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ECE 580 – Term Project
Betul Arda Huizi Diwu
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester
Quantum Dots (QD)
Confinement Effect Fabrication Techniques Historical Evolution Predicted Advantages Basic Characteristics Application Requirements
Quantum Dot Lasers (QDL)
Q. Dot Lasers vs. Q. Well Lasers Market demand of QDLs Comparison of different types of QDLs Bottlenecks Breakthroughs Future Directions Conclusion
g. impurities.g.g. doping. in the case of a semiconductor nanocrystal . external electrodes the presence of the semiconductor surface e.g. in the case of self-assembled QDs or by a combination of these e. strain. in e.Quantum Dots (QD) Semiconductor nanostructures Size: ~2-10 nm or ~10-50 atoms in diameter Unique tunability Motion of electrons + holes = excitons Confinement of motion can be created by: Electrostatic potential the presence of an interface between different semiconductor materials e.
Quantum Confinement Effect E = Eq1 + Eq2 + Eq3. Eqn = h2(q1π/dn)2 / 2mc Q a tiz tio o d n ityo s te :(a b lk(b q a tu wll (c q a tu w (d Q u n a n f e s f ta s ) u ) u n m e ) u n m ire ) D .
doped heterostructures (c) self-organized growth of nanostructures .QD – Fabrication Techniques Core shell quantum structures Self-assembled QDs and StranskiKrastanov growth MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) MOVPE (metalorganics vapor phase epitaxy) Monolayer fluctuations representation of to Gases in remotely Schematic of nanostructures:different approaches in fabrication (a) microcrystallites glass. (b) artificial patterning of thin film structures.
QD Lasers – Historical Evolution .
QDL – Predicted Advantages Wavelength of light determined by the energy levels not by bandgap energy: improved performance & increased flexibility to adjust the wavelength Maximum material gain and differential gain Small volume: low power high frequency operation large modulation bandwidth small dynamic chirp small linewidth enhancement factor low threshold current threshold Superior temperature stability of I I threshold (T) = I threshold (T ref). Undiminished room-temperature performance without external thermal stabilization Suppressed diffusion of non-equilibrium carriers Reduced leakage .exp ((T-(T ref))/ (T 0)) High T 0 decoupling electron-phonon interaction by increasing the intersubband separation.
QDL – Basic characteristics Components of a laser An energy pump source electric power supply An active medium to create population inversion by pumping mechanism: photons at some site stimulate emission at other sites while traveling to reflect the light in phase Two reflectors: multipass amplification .
QDL – Basic characteristics An ideal QDL consists of a 3D-array of dots with equal size and shape Surrounded by a higher band-gap material confines the injected carriers. Consists lower and upper cladding layers (n-doped and p-doped shields) Embedded in an optical waveguide .
QDL – Application Requirements Same energy level Size. shape and alloy composition of QDs close to identical Inhomogeneous broadening eliminated real concentration of energy states obtained Macroscopic physical parameter light output Nanostructures made by high-energy beam patterning cannot be used since damage is incurred Electric field applied can change physical properties of QDs Carriers can be injected to create light emission High density of interacting QDs Reduction of non-radiative centers Electrical control .
Well Laser In order for QD lasers compete with QW lasers: A large array of QDs since their active volume is small An array with a narrow size distribution has to be produced to reduce inhomogeneous broadening Array has to be without defects may degrade the optical emission by providing alternate nonradiative defect channels The phonon bottleneck created by confinement limits the number of states that are efficiently coupled by phonons due to energy conservation Limits the relaxation of excited carriers into lasing states Causes degradation of stimulated emission Other mechanisms can be used to suppress that bottleneck effect (e. Dot Laser vs.g. Q.Q. Auger interactions) .
Q.Q. Well Laser Comparison of efficiency: QWL vs. Dot Laser vs. QDL .
Market demand of QD lasers Microwave/Millimeter wave transmission with optical fibers Datacom network Telecom network QD Lasers Optics .
Market demand of QD lasers Earlier QD Laser Models Updated QD Laser Models Only one confined electron level and hole level Infinite barriers Equilibrium carrier distribution Lattice matched heterostructures Lots of electron levels and hole levels Finite barriers Non-equilibrium carrier distribution Strained heterostructures Before and after self-assembling technology .
Comparison High speed quantum Advantages dot lasers Directly Modulated Quantum Dot Lasers Mode-Locked Quantum Dot Lasers •Datacom application •Rate of 10Gb/s •Short optical pulses •Narrow spectral width •Broad gain spectrum •Very low α factor-low chirp InP Based Quantum Dot Lasers •Low emission wavelength •Wide temperature range •Used for data transmission .
Comparison High power Quantum Advantages Dot lasers QD lasers for Coolerless Pump Sources •Size reduced quantum dot Single Mode Tapered •Small wave length Lasers shift •Temperature insensitivity .
Bottlenecks First. Quantum Dots density is insufficient. Second. Third. . the lack of uniformity. the lack of good coupling between QD and QD.
Breakthroughs Fujitsu Temperature Independent QD laser 2004 Temperature dependence of light-current characteristics Modulation waveform at 10Bbps at 20°C and 70 °C with no current adjustment .
Breakthroughs InP instead of GaAs Can operate on ground state for much shorter cavity length High T0 is achieved First buried DFB DWELL operating at 10Gb/s in 1. France 2006 .55um range Surprising narrow linewidth-brings a good phase noise and timejitter when the laser is actively mode locked Alcatel Thales III–V Laboratory.
and is 70–90 Å high. -----www.Commercialization Zia Laser's quantum-dot laser structures comprise an active region that looks like a quantum well.org . About 100 billion dots in total would be needed to fill an area of one square centimeter. but is actually a layer of pyramid-shaped indium-arsenide dots.fibers. Each pyramid measures 200 Å along its base.
Future Directions Widening parameters range Further controlling the position and dot size Decouple the carrier capture from the escape procedure Combination of QD lasers and QW lasers to Reduce inhomogeneous linewidth broadening Surface Preparation Technology Allowing the injection of cooled carriers using by In term of Raised gain at the fundamental transition energy .
According to the market demand and higher requirements of applications. future research directions are figured out and needed to be realized soon. The unique properties of quantum dots allow QD lasers obtain several excellent properties and performances compared to traditional lasers and even QW lasers. breakthroughs in the aspects of material and other properties will still keep the research area active in a few years. there was an intensive interest on the development of quantum dot lasers. Although bottlenecks block the way of realizing quantum dot lasers to commercial markets. .Conclusion During the previous decade.
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