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Kornhauser, A. A. “Internal Combustion Engines” The Engineering Handbook. Ed. Richard C.

Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

© 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

Internal Combustion Engines
66.1 Basics of Operation 66.2 Engine Classifications 66.3 Spark Ignition Engines
Idealized and Actual Cycles • Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions • Control • Advantages Idealized and Actual Cycles • Combustion, Fuels, and Emissions • Control • Advantages 4-Stroke Intake and Exhaust • 2-Stroke Scavenging • Supercharging and Turbocharging Engine Arrangements • Valve Gear • Lubrication • Cooling

66.4 Compression Ignition Engines 66.5 Gas Exchange Systems 66.6 Design Details

66.7 Design and Performance Data for Typical Engines

Alan A. Kornhauser
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

An internal combustion (i.c.) engine is a heat engine in which the thermal energy comes from a chemical reaction within the working fluid. In external combustion engines, such as steam engines, heat is transferred to the working fluid through a solid wall and rejected to the environment through another solid wall. In i.c. engines, heat is released by a chemical reaction in the working fluid and rejected by exhausting the working fluid to the environment. Internal combustion engines have two intrinsic advantages over other engine types: 1. They require no heat exchangers (except for auxiliary cooling). Thus, weight, volume, cost, and complexity are reduced. 2. They require no high temperature heat transfer through walls. Thus, the maximum temperature of the working fluid can exceed maximum allowable wall material temperature. They also have some intrinsic disadvantages: 1. Practically, working fluids are limited to air and products of combustion. 2. Nonfuel heat sources (waste heat, solar, nuclear) cannot be used. 3. There is little flexibility in combustion conditions because they are largely set by engine requirements. This can make low-emissions combustion hard to attain.

© 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

1. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . 4. 2. Work is done on the working fluid. the title "internal combustion" is used only for the first two of these three types. The typical engine cycle is divided into four steps: 1. engines include reciprocating types. i. Intake. rotary (Wankel) types. Valves are closed. Engine working volume decreases. According to the definition given above. engine. Air/fuel mixture burns and releases chemical energy.c. Working volume increases. engines comprise more individual units and more rated power than all other types of heat engines combined. A more proper designation might be "positive displacement internal combustion" engines. Engine working volume increases. Compression. 3. Figure 66. Exhaust. In customary usage. If fuel was not admitted previously.c. Combustion and expansion. and work (much greater than that of compression) is done by the working fluid.c. it is injected at this point. Exhaust valve opens to expel combustion products from the working volume. however.c. and the air or mixture is compressed. Intake valve opens to admit air or air/fuel mixture into the working volume. engine is shown in Fig.1 Basics of Operation The basic operation of an i.The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. 66. Pressure and temperature inside the working volume increase dramatically. Engine working volume decreases. and gas turbines. These are the engines described in this chapter. 66. I.1 Operating cycle for a 4-stroke i.

or diesel) engines. Figure 66. exhaust) comprising about 180°. In 4-stroke engines.1. 66. expansion. with each stage (intake.2 Engine arrangements. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .The engine shown is a 4-stroke reciprocating type.. details would vary for 2-stroke or rotary engines.. engines can be classified in various ways. petrol. In a 2-stroke engine intake and exhaust strokes are eliminated: gas exchange occurs when the piston is near bottom center position between the expansion and compression strokes. Some important classifications are: Spark ignition/compression ignition.2 Engine Classifications I. compression. or Otto) engines. the working cycle is as shown in Fig.i. 4-stroke/2-stroke. A complete 4-stroke cycle takes two crankshaft revolutions. the fuel is injected after the compression process.c. An electric spark ignites the mixture. Because the piston does not provide pumping action. oil. the fuel is either mixed with the air prior to the intake stroke or shortly after inlet valve closure. In compression ignition (c. some external device is required to ensure that fresh air or mixture replaces the combustion products.i. 66. gasoline. The high temperature of the compressed gas causes ignition. In spark ignition (s. A complete 2-stroke cycle takes only one crankshaft revolution.

radially. engines can be classified by valve number and design (2. Additional rotor-stator pairs can be stacked on a single shaft to form larger engines. and constant volume cooling (simulating 1¡° intake and exhaust). 66. and 8 the most common. Reciprocating i.3 Spark Ignition Engines Idealized and Actual Cycles The spark ignition (s. the pumping action of the piston face draws air into the cylinder. where rº is the compression ratio and ° is the gas specific heat ratio.4) is ´t = 1 ¡ rº . constant volume heating (simulating combustion).2. isentropic expansion. The cylinders can be arranged in line. loop-.c. 3.3 Pressure-volume diagrams for ideal and actual engine cycles. 66. The Otto cycle consists of isentropic compression. Figure 66.3(a)]. 4. engines use multiple piston-cylinder arrangements driving a single crankshaft. wedge. forces air into the cylinder.i. fuel injected). flat. or 4 valves per cylinder. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . ell.) engine can be idealized as an Otto cycle using an ideal gas with constant specific heat [Fig. the pumping action of the back side of the piston in the crankcase forces air into the cylinder. or horizontally opposed. in a vee. In crankcase scavenged engines. and by cylinder wall cooling method (air. The spaces between the rotor and the stator go through essentially the same processes shown in Fig. engines use an approximately triangular rotor which revolves eccentrically in a lobed stator.1.c. Besides the major classifications above. by combustion chamber shape (tee. A single rotor-stator pair is thus equivalent to three cylinders. In supercharged engines. The total number of cylinders per engine ranges from 1 to 20 or more. Various mechanical layouts are shown in Fig. hemisphere. bowl-in-piston). a compressor. Intake system. by fuel addition method (carbureted. In naturally aspirated engines. the compressor is driven by a turbine which recovers work from the exhaust gas. The thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle (Fig. 66. typically driven off the crankshaft.Mechanical layout. or uniflow-scavenged). Rotary i. 66. In turbocharged engines. water). 66. 6. rocker arm or overhead cam. cross-. with 1.

Figure 66.4 Efficiency of ideal cycles and actual engines. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .

3(c)] differs from the Otto cycle: (1) in that heat transfer occurs during compression and expansion. and low engine speeds. Combustion is initiated by an electric spark. 66. thus. a turbulent flame front travels smoothly and rapidly across the cylinder space. For a given rº . The low numbers of these ranges correspond to Á ¼ 1. (2) in that combustion takes place gradually during compression and expansion rather than instantaneously. the spark is typically discharged 5° to 40° before top center. engines. engine is considerably lower than that of the ideal cycle (Fig. To time the heat release optimally. 66.i. and high engine speeds. It takes a 15−25° crank angle for the first 10% of the mixture to burn. and actual engine rº is limited by combustion knock. Because higher engine speeds result in increased turbulence and. high turbulence combustion chambers.i. and c.5 Heat release rates for s. with this advance automatically varied according to engine speed and load. Combustion.The actual engine "cycle" [Fig. low turbulence combustion chambers. air and vaporized fuel are generally premixed before they enter the cylinder. 66.5(a)]. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .4). the efficiency of a typical s. while the next 85% is burned within an additional 35−60° [Fig.3. Fuels.7 to 1. and Emissions In an s. in increased flame speeds. (3) in the presence of intake and exhaust processes. and (4) in the variation in gas composition and gas specific heat. Equivalence ratio (Á) generally ranges from about 0. the total crank angle for combustion increases only slightly as engine speed changes. Figure 66.i. but not enough to cause autoignition. engine. The mixture is heated by compression.i. If the engine is operating properly. with lean mixtures (low Á) giving maximum efficiency and the rich mixtures (high Á) giving maximum power. The high numbers correspond to rich or lean mixtures.

66.6) which is noisy and can damage the engine.6 Effect of knock on cylinder pressure. using more knock-resistant fuels. based on an empirical scale on which iso-octane has been assigned a rating of 100 and n-heptane a rating of zero.i. NO is formed from air at high temperatures. the combustion process in s. Liquid s. 66. It is important that any s. This resistance is expressed in terms of the octane number of the fuel. the flame does not burn smoothly. Most contemporary engines meet CO and HC emissions standards by running lean and using catalytic converters in their exhaust systems to complete the combustion. Figure 66. or natural gas. these octane numbers are usually obtained with the aid of additives. but can use other liquid or gaseous fuels. The resulting detonation wave causes an extremely rapid pressure rise (Fig. while smaller amounts remain in the products of lean mixtures due to chemical kinetic effects. retarding the spark. engine fuels must be adequately volatile to evaporate fully prior to ignition. Knock can be avoided by decreasing the pressure ratio.7): carbon monoxide (CO). but not so volatile as to cause problems with storage and transfer. NO is typically reduced by limiting flame temperature through lean operation and exhaust gas © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . and the chemical kinetics allow it to remain as the burned gas cools. In these cases the mixture ahead of the flame front is heated by compression and autoignites before the flame arrives. engines produces several pollutants (Fig. alcohol. HCs are left over from the combustion of rich mixtures and from flame quenching at walls and crevices in lean mixtures. and nitric oxide (NO).Under some operating conditions. Besides carbon dioxide and water. fuel be resistant to autoignition. unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). and designing the combustion chamber to ensure that the last mixture burned is in the coolest part of the cylinder. the phenomenon is known as knock. Because of the noise. Typical gasolines have octane numbers in the 85−105 range.i.i. S. increasing flame speed. engines are usually fueled with gasoline. Large amounts of CO are formed as an equilibrium product in rich mixtures.i.

and HC are also in use. Since the ranges of Á and spark timing over which the engine will run smoothly are limited. engine emissions. engine must govern engine output. engine output is varied by reducing air flow while holding Á and © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .recirculation. but it must also regulate equivalence ratio and spark timing. but they require careful control of the air/fuel ratio.i. Figure 66.i. CO.7 Effect of equivalence ratio on s. Control The control system of an s. Catalytic converters that can simultaneously control NO.

Control of Á and timing is directed toward maximizing efficiency and minimizing emissions at a given speed and torque. with enrichment to Á > 1 for starting and maximum power operation.timing essentially constant.8(b)] injects a spray of fuel into the air stream. no contemporary U. A carburetor [Fig.i.8(a)] provides intrinsic control of Á by putting fuel and air flow through restrictions with the same differential pressure. Various corrective methods are used to provide near-constant lean Á over most of the air flow range. 66. production automobiles use carburetors. engine fuel addition devices. Engine output is usually controlled by throttling the intake air flow with a butterfly-type throttle valve. shutting down cylinders of multicylinder engines) have been tried to reduce output with less efficiency penalty. engines: carburetion and fuel injection. each © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . A fuel injector [Fig. a single injector serves for multiple cylinders.3(d)].i. The intrinsic control is imperfect because air is compressible while liquid fuels are not. The manifold between the carburetor and the cylinder(s) must be arranged so that fuel evaporates fully (and is evenly distributed among the cylinders). in port injection (more common).S. There are two basic methods of mixing fuel and air for s. 66. In throttle body injection. 66. but they are not widely used.8 S. Due to the difficulty in obtaining low emissions levels. This reduces net output by reducing the heat release and increasing the pumping work [Fig. Other methods (late intake valve closing. Figure 66.

66. For older designs. engine is considerably lower than that of the ideal cycle (Fig. the efficiency of a typical s. The pressure-volume diagrams for actual s. and (5) in the variation in gas composition and gas specific heat. They are typically controlled by digital electronics.4) is 1¡° ° ´t = 1 ¡ rº (rc ¡ 1)=(rc ¡ 1)=° . engines have higher mass and volume power density.4). inlet manifold vacuum. with the necessary adjustments to the fuel addition and ignition systems made through pressure-driven diaphragms. The volume of injected fuel is controlled in response to various measurements. Some electronically controlled engines incorporate vibrational knock sensors to retard the spark if required. idealizes the volume ratio over the fuel addition period. the mixture is kept lean. constant pressure heating (simulating combustion). (4) in the presence of intake and exhaust processes. and solenoid actuators. The diesel cycle consists of isentropic compression. digital electronics. For a given rº and rc . centrifugal speed sensors.4 Compression Ignition Engines Idealized and Actual Cycles The compression ignition (c. and c. 66. high speeds and high vacuums require more advance. the arrangements for gaseous fuels are similar. The advantages of s. (3) in that combustion continues after the end of fuel addition.cylinder has its own injector. 66. s.i. greater fuel availability (for automotive use). The thermal efficiency of a diesel cycle (Fig. rc .i. 66. and wider speed range. 66. Port injectors are timed to spray fuel while the inlet valve is closed. control is almost entirely mechanical.8 shows carburetors and fuel injectors used for liquid fuels.i. including speed. except for starting and maximum power. The actual engine cycle [Fig. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . (2) in that combustion takes place at varying rather than constant pressure. and linkages. and exhaust oxygen concentration. The high voltage (10−25 kV) for the ignition spark is provided either by interrupting current through a choke or discharging a capacitor. The spark advance is typically regulated in response to engine speed and manifold vacuum. Emissions are lower with use of a catalytic converter. Advantages Relative to compression ignition engines.3(b)]. lower first cost. On newer designs. isentropic expansion. engines become more pronounced for smaller sizes. engines are quite similar. The cutoff ratio. As for carburetors. Figure 66. control is mainly through electronic sensors.i. The switching required for spark generation and control can be done either mechanically or electronically.) engine can be idealized as a diesel cycle using an ideal gas with constant specific heat [Fig. to allow evaporation time.i.i. and constant volume cooling (simulating intake and exhaust).3(c)] differs from the diesel cycle (1) in that heat transfer occurs during compression and expansion.

the pockets of fuel which so far have escaped the flame are consumed. medium-speed engines.i. Since the fuel and air are not premixed. Overall equivalence ratio (Á) generally ranges from about 0. engine combustionchamber types. engine. and rich mixtures corresponding to full power with considerable smoke emission. no matter what the overall Á. For medium-size. Since the premixed combustion has a rapid pressure rise which causes rough operation.) engines. low-speed engines. In the late combustion phase. mixes with the air.i. In the mixing−controlled combustion phase. with high cylinder wall temperature.) engines (Fig. engines does.i. and reacts slowly. In the premixed combustion phase. engine combustion takes place in four stages [Fig. The fuel and burned gases from the prechamber then expand into the main combustion chamber and combine with the remaining air. the fuel which evaporated and mixed during the delay period burns rapidly in a process similar to that in s. high compression ratio. C. and high cetane number fuel. highly turbulent prechamber.i. In small. This is done by minimizing ignition delay time and evaporation rate during that time.i.d.15−0. Minimum delay is obtained by injecting at the optimum time (10−15° before top center). 66. Fuels.Combustion. combustion is adequate when the fuel is injected directly into the center of a relatively quiescent combustion chamber. In the ignition delay period. combustion is initiated in a small. Indirect injection (see below) gives little premixed combustion. For large. Fuel is injected as a fine spray beginning slightly before the volume reaches a minimum and ignites after coming in contact with the hot air.9 C.i. knock.i.8. it is desirable to minimize the amount of fuel vaporized before it begins. high-speed engines. while those with a prechamber are known as indirect injection (i. with lean mixtures (low Á) corresponding to idle and low power. a diffusion flame exists at the boundary between a rich atomized fuel-air mixture and the remaining air in the cylinder.i. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . the combustion chamber must be designed for increased turbulence in order for combustion to take place in the time available. Figure 66. fuel evaporates. hot. The combustion process in c. air is compressed before fuel is added.9).5(b)]. engines does not speed up with increased turbulence as much as the process in s. 66. combustion takes place at near Á = 1. and Emissions In a c. Engines with a single chamber are known as direct injection (d.

i. In a unit injector system. fuel have adequate autoignition properties. Some of these fuels must be heated before they can be pumped. Carbon monoxide and gaseous hydrocarbon emissions from diesel engines are relatively small. low-cost c. engines are not throttled. and the chemical kinetics allow them to remain as the burned gases cool. Two types of systems are used: injection pump and unit injector (Fig. nitric oxide (NO). but are controlled by regulating the amount of fuel injected and the injection timing. oils ranging from crude to kerosene can be used. It is important that any c.i.i. Hydrocarbons then adsorb onto the soot particles during expansion and exhaust. but a single barrel with a fuel distributor is also used. Besides carbon dioxide and water. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . high pour point can be a problem. engines produces several pollutants. Depending on the engine design.i. engines are fueled with petroleum oils consisting of longer-chain molecules than those in gasolines. and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ). the combustion process in c.i. Because of the required high injection pressures. The pump typically has individual barrels for each cylinder. fuels. fuel systems.10). The ignition quality is expressed in terms of the cetane number of the fuel. Carbonaceous soot is formed by fuel pyrolysis in rich regions near the flame front.10 C. there is a pump and nozzle on each cylinder. based on an empirical scale on which n-hexadecane (cetane) has been assigned a rating of 100 and heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane) a rating of 15. Control C.i. Typical c. almost all diesel engine fuel injectors are mechanically rather than electrically driven.i. For heavy. Figure 66.C. the most important of which are soot (carbon plus hydrocarbons). Soot emissions are highest at high loads. NO and NO2 are formed from air at high temperatures. driven by a shaft running over all the cylinder heads. fuels have cetane numbers in the 30−60 range. 66. a central pump timed to the camshaft delivers fuel to nozzles located at each cylinder. In an injection pump system.

i. reducing flow friction in the intake system.5 Gas Exchange Systems The torque of an internal combustion engine is primarily limited by the mass of air that can be captured in the cylinder. High performance engines utilize two or three intake valves per cylinder to maximize flow area. some heat transfer is necessary to prevent fuel from puddling in the intake manifold. but fuel delivery is controlled by unloading solenoids. Intake air cleaners are designed for minimum flow resistance consistent with adequate dirt © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Intake piping is normally designed for minimum pressure drop. engines. In recent years. Intake valves are thus made as large as possible. However. torque is increased by the cooling effect of fuel evaporation. In s. In the past.i. Since residual exhaust gas takes up space that could be used for fresh charge. electronically controlled injector pumps have become common.The injection start and duration are varied according to engine load and operating conditions. Since c. engines have higher thermal efficiency at full load and much higher thermal efficiency at low load. which are therefore used in many racing cars. reducing residual exhaust gas.i. engines are often fitted with auxiliary compression brakes which increase engine pumping work. Electronic control allows fuel delivery to be adjusted in response to engine operating conditions and is useful in achieving low emissions. engine torque is proportional to the pressure of the air entering the cylinder.i. They also are capable of using inexpensive fuels such as heavy fuel oil. they do not provide engine braking. It has been found experimentally that engine air flow and torque are inversely proportional to the square root of the stagnation temperature of the air entering the cylinder. the power is supplied mechanically. however. engines are not throttled at reduced load. 4-Stroke Intake and Exhaust Air flow into a naturally aspirated 4-stroke engine is optimized by reducing charge temperature.i. Torque is adversely affected by heat transfer to the intake air from the hot cylinder and exhaust manifold. Exhaust design is also driven by the need to muffle the noise generated by the sudden flow acceleration at exhaust valve opening. in carbureted s. exhaust system design also affects engine output. In these units. c. engines. This effect is much larger with alcohol fuels. engines. Intake system design is therefore a major factor in determining the torque for a given engine displacement. For heavy vehicle use. and tuning and extended valve opening. the intake manifold is often designed for optimal fuel evaporation and distribution rather than for minimum flow friction.i. Advantages Relative to spark ignition engines. In carbureted s. the control was generally accomplished through purely mechanical means and consisted mainly of increasing the injection duration in response to increased torque demand. This pressure is increased by minimizing the intake pressure drop. 66. c. According to both experiment and theory.

66. but two exhaust valves per cylinder are sometimes used to minimize pressure drop. Cross-scavenging [Fig. Exhaust system pressure drop is usually increased by the use of a muffler to reduce exhaust noise. exhaust valves open 40−70° before bottom center and close 15−35° after top center. Back pressure due to exhaust system pressure drop increases the concentration of burned gas in the charge and thus reduces torque. Larger engines use either rotary superchargers or turbochargers. These allow more freedom in crankcase lubrication.removal. but pressure falls rapidly when the exhaust valve opens. or one carburetor per cylinder engines because the design of intake manifolds for other carbureted engines and throttle-body injected engines is dominated by the need for good fuel distribution. In either case. By tuning the intake to 3. Most engine designs incorporate open periods well over 180° of crank angle: intake valves open 5−30° before top center and close 45−75° after bottom center. expansion waves reflected from the junctions arrive at the exhaust valve when it is near closing. Helmholtz resonators. engines are generally crankcase scavengedthe bottom face of the piston is used to pump the air and oil is generally added to the fuel to lubricate the crank bearings. 4. or 5 times the cycle frequency. The extended valve open period is generally used in combination with intake and exhaust tuning. performance away from the design speed is penalized. uniflow scavenging [Fig. 2-Stroke Scavenging In a 2-stroke engine. .12(c)] requires poppet valves as well. 66. At high engine speeds. Cylinder pressure just prior to exhaust valve opening is much higher than atmospheric. intake and exhaust take place simultaneously.) Valves are thus open when piston motion is in the opposite direction from the desired gas flow. Individual cylinder exhaust systems are tuned as organ-pipe resonators. port fuel injected. or more complex resonating systems. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .11). The cylinder and piston are arranged to maximize inflow of fresh charge and outflow of exhaust while minimizing their mixing. pressure at the intake valve can be increased during the critical periods near valve opening and closing. Branched exhaust systems are tuned so that.12(a)] and loop-scavenging [Fig. (The longer valve open times correspond to high performance engines. Good intake and exhaust system design makes use of the dynamic effects of gas acceleration and deceleration. an extended valve open period is detrimental to performance. Intake systems are often acoustically tuned as organ-pipe resonators. Some engines incorporate variable valve timing to obtain optimum performance over a range of speeds. and some means of air pumping is needed for gas exchange (Fig. at design speed.12(b)] require only cylinder wall ports.i. 66. the correct flow direction is maintained by gas inertial effects. At low engine speeds. Such tuning is usually limited to diesel. The tuning penalizes performance at some speeds away from the design speed. The effect of exhaust system pressure drop is less than that of intake system pressure drop. 66. Small s.

12 Scavenging arrangements. engines are thus used mainly where low weight and first cost are of primary importance.i. only air is lost through the exhaust.i. Scavenging spark ignition engines involves a trade-off between residual gas left in the cylinder and air-fuel mixture lost out the exhaust.Figure 66.11 Scavenging and supercharging systems Figure 66. engines can be built to be suitable for any service. while 2-stroke c. In compression ignition engines. Two-stroke s. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .

Supercharging and Turbocharging The output of a given i. Although it actually applies to all types of auxiliary air compression systems. Radial engines are used primarily in aircraft. Vee engines are used where compactness is important.13. and very large marine and stationary engines. 66. They are also used where the need for a narrow footprint overrides length and height considerations. Their disadvantage is that the use of shaft power to drive the compressor results in decreased overall thermal efficiency. They have not captured a major share of any market sector. or supercharger. the overall compression ratio is increased. to increase the pressure and. the engine is usually modified to reduce its compression ratio. Opposed engines are used primarily where low height is importantin rear engine automobiles and for small marine engines meant for below-deck installation. When supercharging or turbocharging is added to a naturally aspirated engine. Roots blowers are unacceptably inefficient at pressure ratios greater than about 2. valve-in-head/rocker arm. the term supercharger is generally used to describe systems driven by the engine output shaft.6 Design Details Engine Arrangements Various engine cylinder arrangements are shown in Fig. 66. or valve-in-head/overhead cam. The arrangements are illustrated in Fig. Air compression systems powered by an exhaust gas-driven turbine are known as turbochargers.2. They are also used for some small aircraft engines. positive-displacement superchargers have the advantages of increasing their delivery in proportion to engine speed and of responding almost instantly to speed changes. where their design allows for efficient air cooling. large truck engines. and medium-size marine and stationary engines. the most common being the Roots blower (Fig. engine can be increased by providing an auxiliary air compressor. Vee engines are used for large automobile engines. The in-line design is most popular for small utility and automobile engines. Rotary (Wankel) engines have been used primarily in sports cars.11). locomotive engines. 66. thus. where they allow for ease in air cooling and servicing. Valve Gear Poppet valves on 4-stroke and uniflow 2-stroke engines fall into one of three categories: valve-in-block. small truck engines. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Most shaft-driven superchargers are positive displacement compressors. In-line engines are favored for applications in which some sacrifice in compactness is justified by mechanical simplicity and ease of maintenance. 66.c. the density of the air entering the cylinder intake. Shaft-driven. However.

Rolling contact bearings are rarely used. in a T-head engine. gear or chain driven at half the crankshaft speed. engine are at the piston rings. a hydrodynamic film is maintained by rotation. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . The most critical lubrication areas in an i. For the connecting rod bearings the two effects are combined. Valve-in-head/rocker arm engines have the valves installed in the cylinder head while maintaining a camshaft in the block. intake and exhaust valves are on the same side of the cylinder. but are in a boundary lubrication regime near top and bottom center. In recent years. Typical designs have two compression rings to seal the gases and an oil control ring to wipe oil from the cylinder wall. Piston rings ride on a hydrodynamic film at midstroke.c. and the designs are currently used only for inexpensive utility engines. Valve-in-block engines are the cheapest to manufacture.13 Valve arrangements. which are required to seal the high-pressure gas in the cylinder and prevent excess oil from entering the cylinder. In the crankshaft bearings. The design allows compact combustion chambers. the maintenance of a film depends on the oscillating nature of the load. they are on opposite sides. engines are plain or grooved journal bearings. A majority of production automobile engines have this type of valve drive. in the piston pin bearings. The design allows both compact combustion chamber design and accurate control of valve motion. overhead cam designs have become increasingly common in high-performance automobile engines. Lubrication The bearings of most i. In an L-head arrangement. but is more expensive to manufacture and more difficult to maintain than rocker arm designs. Valve-in-head/overhead cam engines have valves in the cylinder head directly driven by a camshaft running over all the heads. Lubrication is aided by good ring (alloy cast iron) and cylinder wall (cast iron or chrome-plated steel) materials. but control of valve motion suffers from the slack in the long mechanical drive train.Figure 66. The valves are directly driven by a camshaft located in the block.c. The performance of these engines suffers from the elongated shape of the combustion chamber.

Air-cooled engines have finned external surfaces on their pistons and heads to improve heat transfer and fans to circulate air over the engine.i. t.0 10.a. 4-stroke. engines are liquid cooled. Smaller engines depend on convection from the oil pan to cool the oil. Ratio 9.7 Design and Performance Data for Typical Engines Design and performance data for various engines are given in Table 66.a.Low-cost engines are splash lubricated by running the crankshaft partly in an oil pan.s.s. Small marine engines are typically cooled directly with water from the environment. Marine. c. s. but also increases the viscosity of the coolant. Rated Power (kW) 8... s.s.c. s. Motorcyclele 4-stroke. 2-stroke. but all other engines have force-feed lubrication systems that deliver filtered oil to the bearings..i. n.i. Liquid-cooled engines use either water or an aqueous ethylene glycol solution as coolant.i.1. s..i.0 8. When the glycol is used.c.i. Automobilele 4-stroke.1 8. many large aircraft engines have been air cooled.1 Design and Performance Data for Various Internal Combustion Engines Application and Type Cylinders/Arrangem ent 1 1 1 2/in-line 1 2/in-line 4/in-line 4/in-line Displ. Utility.5 6. 66. Motorcyclele 2-stroke. n.9 Rated Speed (rpm) 9000 8000 3600 7000 3600 6800 5200 5600 Mass (kg) 5. c.. (l) 0:10 0:13 0:17 0:30 0:45 0:89 Comp.7 10. Automobilele 4-stroke.4 11.9 61 73 106 38. n. s. While most air-cooled engines are small. it gives lower freezing and higher boiling points.i. s. 4-stroke.a. About a third of the energy input to a typical engine is dissipated through the cooling system. n.i.5 2. 2-stroke. and the valve train. Utility. Although some natural-convection cooling systems have been built. while others have auxiliary oil coolers. and most small engines are air cooled. c. The larger passages needed for air require that the cylinders be more widely spaced than for liquid-cooled engines.a. s. Cooling Most large i.5 19. most engines have the coolant pumped through numerous passages in the cylinder walls and heads and then into a heat exchanger where the heat is transferred to the environment.0 6.2 Utility. s.2 7.. Table 66..6 9.6 13.2 2:2 2:2 © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . the cylinder walls below the piston.9 7..

c. normally slow.i.c. which destroy pollutants. c. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC .c.i.s.c.i. Aircraft 4-stroke.3 8.c.a. engine fuels. Cambridge. Equivalence ratio: Fuel/air ratio relative to fuel/air ratio for stoichiometric combustion.2 53 66 48 100 280 201 1 140 2 800 3 400 36 000 4500 4150 2300 3400 2100 1900 2800 950 1000 87 76 1100 890 670 16 700 25 000 1:62 ¢ 106 Based on Taylor.a. 2-stroke. 2nd ed.i. Indirect injection c. Automobilele 4-stroke. c.: naturally aspirated..i..3 7.. c. c.4 17 16.: crankcase scavenged.. c. Locomotiveve 2-stroke.c.a. MIT Press. t. 2-stroke.c.. t. Truck/Bus.21 16 12.i. 1985. c.i.c. 4-stroke. MA.i. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice. Diesel cycle: Thermodynamic idealization of compression ignition engine. C. Truck/Bus. F. t. Cetane number: Empirical number quantifying ignition properties of c.c. Compression ignition engine: Fuel and air compressed separately.i.. c.i..: turbocharged. Large Marine. n. Locomotiveve 4-stroke.a.. Direct injection c. ignited by high air compression temperatures. Aircraft 4-stroke. t. 4/in-line 4/in-line 4/opposed 8/vee 8/vee 6/in-line 9/radial 16/vee 16/vee 12/in-line 2:3 2:3 2:8 5:0 9:5 10 30 172 239 14 500 23 21 6. s.. Compression ratio: Ratio of maximum working volume to minimum working volume. t.Automobilele 4-stroke. Cutoff ratio: Fraction of expansion stroke during which heat is added in diesel cycle. t. s. Defining Terms Carburetor: Controls fuel-air mixture by flowing air and fuel across restrictions with the same differential pressure. n. t. c.i..i. engine: Fuel is injected into a prechamber connected to the main combustion chamber. C. engine: Fuel is injected directly into the main combustion chamber.i. Catalytic converter: Uses catalyst to speed up chemical reactions. n. n. Automobilele 4-stroke.

i. fuels. Octane number: Empirical number quantifying antiknock properties of s. Cambridge.Injection pump: Delivers metered high-pressure fuel to all fuel injector nozzles of a c. McGraw-Hill. Tuning: Designing intake and exhaust so that flow is acoustically reinforced at design speed. F. Fuel injector: Controls fuel-air mixture by metering fuel in proportion to measured or predicted air flow. Obert. engine. engine cylinder. 2-stroke engine: One power stroke per cylinder per revolution. References Benson. L. D. New York. Cummins. The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice.i. 1989. 1968. J. Thermal efficiency: Engine work divided by heat input or lower heating value of fuel used. Society of Automotive Engineers. MA. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . Overhead cam engine: Valves are in head. Supercharged engine: Shaft-driven air compressor forces air into cylinder. Heywood. and Whitehouse. 1989. F.. Taylor. N. Harper Collins. Knock: Spark ignition engine phenomenon in which fuel-air mixture detonates instead of burning smoothly. 2nd ed. E. Warrendale. 4-stroke engine: One power stroke per cylinder per two revolutions. Jr. rev. Rocker arm engine: Valves are in head. R. Internal Combustion Engines. Otto cycle: Thermodynamic idealization of spark ignition engine. Valve-in-block engine: Low-cost design in which valves are driven directly by a camshaft in the cylinder block. Scavenging: Intake/exhaust process in 2-stroke engines. Turbocharged engine: Air forced into cylinder by compressor driven by exhaust gas turbine. MIT Press. Internal Fire. 3rd ed. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. 1988. New York. 1985. New York. PA. driven by camshaft running over top of head. Naturally aspirated engine: Piston face pumping action alone draws in air. ignited by electric spark. S. B.i. ed. C. Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution. Unit injector: Combination pump and nozzle which delivers metered fuel to a single c. Pergamon. driven from camshaft in block by push rods and rocker arms. Spark ignition engine: Fuel and air compressed together. C.

Phone (412) 776-4841. they are still invaluable sources of information. Cummins. Internal Fire by Lyle C.. PA. but is less accessible to those with no previous i. Warrendale. The Society of Automotive Engineers publishes SAE Transactions and a wide variety of books and papers on internal combustion engines. © 1998 by CRC PRESS LLC . 15096. is a fascinating history of the i. engine.c.c. For more information contact: SAE. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by John B. Obert and The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice by Charles Fayette Taylor are comprehensive and highly readable texts on i. Although they are somewhat dated. USA.Further Information Internal Combustion Engines and Air Pollution by Edward F. Jr. engines. Heywood is an up-to-date and comprehensive text. engine background than the texts above.c. 400 Commonwealth Drive.

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