AN INDEPENNT RESEARCH PROJECT ON

THE EFFECTIVE USE OF BUILDING MATERIALS FOR TEMPERATURE CONTROL, FOR BUILDINGS IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA.

BY

AKINOLA .O. FRANCIS ARC/05/5590

SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE, SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENY TECHNOLOGY, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AKURE, ONDO STATE. IN

PARTIAL, FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF TECHNOLOGY (B-TECH) DEGREE IN ARCHITECTURE.

SEPTEMBER 2010

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DECLEARATION I hereby declare that this research work was carried out by AKINOLA OLUJIDE FRANCIS, matriculation no ARC/05/5590 of the Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo state.

Student Signature.

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CERTIFICATION This is to certify that, this research work was carried out by AKINOLA OLUJIDE FRANCIS (ARC/05/5590) of the Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo state.

Arc Fakere. A. A (Supervisor)

Prof Olotuah. O.A. (Head of Department)

Arc Adam J.J (Project Co-ordinator)

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DEDICATION This research work is dedicated to the God almighty and my loving parents.

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ACKNOWLEDGEM ENT My profound gratitude goes to God Almighty, who has kept me safe throughout my stay in this institution and in the numerous ways he has been merciful to me. My sincere gratitude also goes to lovely parents Mr and Mrs S.A Akinola for all their care and support for me. I also appreciate my siblings Kemi, Soji, and Mayowa for all their support and encouragement during my academic pursuit. I also wish to express my gratitude to my caring supervisor, Arc Fakere. A. A for his time, brotherly love and impactation of knowledge. I cannot forget all my lecturers Prof O.A Olotuah, Prof Fadamiro, Arc J.J Adam, Arc (Dr.) G Fadairo, Arc Bobadoye and a host of others that have contributed to my stay in this noble institution. My heart also goes out to my Uncles Mr Segun Akinola, Mr Shola Akinola, and Mr Kayode Akinola and his family for all their support. I will not also forget my friends Jide, Seyi, Folarin, Oyewole, Funke, Aanu, Mosun and every member of the Nigeria Federation of Catholic Student (NFCS.). Lastly, I want to appreciate my priests at St Alberts atholic Chaplaincy, Rev. Fr. Rapheal Adesulu and Rev. Fr. Valentine Omolakin for their spiritual guidance and support and every other persons that are too numerous to mention, who has in one way or the other contributed to my successful completion of this research work.

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TABLE OF CONTENT
Content Title page Declaration Certification Dedication Acknowledgement Table of content List of plates List of tables List of figures Abstract pages i ii iii iv v vi xi xii xiii xiv

CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUC TION1 1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.................................................................................1 1.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH..........................................................3 1.3. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH.........................................................................................3 1.4. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE RESEARCH......................................................................3 1.5. LIMITATIONS.................................................................................................................4 1.6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................................................................4

CHAPTER TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEW........................................................................................................6 2.1. CLIMATE..........................................................................................................................6 2.1.1. 2.1.2. World Climate..........................................................................................................6 Elements of climate..................................................................................................8 Solar Radiation.............................................................................................8 Air Mass.......................................................................................................9 Pressure system............................................................................................9

2.1.2.1. 2.1.2.2. 2.1.2.3.
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2.1.2.4. 2.1.2.5. 2.1.3.

Ocean current...............................................................................................9 Topography................................................................................................10

Factors affecting the world climate.......................................................................10 Distance from the sea (Continentality)......................................................10 Ocean currents...........................................................................................11 Direction of prevailing winds....................................................................12 Relief.........................................................................................................12 Proximity to the equator............................................................................13 El Niño......................................................................................................13 Human influence.......................................................................................15

2.1.3.1. 2.1.3.2. 2.1.3.3. 2.1.3.4. 2.1.3.5. 2.1.3.6. 2.1.3.7. 2.1.4. 2.1.5.

Tropical climate Zones.........................................................................................16 The Nigerian climate............................................................................................18

2.2. TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL COMFORT.........................................................20 2.2.1.1. 2.2.1.2. 2.2.1.3. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. Fahrenheit.................................................................................................20 Celsius......................................................................................................20 Kelvin.......................................................................................................21

The Basic Concept of Thermal Comfort.............................................................22 Thermal Balance on Human Body......................................................................23 Factors Affecting Thermal Comfort....................................................................24 Air temperature.......................................................................................24 The mean radiant temperature................................................................25 Air Velocity............................................................................................25 The Relative Humidity...........................................................................26 The Intrinsic Clothing............................................................................26 The Activity...........................................................................................27

2.2.4.1. 2.2.4.2. 2.2.4.3. 2.2.4.4. 2.2.4.5. 2.2.4.6.

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2.3.

BUILDING MATERIALS................................................................................28

2.3.1. Historical review of the use of building materials.............................................29 2.3.2. Types of construction materials used in southern Nigeria....................................31 2.3.2.1. 2.3.2.2. 2.3.2.3. 2.3.2.4. 2.3.2.5. 2.3.2.6. 2.3.2.7. 2.4. 2.4.1. Stone........................................................................................................32 Concrete...................................................................................................32 Wood.......................................................................................................33 Metal........................................................................................................33 Glass........................................................................................................33 Lateri.......................................................................................................34 Sand Crete blocks...................................................................................35

THERMAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BUILDING...........................................37 Thermal Quantities.............................................................................................37 Temperature...................................................................................................37 Heat...............................................................................................................37 Specific Heat.................................................................................................37 Thermal Capacity..........................................................................................37 Power............................................................................................................37 Thermal Conductivity...................................................................................37 Thermal Conductance...................................................................................38 Thermal Resistivity.......................................................................................38 Thermal Resistance.......................................................................................38

2.4.1.1. 2.4.1.2. 2.4.1.3. 2.4.1.4. 2.4.1.5. 2.4.1.6. 2.4.1.7. 2.4.1.8. 2.4.1.9.

2.4.1.10. Surface Resistance and Conductance...........................................................38 2.4.1.11. Air to Air Resistance.....................................................................................38 2.4.1.12. Cavity Resistance and Conductance.............................................................39 2.4.1.13. Absorptivity..................................................................................................39 2.4.1.14. Sol-Air Temperature.....................................................................................39
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2.4.2. Thermal Properties of Building Materials and Elements..................................39 2.4.2.1.1. Air to Air Transmittance...................................................................................39 2.4.2.1.2. Solar Gain Factor..............................................................................................40 2.4.2.1.3. Time Lag...........................................................................................................40 2.4.2.1.4. Admittance........................................................................................................40 2.5. THERMAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BUILDING.......................................................41 2.5.1. 2.5.2. 2.5.3. 2.5.4. 2.5.5. 2.5.6. 2.5.7. 2.5.8. 2.5.9. Heat Gains.........................................................................................................41 Heat Losses.......................................................................................................41 Conduction........................................................................................................42 Convection........................................................................................................42 Solar Gains........................................................................................................43 The Green House Effects..................................................................................43 Internal Heat Gain.............................................................................................44 Device Mechanical............................................................................................44 Evaporation.......................................................................................................44

2.6. REQUIRED THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING ELEMENTS...................45 2.6.1. 2.6.2. 2.6.3. 2.6.4. 2.6.5. Hot Dry Climates..............................................................................................45 Warm Humid Climate.......................................................................................46 Cold climates.....................................................................................................46 Composite climate.............................................................................................47 Floors.................................................................................................................48

2.7. CONDENSATION............................................................................................................49 2.7.1. 2.7.2. Surface Condensation........................................................................................49 Interstitials Condensation..................................................................................49

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CHAPTER THREE 3. CASE STUDY...................................................................................................................51 3.1. Case study 1; St. Albert s catholic chaplaincy...........................................................52 3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3. Description.......................................................................................................53 Materials Used For Various Building Components.........................................55 Observation / Deduction..................................................................................56

3.2. Case study 3; Mary queen of angel catholic church...................................................60 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. Description.......................................................................................................60 Materials Used For Various Building Components.........................................61 Observation / Deduction..................................................................................63

3.3. Case study 1; St Don Bosco Catholic Church...........................................................65 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. Description......................................................................................................65 Materials Used For Various Building Components........................................66 Observation / Deduction.................................................................................67

CHAPTER FOUR 4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION..........................................................68 4.1. CONCLUSION........................................................................................................68 4.2. RECOMMENDATION............................................................................................68

5.0

REFERENCES..........................................................................................................69

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LIST OF PLATES PLATES PAGES.

Plate 1: Smog in Indonesia caused by El Niño forces.....................................................................15 Plate 2: showing stone arrangement for walling purpose................................................................31 Plate3: showing Adobe sundried mud brick in Afghanistan...........................................................34 Plate 4: showing sand Crete blocks being cut in India....................................................................35 Plate 5: sand Crete block walls used for foundation walls and block work....................................36 Plate 6: Showing the Approach Elevation of the church................................................................52 Plate 7: Showing the Ceiling and the floor finishes of the sanctuary..............................................55 Plate 8: Showing the ceiling material of the whole building...........................................................60 Plate 2: Showing the floor and the ceiling finish of the sanctuary..................................................60 Plate 10: Showing St. Don Bosco Catholic Church Araromi..........................................................63 Plate 11: Showing the use of decoration sand Crete blocks for the walling and the stabilized laterite walling....................................................................................................64

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LIST OF TABLES PLATES PAGES.

Table 1: showing the properties of the various climatic elements at the Northern and southern area of Nigeria at different season.........................................................................................18 Table 2: Showing the various forms of temperature and their various conversation formulas..............................................................................................22 Table 3: showing the thermal properties of metals............................................................................33 Table 4: Showing the comfortable floor temperature for various Building materials.......................48 Table 5: Showing the saturated vapour Pressure as a function of Air temperature...........................50

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LIST OF FIGURES PLATES PAGES.

Figure 1: showing the classification of the world climate...................................................................7 Figure 2: showing the Ocean Currents of the World.........................................................................11 Figure 3: Showing the global wind pattern.......................................................................................12 Figure 4: The Earth's Position in Relation to the Sun.......................................................................13 Figure 5: Showing the green house effect on the world s climate as a result of human activities................................................................................................................16 Figure 6: showing the variations in the Nigeria vegetation which is as a result of the response to climate changes, as one moves from the north to the southern part of the country..............................................................................................................18 Figure 7: showing the ways in which, heat is lost and gained in humans.........................................23 Figure 8: showing the effect of breathing on human comfort, thermally..........................................24 Figure 9: showing means by which temperature is loss by the body through the skin.....................25 Figure 10: showing the reduction of heat loss due to intrinsic clothing...........................................26 Figure 11: showing ways in which loss can be reduced by Adaptive position................................27 Figure 12: Showing the time lag and decrement factor....................................................................40 Figure 13: Showing the Thermal balance within a building.............................................................41 Figure 14: Showing the Green house effect the shortwave radiation is transmitted by the glass, absorbed by the concrete mass and emitted as long wave radiation................44 Figure 15: Showing the Wall treatment for thermal Capacity...........................................................46 Figure 16: Showing Wall treatment for insulation............................................................................46
Figure 17: Showing the Plan of the church Sacristy/Basement............................................................53 Figure 18: the Floor Plan and the Arrangement of the Church.............................................................54 Figure 19: Showing the Floor Plan of Mary Queen of Angels Catholic Church...................................59

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ABSTRACT Materials are the fabric of any building and they go a long way to determine the level of comfort or otherwise experienced in a building and this is true for all the climatic regions of the world. Southern Nigeria, apart from being in the tropics also experiences low temperature due to its closeness to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to design buildings that will meet the thermal comfort needs of the clients, the choice of the materials and their usage for individual building component, (E.g. Wall, roof, window, door, and floor e.t.c) must be understood in other to manage the thermal environment of the building. Improper use of building materials in this climate can be of detrimental to the buildings comfort. Solar radiation from the sun is the main energy source that heats up a building fabric, in other to achieve a thermal comfort for buildings it must be brought to check, by the use of one or combination of the following: I. Thermal Insulating materials that can prevent heat energy from getting into the building and cause temperature increase or decrease. II. Using heat absorbers i.e. materials that have good thermal storage capacities that can store heat energy within them for a period of time before they begin to release such energy to their immediate environment (mostly indigenous materials, adobe, cod laterite walls, bamboos e.t.c). III. Using heat reflective materials that can reflect incoming solar heat back to the environment and prevent heat gain or loss within the building interior spaces. IV. Wind flow or movement within a building flame is very important; fresh air has to be exchanged with used air within the interior space from time to time. This study shows that, a combination of all these materials, within a building fabric allows for a thermally balanced building environment, putting in mind several other factors.

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CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUC TION 1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY There are three fundamental or basic needs of every man which is food, clothing and shelter. The basic function of housing is to provide shelter from harsh climatic conditions (sun and rain, heat and cold), external aggressions (protection from animals and attacks from humans) privacy and storage of possession. Hence, housing is meant to protect man against harsh climatic conditions such as temperature; the centre focus of this thesis (Oludare, 2005). The climate is a determinant of how much solar radiation gets to the earth surface and the temperature that is existent within that particular geographical location; this in turn determines the level of thermal comfort examined in these regions. The effects of climatic variables on the elements of climate, has lead to the existence of the various climatic regions of the world. (Akinsemoyin and Vaughan-Richards, 1976) These climatic regions as responded also by the demand of different materials that can be used within the region to ensure for thermal comfort. The climatic regions of the world can be divided into the following under listed categories with each of them, possessing peculiar characteristics. 1) Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius. 2) Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year. 3) Moist Mid-latitude Climates with Mild Winters. 4) Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Cold Winters. 5) Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers. (Pidwirny 2006). Nigerian happens to fall into the tropical moist climate which according to Köppen's widelyrecognized scheme of climate classification. It also defines the tropical climate as a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F). Area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, defined by the parallels of latitude approximately 23°30 north and south of the Equator. Climates within the tropics lie in parallel bands. Along the Equator is the
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inter-tropical convergence zone, characterized by high temperatures and year-round heavy rainfall. Tropical rainforests are found here. Along the tropics lies the tropical high-pressure zone, characterized by descending dry air and desert conditions. Between these, the conditions vary seasonally between wet and dry, producing the tropical grasslands. Two of the most important factors determining an area's climate are air temperature (temperature as the centre focus) and precipitation. (Boucher, 1975) A house cannot be built without a fundamental knowledge of the building materials and the determinant factors that lead to the choice of using that material. (Gordons 1995). Every building is made of fundamental materials which can be harnessed in an efficient manner to solve the

problem of thermal discomfort within the interior spaces of the building which is the aim or the centre focus of this thesis. In typical south western set up in Nigeria the use of mud was predominant, as mud walling are known to be efficient in maintain a thermally balanced interior environment of building in all seasons and at every time of the day. (Oke, 2005) The respect for climate is also shown in the basic materials used for their construction, no matter how limited they are, the materials range from traditional use and method of construction defines the culture of the peoples architecture (Givoni, 1969). 1.2. AIM AND OBJECTIVES Aim This thesis aims to look into the proper use of materials of different properties in buildings, in other to achieve thermal comfort. Objectives In order to carry out an effective study, the following objectives were highlighted, which includes; I. To understand the climate of Southern Nigeria and the role of temperature as a determinant factor of climate. II. III.
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To study the factors that affects the thermal comfort of an environment. To study the basic building materials and their thermal properties.

IV.

To determine the best materials to be used for the various building elements, in terms of resistance to temperature.

1.3. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH This thesis takes a look at the concept of climate and how it defines the climatic regions of the world with a keen look at the tropical climate, studying the effect of temperature and factors that determine the temperature in this region. The focus is on the concept of thermal comfort, its influential factor and the role various building materials, (concrete, wood, roofing tiles, aluminium roofing sheets, sand Crete blocks e.t.c) play in maintaining, a balanced thermal environment at all time. Religious buildings within the Akure city are the subjects of this thesis work. 1.4. JUSTIFICATION The function of any building has moved beyond the stage of being just a shelter, and is seen to deal with everything that has to do with the comfort of the individuals living in such buildings (Fadamiro, 2005). Temperature, to a great extent determines the level of comfort or otherwise enjoyed by an individual living within a building fabric. The tropical climate defines a region, where the average temperature is about 20oC (Crowden, 2005). A house cannot be built without the fundamental knowledge of the building materials (Gordons, 1995). Hence, it is believed that materials can play a vital in the control of temperature in building coupled with so many other factors in the building. This is as a result of the fact that the materials used in the construction of the building can be said to be the fabric that wraps round the building as a whole and if well harnessed can be used to achieve a thermally balanced interior environment of any building (Ogunsote, 1991) Due to the fact above it becomes imperative; to undertake this study to view ways in which building materials can be used to control and maintain the interior temperature of buildings. 1.5. LIMITATIONS During the cause of the study the following limitations were experienced, which were;
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I. II. III. IV.

Access to materials from the library and other archives. Poor documentation of statistics by statutory organisation. Information provided is outdated. Lack of co-operations and low-level of information from those interviewed.

1.6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The process of data collection was through two main sources, which are; 1. Primary data sources. 2. Secondary data sources. The primary sources of data collection were majorly through site visitations, interviews with people and direct observations on the site. The secondary the sources were obtained from the following sources which includes; Books, journals, seminar presentations, the internet, lecture notes, and other relevant sources.

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CHAPTER TWO 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. CLIMATE

Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a certain place on earth over a period of time of at least 35years. This includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions, seasons and weather extremes like hurricanes, droughts, or rainy periods. World biomes are controlled by climate. The climate of a region will determine what plants will grow there, and what animals will inhabit it. All three components, climate, plants and animals are interwoven to create the fabric of a biome in which individual buildings and structures exist (Strahler et al, 1984). 2.1.1. World Climate The climate of the world is determined by the effect of the sun. The sun is the only source of energy to the earth. The energy getting to the earth is in the form of solar radiation, which is a major determinant of the various climatic zones existent in the world. Temperature and precipitation has been very important in the study of climatology over the decades. These two climatic elements are very important to our daily activities. Other climatic elements such: wind speed and direction, cloud type and amount, sunshine duration, atmospheric humidity, air pressure, and visibility are also noticeable in our daily activities. In the cause of this thesis, temperature is the most important factor that we are look at and how it relates to thermal comfort. In the various building types that are available for human dwelling. (Robinson, 1992) If we take the total amount of solar radiation reaching the outer surface of the earth as 100%, then 20% is reflected from clouds, 25% is absorbed in the atmosphere and 5% is reflected from the ground. Only 50% of the total radiation is thus absorbed by the Earth's surface with 23% of this being in the form of diffuse radiation and the remaining 27% as direct solar radiation. This energy is absorbed by the hydrosphere to raise water temperature, by the bare soil and by land and marine vegetation.
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Classification is based on maximum and minimum temperatures and the temperature range as well as the total and seasonal distribution of precipitation (Henderson-sellers and Robinson, 1992).

Figure 20: showing the classification of the world climate Source: www.metoffice.gov.uk/education/teachers/lates.

The climatic regions of the world can be divided into the following under listed categories with each of them, possessing peculiar characteristics, which are simple summarised below: 1) Tropical: hot and wet all year, with all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius. 2) Mediterranean: mild winters, dry hot summers 3) Arid: dry, hot all year, with deficient precipitation during most of the year. 4) Temperate: Climates with Cold Winters. They are cold winters and mild summers. 5) Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers. They are very cold and dry all year. 6) Mountains (tundra): very cold all year. (Pidwirny 2006) Nigerian happens to fall into the tropical moist climate which according to Köppen's widelyrecognized scheme of climate classification. It also defines the tropical climate as a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F). Area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, defined by the parallels of latitude approximately 23°30 north and south of the Equator. Climates within the tropics lie in parallel bands. Along the Equator is the

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inter-tropical convergence zone, characterized by high temperatures and year-round heavy rainfall. Tropical rainforests are found here (Airapetov, 1986). 2.1.2. Elements of Climate Climatology is the study of the long-term state of the atmosphere, or climate. The long-term state of the atmosphere is a function of a variety of interacting elements. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 2.1.2.1. Solar radiation Air masses Pressure systems (and cyclone belts) Ocean Currents Topography Solar Radiation

Solar radiation is probably the most important element of climate. Solar radiation first and foremost heats the Earth's surface which in turn determines the temperature of the air above. The receipt of solar radiation drives evaporation, so long as there is water available. Heating of the air determines its stability, which affects cloud development and precipitation. Unequal heating of the Earth's surface creates pressure gradients that result in wind. So you see, just about all the characteristics of climate can be traced back to the receipt of solar radiation. (Pidwirny, 2006) 2.1.2.2. Air Mass

Air mass as an element of climate subsumes the characteristics of temperature, humidity, and stability. Location relative to source regions of air masses in part determines the variation of the day-to-day weather and long-term climate of a place. For instance, the stormy climate of the mid latitudes is a product of lying in the boundary zone of greatly contrasting air masses called the polar front. (Markus and Morris, 1992) 2.1.2.3. Pressure system

Pressure systems have a direct impact on the precipitation characteristics of different climate regions. In general, places dominated by low pressure tend to be moist, while those dominated by high pressure are dry. The seasonality of precipitation is affected by the seasonal movement of

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global and regional pressure systems. Climates located at 10o to 15o of latitude experience a significant wet period when dominated by the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone and a dry period when the Subtropical High moves into this region. Likewise, the climate of Asia is impacted by the annual fluctuation of wind direction due to the monsoon. Pressure dominance also affects the receipt of solar radiation. Places dominated by high pressure tend to lack cloud cover and hence receive significant amounts of sunshine, especially in the low latitudes. 2.1.2.4. Ocean current

Ocean currents greatly affect the temperature and precipitation of a climate. Those climates bordering cold currents tend to be drier as the cold ocean water helps stabilize the air and inhibit cloud formation and precipitation. Air travelling over Cold Ocean currents lose energy to the water and thus moderate the temperature of nearby coastal locations. Air masses travelling over warm ocean currents promote instability and precipitation. Additionally, the warm ocean water keeps air temperatures somewhat warmer than locations just inland from the coast during the winter. 2.1.2.5. Topography

Topography affects climate in a variety of ways. The orientation of mountains to the prevailing wind affects precipitation. Windward slopes, those facing into the wind, experience more precipitation due to aerographic uplift of the air. Leeward sides of mountains are in the rain shadow and thus receive less precipitation. Air temperatures are affected by slope and orientation as slopes facing into the Sun will be warmer than those facing away. Temperature also decreases as one move towards higher elevations. Mountains have nearly the same effect as latitude does on climate. 2.1.3. Factors Affecting the World Climate There are many different factors that affect climate around the world. The most important factors are:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Distance From The Sea Ocean Currents Direction of Prevailing Winds Relief Proximity To The Equator

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The El Nino Phenomenon 7. Human Activity
6.

2.1.3.1.

Distance from the sea (Continentality)

The sea affects the climate of a place. Coastal areas are cooler and wetter than inland areas. Clouds form when warm air from inland areas meets cool air from the sea. The centres of continents are subject to a large range of temperatures. In the summer, temperatures can be very hot and dry as moisture from the sea evaporates before it reaches the centre of the continent. 2.1.3.2. Ocean currents The diagram to the left shows the ocean

Ocean currents can increase or reduce temperatures.

currents of the world. The main ocean current that affects the UK is the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current in the North Atlantic flowing from the Gulf of Mexico, northeast along the U.S coast, and from there to the British Isles. The Gulf of Mexico has higher air temperatures than Britain as its closer to the equator. This means that the air coming from the Gulf of Mexico to Britain is also warm. However, the air is also quite moist as it travels over the Atlantic Ocean. This is one reason why Britain often receives wet weather. The Gulf Stream keeps the west coast of Europe free from ice in the winter and, in the summer warmer than other places of similar latitude.

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Figure 21: showing the Ocean Currents of the World Source: http://www.itl.net

2.1.3.3.

Direction of prevailing winds

Winds that blow from the sea often bring rain to the coast and dry weather to inland areas. Winds that blow to Britain from warm inland areas such as Africa will be warm and dry. Winds that blow to Britain from inland areas such as the Netherlands will be cold and dry in winter. Britain s prevailing winds come from a south westerly direction over the Atlantic. The winds are cool in the summer and mild in the winter.

Figure 22: Showing the global wind pattern Source: www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-wind.htm

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2.1.3.4.

Relief

Climate can be affected by mountains. Mountains receive more rainfall than low lying areas because the temperature on top of mountains is lower than the temperature at sea level. That is why you often see snow on the top of mountains all year round. The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be. This happens because as altitude increases, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb and retain heat. 2.1.3.5. Proximity to the equator

The proximity to the equator affects the climate of a place. The equator receives the more sunlight than anywhere else on earth. This is due to its position in relation to the sun (see right). The

diagram shows that the equator is hotter because the sun has less area to heat. It is cooler at the north and south poles as the sun has more area to heat up. It is cooler as the heat is spread over a wider area.

Figure 23: The Earth's Position in Relation to the Sun Source: http://www.itl.net

2.1.3.6.

EL NINO

El Niño is defined by prolonged differences in Pacific-Ocean surface temperatures when compared with the average value. The accepted definition is a warming or cooling of at least 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) averaged over the east-central tropical Pacific Ocean. Typically, this anomaly happens at irregular

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intervals of 2 7 years and lasts nine months to two years. When this warming or cooling occurs for only seven to nine months, it is classified as El Niño/La Niña "conditions"; when it occurs for only five to seven months, it is classified as El Niño/La Niña "episodes". The first signs of an El Niño are: 1. Rise in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia 2. Fall in air pressure over Tahiti and the rest of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean 3. Trade winds in the south Pacific weaken or head east 4. Warm air rises near Peru, causing rain in the northern Peruvian deserts 5. Warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific. It takes the rain with it, causing extensive drought in the western Pacific and rainfall in the normally dry eastern Pacific. El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation, or ENSO, is a climate pattern that occurs across the tropical Pacific Ocean on average every five years, but over a period which varies from three to seven years, and is therefore, widely and significantly, known as "quasi-periodic". ENSO is best-known for its association with floods, droughts and other weather disturbances in many regions of the world, which vary with each event. Developing countries dependent upon agriculture and fishing, particularly those bordering the Pacific Ocean, are the most affected. ENSO is composed of two components: an ocean temperature component, called El Niño (or La Niña, in the cooling phase), which is characterized by warming or cooling of surface waters in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, and an ocean atmosphere component, the Southern Oscillation, which is characterized by changes in air surface pressure in the tropical western Pacific. The two components are coupled: when the warm oceanic phase (known as El Niño) accompanies high air surface pressure (known as Southern Oscillation) in the west Pacific, or when the cold phase (La Niña) accompanies low air surface pressure (also Southern Oscillation) in the west Pacific. Mechanisms that cause the oscillation remain under study.

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In popular usage, El Niño-Southern Oscillation is often called just "El Niño". El Niño is Spanish for "the boy" and refers to the Christ child, because periodic warming in the Pacific near South America is usually noticed around Christmas. El Nino, which affects wind and rainfall patterns, has been blamed for droughts and floods in countries around the Pacific Rim. El Nino refers to the irregular warming of surface water in the Pacific. The warmer water pumps energy and moisture into the atmosphere, altering global wind and rainfall patterns. The phenomenon has caused tornadoes in Florida, smog in Indonesia, and forest fires in Brazil (see below).

Plate 3: Smog in Indonesia caused by El Niño forces Source: http//news.bbc.co.uk

2.1.3.7.

HUMAN INFLUENCE

Anthropogenic factors are human activities that change the environment. In some cases the chain of causality of human influence on the climate is direct and unambiguous (for example, the effects of irrigation on local humidity), while in other instances it is less clear. Various hypotheses for human-induced climate change have been argued for many years. Presently the scientific consensus on climate change is that human activity is very likely the cause for the rapid increase in global average temperatures over the past several decades.

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The Industrial Revolution, starting at the end of the 19th Century, has had a huge effect on climate. The invention of the motor engine and the increased burning of fossil fuels have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The number of trees being cut down has also increased, meaning that the extra carbon dioxide produced cannot be changed into oxygen. (Houghton and John Theodore, 2001)

Figure 24: Showing the green house effect on the world s climate as a result of human activities. Source: www.usgcrp.gov/.../overviewclimate.htm 2.1.4. Tropical climate Places close to the equator where the Sun is hot all the year round are known as the tropics. The weather is usually hot and humid, and during the wet season, it rains heavily and regularly almost every day. The daytime temperature in the tropics rarely falls below 25°C, even in winter, and nights are generally almost as warm. The tropics however, are never as hot as the deserts that lie to the north and south of the tropical climate zone, and the temperature rarely exceeds 35°C. The tropics are home to the world's rainforests, found in Brazil, central Africa, Indonesia and Northern Australia. Nigeria is found within the tropical climatic zone. (Ogunsote, 1991) Climates within the tropics lie in parallel bands. Along the Equator is the inter-tropical convergence zone, characterized by high temperatures and year-round heavy rainfall. Tropical rainforests are found here. Along the tropics lies, the tropical high-pressure zones, characterized by
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descending dry air and desert conditions; between these, the conditions vary seasonally between wet and dry, producing the tropical grasslands. Apart from the general categorization the Nigerian climate can also be classified into eight regions based on koppens system of classification (Robinson, 2007). 2.1.4.1. Zones Based on Natural Vegetation

Vegetation is rarely used for classifying climatic design zones but most climatic classification systems relate to it (Evans, 1980). The logic of this is impeccable, since living vegetation reflects every nuance of climatic conditions throughout the year. The Times Atlas of the world describes the characteristics of the main vegetation zones. There are seventeen different zones and several sub-zones in the world. (McKnight, 2000) The system of classification generalized and there is considerable variation within each zone or sub-zone caused by differences in topography, altitude, wind patterns and ocean currents. There are certain difficulties experienced when defining climatic zones based on vegetation. One is the difficulty of defining boundaries, since there is usually considerable mixing of flora. Furthermore, the destruction of natural vegetation leads to a change in climatic conditions. While the climatic zones for architectural design cannot be established solely on the basis of vegetation, knowledge of the distribution of flora can be useful for comparative purposes. (Ogunsote, 1991)
Table 6: showing the properties of the various climatic elements at the Northern and Southern area of Nigeria at different seasons

Source: Defining architectural climatic zones in Nigeria through agriculture. (Ogunsote, 1991)

2.1.5. THE NIGERIAN CLIMATE Nigeria has a varied climate. Four climate zones can be distinguished as one move from the Southern part of the country to the northern part of the country.
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Figure 25: showing the variations in the Nigeria vegetation which is as a result of the response to climate changes, as one moves from the north to the Southern part of the country. Source: http//www.naijapals.com/vegetation

The Southern part of the country has an equatorial monsoonal climate influenced by the south west monsoonal winds (maritime tropical) MT air mass coming from the South Atlantic Ocean. Temperature ranges are small and constant throughout the year, Warri for example has its hottest month with 28 degrees centigrade and its coolest month with 26 degrees centigrade with the temperature range of not more than 2 degrees. Precipitation is heavy, between 1824mm to over 4000mm along the coast. Rain falls throughout the year with a short break in August and a longer break from December to January (Strahler et al, 1984.) The central region of Nigeria has a tropical humid climate; this region has a well marked rainy season which lasts from March to October and a pronounced dry season which lasts from November to March. Temperatures are high during the dry season but the onset of the rains lowers the temperatures. The northern part of the country exhibits the Tropical dry climate where rainfall is recorded for only three to four months (June-September). The rest of the year is dry and hot with temperature going up to 40 degrees centigrade. The mundane or highland climate can be found on different highland regions in the country (Nigeria). Most highlands in Nigeria are over 1000 meters high which forces temperatures to remain cold on them throughout the year.

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The main influence on weather in Nigeria are the trade winds, the south west trade winds from the Southern part of the country originating from the Atlantic Ocean and is responsible for Nigeria's rainy season, and the north east trade winds from the northern part of the country originating from the Sahara Desert is responsible for the Harmattan, a dry dusty wind that blows across the country from November to March.

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2.2. TEMPERATURE AND THERMAL COMFORT 2.2.1. Temperature Temperature is a measure of the amount of heat energy possessed by an object, because temperature is a relative measurement, scales based on reference points must be used to accurately measure temperature. There are three main scales commonly used in the world today to measure temperature which are 1. The Fahrenheit (°F) scale, 2. The Celsius (°C) scale, 3. The Kelvin (K) scale. Each of these scales uses a different set of divisions based on different reference points. 2.2.1.1. Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) was a German physicist who is credited with the invention of the alcohol thermometer in 1709 and the mercury thermometer in 1714. The Fahrenheit temperature scale was developed in 1724. Fahrenheit originally established a scale in which the temperature of an ice-water-salt mixture was set at 0 degrees. The temperature of an ice-water (no salt) mixture was set at 30 degrees and the temperature of the human body was set at 96 degrees. Using this scale, Fahrenheit measured the temperature of boiling water as 212°F on his scale. He later adjusted the freezing point of water from 30°F to 32°F, thus making the interval between the freezing and boiling points of water an even 180 degrees (and making body temperature the familiar 98.6°F). The Fahrenheit scale is still commonly used in the United States. 2.2.1.2. Celsius

Anders Celsius (1701-1744) was a Swedish astronomer credited with the invention of the centigrade scale in 1742. Celsius chose the melting point of ice and the boiling point of water as his two reference temperatures to provide for a simple and consistent method of thermometer calibration. Celsius divided the difference in temperature between the freezing and boiling points of water into 100 degrees (thus the name centi, meaning one hundred, and grade, meaning degrees).
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After Celsius's death, the centigrade scale was renamed the Celsius scale and the freezing point of water was set at 0°C and the boiling point of water at 100°C. The Celsius scale takes precedence over the Fahrenheit scale in scientific research because it is more compatible with the base ten format of the International System (SI) of metric measurement. In addition, the Celsius temperature scale is commonly used in most countries of the world other than the United States. 2.2.1.3. Kelvin

Lord William Kelvin (1824-1907) was a Scottish physicist who devised the Kelvin (K) scale in 1854. The Kelvin scale is based on the idea of absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which all molecular motion stops and no discernable energy can be detected. In theory, the zero point on the Kelvin scale is the lowest possible temperature that exists in the universe: -273.15ºC. The Kelvin scale uses the same unit of division as the Celsius scale; however, it resets the zero point to absolute zero: -273.15oC. The freezing point of water is therefore 273.15K (graduations are called Kelvin on the scale and neither the term degree nor the symbol oC are used) and 373.15K is the boiling point of water. The Kelvin scale, like the Celsius scale, is a standard SI unit of measurement used commonly in scientific measurements. Since there are no negative numbers on the Kelvin scale (because theoretically nothing can be colder than absolute zero), it is very convenient to use Kelvin, when measuring extremely low temperatures in scientific research. Although it may seem confusing, each of the three temperature scales discussed allows us to measure heat energy in a slightly different way. A temperature measurement in any of the three scales can be easily converted to another scale using the simple formulas below.
Table 7: Showing the various forms of temperature and their various conversation formulas

From ºF ºC K

Fahrenheit F (ºC * 1.8) + 32 (K-273.15)*9/5+32

Celsius (ºF - 32)/1.8 C K - 273.15

Kelvin (ºF-32)*5/9+273.15 ºC + 273.15 K

Source: http/www.welipedia.com/temperature.

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2.2.2. The Basic Concept of Thermal Comfort This thesis aims to focus on the design of building with in the tropical climatic region characterised majorly with high temperature. Climatic data gives us a more or less accurate idea of the external conditions of buildings. An analysis is usually carried out to ascertain how these external conditions compare with the required conditions. It is essential in this respect to define the limits within which people are likely to feel comfortable. Knowledge of these limits will be used to determine the degree of discomfort and the conditions such as the humidity and the temperature range, which are experienced simultaneously with uncomfortable or hot temperatures. The subjective nature of comfort must be stressed. It is not possible to achieve conditions in which everybody will be comfortable. The best comfort conditions are called optimum thermal conditions. Under these conditions about 50 to 75% of people feel comfortable. 2.2.3. Thermal Balance on Human Body The body gets energy from digestion of food through metabolism, that is the processes involved in converting foodstuff into living matter and energy.

Figure 26: showing the ways in which, heat is lost and gained in humans Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

There are two types of metabolism: Basal metabolism; which is the heat production of vegetative, automatic, processes which are continuous -breathing, digestion and circulation of blood.

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Muscular metabolism; which is the heat production of muscles while carrying out some work or activity. The body is not very efficient in turning chemical energy into physical energy and about 80% of the energy produced must be dissipated in form of heat. Apart from basal and muscular metabolism, the body can gain heat by conduction, convection and radiation from the environment. The heat from the body can be lost through conduction, convection, radiation and evaporation. In order to maintain a constant deep body temperature and thermal balance, the total heat gained must be equal to the total heat lost. There are mechanisms for controlling heat loss both inside and outside the body. These include sweating, shivering, and breathing. Control is maintained externally by clothing, activity rate, posture and choice of location. These are individual voluntary control mechanisms. The physical built environment can also affect the thermal environment, thereby contributing to the control of body temperature.

Figure 27: showing the effect of breathing on human comfort, thermally. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.2.4. Factors Affecting Thermal Comfort There are six major factors which affect thermal comfort. They are as listed below: I. II. III. IV. The air temperature The mean radiant temperature The air velocity The relative humidity

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V. VI.

The intrinsic clothing The level of activity

The first four are factors of the thermal environment. Apart from these major factors, there are several others that may have an effect on the sensation of comfort. These include age, sex, acclimatisation, body shape and health. 2.2.4.1. The air temperature

The air temperature that is the dry bulb temperature is a very important factor affecting thermal comfort. When temperatures are low, people feel cold and when they are high people feel hot. Comfort can approximately be achieved between 16 and 28 degrees Celsius. 2.2.4.2. The mean radiant temperature This refers usually to radiation to and from surfaces within an enclosure measured with the globe thermometer. The mean radiant temperature is calculated from the globe temperature using the air temperature and velocity. Comfort can be achieved if the globe temperature is between 16 and 28 degrees Celsius and if the difference between the mean radiant temperature and the dry bulb temperature is less than 5 degrees Celsius. The provision of more ventilating units in the building that can allow for the movement of air in and out of the building can help to maintain a steady body temperature.

Figure 28: showing means by which temperature is loss by the body through the skin.

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Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.2.4.3. Air Velocity Air movement is very effective in increasing heat loss from the body at high temperatures when sweating occurs. The air movement enhances the evaporation of sweat from the body there by cooling down the body. Air velocity of up to 0.1 metre per second may lead to a feeling of stuffiness indoors. Air velocities of 0.1 to 1.0 m/s are comfortable indoors when air movement is required but above this level there is discomfort. A kata thermometer is used to measure air movement due to low velocities. Outdoors, wind speeds of up to 2.0 m/s can help achieve comfort, especially when the humidity is high. Wind speeds of over 5.0 m/s lead to considerable discomfort (Ogunsote, 1991). 2.2.4.4. The Relative Humidity When there is low humidity the air is very dry and sweating is more effective in cooling down the body. However, when the humidity is high the air is damp and clammy and sweating is no longer very effective in cooling down the body (Gabriel, 2005). Thermal comfort can be achieved when the relative humidity is between 20 and 90%. In both ways the use of materials that are absorbers is very important. Also the free movement of the air into and outside the building becomes of paramount importance (Russel et.al, 1997). 2.2.4.5. The Intrinsic Clothing Clothing is measured in clo units: 0.5 clo => a pair of shorts for men and a cotton dress for women. 1.0 clo => normal business suit, shirt and underwear 2.0 clo => outdoor winter clothing. The range of intrinsic clothing for thermal comfort is taken to be from 0.5 to 1.0 clo (Ogunsote, 1991)

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Figure 29: showing the reduction of heat loss due to intrinsic clothing. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.2.4.6. The Activity The activity represents the metabolic rate. The higher the activity, the more heat is produced by the body. The metabolic rate is measured in W/m. The rate for a person sitting is about 58W/m and this is taken as the basic unit of activity known as the "met". As such: Sitting = 1 met Sleeping = 0.7 met Standing relaxed = 1.2 met Dancing = 2.4 -4.4 met Heavy machine work = 3.5 -4.5 met Comfort can be maintained with metabolic rates from about 0.7 to 2.5 met (Ogunsote, 1991)

Figure 30; showing ways in which loss can be reduced by Adaptive position. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

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2.3. BUILDING MATERIALS Building material is any material that is used in the construction of buildings not bothering with the use of the building being commercial, residential, or social building. This definition is applicable in both the natural and man-made materials. This definition expresses a generic and myopic of the term building material. It is generic in the sense that it dates back to the time when the first shelter was made by man (i.e. during the cave man s era). It is also myopic in the sense that it does not put into consideration the condition for the usage of the materials or if it s serving a purpose. It does not also determine if the material is local and durable. (Givoni, 1969) Building materials would be properly defined materials that are used in the construction of durable structure for the inhabitant taking into consideration the availability of the materials and the climatic conditions of the structures location. Temperature forming one of the deterministic elements of climate is what this thesis looks into. The ways in which these building materials can also be used to effectively control the elements of climate are also of paramount importance. A climatic element such as temperature is one of the most important in a tropical climate such as the south western Nigeria. (Gabriel, 2005) Building materials can be generally categorized into two sources, which are: 1. Natural building materials 2. Synthetic building materials. Natural building material: These are those building materials that are natural available in nature from which can use in the construction of his buildings. They include rocks, mud, timber, bamboo, laterite, e.t.c. Mud, stone, and fibrous plants are the most basic building materials, aside from tents made of flexible materials such as cloth or skins. People all over the world have used these three materials together to create homes to suit their local weather conditions. In general stone and/or brush are used as basic structural components in these buildings, while mud is used to fill in the space between, acting as a type of concrete and insulation (Ogunsote, 1991).

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A basic example is wattle and daub mostly used as permanent housing in tropical countries or as summer structures by ancient northern people (fadamiro, 2005). Synthetic (Man-Made) Building Materials: These building materials are made in industrial settings after much human manipulations, such as plastics and petroleum based paints. Over the years several other building materials have been developed in other to cater for the construction of better buildings that are responsive to thermal, acoustics, fire, loading e.t.c. Materials such as stainless steel, galvanised roofing sheets, dampaloons, Glass, aluco bonds, High yield steels, concrete, plastics, cements, to say a few of these materials. 2.3.1. Historical review of the use of building materials. Since ancient times, the development of building art has been associated with progress in building material and construction method. In his famous ten books of architecture , a real encyclopaedia of building architecture and technology of antiquity, Marcus Vitruvius Polio, who regarded architecture as a great science, incorporating various fluids of the knowledge pointed out that only he could reach the top of the temple architecture , which could attain the understanding of all the technical and artistic skills involved. The various building materials supplied by nature and worked to a different finish as well as the original construction techniques and materials. Knowledge is the source of power and most importantly materials, which has always been a major factor governing the potentialities of civilization and technical achievements of the society. The industrials revolution in the 1940 s brought in so many development and advancement in creating new building materials. This was as a result of higher demand in the type of building being designed that needed to span more lengths and make the building to be taller (in a search for the new Architecture). These lead to the use of lighter and stronger materials to be involved in the construction of buildings. Modern building is a multibillion dollar industry, and the production and harvesting of raw materials for building purposes is on a world wide scale. Often being a primary governmental and trade key point between nations. Environmental concerns are also becoming a

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major world topic concerning the availability and sustainability of certain materials, and the extraction of such large quantities needed for the human habitat. Over the decades in the south western part of the country building materials have been employed in several ways and manners in the construction of buildings within the region. The use of local/indigenous materials like mud bricks, laterites, raffia leaves, bamboos, palm fronds, stone e.t.c were predominant before the coming of the colonial masters. The northern region of the Nigeria country was known for its extensive use of brick walls within the region. The used the mud for virtually every building component even down to the roof because of their peculiar climate. The Southerners were known to use wattle and daub, cub laterite, and adobee for the buildings. When the colonial masters arrived they brought in their own materials, such as galvanised aluminium roofing sheet, sandcrete blocks, cement, awed and seasoned timbre, louvers e.t.c. that were used in the construction of the buildings in the country. This is seen in every south-western city of the country. 2.3.2. Basic building materials and the effects of temperature on them. There are several types of building materials employed in different locations of the world and some of them are present in every nation as the natural materials. Just about every matter materials is been used for construction at one time or the other for creating various human and animal homes, structures and technologies. For the purpose of this thesis the following basic building materials would be discussed which includes. 2.3.2.1. Stone

Stones can be defined as an aggregate or combination of minerals which are composed of inorganic substances. Stones or rocks (Natural stone) as it can be referred to, are natural resources that are available in most parts of the world and exist as granites, sandstones, graphite e.t.c. They can be cheaply extracted and can be used without further processing.

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Stones are very dense material, which makes them very strong and serve protective purposes. The energy density is also considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts of heating resources (i.e stones do not easily store thermal energy). One thermal property of natural stones is the co-efficient of thermal expansion. When a natural stone is exposed to a distinct temperature increase, it causes the stone to expand at a specific rate. The co-efficient of thermal expansion for natural stones varies. For example, the co-efficient of thermal expansion for quartzite is 1.3, while granite has 7.9 and limestone, 8.0. Specific heat capacity is another thermal property that tends to be important for natural stones. The specific heat capacity is the amount of thermal energy required to raise the temperature by 1 degree C per unit mass.

Plate 2: showing stone arrangement for walling purpose Source: http/www.ehow.com/whatisastone/

2.3.2.2.

Concrete

Concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate (composite) and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete is Portland cement concrete, which consists of mineral aggregate (generally gravel and sand), Portland cement and water. After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone-like material. When used in the generic sense, this is the material referred to by the term concrete. For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a rather low tensile strength, it is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars (known as REBARS). This strengthened concrete is then referred to as reinforced concrete. (Morabito, 2000)

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Due to several reasons concrete is a very good conductor of heat (it easily gets heated up).hence on a sunny day, the heat from the sun (solar Radiation) is easily transferred to the interior spaces of the building causing a general discomfort within the interior space. Hence, concrete as a building material alone cannot effectively protect a building from the temperature changes from the immediate environment of the building. 2.3.2.3. Wood Wood is a naturally occurring material; it is a generic building material and is used in building just about any type of structure in most climates. Wood can be defined as the hard fibrous substance, which forms part of a tree. When cut or processed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks and similar materials, it is a very good construction materials used in all parts of the world. Renewability is one of the outstanding qualities of wood, coupled with its thermal properties. Wood can be said to have an satisfactory thermal property in its usage as a building material. 2.3.2.4. Metal

Metals have high thermal conductivity. Heat is transferred through the metal crystal by free electrons. This is due to the low Specific Heat Capacity of metals. (Morabito, 2000).

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Table 8: showing the thermal properties of metals.

Thermal Material Conductivity Density

Specific Heat (Btu/lb/°F)

Melting Point (°F)

Latent Heat Fusion (Btu/lb)

Thermal of Expansion (in/in/°F 10-6) 13.1 11.2 9.8 7.9 14 2.9 5.8 4.9 10.8 13.1 x

Btu / (hr - ft - (lbs/in³) °F) Aluminium Antimony Brass (Yellow) Cadmium Copper Gold Lead, Liquid Magnesium Molybdenum Nickel Platinum Silver 50% Sn) Steel, mild Steel, 304 Steel, 430 Zinc 67.023 0.258 Stainless 8.11 0.275 26.0 - 37.5 0.284 0.286 136 120 69.33 231 183 52.4 41.36 247.87 0.098 0.306 0.322 0.698 0.387 0.063 0.369 0.321 0.775 0.379 0.323

0.24 0.096 0.095 0.032 0.037 0.27 0.071 0.12 0.035 0.057 0.051

1220 1724 1976 1945 1202 4750 2642 3225 1760 361

169 91.1 29 160 126 133 49 38 17

Solder (50% Pb- -

0.122 0.120

2570 2550

-

6.7 9.6

Stainless 8.09

0.110

2650

-

6

0.096

786

43.3

22.1

Source: Engineers Edge, LLC.

2.3.2.5.

Glass

Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small openings in a building. They provided humans with the ability to both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather outside. Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, in a very hot fire stove called a kiln. Very often additives are added to the mixture when making to produce

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glass with shades of colours or various characteristics (such as bullet proof glass, or light emittance). The use of glass in architectural buildings has become very popular in the modern culture. Glass "curtain walls" can be used to cover the entire facade of a building, or it can be used to span over a wide roof structure in a "space frame". These uses though require some sort of frame to hold sections of glass together, as glass by its self is too brittle and would require an overly large kiln to be used to span such large areas by itself. Due to the nature of glass they can be designed into various forms, such as making them photosensitive, or shading them in such a way to prevent solar radiation into a building interior. When Glass potentials are well harnessed it is a very effective material used to control the solar radiation into a building interior and maintain a thermal balance 2.3.2.6. Laterite

Laterite is building materials that has been in existence for a long time and was used in the construction of several building. The most common form of laterite used in the Southern part of Nigeria is the mud/ clay and they can be and used in the construction of buildings (mostly wall components). Locally within the Southern part of the country laterites are used to produce adobee sundried blocks, wattle and daub and cob-laterite balls, which were used in the construction of the buildings. Recently, the laterites are being stabilized and therefore employed in the construction of more structurally demanding buildings.

Plate3: showing Adobee sundried mud brick in Afghanistan. Source: http/www.mediawiki.com/adobe/sundried/brick.

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Another instance use of laterite is in the production of kilned bricks. The bricks have a very vat application in modern day construction, because of its light weight, strength, and fire resistance. Laterite possesses a good thermal mass and good heat retention capacity which enables it to be able to store heat energy within its molecules. In terms of thermal comfort mud or clay has stood as a material that is thermally viable. Laterite walls change temperature slowly, by artificially raising or lowering the temperature within a building interior. These require lesser resources and the heat/coolness lasts longer.

Plate 4: showing Laterite blocks being cut in India. Source: http/www.wekipedia.com/laterite

2.3.2.7.

Sand Crete blocks.

Sand Crete blocks are about the most common walling component in the Southern part of the country and even in the whole country as a whole. The exit s either in hallow or solid forms. The term sand Crete comes from "concrete" by replacing the first syllable "con" with the word "sand". This is done to make it clear that this building product contains only sand as an aggregate, and no stones. It can also be called "fina-grained concrete" but the new term sand Crete is preferred as it corresponds to land Crete. A pallet is put into the mould box of the machine and the box is filled with a mixture of cement and sand; then the lid of the machine is used to compact the material to the required size. Decorative grilles are also the product of sand Crete mixture. Originally, a decorative block was understood to be a solid block with decorative textured faces. What we now commonly call
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decorative block is in fact part of a decorative openwork screen built into an opening. The correct term is "decorative grille" (also spelled "grill"). This kind of block is made in a special iron mould. It is important to the issue of thermal comfort and climatology in the following ways listed below.
1.

To provide light without installing burglar-proofing or any kind of louvers, shutters and bringing in little or no solar radiation into the building

2.

To provide permanent ventilation into building interiors, and helps to direct air flow within a building interior. In Southern Nigeria, the sand Crete blocks are made use of in hollow forms and are and are used to produce vertical non perforated walls.

Plate 5: sand Crete block walls used for foundation walls and block work.

Plate 5: sand Crete block walls used for foundation walls and block work. Source: Field Survey at the on neighbourhood Market, at NEPA area, Akure.

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2.4. THERMAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BUILDING. 2.4.1. Thermal Quantities. There are several thermal quantities used in discussions about heat flow through buildings. 2.4.1.1. Temperature.

This is an indication of the thermal state of a body and it is measured in degrees Celsius (oC) or degrees Kelvin (K). 2.4.1.2. Heat.

This is a form of energy measured in Joules (J). 2.4.1.3. Specific Heat.

Specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat energy necessary to cause unit temperature increase of a unit mass of the substance. It is measured in J/kg deg C. 2.4.1.4. Thermal Capacity.

Thermal capacity of a body is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the body by one unit. It is measured in J/deg C. 2.4.1.5. Power

This is the ability to carry out a certain work in unit time -measured in Watts (W), which is J/S. 2.4.1.6. Thermal Conductivity.

Thermal conductivity of a material is the rate of heat flow through a unit area of unit thickness of the material for a unit temperature difference across the material. It is also known as the K value and is measured in W/m deg C. Good insulators have lower thermal conductivities. 2.4.1.7. Thermal Conductance

This is the rate of heat flow through a unit area of a body when the temperature difference between the two surfaces is one degree Celsius. It is measured in W/m2 deg C. A measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat per unit time, given one unit area of the material and a temperature gradient through the thickness of the material. It is measured in watts per meter per degree Kelvin 2.4.1.8. Thermal Resistivity.

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This is the reciprocal of thermal conductivity. It is measured in m deg C/W. Good insulators have high thermal resistivities. 2.4.1.9. Thermal Resistance.

Thermal resistance: is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. 2.4.1.10. Surface Resistance and Conductance.

Surface resistance refers to the resistance offered to heat flow by the surface of a body, as different from the resistance offered by the body itself. The surface conductance is the reciprocal of surface resistance. The units are the same as for thermal resistance and conductance. 2.4.1.11. Air to Air Resistance.

Air-to-air resistance is the sum of the resistance of the body and the internal and external surface resistances. Ra = Rsi + Rb + Rso Where: Ra = air-to-air resistance. Rsi = internal surface resistance. R = body resistance. R = external surface resistance. The unit of measurement 2.4.1.12. Cavity Resistance and Conductance. Cavity resistance is the resistance offered to heat flow by a cavity enclosed within a body. The reciprocal is cavity conductance. 2.4.1.13. Absorptivity.

This is the property of a surface which determines what proportion of incident radiation it absorbs. 2.4.1.14. Sol-Air Temperature.

This combines the heating effect of radiation incident on a building, with the effect of warm air. It is measured in degrees Celsius. Ts = To + (I x a)/ Fo Where: Ts = sol-air temperature. To = outside air temperature.
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I = radiation intensity. a = absorbance of the surface. Fo = outside surface conductance 2.4.2. Thermal Properties of Building Materials and Elements. Heat transmission and absorption by building materials is affected by the absorptivity, the conductivity and thermal capacity of the materials. These properties of materials determine the characteristics of wall and roof elements and therefore the way they will modify the thermal environment. Building elements possess four characteristics which affect the internal conditions the air-to-air transmittance (U-value), the solar gain factor, the time lag and the admittance. 2.4.2.1. Air to Air Transmittance.

This is the reciprocal of air-to-air resistance. It is commonly known as U-value and measured in the same unit as conductance. It is defined as the rate at which heat is transmitted from the air on one side of a wall or roof to the air on the other side (Ogunsote, 1991). 2.4.2.2. Solar Gain Factor.

This is the rate of heat flow through a construction due to solar radiation expressed as a fraction of the incident solar radiation. 2.4.2.3. Time Lag.

This is the time delay between the impact of the diurnal variation of temperature and radiation on the external surface, and the resultant temperature variation on the internal surface.

Figure 31: Showing the time lag and decrement factor.

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Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.4.2.4.

Admittance.

Admittance of a surface is the rate at which the surface absorbs or emits heat from or to the air when the air temperature is different from the temperature of the surface.

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2.5. THERMAL REQUIREMENTS OF A BUILDING. The total heat gained by a building must be lost in order to maintain a thermal balance. An excess heat gain will result in a constant rise in temperature of the building while an excess heat loss will cause a fall in temperature (Ogunsote, 1991). Hence, at all times the thermal environment of a building or group of buildings have to be balanced. 2.5.1. Heat Gains Buildings gain heat by conduction through the walls, by insulation through windows, internally from occupants and appliances, by natural ventilation and from heating equipment. 2.5.2. Heat Losses Buildings lose heat by conduction, evaporation, natural ventilation and through mechanical cooling aids. In a state of equilibrium therefore, the heat loss is equal to the heat gain. We can calculate one of these loads given the others from the equation below. Qi + Qs + QC + Qv + Qm + Qe. Where: Qi = internal of heat loss or heat gain by conduction (W). Qv = rate of heat loss or heat gain by Qm = mechanical heat gain or loss rate (W). Qe = rate of heat loss by evaporation (W) (Ogunsote, 1991). We can calculate, for instance the amount of mechanical cooling or heating required in an existing or a freshly designed building. We may also find out how much insulation is needed to heat a solar house with no auxiliary heating from this equation. In heat gain or heat loss calculations the various sources of loading are considered individually.

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Figure 32: Showing the Thermal balance within a building. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunshote, 1991).

2.5.3. Conduction This is usually calculated for walls of a given area and is the product of the surface area, the transmittance value and the temperature difference between the exterior and the interior. Qc = A x U x T Where: Qc = rate of heat loss or heat gain by conduction (W). A = surface area (m2). U = transmitance value (W/m2 degC). T = temperature difference, (Ogunsote, 1991). 2.5.4. Convection This refers to heat loss or heat gain through the exchange of air between the building and the open air and it covers infiltration as well as natural and forced ventilation. The rate of ventilation heat flow is the product of the volumetric specific heat of air, the ventilation rate and the temperature difference. See the equation below. Qv = 1300 x U x T Where: Qv = rate of heat loss or heat gain by ventilation (W). U = transmittance value (W/m2 deg C). T = temperature difference. 2.5.5. Solar Gains. The glass in windows acts as a filter and its type and quality reduces the solar heat gain by the solar gain factor. The actual solar gain will then be a product of the area of the window, the intensity of solar radiation and the solar gain factor. See the equation below. Qs = A x I x Where: Qs = solar heat gain rate (W). A= solar gain factor of window glass. I = radiation heat flow density (W/m2), (Ogunsote, 1991).

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2.5.6. The Green House Effects. Short-wave radiation incident on glass is partly reflected, partly absorbed but mainly transmitted. This is because glass is "transparent" to short-wave radiation. Other materials, such as concrete or mud however absorb the larger portion of short-wave radiation. The absorbed energy causes a rise in their temperature and this energy is emitted in the form of long-wave. Glass is "opaque" to longwave radiation and if it encloses the emitter the heat is trapped within the enclosure. This leads to a rise in temperature within the enclosure known as the greenhouse effect.

Figure 33: Showing the Green house effect the shortwave radiation is transmitted by the glass, absorbed by the concrete mass and emitted as long wave radiation. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.5.7. Internal Heat Gain. The internal heat gains are made up of the heat output of the occupants, and the lamps and motors, if any, in the enclosure. The human body produces about 70 W while sleeping and a maximum of about 1100 W. Sedentary activity produces about 140 W. The lamps and motors usually have their wattage marked. The total internal heat gain is the sum of heat production by the individual persons or equipment. See the equation below. Q1=n1xq1+ n2xq2 +..... nnxq Where: Qi = internal heat gain rate (W). N1xq1 = number of persons or equipment. n2xq2 = heat output rate of persons or equipment (Ogunsote, 1991).

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2.5.8. Device Mechanical. These are usually heaters or air-conditioners and their rating is usually indicated. These are usually heaters or air-conditioners and their rating is usually indicated. 2.5.9. Evaporation. This refers to heat loss from the interior or exterior of the building by evaporation, for example from roof ponds or fountains. It is usually ignored except for detailed studies of air conditioning.

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2.6. REQUIRED THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDING ELEMENTS. The required thermal performance of walls and roofs are established by codes for different climatic zones. The aim of this is to reduce heating costs and reduce the discomfort of occupants in case of inadequate heating. These recommendations are based on economic analysis involving the cost of heating and the cost of building materials. The optimal values vary from country to country and are influenced the climate and living standards (Ogunsote, 1991). In Nigeria heating is required only for a few weeks during the harmattan, especially in the northern parts of the country where the harmattan can be very severe. In practice, heating appliances are very rarely installed and people resort to other means of keeping warm. Peasants sometimes keep a fire burning in their rooms and block all apertures to reduce infiltration. The design of walls and roofs in this climate should ensure adequate insulation and thermal capacity. Crowden, (1953) The major problem in Nigeria is however that of overheating. In the warm humid climates found near the coast, conditions are uncomfortably hot during most of the year. In these conditions thermal storage should be avoided and high insulation provided. The choice of either air conditioning or fans will influence the size and type of windows used. We shall now consider four climates and the performance of walls and roofs required for them. 2.6.1. Hot Dry Climates.

These climates are characterised by a high diurnal temperature range and low humidity with discomfort caused by either high or low temperatures. The design of walls and roofs should therefore moderate temperature fluctuations. This is achieved by a long time lag of 8 to 14 hours for both internal and external walls.

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Figure 34: Showing the Wall treatment for thermal Capacity. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.6.2. Warm Humid Climate These climates are characterised by a low diurnal temperature range, high humidity and generally high temperatures. Comfort is achieved by ventilation and by restricting the flow of heat into the building. Crowden, (1953).To achieves this, a short time lag, low thermal capacity; high insulation and reflective roofs are used.

Figure 35: Showing Wall treatment for insulation. Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

2.6.3. Cold climates Cold climates are distinguished by low air temperatures. The design of walls and roofs should therefore prevent loss of heat (Ogunsote, 1991). An additional problem is condensation which can

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form on internal surfaces if temperatures are allowed to drop too low. The preservation of heat is achieved through high insulation and auxiliary heating in severe cases. The insulation provided must prevent condensation on the internal surfaces. 2.6.4. Composite climate. Composite climates are characterised by alternating hot dry, cold dry and warm humid seasons. The design of roofs and walls depends on the relative duration of the seasons. Light, insulated walls and roofs are used when the dry season is up to two months while heavy walls and light roofs are used when the dry season lasts for more than three months. 2.6.5. Floors. Floors also influence the thermal environment within buildings and their design should be considered along with that of walls and roofs. In hot dry climates the floor should help moderate temperatures (Ogunsote, 1991). This is achieved by heavy floors laid in direct contact with the ground thereby utilizing the high thermal capacity of the soil. In severe cases buildings should be partly or totally submerged. In warm humid climates the floor should help in cooling down the building at night. Light floors raised well above the ground improve the cooling rate but where this is not architecturally feasible a heavy floor in direct contact with the ground is used. Crowden, (1953) In cold climates floors should be well insulated to prevent heat loss and probable condensation. In composite climates heavy floors are used. Foot comfort is very important in the design of floors. The thermal sensation experienced by the bare foot on a floor is however dependent not on the subfloor but on the finish (Evans, 1980). The choice of finishes should therefore depend on the climate and the average air temperature in dwellings. In hot climates PVC tiles or terrazzo may be adequate while softwood or carpets may be needed in colder climates (Ogunsote, 1991).

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Table 9: Showing the comfortable floor temperature for various Building materials.

COMFORTABLE FLOOR S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 concrete 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Brick Linoleum Rubber floor tiles Hard wood P.V.C. tiles Plaster Softwood Cork floor tiles Insulation board Carpet Cork 24-25 22 22 21-22 22 19 17-19 15 - 16 below 5 below 5 below 5 MATERIALS TEMPERATURE FOR BARE FEET OC 29.5 25.5 - 26.5 26 26 25

Iron/steel Gravel concrete Granolithic Terrazzo tiles Quarry tiles Foam slag

25

Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

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2.7. CONDENSATION. The amount of vapour air can hold depends on the air temperature. Warm air can hold more vapour than air at a lower temperature as is illustrated in table 5. When warm air is cooled therefore, there comes a time when the vapour in the air is sufficient to saturate the air mass (Russel et. al 1997). The vapour pressure at this temperature is called the saturation vapour pressure while the temperature is the dew point of air for the given vapour content. When the air is cooled further, it will no longer be able to hold some of the vapour and this excess vapour is converted to a liquid in a process called condensation. There are two types of condensation condensation (Evans, 1980). · · Surface Condensation Interstitials condensation surface and interstitial

2.7.1. Surface Condensation. This occurs when air comes into contact with a surface at a temperature below its dew point. A layer of moisture is formed on the surface of the wall or roof as may be observed in some kitchens, bathrooms or rooms. This leads to damp interiors and mould growth (Ogunsote, 1991). 2.7.2. Interstitials Condensation. This is condensation within walls or roofs. This is a result of temperature and vapour pressure gradients across the wall. It may also be caused by surface condensation being absorbed into the wall. This may cause damage to organic building materials and increase heat loss through a reduction in resistance of the building material (Fisk, 1981). The factors affecting condensation are the indoor vapour pressure level, the temperature and absorptivity of the internal surfaces and the vapour transmission of walls. Interstitial condensation is prevented by predicting dew point temperatures at different points within the wall and checking if these do not cause condensation. Adequate insulation should be provided and cold bridges avoided (Russel et. al 1997). It is sometimes necessary to restrict vapours to bathrooms, washing

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rooms and kitchens. Good ventilation will reduce the risk of surface condensation (Ogunsote, 1991).
Table 10: Showing the saturated vapour Pressure as a function of Air temperature.

Saturation vapour pressure Air temp. o c 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Kn/m2 Mmhg g/m3 g/kg of dry air

0.61 0.87 1.23 1.71 2.33 3.17 4.23 5.60

4.6 6.5 9.2 12.8 17.5 23.8 31.7 42.2

4.8 6.8 9.4 12.8 17.3 23.0 30.4 39.6

3.8 5.4 7.6 10.5 14.4 19.4 26.2 34.7

Source: Introduction to building climatology (Ogunsote, 1991).

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CHAPTER THREE 3.0 CASE STUDY

This chapter discusses the various building materials that are employed in the construction of different existing building within Akure city. These buildings are located at different strategic location within the city. The case study also focuses on one type of building, which is the church that can accommodate large number of people at a time. Attentions were given to the ways and techniques that were employed in the construction of these buildings. The work also looked at the various types of the materials used, their properties and the possible reasons why these materials were used, giving climate and temperature a good consideration for assessment in this region. Interviews were conducted at the various case study locations, with the chief respondents being the pastors over the church and some worshippers in the church. This was done in other to be able to ascertain the opinion of the people as regards the issue of the comfort that they feel in these buildings and from there be able deduce the factors that might have contributed to the comfort or otherwise experienced in these building.

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3.1. CASE STUDY 1 ST ALBERTS CATHOLIC CHAPLAINCY, FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, AKURE. The building is catholic chaplain that accommodates about four hundred worshippers every Sunday and a daily average of one hundred users of the building, for various religious activities. The building was started in the year 2000 and was completed for usage in 2003, with several other works still going on in the building in phases.

Plate 6: Showing the Approach Elevation of the church Source: Field Survey to St. Albert s Catholic Chaplaincy FUT, Akure, (2010).

The building is located within the campus of Federal University of Technology, Akure. The church building can be accessed through the Northern entrance of the institution. The building is bounded in the north by the proposed school Mosque that is under construction, in the south by the school bookshop and café, in the east by the senior staff quarters and in the west by the school sport complex.

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3.1.1. Description. The building is a Catholic Church and it s a perfect rectangle in shape with its length being two times breadth. The length is about 39M while the breath is about 16.2m.the sanctuary is 12m in breadth and 9.6m in length which is also same for the basement of the church. The basement is used as a sacristy and also for Sunday school classes for the children. The Church can be divided into four parts defined by the hierarchy of worship in the church. (1) (2) (3) (4) Sanctuary. The Church hall, The Sacristy/ Basement. The outer terrace

The sanctuary also houses four other smaller rooms which are used an stores and parish offices. Furthermore the altar, the blessed tabernacle and the Marian statue are present on the sanctuary.

Figure 36: Showing the Plan of the church Sacristy/Basement Source: Field Survey to St. Albert s Catholic Chaplaincy FUT, Akure.

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Figure 37: the Floor Plan and the Arrangement of the Church, (2010). Source: Field Survey to St. Albert s Catholic Chaplaincy FUT, Akure.

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3.1.2. Material Used For Various Building Components. Roof The building was roofed with galvanized aluminium roofing sheets, which are very good conductors of thermal heat into the building and covered with wooden fascia board. The roof is simply gabled and stepped down over the terrace that goes round the building. Ceiling Asbestos ceiling boards were used in the building and its spans through the length of the altar and to the terrace. For the basement the slab above the basement was painted.

Plate 7: Showing the Ceiling and the floor finishes of the sanctuary. Source: Field Survey to St. Albert s Catholic Chaplaincy FUT, Akure (2010).

Wall Hollow sand Crete blocks were used for the construction of the wall and wash painted with cream emulsion paints. Reinforced concrete was used for structural support especially in the sacristy, which also constitutes parts of the wall. Window The Window frames were made of aluminum and clear glass was used to glaze the window. The windows are placed at about 2.1M to each other and are about 3m in length and 1.8M in height.

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The use of transoms was employed on the building, and the width of each was about 1.8m and a height of 6m. Door Doors were constructed of Hardwood, which were about 2.4M in length and 2.1M in height. Floor The floor of the building is divided according to the materials used for them. 1. Cement sand screed was used for the basement 2. The congregation area was finished with terrazzo floor finish. 3. The sanctuary was finished with porcelain floor tiles. 3.1.3. Observation/ Deductions The following observations were made during the cause of the visitation to the site: a) That there was consideration for the thermal comforts in the design of the building, through the introduction of the terrace, to prevent the direct transfer of solar radiation into the building. However the transom above the terrace was not well catered for hence it brings in direct solar radiation. b) That the building is not able to balance itself thermally as in most cases its either it is too cold or too hot inside the building during programmes, which depends on the time and the prevailing weather condition. c) That the use of clear glass for the glazing the window, easily allows radiant heat into the building interior. d) That the bright cream colour used for the interior of the building, encourages the multiple reflection of the radiant heat that is entering the building. e) That the radiant heat from the sun finds it very easy to get into the building but is not easily removed from the building

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f) That the hollow sand Crete wall has, low thermal retention capacity and insulation capacity, hence, radiant heat easily moves through it into the building and allow the through feel of the temperature of the external environment into the building interior. g) That the roofing materials also heats up easily and transfer the heat to the immediate environment winch is the ceiling, which cannot effectively cater for the thermal insulation, required. This therefore allows the building interior to heat up or become cold as the case may be.

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3.2. CASE STUDY 2 MARY QUEEN OF ANGEL CATHOLIC CHURCH The church is located along hospital road in Akure, before Aquinas College. The road is accessible through Oda road via NEPA market. 3.2.1. Description The building is also a religious building and it is not a perfect rectangle as the length only varies from the breadth by 6M. The building is about 36M in length and 30M in breadth. The building can be categorized into three areas, which are: · · · The church Hall The sanctuary The sacristy

The sanctuary houses the blessed tabernacle, while the sacristy houses the Marian shrine and the Blessed Sacrament but both of them have a direct relationship with the church hall. The sacristy also serves as a store for sacramental within the church. The church hall accommodates about one thousand congregation (1000) worshippers at a time.

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Figure 38: Showing the Floor Plan of Mary Queen of Angels Catholic Church.Source: Field Survey to Mary Queen of Angel s Catholic, church hospital Road, Akure, (2010).

3.2.2. Roof

Materials Used For Various Building Components.

The building is roofed with long-span aluminium roofing sheets, with steel members as supporting members. Fascia board was not used in the building. Ceiling The ceiling materials are published wood the wood is well treated and patterned in stripes.

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Plate 8: Showing the ceiling material of the whole building. Source: Field Survey to Mary Queen of Angels Catholic, church hospital Road, Akure, (2010).

Wall The wall majorly is made of and sand Crete hollow block wall and reinforced concrete were it is necessary. Some wall in the building is covered with wooden panels.

Plate 4: Showing the floor and the ceiling finish of the sanctuary.Source: Field Survey to Mary Queen of Angels Catholic, church hospital Road, Akure, (2010).

Doors The doors are made of polished woods and they are about 2.4M high and 2.1M in width and are four in number. Windows
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The windows are made of aluminium frames and coloured (tinted) and clear glass used on building façade and they are vertically inclined. They are about 3m in length and about 5.1M in height. Floor The floor area can be divided into two different types the sanctuary and church auditorium. The sanctuary is finished with marble stones, while the church auditorium is finished with polished terrazzo floor finish. 3.2.3. Observation / Deduction The following observations were made during the cause of the visitation to the site: a) That there was consideration for the thermal comforts in the design of the building, through the introduction of vertical walls at angles to serve as shading device to prevent the direct transfer of solar radiation into the building. b) That the building is not able to balance itself thermally, due to the size of the building in most cases its either it is too cold or too hot inside the building during programmes, which depends on the time and the prevailing weather condition. Further the windows prevent the direct penetration of solar radiation into the building. c) That the use of the tinted glazing for the window, and this prevents the transfer of radiant heat into the building interior. d) That the bright cream colour used for the interior of the building, encourages the multiple reflection of the radiant heat that is entering the building. Some are reflected back to the external environment and others are reflected continuously within the building. e) That the radiant heat from the sun finds it difficult to get into the building and to exit the building f) That the hollow sand Crete wall has, low thermal retention capacity and insulation capacity, hence, radiant heat easily moves through it into the building and allow the through feel of the temperature of the external environment into the building interior.

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g) That the roofing materials also heats up easily and transfer the heat to the immediate environment winch is the ceiling, which can cater for the thermal insulation, required. This therefore allows the building interior to heat up or become cold as the case may be.

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3.3. CASE STUDY 3 ST. DON BOSCO CATHOLIC CHURCH ARAROMI. The church is located along on no. 51 Araromi Street Akure. It can be easily accesses through the popular Oba Adesida road and the Benin Owo high way. The building was constructed by the Italian Silesian priests. Possessing great aesthetics and a masterfully use of local materials within the building fabric.

Plate 10: Showing St. Don Bosco Catholic Church Araromi. Source: Field survey to St. Don Bosco Catholic Church, Araromi, Akure, (2010).

3.3.1. Description The building is also a religious building and it is a perfect square that is about 30M on all sides. The building can be divided into three areas, which are: · · · · The church Hall The sanctuary The sacristy The exposition room

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The sanctuary houses the blessed tabernacle and the Marian shrine. A small room foe adoration and exposition of the Blessed Sacrament is also provided for within the building. The sacristy also serves as a store for sacramental within the church. The church hall accommodates about 650 worshippers on Sundays at a time. The use of reinforced concrete is pronounced on the building; for structural support, for the roof gutter. The building also has a terrace that moves almost round the building. 3.3.2. Roof The building was roofed by the use of asbestos roofing sheet. The roof is generally hipped into four parts and supported within the ceiling member by beams that span the length and the breadth of the church. The use of a massive roof gutter made of reinforced concrete members was noticed on the building. The ceiling in this building is exposed as the roof members could be clearly seen in the building frame work. Wall The walls can be divided into two (2) main regions in terms of the materials used. The first region is the decorative sand Crete block section that spans from the ground level to about 2.7M in height and it can be seen on all the elevations of the building, as can be seen on the plate 12. This section is made up of two different patterns of this block wall. Materials Used For Various Building Components.

Plate 11: Showing the use of decoration sand Crete blocks for the walling and the stabilized laterite walling. 75 | P a g e

Source: Field survey to St. Don Bosco Catholic Church, Araromi, Akure, (2010).

The second is the laterite mud bricks, going to a height of about 4.2M and spanning round the building is about the major wall on the building and it is supported at intervals by structural members (columns and beams). Doors The doors are made of polished woods and they are about 2.4M high and 2.1M in width. The doors are Located on different sides of the building elevation, with two of them being the most used doors. Windows Windows were only used on the building for lighting purpose and they are vertically oriented. They are tinted with pattern son them to prevent the direct penetration of solar radiation from the sun. Floor The floor area can be divided into two different types the sanctuary and church auditorium. The sanctuary is finished with polished stone marble, while the church auditorium is finished with polished terrazzo floor finish. 3.3.3. Observation / Deduction The following observations were made during the cause of the visitation to the site: a) That there was consideration for the thermal control in the building through the use of materials that is evident in their selection and the design of the various building elements. b) That the building able to balance itself thermally, irrespective of the population using it and time that is being used. Windows were not employed for ventilation purposes but rather for lighting. Ventilation was through the lower walls and the horizontal opening between the walls and the roof. c) That the use of the tinted glazing for the window, and this prevents the transfer of radiant heat into the building interior. d) That the colour of the interior is combination of both bright and the dull colours.
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e) That the hollow sand Crete wall has, low thermal retention capacity and insulation capacity, but when used in the decorative form allows air movement into and outside the building without letting in much of solar radiation. The Latrite wall on the other hand has a very good thermal storage capacity and can store heat energy from the sun for twelve (12) hours before fully releasing it. f) That the roofing materials are made of asbestos that also have very good thermal retention capacity, thereby reducing the heat amount of heat transferred into the building. g) That the way and manner that the various building materials had been used as allowed for the good control of the internal micro-climatic conditions of the building.

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 4.1. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION. Conclusion

Materials have the potentials of transforming the comfort level experienced by the user of a building coupled with other elements of design. This helps to provide a balanced environment in which man, can carry out its activities comfortably. Materials provide a solution to the numerous environmental conditions that are not favourable to man. In Southern Nigeria, high temperature in the day and lower temperature at night is the predominant climatic condition. Hence, materials that can store thermal energy and release them over a long period of time, and those that can prevent or reduce the transfer of solar energy (inform of Radiant Heat), into the building are favourable within the region. Material like laterite (cob, sod, wattle and daub, Adobee), glass, wood, stones are very important within this region. Solar Radiation from the sun has been the only source of energy to the earth surface and is responsible for increase in temperature that is experienced in this region of the world. In order to have a building that is thermally stable, Solar Radiation must be controlled. From the research work carried on the building the following conclusions have been reached; a) The tropical climate is characterised by an average minimum annual temperature of 200c i.e. it is regarded as a region with high temperature. b) Solar radiation is one of the climatic elements that needs to be controlled in the tropics in other to achieve or maintain a thermally balance inferior environment. c) Building materials when not properly selected and applied on a building can cause a lot of thermal imbalance on buildings. d) In most cases indigenous materials such as bamboo, raffia, laterite wall, stones, woods, provide ready-made solution to challenges, posed by the climate on materials usage on buildings and also help to balance heat loss and heat gain within a building.

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e) Materials like laterite wall, asbestos roofing sheets, wood, gypsum e.t.c. board have very good heat capacity that allows them to store thermal energy and release them to the immediate environment when the heat source is removed. f) Some building materials has a very high specific heat capacity and here they get heated up easily and any materials when used for walling or roofing on a building must be insulated with other materials that are insulators. 4.2. RECOMMENDATION

In other that a balanced thermal environment be attained in the design of buildings in Southern Nigeria following recommendation have been made: a) More considerations should be given to the building materials that will be used and how they will be used on buildings. b) Materials that are good reflectors of solar heat should be used for building components that are exposed to the sun (Wall, doors, windows, roofs e.t.c.) and materials. c) Those materials that are thermal insulators should be used for walling and roofing in other to prevent the direct inflow of radiant heat. d) Within the interior spaces materials should be designed such that, they allows the free movements of air in and outside the building for e) Professional should make very cautious effort to design buildings with a good knowledge of the potentials of the materials that are available to them. f) More attention has to be paid to the use of Indigenous materials as they readily provide solutions to climatic problems. g) More ways in which the indigenous building materials can be used should be developed, through research.

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REFERENCES Adeleke B.O, Leong G.C, (1978): Certificate physical and Human Geography, Lagos, University press limited. Pp 10-80 Airapetov.D, (1986): Architectural materials Science, second edition, Moscow Mir publishers. Pp 23-45 Akinsemoyin, K, Aughan-Richards, A. (1976): Building Lagos. F and A Service, pp 7-9. Ashrae (1971): Applications of Solar Energy and Cooling of Buildings, Ed. Richard, C.J. and Benjamin, Y.H. ASHRAE, New York. Boucher, K. (1975): Global Climate, London, English Universities Press. Callender, J.H. (1974): Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, McGraw-Hill Book Company. Crowden .C (1953): Indoor Climate and Thermal Comfort in the Tropics, Conference on tropical Architecture, report of Proceedings 1954. David .D.T (1985): Survey of climatology, the handbook of applied metrology second edition, London Longman publishers. Pp 62-132 Evans, M. (1980): Housing, Climate and Comfort. London The Architectural Press. Fisk, D.J. (1981): Thermal control of buildings, Applied Science Publishers, London. Gabriel .E (2005): Climatic Factor as a Determinant for the choice of building Materials, unpublished, Department of Architecture, Federal university of technology, Givoni.B. (1969): Man, climate and Architecture, Second edition (Architectural series).London, Applied Science Publishers. Pp6-23, 34-48,267-345. Gordon .N (1995): The Architecture Of Building Service. London, B.T. Batsford Ltd. Pp37-83 Henderson-Sellers .A, Robinson .P (1992): Contemporary Climatology, London, Group United and Longman Publishers.
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in South-West Nigeria, unpublished, Department of Architecture, Federal university Of Technology, Akure Pidwirny M (Lead Author); Kevin V, (Topic Editor): (2010). "Solar Radiation." In: Encyclopedia of Earth, (Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment http://www.eoearth.org/article/Solar_radiationviewed 21 June 2010 Russel .D. et. al (1997): Applied Climatology: Principles and Practice, New York ,sigmore Publishers. Pp 47-80 Strahler, Arthur H. (1984.): Elements of Physical Geography, Jersey, John Wiley & Sons. New

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WEBSITES http://www.EngineerEdgeLLC.com/material June 10 2010 http://www.ehow.com/whatisastone/ July 2, 2010 http://www.naijapals.com/vegetation May 27, 2010 http://www.usgcrp.gov/.../overviewclimate.htm/ May 20, 2010 http://news.bbc.co.uk February 10, 2010 http://www.itl.net 9:30am, March 7, 2010 http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-wind.htm March 2, 2010. www.metoffice.gov.uk/education/teachers/lates. 11:19pm 1:05am 6:23pm, 3:00pm, 10:00pm 1:00am

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