedqehoq and sand cups (Fig.8. The machine is also used alon~} with other scrapinq instruments for looseninq sludqe banks of detritus or cutting roots and dislodqinU obstructions (Fig. truck or a trailer. Sometimes the doposrts at the corners mC1Y become so hard that the same may be: requirE'. The various tools attached to the rods are shown rn Fig. The bucket is then raised above ground levol where the bucket opens and the silt is automatically dropped into a truck or a trailer.8.3 . the rod is pulled out by means of clamps keeprng the rod rotating to facilitate quick and easy removal.8.ar rind the opposing winch is pu