INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN METRO MANILA

(AN OVERVIEW)
REBECCA VANESSA D.L. RELLOSA PLAN 240 DR. MA. SHEILA G. NAPALANG

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
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Informal Settlements and Slums Theories on the formation of Informal Settlements Metro Manila: A brief description Squatter in the Vernacular Magnitude of Informal Settlements in Metro Manila Historical references of squatting in the Philippines

Informal settlements and slums
“Slum” has a negative connotation, implies evil, strange, to be shunned and avoided. Derived from the word “slumber”, slums were once thought by the majority to be unknown back streets or alleys, wrongly presumed to be sleeping and quiet.  Described as a street, alley or court, situated in a crowded district of a town or city inhabited by people of low class or by the very poor, a number of these streets or court forming a thick populated neighbourhood or district of a squalid or wretched character.

Clinard, Marshall B. 1970. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. New York: The Free Press.

Informal settlements and slums

‘Squatting’ refers simply to the relationship between people and houses on land. A squatter is a person who has taken over land, a house or a building and occupies it without lawful authority to do so.
Squatter infiltration – a slow, almost individual spillage into land – is common throughout the Third World. It can create tiny settlements or small towns.  Infiltration ignores official land allocation or transfer systems, be they customary, market or bureaucratic. The land, if apparently unoccupied or unused, is seen as a resource, a free good available for use by those who need it. McAuslan, Patrick. 1985. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor. Nottingham: Russell Press.

particularly India and Pakistan is the extensive communities of squatters and shanty town dwellers that have sprung up in and around peripheral areas of cities. Peripheral shantytowns spring up on land that is not being used for one reason or another. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. New York: The Free Press.    Clinard. Marshall B. . and Asia. 1970. South America.Informal settlements and slums  An ever present phenomenon of the rapidly developing cities of Africa.

Informal settlements and slums The land is often unused because it is undesirable or unsuitable for permanent buildings.  Waste areas of these types may be found near the city center as well as on the outskirts. low ground subject to flooding as in the outskirts of Baghdad or refuse dumps. Clinard. In other cases the land is too arid for cultivation and outside the scope of the city water system.  It may consist of swamps as in certain districts of Bangkok.  Many shantytowns also occupy land Self-Help. Slums and Community Development: Experiments inthat is New York: The Free Press. Marshall B. steep hillsides as in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. 1970. held vacant by urban investors in  .

1970. . New York: The Free Press. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Man’s Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World The  The  The  The  The  The  The   owner squatter squatter tenant squatter holdover squatter landlord speculator squatter semi-squatter floating squatter  Clinard. Marshall B.Informal settlements and slums  Types of Squatters: by Charles Abrams.

Marshall B. Seeley in his book Redevelopment: Some Human gains and Losses. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. divided slum dwellers into four types:  The permanent opportunists  The permanent necessitarians  The temporary necessitarians  The temporary opportunists   Clinard.Informal settlements and slums  John R. 1970. New York: The Free Press. .

Informal settlements and slums Charles J. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums. 1970.  .  1st . provides two general New York: The Free Press. the attitude of the slum dweller toward social mobility through assimilation or acculturation in the social and economic life of the community  2nd . Marshall B. the measure of socioeconomic handicaps and barriers to such movement  Each of these two variables Clinard.

characterized by the attitudes of residents. whether or not they expect to improve their situations and whether or not there are opportunities for advancing out of the slums. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums. Marshall B.  Slums of hope.Informal settlements and slums Charles J. 1970. classes. denied in some ways the New York: The Free Press. whereas non-escalator Clinard. privilege of escalation are more  . people intend to better themselves  Slums of despair – populated by groups of longer residence.  Escalator and non-escalator classes – slums of hope are more likely to contain escalator classes groups of people who can be expected to move up through the class structure. Have generally the homes of recent immigrants to the community.

Patrick. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor.Informal settlements and slums ‘Third World Squatting’ is what is referred to as illegally building on land one does not own of a house. . blocks of offices or flats) and converting them to living accommodation. Nottingham: Russell Press. 1985. made usually with temporary materials.  Western squatting are usually manifested by taking over existing buildings (derelict houses.   McAuslan. but is not exclusive to Third World countries.

or who in fact has no authority either to acquire the land in the McAuslan.Informal settlements and slums q Organized squatting. . Individual households may settle on land they regard as unoccupied with or without the permission of someone they think has the authority to give them permission. 1985. first place or to sell it to anyone. Patrick. in India and in some Asian countries and in some Western European cities.found in many Latin American countries. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor. q Orthodox legal transaction. the squatter ‘buying’ a piece of land from a seller who may own the land but has no official approval for subdividing the land into housing plots. Nottingham: Russell Press.

Early on this area is the home of the upper classes. and wholesale operations. Marshall B. CBD New York: The Free Press. The Clinard. the neighbourhood becomes infiltrated with industrial. and the more wellto-do move farther out from the city center. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. storage. Changes in land-use patterns Slum develops within the zone surrounding the CBD. With the expansion of commercial and industrial ventures.develops to be an area of high land  . Low income workers including recently arrived poor regional ethnic and racial groups then move in and become exclusive inhabitants of these areas. 1970.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1.

Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. 1970. Changes in land-use patterns  Clinard. The best housing then does not fringe the entire city but only parts of it. The main industrial areas of the future may well be located on the outskirts of the cities in new industrial towns and suburbs. Marshall B. New York: The Free Press. . and railroad lines out from the center. water courses. with factories tending to locate even at the outer fringes of the city. Modified theory of city growth: industrial areas follow river valleys. as they are already beginning to be.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1. and working men’s houses cluster along them.

New York:peripheries.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1. Changes in landuse patterns In such cities. the central areas are generally inhabited by the SECTOR elite. formerly common in Europe and still common in the developing countries of Asia and other parts of the world. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Marshall B.  . with the MODEL slums located  on the Clinard. In The Free Press. 1970.

As slum clearance continues. Slum clearance reduces the number of dwellings available to low-income families and that. Housing Shortages and Maintenance The continuing existence of slums has also been explained by the fact that “their inhabitants cannot afford good housing and because private enterprise will not supply it at prices they can afford”. landlords to spend funds for maintenance. Marshall B.  The role of urban renewal projects in creating new slums in areas where old slums had been eliminated. as a result. tenants in low-rent non-slum Clinard. 1970. they cannot bargain with landlords of the prospective dwellings to obtain repairs and improvements as conditions of rental. housing will have a harder time convincing New York: The Free Press. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  2.  .

Theories on the formation of informal settlements  3. Sopon. Myths ( from Bangkok scenario)  Slums are simply the result of in- migration from rural areas  Most slum dwellers are in-migrants  Slums are exploding  To solve the problem of slums is to accelerate rural development  Pornchokchai. 1992.Bangkok Slums Review and Recommendations. . Bangkok: School of Urban Community Research and Actions.

 People continue to leave rural areas and move to urban centers to escape adverse rural conditions. Factors that push people out of the countryside (push factors) include environmental degradation of agricultural lands. lack of sources of credit for small-scale farmers.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  4. favoring of export-oriented agricultural development models over against subsistence farming. political unrest. civil wars and natural disasters which have displaced tens of millions of people in the past decades United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U. Habitat). The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. (London: Earthscan Publications. limited off-farm employment. poor market infrastructures.N. . 2003). xxv. Rapid rural-to-urban migration.

(London: Earthscan Publications. United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U.N. social services are more readily available. the water supply is better and security is greater for those trying to escape the violence of the countryside. modern comforts and technological convenience are found there. . because they seem to offer greater employment opportunities and potential for higher incomes.  At the same time. Rapid rural-to-urban migration. many urban areas continue to act like magnets for people from the countryside (pull factors). 2003). The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. xxv. Habitat).Theories on the formation of informal settlements  4.

The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. xxv.N. 2003). (London: Earthscan Publications. Habitat). rapid population growth. In many cities.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  5. have overwhelmed the capacity of municipal authorities to respond. Treated as transients from rural areas that have strayed temporarily into town. Poor urban governance and planning. .  United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U. coupled with an enormous population. many authorities do not recognize slum dwellers as legal urban citizens and are reticent about meeting their needs.

(London: Earthscan Publications. The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. deregulation and privatization of services has resulted in increased economic volatility and growing levels of inequalities in wealth and resource distribution both between and within cities. 2003). Global economic forces. xxv.N. . The shift in the global economy to market liberalization. The neoliberal export-oriented growth models have created too few formal sector jobs to absorb the millions of new job entrants.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  6. “The collapse of formal urban employment in the developing world and the rise of the informal sector are seen as a direct function of liberalization. Habitat).” United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U.

E. Squatter Citizens: Life in the Urban Third World. leading to the collapse of low-income housing programs and rural poverty alleviation and agricultural development programs that previously benefited a segment of the poor. and D Satterthwaite. J.  While market-based economic policies have brought some measure of economic growth. . Global economic forces. Structural adjustment policies also required widespread disengagement of the state from the urban and rural scene. Hardoy. (London: Earthscan. persistent inequalities inhibit most of the poor from participating in the growth that did occur. 1989). This situation has led to the rapid spatial expansion of irregular settlements.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  6.

.000 and counting. In some countries over 30 percent of public funds are embezzled.000. High and rising rates of corruption in government and business also harm economic growth. The Costs of Corruption". stifling private initiative and enterprise.worldbank. 2004 http://web. including infrastructure improvements and community development projects.  The poor pay a high price for corruption as the problems of unaccountable. unresponsive governance institutions remain unaddressed. World Bank. "$1.contentMDK:20190187~men . This deprives nations and their cities of capital for much needed services.000. Corruption.000. Slums continue to mushroom due to rampant corruption. They constitute a major obstacle to reducing urban poverty. inequality and infant mortality.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. April 8.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  7.

This makes it very difficult to get slum dwellers to Amis. “Urbanand Urbanization. urban slum environments often lack cohesion. They are much more in flux. No. Yet. poverty in India: Lessons  Visakhapatnam. infrastructure and work Kumar.” says the World Bank. and heterogeneous. available online at www. together for the common good. What is Social Capital?. Another major reason for poverty and inadequate services in slums is the absence of community organization and political power of their residents.“Social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Lack of community organization.worldbank. 1. from Economic Growth.org/pverty/scaptial/whatsc. Vol. 12. unlike rural communities that have their layers of customs and traditions. P.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  8.htm . 2000.” Environment World Bank Web site. chaotic. and S.

km. 5 municipalities  Land Area   Density   Composition  .4 million 636 square kilometers 260 pax/ sq.Metro Manila : a brief description  Population:  9. 12 cities.

Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'. Junio M.Squatter in the Vernacular  Iskwater  Tagalog version of squatter referring to a physically disorganized collection of shelters made of light and often visually unappealing materials where poor people reside Narrower than sewers and associated with bad smell Refers to alleys that hold only one person at a time  Estero   Eskinita   Looban  Meaning inner areas where houses are built so close to each other and often in a manner not visible to the general view of the city Ragragio. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. London. The Challenge of Dagat-dagatan Slums. Philippines. pp195228. Earthscan. The case of Metro Manila.  For areas that are frequently .

Squatter in the Vernacular .

. Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'. Junio M. Philippines. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on  Human Settlements 2003.  They are usually located along rivers and creeks. The Challenge of Slums. London.  They account for some 2. located in all the cities and municipalities of Metro Manila. under bridges. The case of Metro Manila. and beside factories and other industrial establishments. along railroad tracks.54 million people living in the most depressed areas of the metropolis. Ragragio. in garbage dumps.Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila Slums can be found in 526 communities. pp195-228. Earthscan.

London. with houses located wherever Ragragio. Earthscan. The settlement pattern of the urban poor is generally dispersed. Philippines. Junio M. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. The case of Metro Manila.Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila   Slums located next to mansions in affluent residential areas are not uncommon. The Challenge of Slums. . Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'. pp195-228.

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

Joel R. These were to provide an absolute proof of ownership. 1902 calling for the issuance of Torrens titles covering public and private lands. landowners.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1900 – 1920  Spain’s cession of the Philippines to the US created a need for a new structure and system of land-ownership with respect to existing property rights  Passage of the Land Registration Act No. 2000.  Small peasants were too ill-informed to benefit from the program. A Chronological Matrix of of tax Responses to Housing. Virtually all the titles granted by the Court Land Registration up to 1910 were for large holdings and these were Oana. Land the limited because Philippine implications to and Settlement Issues. 496 in Nov. . but the law made the titling system “voluntary”.

Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1900 – 1920 Enactment in October 1903 of the Public Lands Act (CA 141) designed to allow the landless and the land-poor peasantry to acquire 16 hectares of public land by establishing a homestead and cultivating it for five consecutive years with a payment of a nominal fee.  Oana. .  Response to the program minimal as Filipinos have no tradition of living in isolated homestead farms but rather lived in barrios or village neighborhoods. Land and Settlement Issues. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. 2000. Joel R.

2000. Joel R.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1921 – 1950 Government initiatives have benefited mostly the middle-class because of the requirement of a stable job for eligibility to housing  Only was it during the 1940s did the Government shifted to a more sociallyoriented program  State intervention and assistance in behalf of workers in the slum area were experimental in nature  Oana. . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Land and Settlement Issues.

Joel R. Squatters started settling on swamplands and esteros. Land and Settlement Issues. on idle government land. on unused streets.  Oana.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1951 .  A very small portion of the low-income group availed of the loans since the rules governing the program was seen to have favored only the middle-income groups and even the upper classes. railroad lines and disputed private lands at pace with city’s growth.1960 Restructuring of the land agency. 2000. . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing.

Land areas Oana. 300 families. national Social Housing Law which sought to benefit the low-income families resettled into government Housing. Many of these were low-income earners.  Passage of the Tenement Law in 1962 making possible the building of five tenement buildings for 2. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses tohousing and Settlement Issues.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 . Joel R.1970  Land in the city was getting to be artificially scarce due to the skewed land-ownership structure and the increasing migration to the cities due to the perceived greater livelihood opportunities. 2000. .

A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. It was estimated to be 370. 2000. 000 in 1964 to 1. Joel R.1970  There was a rapid and accelerated proliferation of informal and blighted communities mostly on unused government properties and close to highly commercialized and industrialized areas in Metro Manila. . 000 Oana. Bulacanand the General Mariano Alvarez Resettlement Site in Carmona. 200 hectares Settlement Issues. Land and families in approximately 1. They collectively accomodated about 27. Cavite and San Pedro Laguna were established in 1961.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 .1 million in 1968  The Sapang Palay resettlement area in San Juan del Monte.

1970  Based on studies only about 20% families relocated stayed permanently in the resettlement areas. 2000. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Joel R.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 . sustainable source of income and the general quality of life Oana. Land and Settlement Issues. . Most of them returned back to the city due to lack of facilities.

 PD 814 was promulgated in October 1975 to support RA 1597 governing land use in the Tondo Foreshore Area. 600 families in Manila. Land and Settlement Issues. the Tondo Foreshore Arm was causing social unrest and physical blight and had been targeted by the government for development.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 . The law prescribes the land tenure system for the Tondo Foreshore and Dagat-dagatan Urban Development Project Oana.1980  The largest single concentration of squatter or illegal settlement at 27. 2000. Joel R. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. .

Joel R. 000 families to nearby Dagat-dagatan.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 . Land and Settlement Issues. .  Oana.1980  The Government and people’s organization with support from the World Bank gradually hammered out the development plan implying maximum retention of squatter households with relocation for the overspill of about 9. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. 2000.

Joel R. slums and squatters’ colonies or illegal settlements  Illegal settlements being formalized and developed through the Urban Land reform Act and related laws  Oana. as well as the absence of an effective regulatory system.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 – 1990 The monopoly of land-ownership by a few. 2000. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Land and Settlement Issues. . had spawned disastrous land speculation and had cause irrational patterns of land development resulting in the emergence of blighted areas.

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