Amelogenesis

PBL Resource Session 11th September 2007

Amelogenesis Embryonic component of a tooth germ  Dental organ  Dental papilla  Dental sac (follicle) .

Amelogenesis  Ameloblasts show different morphological features and organelle content during different stages of enamel formation. These stages collectively are referred to as lifecycle of ameloblast  . Ameloblasts are assigned to stages that start before enamel apposition and continue through enamel formation as well as after enamel is completely formed.

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Induce adjacent dental papilla cells to differentiate into odontoblasts which form dentin.Life cycle of ameloblast 0 -Morphogenetic (morphogenic) stage:  1 -Differentiating stage: The inner dental epithelial cells grow into columnar cells with more organelles mostly protein synthesizing organelles. At this stage the inner dental epithelium consists of cuboidal cells with centrally located nuclei.     . The polarity of the cells is reversed as the Golgi complex shifts from a proximal to distal position. Inner dental epithelium begins its differentiation first into prepreameloblasts.

As the secretory stage is ending Tomes' processes are lost and accordingly the last formed layers of enamel are prismless. Tomes' processes determine the orientation of the newly formed (nucleated) enamel hydroxyapatite crystals. Secretory ameloblasts are polarized tall columnar cells with tomes' processes (conical shaped processes) at their distal ends.golgi complex.2 -Secretory stage:  1st layer of dentin induce preameloblast to complete differentiation & secrete enamel. granular ER      . Organelle content are mainly protein synthesizing eg. Tomes' processes interdigitate with the surface of the forming enamel giving it a picket fence appearance.

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Many lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles are also present.3 -Transitional stage:  When enamel reaches its full thickness the ameloblasts enter a brief transitional stage. Their height is decreased and protein synthesizing organelles are drastically reduced.    . The overall number of ameloblasts is reduced by programmed cell death(apoptosis) and it is estimated that by the end of this stage the ameloblast population is reduced by as much as 50%.

4 -Maturation stage:  During maturation massive influx of calcium and phosphates occurs and at the same time there is selective loss of enamel proteins. mainly amelogenin and water. RuffleRuffle-ended allows incorporation of organic material.    . respectively. The ameloblasts either have numerous microvilli forming a ruffleruffleborder or their distal ends are even (straight). thus forming two morphologically different types.e. change their morphology from one type to the other and back. namely Ruffle-ended ameloblasts Ruffle(80 % of maturation ameloblasts) and Smooth-ended ameloblasts Smooth(20 %). thus maturation ameloblasts modulate i. The ameloblasts modulate between two phenotypes depending on the morphology of their distal ends. smooth ended permits free passage of protein fragments and water The two morphological types of ameloblasts are grouped into alternating bands during this stage.

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It separates the enamel from the dental sac and thus protect it from being in contact with connective tissue cells in the dental sac. The reduced dental epithelium and the oral epithelium jointly form the dentogingival junction of the erupting tooth.    . namely the reduced enamel (dental) epithelium. This structure remains on the surface of fully formed enamel until the tooth erupts.5 -Protective stage:  Ameloblasts lose their differentiation and become short cuboidal cells which together with the remnants of the other layers of the dental organ form a multilayered structure.

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Ameloblast acquire their distinctive phenotype .Bell Stage MorphoMorpho-differentiation  Functional activity MorphoMorpho-differentiation - Dental organ deepened HistoHisto-differentiation .

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.Dental organ Epithelial structure arise from dental lamina by proliferation at specific sites.

Later in early crown stage differentiates into tall columnar cells which are the ameloblast that secretes enamel . Outer dental epithelium single layer of short cuboidal cells that form the outer periphery of the dental organ - b.single layer of tall cuboidal cells that forms the inner periphery of the dental organ facing the dental papilla. Inner dental epithelium .These layers are: a.

3-4 layers of flattened epithelial cells betw inner dental epithelial and stellate reticulum .c. Stratum intermedium .group of star shaped cells that form a network inside the dental organ. The stellate reticulum cells are separated by large amounts of extracellular products (eg glycosaminoglycans) d. Stellate reticulum .

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