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..:I W III
names in red are
A320: 123' I ~
BOEING 717: 124'" A .
-- <5' .
MD 90: 153-' . ~
BOEING 767-300: 180'
BOEING 777. 209'
3 engines: 2 on wings, 1 on tail
MCDONNELL DOUGLAS merged with BOEING in 1991
STEP 1: Use this (onfigur(ltion chart to narrow down your choices.
Look for the number of engines &. where they're attached. * widebody
2 engines o.n wings
4 engines on wings
2 engines on tail note: "Tn tail
a clue for two engine widebodies: look at the ta ilAIRBU 5 fuselage is a straight line across the top BOEING fuselage slopes downward at the tail
DID J Airliners are good gliders. Even without YOU engine thrust, an airliner can glide about KNO'!!,J 100 miles from a typical cruise altitude!
1 pair on each strut up & down
A318, A319, A320, A321: single aisle family
A330 is the largest Airbus twin ~ngine airplane
••• A300 winglet
very small winglets called "fences"
"C~ extend un & down
_..I A300 longer fuselage / A31 0 shorter fuselage
A330&A340 are loek-allkes:
A340 has 4 engines
A340-500. -600: fuselage longer & engines much
767 & 777 are look-alikes but 777 is bigger & does not have overwing exits
additional first-class upper deck creates a VERY distinctive hump. if it has a hump it must be a 747
engines have oval inlets ----. ......... ..-
& sit closeto ground engine mount
entirely below wing
737 "Next Generation" -600/-700/-800/-900
700 & 800 series ~ have large "blenda-d" winglets
engines have oval inlets & sit close to ground
737 HClassic" -300/-400/-500
longer wings than "Cla6Sic"
leading edge aftail
fin has two angl@s"
short haul. 100 seats, designed to replace DC-9 & 737-200
engines protrude from nacelles
developed from the Challenger business jet
2 engines on tail
DC-l0&MD-l1 similar but DC-lO (not shown) has no wing lets
MD-80 & MD-90 have a longer fuselage
nose longer & sharper than CRJ
the "XR" version has wing lets
(tail .:I55embly) --'-sta '
landing gear Jet engme
IIt .. tall" a design used when engines are on the tail
a wing upon landing ... a whole lot of hullabaloo! spoilers
thrust reverser deployed
empennage or tall-
The empennage gives an airplane directional control & stability. It includes the horizontal & vertical stabilizers & their control surfaoes.
The body of an airplane. The fuselage holds the crew, passengers & cargo. A jet airplane fuselage is pressurized for breathing at high altitudes.
Two big fins that stick out sideways at the tail. Control surfaces called "elevators" move the airplane)s nose up & down.
The·jetengine is a big fan that moves lots of air.
The air that flows out the exhaust produces thrust & pushes the airplane forward. The "th rust reverser" directs thrust forward to help slow the airplane
Includes wheels, brakes & the struts that connect them to the airplane. The landing gear retracts into the airplane after takeoff to reduce drag.
The enclosure for the engine & thrust reverser. Nacelles can be mounted on the wings or the tail of the fuselage.
The wing is a spedal curved shape called an "airfoil". As a wing moves through the air it creates lift & supports the airplane in flight. Control surfaces on the wings called "allerons' bank &. turn the airplane. "Flaps" & "slat'S" change the shapeof a wing to increase lift at slow speeds. "Spoilers" (speedbrakes) pop Up to help slow down the airplane.
A small fin on the wing tip which reduces drag. Wing let'S can point up or down or both.
A big fin that sticks up from the tail. A control surfaoe called the Drudder'l keeps the airplane painted in the right dlrectiol1.
a ~uick & Eainlessles50n in aerodynamics ...
~OW !I!. airplanes fly?
.Ple have been building flying machines for a very long time .
. iLednardo Da Vinci sketched a flapping wing airplane (ornithopter)
in his notebooks around 1500. The Montgolfier brothers made the first hot air balloon flight in 1783, and Sir George Cayley built a successful glider in 1853. However, it wasn't until Orville and Wilbur
Wright achieved the first powered flight in 1903 that the modern airplane was born. Why did it take so long and what natural forces did the Wrights have
There are four major forces acting on an aircraft in flig.ht. Lift is the upward force that allows an aircraft to fly. Lift opposes the weight that is holding an aircraft down. Thrust is the push or pull forward that allows an aircraft to move. Drag acts in a direction opposite thrust.
Airplanes produce lift the same way birds do, with wings. In the
1890's glider bUilde .. r Otto Lilienthal Observe.d that bird and butterfly wings have a speCial curved shape called "camber." He realized that camber is the secret to lift When air flows past a curved wing, it gets pushed down. opposite reaction* pushes the wing up. That's .Iift.!
Ok, so what about Orville and Wilbur'2 Well, we need to move an airplane forward to get air flowing over the wing and to get us to our destination< Unfortunately, the same air that creates llft, also creates drag. You can feel drag when you stick your hand out of a car Window. Thrust moves an airplane forward against drag, and the more thrust we have, the faster we can go. This is where the Wright Brothers come in ... they were the first to build an engine and propeller combination that was light enough to put inan airplane and still produce enough thrust to reach flying speed with
a pilot on board. 1§itr
TodaY's.jet airliners ~. have huge wings ~
made of metal alloys i2
and exotic composites and powerful ~
jet engines instead of propellers, but the forces at work are
exactly the same as on the Wright Flyer one hundred years ago 1
Sir Isaac Newton's third law of motion states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In the case of llft, the action is to displace a mass of air downward. The opposite reaction is to displace an airplane upward. Propellers and jet engines generate thrust the same way They move air backward, and the reaction is to move an airplane forw:iwd. Bernoulli's principle is usually cited in explaining lift airflow over the curved upper surface of a wing increases in velocity and reduces in pressure. This change in pressure affects the behavior
of the airflow and contributes to the generation of lift.
~~---------------------------------- .. --------~._~
#/seats seating speed/mph
DC-9: 90-139 2-3 500
MD·80: 144-172 2-3 490
MD·90: 1.5.2-172 2-3 .505
MD·ll: 181-285 2-2-2 550 range/miles
1,800-2,7 SO 1,800-3,200 4,150-8,200
#/seals seating speed/mph range/miles
A318: 114 3-3 530 2,015-3,720
A319: 124-145 3-3 530 2,200-4,050
A320: 150-180 3-3 530 3,050-3,4 SO
A321: 185-220 3-3 530 2,650-3,450
A300: 266-361 2-4-2 560 4,650-4,800
A310: 220-280 2-4-2 555 5,000-6,000
A330: 253-335 2-4-2 550 5,500-7,400
A340: 261-419 2-4-2 560 7,650-9,800 BOEING
#/seats. sealing speed/mph ranye/miles
717: 106 2-2 504 1,430
737: 95-189 3-3 540 2,150-3,800
757: 190-243 3-3 530 3,550-4,550
767: 181-245 2-3-2 530 3,750-7,650
777: 305-386 2-5-2 555 5,950-8,200
747: 266-568 3-4-3 555 2,100-8,450 MCDONNELL DOUGLAS
#/seals seatin!l speed/mph range/miles
CRI: 40-50 2-2 530 987-2,005
ERJI: 37-50 2-2 516 1,830-2,025 Clues: It's fo I cone ends in a flat blade shape, it has 6 wheels (3 pair) on each strut, 2 huge engines on wings, & it's a widebody ..
It MUST be a
Clues: It hcs 2 engines on 'T' toil, no wlnglets, 0 pointy nose, fuUy enclosed nacelles, it's a narrow body & it's small.
It HAS TO be an
Clues: It has 4 engines on wings, winglets, & it's a wide body.
It's GOTTA be an
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Southwell Airlines, Scondinavian Airlines. Airplane models courtesy of flight Miniatures.
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Holdings, LL(,Polo Alto, CA. US Patent Nil, 5,063,637 7 6
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