INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN METRO MANILA

(AN OVERVIEW)
REBECCA VANESSA D.L. RELLOSA PLAN 240 DR. MA. SHEILA G. NAPALANG

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
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Informal Settlements and Slums Theories on the formation of Informal Settlements Metro Manila: A brief description Squatter in the Vernacular Magnitude of Informal Settlements in Metro Manila Historical references of squatting in the Philippines

Informal settlements and slums
“Slum” has a negative connotation, implies evil, strange, to be shunned and avoided. Derived from the word “slumber”, slums were once thought by the majority to be unknown back streets or alleys, wrongly presumed to be sleeping and quiet.  Described as a street, alley or court, situated in a crowded district of a town or city inhabited by people of low class or by the very poor, a number of these streets or court forming a thick populated neighbourhood or district of a squalid or wretched character.

Clinard, Marshall B. 1970. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. New York: The Free Press.

Informal settlements and slums

‘Squatting’ refers simply to the relationship between people and houses on land. A squatter is a person who has taken over land, a house or a building and occupies it without lawful authority to do so.
Squatter infiltration – a slow, almost individual spillage into land – is common throughout the Third World. It can create tiny settlements or small towns.  Infiltration ignores official land allocation or transfer systems, be they customary, market or bureaucratic. The land, if apparently unoccupied or unused, is seen as a resource, a free good available for use by those who need it. McAuslan, Patrick. 1985. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor. Nottingham: Russell Press.

New York: The Free Press.Informal settlements and slums  An ever present phenomenon of the rapidly developing cities of Africa.    Clinard. . Marshall B. Peripheral shantytowns spring up on land that is not being used for one reason or another. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. South America. particularly India and Pakistan is the extensive communities of squatters and shanty town dwellers that have sprung up in and around peripheral areas of cities. 1970. and Asia.

Marshall B. Clinard. steep hillsides as in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro.  It may consist of swamps as in certain districts of Bangkok.  Many shantytowns also occupy land Self-Help. held vacant by urban investors in  . In other cases the land is too arid for cultivation and outside the scope of the city water system. low ground subject to flooding as in the outskirts of Baghdad or refuse dumps.Informal settlements and slums The land is often unused because it is undesirable or unsuitable for permanent buildings.  Waste areas of these types may be found near the city center as well as on the outskirts. Slums and Community Development: Experiments inthat is New York: The Free Press. 1970.

New York: The Free Press. Man’s Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanizing World The  The  The  The  The  The  The   owner squatter squatter tenant squatter holdover squatter landlord speculator squatter semi-squatter floating squatter  Clinard. Marshall B.Informal settlements and slums  Types of Squatters: by Charles Abrams. 1970. . Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help.

Informal settlements and slums  John R. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. 1970. New York: The Free Press. Seeley in his book Redevelopment: Some Human gains and Losses. divided slum dwellers into four types:  The permanent opportunists  The permanent necessitarians  The temporary necessitarians  The temporary opportunists   Clinard. Marshall B. .

Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums. Marshall B. the attitude of the slum dweller toward social mobility through assimilation or acculturation in the social and economic life of the community  2nd .  1st . 1970.  . provides two general New York: The Free Press.Informal settlements and slums Charles J. the measure of socioeconomic handicaps and barriers to such movement  Each of these two variables Clinard.

privilege of escalation are more  . people intend to better themselves  Slums of despair – populated by groups of longer residence. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. Marshall B. 1970.Informal settlements and slums Charles J. whereas non-escalator Clinard.characterized by the attitudes of residents. denied in some ways the New York: The Free Press.  Slums of hope. classes.  Escalator and non-escalator classes – slums of hope are more likely to contain escalator classes groups of people who can be expected to move up through the class structure. Have generally the homes of recent immigrants to the community. whether or not they expect to improve their situations and whether or not there are opportunities for advancing out of the slums. Stokes in his book Land Economics mentions in the section “A Theory of Slums” uses two main variables to describe types of slums.

  McAuslan. Nottingham: Russell Press. made usually with temporary materials. 1985. but is not exclusive to Third World countries.  Western squatting are usually manifested by taking over existing buildings (derelict houses.Informal settlements and slums ‘Third World Squatting’ is what is referred to as illegally building on land one does not own of a house. . blocks of offices or flats) and converting them to living accommodation. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor. Patrick.

Nottingham: Russell Press.Informal settlements and slums q Organized squatting. Patrick. or who in fact has no authority either to acquire the land in the McAuslan. q Orthodox legal transaction. Urban Land and Shelter for the Poor. .found in many Latin American countries. 1985. in India and in some Asian countries and in some Western European cities. the squatter ‘buying’ a piece of land from a seller who may own the land but has no official approval for subdividing the land into housing plots. Individual households may settle on land they regard as unoccupied with or without the permission of someone they think has the authority to give them permission. first place or to sell it to anyone.

Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1. 1970. The Clinard. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. storage. Early on this area is the home of the upper classes. Changes in land-use patterns Slum develops within the zone surrounding the CBD. the neighbourhood becomes infiltrated with industrial. CBD New York: The Free Press.develops to be an area of high land  . and the more wellto-do move farther out from the city center. Low income workers including recently arrived poor regional ethnic and racial groups then move in and become exclusive inhabitants of these areas. Marshall B. With the expansion of commercial and industrial ventures. and wholesale operations.

The main industrial areas of the future may well be located on the outskirts of the cities in new industrial towns and suburbs. and working men’s houses cluster along them. and railroad lines out from the center. Modified theory of city growth: industrial areas follow river valleys. as they are already beginning to be. Marshall B. water courses. 1970. with factories tending to locate even at the outer fringes of the city. Changes in land-use patterns  Clinard. The best housing then does not fringe the entire city but only parts of it. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. New York: The Free Press.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1. .

Marshall B. New York:peripheries. the central areas are generally inhabited by the SECTOR elite. with the MODEL slums located  on the Clinard. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. In The Free Press.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  1. formerly common in Europe and still common in the developing countries of Asia and other parts of the world.  . 1970. Changes in landuse patterns In such cities.

 The role of urban renewal projects in creating new slums in areas where old slums had been eliminated. As slum clearance continues.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  2. as a result. 1970. Marshall B. landlords to spend funds for maintenance. Slums and Community Development: Experiments in Self-Help. housing will have a harder time convincing New York: The Free Press. they cannot bargain with landlords of the prospective dwellings to obtain repairs and improvements as conditions of rental. tenants in low-rent non-slum Clinard. Housing Shortages and Maintenance The continuing existence of slums has also been explained by the fact that “their inhabitants cannot afford good housing and because private enterprise will not supply it at prices they can afford”.  . Slum clearance reduces the number of dwellings available to low-income families and that.

Theories on the formation of informal settlements  3. . Sopon. 1992.Bangkok Slums Review and Recommendations. Bangkok: School of Urban Community Research and Actions. Myths ( from Bangkok scenario)  Slums are simply the result of in- migration from rural areas  Most slum dwellers are in-migrants  Slums are exploding  To solve the problem of slums is to accelerate rural development  Pornchokchai.

Habitat). political unrest. lack of sources of credit for small-scale farmers. favoring of export-oriented agricultural development models over against subsistence farming. poor market infrastructures. (London: Earthscan Publications. . 2003). limited off-farm employment. xxv. civil wars and natural disasters which have displaced tens of millions of people in the past decades United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U.N. Rapid rural-to-urban migration.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  4. People continue to leave rural areas and move to urban centers to escape adverse rural conditions. Factors that push people out of the countryside (push factors) include environmental degradation of agricultural lands. The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003.

the water supply is better and security is greater for those trying to escape the violence of the countryside. xxv. Habitat). . (London: Earthscan Publications. many urban areas continue to act like magnets for people from the countryside (pull factors). modern comforts and technological convenience are found there. The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003.  At the same time.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  4. 2003). because they seem to offer greater employment opportunities and potential for higher incomes. social services are more readily available. Rapid rural-to-urban migration. United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U.N.

2003).Theories on the formation of informal settlements  5. Treated as transients from rural areas that have strayed temporarily into town. xxv. coupled with an enormous population. Habitat). In many cities.  United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U.N. The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. Poor urban governance and planning. rapid population growth. have overwhelmed the capacity of municipal authorities to respond. many authorities do not recognize slum dwellers as legal urban citizens and are reticent about meeting their needs. . (London: Earthscan Publications.

deregulation and privatization of services has resulted in increased economic volatility and growing levels of inequalities in wealth and resource distribution both between and within cities.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  6.N. Habitat). The neoliberal export-oriented growth models have created too few formal sector jobs to absorb the millions of new job entrants.” United Nations Center for Human Settlement (U. The shift in the global economy to market liberalization. Global economic forces. xxv. “The collapse of formal urban employment in the developing world and the rise of the informal sector are seen as a direct function of liberalization. (London: Earthscan Publications. 2003). . The Challenge of Slums – Global Report on Human Settlements 2003.

This situation has led to the rapid spatial expansion of irregular settlements.E.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  6. Global economic forces.  While market-based economic policies have brought some measure of economic growth. J. . persistent inequalities inhibit most of the poor from participating in the growth that did occur. Hardoy. 1989). Squatter Citizens: Life in the Urban Third World. (London: Earthscan. Structural adjustment policies also required widespread disengagement of the state from the urban and rural scene. and D Satterthwaite. leading to the collapse of low-income housing programs and rural poverty alleviation and agricultural development programs that previously benefited a segment of the poor.

  The poor pay a high price for corruption as the problems of unaccountable. Slums continue to mushroom due to rampant corruption.contentMDK:20190187~men . 2004 http://web. Corruption.000. World Bank. stifling private initiative and enterprise. including infrastructure improvements and community development projects. The Costs of Corruption". "$1.000.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  7. unresponsive governance institutions remain unaddressed.worldbank. They constitute a major obstacle to reducing urban poverty. In some countries over 30 percent of public funds are embezzled. April 8.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0. inequality and infant mortality. High and rising rates of corruption in government and business also harm economic growth. This deprives nations and their cities of capital for much needed services..000 and counting.000.

infrastructure and work Kumar. Another major reason for poverty and inadequate services in slums is the absence of community organization and political power of their residents. and heterogeneous. together for the common good. unlike rural communities that have their layers of customs and traditions. No.“Social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable.Theories on the formation of informal settlements  8. “Urbanand Urbanization. They are much more in flux. Yet. 1. available online at www. P. 12.org/pverty/scaptial/whatsc. chaotic. poverty in India: Lessons  Visakhapatnam. This makes it very difficult to get slum dwellers to Amis.worldbank. What is Social Capital?. and S. Vol.htm . 2000.” says the World Bank. urban slum environments often lack cohesion. Lack of community organization. from Economic Growth.” Environment World Bank Web site.

km.Metro Manila : a brief description  Population:  9. 5 municipalities  Land Area   Density   Composition  . 12 cities.4 million 636 square kilometers 260 pax/ sq.

Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'. London. The case of Metro Manila.  For areas that are frequently . Philippines. Earthscan. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. pp195228. The Challenge of Dagat-dagatan Slums. Junio M.Squatter in the Vernacular  Iskwater  Tagalog version of squatter referring to a physically disorganized collection of shelters made of light and often visually unappealing materials where poor people reside Narrower than sewers and associated with bad smell Refers to alleys that hold only one person at a time  Estero   Eskinita   Looban  Meaning inner areas where houses are built so close to each other and often in a manner not visible to the general view of the city Ragragio.

Squatter in the Vernacular .

Junio M. Philippines.Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila Slums can be found in 526 communities. located in all the cities and municipalities of Metro Manila. Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'.54 million people living in the most depressed areas of the metropolis.  They are usually located along rivers and creeks. Ragragio. . in garbage dumps. pp195-228. London. The Challenge of Slums. The case of Metro Manila. along railroad tracks. Earthscan. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on  Human Settlements 2003.  They account for some 2. under bridges. and beside factories and other industrial establishments.

Earthscan. The case of Metro Manila. The Challenge of Slums. UN-Habitat (2003) Global Report on Human Settlements 2003. pp195-228. with houses located wherever Ragragio.Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila   Slums located next to mansions in affluent residential areas are not uncommon. . London. Junio M. Part IV: 'Summary of City Case Studies'. Philippines. The settlement pattern of the urban poor is generally dispersed.

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

Magnitude of Informal Settlers in Metro Manila .

496 in Nov. . A Chronological Matrix of of tax Responses to Housing. but the law made the titling system “voluntary”. Virtually all the titles granted by the Court Land Registration up to 1910 were for large holdings and these were Oana. Joel R. These were to provide an absolute proof of ownership. landowners. 2000.  Small peasants were too ill-informed to benefit from the program.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1900 – 1920  Spain’s cession of the Philippines to the US created a need for a new structure and system of land-ownership with respect to existing property rights  Passage of the Land Registration Act No. Land the limited because Philippine implications to and Settlement Issues. 1902 calling for the issuance of Torrens titles covering public and private lands.

2000. Land and Settlement Issues.  Oana.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1900 – 1920 Enactment in October 1903 of the Public Lands Act (CA 141) designed to allow the landless and the land-poor peasantry to acquire 16 hectares of public land by establishing a homestead and cultivating it for five consecutive years with a payment of a nominal fee.  Response to the program minimal as Filipinos have no tradition of living in isolated homestead farms but rather lived in barrios or village neighborhoods. . Joel R. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing.

Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1921 – 1950 Government initiatives have benefited mostly the middle-class because of the requirement of a stable job for eligibility to housing  Only was it during the 1940s did the Government shifted to a more sociallyoriented program  State intervention and assistance in behalf of workers in the slum area were experimental in nature  Oana. . Land and Settlement Issues. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Joel R. 2000.

on unused streets. on idle government land.  A very small portion of the low-income group availed of the loans since the rules governing the program was seen to have favored only the middle-income groups and even the upper classes. Joel R. Squatters started settling on swamplands and esteros. railroad lines and disputed private lands at pace with city’s growth.  Oana.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1951 . Land and Settlement Issues. . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. 2000.1960 Restructuring of the land agency.

.  Passage of the Tenement Law in 1962 making possible the building of five tenement buildings for 2. 300 families. Land areas Oana. 2000. Joel R.1970  Land in the city was getting to be artificially scarce due to the skewed land-ownership structure and the increasing migration to the cities due to the perceived greater livelihood opportunities.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses tohousing and Settlement Issues. national Social Housing Law which sought to benefit the low-income families resettled into government Housing. Many of these were low-income earners.

Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 . 2000. 200 hectares Settlement Issues. It was estimated to be 370. 000 in 1964 to 1. Joel R. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Bulacanand the General Mariano Alvarez Resettlement Site in Carmona. . 000 Oana.1 million in 1968  The Sapang Palay resettlement area in San Juan del Monte. They collectively accomodated about 27. Cavite and San Pedro Laguna were established in 1961. Land and families in approximately 1.1970  There was a rapid and accelerated proliferation of informal and blighted communities mostly on unused government properties and close to highly commercialized and industrialized areas in Metro Manila.

2000. Most of them returned back to the city due to lack of facilities.1970  Based on studies only about 20% families relocated stayed permanently in the resettlement areas. sustainable source of income and the general quality of life Oana.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1961 . Land and Settlement Issues. . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. Joel R.

Joel R.  PD 814 was promulgated in October 1975 to support RA 1597 governing land use in the Tondo Foreshore Area. . Land and Settlement Issues.1980  The largest single concentration of squatter or illegal settlement at 27. 600 families in Manila. The law prescribes the land tenure system for the Tondo Foreshore and Dagat-dagatan Urban Development Project Oana. 2000.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 . A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. the Tondo Foreshore Arm was causing social unrest and physical blight and had been targeted by the government for development.

Joel R.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 .  Oana. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing. 000 families to nearby Dagat-dagatan.1980  The Government and people’s organization with support from the World Bank gradually hammered out the development plan implying maximum retention of squatter households with relocation for the overspill of about 9. 2000. . Land and Settlement Issues.

Joel R. . slums and squatters’ colonies or illegal settlements  Illegal settlements being formalized and developed through the Urban Land reform Act and related laws  Oana. 2000. had spawned disastrous land speculation and had cause irrational patterns of land development resulting in the emergence of blighted areas. Land and Settlement Issues.Historical references of squatting in the Philippines  1971 – 1990 The monopoly of land-ownership by a few. as well as the absence of an effective regulatory system. A Chronological Matrix of Philippine Responses to Housing.

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