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Composite materials: Introduction to composite materials – Properties and morphology – loading characteristics - Fibre reinforced composites composites, Types of composite materials: metal matrix
composites, ceramic composites – properties and specific applications in industries and aerospace; Nanocomposites: applications. Classification, properties and
o Formed by the combination of two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties.
o The constituent materials will remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. o The main components of composite materials are fibers and matrix. ‐ fiber provides most of the stiffness and strength ‐ matrix binds and holds the fibers together. o Other substances are added to improve the specific properties ‐ Eg. fillers to reduce the cost and improve processability and dimensional stability.
Wood: Cellulose fibres and lignin matrix Animal body: bone fibres and tissues as matrix Bone: inorganic and organic components
. Org. components like carbohydrates, fats and proteins giving
pliability and toughness to the bone
. Ing. components as calcium phosphates giving rigidity and
strength to the bones Sea shells: Elephant tusk:
REQUIREMENTS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Some general requirements of composite materials S l i t f it t i l The second phase (fibres or particles) uniformly distributed throughout the matrix and must not be in direct contact with one another The constituents of the composite should not react with one another at high temp; otherwise interfacial bond will become weak leading to premature failure of the composite In no case should the second phase loose its strength, it should be well bonded to the matrix Matrix must have a lower modulus of elasticity than the fibre g , g y In general, both the matrix and fibre should not have greatly different coefficient of linear expansion
Al Ti-6Al-4V Al-Li Epoxy Epoxy Epoxy Epo Epoxy Polyester Al2O3 MgO g SiC SiO2 glass Al203 SiO2 glass
B SiC Al2O3 E-glass 2-D glass cloth Boron Carbon Chopped g glass SiC whiskers SiC fibres
Elastic Modulus (GPa) long 210 300 262 40 16.5 215 145 55-138
Tensile st. (MPa) trans 150 150 152 10 16.5 24.2 24 2 9.4 long 1500 1750 690 780 280 1400 1860 103-206 Flexture St (MPa) trans 140 410 180 28 280 63 65 Fracture toughness (MPa m bar
350-700 2-5 200-500 500-800 70-150 800 1000 1-3 3-6 1 10 ~ 20
Al203 BN particulates
ROLE OF MATRIX IN COMPOSITES
Matrix binds the fibers together, holding them aligned in the important stress direction Loads applied to the composite and the fibers are the principal load bearing component, through the matrix This enables the composite to withstand compression, flexural and shear forces as well as tensile loads. The matrix isolates the fibers, so that they can act as separate entities and cracks are unable to pass unimpeded/unrestricted through sequences of fibers in contact. The matrix protects the reinforcing filaments from mechanical damage (e.g., abrasion) and from environmental attack. At elevated operating temperature, the matrix protects l t d ti t t th ti t t the fibers from oxidative attack.
The functions & requirements of the matrix are to: 1. Keep the fibers in place in the structure; 2. Help to distribute or transfer loads; 3. 3 Protect the filaments both in the structure and filaments, before and during fabrication; 4. Control the electrical and chemical properties of the composite; 5. Carry interlaminar shear.
Specific Properties for Selection of Matrix to a Specific Application 1. 1 Minimize moisture absorption and have low shrinkage; 2. Low coefficient of thermal expansion; 3. 3 Must flow to penetrate the fiber bundles completely and eliminate voids during the compacting/curing process; have reasonable strength, modulus and elongation ( l t th d l d l ti (elongation should b >fib ) ti h ld be >fiber); 4. Must be elastic to transfer load to fibers; 5. Have strength at elevated t 5 H t th t l t d temperature (depending on application); t (d di li ti ) 6. Have low temperature capability (depending on application); 7. Have excellent chemical resistance (depending on application); 8. Be easily processable into the final composite shape; 9. Have dimensional stability (maintain its shape).
Key Factors needed for selection of Matrix 1. The matrix must have a mechanical strength commensurate with that of the reinforcement i.e. both should be compatible. 2. Thus, if a high strength fibre is used as the reinforcement, there is no point using a low strength matrix, which will not transmit stresses efficiently to the reinforcement. 3. The matrix must stand up to the service conditions, viz., temperature, humidity, exposure to UV environment, exposure to chemical atmosphere, abrasion by dust particles, etc. 4. The matrix must be easy to use in the selected fabrication process and life expectancy. 5. The resultant composite should be cost effective.
Two-phase composite materials are classified into two broad categories: (i)Particulate (i)P ti l t composites and (ii) fib reinforced composites it d fibre i f d it
Particulate composites Mica fl k Mi flakes reinforced with glass i f d ith l (non-metallic particles in a non-metallic matrix) Aluminium particles in polyurethane rubber (metallic particles in a non-metallic matrix) Lead particles in copper alloys (metallic particles in a metallic matrix) Silicon carbide particles in aluminium (non-metallic particles in a metalIic matrix)
Fibre reinforced composites Fibres of significant strength and stiffness embedded in a Fib f i ifi t t th d tiff b dd d i matrix with distinct boundaries between them. Both fibres and matrix maintain their physical and chemical identities. Combination performs a function which cannot be done by each constituent acting singly. Fibres of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) may be short or continuous. continuous FRP having continuous fibres is more efficient.
Fibre reinforced composites
Constituents of composite
o Matrix o Dispersed phase/Reinforcement phase Dispersed phase/Reinforcement phase o Interface/inter‐phase
Composite C i
Constituents of composite
o Matrix (Continuous phase) : Continuous or bulk material o Reinforcement (Dispersed Phase) : Added primarily to increase the strength and stiffness of matrix t th d tiff f ti o The reinforcement is generally can be in the form of fibres, particles, whiskers or flakes
The most common man made composites can be divided into three main groups based on the matrix
o Metal‐ matrix composites (MMC)
Composite material with at least two p constituent parts, one being a metal. The other material may be a different metal or another material such as a ceramic or organic compound. i i d o Carbide drills are often made from a tough cobalt matrix with hard tungsten carbide particles inside. o Modern high‐performance sport cars, such as those built by Porsche, use rotors made of carbon fiber within a silicon carbide matrix. o Ford offers a Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) driveshaft upgrade o The F‐16 Fighting Falcon uses monofilament silicon carbide fibres in a titanium matrix for a structural component of the jet's landing gear. o MMCs are nearly always more expensive than the more conventional materials they are replacing. o As a result, they are found where improved properties and performance can justify the added cost. o Today these applications are found most often in aircraft components, space systems and high‐end or "boutique" sports equipment.
Compared to monolithic metals, MMCs have the following improved properties: 1. Higher strength-to-density ratios 2. Higher stiffness-to-density ratios 3. Better fatigue resistance 4. Better elevated temperature properties 5. 5 Higher strength 6. Lower creep rate 7. Lower coefficients of thermal expansion 8. Better wear resistance
The advantages of MMCs over polymer matrix composites are: 1. Higher temperature capability 1 Hi h t t bilit 2. Fire resistance 3. Higher transverse stiffness and strength 4. No moisture absorption 5. Higher electrical and thermal conductivities 6. Better radiation resistance 7. No out gassing 8. 8 Fabric ability of whisker and particulate-reinforced MMCs particulate reinforced with conventional metal working equipment.
Some of the disadvantages of MMCs compared to monolithic metals and polymer matrix composites are: 1. 1 Higher cost of some material systems 2. Relatively immature technology 3. Complex fabrication methods for fiber-reinforced systems (except for casting) 4. Limited service experience
Stir Casting is characterized by the following features: 1. Content of dispersed phase is limited (usually <30% v/v). 30% 2. Distribution of dispersed phase throughout the matrix is not perfectly homogeneous: There are local clouds (clusters) of the dispersed particles (fibers); There may be gravity segregation of the dispersed phase due to a difference in the densities of the dispersed and matrix phase. The technology is relatively simple and low cost cost. Distribution of dispersed phase may be improved if the matrix is in semi-solid condition. semi solid condition The method using stirring metal composite materials in semi-solid state is called rheocasting. High viscosity of the th semi-solid matrix material enables b tt mixing of th di i lid ti t i l bl better i i f the dispersed d phase.
The most important MMC systems are: 1. Aluminum matrix 2. 2 Continuous fibers: boron silicon carbide alumina graphite boron, carbide, alumina, 3. Discontinuous fibers: alumina, alumina-silica 4. Whiskers: silicon carbide 5. Particulates: silicon carbide, b 5 P ti l t ili bid boron carbide bid 6. Magnesium matrix 7. Continuous fibers: graphite, alumina g p , 8. Whiskers: silicon carbide 9. Particulates: silicon carbide, boron carbide 10. 10 Titanium matrix 11. Continuous fibers: silicon carbide, coated boron 12. Particulates: titanium carbide 13. Copper matrix 13 C ti 14. Continuous fibers: graphite, silicon carbide 15. Wires: niobium-titanium, niobium-tin 16. Particulates: SiC, boron carbide, titanium carbide. 17. Superalloy matrices
o Ceramic Matrix composite (CMC)
o A given ceramic matrix can be reinforced with either discontinuous reinforcements, such as particles, whiskers or chopped fibres particulates having compositions of Si3N4, SiC fibres, SiC, AlN, titanium diboride, boron carbide, and boron nitride or with continuous fibres. o The desirable characteristics of CMC include
High temperature High‐temperature stability High thermal shock resistance High hardness High Hi h corrosion resistance i i t Light weight Nonmagnetic and nonconductive properties Versatility in providing unique engineering solutions
Applications: CMCs find promising applications in the area of cutting tools and in heat engines where the components should withstand aggressive environments. In Aircraft engines - use of stater vanes formed of CMC in the hot section of the F136 turbofan engine is under consideration.
Reinforcement (Dispersed Phase)
o The dispersed phase can be any material in the form of fibres, particles, whiskers or flakes Flakes Eg. Mica Particles Eg. Carbon black, talc
Dispersed Phase p
Fibres Eg. Nylon, Sisal
Whiskers Eg. Graphite, SiC
Polymer matrix Composites
o Polymers constitute the most important matrix materials and are used in more than 95% of the composite products in use today.
Polymer matrix composites
Thermoplastic polymer matrices‐
- Thermoplastics are incorporated in the composite system by melting and solidifying by cooling. - The physical reaction being reversible in nature. - Thermoplastics have low creep resistance and low thermal stability compared to thermosetting resins.
Thermoset polymer matrices‐
- Thermosetting resins are more common for the development of composite systems. - Solidification from the liquid phase takes place by the action of an irreversible chemical crosslinking reaction, generally in the presence of heat and pressure.
Elastomer based composites‐
- The greater extensibility and high-energy storing capacity make them a suitable continuous high energy phase for composite materials. - Unlike plastics, a wide variety of flexible products can be made using elastomers as the matrix phase. - They offer elastic strain higher than that of metals and can be stretched rapidly, even under small loads.
Polymer matrix composites
o Polymer resins like epoxies and polyesters have desirable properties of easily forming into complex shapes. Materials like glass and boron have extremely high g y g tensile and compressive strength but on application of stress random surface flaws will cause the material to crack even below breaking point. This problem can be overcome by producing the material in the fiber form since these flaws can be reduced. On mixing resin with glass, carbon and aramid, materials of exceptional properties are obtained. The resin matrix spreads the load applied to the composite between each of the individual fibers and also protects the fibers from damage caused by abrasive. High strength and stiffness, ease of moulding complex shapes and high environmental resistance and low densities make these composites superior to even metals for many applications.
o o o
Fig.: The combined effect on modulus of the addition of fibers to resin matrix matrix.
Properties of composites
o The properties of the composite are determined by a) properties of the fiber b) properties of the resin c) ratio of fibre to resin in the composite and d) geometry and orientation of the fibers in the composite. o The higher the fiber volume fraction, the better will be the mechanical properties of the resultant composite. ‐ However, the fibers need to be fully coated in resin to be effective. ‐ The inclusion of fiber in the manufacturing process leads to imperfections and air inclusions. E.g.. a) In boat‐ building industry fiber level will be 30 – 40 %. b) In aerospace industry precise processes are used to manufacture materials h i 70% of fib f t t i l having f fiber.
Properties of composites
o The geometry of the fibers in a composite is important since fibers have th i hi h t mechanical properties along th i l h their highest h i l ti l their length th th than across width. o This leads to the highly anisotropic properties of composites. o This is very advantageous since it is only necessary to put material where loads will be applied and thus redundant material is avoided. o The manufacturing processes, which are employed have critical part to play in determining the performance of the resultant structure.
Loading Characteristics of composites
o There are four main direct loads that any material in a structure has to withstand a) Tension b) Compression b) Compression c) Shear & d) Flexure. d) Flexure
Loading characteristics of composites
o Tension ‐ The response of a composite material to tensile loads depends on the
tensile stiffness and strength properties of the reinforcement fibers fibers. ‐ These are far higher for fibre compared to the resin system.
o Compression p
The adhesive and stiffness properties of the resin system are crucial, as the resin has to maintain fibers as straight columns and prevent them from buckling buckling.
o Under shear loads the resin plays a major role in transferring the stresses across the composite. o For the good shear strength of composite material, the resin must exhibit good mechanical properties and high adhesion to the reinforcement fiber. o The inter‐laminar shear strength of a composite is often used to indicate these properties in a multiplayer composite (laminate).
Fig. : The shear load applied to a composite body
o Flexural loads are a combination of tensile, compressive and shear loads. o In the figure shown shown, ‐ the upper face experiences compression, ‐ the lower face experiences tension and ‐ central portion of the laminate experiences shear.
Fig. :The loading due to flexure on a composite body
Comparison with other structural materials
o The composite properties can vary by a factor of 10 with
a) the range of fiber contents and y b) orientation of the fibre commonly achieved. o The lowest properties for each material are associated with simple manufacturing processes and material ith i l f t i d t i l forms. o The higher properties are associated with higher technology manufacturing like aerospace industry.
Properties of nanocomposites Nanocomposites offer much diff N it ff h different properties than t ti th conventional composites. The most important ones are enhanced mechanical strength optical transparency improved thermal stability improved barrier properties improved flexibility novel electrical properties etc etc.
Since a lower degree of swelling indicates better curing, it is obvious that the sample with 50% nanosilica stands out as less cured. Tg proportional to concentration of fillers, but curing is less
o Polymer nanocomposites find importance since incorporation of these materials into polymer matrices give property improvement remarkably. o These can be incorporated into plastic foams to improve their inferior mechanical strength, poor surface quality and low thermal and dimensional stability stability. o Nanocomposite foams based on the combination of functional nanoparticles and super‐critical fluid forming technology may lead to a new class of materials that are light weight, high strength and multifunctional. o Polymer composites are widely used in automotive, aerospace, constructions and electronic industries because of their improved mechanical properties and physical properties over pure polymers.
Poly(dimethylsiloxane) >>>> PDMS
Types of polymer nanocomposites
o Polymer nanocomposites are divided into two general types:
a) Intercalated nanocomposites consisting of a regular penetration of the polymer in between bet een the cla la ers clay layers. b) Delaminated/exfoliated nanocomposites where thick layers of the nanofillers are dispersed in the matrix forming a monolithic structure on the microscale. o Exfoliation (material science) is the process responsible for breaking up particle aggregates.
Types of nanocomposites yp p
o Nanocomposites are usually divided as:
a) Platelet like nano structure (clay) b) Nanotubes & nanofibers (CNF) c) Spherical nanoparticles (ceramics, metals block copolymers) c) Spherical nanoparticles (ceramics metals block copolymers) o All three types of nanomaterials have been used in Nanocomposite synthesis and processing p y p g o The following nanoparticles have attracted much attention: a) plate‐like clay nanoparticles b) carbon nanofibers and c) carbon nanotubes
Synthesis of nanocomposites
a) b) c) Solution blending Melt blending & In situ polymerization
a) Solution blending:
- S l t or solvent mixture i used t di Solvent l t i t is d to disperse th nanoparticles the ti l and dissolve the polymer matrix. ‐ Polymer chain is then adsorbed on the nanoparticles and solvent is removed
‐ Large amount of solvent required and product cost is high ‐ The nanoparticles may re-agglomerate re agglomerate o Inorganic layered silicates are able to exfoliate in water and form colloidal particles. o Several polymer nanocomposites including polyethylene oxide nanocomposites, oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid are prepared using solution blending.
Synthesis of nanocomposites
b) Melt blending: b) M lt bl di
o Direct mixing of nanoparticles with a molten polymer.
o Process eliminates the use of sol ent se solvent. o Economically attractive route in fabricating polymer nanocomposites. y ,p y y p yp py p f - Nylon 6, polystyrene and polypropylene composites are manufactured by this method. o This melt intercalation gives a simple way of preparing nanocomposites. p y y p y g o Polar interactions of polymer and clay surface play a critical role in achieving particle dispersion. o For non polar polymers (polypropylene) a compatibilizer such as maleic anhydride modified polypropylene (PP‐MA) is commonly added to improve the compatibility of polypropylene and clay. tibilit f l l d l o Polymers and carbon nanofibers, nanocomposites are also synthesized through this \ method. o Shear stress is needs to be controlled at an appropriate level to disintegrate and disperse nanoparticles.
Synthesis of nanocomposites
c) In situ polymerization: c) In situ polymerization:
o Only viable method for most thermoset polymer to prepare nanocomposites.
o By tailoring the interactions between the monomer, the surfactants and the clay surface, exfoliated nanocomposites e.g. nylon 6, polycaprolactum, epoxy, polycarbonate have been synthesized via the ring opening polymerization. o Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have also been synthesized via in situ polymerization. 10 wt% of polystyrene was added into the mixture of styrene and carbon nanofibers to achieve a higher initial viscosity and consequently a more stable fiber suspension. o Polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride and polyolefins are three primary thermoplastics used in polymer foams
Synthesis of nanocomposites
During in situ polymerization, o Reactive groups containing carbon‐carbon double bonds were introduced to the l t th clay surface t i f to increase th clay exfoliation. the l f li ti o A nanoclay was prepared by the ion exchange of a reactive cationic surfactant 2‐methacryloxyethyl hexadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide 2 methacryloxyethyl (MHAB) with cations on the montmorillonite surface. o Closite is a clay containing non polar aliphatic chain with the anchored organic surfactant with polymerizable groups on MHAB provides an additional kinetic driving force for layer separation. o Complex exfoliation was reported for polystyrene nanocomposites synthesized with this reactive nanoclay at a clay concentration of 20 wt %.
Synthesis of PS nanocomposites
o Polystyrene clay nanocomposites were intercalated and exfoliated structures. synthesized in both
o To prepare the nanocomposites, organo‐nanoclay particles are pre‐ mixed with PS and then mechanically blended in single or twin screw extruders. extruders o The formation of nanocomposites depends on the penetration of polymer chains into the interlayer regions to separate the layers. o In situ polymerization has also been used to prepare PS nanocomposites. o By using reactive surfactants, the copolymerization of the interlayer surfactant and styrene monomer provides the driving force for delamination of clay crystallite crystallite.
Intercalated and exfoliated PS/clay nanocomposites
Dimethyl dihydrogenated -tallowalkyl ammonium chloride hl id
Methacryloxyl-oxyethyl Hexadecyl-dimethyl Ammonium bromide
Synthesis of PVC nanocomposites
1) By melt blending:
o Used to prepare exfoliated nanocomposites of PVC. o P ti l used i l d clay, calcium carbonate h d Particles d include l l i b t hydrosulphite, copper and l hit d antimony trioxide. o The polar nature of the C‐Cl bond makes it possible to form exfoliated nanocomposites of PVC in melt blending. o A plasticizer like dioctylphthalate may serve as a co‐intercalate to increase clay dispersion in PVC PVC.
2) In situ polymerization:
o Clay nanocomposites of PVC h l f have b been prepared b either emulsion d by h l polymerization or suspension polymerization. o In general in situ polymerization methods can achieve much better clay g p y y dispersion.
Synthesis of PVC nanocomposites
o Highly exfoliated PVC clay nanocomposites can also be produced by flocculating a mixture of polymer and clay mineral dispersion. (or) o By solution bl di l i blending. ‐ Organoclay tends to induce the degradation of PVC because of its low thermal stability.
o To reduce the degradation of PVC one of the following approaches is used:
i) Co‐intercalate dioctylphthalate into organoclay and then compound the mixture
with PVC Dioctylphthalate covers the quaternary amine groups preventing a PVC. contact between amine and active chlorine atoms.
ii) Intercalate or exfoliate nanoclay in a polymer such as epoxy or polycaprolactum ) y p y p y p y p which has good miscibility with PVC, by in situ polymerization to get a layer of epoxy or polycaprolactum which prevents the direct contact of organoclay with PVC in melt blending, inhibiting its degradation.
Biomedical Applications of Polymer Composites
o Biomaterials in the form of implants like sutures, bone plates, joint replacement ligaments, vascular grafts, heart valves, intraocular lenses, dental implants etc. and medical devices like pacemakers, bio sensors, artificial hearts and blood tubes are widely used to improve the quality of life of the patients. p y g p o Bio compatibility is measured to indicate the biological performance of materials. o Optimal interaction between biomaterial and host is reached when both the surface and the structural compatibilities are met. o A large number of polymers are used in various biomedical applications. o Ceramics are known for their good bio compatibility, corrosion resistance and g p y high compression resistance. o Since the fiber reinforced polymers exhibit low elastic modulus and high strength, strength they are used in several orthopedic applications applications.
Composites in biomedical applications
o The composite materials offer several advantages over metals and alloys in biomedical applications such as:
a) The radio transparency can be adjusted by adding contrast medium to the polymer. b) The polymer composite materials are fully compatible with the modern diagnostic methods such as computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as they are non‐magnetic.
The applications include:
a) Hard tissue applications b) Bone cement c) Synthetic bone graft materials
Hard Tissue applications
o D i th external fi ti of b During the t l fixation f bones i case of f t in f fractures, casting material ti t i l used includes fabrics of glass and polyester fibers. o However, plaster of Paris has many disadvantages like heaviness, bulkiness, and low fatigue strength radio opaque and long setting time. o Casts made of glass or polyester fiber fabrics and water activated p y polyurethanes are gaining popularity because of g gp p y ‐ ease of handling ‐ light weight ‐ comfortable to anatomical shape p ‐ strong and stiff ‐ water proof ‐ radiolucent ‐ easy to remove ‐ permeable to ventilation (to avoid the patient’s skin getting scorched or weakened)
Fixations using nanocomposites g p
o External fixation made of stainless steel designs are being used which are heavy and cause discomfort to the patients. o External fixations made using polymer composite materials are gaining acceptance because of their light weight yet sufficient strength and stiffness. o In the internal fixation approach bone fragments are held together by different ways using these nanocomposite implants b i l because of their fl ibili and bi f h i flexibility d bio‐compatibility ibili
o Th most widely used b The t id l d bone cement i b d on Pol (meth l methacr late) t is based Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also called acrylic bone cement. o It is self polymerizing and contains solid PMMA powder and liquid MMA monomer. monomer o Fiber reinforcement with metal also reduces the peak temperature during polymerization of the cement and thus reducing tissue necrosis. o The reinforced cement possesses higher fracture toughness, fatigue resistance and damage energy absorption capabilities than the unreinforced cement. o In another approach, bone particles or surface reactive glass powders are mixed with PMMA b ih bone cement to achieve i hi immediate mechanical fi i of PMMA di h i l fixation f with chemical bonding of bone particles or surface reactive glass powder with the bone. o Formation of this chemical bond makes it possible for mechanical stresses to be transferred across the cement/bone interface. o For developing new bone cements the requirements are that it can be shaped, moulded or injected to conform to complex internalcavities in bone and it must harden in situ.
Synthetic bone graft materials Synthetic bone graft materials
o The bone graft material must be sufficiently strong and stiff and also capable of bonding to the residual bones. o Polyethylene is considered biocompatible for satisfactory usage in hip and knee joint replacement for many years. o For load bearing applications, properties of polyethylene need to g pp ,p p p y y be enhanced. o In order to improve the mechanical properties polyethylene is reinforced with hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] to get a composite material.
Advantages/disadvantages of advanced composites: S. No. S N
Advantages Ad t
Weight reduction High strength or stiffness to weight ratio Tailorable properties Can tailor strength or stiffness to be in the load direction Redundant load paths (fiber to fiber) Longer life (no corrosion) Lower manufacturing costs because of less part count Inherent damping I h td i Increased (or decreased) thermal or electrical conductivity
Disadvantages Di d t
Cost of raw materials and fabrication
Transverse properties may be weak
3 4 5
Matrix is weak, low toughness Reuse and disposal may be difficult Difficult to attach
Analysis i diffi lt A l i is difficult Matrix subject to environmental degradation
Some typical Industrial Applications and reasons for using composites
Reason for use
Lighter, Stiff Li ht Stiffer and d stronger Lower inertia, faster startups, less deflection Lightweight, damage tolerance More reproducible complex surfaces l f Less pain and fatigue
Boron, all carbon/ graphites, some B ll b / hit aramid High strength carbon/graphite, epoxy High strength carbon/graphite, fiberglass, (hybrids), epoxy High strength or high modulus carbon graphite/ d l b hit / epoxy Carbon/graphite/epoxy
Military aircraft, better performance Milit i ft b tt f Commercial aircraft, operating costs Industrial rolls, for paper, films Very high modulus CNG tanks for ’green’ cars, trucks and busses to reduce environmental pollution High-speed aircraft. Metal skins tb f d t l cannot be formed accurately Tennis, squash and racquetball Racquets. Metallic racquets are no longer available. Golf shafts, fishing rods X-ray tables Racing cars Automotive and industrial drive shafts Commercial boats Freeway support structure repair after earthquake
Tailorability of bending & twisting response Transparency to radiation Crashworthiness Higher natural frequency, lighter Water resistance Ease of field application
Carbon/graphite-epoxy Carbon/ graphite-epoxy Carbon/ graphite-epoxy Carbon/ graphite-epoxy Fiberglass (woven fabric), polyester or isopolyester Carbon/graphite, fiberglass - epoxy, tape and fabric
Advantages of Composite materials 1. High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation. 2. High ‘strength or stiffness to weight’ ratio. As enumerated above, weight savings are significant ranging from 25-45% of the weight of 25 45% conventional metallic designs. 3. 3 Directional tailoring capabilities to meet the design requirements requirements. The fibre pattern can be laid in a manner that will tailor the structure to efficiently sustain the applied loads loads. 4. Composites offer improved torsional stiffness. This implies high whirling speeds reduced number of intermediate bearings and speeds, supporting structural elements. The overall part count and manufacturing & assembly costs are thus reduced. f t i bl t th d d 5. High resistance to impact damage.
6. Composites are dimensionally stable i.e. they have low thermal conductivity and l d ti it d low coefficient of th ffi i t f thermal expansion. C l i Composite materials it t i l can be tailored to comply with a broad range of thermal expansion design requirements and to minimize thermal stresses. stresses 7. The improved weatherability of composites in a marine environ. as well as their corrosion resistance and durability reduce the down time for maintenance. 8. Material is reduced because composite p p parts and structures are frequently q y built to shape rather than machined to the required configuration, as is common with metals. 9. Excellent heat sink properties of composites, especially C-C, combined with their lightweight have extended their use for aircraft brakes. 10. Improved friction and wear properties.
Disadvantage of Composites Some of the associated disadvantages of advanced composites are as follows: 1. High cost of raw materials and fabrication. 2. Transverse properties may be weak. 3. Reuse and disposal may be difficult. 4. Difficult to attach. 5. Hot curing is necessary in many cases requiring special tooling. 6. Hot or cold curing takes time and analysis is difficult. 7. Matrix is subject to environmental degradation
para-aramid synthetic fiber : kevlar
Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene bisphenol-A-glycidyl dimethacrylate Poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted C fibre Kevlar fiber (KF) Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
Thermoplastic matrices offer certain advantages of thermosets p g No chemical reaction that causes release of gas products or exothermic heat The materials can be reworked Low processing time At normal temperature they have an optimum combination of toughness, toughness rigidity and creep resistance
List of composite parts in the main structure of the Boeing 757-200 aircraft
Nose landing gear doors: Graphite Wing-to-body Wing to body fairings: graphite/kevlar/fiberglass and graphite/kevlar + non-woven kevlar mat Body main landing gear doors: graphite Trunnion fairings and wing landing gear doors: graphite/kevlar Brakes : structural carbon Cowl components: graphite Spoilers: graphite Wing leading edge lower panels: kevlar/fiberglass Fixed trailing edge panels: graphite/kevlar + non-woven kevlar mat Fixed trailing edge panels upper: graphite/fiberglass and lower: graphite/kevlar + non-woven kevlar mat Elevators: graphite El hi Fixed trailing edge panels: graphite/kevlar + non-woven kevlat mat Rudder: graphite Tip fairings : fiberglass Aft flaps: i) outboard: graphite ii) inboard: graphite/fiberglass Flap support fairings: i) Fwd segments: G/kevlar + non-woven k mat ii) Aft segment: graphite/fiberglass Ailerons: graphite Ail hit Engine strut fairings: kevlar/fiberglass Environmental control system ducts: kevlar
Sp pecific ten nsile stren ngth = ela astic strength/density (in arbitrary units)
Specific tensile modulus = elastic modulus/density (in arbitrary units)