Sumerian Lexicon

Version 3.0 by

John A. Halloran
The following lexicon contains 1,255 Sumerian logogram words and 2,511 Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around 3400 B.C. in the Uruk/Warka region of southern Iraq. The language that they spoke, Sumerian, is known to us through a large body of texts and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and Akkadian, the language of their Semitic successors, to which Sumerian is not related. These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period (1800-1600 B.C.), by which time Sumerian had ceased to be spoken, except by the scribes. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words. I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added. Many cuneiform signs can be pronounced in more than one way and often two or more signs share the same pronunciation, in which case it is necessary to indicate in the transliteration which cuneiform sign is meant; Assyriologists have developed a system whereby the second homophone is marked by an acute accent (´ ), the third homophone by a grave accent (` ), and the remainder by subscript numerals. [If the small font size prevents you from seeing whether the accent is acute or grave, click on View and Zoom and scroll up to 125%.] The homophone numeration here follows the 'BCE-System' developed by Borger, Civil, and Ellermeier. The 'accents' and subscript numerals do not affect the pronunciation. The numeration system is a convention to inform Assyriologists which, for example, of the many cuneiform signs that have the reading du actually occurs on the tablet. A particular sign can often be transcribed in a long way, such as dug 4, or in a short way, such as du 11, because Sumerian was like French in omitting certain amissable final consonants except before a following vowel. Due to this lexicon's etymological orientation, you will usually find a word listed under its fullest phonetic form. Transcriptions of texts often contain the short forms, however, because Sumerologists try to accurately represent the spoken language. Short forms are listed, but you are told where to confer. The vowels may be pronounced as follows: a as in father, u as in pull, e as in peg, and i as in hip. Of the special consonants, ñ is pronounced like ng in rang, þ is pronounced like ch in German Buch or Scottish loch, and š is pronounced like sh in dash. Following the definitions, the lexicon may indicate in a smaller font the constituent elements of words that in origin were compound words, if those elements were clear to me. Etymologies are a normal part of dictionarymaking, but etymologies are also the most subject to speculation. It is possible that, in some cases, I have provided a Sumerian etymology for what is actually a loanword from another language. I encourage scholars to contact me with evidence from productive roots in other proto-languages when they have reason to believe that a Sumerian word is a loan from another language family. In light of the Sumerian propensity for forming new words through compounding in the period after they invented cuneiform signs, it should not be surprising to find this same propensity in words dating from before their invention of written signs. The structure and thinking behind the Sumerian vocabulary is to me a thing of beauty. We are fortunate to be able to look back into the minds of our prehistoric ancestors and see how they thought and lived via the words that they created. The lexicon's etymological orientation explains why the vocabulary is organized according to the phonetic structure of the words, with words sharing the same structure being listed together and alphabetically according to their final consonants and vowels, as this method best groups together related words. This principle has been abandoned after words of the structure CVC(V) in this version, as words that are phonetically more complex than

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this do not group together by meaning. The phonetically more complex words and the compound words are listed alphabetically simply by their initial letters. The lexicon has been in development over a fourteen-year period. Primary sources included: A. Deimel, Šumerisches Lexikon; Rome 1947. E. Reiner et al., The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago; Chicago 1956ff. W. von Soden, Akkadisches Handwörterbuch; Wiesbaden 1958-1981. R. Borger, “Assyrisch-babylonische Zeichenliste”, Band 33 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1978. R. Labat and F. Malbran-Labat, Manuel d'Épigraphie Akkadienne, 6º édition; Paris 1995 (this is the cuneiform sign manual used by most Sumerology students - it is available from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). M.L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language: An Introduction to Its History and Grammatical Structure; Copenhagen 1984 (this well-done grammar is currently the standard text - if it is on back order at Eisenbraun's, ask your public library's Interlibrary Loan department to obtain it for you). J.L. Hayes, A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts; Malibu 1990 (beginning students can start with this book before graduating to Thomsen- if available, order it from Eisenbraun's - see my links page). R. Jestin, Notes de Graphie et de Phonétique Sumériennes; Paris 1965. B. Landsberger, as compiled by D.A. Foxvog and A.D. Kilmer, "Benno Landsberger's Lexicographical Contributions", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol 27 (1975). H. Behrens and H. Steible, Glossar zu den altsumerischen Bau- und Weihinschriften; Wiesbaden 1983. K. Oberhuber, Sumerisches Lexikon zu “George Reisner, Sumerisch - babylonische Hymnen nach Thontafeln griechischer Zeit (Berlin 1896)” (SBH) und verwandten Texten; Innsbruck 1990. Å.W. Sjöberg et. al., The Sumerian Dictionary of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania; Philadelphia 1984ff. Letters B and A through Abzu have been published. M. Civil, unpublished Sumerian glossary for students. S. Tinney, editor, Index to the Secondary Literature: A collated list of indexes and glossaries to the secondary literature concerning the Sumerian Language, unpublished but now expanded and searchable at: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu:80/psd/ E.I. Gordon, Sumerian Proverbs: Glimpses of Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia; Philadelphia 1959 (with contributions by Th. Jacobsen). D.C. Snell, Ledgers and Prices: Early Mesopotamian Merchant Accounts; New Haven and London 1982. P. Michalowski, The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur; Winona Lake 1989. C.E. Keiser and S.T. Kang, Neo-Sumerian Account Texts from Drehem; New Haven & London 1971. J. Bauer, Altsumerische Wirtschaftstexte aus Lagasch; Dissertation for Julius-Maximilians-Universität at Würzburg 1967 [appeared under same name as vol. 9 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1972]. J. Krecher, "Die marû-Formen des sumerischen Verbums", Vom Alten Orient Zum Alten Testament, AOAT 240 (1995; Fs. vSoden II), pp. 141-200. K. Volk, A Sumerian Reader, vol. 18 in Studia Pohl: Series Maior; Rome 1997 (this practical, inexpensive book includes a nice, though incomplete, sign-list). B. Alster, The Instructions of Suruppak: A Sumerian Proverb Collection (Mesopotamia: Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology, Vol. 2); Copenhagen 1974. B. Alster, Proverbs of Ancient Sumer: The World's Earliest Proverb Collections, 2 vols; Bethesda, Maryland 1997.

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Å. Sjöberg, Der Mondgott Nanna-Suen in der sumerischen Überlieferung; Stockholm 1960. V.E. Orel and O.V. Stolbova, Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction (Handbuch der Orientalistik, Abt. 1, Bd. 18); Leiden, New York, & Köln 1995. M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Zeichenliste der Archaischen Texte aus Uruk [ZATU] (Ausgrabungen der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft in Uruk-Warka, 11; Archaische Texte aus Uruk, 2); Berlin 1987. P.Damerow and R. Englund, Sign List of the Archaic Texts (electronic FileMaker database collection of ZATU signs occurring in catalogued texts from Uruk IV to ED II); Berlin 1994. P. Steinkeller, review of M.W. Green and H.J. Nissen, Bibliotheca Orientalis 52 (1995), pp. 689-713. J. Krecher, "Das sumerische Phonem |ñ |", Festschrift Lubor Matouš, Assyriologia 5, vol. II, ed. B. Hruška & G. Komoróczy (Budapest, 1978), pp. 7-73. M. Civil, The Farmer's Instructions: A Sumerian Agricultural Manual (Aula Orientalis-Supplementa, Vol. 5); Barcelona 1994. M. Krebernik, Die Beschwörungen aus Fara und Ebla: Untersuchungen zur ältesten keilschriftlichen Beschwörungsliteratur (Texte und Studien zur Orientalistik, Bd. 2); Hildesheim, Zurich, New York 1984. M.A. Powell, "Masse und Gewichte" [Weights and Measures: article in English], Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie,.Bd. 7, ed. D.O. Edzard (Berlin & New York, 1987-90), pp. 457-517. K.R. Nemet-Nejat, Cuneiform Mathematical Texts as a Reflection of Everyday Life in Mesopotamia (American Oriental Series, Vol. 75); New Haven 1993. E.J. Wilson, “The Cylinders of Gudea: Transliteration, Translation and Index”, Band 244 in Alter Orient und Altes Testament (AOAT), Veröffentlichungen zur Kultur und Geschichte des Alten Orients und des Alten Testaments (Series); Kevelaer and Neukirchen-Vluyn 1996. D.O. Edzard, Gudea and His Dynasty (The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Early Periods, Vol. 3/1); Toronto, Buffalo, London 1997. W.W. Hallo and J.J.A. van Dijk, The Exaltation of Inanna; New Haven & London 1968. The Sumerian lexicon has benefitted from several classes at UCLA with Dr. Robert Englund. I dedicate this lexicon to the memory of Dr. Robert Hetzron, with whom I had the pleasure of studying during every week of the four years that I attended the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dr. Hetzron was a professional linguist and expert on the Afroasiatic language family. If you are a Sumerology student who wishes to add entries or make changes to this Word document, please do so in a colored font, so that your changes can be identified and incorporated into future versions of the lexicon. The home page for the Sumerian lexicon is http://www.sumerian.org/.

a, e4:

n., water; watercourse, canal; seminal fluid; offspring; father; tears; flood. [A archaic frequency: 519]

interj., alas!. prep., locative suffix - where; in; when - denotes movement towards or in favor of a person. def. article, nominalizing suffix for a noun or noun clause, denoting 'the'.

á: a5: e: é: è:

(cf., áþi ). (cf., aka ). (cf., ég) . house, household; temple; plot of land [E 2 archaic frequency: 649; concatenates 4 signs] . (cf., éd) .

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þà ).. Beschwörungen] . to derive a more specific meaning.. cock. male bird. to steer.. support. the grunting. see Krebernik. panting of battle. screams.. to mount (in intercourse).. nook (cf. to capture. defeat. to be on top of. (cf. (cf. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun. ub4: cavity. Version 3. opening. éb: n. v. nook. Sumerian Lexicon. hole. food. ib: corner. dispute. ab: window. ìa) . strong. (raised) high. u6: u8: (cf.. plant. bread. huge. thighs.8): u4: u5: n. sleep (cf. angle...5: a drum. (cf. conduct.e11: (cf. i) ù: n. è. earth pile or levee.. to sleep.'water. èd). i: ì: i7: u: ú: n. to nourish. n. n. vegetable. éd. (cf... v. concatenates 2 sign variants (sign also used for èš and aba . v. pron. a small room [UB archaic frequency: 124].. v... u(3. middle. especially land or ground (sometimes written ù). v. to ride. adj.. to curse.. ír.. ug 6). u.. aba) [AB archaic frequency: 384. when. prep. áb: domestic cow (a. to bend over.. raised area (sometimes written ù) [U 5 archaic frequency: 1]. often used as a polite imperative.. u18[GIŠGAL]: u20[ŠE]: barley. powerful (man). load [U 2 archaic frequency: 225. ud ).for this reading and meaning in Fara period. cries. waist. loins. cry of pain (derived from ér.'middle') [AB2 archaic frequency: 288]. totality.. complaint' ?) [I archaic frequency: 17]. the prospective modal prefix: if. fight. pitfall. grass. ub: corner. (cf. + íb. concatenates 3 signs] . insult. to board (a boat). liquid'.. Lieberman. nook [IB archaic frequency: 252. and. 'tears. to be angry.. niche. pasture. to flare up in anger. (kuš) ub3. u 5). adj. overcome (cf.. an expression of protest. ída) . after. íb. concatenates 2 sign variants] .4. us 5).. [according to S. and u4 were pronounced /o/] v.0 4 . ù.. angle.

0 5 . amazement. venom. ug4. prep. u6[IGI. slaver. u4: úd[ÁŠ]: (cf. to import.É]: n. death. cripple. ùñ: (cf. dug 4.. to be or become visible. since. e: n. locative/terminative suffix . èd.7. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun). è.. to kill..in. ék. paste. sun. to rise. e11: to exit. storm (demon) [UD archaic frequency: 419]. dead person. aþ: phlegm.. úš ). marû.. adj. embankment.. nit. to bring down (or up). gaze. emmer (wheat). insect. ída). spittle. + ig. íd: (cf. when. vermin [UÞ3 archaic frequency: 14. Sumerian Lexicon. ad4: lame. úþ. 'door') [EG 2 archaic frequency: 12. to descend.. ég. parasite. ád: (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . light.. ug6. adda4).. say (e = sing. ùña).... to rise. v. this one. storm. day.5. toward. levee. e4. to be impressed. áñ: (cf. i: to go out. weather. n.6: (cf. to stare at. ud5: (cf. plural hamtu. to look at. 'water'. adda)... time. Version 3. id4.. concatenates 5 sign variants] . to lead or bring out. flea. moth.. demonstrative pron. éd. also di ).8. ag: (cf. bund (a. áña). v. to water. in the immediate vicinity. cf. ak). astonishing. laþ ).. to fetch... dike. entrance [IG archaic frequency: 43. ig: door. set. ada).. it4: ud. íg. uþ: (cf. which is sometimes reduplicated. emerge. froth. ug(2): lion.8: n. concatenates 2 sign variants] . suffixed to ergative agent. malice.. gaze. to speak. glance (['EYE' + 'HOUSE']). uþ(3): lice.. to appear as a witness (the final d appears in marû conjugation) [ED 2 archaic frequency: 12. ad3. and plural marû. v. cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to sprout. to drain (èdè(-d) in marû). fury. prep. uþ.ad: (cf.. to die (singular and plural marû stem. ùz). àþ. itud) . to send forth. anger. louse. to remove. plural hamtu.

. ùña). aka ). v.3): n. diviner [EN archaic frequency: 1232.. um: an: n. remote. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sky. àm and áma). ám: (cf. en: n. ár: (cf. the god An.. em: (gi) the Sumerian enclitic copula . flower. Version 3. àm[A... adj. to be high. ancestor (statue).. umu ). un: (cf. in: he. indicates: 1) distance. forked hoe with from 2 to 4 teeth. occurs after a noun [e. she.. v.. pleasure. also.. ornament. to hurry.. àr: (cf. until. satisfaction. imi). joy. prep. grain ear/date cluster ('water' + 'high') [AN archaic frequency: 806].g.ak. adj. harass [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. (cf. lord. distant (in time). concatenates 3 sign variants] . þar). ím: (cf. spade [AL archaic frequency: 95] . William king-is]. to rule. to glitter. in front.. bud. which.. ul: n. ancient. pickax. íla). áña). who. straw. offense. invective [IN archaic frequency: 21]. enduring. ara4). high priest. gim4). en(2. il5: (cf.. star.. adj.AN]: im. úllu).0 6 . dignitary... hasten. like (in scholarly lists).. ul4: to be quick. ùl: (cf. am: (cf. a rope made of reeds (cf. ar: (cf. insult. v. high. what. ili5). time.. prep. ag: ñiš genitival suffix: 'of' (cf. al: digging stick.. a capacity measure of 36 liters in Presargonic Girsu. ára). 2) the speaker is not involved... enigmatic background [EN 2 archaic frequency: 17]. noble. Sumerian Lexicon. or 3) the lack of a transitive relationship..'to be'. al: verbal prefix: used immediately before stative verbs. shine... heaven. íl: (cf. (same) as. wooden mattock..

téš) [UR archaic frequency: 114. humble.. interest. uru4).. v.. ur4: (cf.. to weep. aš(5): spider.11: v. carnivorous beast. to transport. .. to be next to. prayer... loins. adj. in the same way. height. ir(10). bring. thighs.. vertical. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . to follow. side. to rent.. obligation. wish. servant.. to shear. dock. dog. burp. to let reach. loan. as: (cf. reach. adj. to come near to. enemy (cf. us5. to roar. smell. perfumed. in geometry: length. ur: n... us. curse (abbreviated v.3. mountain pass. tears. rafter (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .0 7 . asa).. alone. er: ir3. his. odor. scent. to be bowed with grief. heart. complaint. repayment. uzmušen: domestic goose or duck (cf. unique. wipe out.. ur11: (cf. slave-woman (cf. mow (reduplication class) (cf. bulk.. ús. arad (2)). base. the referenced. to belch.ér. to smell. to curse... to lean against (cf. to erase. to chew. inanimate pron. adult female sheep [US 5 archaic frequency: 86]. distance. beam. leg(s). to tremble. sweat. to flood. followed by a negation: not at all. to drive. tàš ? ašte ? [AŠ 2 archaic frequency: 5]. gur10. perpendicular. Version 3. so. border. it. to join. block. edge. re7).4)) [UR3 archaic frequency: 27.. lamentation. to drag (over the ground) (often with -ni -). ùr: roof. (cf.. trunk of a tree [UR2 archaic frequency: 78]. to throw overboard. profit. to bring. úr: floor.14) [? UR4 archaic frequency: 41. n. liver. theirs. þar. v. reap. main body. these. entrance. to rub something in. interest-bearing debt.. thus. perfume.. cf. spleen. surplus. warrior. to imprison. v. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . foundation. ) Sumerian Lexicon. ñíš ). ur(2.4): to surround. hers. fragrance [IR archaic frequency: 53. to moor.. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . in this way. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . scented. u8: mother ewe. gur 10). aš: one. concatenation of 3 sign variants] .. v. to desire. ur(2. úz [UŠ]: n. to clog. fragrant. to lead away (Emesal dialect for túm . soul. mur ) [UR 5 archaic frequency: 34. lap. áš: n. ír: ir(10): n. demonstrative.3.. root.. young man. bibad) (loanword into Akkadian) [US archaic frequency: 18. ur5[ÞAR]: n..

ba: n.. v..21: uš. us). éš: (cf. wages [BA archaic frequency: 523]. = 6 ropes = 60 nindan rods.. used when the subject is inanimate and/or non-agentive (intransitive). ñá. v. to block (singular hamtu stem). úš: n. foundation (cf. asa). 'house'. base. adverbial force suffix (sometimes followed by -šè ). adj. ba4: Emesal dialect. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. UŠ: a length measure. spell. to divide. distribute. to kill. much. liver model. concatenates 3 signs] .. possessive or demonstrative suffix (ku6) -bi plus nominative -a. ùš: placental membrane.. uš8: foundation place. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to pay (interchanges with bar). apportion. ba: a shelled creature (such as a turtle or a snail). charm.4. reading unknown. Version 3. poison. rations. iši).6. ud5. concatenation of 2 sign variants. blood vessel. to die. bar). v. èš: shrine [AB archaic frequency: 384. concatenates 2 sign variants] . slaver. ba7: (cf. moistening. iš: (cf. ut5: she-goat [UD 5 archaic frequency: 109. afterbirth. Sumerian Lexicon.16. az: (cf. ús). ñíš) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. to anoint. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . dead. úz: (cf. + aš. 'five'. omen. share.aš3. blood... many. conjugation prefix. eš: n. portion. n. to stand upon.. éše). v.. cf. adv.. uš11: venom.. death [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. eš5.. lift.. spittle.. [UŠ archaic frequency: 101. uš7: spittle. bà: liver.0 8 . ús: three. to give. 'one'). to support... uz: (cf. a scraping tool. UŠ archaic frequency: 101.8: six (ía.. ùz.

v.denote direction). buzz. poss. to continue on (singular hamtu. biz. form. prep. to speak. it. bur 12. v. twitter.0 9 . Sumerian Lexicon. bí: (cf. Version 3. cf. de 6. bi.. ég .be: (cf. bé: v.. da: n... lessen. to protect. to go. Emesal ga(14))... dab6). to conduct oneself. bi[z] ) [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261.2... re7. dé: to pour (often with -ni-). cry.... tud). to be near.. to murmer.. 'with'.. súb) [DU archaic frequency: 299]. sing. du: to walk. bad). to remove (earth clods) (reduplicated). arm. to come (sing.. bu5: to rush around (cf. sentence [DI archaic frequency: 99]. di: n. i-bí). to tear off (with -ta -). nearness (to someone) [DA archaic frequency: 227. pron.often indicates a present participle to be translated by English -ing or connotes future sense. to shape.. dù('). carry (-ši . suffix.. to instruct. bul ) [BU: archaic frequency: 393. bi7: (cf. hum.. 'to speak'). marû form suffix . concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to escape (di-dé used as non-finite marû form of dug 4. comitative suffix. Used like the terminative postposition -šè after verbal phrases to indicate intent or goal. di5 [RI]: to advise. to sink (for other meanings ... judgment. ñin. tumu2. differentiates the semantic meaning of certain verbs. side. de6. 'its' applies to inanimate (things and animals) and collective objects.. concatenates 4 sign variants] .or -ta .cf. gù.. lawsuit.3. that (one) .dé ). case. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to go. dè: ashes. to judge. say (accusative infix b 3rd pers. the. de5. bìd). conjugation prefix. demonstrative suffix. marû. laþ4. howl. neuter + e 'to speak'). cf. (cf. decision. copula.. verdict. tur). di4: (cf.. to diminish. ðú: n. be full. totality.2.. dú: (cf. 'and' (mainly in Sargonic date texts). da5: (cf. work. and. to increase. to water. bi6 [BA]: bu(3. this (one).in this sense can occur with animates. conj. art. adv. to hold. ðe6: to bring. chirp. mention (cf.6): to tear. decide. bul). adverbial force suffix.

. cast. quarrel. ñin. besiege. ge9: gi17: (cf. struggle... gore. ge(2. reed = 6 cubits = 3 meters (circular + to sprout) [GI archaic frequency: 484]. gé: gi4. to be necessary. dun5).. gi7: (cf. fitting. dug 4). gi9.0 10 . to establish something as the property of someone (dative) (loanword from Semitic. orig. to plant. gi(4): to surround. young man (small and thin like a reed). ge(n): v.. to lock up (circle + to descend into). firm. reliable. du8: (cf. to butt.. to stabilize. gig ). Version 3. gi(n). cohortative. ge4: n. ga: n. du10: du11: du12: du14: (cf. reed mat. to erect something on the ground. make. just. gi25[DUGUD]: frequency: 53]. net.. duþ). small... send) [GI 4 archaic frequency: 37.v.6): girl. and with -ni-) (circular motion + to go out. adj. modal prefix. apply (dù-e in marû). flax.. length measure. to fasten. dul(6)). concatenation of 3 sign variants] .... du9: (cf... sug5) du6: (cf. gu: string. hemp.'be true'. 'also'. word for needle (circular + grass-like) [GU archaic Sumerian Lexicon. wool yarn. Akkadian kânu. du5: (cf. gi: reed. fight. dùg ). strengthen. used with hamtu forms... gir 10). adj. to return. gi(17): gí. du7: to be finished. (cf. to answer (person to whom answer is given resumed by dative prefix. (cf. trustworthy. to restore. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to set up. thread. to confirm. gùr). snare. tuku ). to raise up. 'and then'. *ka'Vn. to reject. milk (chamber + water) [GA archaic frequency: 245. to act justly. ñen). cf. conjugation prefix. come back. to be suitable. fixed. ga6: (cf. complete. dislike.. to build. toss (reduplication class?) (regularly followed by rá ) [DU 7 archaic frequency: 7]. (cf. (cf.. to send (back) (with -ši -). to mould. gíg ). gir15). Orel & Stolbova #1403.

Orel & Stolbova #982. counter. þa: precative and affirmative verbal prefix: may. gun. house. to feed. v. 'cries. but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ 'many' + a 'water' = 'fish'. neck. ñá: ñu10: *þa: I... talent' cf. nape") [GU 2 archaic frequency: 34]. cream.8). fat. numerous.. ka: in late usage the difference between a rough measuring and a final measuring of a quantity of grain. ñe26. finish off. ká: gate [? KA2 archaic frequency: 11. gù: n. use. ka5-(a): fox. district' cf. þi-a: þe. an alternative to the usual ku6. 'on top of'. 'food'). screams'). u: to mix [ÞI archaic frequency: 291]... þé: precative and affirmative verbal prefix (same as þa). my. fish (not the usual word for fish. edge. þe(2): abundance. kas7 and níñ-kas7/ka9). þu: bird (earlier word than mušen).. diverse. í: five. food. voice.9. ia2. ì: n. gud(2)). assorted. noise. ñe26 and ma(3)). nurse. gu7. my. gún.. ñe: (cf.. to exclaim. indicates distance from speaker. ñá: (cf. þi: þà. Version 3.7. mixed. *gun"occiput. abundant. myself. land. benefit (with -ni -) (throat + ú. oil..4. consume. fodder.gú: neck. gú ) (circular + u5. concatenates 4 sign variants] . front. river bank. me). gíg). gu2. þù. i4: pebble. stable (cf.. indeed. a6. ñál.. swallow.. to utter a cry (said of an animal) (throat + u(3. kú: n. ñar. pulse. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . concatenates 2 sign variants] . sound.4: (cf. ñe6: (cf. ñá: basket. ñar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125.. ka9: (cf. side. gíg). angle [GU 7 archaic frequency: 236]. impersonal verbal conjugation prefix. nape. let. gún. to eat. ñi6: (cf. kua) [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. other side. v. cf. to eat up. ia4. ten (usually written: u ). ka: mouth [KA archaic frequency: 108. þá. chick pea (for 'land.0 11 . mine. sustenance. for 'load... ìa. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 3 sign variants] .

ku4: (cf. + a. whenever. the phenomenal area of a deity's power. to multiply. li9: to glisten. kud). ideal norm. luxury. abundant. earth. gentleman [LU2 archaic frequency: 85]. youthful freshness and beauty. Sumerian Lexicon. 'food'. ku: to base. mud6). (cf. kìd). agitate.0 12 . lu: n. desire [LA archaic lá: to penetrate. mì. blend. to graze. concatenates 4 sign variants] . someone. ñiš li: juniper/cedar tree [LI archaic frequency: 14]. also. mà: (Emesal dialect for ñá-e).. lù: to disturb. + e.. ma(3). oracle.. go out (cf. lu5: (cf. lub. gíg ). trouble. má: boat [MA2 archaic frequency: 6]. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. genitival suffix 'of'.. shine... ma4: to leave. much. v. to have a beard (cf. ki: n. to stir. found.. Version 3. wherever.. ma5: (cf. frequency: 20. ergative agent marker). anyone.. man. gu7). concatenates 2 sign variants] . kuruš). behind. ñe: n. la: abundance. to lie down (reduplication class) [KU archaic frequency: 64. pasture (reduplication class [?]) (cf. sprout') [KI archaic frequency: 386. where. kua: ku10: fish (kú. men. lal) [LA2 archaic frequency: 57]. embarrass... area. lí: true measure. responsibility. grain ('base' + 'to rise. kú: (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . alaaku). build. to be/make numerous. happiness. wealth. ñá) [MA archaic frequency: 250]. people.. to know.. ku6. force a way into (in order to see). to mix. lul). kug). ñá: ñiš to go (Akk. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'water') [KU 6 archaic frequency: 282. prep. bliss.. fine oil. kur9). cult [ME archaic frequency: 363. male. to fluster. kù: (cf. many. ground. ku5: (cf. human being. ma: to bind (Emesal dialect for ñál. place. location. no one. depart. office..-ke4: often occurs at the end of a genitival compound which functions as the actor or agent of the sentence (ak. function. pierce. ku7: (cf. lug ). me. wish. sheep. lú: grown man. mù). divine decree. to look after. kì: (cf.

0 13 . awe. no.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ne(-e). mu4: (cf. name. human being. that (one). emphatic in past tense. prep. ní: self. woman. prohibitive in present/future tense.. na: (cf. woman. mù. that one (human animate pronoun or possessive suffix) [NI archaic frequency: 263. Hallo & van Dijk. she. poss. ñu10) [MU archaic frequency: 99]. na: n. mi: (cf. gíg). ní: ni. stone weight.. p. speak (cf. host. mí. na5: chest. Version 3. ordinary stone. year. mur10). munus) [SAL archaic frequency: 435].. entry. mu: n. to say... to be. roar.v. ma5[KA׊È]: to mill. concatenates 3 sign variants] . me3. ná. hailstone. adj.. body. mu7[KA×LI]: mu10[SAL]: to shout. scream. line on a tablet. also. to burn (reduplication class). feminine.en: sign variants] .6. mug ). me6: to act. also. token. because. fattened. Sumerian Lexicon. ne. used especially before dative infixes. mu5: well-formed. word. this (one). exorcism ?. mú: (cf. vigor.. ní.. demonstrative affix [NE archaic frequency: 303. mu 10. he. grind. 85) (cf. tell. behave. conjugation prefix. beautiful. munus ) (compounds are more likely to preserve an older word) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. gíg). one's own [NI2 archaic frequency: 34]. nú: na4.. forces. mí[SAL]: n. adj. frightfulness.9: battle [ME 3 archaic frequency: 4]. female (this pronunciation of the sign found in compound words and verbs or in enclitic or proclitic position. our. violence... plump. v. suggests involvement by speaker. preferred for animate and agentive subjects. rock. suffix. to name. pebble. incense [NA archaic frequency: 105. mé: (cf. nud ). concatenation of 4 nè. female (cf. respect.7. mud6). the Sumerian copula. oath (cf.. na: strength. modal prefix. ne4: fear.. box..

small canal. net. si. sinew. dative suffix .. to send (cf.. to go.re 7. pron. to break open. adj. to roast (barley) (cf. demonstrative affix.. rà: (cf. to moor a boat. image. sa). string of a musical instrument [SA archaic frequency: 54.. ri-g is marû form. cf. nìñin). present. gift [RU archaic frequency: 120]. advice. to stir. to gather. ru5: to send forth shoots.. cistern. to gore. dike. ir: to accompany. to beget. fire. Sumerian Lexicon. likeness.0 14 . mat.. no. to blow (said of a storm).. picture. v. re7). pà: (cf. sprout. tendon. cast.. pool. statue [NU archaic frequency: 101]. those. negative. ara4). rig ) [RI archaic frequency: 1]. nu: n. rù: to be equal in size or rank.nì: (cf. to bear. prep. to inundate.. to drive along or away. stab.denotes the animate being towards whom or in favor of whom an action is done.. v. far.. mix (plural hamtu e.. dù). bud. to branch out (from the side of a canal). inundation [RA archaic frequency: 25]. slay. rúg ).5. to plan something (ri is hamtu form. cf. adj.. ri-ri-g is plural. ru: n. to touch. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . pàd). ri6. du . pour. ri: v. fountain. a pronominal prefix in a compound noun describing a person. throw away. to give.. feather [PA archaic frequency: 378.. to impress... rá: (cf. re7.over yonder). sá: n. or a phonetic writing for lú . súb ). lamp.. buds. Version 3. to emit. figurine. pú: well. to be located. or roll (a seal into clay). overflow. bundle. to stir.. to place. & adv. to blow. rá. sa: n. concatenates 2 sign variants] . cord. glean.6(-r): ra(-g/þ): irrigation ditch. that. nu11[ŠIR]: (ñiš) light.for . er. ñin . lead.. remove. pa4. put into. ir10. stamp. e-re7. to butt. to flood. rú: (cf. branch. pa: leaf. regarding that (where the reference is to something outside the view of the speaker .. v.. or blossoms. without. n. to pack. alabaster [NU 11 archaic frequency: 32]. not.. níñ).er . sweep away (with -ta -). to measure. haul. to exchange. ni9: (cf. or throw away (with -ta -). to throw. depth [PU2 archaic frequency: 37]. to take. RI: calendar month 5 at Umma during Ur III. to expel. to strike. wing. to place upon or against (with -ši-).

v., to approach or equal in value; to compare with; to compete (with -da -).

sa4: to name; to call by name. sa5: n., red ocher.
adj., red, red-brown.

sa6: (cf., sag9). sa7: well-formed. sa9[MAŠ]: sa10: sa12:
half. to be equivalent; to buy (cf., sám ). (cf., sañ ).

si: n., horn(s); antenna(e); line; ray(s); light; plowland (cf., sig5) [SI archaic frequency: 417].
v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become completely still. adj., regular, normal.

si; su; sa; sa5:

v., to fill up; to fill with (with -da -); to survey a field; to inundate; to be full; to be sufficient, enough; to increase; to compensate, repay, replace; to grow weak (probably reduplication class) (cf., sum , sug 6, rúg , sig , sig 5).

adj., suitable, fit.

sì, sè: si14:

(cf., sig 10).

si4, su4, sa11: red [SI4 archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 5 sign variants] .
a small pot.

su: n., body; flesh; skin; animal hide; relatives; substitute (as verb, cf., si; sug6 or rúg) [SU archaic
frequency: 188; concatenates 2 sign variants] .

adj., naked.

SU:

Subarian.

su(3): (cf., sud, sug4) [SU3 archaic frequency: 6]. sú: (cf., zu) su4: to grow; to multiply. su5: (cf., suþ5). su6: (cf., sun4). su7: (cf., sug8). su8: (cf., súg, súb). su9; ša4: su11: su13:
n., red ocher.

v., to mourn, grieve. (cf., zú ). (cf., sud 4).

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

15

sux (TAG): šà: (cf., šag4). ša4, še13:

to spread (cf., sud ).

ša: to dry up [ŠA archaic frequency: 97].
(cf., su 9).

ša5: to cut, break (reeds). ša6: (cf., sag9). še: n., barley; grain; a small length measure, barleycorn = 1/6 finger = 1/30 cubit = 1.67 centimeter in Presarg.OB period; as a surface area measure = 432 square linear barleycorns = 12 square fingers; as a volume measure = 1/180 gín = 1/3 gín-tur = 1 2/3 sìla = 360 cubic fingers = 1/10800 sar = approx. 1.667 liters; 1/180 of a gín or shekel of silver = ca. 0.0463 grams (cf., še-ga/ge ) [ŠE archaic frequency: 639; concatenates 3 sign variants] . demonstrative affix, may indicate 'there' within the view of the speaker.

šè: n., portion [ŠE3 archaic frequency: 152].
prep., to, unto, as far as, up to; as regards, concerning; because of, for the sake of; until (terminative suffix and in Old Sumerian period terminative prefix).

še4: (cf., sed). še6: (cf., šeñ6). še7: (cf., šèñ). še8: (cf., šéš). še10: še17:
excrement, dung. (cf., sed 4). (cf., šaña ).

še29[LÚ×KÁR, LÚ-KÁR]:

ši: contrapunctive modal prefix; terminative prefix after Old Sumerian period (cf., šè). šu: n., hand; share, portion, bundle; strength; control [ŠU archaic frequency: 360].
v., to pour.

šú: (cf., šúš). šu4(-g): šu12:
to stand; to be deployed, set up (plural, reduplication class).

šu4: (cf., šuš).
(cf., šùde ). n., nature, character [TA archaic frequency: 34; concatenates 6 sign variants] .

ta, dá:

prep., from; to; for; by means of (ablative-instrumental noun suffix and verbal prefix; as a noun suffix can be a locative with remote deixis, as in an-ta and ki-ta ).

ta6: (cf., taka4). te, de4:
n., cheek, chin (cf., temen ) [TE archaic frequency: 199].

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

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te, de4; ti: v., to approach, meet (someone: dative); to attack, assault; to be frightened (alternating class, hamtu stem; cf., te-ñe 26) . tè: an alkaline plant (?); soapwort (?); cardamon (cf., naña). te8[Á]mušen:
bearded vulture.

ti: side, rib; arrow (cf., te, diþ, and tìl) [TI archaic frequency: 105; concatenates 2 sign variants] . tu: to interfere (cf., tud and tur5) [TU archaic frequency: 54; concatenates 3 sign variants] . tumušen:
(cf., tum 12
mušen

).

tú: (cf., tam). tu2,3: (cf., tumu2,3). tu5,17:
n., bath.

v., to wash, bathe; to pour; to make libation (probably reduplication class).

tu6: exorcism; conjuration; exorcistic formula. tu7: soup; soup pitcher. tu9: (cf., túg). tu10,11: tu15:
(cf., dun ). (cf., tumu ).

za: you (singular). za: to make noise (occurs as the verb in compounds with repetitive, onomatopoeic syllables symbolizing a
repeated monotonous noise or motion (Krebernik, Beschwörungen, p. 70, summarizes the different compounds that occur in ED IIIB texts).

za(2): precious stone, gemstone; bead; hailstone; pit; kernel [ZA archaic frequency: 9]. zà: (cf., zag). zé[ZÍ]:
to cut; to shear, cut hair; to pluck (Emesal dialect for dùg , cf., zil;

zé-er).

zi: n., breathing; breath (of life); throat; soul (cf., zid, zìg) [ZI archaic frequency: 116; concatenates 3 sign
variants] .

v., (with -r Auslaut) to destroy; to annihilate.

zí: stench; bile; bitter. zì: (cf., zíd). zu, sú:
n., wisdom, knowledge. v., to know; to understand; to inform, teach (in marû reduplicated form); to learn from someone (with -da -); to recognize someone (with -da -); to be experienced, qualified. adj., your (as suffix). pron., yours.

zú, su11[KA]:

tooth, teeth; prong; thorn; blade; ivory; flint, chert; obsidian; natural glass.

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

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ag. her. to check. igi: reciprocal of a number (= the multiplier that will give 60. Version 3. small cattle. (cf.. wing. (cf. ugu4-bi). to dispatch. aþ5.. father. him. to measure (area.. thornbush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21. un(-ñá): people. ugu(4)) (ù. send. shrub. n. áña. concatenates 2 sign variants] . áka.KA]: debits part of account tablet. comparative enhancer of adjectives. turban [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. skeleton [ADDA archaic frequency: 4]. strength. á: arm. ùñ. wether [UDU archaic frequency: 452. after. procreate. mete. concatenates ída. prep. upon. eye(s). produce (cf. act. aba. circlet. i7: river. crown (of legitimate kingship). in front of. shout. concatenates 2 signs] . to make into (something) (with -si. before. the igi of 5 is 0. ab: abba: ubiku6: lake. capacity). moment. time.GÙ]: n.0 18 .. ugu4[KU]: to bear. front (reduplicated ig. corpse.6: adda4. Sumerian Lexicon. ád: 3 sign variants] . concatenates 3 sign variants] . to measure out. = 1/2 of an iku (= 50 sar ). ám: ùña. top of the head. length. horn. v.. to balk. concatenates 2 signs] . azu).zu5: (cf. ègir). glance. main canal. ram. skull. a5: to do. concatenates 3 sign variants] . diadem. n.'to issue'. 'door') [IGI archaic frequency: 21]. face.'neck'). voice (cf. ùgun. raven.. úgu[A. wages.. ugamušen: egi(2): égi: igi: (cf.. this one. ubu [AŠ]: ada.. area measure. prep. íd. udu: aga(3): sheep..12) (abbreviation of igiñál.. crowd. áþi. watercourse (éd. + a. ad: v. ad3.) [AK archaic frequency: 149.. on top. to see. looks. work performance.. a marine and fluvial fish [UBI archaic frequency: 7.'after it'. aspect. carcass. ab-ba ). 'that which is opposite') . them. pron.. to place. áñ. song [AD archaic frequency: 36. over. ùku. top side. side. egir2/3). ak. ugu[U. [A2 archaic frequency: 3] aka.'water'). + gú. adda(2). to drive away. concatenates 2 sign variants] . sea [AB archaic frequency: 384. population. upper part.

'levee'). carrier. v. tumu ). ara4. am: eme: ñiš mother [AMA archaic frequency: 241.. loam. um: ùmmu: únu: old woman..0 19 .. to carry forward (in accounting). a utensil. a surface measure of 3600 meters 2 = 100 sar = 1 square 'rope' = 1/18 bùr (plural Akk. form of ég. polished. nurse. carry. to shine. (cf. glorify. praise. rain ( cf. enmen ). ar. (cf.. bright. úllu[KIB]. she-ass. to deliver. to lift. glory.4). ummeda (2)). speech.5). áme: women's quarters. im. direction. ara3.. v. íli. to be high. em: umu. ama(4... mud. Version 3. clay. (amniotic) fluid. em: imi. living room. ára. reins [KIB archaic frequency: 7]. tongue.. concatenates 2 sign variants] . plow's share. n. ùl: áma. ili5: to rise. tablet [IM archaic frequency: 67..àka: iku: fleece. u18). resin. (cf. leash.. feast.5: (cf.5: ùku: (cf.. storm. þara). (cf. ùnug).. únug). ummud).. to support. ùña). to blaze. flood. wise or skillful teacher. weather. to bring.6: imi. ár[UB]: v. clear... ùnu(-d): unu6: (cf. íl: n. (cf. to praise. to shine (íl-i in marû). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . jenny. cloud. ukur3. Sumerian Lexicon. chief cowherd.. rà: adj. eme: emma: émma: éme: eme3. (cf..5. uku2. get up. énmen ). wind. ék. íla. im. wild ox or cow (aurochs). illu: ùlu: ama: high water. (cf. to endure.

ùri[ŠEŠ]: (cf. iri11: uru2. thirty (eš5. watch fire. 'five'. high. support. mountain [IŠ archaic frequency: 88. = 6 iku. guard. urim 2. esig). thunderstorm.. bear. luminous object.3): eša. ašag). iti: d iti6[UD. eše4: éšša: aša5: (cf.5).16 hectares or 6 iku . glowing.. uru(2)(ki). Akkadian ( cf. éš[ŠÈ]: rope. same meaning as ur (2. deep. a surface measure = 2..0 20 . cultivate. 'much') [ŠE 3 archaic frequency: 152]. 'three'). town. rope = 10 nindan rods = 20 reeds = 120 2 cubits = the side of 1 square iku in area = 1..'three'. leash (can be an adverbial suffix like eš ) (eš. (cf. uru12: to plow. strong.. myrtle [AZ archaic frequency: 13]. urin ). strength. a crop-devouring insect. a surface area measure. rí. fetter. URI 2 archaic frequency: 1].dNANNA]: utu: the sun as a god (cf. eight (ía. adj. city.3. devastating flood. to be satiated. to protect. concatenates 3 sign variants] . èše: iši: eššu: ušu: ùšu: itu. district [URU archaic frequency: 101.. as.0. length measure. clever.5. n. ear of barley or other grain. mighty. light. valiant.. ussu(2.. uru). uru16(-n): esi: isi: usu: (na4) asa. 'much'.. itud ). cage. UNUG archaic frequency: 206. az: (cf.iri: uri(2): uri2. full.18: concatenation of 5 sign variants.4) with the marû aspect -e suffix and vowel harmony. Version 3. clay pit.. Sumerian Lexicon. pit. uru4[APIN]. + þà/u.0 [60 ] fingers. concatenates 3 sign variants] . (cf. measuring tape/cord. iri. village..'ten'). to watch. v. ud). till. + eš5. kínda ) [URI archaic frequency: 35. éše. ùru(-m)[ŠEŠ]: n.5: (cf. skill.. + eš. moonlight. emmer wheat flour. ur11(-ru): uru9: stanchion.

to stand aside (with -ta -) (to be long and throat-like in open container) . azu. doctor (cf. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .5). install (singular). adj. 'milk'. tie up. newborn animals. chest. malodorous. gall(nut) (attracting many vermin in open container) .. lub[LUL](-bi): a cut of meat. to bind. omen (ùz. v. úzu. túb: gaba: gib: gub: gúb: gùb: þab(2): to kick. to set down in writing. þub. to rumble [DUB 2 archaic frequency: 2]. to hold. foul smell. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . to wander [? DIB archaic n. depth. to surround. da5: dib(2): dub: frequency: 6]. to beset. (cf. to serve (with -da -).. to pass (by/along)...UDU]: mutton fat. catch. dúb. left (hand) (cf.útu: a dish prepared with milk. cleanse. zu5: izi[NE]: uzu: fire (cf. to shake. (clay) tablet. þab and þúb. to take away. a left-handed or ambidextrous person (?) [ÞUB 2 archaic káb: kib: flaxen measuring string ?. þúp: frequency: 2]. grease (abundance collected in open container) . heap up. a-zu) [AZU archaic frequency: 7]. that could be made of gold. quake. breast. to stand by. to dye (fabrics) (reduplication class ?). dab(2. to receive (motion into open container) . to hire. to (make) tremble.. side (of a field or mountain) (ga. to strike. and slaughtered animals). to purify. acrobat.. v. flop (said of fish. libx[Í. knock down. + ba. sunset. dab6. + zé.. Version 3. 'to cut') . to stink. v. 'to give') . iz-zi) [NE archaic frequency: 303. kibx[GIG](-ba): wheat. cross. a type of weaver (?). fetter.4.. to infringe upon. gilim[-b] ). besiege. Sumerian Lexicon. to set. flesh. to move in a circle. 'goat'. to take. to store. to send over. an object. to stand. dib(2): n.0 21 . defeat [ÞUB archaic frequency: 1]. to pour out. n. to rot.. to sprinkle off. strew (with -ta -). cut of meat. document (motion into open container) [DUB archaic frequency: 229. athlete. to do service (with -ši -). hammer. concatenates 6 sign variants] . erect. seize. to traverse.. uzu5: evening. þup: þúb. resin. the left was the hand that stank from wiping excrement) [GUB 3 archaic frequency: 15..

n. to gather up (portion + divide). (with -da -) to drop. pap. bara 4 and semantics of bar ) (open container with motion away from) [BAD archaic frequency: 23]. be: concatenates 2 sign variants] . such as a herd. dug šab (PA. 'to pull. adj. 'flint.. to hold. to suck. pab. sipad ). ñin .IB): sign variants] .. to stand. cf. n. pillory. said of two or more. a priest (cf. tubx: (cf. shackle. middle. to drive away. to be/make double (sometimes reduplicated) (side + open container) . to make haste. to let out. to clog. to subtract. shake. clasp. brand. pair.. 'hand' + bu5. father. respect' + íb. rabbu). to travel (plural marû su8-bé. snare (to slide + open container) . ocean.. n. draw. cf. man. sickle (zú. re 7). to suckle. sipad ). zubu. a precious stone .. respect'. 'fire' + íb.. šub6[ŠID]: šuba(2/3): v. sub2/3: (cf. Version 3. su-ub: súb.. to go away (Akk. to tremble. 'fear. shining. nab: nib: (ñiš) cheetah. exorcism. sub. to fall (upon).. su8: to lead out. 'to rush around') . pa4: rib: rab. concatenation of 2 v. throw.. bàd: v.. to join (with -da -). ab. to open. v. (with -ta -) to throw out. dug šab: pot. deduct. stamp. to bind. stem (cf. 'lake. to be at a distance. to apportion (lots). concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to be cast. to separate. stock. sea') [NAB archaic frequency: 10] . tooth'. ascend. sting. musician. sabad. chip out. to climb. let fall. tun). clean ('licked clean' ?). remove (regularly followed by rá . vessel. šab) [ŠAB archaic frequency: 61. tab: n. to bite off. together (precedes the modified verb).. Sumerian Lexicon. pail. to snip out. disappear. to go away. to burn. zib(2): haunch. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . remove (šu. fetter. adv. 'fear. 'to be angry') . clamp. distinguishing mark. šib. cut off') [? ZUBI archaic frequency: 2. 'thigh'). also du . zubi: bad. to pray (naked flesh + open container) . to fell a tree. to be bathed. to lick. súg. Elamite word for 'god' (ní. + bu[r]. color (izi.. fever. to bless.. pretty. + aba.... to fall out. companion. brother. rap: ring.urudu lub(-bi): an ax for use in agriculture or as a weapon. leopard (ní. to be higher in rank. leader [PAP archaic frequency: 501. šip: šub: to cast.agate (?). (city) wall [? EZEN archaic frequency: 114.0 22 .

linen (clothing) (gu. bind together [KAD 4 archaic frequency: 13. Version 3. concatenation of 2 n. domestic ox. kur5. to act (ground/floor plus motion). a pestle (abundance + motion). gur (4)) (voice/sound with repetitive processing . guðx. to defecate. kìd. v. to weave a mat (ground/floor plus motion). gud. dried (e. dry.g. Sumerian Lexicon. bìd. adj.. þáda. leaping fish') . kad6. þúd: kad4. kid: kid2. to manage. a small bowl... 'flax. cf.refers to the bellow of a bull) [GU 4 archaic frequency: 182]. dim. to open (ground with motion away from. to give birth. to dry. gud8: short (related to but opposite in meaning to gíd). cf. gúda. leap (cf. gu-udku6: gud(2). n. gu 4-ud ). cf. adj. adj.. small. v. flax. gu2. to measure out.8: kud. white. dark. to reach out (to take) (to be long and throatlike with motion away from). handle. 'to nip off clay') . inarable land.5: gi morning [UD archaic frequency: 419]. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to be afraid. kì: kid6. to draw. to levy tax or tribute. distant.7: to pinch off (clay). and gur 10) (base with motion away from) . concatenates 5 sign variants] . gíd[BU]: v.... difficulty. 'brilliant'). warrior. beer ingredient.. beer. pull. thread'.. length [BU: archaic frequency: 393.bad4: fortress. a right-angled tool [MUD archaic frequency: 88]. v. to make. to urinate. to curse (regularly followed by rá . to build. + dág. bull (regularly followed by rá . concatenation of 2 sign variants] . sign variants] . kìr... + da.. gudku6. gur 5. to tie.. gu4: n.4: gùd: nest. ku5: lud: mud: to cut off (with -ta -). hardship. anus (open container with motion away from) .. 'to protect') [GADA archaic frequency: 96.0 23 . tow. carp ('dancing. to separate. fish). heel. 'let it become'. gudu4: (cf. to dance... young. to lengthen. to breach (a dike). kìr .. long. to dispossess. bi7: dida: didi: gada: n.. reed mat [KID archaic frequency: 76. to divorce. to frighten (closed container with motion out from) . to remove. to shine brightly (þé. þad(2): v. gudug).

. to pray. + éd. to wag (a tail).4. pà-pà-dè in plural marû) (sprout. present (regularly followed by rá ) (narrow line + repetitive process) [BU: archaic frequency: 393.12: šid. to sprout. create. sud. n. quieted. zi: Sumerian Lexicon. 'to lie down' + nominative [from R.10.. to beget. give birth to. 'to go forth') .. to cool down. pa. šùde. transformed.. long. to sink. bur and búru ) (sprout + repetitive 72. n. adj. to make. to stretch. appear (reduplication class) (mu.. remote. sud4. nud. branch + to go out.5. dú: túd: v.6)). to sprinkle. to declare. ér. possibly a citrus tree [ŠITA3 sed(4... to immerse. sù. kindle.. to prolong.23: n. + éd. 'to hail'). mú: to sing. mud8[NUNUZ-ÁB = LAK 449]: ku-li. to be reborn. to swear. cp. + éd. long (duration). n.. changed (to approach and meet + to go out). provide. lengthen. mud6. to furnish. 'to interfere'. multiply'.. reveal. šùd. 'to grow up. to make grow. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . to sleep. pàd.múd: mud3. a large vat for beer [MUD 3 archaic frequency: 27. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . v. to choose. nú: pad. v. coolness (si. súd: to pound. + dé. to cane (tu.6). šita (4)). far away.. Englund]) [NA 2 archaic frequency: to lie down. to drown (reduplication class) (regularly followed by rá ) (su4. to give. to break off. še4. marû.. cold water. to last. to be/make remote. take an oath.. šita 5). šed7.. concatenates 4 sign variants] .10.. šu12: tud. šùdu.12. šed7. to ignite. paðx: + éd. + motion).11.éd. 'hand'. to make appear'. ñiš nàd. faith. to choose out of (with ablative prefix) (pà-dè in sing. Version 3. 'to go out') . to pacify. confidence. ñiš rad[ŠÌTA]: a tree. to be born. legitimacy. to lie together with (with -da -). crush. bite. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .17.. = 50 'word'. zid. 'to go out') . couch (ná = nú-a. Presargonic Girsu. call. (cf. (cf. cf.. to kill (nu.4: blood (closed container with motion out from) . 'not'. pà: to show. to be long. + éd. su13: adj.5: (cf. to sip.pàd) [PA 3 archaic frequency: 30]. jubilation. blessing [ŠU 12 archaic frequency: 1]. 'red ochre'. lasting. archaic frequency: 139. to strew. subside. to be calmed. processing) [? PAD archaic frequency: 38. mud5: exultation. to repose. 'to go out') . sanction. concatenates 4 sign variants] . small repast (regularly followed by rá ..18. to rejoice. 'to fill up'. distant.0 24 . to gnash (the teeth) (su9. to blow. 'soul'.. to abate. to find.5. + motion). 'to go out') . šed: šid3. cf. to seek. an amphora in the 30-60 liter range with two neck handles. tu. su: v.11. to bear. sed (4. ná: bed.5. 'to show. to spank. bless (šu. to lay down (with -ni -). feel delight. v... fashion. truth (zi. prayer.

gub) [KAK archaic frequency: 46. workable. bulk size. adj. kug. swallow. gúg: gug5: hostility. circlet.. pure. n... adj.. spike. crown'). adj. standard size earthen jar. righteous. illness.. injury. to strengthen (e.. legitimate. kù: n. kib x) (throat + i. right (hand). sweet. clod. cf. meal (life + motion as in grinding). chamber (motion as in traveling + throat-like chamber) [DAG archaic frequency: v. cf. adj. vagina). du11: n. mé. ku10.8. to be black or dark (ku 10: reduplication class). night (sounds represent the throat chamber or the mouth as an enclosed dark chamber) [GI 6 archaic frequency: 105]. knee (reduplicated to be long and neck-like. v.. v. 'diadem.. kak: peg. member (motion + throat-like chamber. vessel. true. fresh (water). lap.. pleasing. ñi6. to be painful to (with dative).. pot. zì[ŠÈ]: dag: 4] . to enjoy. n. precious metal. + throat) [GIG archaic frequency: v. gi6. converse (with -da -) (singular hamtu form. carnelian (with na 4). beautiful. vagina)... command. lump. jug. good. 'cry of pain'. moist. wheat (cf. good. painful. to cleanse. ég). to be in a weakened state (motion + throat-like chamber.g. dug4. concatenates 3 sign variants] . concatenates 5 sign variants] . consume' + round and neck-like) [GUG 2 archaic frequency: 70. dág: dig: dug: brilliant. money. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . white. gob. ñe6. ñíg. Version 3. black. lag. to do (as auxiliary verb preceded by a noun) (nonfinite form = di) (to make a motion in the throat). to order. 'to base. to become moist. gladness. silver. except at Presargonic Girsu = 20 liters [DUG archaic frequency: 581.7. gug: ninda monthly offering. n. to reject. faithful. to sing. pure. to be/make sick. purify. collected mass (abundance + round)..... to add. Sumerian Lexicon. to roam about. du10: n. flour. to be/make enjoyable.. resting-place. knee(s). also.. 'to eat. circlet. (ñiš) gag. soft. concatenates 2 sign variants] . favorable. pressed-date bread (gu7. adj. mi. dwelling. zíd. bright. gi17: 16] . bone. lawful. loins. holy. dùg. 'to kill. the levees of a canal). speech. to speak. kúkku ). joint. lañ: piece. noble (ku.. firm. dark (cf. gig.. to make cultically pure.. 'diadem. brand. hinge.v.. = 30 liters (sìla ). war (might be reduplicated ug5.. nail.0 25 . to speak with. gíg. sacred. v. crown') [KU 3 archaic frequency: 181. build' + aga(3). ge6. adj. cake. gi25 v. clean ('to go out' + aga(3). v. to die'). appropriate. to stretch (out)..

9. grain-fed (ní. drive along' + ig.. pleasant. good fortune. sagi [SÌLA. weak (cf. to pay back. muk. 'girl'). n.7. mace. short. 'to be numerous' + gù. to tend.. 'noise. temple ward. to hew out. 'to accompany. + gu7. satisfy. v. (divine) grace. crush. 'to throw' + ug5. niga(2): pag.. to become still. for instance a drum)..g.rig 7). to demolish. to abrade. fattened (e. to restore. nakedness. fruitful (sa7.10. sig3. quake. oxen or sheep). adj. damage. brickwork.. to engrave.SU].. 'door. eyesore. sig6. sweet. si-ga as noun. chisel. 'body' or níñ.. favor. lu: to swarm (said of birds and fish) (lu. narrow.. sug5). 'well-formed' + ge(2. shelter (birds) (branches + round chamber) . 'female' + ig. sig.ŠU. v. 'to build').3. šeg5. to remove. rig. blow. to replace. to strike. and adjective in compounds) [SIG archaic frequency: 66]. leopard') . sig5. good.. lioness (ní..7: to bring. sag9.0 26 . grant (see etymology of sa 12. 'to feed. 'to give. rúg [SU or NAM. sty.. bitch. sig5. to deed. respect. eat' + nominative a). Sumerian Lexicon.. shake. cf. erode (chamber + ku. to be friendly (with dative or -da -) (reduplicated in hamtu. pudenda (mu10. fear' + ig. to flatten.DU8]: cupbearer (loan from Akk. low. lead. v. mug. late. si: v. settled (si. carve.. raze. silence. cf. 'to kill'. 'to stand upright' + ug5.lug. 'cheetah. to please.18. to glean. nib..8. fine + throat for eating)..7.8. (cf. beautiful.. nigu. 'thing'. sì.11. 'door. mu: n. entrance'. to silence (si. sweet. to pull. a perfume plant.6).. Version 3. doff. mug(2): nug: nig: níg: n. šaaqû). 'to kill'). níñ ). šag5. 'strength. to be in heat. sound') . to be/make good. to stay silent. ša6: n. sag2. slave. entrance') . small. síg: (cf. n.. bag[ÞU]: to cage. good. sig4: sun-dried unbaked brick. sa6. ru: class) (ru. hollow out. sag10: (to be) mild. sè: v. to send' + entrance). siki ). of fine quality (narrow... entrance') .. 'door. pick (reduplication class) (flowing motion such as re7. sa 6ge in marû).. weapon (ri. n. zàg). tow. to receive (reduplication sag5: (cf. ri: rìg: rig5. to chop down (trees). hurt. wall(s) [? SIG4 archaic frequency: 2]. list. v. stroke. si(-ga): adj. to beat (rhythmically. 'to be still' + throat for vocalizing). to (make) totter. verb. broken wool fibers.

'levee. sum . gut. intestines. sag9). šeg8/9: šug: tag: snow.. sig17 (GI): the color of the low or setting sun = reddish yellow or gold (cf. meaning.0 27 .. sallow.. a small animal (cf. 'to spread'. green. set. 'to cut. to stand (plural marû) (cf. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. prep. put in.BALAÑ]: túg. to surround. to bring low. sig3. to strip naked. tígi [NAR. tu9: lú harp (ti. cold shudder. sig 3) (combination of meanings such as: sux. mood. inside. adj. šà: n. sì. to let live. 'to compare') . significance (grain/excrement + water/urine + chamber) [ŠA 3 archaic frequency: 137. 'to water') [SIG 7 archaic frequency: 61]. tug4: (cf. concatenates 6 sign variants] . ice (cf. lake. at.. sè: to apply. fertile land (to fill. to empty (su.18. to match (cf. šeg4: frost. place. šag5: to slaughter (ša5. content. to be/make pleasant or beautiful. in. 'to restore') . dike') [SUG archaic frequency: 15]. Version 3. to live. 'to kill'. sè) [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67].. midst. rúg ) (to fill up + entrance. sù. 'to knock down'... v. swamp. grain pile.. to sweep along. tuku4).'nakedness') . yellow. gub. (cf. su: adj. sul4. to pull out weeds. body. to complain (in meanings 'to live'. 'entrance'. 'body' + ig. to compare.9: sug: súg.. stomach. etc. plural stem of tìl) (si. cloth... sig). súb) (su.. šag5: (cf. sig14. flood basin. to complete. si: to be narrow (narrow. fine [ + neck-like]). threshing floor. se12(-g).sig7. sag2. to do.. restore. sug5[GÍN]: sug6. sur12. cf. will. sa7(-g): v. šuku ). interior. 'to stand upright' + ug5. 'life'. sug8. to dwell. to engrave. return (a loan. tag4: (cf. sig3. break' + ug5. entrails. su8: wild mountain boar ? (cf. subdue..) (reduplication class) (cf.. tigi [BALAÑ. šenbar ) [ŠEG 9 archaic frequency: 10]. cause.7. lay bare. to knock down (also read dùn. womb. sigga. volition. šaþ . sigga ).. to subject.. cp. tùn) (si. cloth garment (side + to encircle) [TUG 2 archaic frequency: 311.7. sug4. to tear out. even. abdomen. and sá. Sumerian Lexicon. 'body' + 'long and neck-like'). + gi4.11. TÚG: fuller.3. heart. 'to kill'). šeg8. 'upright stalks' + ég. destitute. chills.8.10. taka4). to replace. mug(2).8. bed of a river. empty. to make flat. pale. du5 with this meaning) (cf. to garden. sig10. 'cat'). su: chamber) . su-a . sì. to create. su7: šag4.NAR]. (cf. inundate + ég. sig9. taka )...

scattered (to multiply.0 28 . to order (reduplication class). thing. rise . human. siñ18[KIN]: to cut. zàg )... fault. to water.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . an alkaline plant. captive (tied up with a rope éše. to be hot. irrigate.. wall. partition (úz. kin: n. + a. task. outside of (life + to encircle) [ZAG archaic frequency: 71. chosen. to drink out of (with -ta -) (na 8-na 8 in marû) (ní. to spread + to mete out). še7: rain. v. first-class. giñ4: (cf. naña: [ñiš] soda. 'water') [NAGA to crush. fetch (with locative-terminative -ni -). concatenates 3 sign variants] . to dry a field (redup. + áñ. sañ11.. kíñ. nañX[GAZ. 'to dry up' + to mete out). luña[PA.. adj. lúñ[PA].. to approach.or -ra -). šeñ6. 'to drink'.zag. LÚ-KÁR]: šeñ3. þun(-ñ): to hire or rent (someone or something). zàg. šaña. slave. 'to mete out to') .. ñá. something. 'water'. to rise up from (with -ta . order. potash (used as soap). first. repose. + ñe26.. soapwort (nañ. weed. n. v. na8: n. alkali. zug4[KA×LI]: (cf.. ú-zug4). place. lu9: nañ. zàg). gín). sa4. sañ5: (cf. sañ5[ŠID]: zìg. saña11. še29. to recruit (zi-zi in marû). to add. þuñ. bad. to abate (many + to mete out to). to send. a matter. to multiply. beginning. point. substitute. myself) [SAG archaic frequency: 420]. replacement [DAH archaic frequency: 21]. shoulder. to drink. to stand up.. v. zà: boundary. lú-éše). to rouse. Sumerian Lexicon. to rain (šu. present. assets. 'door'). to go out or make go out. message. to tear out. to take out. to choose. to introduce (to a job). to rest. cusp. KUM]: níñ.ÑÁ]. leader. gift. high. extract. limit. naña3. zi: n. to seek. side. individual (sá. Version 3. (with nominative -a ) pestle. impudence. þeš5[LÚ×KÁR. cf.7. district. taþ: to heat. a measure for fish. sag5.. to help (motion into numerousness). archaic frequency: 125. to say further. sa12: adj. cook. v. uproot. zàñ. used as a prefix to form concrete nouns (self + to mete out to) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. nì: property. 'to equal'. drink. bake.4. (cf. abusive remark. + a. 'body. edge'. harvest. right (side). 'to pour' + to mete out). percentage. border. boil. valuables. treasure. prep. self'. break. to repeat. sanctuary. head. to spend or credit. territory. error. class) (ša. 'to name'.... in front. sañ. + ig. work (to build + to mete out to) [KIN archaic frequency: 9]. še6: zàñ: daþ. front. 'side. sañ2/3: to scatter.. prime.

. grass + numerous times) [DU 8 archaic frequency: 29. laþ..ÁŠ. high.5): an adjective for cows (as opposed to ñiš for bulls). to untie. beard. + þá. free. 'youthful freshness'... fur. leg. dry. máþ[AL]: paþ[LUL]: suþ(2. laþ4. adj. the ancillary meanings of imin. sublime. n.. sting.. síg: hair (of head. + numerous. cf. 'long. potsherd. to sparkle. suþ4: reed matting (fine. take away. encircling wall (cf.. adj. hide (si. allotted field plot (regularly followed by rá) (šu. to sweep (la.. + numerous. provision. cf. to prepare the threshing floor. 'boundary. transfer. to crack. ration.0 29 . v. to be lost. disorder. 'to bring'.3: domestic pig (grain + water + numerous (offspring) . to adorn. uþ: to dry up. v. residue. 'eight'. zuþ[ZÚ]: kak: to steal. de6. 'black' ? or kul. abundant). lofty. luþ. to fling (away) (plural form. ti ) (motion + cry of pain + insect). foremost. secrecy.. àþ[UD].. open.. barb. esp. to relocate. displace. + þe. adj. du8: concatenates 3 sign variants] . Version 3. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . torpidity (?) (cf. v. to abandon.. gag ). to wash. to flee. to remit (a debt). 'mother of'. (cf. point. eight is confusing) [SUÞ 3 archaic frequency: 4]. carefully chosen. to perish (describes workers/slaves who have fled state control) (derives from zag. to dry out. on the liver. concatenates 12 sign variants] .as more than seven. šug: allotted food portion.. exalted.3. 'to separate') . rind (hand. làþ: maþ: to be clean. luþ.3) (íla. clothe (reduplicated). + numerous) [MAÞ archaic frequency: 6. ñišù-suþ5) (ussu. bran (motion + plant. loosen. to hide. fresh. to be or make large (ama. heavy' ?) [SIG 2 archaic frequency: 224. n. 'portion'. border. body). a mark or impression. súkud ). fever. to uproot. to plunder. just as þúb relates to gùb). great. rob (zú. to drive off.GÀR]: female goat-kid (ùz. to become confused. 'goat'. to clean. duþ. v. thin things'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . narrow + plant + numerous). + ku10. tranquil. to caulk a boat (with pitch). + kud.. capture. šuku. 'to mix'). district'. to gouge (eyes).. làþ). to spread. suku5: šika: (cf. shell. siki. tumu2. 'numerous'). 'seven' .pigs efficiently turn feed into food) [ŠAH 2 to be calm. shine (cf. wool.5: to bring (plural). confusion. šaþ(2): zaþ: zaþ2. adj. Sumerian Lexicon.. 'thick. 'teeth' + numerous).diþ(2): to sting. by-product. n.. archaic frequency: 39. zeþ[SAL. portion + mouth). sickness. to bake bread/bricks.

to divorce.ta 6-ta 6 in marû) (ta. du6-ul) (dù. v.'to hold. dála: dél: (cf.4. to dig out (a ditch). 'tell'. to receive. cave (redup. to blow. foot-race. to abandon. to pour (as a libation. + ul.0 30 . 'with'. tuk4. a large cup. deliver (to someone: dative). from'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to tear down.. eldest son. to sprout (onomatopoeic). only. 'to build. excellent.. term of office. to acquire. ñal: n. Sumerian Lexicon. to have a claim against somebody (with -da. to pass through. sanctuary. bu(5): n. to dig up. to ignite. dili. 'wind'. catch (can be reduplicated) (te. bala('). dil: one. dellu: mast. compound sign verb. to weave.taka. protection. to protect. to cross over. to strike. bul(4).. + lá. to be angry (probably reduplication class) (tu15. 'share'. + ku. to have. to hide (the object covered often takes the locative case) (verb can be reduplicated as in du 6-ul-du 6-ul-e) (to protect + ornament). dul(6). to change. entrust. neglect. to heat (soup) (container + to lift. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to marry. to revolve. 'digging stick. + íla. to remove. out of. with -ši -. hostility.. 'to do. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'to carry. tuk. v. to fish. enemies (cf.. 'to approach' + aka. bar. get (in marû reduplicated form). ruins. creditor [KAB/TUKU archaic frequency: 105]. beam.. ba. restore') [TAK 4 archaic frequency: 128. dul(3.. to tremble. unique. hold. to lie down') . to be or make bright. kindle. dúk. bring. v. dálla. annual contribution to the state [BALA archaic frequency: 19.. handle. dálla. to decorate.or -ra -). tak.. chief. to be far away. to open. place. distant' and ul4. taga. support') .. tuku4. bil: bìl: dal: to burn.. tà: to touch. tug. to roast. hit. + al. ta6: tuku. push. tug4: enter') . to quarry. + ul. rotating fund. to shine.5).. to sing. tak4. + ku4... with -ta -).. du6: mound. adj. alone. 'to bal.al: n. erect'.. deliver. v. sprout. to clothe.. be high). spade') . to transgress. to cover. go back (bala-e in marû) (ba. to turn around. n. single. Version 3. to play music (da. tag. bala ). in plural) (cf. be near'. to transfer. conspicuous. 'to. turn. 'to pierce'). to revolt. adorn. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . du12 . ray (cf. demolish (ba.'to hasten') . to fly (towards something. to leave with a person.). cleft. hunt. dal: n.'remote. gal. dalla: n. own. spindle. to start a fire. to disregard. enduring') [DU6 archaic frequency: 37. heap. 'to hold'. with -ta . taka4. 'ancient. + ge4. to chase (da. needle (da. leave open (reduplication class . bal: n. 'to build. make') [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. tu12 : v. 'turn from. dílim ). v. 'conjugation prefix' or 'turtle shell'. 'needle' when made with a bright metal). hoe. shoot ('it rises'). tag4.

Sumerian Lexicon. gullax: (cf. 'to be high') .). to esteem. to take an oath. demolish (as preparation for rebuilding). to dress oneself. n. sexually mature.4. gal5: to overwhelm.. endear. gilim ). evil (vermin + abundant. (cf. ñala7. v. 'to carry. diminish. deficient. to fall upon (with -ši -). value. big. joyous. ñál.5. to carry. 'to consume' + ul. to hold. divination expert. to dwell (ñá. also. great (chamber + abundant. v. to destroy. to strap. to bind (a reed pillar). v.. light. lá ). 'cellar granary. 'storage basket' + íla. lamentation priest.. to extinguish. to load. gala[ÑÌŠ. distribute (þal-þa in marû). to be rare. harness (with -ši -). to divide. denounce. to hang (from) (with -ta -). ñá: to be (somewhere)... malicious. Orel & Stolbova #1928. set. kul: heavy. lal. v. reach. portion. to be high. 'ancient. numerous) [GAL archaic frequency: 1004.. precious. to harm. large. valuable (cf.). to rejoice over (usually with -da -. share (cf. vulva. joy (þé. evil. to pay.). ki-lal/lá. to deduce. to place. female genitalia (throat-like chamber + lá. kalag ) (ka. to lessen. mighty. gála: gala3. ritual singer.4. to destroy. to obstruct. to be destroyed. to be happy. but also -ši -). kala3. kalag ). 'youthful vagina.5: store-pit.. kal-(l): v. þúl: n.5)... to fall back. cantor.. to cease. to bring together. to ruin.. unite (base + abundant.. kala 3. míli ). 'joy. adj. a demon (cf. split") [ÞAL archaic frequency: 53]. to be available. numerous) [ÞUL archaic frequency: 1]. ñèle: þal: (cf. to be possible (with -da. transvestite (throat + la. *pahal. to stretch.)... bad.0 31 . Version 3.or bi-). extend.. 'to penetrate. to have on one's person (with -da. adj. adj. numerous). *pahal.. police chief (?).5: gil: gul: galla. freshness and beauty') . put (with -ni. adj. pleasure') . to place into (with -ši.. to accuse. gal 5-lá ). to be appreciated (cf. hostile. run. to deal out. hated.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . evil. silo' with vowel harmony). to lift. þa-la and pap-hal(la)) (loans from Akkadian hallu I and pahallu... thigh" and #1929. 'mouth' + la.. 'let there be' + ul.DÚR]: gal4(-la). abundance') [KAL archaic frequency: 60. lá: adj. to wreck to pieces.adj. thick. to place.4. support') [LA 2 archaic frequency: 57]. to stream. minus (cf. þul(3): n. to make dear. lá ) (reduplicated íla. excellent.. retreat (cf.. to destroy utterly (with -ta -) (reduplication class) (gu7. 'youthful beauty. concatenates 3 sign variants] . cellar (cf. pierce') . enormous. to weigh. enduring') [GUL archaic frequency: 24]. gùl. be few."leg. also.."break through.4. gala3. v. cf.secret. upper thigh. to be with someone (with -da. crotch.

v. vestments. lul. to persist. to praise.'to fill'. mèl: milla[IŠ]: (cf. ornament') [MUL archaic frequency: 6]. to divide (si. 'hair. p. + la. sun 4). Comparative Semitic Linguistics. false. tell' + ?. pierce') . 'anything long and narrow'. cf. pleasure.6. caterpillar (mù. spirit (of a place). disturb') . zíd-milla). lie. 'to trouble. v.4. 'to sila. sila(3): street.. lá-ìa[NI]. 'to drape' pala(2. pa-paþ. malicious. to belittle.(ú) lál: n. wind.5. sìl. deceive (reduplicated lù. wide. 'abundance') [SILA 4 archaic frequency: 73. concatenates 4 sign variants] . 'light. and lal/lá.. Bennett..0 32 . bliss') [LAL 3 archaic frequency: 14. date-syrup (reduplicated la. Semitic root which manifests in Akkadian as qâlu. 'to weigh'. méli. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'joy. to infect. 'night'. 'deficiency'. trail. throat. to bind. 'arrears'). to be/make obscure. sal. measuring pot (si14. zil. liter = 0. moron (lallation word = unintelligible baby talk. joy. bliss (si. breath.. 'a small pot'.. uterus. owed amount (cf. n. voice (me. and si. constellation. lu5: n. but which means 'voice' in Hebrew. glow. šál: measure of capacity.. mul: mùl: n. planet. sìla. sila4: sùl: Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 3 sign variants] ..R.. spacious.7): debt. 'inner sanctum'. shine. star. sil. 'uterus') [SILA 3 archaic frequency: 57.'to stand up like a horn'. v. + lá. clothing (of gods and rulers) (cf.'to burn') . to be/make dirty. v. infection.. míli. 'luxury. treacherous... vulva (narrow + numerous) [SAL archaic frequency: 435]. + ul. ñìli[KA×LI]. kir 11) (síg. 'be silent'. disgraced (could refer to soot from bil. (male) lamb. market place (si.6: v.. to be narrow. mu7[KA×LI]. + íla. meteor (ñi6/mi. 'flower.'to say. wool'. concatenates 5 sign variants] . 'to carry'). làl: honey. la(l)'u(2. noose. concatenates 2 sign variants] . grind'. deficiency (reduplicated lal/lá. 'star. mél. Syriac. ñèle. cf. sal. deficient'). 'cedar scent' ?) [? KID archaic frequency: 76. to cut into. lalla: shortage. but cp. road. and Ge'ez [P. to recline (in preparation for the love-making implied by sil5. 'long and narrow'. suspend..3): pil(2): as in túg-níñ-lal).'to mill. thin.3. pleasure') . n.. Version 3. path. + ul. to lie. a destructive insect. šal: sil: sil5.. bait (cf. + lá. to hang. malicious act..842 modern liters in the Neo-Sumerian period. pharynx.6). or lal/lá. bud'). 'to extend. reach') . 50). lil: líl: fool. lasso. to (let) sparkle. to silence [LAL 2 archaic frequency: 27. defiled. mèl: 'scorching' = heartburn (?).. back or open country (reduplicated li. síl. liar.. to spread. (cf. adj. + lá. si-il: penetrate. + ul. also.

šal: šál: (cf. zalag ) (za.5: túl: v. character + abundant).. to pare. to be loving. to be halted (singular stem. begging. to shell. cf. rope (dam.5... gentle. pleasure') . 'to be frightened'. adj. n.. dím[GIM]: ñiš to make. with -ta . concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'side... to rub into the skin (duplication class). to spread.. tìl.. to cease. + ul..in a temporal sense) (cf. 'to build.. 'to be. 'to plunder. + im.17. n. build (dù. cf. to flay (cf. 'joy. supply. pole of a water lift.4. Sumerian Lexicon.sul4: (cf. + íl. v. understanding (sides. to hold. breadth. public fountain.. + àm. to keep alive.'monotonous repetition' + numerous). ti: til4. lowland (tu5. n.. + àm. 'to be' ?).'to keep alive' + nominative) [TILLA2 archaic frequency: 5].. protect'. šul. finish. to pass. affectionate. + ?). 'to be high. sug8). perish (iti. bond. to hurry. create. a bad disease involving skin eruptions (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu. young man.. to spend the day. complete.. dim4: n.. ul4).6. n. cry. to peel off. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ti. to be full or abundant. be high.. nearness.. pluck'. to put an end to. to deprive') . cistern. + íla. warrior.. hasten. zé: zíl: dam: ñiš to undress. 'spouse'. dam: the (curved) beam that connects the bottom of the plow to the pole. elapse (said about time). unfold (said about wings. to make fast. modified by i. 'to shear. 'to sprout'. Version 3... tie. splendid. 'small'. speed up (cf. invader. sila ) (zé. heroic. that indicates long and narrow as in si) dim: [DIM archaic frequency: 52. deep well). arms). to flow. 'to lift. zil. dim). to continue. carry'). dìm: adj. to be ripe. proud. make'. tílla: market place. who') [DAM archaic frequency: 10]. weak (di4. pú-lá. to shine' ?) [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. n. dím: post (cf. crossroads (tìl. to make beautiful. wait (often with -ni -. tal3. zi. 'clay. shout. scream (te. sìla ). spouse (husband or wife) (da. n. mud'). sul: v. to live. to survive (with -da. deep. well. pleasing. broad. dim). sickness demon. to tarry. (cf.). clinging vine (cf. + to lift. sal ). life (tu.. 'to be born'. to be/make wide. tal: large jug (sides + abundant). zal[NI]: v.0 33 . tál[PI]: til: v. zil).. to caress (usually reduplicated) (cf. 'bath'. strong. fashion. sig 7). tendril. 'moon'. cut. to pluck. to dwell.. tìla.

mortar (for grinding) [GUM archaic frequency: 47... concatenation of 2 sign variants] . Sumerian Lexicon.. kiima with same meanings). to desire (cf. v.0 34 . t. 'milk' + um.. 'abundance' + to be). kim. v. n. 'function..'to sprout. almond tree. to be passionate. gin7: prep. þúb and gùb). subservient (di4. gim7: (cf. handle (like a circle + to be). gim7: kum.. grip. grasp. to smash. + mí. 'fight. 'clay'). + to be). decision (loan from Akk.. intention. v. power'). 'acrobat.. 'old woman'). break.. sickle. gun5: to wrestle. to shrivel. dispute' + me3. n. v.. dimmu: dumu: gam: news. to bow down.. during (cf. kìm).. alternation between þ and k/g like the alternation between þab. workwoman.áñ. v. 'battle'. gum: þum: kam(2): kàm: (cf. n. to trot. n. direction: terminative). slave-girl (ñeš. þúp. hot. just as. þúb. child.. maid. gum: kúm: willow tree. disk (of metal or wood) (ka.. give birth'. tablet. 'mouth' + imi. to approach. instead of.9. to overturn. grow'. fever (kù.. ki. athlete') .. to banish. n. like. to heat. lám: an awe-inspiring quality (la. 'bright' + to be). drive out (these verbs make me wonder if this became the Sumerian word for a changeable wax-coated writing tablet). equative suffix. + mú. n. 'to come back' + im. glitter (like a crown. v. ím: n.. + àm. Version 3. to thresh grain. luxuriance. to grow luxuriantly. þum... to succumb (like a circle + to be). v. kìm[BU]. decline. to bruise. summer. géme. gúm. ignore (ga. láma... 'small'. to make grow luxuriantly (la. 'wind').v.7. daughter (dú. to neglect. kneel (for someone: dative. adj.eemum). heat. 'to be' ?).. to influence. abundance. to beg. gim4. incline. run (mainly said of animals) (gi4.. ñéme(?): woman. to bend.8). gúr ). concatenates 3 sign v. kum4 [UD]: lam: variants] .6. dím) (syllabic spellings indicate both gim and gin7. 'woman'). aga(3). as. to paralyze (many + u(3. to bow. Akk. to crush.. to shine. cf. bruise (cf.. depth (cf.. information. netherworld [LAM archaic frequency: 47. punch. curve. 'tool'. kum).'to bear.. gim. 'abundance' + me. an adjective describing flour [that would be ground in a mortar. kaš 4). probably pronounced domu). runner( cf. to change. 'to love'). cf.. gàm: n.4. son. adj.. death... dima. kum] and bread.

šúm. concatenates 2 sign adj. nominative suffix) . adj. ším[NAM]. šám.... adv. lùm[DUG]: nam: a small drinking pot. flying insect. 'plant. sickle with serrated edge (ša5... manure. 'to be') [NAM archaic frequency: 30. šem3. 'functions') . (barter) purchase. lum: n. 'to slaughter') [? TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. šúm. aromatic wood. sam-. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to soften. sám) [SUM archaic frequency: 43. sale price. medicine'.5(zabar): šum: tambourine (þalþallatu drum in Akkadian) (many + me. high + to be) [NAM 2 archaic frequency: 375]. to be satiated. cf. num: concatenation of 4 sign variants] . fertilizer. to sell (with -ra -. 'greatness' (n. sam is 'spice' in Hebrew. perfume (see comments on šúm. sign. to sift (flour). manner. above.. full. n. sim: variants] . Orel & Stolbova 2185. prince. šim. sím. 'to buy. to give.. to buy (with -ši -). soak. filter. saw. herb. fragrance. nám[TÚG]: nim.'sell. morning (high + to be) [NIM archaic frequency: 109. purchase'. + a. sim.0 35 . to make productive. to bear fruit (abundance + grass. šag5. n.. governor. onion (Akkadian loanword from šuumu .. sum: garlic. ablative) (sa 10-sa 10 in marû). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . such as nam-lugal . v. enclitic copula. 'six hundred').. lam). v. Version 3. behave). šem. kaš4). lim: thousand (four hundred greater than ñéš×u. cf. Orel & Stolbova #2281 *su'um. tutelary genius (lam. narrow + to be). to grow luxuriantly. to be fertile.. buy') [ŠAM 2 archaic frequency: 51]. sum. v. 'precise essence'. làma: a female spirit of good fortune. spice. fragrant. lima. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] . sám. butcher. noble (time. sì: sum4: (cf.. high. 'tongue. 'to cut. loanword from šâmu(m) . to see through (fine.. office. limi. to slaughter. sa10: n. fate. sun4).. highland. v. (area of) responsibility. break' + eme. + àm.5). utensil' ?. cf. rim4: (cf.. to multiply in arithmetic. resin. merchandise (Akk. lot. province. ir-si-im) [ŠIM archaic frequency: 50. sínmušen: swallow (Akkadian sinuntu). to be high. planning ability. plant + to be. sín[NAM]: to strain.. related to šammu . Sumerian Lexicon. limmu(2.d lamma. cloud [LUM archaic frequency: 23]. 'poison') .4. lend (with dative) (sum-mu in marû) (cf. lím: four (cp. 'kingship' or nam-maþ . east. prince. way. 'to make grow luxuriantly'.. n.. equivalent. destiny. early. sim. 'garlic'. destiny. drug. used mainly as a prefix to form abstract or collective nouns.. productive.

+ mú.. genna. 'wind'. tumu4. du24. bear. + ma4. to lay a warp (onto a weaving loom) (to move + to raise high).5) (ba. warp (threads on the frame of a weaving loom). tu15: tumu2. to obtain.3. 'lamp' ?)..17. reflective. fit.. to blow.4. stand. 'to bring.. small ax(-head) used as money. tum12mušen. 'to wash. vessel. cf. regular.3: to bring. to be suitable.. to heap..šum4: (cf. to carry away. crossbeam. = 6 liters at Presargonic Girsu (cf. to be swollen... overflow (repetitive motion + closed container.. tumušen: zum: ban: bán: bàn: bird of the pigeon and dove family (cf. bul. to scrape. laþ 4) (in marû plural. to churn butter. hole). 'human being') . reliable (tu5. tum2. ginna. pestle. sug 5). tun. suñin). n. rations'. 'to leave. flow') . 'to blow. a surface area measure.. to prepare (marû singular. kajjaanu... emit flatus (tu15. go out') . + ú. (cf. + ú. dun. v. tum2. = 0. cultivation (cf. zal. support. banda 2.. to break wind. concatenates 4 sign variants] . to shine brightly (cf. to complain (redup. field parcel. kajjamaanu. grinding stone (circular + to raise high) [GAN archaic frequency: 125. dul(6)). action. gina[TUR+DIŠ]: gín. rack. v. to open (to move + to raise high. tumu. shiny.. ward. n. a measure of capacity or volume = 10 liters (sìla ) in the Ur III period. bu(7): din: dun: (cf. to bring forth. gan. 'from'. bag-type of bellows.. gána. tum9.. gán: tract of land. lamp.. depart. du9[BÚR]: v. arrow quiver [TUM archaic frequency: 48. (cf. cf. and zar. 'to leave'). tú: tum: tuma: polished. ñen). tu11: dùn: dun(4): v. 'to blow'). + na. shape. zur4. *gan. 'to leave') . 'to spout. seep. de 6. pupil.. cf. 'food'. 'from'. 1/60 square nindan (sar) = 180 surface še = 2160 (=36.. furrow. blister. tu10. to ignite') . 'to flow'. + ma4. (flat) surface. pana ). dun5. bun(2). wind. cardinal point. + ma4. (cf. kan: v. bathe'.0) square fingers. stagger. plane. measure of surface. 'food'. small. direction (ta. and kaanu 'constant'."field") [GAN 2 archaic frequency: 209]. a volume measure. + àm.0 36 .3. dig (a field. to sway. 'from'. 'to be'). Orel & Stolbova #890. n. ta(5). shekel (of silver) = ca. iku ) (cf.333 grams. pile up. n. tam. outline. tin ). 8. light. smite. to leak. bànda ). class) (see instead sun 5 if the sign is used as an adjective) (to move + to raise high). giñ4: constant. tu2. Version 3. gi(n). ge(n) and ñin. subordinate. and the term "carrier pigeon" for a homing pigeon). tum4[NIM]: to carry (ta.. gana. carry'. pure. tùm-tùm[-mu] or túm-túm-mu ) (ta. cf. the planet Saturn (possible loan from Akk.. gena. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .. 'portion. work. to strike.3..3 Sumerian Lexicon. rebellion (hollow container + nu11.

min(3. tiara (metaphor of divine en-ship) (me. multicolored. mun: salt [MUN archaic frequency: 24 ?. spangled. constancy (to be + at a distinct point). 'function. concatenates 4 sign variants] . *gan-/*gin. hand mill (saddle quern for grinding). lines.. 'neck. solid. 'eye'. nape' + ùña. stone'. to put on antimony paste makeup. mìn.. to go. cf. mina.. lines. two.. re 7. kun4. concatenates 3 sign variants] . gú: gún. ladder. 'two'). doorsill (base/ground + high). min(5.. 'woman'. variegated.. 'decorated with colors. me-en). gùnu.. gun5: (cf. affliction. gim). two (cf. du .0 37 . district (gú. *kin. kín[ÞAR]: kun: (ñiš) tail. grasp (base/seat + high) [KUN archaic frequency: 2]. burden = a talent in weight = 30 +/. threshold. 'people. to come (with dative or -ši -) (sing. myself (cf. steadiness... urudu KIN: (cf.. 'people'. companion. to send. v. þun: (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . reliability.. I. storage basin. both.. staircase. MUNU3 archaic frequency: 15]. mana ). second (mí. but cf. alike (cf. Version 3. to be troubled.. (cf. equal. ne4.5. ñin. region. crown."go").. kana3. + na4."count") [TUN 3 archaic frequency: 96. 'fire'. dot. þuñ ). spotted. apprehension. ugun) [GUN3 archaic frequency: 23. + na. spot (circle + discrete point. mina and mana ). men5: men(4): mén: men2. kin: na4 (cf. decorated..cubic meters (Akk. 'distinct things'. 'to make grow' . land. because a woman has two breasts). trouble (ka. slab. outlet (of a canal). kíñ ).5: n. gìn: lapis lazuli (igi. mìna. but cf. gúm). gún. adj. partner. cf. súb ) (Akk. adj.. to sparkle. man. spots. millstone (base/ground + stone) [KIN 2 archaic frequency: 11. a caustic salt (mú.5: mana. saltpeter is the oxygenating ingredient in gunpowder) ... striped. tribute (gú. 'lord') [MEN archaic frequency: 48. ordinary. 'fear'). concatenates 5 ? sign variants.. cf.6): múnu: munu(3). Orel & Stolbova #892.2 kg.14. cf. spots') ..6): mina. gú).. gur 10.. gana 'come!'. stairs. gùn: n. Orel & Stolbova #1459. worry. firm. 'edge' + ùña. gùnu. Sumerian Lexicon. kiinu 'true measure'. hamtu. v. to decorate with colors. 'mouth' + ní. ñen: n. population') . + nu11. v. kan3. embellished. gin7: (this is sometimes the preferred form. gú: back of a man's neck = load. gun[GÚ-UN].5. speckled. dappled.3: concatenation of 2 sign variants] .. un. 'pebble. office' + en. reservoir. brilliant. cf. ur4). un..

'self. mušen nínna: nocturnal bird .owl (nin. proprietress. 'people'). fifty (nimin/nin5. coolness (te.).. to enter (plural ?.soaked and germinated grain for use in brewing (mù. beard (cf.. adj. fine. 'to mourn. 'lip') [SU 6 archaic frequency: 1.6: nin: malt . + nud.0 38 . frightfulness. 'fear. 'to mount. concatenates 4 sign variants] . dnin-nínnamušen). sun4. extinguish. 'long. respect') . nominative suffix. master (ní. allay. v. cf.. + þà/u. érin. sum4. chin. 'ten'. shiny. the predatory owl with its human-like face probably gave rise to the demon Lilith myth. with bowed head. 'nature. ninnu. character' + an. + a. brackish.. to cool (te-en-te in marû). and tùn. body. light. 'bright'. (cf. noble. v. 'fearsome lady'. sín: sun: sún: (cf. rà. to become clean. stone') [BAN archaic frequency: 27. 'sky. polished. to shine brightly. šen[SU×A]: n. ninu: ninni5: nun: a rush used in basketry. munux. concatenates 2 ? rín[ERIM]: to be/make bright (reduplication class).. cold. clear. 'to mill'. wild cow. vessel. to rise up (n. alkaline. + na4.+ u5. dominated (su9. to soften. mirror (?) (liquid + stone) [ŠEN archaic frequency: 66. clear. + to be high). 'time' referring to shorter days ?). sleep') . respect'. 'forty'. heaven') . beerwort (su.. grieve' + ní. ban: sign variants] . bow (pa. suñin ). 'fear. where reeds and rushes were seen as belonging to a young woman goddess similar to the grain goddess Nisaba). adj. 'people' ?) [NUN archaic frequency: 652. v. 'pebble. be sufficient'. free (ta... lord (reduplicated ní.. adj. raised high') . pail. n.. n. 'to lie down. be on top of. sùl. pana. a copper pan. Sumerian Lexicon.. hitch (cf. si. 'branch'.+ un. to trample. sun7[KAL]: quarrel. humble. BU 3 archaic frequency: 21].. lady. one's own') . sim ). near' + en. prince. šén: verdigris. great. mun4 [ŠEŠ]: queen. nin9: sister (reduplicated ní. discord. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . 'fear.. aurochs cow. te-en: v. join. cf. star. noble. 'to be high'. šún[MUL]: tán[MEN]: ten. thin things'. deep. pure. kur 9) .. 'to approach. su16: n. ar. su6: sun5[BÚR].. rín) (ara4..+ un.. n. Version 3. awe') [NIN archaic frequency: 75].munu4. 'to fill. mistress. to attach.. pan. lower lip. bulrush (reduplicated nin or nin9. respect. modesty.

. to open.7 for similar semantics). released. bara4[BAD]: bara5.. to divide. flaccid.. to break (of the day) (cf.. re7. wine [TIN archaic frequency: 93]. adj. to peel.. adj. which refers here to the sun. pap: rap: sipa: bar: (cf. bárag ) (interchanges with búru) (ba.. 'to stir. open wide. 'to accompany. to sniff. shell. cf.. adj. divide'. 'to divide'. to blaze') . barag ). bára: (cf. to distribute. v. wrinkle one's nose. separated.. bound. compound word.. to drive along or away'. bàra. innards. ír. foreign. concatenation of 3 sign variants.. to rip to pieces. with possibly a hidden meaning of 'to dry' for Vr or ara4 as also seen in dúr). ba-ra(-g)) [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . to see. 'to apportion.7: (cf.. to pass over. tu10: tùn[GÍN]: to constrict. white. to murder (ba.5: bir6. v. (cf. to wreck.. pocket.. rab). 'to expose'. (cf. (out)side. to be absent. expose..4): n. 'to smell'. to uncover. to go. mix') [BIR archaic frequency: 9. to break up. to bear.. bar6. bár: bar6. to blaze. (cf. to break (cf. bir for similar semantics). case.tin: n.. dun ).6: bir: to spread out. sipad ). to scatter.0 39 . pàra. to live. to select. remove as in ri). barag ). concatenation of 3 sign variants] . + ér. bir4. adj. bar. to defeat. 'to overflow'. intact.. pouch. re7) [?? BIR 3 archaic frequency: 23. to dry up. be bright. to shine. bir(2. 'likeness') [SUG 5 archaic frequency: 67]. n. ZATU-143 ERIM archaic frequency: 175. shriveled up (said of a penis). n. to be healthy.. shrivel up. Version 3. pàr[DAG]. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. par4[KISAL]: to stretch or spread out... life. to cure... to release. to split. tun(3). prep. v. mistiness (of the eyes) (ba. + ir10. bìr for animals in plural numbers). and cf. to remove. cf. because of.7: locust.. bir9[NE]: Sumerian Lexicon. lead. to massacre. smash (cf.. bandage. lip (te. ara4. v. the plural hamtu for 'to go'. pab. para4. pare. + ir10. mix. to keep away (with -ta -) (container plus to expel. sparrow (cf. flame up (cf. fleece [BAR archaic frequency: 306]. 'inanimate conjugation prefix'. to be stretched or spread out (cf. bìr[ERIM]: team (of donkeys/animals) (ba. 'to weep' and ur5. 'to shine. soul. + ra(-g/þ). stomach.. (ñiš) pa4). bàr. barag ).. wrap.. 'cheeks' + nu.

cf. and bur12. root') [BU archaic frequency: 393. necklace. 'to slice. thread [BUR2 archaic frequency: 45]. pit". n. 'bond. dur.5mušen: raven ?.... dar4: dark.. supple (dé.cf.. + úr. dúr: (cf. 'to send forth shoots'. bar and bàra for similar semantics). dára. n. 'to tear. duraþ).. 'to shear. grasshopper (cf. release.. diri. fresh. receptacle. bùr: a square surface measure = 6. moist. to dispose of. 'to divide' + úr. draw. to knap. ñar ). dur10: gar: ax (compare dar. concatenation of 9 sign variants] . could also be Sumerian from. 'sides'. (anše) dùr(ùr): 'fresh'). string. hot season. distance"). to interpret (a dream). stone bowl. bar. tie. Version 3. opening. split'). dàr: (cf. búru ) (ba."vomit").. harvest time (bur12.. bur(2): n. belt. "space. umbilical cord (da. 'cavity. bùr: v. to despoil (reduplication class. bir for destructive wreckers. Orel & Stolbova #120. 'base. 'plant' or a.. burin. but cf. bur12) (cf. to tear out. donkey stallion (usually written du 24-ùr or dur 9 (ùr) duru5. buuru 'cistern. pierce. 'to be darkened. 'to vomit'. *'or. parû III. búru. to be drawn. cf. cut off. rations. concatenation of 4 sign variants] .. strap."well. nominative suffix with vowel harmony). buru4.. buru7[GURUN]: buru8: to vomit (Akk. bùru ) (from Akkadian buuru IV. 'to surround') [DUR archaic frequency: 58. to dissolve. + úr. dur5[A]: (anše) dur9[ŠUL]: (cf.. bùru(-d). to spread out (a garment). dár: n. "hunger". + either ú. depth (Akk. mine. hole'. to tear out. 'floor' the u vowel especially correlates with round objects or openings). bu(3. dàra. anšedùr(ùr)). crow ?. dir: (cf.. dim. cf. a-dé. uproot. loosen.bur: meal. 'portion. bii/eeru IV. dúru..6) + nominative for anything that harvests or destroys plants). to open.. bur12. donkey foal (pack animal . ) (cf. *ba'Vr-/*bu'Vr. pack. keep away (ba. high (compare dirig. thighs. to bind. cut off'. tie').6): to tear. sash (compare dur. 'strap') .48 hectares = 18 iku = 3 area éše = 1800 sar = the amount of land that supported a family (also cf. to receive. pheasant [DAR archaic frequency: 36. 'lap. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . bu(3.. 'to water' + ru5. bur14: dar: harvest. to pay (with -ta ). francolin. split. irrigated. to go over') [DARA 4 archaic frequency: 81. to slice. 'arm... to shatter (reduplication class) (da. open container'. + ur4. to break into (a house). arû IV . buru14. concatenates 2 sign variants] . + ur. amulet chain. Orel & Stolbova #164. reap') . to bore through. fruit. flake off (flint). bìr for animals in plural numbers. ub4. cf. well'. v. duruna). berry [rare word]. legs') [BUR archaic frequency: 51. to remove. locust. repast. v. hole. side'...0 40 . he-ass. fruit tree. Sumerian Lexicon. dara4.. v. sparrow ?. pot (cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . dirig). dur: bond. thread. to pull..

gur.. gur(4). cf. gar2.. nape' + ra.. appearance (to be + to send) [GAR archaic frequency: 409]. to reject evidence (in a legal case).9. measure of capacity . neat (cf. gam ). Mercury. to run. (urudu) gur10. v. ur4: n. gud. to turn away from (object has ablative -ta ). form.11. can only be seen right before sunrise. 'basket'). in admin. to wipe off. 'to surround') . gur. pommel. to reap. gir. to cut.. kir13: cow or mare of intermediate age. to send). gi7 [KU]: noble. fangs. reed basket. cf. to pluck. kùr. + ri. gir11[KEŠDA]: to be tidy. kàr: knob. 'to strike'. civilized.. fury (compare bir9). pull (weeds) (gú. gùr. to make a circular motion. Version 3. to gather together. coarse. silo. to be full. great (cf. blaze') [GIR 4 secretion') [GIR archaic frequency: 28. 'neck. v. sphere. ga6: to bear. copper sickle (semi-circle + flowing motion). giri11.dug4/du11/e). 'bull')...14. kára ). to give back. granary. to be or feel big. + ir(2).. deep..0 41 . v. gu4ud). a capacity measure.'place'. to separate. kir: gir4. 'basket') . mir ) (circular container + er. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . thick.9. harvest.Biblical kor (= 300 sìla in Old Akkadian and NeoSumerian periods. 909 liters (cf..10.'place'. to return.. gúr: n. to join in assent (probably reduplication class) (cf. guðx.. laden (Umma reading for íla sign. subdue. to gather in. to come back. kùr: n. gur5.'to restore'. possibly a carangid (ki... gar4[GUD/GUÐ]: gara2. ge9[NE]: anger. gi9. kìri).. oven (cf. gur8 [TU]: high. guru5. ñar: n. to catch (in a net). archaic frequency: 1].. storeroom. v. early (the 'bull of the sun'. to shear (sheep). kur5. contradict. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . circle. to curb. a fish. used for round and high objects ('circular' + 'to send forth. to protect') . gir5: (cf. gir10. to bow down. domestic.. hair lock on the back of the head (sign of a slave). þir) (gi4. to be endowed with. to gallop. ñiri5). hoop (circle + ur. bright. cf. adj.. Sumerian Lexicon. saña 11[KIN]). cake. belonging to the native in-group (circle + city) [ŠE3 archaic giri17: (cf.. divide.12: thick milk. gur7. to grind (reduplication class) (circle + flowing motion).. to protest. + ara4. roll over.. 'to bring'. ga-àr-ra) [GARA2 archaic frequency: 106. kur12: n.. cheese (cf. gir15. very strong. guru7. kur4. 'fluid kiln (for lime or bitumen)..gàr.. ca.. fattened. to die (cf. = 144 sìla in Old Sumerian Girsu/Lagash. udun ) (ki. ring. filled sack (of silver ?) = purse. gur. frequency: 152].. preeminent. 'to shine. submit. kara6: grain heap.10. carry. gir8: v. to turn. guru8. texts = 2 bariga ) [? GUR archaic frequency: 14] (circle + to reap. kud. cream.. loaded. cf. 'to sweep away') . plump. guru6: (cf. and gúgur5. loop.

kikkin. foot. day) (reduplication class) (sometimes written for kúr ) (place + ur. 'fluid secretion'. miller (reduplicated þar/àr.. þara. captive (additional associations of 'road' and 'sword') . to fulgurate. refuge. v. 'cow or mare'). concatenates 2 sign variants] . + uru9. to drive away. kar: n. ñiri5. to steal. knife.. step. to take away. pillage. to deliver. gir ). to destroy. scorpion. tighten (cf.. sketch.. milled. + ir(2). to capture. þar. cf. þur. to store. 'to drag') . run away. v. 'support'. v. + ra. to remove and set elsewhere (with -ta-). 'to branch out from the side of') . ñìri. v. restore (with ši-). to take away. 'to strike. take. 'entrance') [KAR archaic frequency: 7]. to squeeze. ñiri16. limb. ur5: n. drive away. coil or spiral of silver or other precious metal that can be worn as a ring or bracelet and was used as money (cf. kár. kur9. to dig (many small explosive sounds + ùr. prep. hole. quay-wall. stem. kín . set down upon. booty.. 'tool'. gir. to expel (with -da-) (ñá-ñá in marû). to grind. v. þara. and ara4. 'to impress into clay'. ñir5[KAŠ4]: v. to escape. accumulate. besiege.. to raid. n. to pillage. sword. link (in a chain). illuminate. crushed. + ra. vessel with a large spout (þa. establish. to chew. ñìr: n. (cf. to seek refuge. small.. 'leg(s)'.. to run. to shine. place.. to pulverize (in a mortar). cf... nominative ending... àr.5. 'to shine') [? KAR 2 archaic frequency: 68. marketplace. ñidri and ñušur for similar and different phonetic developments). dagger. ten. a large vessel. cf. trot. path (ñiš. kir. refugee.. mooring-place.. stab. þara5: spout.. n. to be taken. expedition. gàr ). feet. yield (abundance + to go out + to flow) . send. to make groats. embankment. (cf. pulverized. kàr: kir: kír: Sumerian Lexicon.... deposit. úr.. thorn. v. to make. concatenation of 2 sign variants] .3. young. accuse. ring. 'to surround' + a. harbor.. road. inscribe. to avoid.3: n. lighten.0 42 . ara3... ñir2. ñir16 [ÑÌR×KÁR]: fortress.. + ra. adj. ñír: n. 'tool'... to put. adj. where a round hole was the symbol for 10) . to impute. precative prefix. lightning flash. to be bright (of light. capture. outline. giri 11). port authority (place + water + to flow. ñíri. Version 3. trip (ñiš. via. ara3. kára. draw. ñiri2. ur5[ÞAR]: n. beer keg (ki. produce. way.5: n. handle (þù. slay' with vowel harmony) [GIR 2 archaic frequency: 114]. flash. guru6: to encircle.v. 'millstone'). to stab.. stranger.'place'.. millstone. þir[KEŠDA]: v. to scratch. ground. ur5) (many small explosions + sliding motion) [UR5 archaic frequency: 34.

kùr: (cf.. mir(2). Akk. n. an encircling snake (var. enter into the presence of (with -ši -). storm wind. kud.7. + ur4. to get angry.. gur ). winnowing shovel.SILA4]: female lamb [KIR11 archaic frequency: 3]. to guard.'to shout'/ mud6. belt.'battle'. kir6. strange. spade". lock up. + ùr. alien. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to send forth shoots. orchard. spoon (ma(3). (cf. ur5 [ÞAR]: n.... sun 5) . gur4). kir4. Version 3. entrance (ki. of gùr ) (me3. to don. n. to reach. kur5. concatenates 2 sign variants] . kur4: (cf. kiri6: kir11[MÍ. 'roof. 'to sing. the netherworld (ki. gir 4). liver.. v. ñá. furious.... v. kur7: kur9. fodder for fattening. + ru5. garden. kir6.... scatter. grate (mu7. marru "shovel. 'to flood') . giri17: nose. highland. lungs. attain. earthworm. waistband. adj. + flowing motion. ku4: (cf. kir13: kur: (cf. transform (with -da -) (singular [?] reduplication class stem. palm grove (ki.... 'to surround') [MER archaic frequency: 48. fierce. + ir. mar. hostile. mill. cf. to turn round.4.. 'root. to change. buds. kur6: (cf. to coat. kuru5. to immerse. ñar7: n. adj. wagon. + ùr. lattice. to bring.4) (ki. base') [KUR archaic frequency: 145.'hoe') [MAR archaic frequency: 117. foreign land') .. kurum 7).specifies delivery location). kiri 3. to let enter (with -ni -)... mú. also. to enclose.4: ñiš stream dam. in the future.4) (ki. Orel & Stolbova #1738 *mar. mur. to blow fiercely.'place'. enemy.6.kìr[LAGAB]: off'). turn into. apply.. and kid2. to break a seal (often with -da -) (kúr-re in marû). liri: (ñiš/urudu) (cf. v. 'to shear. to enter before someone (with dative prefix). north(wind).0 43 . anger. 'place'. stranger. mar. to kindle. (foreign) land.9. kurum6). hyena (cf. base') . 'to pinch kiri3. 'root. + ir(2). gùr: n.'mountains. to surround. muzzle (of an animal). 'smell'). to sow. kud ). mountain pass'/ úr. + to flow / circle + ur. hostility (from kur. 'place'. 'entrance') . to shout. to deliver (-ni . v. mur: worm.. v.'to go'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . to enter. 'earth'. kúr[PAB]: n... violent storm.. liru.'place'.7.'place'. lirum ). to grind. kur5: kuru7. to blow' + úr. to nip off (clay) (ki. or blossoms') . reap'. cf. to be different. mer(2). angry. 'fluid secretion'/ ra. v. concatenates 3 sign variants] . weir (cf. mountain. to rise (sun).

so. vegetable(s) [SAR archaic frequency: 102. drive'.. naaru I. precise + flowing motion. 'high.RU6 = SAL.. šár ). sur6..UD. a garden plant. adj.. ner: adj. to disturb someone. 'to surround') . to pay. cf. foundation pit (ús. to stretch. 'equal in rank') . frog. 'to cut into. rushes.demonstrative. uš. n.0 gur [= 60 gur ] of capacity = 1.. reach. feverish (si. si-il. 'flood basin') . šar: n.'to be dark'. zil. to hang. deliver punctually.7). murgu ).'woman'. deep furrow. vanquish (to be high + to go out + to flow) . chopped straw [? SUR archaic frequency: 6]. nir: n. drain (to fill. to clothe.U4. to hover. to insert. 18 cubic meters = 1. na4 nír[ZA. sumur ). sa. Sumerian Lexicon. sil. enter. victorious. šur ) (si.. reed mat. + to flow).. driven out.MAÞ]: singer... sur5: height. extend. n..KID. (cf. to support.. adj. "river" in the same way that Sumerian nab means both "ocean" and "musician") [NAR archaic frequency: 69]. lift'. chaff. divide (reduplication class ?)(cf. Version 3... murux [GI.. lord [NIR archaic frequency: 45. to drive. depth. suru5. to wear (cf. sila. sa5. thus. 'to surround'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . inundate + to flow. zara 5). su. ditch. par3/4: sar. to dress oneself (reduplication class [?]) (mu10. + ir(10). contrast sug. a volume measure of one square ninda times 1 kùš = 144 kùš 3 = ca. ús. 'height. brother-in-law (mu10. chase away (with -ta -). bàra ).8: (cf. + ur. síl... mu4: muru9: nar: muru5[MÍ. v.5. deep') . to winnow. to overcome. but meaning probably derives from the act of chasing vermin from the vegetable garden. šar: a surface measure. + ur. density. a precious stone with black and white flecks. "musician".. foundation. kar for such a progression from the noun to the verb). concatenates 3 sign variants] . omen. to delimit. to raise high. to drive (with -ni -). haze (mi. proper. + rù. 'to follow.. nir. sar. dense. divide') .GÍN]: (cf. suspend. mur7. to write. 'long and narrow'. sár: sír: adj. + uru2.. 'sweat') .0 44 . cf.. musician (loan from Akkadian naaru II. to make hurry. 'garden plot' = 1 square ninda = 60 surface shekels = 1/100 iku = 4 square reeds = 144 square cubits = 36 meters 2. súr: sùr: sur6..7: (cf. v. to grow weak'. cf. run (to be skilled.EDIN]: fog.18. mur10. n. mist. for 'to drive away'. pursued. weak. bound. sur: sur: (cf. in this way. to begin.. sir5. v. clean grain. prince. which derives from Akk.'woman'.'to be full.0 gín in weight.

weak. sug 8). tur5: tur5. counter. v. reap'. lament (Orel & Stolbova #2258 *sir-/*sur 'sing'). flow. concatenates 3 sign variants] . to sing. 'to burn') . 'arrows' + ùr. sir4: v... decision. sur: šúr: tar: adj.sur8: (cf. destroy (ta. to submerge. to determine.. zar).. sár: n. to multiply or mix (with -da -).. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'from'. lú šár: a military officer = commander of 3600. sanctuary (cf.. innumerable. testicles (many + to go out + to flow. 'to pour' + to flow. rafters'. young.. judicious. zar. young (of herd animals). to flow. newborn. to request. to be/make small. šur. cf. little. cf. sumur ). Version 3.. totality. šìr: (cf. adj. song. sickness. cf. n. 'to shear.. 'to watch. thicket (ti. þir.tar) [TAR archaic frequency: 56.. to process wine and juices. 'beams. ball.. to press (out)..... guard. šìr[EZEN]. nir.. protect') [TUR archaic frequency: 272]. second in rank (tu. Sumerian Lexicon. the number 3600 = 60 (many. to decide. sír ) (Akkadian loan from šaraapu(m) .. to extract seed oil. drip. early example of asyndetic hendiadys). to make abundant. a frequent metaphor for a temple.. deliberate. concatenates 2 sign variants] .. zur4. to spin (a cocoon) (cf. explain. much + àr. grove. to break. to brew (beer). to spout. 2 šár... (cf. to interpret. to smoke. sug 8) (repetitive motion + to flow) [? ZAR archaic frequency: 15. token. 'to be born'. the graphically similar sign. v. and ñiš2. (cf. to be or become sick. šèr ). šír: šèr. šur: v. + ur. pour. sur8: to tap. to decide (éše. šar). sick. sar. 'ring. implore (reduplication class). n. small. to cut. to produce a liquid. tur) [TUR 3 archaic frequency: 121.. to bind.. to slaughter.3) [ŠIR archaic frequency: 24. + ùru. adj. to inquire. v. world. šeñ3. coil').. weakness. to rain. stable. adj. n. to shine brightly (cf. to spray out. all. to flash. tu: birth-hut.. child. numerous. 'rope'. gleam (šu.. šar8 [NI]: šér. sheepfold. concatenates 4 sign variants] . pen. + ur4. v.. n.0 45 . to reduce. sur12: šar: (cf. tùr. 'to surround') . šìr: šir. to exude. to be many. dar and nam.7). horizon. to be insufficient. byre. tir: tur: forest.

'a small pot'). awesome. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'one'. zar[LAGAB×SUM]: zara5 and zar). son. (cf.. transportation basket.. used in working at the lower levels in excavating a canal.3.. probably replaced the use of a. fiery red (Akk. chamber pot (kàš. thigh (numerous + foundation.0 46 .. 'beer'. 'to fill up'). + aš. sur: to spin. ñiš2. ñiš2. with its similar appearance. concatenates 4 sign variants] .4.. plow. + usu.. deš: ñiš.3. šaña). 'to stand upright') . 'excrement'. to arrange. young man. nisig ).. tool. would have to be forced so much. sir5. 'water'. base). 'to desire') [KAŠ archaic frequency: 261. zur: dusu: n. uš: penis.3: (cf. dúsu [ANŠE. ruššû). zar5. tend. 'strength'. ka9: kisi: mes. sacrifice. lower abdomen.RA): horse (reduplicated si. 'urine'. to rock (an infant). to offer. n.. the form resembles that of the semantically appropriate male body part. þáš.meesu I. man (self + to go out + many. þaš: (cf. v. Orel & Stolbova #1766 *mi’es. to be angry (compare guz.. describes an animal assigned to the plow (sometimes ñiš-šè ). loins. sheaf.su. Version 3. furious.. terrible. offering.6). sheaves (rolled up and bound stalks and ears. ñiš2. cf. ñeš2.. ñeš: one (dili. UŠ archaic frequency: 101. an ass or equid used as a draft animal in front of plows and wagons (du. + áš. mèš: deduction. þaz ). 'endowment'. zara5. 'to walk'.3.. þuz). mina. scepter.. to pray. adj. concatenation of 2 sign variants. possession (back-formation from níñ-kas7/ka9). 'to + si. min(5. twine (yarn or thread). kaš. + si14.3. zàr[SUM]. to furnish. 'two'). corvée (du. za-ra ) (Akkadian loanword from . + usu. 'mouth'. organ.. v.LIBIR]: walk'. šeš ). kas7. nisi. prayer (repetitive activity + to flow/protect).'tree') [MES archaic frequency: 32].serru(m) II). back. urine (an etymology involving še10. to roll up (repetitive motion + to flow). 'single'. hackberry tree in the elm family (me. adj. Sumerian Lexicon. ñešta). cf.KUR. 'hackberry tree'.. prince. ñeš2. wild (said of animals). Akkadian loanword . natural phenomenon (describes a trunk that goes out into many branches and leaves) [GIŠ archaic frequency: 381]. provide. cf.3. tree. þaš4: þuš: þeš5: (cf. sisi (ANŠE. 'strength') . settlement of accounts.(ñiš) zar: wagon shaft (cf. nitaþ(2) and šir) [GIŠ3 archaic frequency: 16. wooden implement. that the homophone kaš. alcoholic beverage (ka. ñeš2. diš(2). nissa: šes: (cf. wood. cf.. to mean 'urine' at some point). kás: kàš: beer.

destruction. to travel fast.. Sumerian Lexicon. surface (mu10. kiši16/17: kiši4: half. kàr) (ki. contrast gàr. inspect. kuš7: devastation.9: cover') . kuš. (cf. to gallop. 'to desire') [MUŠ 3 archaic frequency: 284. turtle (cf. act'. found. speed. to glisten. aspect. depart. šu-da) (ku. shine. frequency: 14. body-servant.. courier. 'venom. to run fast.3: n. to worry. where 'whale' must be meant) (ku6.. kus[SU]: skin. kišik (2)). interest (of a loan). cultivated territory. kiš. forelock (sign of a freeman. kušu: kúšu: liš: maš: (cf. v.. a city's irrigated. v. 'to cut'.8. hide. quick. 'to kúš: kùš: to be tired.. + šè.. muš2. ŠIM×KÚŠU . groom. 'to leave. to scrutinize. leather (ku5. 'dead') . mèš: muš: (cf. kuš6: (cf... 'place'. 'portion') [LIŠ archaic frequency: 4]. to be out of breath. build'. 'to base. appearance.9).. kas4: n.. adj. go out'. + šú. nonresident.. muš4: a biting insect (cf. concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'to kill'/uš11.. + šè. valet. depart. Version 3. v. snake. + ús. 'snake').0 47 . mes ). tourist (place(s) + locative + many) [KAS 4 archaic frequency: 1]. 'fish'. next to'/ šè. yield (of a field) (ma4. 'portion').. diadem. máš: máš. kišib 7. rent. messenger. ell/cubit = 1/2 meter = 30 fingers [šu-si ] = distance from elbow to fingertips. + many). maš: máš: n. go out'. the etymology of muš. forearm. 'place'. 'to cover') [? UÞ 3 archaic morsel (happiness + small + šè. n. terminative suffix/ šú. he-goat [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. to calm (kúš-(ù) in marû) (aka. + kid. 'tongue'/ ma4. fluent. esquire. adj. keš: ñiš kiša(2). 'to do. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . go out'. bitter. poison') [MUŠ archaic frequency: 3. kéš: (cf. face. kešda ). kiši7.. 'to be joined. profit. runner. + úš. + úš. reptile (eme. sacrificial animal [MAŠ 2 archaic frequency: 60]. BU: archaic frequency: 393. concatenates 2 sign variants] . maš. šè.. 'female'. depart. twin (ma4. (cf. entire political world (name of the powerful city in the north of Sumer that first bound together and defended the cities of Sumer) (places + many) [? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46]. + úš. one-half. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].8. kuruš). totality. boy (ki. extispicy (divination based on the entrails of a sacrificed animal). channel (cf..kaš4. 'portion') [MAŠ archaic frequency: 133].. 'to leave. + áš. noncitizen. kušum x).. produce. 'to leave. 'to kill').

pešx(KI.6. šuš4: to fell trees. v. peš(7): ñiš child. + eš. body'. deep breathing. adj. aš(5). to go down. myrrh (reduplicated eš. home (te. 'to desire'. concatenation of 4 sign variants] (moist container + ùš. 'foundation place. shame. v. fodder (scattered for animals) (reduplicated uš.. 'to anoint') . 'to approach'. to chop away (reduplicated šu. to be pregnant. šeš). fig tree (moist container + šè. to reside (su..3: shore. šuš(2). tuš: n... to make an incision. peš4.muš5[ŠEŠ]: niš. son. 'tongue'. + áš. v. pain. 'hand'). brethren. šuš5. šeš(2. 'one [finger.. cf. peš5. brother.. 'spider'). to expand. 'leaf. valuable.4: to anoint. fluff (cf.6: n. to breathe deeply. 'portion') . to feel ashamed. colleague [URI 3=ZATU-595 archaic frequency: 77. cf.. + eš. all sorts. šes: šeš.0 48 . sexuality. concatenates 2 sign variants] . base') . piš10. cf. šu5. precious. neš: peš: bitter (eme. + aš. péš. 'to stand upon') .13: n. 'body. + eš. to weep. 'plant'. to pluck apart.. spider. to mourn. be overcast (said of the sun). cf. to wail (reduplication class) (to become moist ?). to rub. brackish. šub) [ŠUŠ 2 archaic frequency: 243] .. to conceive. + uš8. 'placental membrane'. base'. womb.16. ses: v. 'body'.4: to overthrow. 'foundation place. combed wool. 'fig'). become dark. toe]') . to rub. adv.. all kinds. v. šeš. + ú. relatives'. to cover (with -da -) (reduplication class) (reduplicated šu. much'. each of them (te. 'three'). šu2.. palm frond. feed. 'self.. together (often with suffix -bi . 'to be pregnant') . n. sex. difficult circumstances (derives from peš4. Sumerian Lexicon. tightness.. 'many. peš10. wide. adj.. to sit down..6: téš[UR]: bedding. bitter. river pebble. twenty (ní. to taste bitter. 'to anoint') [ERIN=ŠEŠ 4 archaic frequency: 105]. three [GIR archaic frequency: 28. scent. Version 3.. píš: pèš: fig.6. ašte). n. to throw down. to set. a type of edible mouse (probably derives from pèš. anoint (with oil) (su. pa. to be dense (reduplication class) (reduplicated eš. to comb and clean wool. cry. modesty.A): púš: suš: suš2. to be thick.3. to erase. 'to approach'.. tuš). 'to anoint') . eš5.. litter. branch'.. n. 'hand'. -ba or -e ).21.4): šeš2. river bank. + uš8. 'to anoint'.

to couple... cf. to push someone away. 'portion' + ída. abgal(2): ablal(3): absin(3): sage. to cut. also. to kill. bond. to vanquish. þaz. nita: (cf. 'portion'. cf. water') [ŠITA archaic frequency: 373.'insect') . to (cause to) dwell. + ta. to ooze. to pour. šíta..'flow. ešda: šìta: channel. šita. nus: meze: ziz: zìz: to break or cut off (twigs. cf. throne') [ABRIG archaic frequency: 9].. dá. used on meat ('let it breathe'. + zú.v.su .s. to sit. KUM]). 'to kill'. èšda: (ñiš) clean. v. branches). small canal (šè.).. cf. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . character') . loanword from saasu . accuse. a type of drum (function + repetitive noise). guz. to join. adj. to set up. to consider. 'to anoint'. trickle.saa. bound. be wet').. v. tears (Akk. concatenates 7 sign variants] . to lie down (singular. 'to pour. to settle. plural.. break. + ta. 'teeth') . cf. šid. wizard (abba. fracture. téš). intact. figure out. i. to impute. clip. kasû II) [GAZI archaic frequency: 14]. tie (šè. 'water'.. 'niche'. to bind. èšda. ašte. shaggy (hair). slaughter (with -da. to drip. abrig: a purification priest (a. biz.. defeat. powder. to count. + uz/us. number (šè. Version 3. 'niche. (seeded) furrow (ab. nañX[GAZ.cassia. + barag. 'main canal') [ŠITA 3 archaic frequency: 139. to rinse off. 'to cut. 'ruler.. bird niche. band. zíz[ÁŠ]: a crop-devouring insect (see etymology for ziz). moth (Akk. 'by means of') [EŠDA archaic frequency: 26]. 'to sift'). long.4.. 'moth' and ašaašu .. measure. a priest (eš. Orel & Stolbova #256 *baz. a spice . bi(z): n. to recite. to cry. þaš: nuz. dá. nunuz). to read aloud. to be at home. Sumerian Lexicon. 'great') [ABGAL archaic frequency: 31]. 'noise'. 'moth'.4. bi-bi-zé). + lal. to rage at. mace (úš. 'portion'. adj. Akk. dá.. + ta. to hang') .0 49 . duruna ).. šita(4). 'to be high. egg (na4.. to thresh grain (þá. to crush. gaz(2): gazi: n. nook'. 'elder'. šid3. war (chamber + repetitive motion.5: v. to castrate (reduplication class: þu-þu-uz ) (gù.'goose'. šed: šita6: n. 'to approach'. a type of vessel. 'flow of tears' and ba.'pebble'. cf. to dry (cf. to memorize. šit. + gal. nitaþ ). to bare the teeth. 'to (let) drip'. nest (ab. + zé.. trim.. + sín. to be together. 7 n. pluck') . [ñiš]naña3. loanword from bi. šita5. emmer (wheat) (reduplicated zé or zi). 'numerous'. Orel & Stolbova #1034 *‘açuç. link with. to calculate. sing.. 'nature. v. to gnash the teeth. 'by means of'/ dé. + te. establish. íd. reside. wise man. þuz[LUM] v.su . bathed.

'house'. añarx[IM×IM. añrig: steward. 'sea' + zu. net. IM. fight. powerful [ALIM=ZATU-219 [GIR 3] sign per P. beer-wort. crucible. a life force. wild ram.DUGUD]: to deposit') . 'water'. 'to accumulate. plural') [AMAR archaic frequency: 297]. crab. seine.PA. alla: amar: amaš: amagi(2. lintel. alan. 'to deed. father. alañ. 'lift. akani ). 'river'. mother. to check'. carry'). (cf. concatenation of 3 sign variants] .3): akani. Orel & Stolbova. + rig7. 'to accompany.0 50 . ákan.DIRIG]: addirx: agam: wages. (cf. ugar: agarin(2. pipe for making libation offerings to the deceased (a. womb. incline'). + gam. aurochs. + dirig/dir. sheepfold. grant') . agrun: inner sanctuary [ZATU-413 archaic frequency: 4].3): agarin4. alam. alal: alam: alan: alim: pipe. uþþur(2. young animal (áma. Sumerian Lexicon. 'wild cow mother'. aþþur(2. imþur ). conduit. 'to go adamen(2. 'water'. akan: agar(2. (cf.3). + lal. alañ ). cloudburst (a. ál: concatenates 6 sign variants] . heavy rain shower.the sea personified as a god (aba/ab. the 'sentient' sea . agargaraku6 [NUNtenû]: a fish.5: field. ferry. Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary (1995).GAL]: city gate (loanword from Semitic for 'door'. commons [AGAR 2 archaic frequency: 16]. image. leather armor. archaic frequency: 73.. + maš. abzu: 28] .. bison. allalx. Version 3. Steinkeller. a male protective spirit. 'goat'). akan: akar: alad: udder. bridge (ída/íd. addir[A. aka4[KÁ]: door-frame. 'water'..3).ÑISAL. superintendent (áña. 'to decline. appearance [ALAN archaic frequency: 51.3): over') . cattle-pen (é.abul[KÁ.3): calf. + ñar. 'to know') [ABZU archaic frequency: argument. 'to measure. (cf. #287). alañ ). gutter. akkil: lamentation. statue.. + re7. vat.PAD. swamp (a.3). ritual wailing. ice. figure. mabi(2. ágan.

vulture. taboo. canebrake (imi/im. v. a mythical giant bird. 'to blow') [APIN archaic frequency: 181.4. Version 3. ašgab: leather-dresser.MI/DUGUDmušen]: archaic frequency: 1].11: araþ4[É. báþar: potter [BAÞAR2 archaic frequency: 50.UŠ. aša5 [GANÁ]: field. concatenates 5 sign variants] . ramp (?). adj.. describes a plow animal (also apin-šè ). currier (kuš. 'seed'. pack animal (an. 'male slave.. fierce. drum (?).. white.. 'rope'. + bar.ambar. + te. + þáš. 'to desire'. desirable or beloved object (áš. arala. 'to cleanse') . ašlag: (cf. vigorous. pity (úr. téš). asilal(3.5)). seeder plow (a. 'to obtain'). arali: the netherworld (þara/àra. asila: (cf. + la. the rising sun (reduplicated bar6. 'youthful freshness and beauty') . compassion. 'water'.5. + gúb. urdu(2). ásar: Euphrates poplar tree [ASAL 2 archaic frequency: 16]. + kid(6). 'bright.5): joy. 'to approach'. asil(3. junior. container [? BANŠUR archaic frequency: 7. abbar: marsh. 'leather'. plot (cf.GÍD. loanword from wardum. ú númun) (éš. proud. banda2. aškud: wedge (as a device to bar a door).3.3): Sumerian Lexicon. 'base. womb. 'to cleanse'). anzu(2)-(d)[dIM. support. necessity.. asilal (3. reed pulp.'sky.4. concatenates 3 sign variants] .. gladness. azlag(2. ir3. white') [UD archaic frequency: 419]. felt-worker.5: bànda(da): ñiš prop. 'to weave a reed mat'). + zalag. arþuš: n. (ú) aški: bulrush (Typha grass. 'lower abdomen'). carry') [ANŠE archaic frequency: 48. ñiš ásal.0 51 . to be sympathetic. ašag. reeds.4. onager. ašte: azag: lú need. equid. lúazlag). + šè. subordinate (Akk. high'. banšur(2. a-šà-(g)). fuller. 'to pulverize'. anše: male donkey. mud'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . servant. asilal).5): (cf. balañ: lyre (?). 'clay. cf. young..6).? KIŠ archaic frequency: 46].. terminative postposition = 'up to' = 'to raise up. cf. ñiš apin: n. ašlag: babbar(2): bright.DA]: (male) slave.. concatenates 4 sign variants. launderer (a.4. arad(2). impetuous. root'. funeral song [? BALAG archaic frequency: 20]. table. eagle [ANZU 2 anzalub: anzud(2). storehouse. man-servant') [IR 11 archaic frequency: 10].4. + bun.

riot. trough. daggan: dalþamun: dalþamun4: harem. v. puniñx. sack. v. bar-rim4). dañal: n. enlarge. adj...5): bùzur: hand. 'to sprout'. novice. palm. barley malt. 'to pack') [? BARA 2 archaic frequency: 69. dakkan. drill. concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'to flood.. buzur(2. dabin [ZÌ. (bán-rig-a. noble') . billuda. 'to shine'. 'to cut. bunin: buranun: bitumen-coated reed container (for carrying liquids). bibad[UZ. 'brilliant. 'the bán from picking. concatenates 2 sign variants] . overflow'. frightened. foster child [BULUG3 archaic frequency: 19]. rite. brilliant. gleaning') . buñiñx. mystery. wide.4. + aka/ag. 'to rush around'. fields. precinct (cf. to be nervous. opposing or contrasting') . v. king. pure.UD]: dagrim: coarse (?) barley flour. living quarters. broad. stand. + nun. tub (bún/buñx. 'to bear'). Sumerian Lexicon. Equals 6 bán . ñarim ) (dag. + níñ. ruler. cult platform. boundary post. + zil.ŠE]: dadag [UD. + þa-mun. 'to fly'. 'mutually confusion.AN]: bugin: basket. safety. seal pin. fright. 'valuables') . buluþ: to worry. 'dwelling'. to grow. 'blister.5). vat. bulug: shoot. + gal/ñal. 'to run fast'. clean').bappir(2/3): beer bread (a sweet and possibly pungent bread made from barley dough . make grow. secret. breadth (da. to be swollen'. to widen.6: throne dais.BAR): (meteoric) iron (bar6. sacred. buniñ). needle. duststorm. + rim4. chamber (dag. + ra. bár. copious. cult. bára. a merchandise tax. disorder. chamber. security. 'great.4. ordinance. bárag. bàr [DAG]: bariga [PI or UL(in Old Sumerian period)]: a measure of capacity . + gan. biluda[PA. Version 3. ? ZATU-764 archaic frequency 21]. box. to grow big.. border (bul. puzur(2. worship. Euphrates river (bu5. . clear (reduplicated dág. concatenates 2 sign variants. peel'). 'to do') [BULUG archaic frequency: 4]. revolt (dal. support.. brewer [BAPPIR archaic frequency: 28. 'side'. to rear.. adj. hurry. 'resting place'. vicinity. bara5. to clean.. nest [BARA 3 archaic frequency: 13]. sprout. barag. pupil. awl.0 52 . bùluñ: n. whirlpool. 'big') [AMA archaic frequency: 241.. violent storm. buniñx. width.TUR]mušen: ñiš duck.36 sìla in the Old Sumerian period and 60 sìla in the Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian periods.. búgin: basket (for carrying food) (cf. dwelling (container plus ra(g). bàra. to hasten. tornado. cf. barzil (AN..mixed with malt [munu 4] to make mash [titab ] for beer). crate.

ray'. + eme. individual. 'to bring down (or up). 'bull').. young. 'arm') [DARA 3 archaic frequency: duraþ. eclipsed. additional. hard (du7. clothe. various. addition. trouble. dir [SI. place (objects) (plural. dal. ibex (dur. n. 'beam. 'to cover. + ku6/kua. to surpass. dél: dìlim[BUN]: dilmun : dimgul: ki god. 'root. adj. 'bond.danna. + ñar.. excess. to occupy. brazier. remove'. diri. 'complete'.'light beer' (íb. to pour'.0 53 . (gi) which required an average of 7 intercalary months in 19 years) (cf. air vent (dè. ebir(2). 6.DÚR]: dwelling [DUR 2 archaic frequency: 52]. anus. cloudbank. to be seated. outstanding. 'tongue') . to be darkened.7 miles/10. to dry out. 'to deliver'). to be supreme over (with dative/locative). tie'. to exceed. dubur(2): testicles (dub. IM dungu: cloud. 'needle'. deity. determinative for divine beings (di. dirig. cf. dana: road-length measure.. to be extra.8 kilometers.. dalla. 'to store. dingir: dílim. 'ashes'. + áþi. + gul. dàr: durun: (cf. massive. singular tuš ) (èd. 'to fly. 'waist'. 'march' = 30 UŠ = 21600 cubits = ca. didila: didli: assorted. 'decision'. duruna). 'people'). 'to bond.. v. locks (cf... to sit. dinig[KI. frequency: 35]. + lal/lá. diñir. + gud. ušub). drain' + úr. durun. a watery type of beer . concatenation of 4 sign variants] .A]: n. the island of Bahrain.appears in the credits section of the succeeding period's account tablet. intercalary month after either 11th month or 12th month (based as much on whether the winter crop will be ready for the harvest month as on the need to reconcile the lunar year with the solar year. separate. dúr. to float (with the current). very small. superior. 11.. dúruna. overdraft. stand out. dugud: n.. + ir(2). beer mug. 'enormous') . double hour (twelfth part of a full day) = the time it takes to march a length of 1 danna (Akkadian etymology from 'place of strength or safety') [DANNA archaic frequency: 2]. to set down. to break wind. cloud [DUGUD archaic frequency: 2]. 'skeleton'. kiln. dìlim: oven for baking and roasting.. dilina. 'tears or any bodily secretion') . dúru. dálla. noted for its sweet water springs (cf. mountain goat buck. 'potash') . 'fish'). ñiš dubšik[ÍL]. heavy.. salt. + naña. tilmun ) [DILMUN archaic mast (dim. duruna. surplus. funnel-shaped bowl containing seeds for the drill plow. thighs'. to be greater than. + ùña/un. spoon (dal. dwell. weight.NE]: potash. v. dàra. single (reduplicated dili). to go over. and dul. lap. 'to lessen') . difficult. superfluous. tie'. durunx [DÚR. fish bones (adda. to exit. adj. epir(2): ebla: edakua(2): small pot. dìlib: hair. to be erased. plural. amount by which credits of an account tablet exceed debits . hide') . crucible. Version 3. dupsik: basket. Sumerian Lexicon. buttocks.

immin. thirst (en. + si. 'fish'. 'ikkar from Semitic "to hoe. enkux [ZAG-ÞI-A]: enkum: temple treasurer. 'house'. 'to mortar bricks'). engiz [ME. Version 3. limit.. abyssal sea of fresh water (a. city governor (post-Sargonic) (en. 'floor. an-gur4). 'water'. cook (en. knowing. eden: prep. endib: cook (en. cf.ÞA) as ešsad). crush. 'lord'. egi(2): princess. block of wood. brick wall (é. emedu(2): émeš: house/estate-born slave (eme.. queen. 'lord'. émma.. 'salt').. grazing land between the two long rivers. against.. + ñar. edin: earthenware vat for oil and fats. to drink beer.3. 'plowland'. 'time'. inheritance. 'to be born') . same signs (ZAG. spine (éd.GI]: 22] . emma. endub. 'kidneys'. eñer: prep. 'to fracture. ereç ?[NIN]: ereš5[GAL-AN-ZU]: erib: daughter-in-law. Akk. ellañ [LAGAB]: éllañ: kidneys. steppe. + úr. n. root'. 'enigmatic background' + sig7. farmer (en. + kuš. ímmin. enku: fishing overseer (en. Sumerian Lexicon. intelligent. emmen. 'time'. 'of'). cultivate"). winter (en. 'straw') [EDIN archaic frequency: 5]. egir2. engar: irrigator. a number word. afterwards. 'to send forth'. ñiš enkara: a weapon. 'mammy'. + agar. ímmen. ereš. 'lord'. ímma: ensi(3): frequency: 8]. émmen. lady. edin.3. tax assessment official. 'cold'. + mun. 'lord. future. driving stick ?. nísañ. summer. bow ?. + gaz. to complete' ?) [ENSI archaic city ruler (Old Sumerian). 'field'. dream interpreter (en.EN. enmen. + ten. behind. n.. énsi(-k): enten(a): + genitive. imma: énmen.4): bladder (éllañ. guardian deity of the foundations [ENKUM archaic frequency: 14]. shake') [ENDIB archaic frequency: 6]. + in. iñar: eñir. elamkuš(2. 'to move in a circle. immen. + nañ. manager'. back.edimx. eñar. slaughter') [ENGIZ archaic frequency: engur: subsoil water. + ku6/kua. plain. 'to dwell. cf. 'governor') [ENSI 2 archaic frequency: 1]. hoop or wooden ball ?. stern (of a ship). 'to drink'. end. + dub. + tud/dú.. on. 'to deposit'/ ñar8.0 54 . back. 'lord'. adv. 'skin'). + a(k).

erim). evil. ebony. erum2.3. ingenious. high. hostile. Version 3. 'illness. gamun: cumin. diorite. 'rope'. ešsad: fisherman (éše. fine. solid. soldier. ezem: sign variants] .4. jumping rope (éše. artistic. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . sink'. 'first. mash tun. 'seed. zeþ) [? EŠGAR archaic frequency: 12]. ezinu: grain. 'to kneel'. 'both.. halter. gana4: (cf.5: (ñiš šim) treasury. concatenation of 3 ezen. Sumerian Lexicon. É. ganam4. erim3. treasures. ésañ[ÑÁ׊E].. climb.ŠE. injury').. folk [ERIM archaic n. olivine-gabbro. concatenation of 3 sign variants] .0 55 . érin. 'house. storehouse. (na4) esig. 'nose. (cf. tall. gamar: to be overwhelming (gam. to wail (gù.ÞA) as enku). army. muzzle'). esir(2): kuš crude bitumen (usu. gang of workers. prime').. man. the deity Ašnan [EZINU archaic frequency: 24. feast (uzu. clever. prime').SAÑ]: temple'.erim. to ascend. cedar. ešgiri: eštubku6: ezem: nose rope. two') . + en. festival.. 'rope'. strong. same signs (ZAG. destruction [ERIM 2 archaic frequency: 20]. offspring'. clay brewing-vessel. 'cut of meat'. jump rope. 'strength' or esi. (cf. people.. complicated. + mer. + kìri. + gig. to anoint with cedar-oil [ERIN archaic frequency: 105]. eru2. 'first. shoe. troops.. galam: n. play. esañx[É׊E. 'to exclaim'. + sud. granary. eren: érin. èsir: ešda: èšda: ešemen(2. 'to immerse. enemy. erin7. + men. 'liquid secretion'). v. esi: good. + ir(2).. adj. 'rope'. + sañ. rín: balance scale (cf. bridle.3: slavegirl.3): ešgar: (cf. sandal. stairs. erin. gagig: to lament. éren: érim. esañ: heir son (a/e4. É. celebration (éše. cereal. 'time') [EZEN archaic frequency: 114. 'strong'. rim(3): adj.. šita ). eškiri. u8). us5. caraway seed. storeroom (é. gagar [KI]: gakkul: area. servant. (cf. šíta ). + sañ... elaborate. frequency: 175. ezen ). 'violent storm'). a river carp: binnî.

roll') [PU 2 archaic frequency: n. linen-clothed priest who cares for and feeds the gods. cf. spouse (nitaþ. ga-an. nit(a)lam(2. to cross plow. gúda: divinely anointed. gudug. pole. gitlam(2. renewal. ga-ša-an) (Emesal dialect word. gidim6. destroyed. gáraš. bow. decision. gàrašsar: garaš3. 'luxuriance'). stake. + dìm.. gurun).5): shock. lover. coach (reduplicated gur4/gir8. gurun). gazimbi.. kungal ).. catastrophe. karadin(4. gi16: 'abundance') [GIL archaic frequency: 1]. girim. wagon. gir8: piece of clay. queen (cf.. 'to turn... to be corrupted. + imi/im. 'sickness demon'. to cross. karaš: military encampment. (cf. first husband. gudu4. 'to be sick'. + lam. price equivalent. honeymooner.zír). office holder. + lam. the netherworld (cf. murder'). bar. giriš: butterfly. 'to wreck. divide'. 'clay'. gašam: craftsman. + ul. pile of sheaves (on a harvested field) (guru7. to detach a piece of clay. gazibu: gibil(4): frequency: 77].4). gírin: (cf.3. 'to constrict') .4: leek(s). + dím. ganba: marketplace. gúdibir: war (gud(2). garaš: straw. 'to purify. + tun(3). in which nin becomes šan). 'to make').7): ñiš spirit. chariot. cleanse'. to renovate (gúb. gigir(2): 37] . garadin(4.ganam6. wisdom. gidim(2. to creep or glide on the ground (gur5. 'to shine') [GIBIL archaic gíbil: to burn. fresh. skilled person. darkened (gíg/gi6. gilim-(b). to fence off. + bir. adj. artisan. tangled. dancer. or gi6. reed bundle. oracle. gašan: lady.3. + bil. darkness. beam. 'male.. wheel(s). 'grain heap'. burning (gu7. bride crown (gi. 'black'. gaššu: intelligent. 'to consume'. ghost (gig. 'black'.GAL]: Sumerian Lexicon. 'reeds'. a ritually pure. to go across. new. to mess up. job. 'warrior'. work.0 56 .4): man'. 'to approach') . opaque. gili. girin. gana6 [DARA4]: ganzer(2.3): ewe. gazinbu. supply master. 'to burn').4. Version 3. gidi6: eclipsed. v. mistress. to twist. gukkal [KUN.5). + dim4. gìrim.. 'to separate. gil. to be twisted. to bend. gukin(2): entire inhabited world. to lie athwart. moth.

concatenation of 5 sign variants] . ñirza[PA. cf. cf. to be bent. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . laborer (human sledge). relieved of (gur10. ñalga. ñasisx: darkness. gigir]. 'wooden tool'. gurin. to trim away. gírin: rin) (gúr. granary (ñar. duties. 'high'. to fell trees. wise one. + ñìš/uš. ñárza. pond (cf. consideration (loan from Akkadian milkum. gurdub: gurud(2): reed basket. lúša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba).. stove. 'sphere'..0 57 . strip.DIÑIR]: or ñar.LUGAL]: ñešbu.. 'to stand upon') [? GURUŠ archaic frequency: 68. + zu. 'great') [GANUN archaic frequency: 3]. gi- guruš. grappling hook for a wrestler (ñiš. to determine' ?). guruš3. to circumcise (?). ñeštug(2. ñéš×u in compound section). hearing.ñá. ñeš'u: (cf. gúrum: inspection.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + tar. to be parted. to hear.. gurum[GAM]: v.3). incise. 'penis'). berry.. 'tool'.DIM4]: fist(s). custom(s). ñadub: tablet container (ñar.'stranger. 'to store'. guzza: throne. ñeštu(2. gìrim. ear(s).3. kurun). counsel. arched beam. appearance' office. storehouse. wine') [GEŠTIN archaic frequency: 42. ñéšpu[ŠU. ñarim: pool. kurušda ).. Sumerian Lexicon. chief') [GALGA archaic frequency: 16. 'tool'. + bu(6). a measure of fish. gurun. 'storeroom'. ñagia: cloister. 'to know') . 'clay tablets'.ñá. pile. to subdue. to cut. 'clay. boomerang.. kur5: gurušda: (cf. + imi/im. reed basket.. malga: advice. grape juice. the netherworld. flower (cf. Orel & Stolbova #1791 *mulak-/*mulik.4. intelligence (ñiš. + an. mud'). 'wheels' [cf. 'to receive') [GEŠTUG archaic frequency: 108. ñiš2. to understand. ñarza. bunch of grapes (ñiš. dagrim) (ñar. ñárzu. divine or royal orders (ñar.. + tuku/tug. girin. ñešba. 'form. draw'). + nun. rite(s). gur5. ñeš2. n. Version 3. eclipse. 'storeroom'. ñéšbu. + dub. ñarzu[PA. bending. young man (gúr. 'to deliver'. reflection. ñansis. cf. to throw. to notch.3)[PI]: v. ñanun: barn. 'sickle'.4. wine. fruit. guru5. vine. throw-stick. 'life. clip (a part of the body). ñuruš: sledge (archaic pictogram). n. 'tree'. girim. ñešpa[ÑIŠ-ŠUB]: pull. adult workman. heap. + uš. chair.3: ñeštin: sixty (ñiš. understanding. + tin. 'to ñešta. rules. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . 'to cut.gunni: kiln..

'to seek refuge') . mad. 'wooden thing'. to be terrified. cavern (þab. 'wood'. cesspit. þuluþ: to tremble. trunk of a date palm tree (cf. þirin. omen (ñiš. pit. heir. tool'. 'river'.KISIM5]: carob. guruš). staff. concatenation of 5 sign variants] . apricot (?) (þaš. ñizkim: ñissu. rudder (ñiš. (now read as kù-sig 17). + in. frost. sphere') (green) reed shoots. 'message') . + zal. distinguished. freezing. a weed grass (þe. + gal. + buru14/bur14. ñidri[PA]: stick. (gi) þenbur(2): 'harvest') . considerable. 'perfume'. raging. the Tigris was a faster-moving river than the Euphrates. þubur: netherworld (þab. to dive. "the river that goes".3): (ñiš) þarub[DAG. 'wooden tool'. þilib: netherworld (possible foreign loanword). successor. intelligence (ñiš. 'to stink'. underground water. tarib(t)um]). 'hole'). ñiš ñišimmar: date palm. imported from India. ñušur: rafter beam (ñiš. hole. 'tool. 'tool'. + gurun. 'fruit. + nominative a. stink'. ñiskim. 'he carries it'). it was less likely to overflow because.ñiš ñidru. þalbi(2. (cultic) feast. scepter. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . ibila: son. founder (reduplicated ñiri5.0 58 . shade (ñiš. ñizzal: ñuškin: þabrud: attention.. idim: n. izkim. ñuruš: (cf. 'to go'. stick used to measure the height of a pile of grain (ñiš. iskim. spring. + su. appear') . it did not built up its bed as high) [? IDIGNA archaic frequency: 25]. 'roof. and used in perfumes. ñiñri(2): ñiš ñisal: oar. 'low end. þalba(2. þašþur: apple (?). 'to sprout. base' where stick was thrust to the base of a grain pile. 'to break off (twigs or branches)'. agent'. adj. 'wood. duru6 reading of PA and še ñiš-è-a).. 'impersonal verbal conjugation prefix' . station (ñiš.. + sal. sign. [ÞAŠÞUR archaic frequency: 101]. throne. wild. to sink. 'big.. 'substitute'[Akk.'to pass time') [? GIZZAL archaic frequency: 1]. infant. þirim: the root stalks of the spikenard. Sumerian Lexicon. + in. þenzer: weakling. to terrify.gúr. inheritance (íb (subj. + ir.MI]: ñišbun: ñišgal: ñiš shadow. great') [GIŠGAL archaic frequency: 9]. 'abundant'. + kíñ. base') .. stalks (þe. 'thin. chair. + úr.'tool'. beam'). + mú. weight. wide') [GISAL archaic frequency: 3. idigna: the Tigris river (ída/íd. 'river'. not depositing as much silt. cave. nimbar) [GIŠIMMAR archaic frequency: 55. 'abundant'.3). 'discrete individuals'. 'straw'). + ñin. Version 3. cripple. ñiškim. + bùru(-d). + ùr. + dúru. ñizzu[ÑIŠ. 'to rot. prefix) + íla. mass (ída. 'root. cf. signal. + ì.

strong.ígira: heron (igi.3): immal(2): seven. 'earth. + ra. totality. gift') . iskim: (cf. + nu. ímmen. imma: (cf. itu. to shine'. decree. 'to tie together'. itima..3): a species of poplar tree (íl.id4: moon. + ninda. kapar[PA. gift. 'to strike'). izkim: (cf.. išib: n. im-ma-al ). + bar. isiš2. bribe (kad4. itid. ildum(2/3). place'. immin. uncultivated land (ki. long. moonlight (te. itim. offspring. 'to grow') .. énmen). 'five'. enmen). + discrete individual'. + si. chapel. nation [KALAM archaic frequency: 91. 'gate'.3. illuru. 'to make').3: mú. imñaña(2. order. throw-stick. + kal[-l]. it4. kabar). imþur[IGI. bow. kankal: hard soil. kalam: the land (of Sumer). baking oven (imi/im. statement. 'to approach. 'straight. concern. moaning. variants] . + min. 'not'.KISIM5×GAG]: kadra(2): kalag.DAG. immen. narrow'. descendant (i. + limmu. clean. ímma: (cf. lustrations and purification. id8. ñiskim).3): imin(2. cella. matter. valuable'). 'clay'. concatenates 6 sign variants] . 'speech') . 'four').. swift [GURUŠ+2-N14 (wagon pictogram) archaic frequency: 7. 'present. oath. 'one shoot. adj. kapar: (cf. ñiš ildag(2. concatenation of 3 sign variants] . + aka/ag. subject (in. 'brilliant'). 'excellent'. kala. Sumerian Lexicon. month. v.. itud. 'sun') . išin [PA-ŠE]: stalk..3).A]: foam. immindu: inim: roasting. 'to be high.. all (ía/í. kabar. + ru.0 59 . 'to lift'. + ru. 'excellent. Version 3. command. javelin. mend (kal. ñiskim). iti. arc (íla. to repair.. anointed. ildu(2/3): crowd [ILDUM archaic frequency: 5. affair. 'two'). illulu. 'to send') . kal: shepherd boy (ká. agreement. idi: meet'. 'the eye'.. + dág. incantations. priest who performs exorcisms. 'five'. isimu2. illar: husked (?) emmer wheat. to laugh. ilduma(2. to weep. adj. 'to open') .. ímmin. + eme.. isim2.3: n.. sprout. laughter. word. v. 'bread'). innumerable. + ud. milk cow (cf. concatenation of 2 sign ilimmu: ñiš nine (ía/í. 'sprout'.

v. to fasten. + kalag/kal. milling. 'to order'. smelly cheese [KISIM archaic frequency: 67. 'place'. kišib7.. for milling women (reduplicated kín. ki-sug8). kešdr?. Sumerian Lexicon. concatenates 5 ? sign variants] . seal. kisal: courtyard. 'to travel fast'. 'spacious') [KISAL archaic frequency: 145 ?. hand. wrap. kešda. 'high'. cf. great') [KINGAL archaic frequency: 39].UD]: kissa: supporting wall. knot. sealed bulla. tie. to join. director (kíñ. inhibition (ki.. taboo. mouse. to bind. kišib. n. commander.. pen.5: milk-processing wasters. cheese maggot. weight measure (ki. gilili: kinda: barber. kindling. 'hand mill'). kislaþ(2)[KI.ÞAR]: kìlib. 'to sniff'). star(s).5. sweet beer (kaš. 'beer'. fist. + sal. totality. kiši5. stable. gílim. emmer wheat for making beer. 'place'.. to seal.. 'swift') [KASKAL small beer. road.kaskal: kašbir: expedition. kisim(3. 'receptacle'). caravan. kéš. bird's nest or perch (ki. n. kikkin [ÞAR]: mortar. bundle. + luþ/làþ. kiši7.10: kišib(3): v. kéš-(d): archaic frequency: 6]. kìli: kinbur: kilib[LAGAB]: package. to harness.6.0 60 . ñiš kešda: kíbir: weir.. rodents or other very small mammals.8. 'task'. + šita4. 'place'. concatenates 3 sign variants] . empty lot. journey (kaš4/kas4. 'to sweep clean'. kindax[LAK-419]: a type of vessel for measuring barley or holding water.3. + an. kíbir: firewood. mill house. spoiled milk. kilim. to bind') . 'to snatch. Version 3. + bùru/bùr.9: ant. 'to bind') [KEŠ 2 archaic frequency: 35]. threshing floor (ki. + gal. 'place'. + sílig. to snatch. kindañal(2): kingal: kiraši: overseer of a group of (five) slaves. five-sixths (5/6) (kíñ. kínda[URI]. 'hand [of five fingers]').7): kisim(4): kisim2. receipt (cf.8. adj. kingusili: greater part. 'big. + bír. kíkkin [ÞAR. ñiš na4 pitchfork.9. group of (wild) animals.

+ ùru(-m). 'abundance'. fat-tailed sheep (kun. traditional.ñiš kišik(2). kúnga[BAR. fattener (of cattle). mule. concatenation of 4 sign variants] . ancient. 'place'. old.. reject. v. kurun(2. laþta: a washing vessel (luþ/làþ. gurun ). 'to build'. stock-breeder (kuruš. libir: n. liru. + dim4. ŠÚ. 'tail'. grapevine. kurušda. kiša(2)... kúkku [MI. + níñ. to abandon (ki.ÑÍR]: concatenates 3 sign variants] .IGI]: liliz: a drum. kurum7. piece'. family (Akk. laþtanx. kúnin: kurku(2): kurum6.MI]: dark. abundance (reduplicated kur9. kuruš.. 'youthful freshness'. spy (ki. kušum: to scorn. to surround' ?) [GURUŠDA archaic frequency: 61].. 'solitary'). n. 'to become clean') . kuš6.AN. fat. kur6: refined asphalt. kuru7. libiš. 'big') [GUKKAL archaic frequency: kuniñx. + gub. 'to shrivel up') . concatenates 2 sign variants] . lilib[IGI. a high ranking cultic functionary. 'to beg'). libbu 'heart'). 'assets') . lipiš: courage. plump. 'to deliver'). kunga[ŠÚ. kilib) (lag. slab (of stone). physical strength. kuruça ?: sweet fodder (for fattening cattle). kur7: v.AN]: kungal. + tán. worn (la. heart. onager. + da(5).ÞÚL]: 36. fat'. kušu[U. kukkuš.. Version 3. a thorny bush [? KIŠIK archaic frequency: 21.. lirum. 'clod. 'to watch. bitumen (ku. n.0 61 . 'sweet. honey (cf. lagab: block. + bír.PIRIÑ]: herd of cattle or sheep. lookout.. liri: Sumerian Lexicon. kiši16/17[Ú. used. to last long. 'to stand') [LAGAB archaic frequency: 84. 'side. 'to wash'. kurušda). concatenates 4 sign variants] . + gal. or grape cluster (cf.3): sweet red wine. lagar: temple servant who pronounces invocations to the god [LAGAR archaic frequency: 51. ku7: sweet.ÞÚB]: laþtan(2): (divine) vizier. lidim: to receive (in charity) (la. bounty. gurušda. kukkuç ? [IŠ]: a type of flour. donkey. share(s). to live long.MUL]. a basket of food-rations. guard') . + ušum. gukkal [LU. lagarx[SAL. to watch. wine grape. to steal. trunk (of tree) (cf. lillan: stalk with ripe ear of grain. hurt. kušumx. 'place'. anger. beer vat [LAÞTAN 2 archaic frequency: 7]. old age [LIBIR archaic frequency: 1].. core. adj.

sheriff. luþummu[ÑIŠ-MI]: mud (cf. 'woman'. short person (lú. + dím. support (?). 'neck'). 'work'). guard' or úrum. lu-þu-um). múru: neck. lugud. múdru: fuller. apply') [? DARA3 archaic frequency: 11. fresh').8: murub(2): murub4. pelt. central. 'to divide. back. mitum(2): mace (the weapon). battle (mur10. stake (mud. 'moist. mašda: drawing. 'to inspect'. loins'. murum5.ŠEŠ. commissioner (máš.. in-between terrain. + gud8. 'big') [LUGAL archaic frequency: 80]. 'woman'. nun. nunuz. barber ('it falls down oneself') [? MUNŠUB archaic frequency: 3. máš-lulim) (Akkadian loanword). destitute. ridge (mur. median area. mezem [ÚMBISAG]: maintenance. hair. master (lú. 'egg') (cf. + gag. 'to dress oneself'. + nuz/nus. 'to scrutinize'. 'short'). concatenation of 4 sign variants] . monitor. baker. + gú.adj. lumgi(2. hart (male of the red deer. lúgud: short. 'to watch.5. hide. mudla. launderer (mur10/mu4. + lal/lá. mudul: muþaldim [MU]: mùnsub: munšub(2): shepherd. + kúr. cf. create') . woman (this pronunciation found in absolute inflection. mušen: bird (muš. 'hostile'). portion'. and etymology of nitaþ). 'great'. error' + éd. muru3. shoulders. munus[SAL]. serous fluid (lúñ. inspector.AN. itimurub4).? + kuš7. 'partner'. nail'. hairy skin. courtesan (?) (lú. urum: brother-in-law (mí. + þal. 'fault. + íb. 'middle. lunga(2. cf. interval. megida(2). luñud(?): pus. middu(2). murgu(2). palm fiber. cf. 'person'..3)).. clamor (maþ. ú munzur[KI. 'sky') [MUŠEN archaic frequency: 178]. mašda(2): maškim: commoner. grind'. vulva. concatenates 2 sign variants] . mí/mu10. powerful. wailing. 'to fashion. Version 3. + a(k). + kíñ. pole. 'to make. Sumerian Lexicon.. 'devastation') .3): makkaš(2): mangaga: (cf. bast (man. 'man'. 'peg. 'a right-angled tool'. + an. lukur: chaste priestess. 'to emerge'). + duru5.3). owner. middle. cook (mù. gazelle (máš.. 'relatives'). 'to clothe oneself'.0 62 . strong. 'reptile'. hips. lú ningi(2. waist. mí ) (mí. + ùru(-m). woman. nunus[Emesal]: female. 'grown man'. mur7. + gal. 'to hang') . 'to mill. murgu: dung (sheep). 'lungs'. lugal: king. sexual charm [MURUB 2 archaic frequency: 4].11. + dù...KI]: bitter plants. megidda(2): sow (female pig). madlu. 'genitive'). lulim: stag.

to pen up cattle. 'destiny' or just reduplicated nam). nindan. 'valuables'. inda. true. to make the rounds (usually níñin[LAGAB] for hamtu form and niñin or ni 10ni10[LAGAB.. 'to be satiated. to surround. wood-chisel. flower. 'to give') . 'fear'. 'two'). food (níñ.ne4. naña: niñir(2). nimurx[PIRIÑ. 'stone'. monstrosity. lùm. 'to store') . hopper or seeding apparatus of the seeder plow. bushel. niñar[NI9. + ñin. middatu. dizziness.3). + nam. one side of a sar/šar . province. nañar: adze. nidba(2): lú ningi(2.TUR]: leopard. niñin(2. bailiff (probable conflation of separate words: mí. premature or stillborn child.. + bar.'premature birth'. nin5: forty (niš. brewer (nañ. 'twenty'.. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . thirst. mindatu. nimen(3.. 'token.5). to halt. namešda[ŠITA. carpenter.3): 'a small pot').. ni-gi-da . nìñin. nimgir(2): nimin. mindatu. panther (from Akk.7. nimur[KI. to circle. + ñar.bur. 'to be high'. nidba(2): nigida[PI]: deliver'). district. v.. pure-bred breeding bull.'to deliver') [NIMGIR archaic frequency: 62]. potash. to assemble. pewter (níñ.ÑAR]: a dark room. (cf.NÁM]: top warrior. tube. + ñar. 'to measure') [NINDA 2 archaic frequency: 20].'woman' and nim. 'food'. night watchman. honest. ancestors (from Akk. ninda: a length measure. reliable. adj. town crier. 'valuable thing'. 'the power of the mace'). nínda. fish roe.NE]: kiln. food offering (ninda. miñir(2): a bride's male attendant. premature or monstrous fetus (ni9. d nanna: the moon as a god [NANNA archaic frequency: 49. lum. capacity.ñá. ni9: niñin5. counter'. 'to release. bakery good.bariga ). + min. herald. full'.LAGAB] for marû form) (ní. enclosure. niñir (2)). + ñar. to turn round. rod = 12 cubits (kùš) = 6 meters. kilib and gur 4-gur 4) [NIGIN archaic frequency: 11].9. turn away. nañña. Version 3.3): vertigo (as a disease)..0 63 . 'to slice') [GAR archaic frequency: 409].'morning'.. whole (cf. king (lit.NA]: tin.'to niñin(2): n. 'to drink'. lunga(2. ninda: bread. true measure (na4. niññi [AN. índa: nindaba(2). 'garden plot' square measure (from Akk. to wander about. concatenation of 2 sign variants] ..ÑIŠ. 'to measure') . + ñír. nimru(m) I).3). milt. nanam: n. lumgi(2. faintness. ñiš nimbar: date-palm (nim. middatu. malformed child. craftsman (na4.muššagana: voracious hunger. (cf. funnel.8. + dar. circle.4. (cf. nindaba) . decent. 'to go'). Sumerian Lexicon. + ba. 'knife') [NAGAR archaic frequency: 168. meal').

+ þara. nuñunx. inda4: oven. 'to cross over'. spring time (month). 'head'. ú aški) [NUMUN2 archaic frequency: 2].SIG7. concatenation of 2 sign variants. 'red-brown'..PAB. 'head'. 'thing'. 'to store') [SANGA archaic frequency: 530. blue. + dul. niñunx: v. headdress (sañ. protect') .. 'men'). šab. nindu. earth.. + sañ. + sañ. concatenates 2 sign variants] . concatenation of 5 sign variants] . 'to open') . sad2. 'first') [NISAG 2 archaic frequency: 94. rubbish. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . + sig7. saþab(2). nundum. shock troops. 'lip'). numun. nesañ(2): first fruits (offering). 'head'. sit'). cornfield. light (bar6/7. dough. 'self. sab [PA. sand. nissa: n.. single (sañ.. saþar: silt.UBARA]: temple treasurer. ÑÁ×BAD. puzur: (cf. ÑÁ×SIG7 ]. 'to shine'.IB]: hips. loam. foremost. 'head'). 'valuables'.ñá.4).'to multiply') [GIŠ 3 archaic frequency: 16. mud. wine cellar ?. santak(2. nisañ(2).'self'. dust. palil(2): piriñ(3): advance troops. frame (bad/be. to produce. nunus: egg(s). (open) basket. 'green. beautiful. governor (ní. chest. concatenation of 5 sign variants] .. ninkum[NIN.ME.4): a sprinkler. cap. offspring. + tag. yellow'). kuš7) (sa5. pisañ(2/3). sañña(2.NUN.. offspring.0 64 . sowing.. píriñ: bright. greens. speckles') [NUMUN archaic frequency: 22]. suþub3. headdress (sañ. + lú. 'thing') [PIRIG archaic frequency: 103. nisi. vigor'. 'egg') [NUNUZ archaic frequency: 134. progeny (níñ. bar-rim4). + šúš/šú. nita(2): wife.4: bar. seed. headdress (sañ. 'head'. nitadam. middle (su. concatenates 3 sign variants] . sañšu: helmet. pulverized').3. + ñar. 'to open'.3. sañtušx[U+SAÑ]: hat. 'dots. box.4): ñiš triangle. númun: a type of grass (halfâ'). rushes (cf.. sañdulx[U+SAÑ]: hat. stove (cf. leader (bala. economic director of a temple or occupation (such as all the smiths) (sañ. 'body'. guardian deity of the foundations [NINKUM archaic frequency: 11]. green. vegetables (níñ. male. buniñ x).3). UŠ archaic frequency: 101. loins. (written) wedge. adj. 'head'. sabad(2. + tuš.3. + níñ. sediment (cf. nunuz. nitalam: nitaþ(2).ninindu. Version 3. lion (poetic). nisig. 'to cover') [SAGŠU archaic frequency: 14]. bolt (of a door). dry land (as opposed to marsh land or water) (cf. parim: arid land. (ú) n.3.. man. sañtag. + gùn. manly (ní. sanña(2.4 [ÑÁ×U. buzur). immindu). female (reduplicated nuz. + taþ. pisan(2/3): puniñx: (cf. used for ritual cleaning. + bad. 'crushed. nundun: lip (reduplicated tùn. 'to cover. 'to reside. Sumerian Lexicon. 'to hold') .

smith (si4. + tin. pure. v. scalp. 'chills' and šeñ6. horticulturist. + ul. 'to weep'.0 65 . rot. suku5. 'abundant'. to pray.. šum4[BAD]: v. leash. 'beard'. sidug: ravine. saman(2... cf.. sil5. 'to bring.3): sanña(2. silim[DI]: to be/make in good shape.3: sipar: (cf. silig3. 'body'. + bar. or pàd. sumun. something rotten. sacrifice with entreaties. also. 'to be hot') [ŠANDANA archaic frequency: 3. root means 'peace' in 18 of 21 Semitic languages. simug: metal-sculptor. + bad. 'body'. to slay. sub2.4: sin.. šeñ4. prayers. tend (si. 'to shine'. but Sumerians used word in greeting and root not in Orel & Stolbova's Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary.. 'vessel'). date orchard administrator (sañ. šuba. v.. šilig).. Version 3. 'foreign'). tree top. to ruin..3. trap (si. to pasture. or rope (for an ox).. 'sweet smelling grass') . subar: slave. sun. pitfall. 'to keep in order'. 'pleasure. sig7. shepherd. (cf. 'head. suþur: n. 'time'.3). + en(2. 'to be straight. old. to decay. 'to let out'. 'to grow luxuriantly'). virginal. 'to engrave') [SIMUG archaic frequency: 13].. + ñin. to make beautiful') [SIKIL archaic frequency: 7]. Northerner (su. 'to create. to sacrifice (isiš2. + þirin. + kur9. zabar). Sumerian Lexicon. the past (su.. crest (su6. pure (siki. sipad. silañ. barbel. to be/make clean.4): yoke.. adj. 'to cure'. sílig: hand. pit. ancient. complete (usually considered Akk. n. concatenation of 2 sign variants] . silig: (cf. 'to go') [? ZATU-644 archaic frequency: 65. cf. 'to shine brightly'. to scratch. suþurku6: giant carp. šandana. sipa.dug sáþar [SAR]: clay pot. d suena. 'red'. human'. to make an incision. loanword. 'roof'. rites. cf. + ùr.3. clean. dsuen[EN.. 'knowledge'. offering. adj. 'hair' ?. n. suñin. to trim or comb the hair. 'threshing floor'. sizkur(2): n. cf. + dug. decay. santana. hair. joy'.ZU]: the moon (sú. deliver'). siskur(2). herbalist.. sibad. 'to find').. + -/ak/. suþuš) [SUÞUR archaic frequency: 239]. sañña ). šandan: concatenates 2 sign variants] . 'of'). healthy. narrow'. v. + mug. sila11: to knead (dough or clay). keeper [SIPA archaic frequency: 4]. + þe.. fresh. suþirin[SU7. sikil: v. + lum.SUM]: the threshing floor with the piles of grain and straw (su7.

+ kalag/kal. su(11)-lum. container'. zugud: n.. šandana: šaran. šakir(2): henbane. ú šakira(2). 'steady. 'cow'). 'cow' + /ak/. churn. to be enraged (against someone: -da -). a priest.comptroller (šu. šakan: a large jar for oil. sty') .šamru . zú.. god of wild creatures (šag4/šà. depth (su. shine brightly (cf. surim: (cf. sumur. 'guts'. to flash. adj. šaggin. susbu: clean. also. 'strong. súr: n. bathed.. fierceness (Akkadian loanword . šakar: milk jug (šag4/šà. military governor (šag4.. + in. šakir(3): butter tub.. + gi-na. + kir. šarin: tick. minister. 'body'.4. swift') [SUKKAL archaic frequency: 130]. mole. 'body'. to be/make high. height. sukkal: messenger... concatenates 2 sign variants] . wild') [ŠUR2 archaic frequency: 17. furious.suþuš: roots. + uš. enraged. . commissioner (šab. šapra [PA. vizier (su. reliable') [? šañar: hunger (cf. sulummar[KI. 'flesh'. high. sukud. pitcher (šag4/šà. santana ). fierce.kud/ku5). container'...SAÑ. 'stomach. + gan.AL]: [ŠABRA archaic frequency: 1]. (cf. support (su4. to lift.5): sumun: (cf. distribute. + mug. + ru.. genitive) [ŠAKIRA 3 archaic frequency: 56. šaggina). envoy. 'to engrave. concatenates 3 sign variants] . šákan: official in charge of expenditures . + kir. šardiš. šà-ñar). foundation. 'to gather up'.mar). šarñeš[ŠÁR×DIŠ]. cf. bedbug (šár. 'stomach. v. 'straw').5). 'fierce. súkud.. + gan.. v.4.. suþur). stubborn. 'to bring forth'. 'long') [SUKUD archaic frequency: 15]. samag(3. multiply'. 'to be numerous'. 'to support'. 'stomach. temple administrator. surin).DU]: sumug(3. dug šakira(3). suñin).. adj. representative. container'... Version 3. + þe. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. birthmark (su. šaggina. šagina: ŠAGINA archaic frequency: 1]. suku5: to measure. churning.0 66 '216000'. support. šabra.. 'to grow. 'to give') šagan. šakan: (cf. šúr. šargalx[ŠÁR×GAL]: šassuk[SAÑ-GÍN]: registrar of deeds. courier.. sumaš: a common marine fish [SUMAŠ archaic frequency: 3]. disgrace (cf. tall. 'portion'. 'abundant'. 'to bring forth') [? ŠAGAN archaic frequency: 55]. + gíd. šagan).

šenbar: ñiš a type of wild boar (?). 'foreign'). ñiš ñiš ñiš šilig and nam-šilig).5. + dúr. to trample. salve. 'dwelling'). suþub(2) [MUL] : v. cricket. šidi[GIM]: [ŠIDIM archaic frequency: 35]. sérim: a part of the loom . quince or medlar [ŠENNUR archaic frequency: 11. strong(cf. šubun: (cf. lance (šu. also such a staff used by a god or king as a scepter (sipad. šembi: kohl. šidim. šutug(2): a reed hut for purification rites. to bear') . dung. + kúr. extremely powerful. šidim). deprived person [ŠUBUR archaic frequency: 181]. i. 'to cover'. n. + gub. Sumerian Lexicon. 'boar'. slave. šiten: course of march. architect. šilam: milk-producing mother cow (šu. basket. silig(5): v.. ñiš šudun(2.. stop. luminous metal'). 'channel'.3.3. šitim: (cf.e. šerimsur: cocoon]') .. + un. adj. adj.4. 'enemy'). 'hand'. šennur: šerim(2). šubur: earth. to feed by grazing.. drip'. 'to cover'. mason (šid3. šerin.5. + dun(4). 'part of a weaving loom'. 'to bind'. Version 3. ñiš caterpillar cocoon (šerim. to step. 'rope'. ñiš (kuš) šuþub(2). + ùru. ñišbun). šitim. stove grill (šúš.5).. stable (šur. boots (šúš/šú. make') šikin2. ointment.either the harness or the heddle [TAG archaic frequency: 48 ?. 'warp yarns connecting opposite sides of a loom frame' and dul.0 67 . to lay aside one's work. sibir: n. concatenates 7 ? sign variants] .3: a jar for body oil.5: cockroach. a fruit tree. + lam. antimony (as makeup). + dím. 'to cover'. crooked. šilig(5).. 'abundance') . + bar.. 'to pour'. Mesopotamian fallow deer (?) (šeg9.4. šudug(2). to spin [a šibir. 'to stand') . šurin4. 'to build.5). 'shepherd'. + zar/sur8.4. concatenates 2 sign variants] . mud').šedur: caterpillar cocoon (éše. tamarisk. šilig: šinig: axe.. 'to cover') .. spear. šurun4. uštil: yoke. 'clay. slanted. crosspiece (šúš/šú. shepherd's staff ending in a curved end. šurim: animal excrement. gi šukur: fence. šušana: šušur(2): one third (part). urudu/ñiš šukur: šurun.. 'to exude. 'to flow. 'people'). ñiš šudul(2. passage (šìta. 'to lead. šuba. a crook. + imi/im. + re7. 'hot. to cease.

tibir(2. a weapon. protection. reed bundle. tukum. tukumbi: if. ubilla(2): ubur: soot (ú.108 describes how the peddler 'flays' or 'skins' the tiger ?. temen[TE]: perimeter. ugula [PA]: overseer. 'sheep'. 'understanding') . weapon. a figure on the ground made of ropes stretched between pegs. + ùru. fledgling. + lal/lá. ugnim: crowd. distinguished.bappir mixed with munu 4 and allowed to ferment (tìl/ti. tradesman (Proverb 3.10): herdsman (udu.UL]: lizard. foundation platform. 'liquid secretion'). troops. tibira: taltal: ñiš metalworker (tab. ibira: open hand of the customer) . 'cavity'. blow. leopard ? [? TIDNUM archaic frequency: 1].4. foreman (loan from Akkadian waklu where Christopher Ehret's 1995 Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic has *wax "to look at"). tukun: if. túkur[KA׊E]: to gnaw. tabira. female breast. at once. respectful (same sign as dilmun ). + tab.0 68 . nibble. taskarin[TÚG]: Akk.4. oven. a demonic being. box shrub or small tree (or its heavy. hard wood) (may be taškarin. + bil. wisdom (reduplicated tál. cloud. excavation (often written te-me-en) [TE archaic frequency: 199]. concatenates 4 sign udun[GIR4]: ugra: kiln (for pottery and bricks). loan). 'to burn'. 'to be deficient. + íla. carry'). 'to lift. high') . utug: údug. campaign. udug. palm. teat (ub4.šutum[GI. + lú. + ir(2). foundations. foundation-charter.5): hand.AB. thigh (túg. experience. release' ? 'the beggar's open palm') . Version 3. Sumerian Lexicon.6. midnum: tilþar: tilmun: titab(2): burn') . please. certainly (usually followed by hamtu verb form). workgang. 'plant'. tibir: carving knife. 'luminous object') . tešlug: small young animal. (ñiš) tukul: mace (thigh bone ?). ubara[EZEN×KASKAL]: patronage. in case. útug: variants] . 'to hold.3. 'to ki tugul: hip. knowledge.NA. light. clasp'. captain. 'man') [UDUL archaic frequency: 32. tidnum[UG-UG or ÚG-ÚG]. merchant. silence. udul/utul(3.5. in case. tíbira. 'life'. 'cloth garment'. army. strike ('life' + 'open. beer mash . pitfall.

'ten. 'people'. idea. unu(2): dwelling. Emesal dialect form of en . swamp.AB]: uraš[IB]: úrgu: earth.4. butcher (ug5. 'to hold. raw form or material. natural. application. living room. 'high'). mammy (umu/um. cheek. bear. 'plant'. nail impression (on a clay tablet). to beget. 'to kill'. knowledge. + maþ. wetnurse. unu6 [TEMEN. louse. any deadly cat' + n. concatenates 3 sign variants] . 'nurse'. úkuš: ulul(2): ulušin: úlutin: umaþ: cucumber. wheel (of a chariot. hair pin. jewelry.. 'to be impressed' + máš. chain (u. ùmmu[EDIN. binding.. úgunu. talon. fetch'. marsh. umbin: nail. 'individual human') . poverty.6. consideration. úrdu[ARAD×KUR]: ferocity. 'to decorate with colors' may be popular scribal etymology. harness. elevated shrine. ugu(4): n..LÁ]: title of respect.ÈŠ = TE. 'nail impression [on a tablet]'. temple.DAR/GÙN]: adorning speckles and lines. leash. the city of Uruk (ùña/un. rage (ur + gù. 'lion. progenitor. unkin-ñar-ra) [UKKIN archaic frequency: 108. Sumerian Lexicon.11: umuš. to be or become poor. 'door') [UNUG archaic frequency: 206. ointment. loincloth. ùnug. protect') .0 69 . v. v. úmun. + kíñ/kin. éme: umun: ùmun: ummud. unkin.. cf.. many'.5: n. 'cow'). úgun[GAŠAN]: lady. sanctuary. cf. mold. harness') . ug. reflection. (goatskin) water bag. ùgun. intelligence.. + lal. attention-getting. umun5. hoof. secret. 'barking dog') . ukum: úkur: dust (devil). uš4: (stagnant) pool.. emmer beer. unug(2). inlaid decoration (u. many'. umum: flea. swamp (u. + gùn. folkmoot (ùña/un. fortress. genetic. uku2. 'ten. + kir. a swamp plant. ruler. scholarship [UMUN 2 archaic frequency: 114]. ummeda(2). poor man. mistress. claw. concatenates 3 sign variants] . + sañ. (cf. inspect') . ukur3. 'to strap. 'people'. 'to seek. ukkin: communal assembly. adj. + da. 'to examine. Version 3..ugun[U. + ig. wagon) [UMBIN archaic frequency: 34. arad ). discernment. adornment. attractive. 'discrete point') . decision (u6. concatenates 4 sign variants] . umbisañ: kuš scribe (umbin.

za-ba-lum ) [? ZABALAM archaic frequency: 45. hole'). + zìg. cut'. 'luminous object'. ušum. usug: uzug2. pot.. tenth-part set aside (þà/u. breed ram. 'big').3.. composite creature (uš11. + tal. cast') [URUDU archaic frequency: 61. concatenates 2 (cf. urum. + gal. concatenates 3 sign variants] .3. zurzub(2)). cauldron (ú. 'to support'. + šár. Akk. solitary. monster of composite powers. níñ-ka 9). uruda. standard. person under a taboo (cf. woman isolated after birth. Version 3.7: (cf. ursub(2). powdered milk. cf. foreign') . 'cavity. adj. father') [UTUA archaic frequency: 74. concatenates 2 sign variants] . ùri[ŠEŠ]: eagle. 'large jug').4).. juniper (cf. 'sheep'. zi. ušu: n. banner. 'to expend. 'outside of') . sovereign. (cf. + ub4. + dù.. sky. 'wild ox'). blood [ŠEŠ ZATU-523 archaic frequency: 25. 'food'. solitary. + zag. + gal. ú-si4 an). 'to be many'). ušar(2.urim2. ušub[SI.A/DIRIG]: basket (uš. ušbar(3/7): (gi) (female) companion. barzil. metal (ùru. ú-sug 4) (úš. 'bronze' borrowed before vowel harmony changed Sumerian word.. uttuku: utua(2): utul: utul2. spawn. urud: copper. emblem. go out') . ušumgal: lord of all. 'to support.. + a. 'to pare.5: doorpost (cf. penis'. 'great') [UŠUMGAL archaic frequency: 21]. 'dragon'.. + ára/ár. 'plant'. dragon (ušum.4).. uzalak[GE22]: uzug. alone. ušera: reed bundle (ú. area measure. 'man. ušur(2. 'outside. 'to mould. = 1/4 of an iku (= 25 sar ). ùru(-m)) [URI5 archaic frequency: 21]. uzalag. 'semen. 'iron') [ZABAR archaic Sumerian Lexicon. 'ten'. uru6. urugal: the netherworld (uru. father-in-law. concatenates 3 sign variants] . lift'. white'. concatenates 2 sign variants] . kettle. zabalam: zabar[UD. urin. udul ). útu: dried. mother-in-law (ñìš/uš. + am. 'to praise') [UŠUR 3 archaic frequency: 3. + bar. breed bull (udu. siparrum. kin. uzug ). neighbor (uš. ur7: úrum. utaþ. urrub(2): (cf. 'blood'.3.. sign variants] .KA.5: (ñiš) tithe. whip. uri2.BAR]: frequency: 1]. + bar6.0 70 . menstruating woman. 'city'. urudu. 'bright. usar: ušbar: weaver. 'snake venom'. bronze (zil. zé. uru7: usan(2): ùsan: usug: relatives..4. fry..5. dragon. evening (cf.

make'). now ('now' + 'to be'). zanbur: zibin(2): prowling.. to pour out water. plural 'to stand'. water duty ('water' + 'near' + 'to stand' + nominative). zugud. 'blister'). bright... pare' ? . zubud: a kind of club. 'to suckle') . 'dry' asphalt (Akkadian loanword . (ŠU. luminous.. pupa. Version 3. aþ-du 11-ga )... to mourn'. chrysalis. 'to be dry. make').zadim: jeweler. the light before dawn. flow'. to irrigate. ursub(2). a-ab-ba: a-ba: a-aþ-du11-ga: a-ba-al: #2519). 'water'. to cleanse.tuš: a. fresh. + sub. 'to'. half.. 'to flay. 'to crush') . a container provided with teat-shaped protuberances a-a: father (reduplicated 'offspring') . zurzub(2).aka: a-da. Sumerian Lexicon.abaalu.BAD]: 'open hand' .. + a. caterpillar (zi. sukud). who (a. to flood ('water' + 'to pour'). zal: n. adj. a type of song (also written as a-tab. a-da-mìn. + kum. to illuminate. to live near the water ('water' + 'near' + 'to dwell (singular)'). do. from now on ('now' + 'from'). duty') . may be Orel & Stolbova drawing of water (a. urrub(2): (zur4. roaming. 'people').dug4/du11/e: to compete ('contest' + 'to speak. 'turn. + bun. (cf. abnormal growths on a fetus.approx. v. 'life'. brightness. za-dím) [ZADIM archaic frequency: 2]. distance measured by span of outstretched thumb and little finger) . purify (often reduplicated).ÑIŠGAL]: zipaþ. a fish (cf.BAD: zilulu[PA. peddler. early morning. also. zalag(2). a-bala: a-da-ab: a-da-al-ta: a-da gub-ba: a-da-mìn: a-da-lam.. + bi. to step on (súg. a-dar-túnku6: a fish ('water' + 'to slice' + 'to smash'). 'burning tears' ?). to compete (with someone: -da -) ('contest' + 'to do... vagabond (zil. 'to spout. to shine. 'the'). stone cutter (cf... pure. i-da-al-àm: a-da-mìn. gleam. zapaþ[ŠU. to walk on. (cf.dé: a-dé: contest ('when' + 'with' + 'an equal'). + bala. span = 1/2 cubit = 15 fingers = 25 cm. aba ). radiant. a length-measure.0 71 . light. zukum: to trample.. + lú-ùlu. foraging (said of animals). 'it'. zizna: fish roe.

a-gig: bitter tears ('water' + 'pain'). a-ga-mu-um: artificial pond .. and permanent or semi-permanent lake used as a reservoir to dispose of flood waters (prob.ñar/ñá-ñá: a-ñi6(-a): a-šè. a-ga-am... how! ('if. a flat area (measured in sar ) (cf. seed' + 'cake' ?). deliver') . fresh'). to go to fetch water ('water' + 'to the' + 'to go') . the metal. a-ga-aš-gi4: the most awkward one ('in back' + 'the one' + 'to send.. a-gáb: (cf. loanword). Sumerian Lexicon.. backside. a-ga-bi-šè: a-ga-zu-ta: afterwards ('after' + adverbial force suffix + 'towards')... a. after.a large. a-dùg: freshwater ('water' + 'sweet. to deposit. úgu ). when' + 'like'). eroded by the water ('water' + ergative agent marker + 'to consume' ( + nominative)) .a-dé-a: the yearly spring flood ('water' + 'to pour' + nominative). (cf. carry'). back room (cf. in that way. Version 3. ugu4-bi). a-gar5: -a-gin7: a-gúb-ba: kuš lead. a-ia10-lum: stag (Akkadian loanword). high tide..... ñarim ).. a-gal: overflow of flood waters ('waters' + 'big'). a-gàr: irrigated field ('water. A.ñin/gub: to irrigate.. a-ñá-ri-in: A-ñar: (cf.. as (= when) .. a-e... þu-ru(-um)). e5-ñar). reject'). Akk. eñir). inshore fisherman (?) ('water' + 'lowly student' + nominative). early flood ('water' + 'river carp').. a-kúm: hot water ('water' + 'hot').gur: a type of copper. to turn back ('back' + 'to return'). to be submerged ('water' + 'to store.gu7(-a): a-ñá-lá: holy water ('water' + 'to purify' + nominative).. back.EN-da-urudu: a-eštubku6: a-ga: a-ga. a-è-a: overflowing or breaks in levees ('water' + 'to emerge' + nominative). carry'). a-þur-rum: (cf.0 72 . a-ga-àm. marshy. a..íl: a-ka: to carry water ('water' + 'to lift.dug4/e: a-dun-a: to irrigate ('water' + 'to do'). flood ('water' + 'to be black' + nominative). a. leather sack (for flour) ('water' + 'to store' + 'to lift.. behind you ('back' + 'your' + 'from').

a-na-àm: thus. prayer.si: a-silim: way. a-ñi 6). a-nu-gi4-a: genitive)... a-pa4: funerary pipe (a clay pipe through which water and beer were poured into the grave) ('water' + 'small canal') .. a-lum: adjective for sheep. á-nu-gi 4-a ). to say a prayer [often introduces direct.'he. a-ri-a). a-nir: lamentation. often of joy. what (will/did) X do?. a-MI: a-na: (cf. mighty').ru: a-sa-ga: a. overflow.. tear out').. a. a-na me-a-bi: as many as they are. district. water of the first seeds = watering of seeds just planted ('water' + 'seeds' + 'first' + a numun-sañ-ñá: a-númun: reeds. 'to win fortune') .. all of it ('what there is of it'). what (a.a-la.?) ('what' + 'one'[ + 'to be']). exuberance ('tears' + 'happiness') .. desert. adjective for small cattle. a-ri-a. remove'). times (multiplication) ('where' + 'to go. a-sal-bar: architrave ('water' + 'to spread' + 'to distribute. rite ('tears' + 'to overflow' + 'to inform').. she'.'the').. waste land ('where' + remote demonstrative affix + nominative). a-maš: sheepfold (cf. road... rushes ('water' + 'grass. ú (cf. to dedicate. propitious water ('water' + sa6-ga. carry [plural]'. Sumerian Lexicon. cf. bursting of a dam ('water' + 'high. a-na-gin7-nam: a-ne: (cf.e: a-rá-bumušen: a. to give as a votive gift (with dative) ('water' + 'to send') . quoted speech in the texts]. a-ma-ru: destructive flood ('water' + 'to go' + 'to send'. how ('what' + 'like'[ + abstract process]) . potion ('water' + 'health'). + ni.aka: a-na-aš(-am): why? (why is it that .ra: a-ra-zu: a-rá: a-ra-zu. a-ru-a: to engender ('semen' + 'to pour into') .. rushes') .0 73 .... a-la-la: a-lu: exclamation... e-ne ).. overflow'). to be filled with water ('water' + 'to fill up'). dirge ('tears' + 'to raise high'). a-maþ: flood. duck ('water' + 'to go [plural]' + 'to pull. a-na-gim. cf.'to'. amaš). u 18-ru).. to ejaculate ('seminal fluid' + 'to strike..ri: a. Version 3. + a. why ('what' + enclitic copula). a-na-àm.

a-šà-(g): field. ('when' + 'away from').. break' + 'to do.'its'. to be at its high tide ('when' + 'on top' + bi. *hadar.. to mock ('water' + 'to cut. a-tùr. Version 3. hirelings ('wages' + 'to hire'). area ('seed' + 'womb'. spring flood ('water' + 'high'). the act of trimming the fields and levees of vegetation in preparation for drainage and irrigation ('fields' + 'to seize. carry'). a-še-ra: cool water ('water' + 'cool'). take away' + nominative)."darkness" ?). raceme ('arm.. to dam up water ('water' + 'piling up an earthen dam') . desire') .. high' + 'date fruit')..tu5: a-tu5-a: a.. to command.. nominalizer). a-tur-ra.. to play. brackish'). ally ('strength' + 'to add') . high water.. hollow (of the furrow) ? ('water' + 'birth-hut' for a plant seed ?. date clusters. wing' + 'sky. a-gàr..0 74 . instructions. azu). cf. + 'to be') . a-(IM)šèñ-ñá: a-šeš: bitter. to instruct (someone: -da -) ('strength' + 'to check') . + a. a-zu5. brackish water ('water' + 'bitter. levy ('wages' + 'spouse') . é-tùr: a-ù: related to Orel & Stolbova #1323. + a.búru: á-dab5: to open the wings ('wings' + 'to spread out') .tab: a. orders ('strength' + 'to check'.... a.tùm: to hold or block water ('water' + 'to hold'). a-su: physician (cf. rising waters ('water' + 'to rise up' + nominative). -a-ta: after . á-dam: settlement. rainwater ('water' + 'rain' + genitive).'coolness') . a-zu. á-daþ: help. a-šà-dib(-dib)-ba: a-ša4: a-šed12: (cf. what one needs ('strength' + 'to wish.nominative.. lamentation. at one-half its hire price ('wages' + 'its' + 'to divide' + 'to go' + 'from')..áñ: á-áñ-ñá: ñiš a-u5-ba.ñál: the father who begot one ('semen' + 'to procreate') . a-u4-te-na: a-ugu4[KU]: a úš-a: a-zi-ga: á. Sumerian Lexicon. bind. á-bi ba-ma-ta: á. ašag). a-tar..aka: to bathe ('water' + 'to wash'). á-še ). at the cool of the day ('when' + 'day' + ten... act') . to flow with water ('water' + 'to bring.. lustration ('water' + 'to wash' + nominative). á-an-zú-lum-ma: á-apin: á-áš: part of a seeder plow ('arm' + 'plow').

kuš á-mi: áme). components (of the plow).. á-suþ: elbow. á-šu-du7: á. á-lá: á-lá: ('arm' + 'to hang'). á-ní-za. Version 3. to fly towards) ('wings' + 'to á. (cf. calendar month 7 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3.aka: flap' + 'to do') . journey' + á-ki-ti: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III. wing' + 'bed'). to oppress.. restore' + nominative).... paralyzed arms ('arms' + 'to bind'). + a. á. irresistable ('strength' + 'not' + 'to answer. to take care ('strength' + 'to emerge'). á-dúb. á-šita4.. á-gú-zi-ga: á guruš-bi: á-ñe6-ba-a: á kaskal-la: genitive). plow extension ('arm' + 'strong').. caravan..è: to bring up. by means of the strength of ('strength' + instrumental suffix) ... migrant harvest workers ('arms.. month 6 at Drehem through year 3 of Šu-Sin. parts. return' + nominative). at night ('side' + 'dark' + 'to divide' + locative). early morning ('arms' + 'necks' + 'rising'.0 75 . Sumerian Lexicon. bar ('arm' + 'to relocate'). á-sur: a type of ax ('arm' + 'to divide').-ta: at the prompting of. á-še: attention-getting exclamation: 'hey now!'. ama (4. á-gi4-a: á. á-kúš-ù: á-lá: ñiš fettered legs. á-ná-da: bed chamber ('side. á.. á-si: whip ('arm' + 'antenna-like'). undiluted strength ('strength' + 'pure' + nominative).dúb: to be (supported) on your own ('wings' + 'self' + 'your' + 'to flap'). to prevail ('strength' + 'to be tired') . bolt. á-nu-gi4-a: kuš á-sàñ[PA]: disease.dúb. nominalizer). to resist. a device for moving irrigation water.. equipment ('arm' + 'to join'/'to complete').5). workmen's wages ('wages' + 'workers' + 'its'). work performance' + 'road. to act strongly.ñar: reimbursed wages ('wages' + 'to return. to reinforce ('strength' + 'to establish') .á. á-sikil(-la): pure. rear. Á-KAL: strength.dar: to confiscate ('wages' + 'to split') . to flap one's wings (with -šè and -ši -. á-gàr: embrace (?) ('arms' + 'something round and upraised') .... sickness demon ('strength' + 'to scatter') ..gur: á. involving a water bucket hanging from a swinging beam drum ('side' + 'to bind')..sud/sù: (urudu/zabar) to move [intransitive] (reduplication class) ('arm' + 'to stretch'). iti to bend the arm ('arm' + 'circular motion')..

a piece of tableware (?).gi4). ab-ba: father. (cf. in the evening ('side' + 'daylight' + 'to extinguish. á-u4-te-en: limb. ab-ba-uru: city elder ('elder' + 'city'). and containers. áb-úr: a piece of tableware (?). policeman.. reed weaver. phonetic writing of ablal (3). mother cow ('cow' + 'calf'). to give counsel.tál: á-tuku: á-úr: to have broad arms.. boats. ada). 'reed mat'). ad.á. ancestor (Akk. right' + 'with'). ab-ki-iz: ab-làl: ab-sín. ab-(ba): ñiš (cf. clean furrow. elder. violence ('arm' + 'good.. àga-rí(-na): aþ-du11-ga: spittle (of sorcery) ('spittle' + 'utterance'). extremities ('arms' + 'legs': Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). strength... cow in 3rd year of life that has calved ('cow' + 'calf'). attendant. rein(s) ('shout' + 'to hold. limbs. mixed').. wings' + 'to be broad. ad...ša4: ad-tab: aga(3)-ús: reed mat plaiter ('father' + kid. to sing ('song' + 'to mourn') . to be double') ....0 76 . ab-sín-gilim-ba/ma: crossing. companion.. ñiš-ab-ba(-k) ). ab-si-im-ma. ab-sù-na: ( + 'its') + nominative)..gi4-gi4: ad-kub4[KID]: ad-kíd: ad.gi4: to echo. possibly for drainage ('furrow' + 'to cross plow' áb-ama: áb-amar: mother cow ('cow' + 'mother'). furrow ('niche' + 'to sift'). cool down') .5). aþ. transversal furrow. iti ab(-ba)-è: calendar month 10 at Nippur during Ur III. á-zi(-da): right arm. ad. unobstructed by weeds ('niche' + 'trimmed'). aba ). to resound. Sumerian Lexicon. to ponder. wicker-worker. with hitting.. to converse (confidentially) (cf. to wail. ad-da: (cf.3) or agarin 4. maker of reed mats. soldier ('crown' + 'to follow'). to spread') . to spread wings or arms ('arms. mighty man ('arms. to take counsel (with someone: -da -) ('shout' + 'to answer') .. ab-ba: (cf. strength' + 'to have') . domestic cow ('cow' + 'domestic'). firm. able-bodied. agarin (2. Version 3.. loanword).. áb-gir15/gi7[KU]: áb-máþ[AL]: áb-sañ: áb-gud-þá: herd ('cow' + 'bull' + 'assorted.uš7[KA×LI]: to spit ('saliva' + 'spittle').

enkara ). to punish ('hoe' + 'to break open. al. (cf. to strike') .di/dug4/e: to desire.dù: ñiš ñiš ñiš because (genitival suffix + adverbial suffix) . ama-ugu: amar-a-a-si: amar-kud: AN. to work at hoeing ('hoe' + 'to do') . insist (often with -ni-) ('hoe' + 'to make the motion of'). litter.. a type of net (for crabs ?) ('crab' + 'to stink')..0 77 . al-ñar-sur9: musical instrument (ñišal-ñar. noon. (cf.. to hoe ('hoe' + 'to handle') . dirt ('open air' + 'to give up'). ama-a-tu/tud: (cf. to fell'). barzil ). protection ('sky' + 'to cover.. cf. shade. likewise (cf.aka: al... separated. ama-ar-gi4: iti freedom ('mother' + 'to shine' + 'to restore') . shape') . engur ). al. an-bar7[NE].-/ak-eš/: al. šu-si.. high plain ('high' + 'steppe') . pray. midday rest ('sky' + 'to be hot' ['WATER' + 'TO SIP']). cf. (cf. loanword from allaanum. weaned young animal ('calf' + 'to cut away from'). 'finger'). ama-gan.. protect') . oak tree (Akk. al-la-an: 'tree'). in-ga-na-nam ). to demolish with the hoe. ugu(4)... appearance') .. demolishing tool (?) ('hoe' + 'to cut... Sumerian Lexicon. antenna'. al-gazumx [ZUM+LAGAB]: an exotic spice. demand. al-ñar: musical instrument ('hoe' + 'form. an-ñá: and yet (affirmative prefix ? + 'exists'). natural or birth mother ('mother' + ùgun. to hoe ground that is already broken ('hoe' + 'to mould.. emedu). a type of ax (phonetic harmony variant of al-šub ?).ri/ra: al-šub: al-tar: ax-like hoe ('hoe' + 'to throw.. Orel & Stolbova #31 *'alan-/*'aluna tanning agent used to produce a white color.BAR: calendar month 10 at Lagaš during Ur III. Version 3. al. break') . an-bar: an-dùl: an-edin: an-ga-àm: an-gur4: an-kára: an-bir8[A-SUD]: noon. ray. 'to beget') . 'oak'.tag: ñiš am-si: elephant ('wild ox' + 'horn.. suspend' [suru5 ?]). an-ba: refuse. al-la-þa-ru: al-lu5: al-lub/lu5: al-lu5-þáb: ñiš ñiš crab ('digger' + 'to deceive') .. midday ('sky' + 'to be bright') . + 'to hang.

dug4/e: to say yes ('yes' + 'to say') . deliver').. all of heaven. 'indeed' and in-nu. an-zà: an-zaþ: where heaven ends ('heaven' + 'side. ass registered on a tablet ('equid' + 'tablet'). is probably an Akkadianism. an-ta: above ('heaven' + locative with remote deixis).gi4: to meet ('heaven' + 'from' + 'to return').. AN. yes ('sky' + 'stone'. cf. anše-bar-an-nita2: male donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'male'). horizon') . but cf. anše-du24-ùr: anše-ñiš: ANŠE-ka: anše-edin-na: wild ass ('equid' + 'steppe' + a(k). genitival postposition). blue sky ('sky' + 'beautiful. 'negation') . an-sig7-ga: an-ša4-anki: Anshan . an-zag. evening ('sky' + 'evening') . high' + 'from' + 'to be'). workass ('equid' + 'tool'). heated or fused lead (an.place name for powerful city in Elam . Civil thinks an-na. one of the best groups of people. barley'). an-na. blue'). the whole sky ('heaven' + 'totality. anše-bar-an-mi2: anše-bìr: anše-dub: female donkey ('equid' + 'foreign' + 'high' + 'female'). an-nisig ). an-pa: zenith ('sky' + 'branch' of sun dial ?). 'yes'. ass yoked in a team ('equid' + 'team').0 78 ..MUL: starry sky (verify than AN is not the rare sign ŠÚ . Version 3..an-ki: universe ('sky' + 'earth').MUL] ). affirmative nanam. Sumerian Lexicon. 'tin' + 'to be calm').. universe ('heaven' + 'earth') ... (cf. an-ta-ñál: high. an-ub-da: an-uraš: an-usan: regions. boundary') . "quarter" ('sky' + 'corners' + 'with'). anše-bala: pack-ass ('equid' + 'to cross over. an-na: tin. dur 9[ŠUL] ). an-ta-sur-ra: a stone ('heaven' + 'from' + 'boundary marker' + nominative).. superior ('sky. an-ta.Tall-i Malyan near Persepolis in the Fars province of Iran. an-šár(-ra): an-še: ear of grain ('grain ear' + 'grain. fort ('heaven' + 'stone' + 'round. high thing') . an-nisig(-ga): an-SAR: beautiful sky. heaven and earth. kunga[ŠÚ. (cf. floor'). an-za-kàr: tower. an-úr: horizon ('sky' + 'base. the beautiful sky ('sky' + 'to be beautiful' + nominative).

ar(2).0 79 .mú: áš. it is short (conjugation prefix + earlier/later ablative case prefix + 'small. bar). rosette ('unique' + 'function. bara4). patarru . ñiš ba-rí-ga: bushel. calendar month 8 at Nippur during Ur III. to curse ('curse' + 'to write'). áš á-zi-ga. to be next to') .sar: ñiš az-gú: ba-ab-si: ba-al: to dig (a canal). to channel ('to divide' + 'digging stick'). bad..anše-kunga(2): anše-mar: iti mule ('horse' + 'donkey') . ba-ba: pudding. apin-ús: ñiš plowman's helper ('plow' + 'to follow..bal: áš.with marû denotes vetitive. ÁŠ... to send forth') . sundisk..... with hamtu denotes negative affirmative. plow fitted with seeder attachment ('plow' + 'seed'). ba-lá: it is less (conjugation prefix + 'light. square-based measuring vessel = 6 bán in all periods (= 36 liters in Old Sumerian period and 60 liters in Old Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian period) (cf. to curse ('curse' + 'to deliver'). pattaru ). ba-rV: to fly. it is more (conjugation prefix + inanimate direct object prefix + 'to be full... áš.. aš-me: sparkle. áš. ba-an: a measure for bread and flour. ba-da-ra: poniard (Akk..gi4: áš. to praise ('praise' + 'to bring'). a coniferous tree (Akkadian loanword ?).bal: SAL to curse with violence ('curse' + 'raised arms' + 'to deliver'). Version 3.. apin-dug-a: apin-numun: APIN-lal: ñiš cultivating leasehold land ('plow' + 'to pay'). flee (cf.za). ñiš ba-an: a container. speak') . ba-ra(-g): to spread out (cf.. deficient')..e/i: to praise ('praise' + 'to speak..de6/túmu: ar-ga-nu-um: ár. insufficient') .. ba-ra: modal prefix . power').. glimmer. chariot or wagon ass ('equid' + 'wagon') .. sufficient'). star symbol. to answer with a curse ('curse' + 'to answer') . ba-ta-tur. to curse ('curse' + 'to blow. Sumerian Lexicon.GÀR: (cf. malt-sweetened porridge. bariga ). zeþ ).dug4/e: to curse ('curse' + 'to speak/effect').. ki.. neck-stock ('fetter' + 'neck').. ba-ra-tur: ba-za: halt or lame person (cf..

. bar-rim4[KAŠ4](-ma): dry land ('to uncover' + 'to travel fast'?.. circle'). Sumerian Lexicon. a good price ('to split.aka: bala-dab5-ba: bala éš-kàr: bala-gub-ba: ñiš outer wall ('city wall' + 'invader'/'path' + 'numerous'). shiny' [ + 'to do']) . worker stationed to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to stand' + nominative).gub: to withdraw from ('side' + 'to stand aside') . to escape ('outside' + 'to take away') . bar-dil: a type of plow (rare outside of lexical lists). battlement ('city wall' + 'long. chameleon ('sides' + reduplicated 'to be multicolored' + nominative with vowel bar. bàd-si: parapet. balañ-íl: bàn-da: balañ-ír-ra: (cf.(ak): (ñiš) ñiš to choose ('to open.dab5: ñiš bar.. bàd-si-an-na: high battlements ('parapet' + 'to be high' + nominative).0 80 . parim).. bar-dúb-ba: ñiš bar-e11-dè: rope braiding lever ('outside' + 'to descend' + participial ending).. to select' + 'to do') . fraction of an assignment ('term. distribute' + 'to knock down' + nominative). bar. bar-bar: part of a weaver's loom (shuttle ?). narrow'). bar-tam.... bànda ). bàd-šul-þi. bàd-sìl-þi: bala-šè. to be extra ('outside' + 'to be'). edge of the desert ('side' + 'steppe' + genitival a(k)).. bar. bala. bàd-niñin: circular city wall ('city wall' + 'enclosure. bar-bé-da: a tool. lamentation harp ('harp' + 'lamentation' + genitival a(k)).gub: to step outside ('outside' + 'to stand') . portion' + 'work assignment') .. harp or lyre carrier ('harp' + 'to lift'). worker hired to work for a bala' period ('term' + 'to hire' + nominative). cf.. bar-ñál-la: bar-lá: bar-LU: unsheared ('fleece' + 'to be in place' + nominative). bar-gùn-gùn-nu: harmony). bar-edin-na: bar-ég-ga: outer side of the levee ('outer side' + 'levee' + genitival a(k)). Version 3. to transport ('goods delivery' + 'towards' + 'to do') ..ñál: to be outside. one of the best wool blends.dag: to wander far away ('outside' + 'to roam about') ... part of an irrigation system ('outside' + 'to lift')... bar-ta. to see.... bar.sir5: to spin with a spindle ('spindle' + 'to spin'). to see. to select' + 'polished.aka: to choose. to examine ('to open.ba-zi: dispersed ('to divide' + 'to go out') ..

lú buru14. hand bellows ('to blow. da-ri: driver (of animals) ('to protect' + rig. bar7-bar7-ra: -bi-da(-ke4): bi-bi-zé: to drip (reduplicated biz. to belch ('to tear out' + 'to be numerous' + 'saliva' + 'to tear apart') . bar-TÚG: bar-úsurudu: iti bar-ùl[KIB]: bára-zà-ñar: copper-tipped goading stick ('side?.. mist ('outside' + 'to rain' + loc.ri: to pay off a delivery (?... bí-ra: mixed. monotonous noise') . dripping. da. contractually bound worker ('team' + 'oath. bún-ñìr: bún-šu: feet bellows ('to blow.. to have the harvest be drowned (by spring floods bursting the dikes) ('harvest' + 'to bur-BÚN.si-il: bu-úþ. bu-luþ: gi gi wagon yoke ('team' + 'wagon').'to stretch' + nominative). bellows' + 'hand') .. 'to pour').. ri. dog chain ('outside' + 'leash') . mingled (bir. buluþ).'to scatter. bí-za-za: bír-bír: ñiš frog (za. ri. metal?' + 'to drive'. a stone vessel.. calendar month 1 at Nippur during Ur III. tend') . but cf. melting (cf. suffix) .. biz.0 81 .'to pull'). (cf. da-da-ga: ñiš da-ga: organization. bellows' + 'foot') .. da-ra-an-šub: negligence ('to drop. a long coat ('outside' + 'woven garment') . and ('with it'). with dative) ('to protect' + 'to exchange') . a stone vessel ('stone vessel' + 'measuring pot' + nominative). chamber (dag. bir. bábbar ).SÁ: bur-šál-la: drown') . agreement' + 'to bind') . da-pa: part of a seeder plow (?). kak-ús). Sumerian Lexicon. bi-iz: drop (of water). mix' + nominative)./term. flames (reduplicated 'to shine' + nominative). Version 3.'to bring. bìr-inim-kéš-de6: bìr-mar: bu-lu-úþ. to tremble ('to tear out' + 'saliva' or 'to clean'. babbar ). cf. da-ri: to bend (limbs) ('arm' + rig. bar-šu-ñál: midwife ('innards' + 'hand' + 'to place'). dadag )...aka: to sow broadcast (not in furrows with a plow).su-su: da-ba-ri-ri: contortionist (cf.. da-ri).bar-šèñ-ñá(-e): (mi) violence.. bar6-bar6: (some prefer this reading. let fall')..'a repeated.. (cf. 'to pour') . to dehusk ('to scatter' + 'to do') . cf.

di-ri: (cf.tuku/du12-du12: to marry ('spouse' + 'to get') .. hostile judgment ('decision' + 'hostile') . ancestor') .. long-lasting.gub: di-ir-ga: di-kud/ku5: to judge ('judgment' + 'to set up') . ñiš dam-apin: part of a seeder plow ('spouse' + 'plow') .. to judge ('decision' + 'to cut off') .0 82 . dar-ra: dè-dal: cured.. lock up' + nominative). loanword from tamhaaru(m) ). city quarter ('dwellings' + 'to surround. to appear. ashes ('ashes' + 'to fly') .. forever ('eternal' + 'towards'). loanword from tamkaarum.. dam-gàr(-a): dam-þa-ra: battle (Akk.. to make resplendent ('beam of light' + 'to become visible'). di-bi-da: di. di-til-la: law case for which a final decision has been given ('verdict' + 'to complete' + nominative). between (dalla.. ray' + 'to divide' + ?). touch' + nominative). hired man ('to hire' + nominative). cf... decision ('decision' + 'to take' + nominative). makaarum 'to do business') . dili-du(-a) ). to conduct a trial. to take up a lawsuit ('lawsuit' + 'to take'). da-rí[URU]: dab5-ba: dag-gi4-a: dañal-búru: dañal-tag(-ga): dal-ba(-an)-na: dalla. dam-ab-ba: (professional) mourners ('spouse' + 'elder. eternal ('near. di4-di4-la: children. traverse') .. di4-di4-ba: walking about (phonetic for dib... ñiš dib-dib: clepsydra. to make clear.. dirig).è: to shine. widely based ('wide' + 'to handle. Sumerian Lexicon. dug4).dug4/du11/e: effect'). dried (?).kud/ku5: di-kúr: di-li-du-a: alien. present' + remote demonstrative affix ?). dam. spread out over a wide extent ('wide' + 'to spread out') .dab5: di-dab5-ba: di-di: to play (an instrument) (cf. to give a claim. conduct oneself' + 'it' + 'with') . judge. 'merchant'. Version 3.da-ri-a: da-rí-šè: lú driven (animal) (da-ri + nominative).. enduring. judgment ('decision' + 'to cut off') . di. donkey ('to go. cultic organization center. to sue someone (with -da -) ('lawsuit' + 'to di. reduplicated + nominative).. (cf. di. water clock (onomatopoeic or reduplicated 'to pass. 'beam. merchant (Akk.

nu-me-a: without a (personal) god ('god' + 'with' + 'not' + 'to be' + nominative). labor. store.. friend... young'). platforms on either side of a portal ('to heap up' + 'to lift') . a-ra-zu). (cf. (cf. dili-du(-a): dìm-šáþ: DIM4. dili-dili..ak/ñar: to quarrel (with someone: -da-) ('quarrel' + 'to do')... copper box.. dil-dil: one by one (cf. to go over the account (with -da -) ('tablet' + 'its' + 'to pass through') . du14. if you please ('fitting. thump (see the definition for za).. companion ('gladness' + 'to repay') ..za: to thud. work ('to walk' + 'to make productive') .. dul (6)). suitable' + ? + adverbial force suffix) . dùg ).0 83 .. to heap up. maltman. laþ5). dirig-.. dub-alal-urudu: a temple servant ('to pour' + 'pipe' + 'copper'). dur 9[ŠUL] ). speech ('to speak' + nominative). dub-bi. road ('good' + 'to follow'). da-rí). du-rí: (cf.DU: (cf.. utterance.SAR(-d): DU. treasure chest ('to store' + 'shiny') . dú-ru-na(-àm): iti (cf. Version 3.. bear (the animal) ('sickness demon' ? + 'domestic pig') . Sumerian Lexicon. DU-zu: (read arax-zu. dub-ba-an: pillar made of reeds. du14.. du6-kù: calendar month 7 at Nippur during Ur III. in the proper way. loosen') .diñir-da. walking alone... didli) (reduplicated 'one'). gather (cf.-še: beyond ('to go over' + 'to the') . 'alone' + 'to walk' + nominative). young scribe ('scribe' + 'small. du-lum: burden.mú: du24-ùr: lú gi to start a quarrel ('quarrel' + 'to ignite').bala: dub-lá: dub-sañ: dub-sar: dub-sar: dub-šen: dub-dab. adv. a fence made of such pillars ('to heap up' + 'to divide' + 'to be high') ... dub-sar-tur: scribe ('tablet' + 'to write'). cf. du6-ul: du8-du8: du10: du10-sa: du10-ús: du11-ga: du7-na-bi: weaned young (reduplicated 'to untie. duruna ). leader ('list' + 'head').. individual (dili.. scribe ('tablet' + 'to write').

. dùg-ud-ak: politeness (cf. drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'object' + 'to drink'). flee ('knees' + 'to cut'). freeborn man.ñar: to kneel down. dùg.. dumu-ga. serf ('child' + 'to seize.dúb: to rub the knees (?) ('knees' + 'to flop').. calendar month 12 at Umma during Ur III.. princess ('child' + 'female' + 'king' + genitive). hurry ('knees' + 'to open'). ibila ) ('child' + 'masculine').. kuš dùg-gan: leather bag ('gladness' + 'to bring forth') .gúr: to sit down. satisfied ('gladness' + 'to be available'). dùg. Sumerian [in contrast to slaves from foreign countries] ('child' + dumu-gir15/gi7: 'native group') . dumu-aš: only son ('child' + 'one').za: to grumble (see the definition for za). Sumerian Lexicon. dùg/du10.. dùg-tuku: strong-legged ('knees' + 'to own') . dumu-zi: DUN-a: dependent (on). hire')....aka)...UD: dumu-nitaþ: dumu-sañ: dumu-tab: dumu-tu-da: iti d (lú) a cult servant ('child' + 'function' + ?).. dumu-dab5-ba: DUMU-DUMU-LA: (cf..dug-a-nag-nag: dug-níñ-nag: dug-tur: dùg/du10. a standard capacity jar = 5 liters ('jar' + 'little').. dum-dam. (cf.zil: to run. cause') . dumu-lugal(-/ak/): daughter ('child' + 'feminine'). gentleman ('child' + 'gentleman'). to repair ('gladness' + 'to make. for someone: dative ('knees' + 'to place'). son. dumu-KA: dumu-lú: dumu-mí: grandson.eš8: deputy (?) of a merchant ('child' + 'merchantman').... di4-di4-la). dùg. dumu-gal: eldest son or daughter ('child' + 'large'). dumu-mí-lugal(-/ak/): dumu-me-KA. subordinate ('subordinate' + nominative). Version 3. son (born) of ('child' + 'to beget' + nominative). dùg.. prince ('child' + 'king' + genitive). first-born child ('child' + 'principal'). dùg.bad(-bad): to stride. twin sons ('child' + 'pair'). to rest ('knees' + 'to bend').ñál: to be pleased..aka: water drinking vessel ('vessel' + 'water' + reduplicated 'to drink') . dùg..0 84 ..

. dúr-ki. him.ñiš dun-gi: a tool. loins' + 'roof'). 'clear.. pure'). armor (cf.dug4/di/du11/e: like himself (3rd person pronoun + equative). (cf.. 'elevation'). depression ('to bring low' + 'to hang'.0 85 . shoe (cf. e-pa5(-r): ñiš hydraulic system (of a particular farmer or of the land as a whole) ('levees' + 'irrigation a tree and wood used for construction (cf. donkey foal. dúr-ru-un: to sit (plural). erin. tuš). íl-lá. to play (3rd person pronoun + 'to do') . dur10-tab-ba: dusu. in the streets ('sandals' + locative). Version 3.. duruna. them.. to rejoice.dug4/du11/e: to immerse'). e-re-sì-ki-in: e-ri-iš: kuš queen. lady. cry of joy.lá: to carry a basket ('transportation basket' + 'to lift'). ñiš dúr-ñar: chair. a type of canal or ditch. 'to lengthen. kuše-íb-ùr). her. asyndetic hendiadys). dúr.. strong'). e-ne. servant (?).. house of mourning ('house' + 'lamentation' + genitive). cf.ñar: to sit ('buttocks' + 'to set down upon') .ñar: to establish one's dwelling ('to dwell (plural)' + 'place' + 'to establish'). e-íb-ùr: siege shield ('dike' + 'middle... a type of yoke (?) ('to scrape....... she. dam to create a reservoir. (cf. throne. é-a-nir-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. you. culm or stalk of barley. to dry out') . dúr-šáþ: dùr-KAS4: ham ('buttocks' + 'domestic pig') . ditches'. ì-si-na: e-sír: e-sír-ra: e-še-á: e-ùr: e-zé: sandal. duruna. e-el[SIKIL]-lu: kuš a (pure) sound (Akkadian ellu. e-li-lum: e-ne: e-ne-àm: e-ne-gim: e-ne-ne: he. double ax ('ax' + 'to be double' + nominative).. e-ra-núm: eren). e-ne-sù-ud. e-si-na. dùn-lá: dúr-dúr: durunx) (reduplicated 'buttocks. they. èsir ). to copulate (with -da -) ('to play' + sud. dig' + 'reed' or 'firm. he is indeed (formal 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') .

. archive. é-kišib(-ba): storehouse ('house' + 'receipt' + genitival a(k)). "woman's house" ('house' + 'woman') . sanctuary ('house' + 'Heaven' + genitive). daughter-in-law.è: the house of one's fathers ('house' + 'father' + genitive). mill ('house' + 'millstone' + genitival a(k)). school ('house' + 'tablet' + genitival a(k)). *dar. prospective bride ('the one who restores the house') .é-a-nir-ra-gal-gal-la: euphemism for the netherworld ('house of mourning' + reduplicated 'big' + genitive). pub ('house' + 'beer'). é-gal: palace ('house' + 'large'). summer ('houses' + 'are' + 'many') . brewery ('house' + 'brewer') . é-ganba: é-ñar8: é-gi4-a: é-ì-gára: iti warehouse ('house' + 'marketplace'). é-lùnga ).. Akk. brick wall (cf. 'village. Version 3. deep'). adurû. appearance'). é-KI. mill house. hamlet. Sumerian Lexicon. a flour offering. outer house ('house' + 'outside' + nominative). dairy ('house' + 'fat' + 'cream')..3): é-me-eš: é-mí: beerhall. outpost' and Orel & to leave the house ('house' + 'from' + 'to exit')...ti(-l): to live in a house ('house' + locative + 'to live')..'dwelling place'). suburb ('houses' + 'fresh'. an adjective denoting a very fine quality. é-lunga(2. é-kur: prison ('house' + 'netherworld'). calendar month 8 at Umma during Ur III. eñar ). Stolbova #658. é-a. é-éše: jail ('house' + 'rope').. é-mar-uru5[GUR8]: arrow quiver ('house' + 'to immerse' + 'high.. é-da[-di-a]: é-dub-ba: house plot ('house' + 'to build' + nominative).bùr: é-dù-a: é-duru5: é-ta. shape ('house' + 'form.. rural settlement.LAM: é-na4kín-na: a storehouse ('house' + 'place' + 'abundance') . é-ñar: form. é-iti-6: é-kaš: a public house. donkey stable ('house' + 'equid') . é-ad-da(-/ak/): é-an-na: é-anše: é-ba-an: é-BAPPIR: é-bar-ra: é.0 86 . cf. to break into a house (reduplication class) ('house' + 'to break into') . (cf.

(temple) cella ('house. bakery. eñar ).0 87 . full moon ('house' + 'day 15') . É-NUN: (cf. first crescent moon ('house' + 'day 7') . fill'). a-ri-a ). manage') .. iz-zi).. to stick out the tongue ('tongue' + 'to send forth') . Version 3.. wall ('house' + 'brick'. ég si-ga: 'fascines') . (cf. to keep watch over a house ('house' + 'watch fire' + 'to reach out. house interior. temple' + 'midst'). eme. a quiet house ('house' + 'silence') . warehouse ('house' + 'portion' + 'to put. agrun). ég dal-ba-na: a dike that is shared by two watercourses or by two fields ('levee' + 'between'). smash') .. treasure-house ('house' + 'things' [ + 'piled up']. lú storehouse.. armory ('house' + 'weapon') . mend' + nominative).. cook') . é-ùru. Sumerian Lexicon.. cf. surround' + 'to bind') . tangled' + nominative). ég sa-dúr-ra: wide levees at the low-lying end of a field which halted and contained the water for irrigating the field ('levees' + 'low-lying end of a field').è/e11: eme-gir15/gi7: eme-ñír: eme-gilim-ma: confused speech ('tongue' + 'to be twisted. milking pen ('house' + 'teat') . é-u4-sakar[SAR]: é-u4-7: é-u4-15: é-ubur: é-ùr-ra: é-uz-ga: e5-ñar: new moon ('house' + 'day' + 'to begin') . Sumerian language ('tongue' + 'native') .. é-ri-a: é si-ga: é-sig4: é-šag4/šà: é-šu-sì-ma: é-ñištukul: é-tùr: cattle pen ('house' + 'stable'). brick wall (cf. dagger blade ('tongue' + 'dagger') . storehouse ('house' + 'rafter beams') . ég kal-kalag-ga: to reinforce the levees ('levees' + 'to repair. sañ- é-níñ-ka: (cf.é-muþaldim[MU]: é-NI: treasure-house (?). utensil ('tongue' + 'to slice. the work of piling up a levee ('levee' + 'to increase.gíd: fattening house ('house' + 'goose' + 'milk'). cf. ég-ég/e ú-sañ11-e/a: reinforcement of the levees with cut/bundled plants/reeds ('levees' + eme-dar: a tool... kitchen ('house' + 'baker. é-níñ(-gur11[GA]-ra): níñ-gur11-ra(-ak)). lú-é-níñ-ka).

dù/ak: en-nu(-un)(-ñá): en-nu-un/ùña.. compositions concerning the gods sung by the gala priests in the Emesal dialect to the accompaniment of a tambourine ('wail' + 'tambourine' + genitive). likeness' + 'to send') .. lizard ('tongue' + 'to consider.. to ask (someone: dative).. en-na (. to guard against. lamentation ('tears' + nominative). to cry. cf.... heed for how long ('time' + 'if' + terminative postposition). èn-tukum-šè: ér.. èn-du: song ('time' + 'to walk'.4/še8-še8: to cry.. until the time ('time' + 'this one' + 'towards'). inquire') . 'to do something in the right way' + 'not') .... to watch.. to take care of.. Sumerian and Akkadian) ('tongue' + 'mutually eme-numun: an agricultural tool ('tongue' + 'seed') . èn-šè(-àm): èn. everywhere ('time. weep ('tears' + 'to show') . to investigate. to pay attention to.eme-þa-mun: opposing') .. èn-bar: reed. to handle...gu7: eme. a resin. inim-sig... ('enigmatic background' + 'to determine. eme-sig. ér. 'up to' [ + enclitic copula]) .. 'reed-bed') .. measure') . small' + 'to consume'.5-ma engar-gu4(-ra): ox-ploughman ('farmer' + 'ox'). to watch. prison. eme-si-nu-sá: describes a person 'whose speech is not right' ('tongue' + si. small' + 'to speak') . Version 3. to lament ('tears' + 'to complain').0 88 . ñiš ñiš contrasting speech or languages (e. ñiš eme-sig: ship plank ('tongue' + 'small'). to burst into tears. to set up a lament ('lamentation' + 'to make').g.. until' + terminative postposition.gu7).tar: until when. until now. imprisonment..dù/ak: én-é-nu-ru: gi watch.pàd/pà: ér.. introductory formula for exorcism/incantation texts ('enigmatic background' + 'house' + 'image... Sumerian Lexicon. as long as ..sig7: ér-šem3. en-te-en-na(-/ak/): the cold season.. weep ('tears' + 'to weep'). possibly myrrh ('lord' + 'lungs'). to guard against.šub6[ŠID]: eme-ŠID: en-mur: to slander ('tongue' + 'low.ñá-ñá: ér. reeds (cf.. how long ('time. to slander ('tongue' + 'low.. until.'to sing') . to lick with the tongue ('tongue' + 'to lick').sá.dug4/du11/e: eme-sig.. watch (as a division of night time). ambar.šeš2. note du12. ér-ra: mourning. eme-sa-du8-a: a tool ('tongue' + 'net' + 'open' + nominative). enigmatic background' + nominative)..-a): en-na-bi-šè: lú en-nu(-un/ùña). wintertime ('time' + 'cold' + genitive). guardian.

surveyor ('measuring rope' + 'long') . calendar month 10 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 7 at Lagaš during Ur III. ésir-þá: eš-bar-kíñ-du11-ga: nominative). ga-an-tuš: (cf. goblet ('shrine' + 'with. calendar month 6 at Lagaš during Ur III. calendar month 11 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. ga-áb-kù-ga: ga-áb-sig7-ga: milk from pure cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'pure' + genitive). calendar month 9 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 3 at Lagaš during Ur III. pronounced decision ('decision' + 'message. tavern ('shrine' + 'spouse') . calendar month 10 at Umma after year Šulgi 30. gaba-kar). ga-ab-kar-re: (cf. calendar month 8 at Drehem after ŠuSin 3. calendar month 9 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. esir-è-a. calendar month 8 at Lagaš during Ur III. to be assigned for someone's benefit ('measuring tape' + 'something round and upraised') . Sumerian Lexicon. cf..ZU(Sin): calendar month 8 at Drehem in year Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 11 at Ur during Ur III. iti iti iti ezen-dBa-ba6: ezen-dDumu-zi: ezen-dLi9-si4: ezen-maþ: ezen-maþ: iti great festival ('feast' + 'great').8 of Amar-Sin.3)-da: eš2. calendar month 11 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 6 at Ur during Ur III. ezen-dAmar-Sin: calendar month 7 at Umma during years 6 . the oxen or plows which perform a task.. calendar month 12 at Ur during Ur III.0 89 . gan-tuš). to reap') . a type of vessel. iti ezen-me-ki-ñál: iti ezen-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 5 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. one man's daily work assignment. Šu-Sin 3. calendar month 6 at Drehem after ezen-dŠu-dEN. iti iti ezen-dŠul-gi: calendar month 7 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. harvest workers ('gang of workers' + 'grain' + reduplicated 'sickle. order' + 'to speak' + eš(2. ka-aš-bar). eškiri ) ('rope' + 'muzzle/nose').. éš-kàr. éš-gàr: lú task. calendar month 10 at Ur during Ur III. calendar month 12 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. epithet of a temple of the bride-goddess Inanna. surveyor's rope ('rope' + 'surface measure') .3-dam: éš-gán: ceremony. calendar month 8 at Ur during Ur III.. Version 3. ezen-An-na: calendar month 10 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. brothel. to be near') . milk from beautiful cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'beautiful' + genitive). asphalt ('bitumen' + 'to go out' + nominative). érin še-gur10-gur10: eš-bar: ésir-é-a. éš-gíd: éš-kir4/6: iti iti èš-èš: a festival (All-Shrines) (reduplicated 'shrine'). nose rope (cf. decision ('much' + 'to divide'.erin-bábbar: white cedar (wood) ('cedar' + 'white').

loanword). ga-du(7): ga-eš8: ga. gurun). air' + 'to make a repetitive noise'). to boast ('chest' + 'to be available') .. ga-murx[LAK 490]: ga-ra-an-da: ga-rašsar: ga-zum: ñiš ga-nam-me-àm: it is indeed (affirmative + 3rd person pronoun + 'to be') .sum and gazzum). merchantman (compare ga-sa10). ga-zi-in-bu: stake (for impalement)..za(-za): to drip. smash. to bubble ('milk' + 'sky.0 90 . gašan).the Akkadian is kaa. bearing fruit (cf. to challenge... cf... complete'). gaba(-na). to nurse/feed with milk ('milk' + 'to feed').. gaba. the milk of mercy ('milk' + 'womb. gaba-kar(-re): Sumerian Lexicon. a type of cheese ('milk' + 'strained in cheesecloth' ?).. opposition ('rival' + 'to besiege'). Version 3.ñál: gaba... gaba-diri-ga: enormous strength ('rival' + 'to go over. leek(s) (Akk. ganzer ).gu7: ga-gu7-a: ga-kug: lintel (above a door) (? + du7. 'to finish.ñál: 'controversy' + 'to make') . to defy ('breast. milk for barley porridge. entrance to the netherworld (cf. ga-ša-an: ga-še-a: lady (cf.. suckling foal ('milk' + 'to feed' + nominative). ga-zum: ga-sa10: ga-sub-ba: milk sucking ('milk' + 'to suck' + nominative). (cf. escapist ('rival' + 'to flee'. (cultically) pure milk ('milk' + 'pure'). comb (don't know why some read ga-ríg ...dug4: gaba-gi4: gaba-ñál: gaba.. petition ('let me live!'). opponent. carding (wool)..zi). gaba.. tradesman ('let me buy!'). sour milk ('milk' + 'barley' + locative). 'rival' or Akkadian qablum. ga-ba-kar-re: (cf..dù: ga-ba. quarrel (either related to gaba.. break').ga-an. compassion' + genitive). chest' + 'to deliver') . to put out one's chest. 'rival' + 'to overflow' + 'to wrestle... ga-an-zír[ŠÈ-KA]: ga-àr-ra: ga-arþuš-a(-ke4): ga-ba-al. contradict. strength ('chest' + 'to be available') ... ga-ti: plea.. exceed' + nominative)..ñál ). powdered or finely grated cheese ('milk' + 'to grind' + nominative). ga-ba-ra-þum: revolt (gaba.ñar: to speak against (someone) ('rival' + 3rd person with locative + 'to speak') . gaba-kar).

gal-gal-di: head musician ('large' + 'musician'). gag-si-sá: arrow ('nail' + 'to make straight').. clever fool ('ingenious. duplicate ('breast' + 'to exchange' .0 91 ..zi: to retreat ('breast' + 'to take out'). gan-tuš: gan-tuš-tur-ra: Sumerian Lexicon. ñùl-lá(-gal): police chief. elaborate' + nominative + 'idiot.. chest' + ru-gú. loanword from kaparrum I)..imagines the two breasts as copies or duplicates). gag-zag-ga: gal-bi: gal-di: gal-nar: gal-ùña: adv. deputy. gag-þa-þar-ra-na: gag-maš: ñiš a peg or nail ('peg' + 'roads' ?). galam-kad5: galam-ma: ku6 iti ñiš artfully made ('artistic' + 'to bind together') .gaba. side (?) peg ('peg' + 'side. shriveled') . gan-na: grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative)... chest' + 'hand' + 'to place on') . withstanding attack (describing a door or weapon). overseer ('large' + 'people')... boaster (reduplicated 'large' + 'to judge') . gada-dilmun-ù-lal: a dress of Dilmun linen ('linen' + 'Dilmun' + pronominal prefix + 'to hang'). a demon ('to overwhelm' + 'to force into. galam-ma þu-ru: gam-gam(-ma): a fish (Pomadasys stridens) (reduplicated 'curved. rival. intelligent ('large' [ + 'heaven'] + 'to know'). gada-maþ-ñiš-lá: spread out linen ('linen' + 'large' + 'tool' + 'to extend').. gendarme. resistance. boundary') . omniscient.tab: to encounter ('breast. tenant ('to bring forth' + 'to occupy') . Version 3..ru(-gú): gaba-šu-ñar: gaba(-a). gan-gan-è: calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III. gada-níñ-dùn-dù: a linen garment ('linen' + 'object' + 'to bring low' + 'to make'). a peg or nail ('peg' + 'one-half'). mighty (judge) (an adjective for the god Enlil) ('large' + 'to decide. clasp') . gada-bar-TÚG: long linen coat ('linen' + 'long coat'). gal-zu (gal-an-zu): wise.. minor tenant ('tenant' + 'little' + nominative). to hold to the breast ('breast' ( + locative) + 'to hold. copy. gal5-lá(-gal). gaba. adj. bailiff. rival ('breast. gába[KAB]-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. gaba-ri: n. gaba. chest' + 'to throw out') . exalted one ('elaborate' + nominative). 'to oppose') . to look after' [ + 'big']) . judge') .ri: to confront ('breast. hillbilly'). greatly ('great' + adverbial force suffix) .

gi(-níñ)-sa-þá: bundle') . reed wall. 'fruit' bundle of reeds.. taxable land or field ('land' + 'to carry'). (gi) ušub). gi(n)) ('just. with a sweet. gi-duru5[GI. ('reliable' + 'bright' (?)). calendar month 1 at Lagaš during Ur III. gi-kud(-a): gi-muš: punting pole ('reed' + 'snake'). abutment or platform ('reeds' + 'mat. gi-šul-þi: a reed or plant that was used as a medicine ('reed' + 'invader' + 'numerous'). six hundred (geç -u (?). Version 3. a single-growing reed (idiomatic expression) ('reed' + 'single' + 'to plant'). gi-šà-sur: sieve ('reeds' + 'intestines' + 'to flow. gi-gun4(-na). Sumerian Lexicon.e. blooming. gi-NI: a scented substance ('reed' + 'oil').A: gi-sig: a type of reed ('reed' + 'head' + 'bad'). shining. gi-gù-na: reed basket ('reeds' + 'basket') . gàr-du: ge-eš-tu: gi-a-dag: gi-dili-dù: gi-dù-a: reed hut. gi-na-tum: security deposit (Akkadian loanword). used to make measurements ('reed' + 'to cut' + nominative). hut ('reeds' + 'small.. drip'). high-quality writing stylus ('reed' + 'to make' + nominative).. gi-gu4-ud: gi-gur: catapult ('reeds' + 'to leap').gána-ga: gána-íl: iti ñiš hill country ('land' + 'milk'). gi-dub-ba: stylus ('reed' + 'tablet' + nominative). raft ('reed' + 'water' + 'resting place'). kí-sa. a class of persons ('hair lock signifying slavery' + 'to go') . edible marrow ('reed' + 'sweet' + nominative). reed fences. gi-rin[LAGAB]: pure. swaying reed ('reed' + 'fresh').ku5: ñiš basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport') . i. fruitful. ñéš×u).. reed screen on the roof ('reeds' + 'to be thin and wide') .0 92 . gi-gur-še-bal: gi.A]: supple.. firm' + nominative a).. gi-sa. spotless. gi-na: consent (cf. gi-dùg-ga: sweet reed. sacred building ('reeds' + 'decorated temple') . weak'). gi-sañ-þul: gi-sal: gi-SI. cf. (cf. gána-maš: gán-ùr: harrow ('field' + 'to drag across') . gi-izi-lá: torch ('reeds' + 'fire' + 'to hold up'). a syllabic writing for gurun . cut reed. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') .

to be great. gu-la). stretch. cultically unfit ? ('to reject' + 'heaven') .zé: (cf. exalted. nam-gi4-me-a-aš) ('to return.. gu.. gu-za-lá: Sumerian Lexicon. gín-tur: a surface area measure. gi-gunu 4). set. gu-la: large... throne-bearer. basket. gig(-šè)... lofty noble (an adjective applied to Enlil) ('noble' + 'royal'). extend') . kib x).gi-UGUN: gi. gi4-me-a-aš: colleague. Version 3.aka: (cf. gir4-bil: furnaceman. to increase. slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'master'). to adjust (with a string) ('string' + 'to strike/to touch') ... function' + locative + plural suffix) ... to make numerous.tag: to align. slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'he.0 93 . to set out a snare ('string' + 'to place. to treasure highly. fellow (cf..dúb. come back' + 'office. kìri-zal). gu-ul: to enlarge.. gir15/gi7-nun: gu-du: anus. gín-sal: a light metal hoe. 'to destroy' (cf. great (cf. gu.. to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut') . she') . gil-le-èm: destruction (cf. chair' + 'to hold up') . gi16[GIL]-da: gi16[GIL]-sa: gibil-bi: gig-ba: gi16[GIL]-sa... guzza ). chair (cf. high'). to be angry at ('injury' + terminative + 'to set'). lasting. gi6-an-na: gi7-nun: at night ('black' + 'heaven' + locative). gal.. ñiš gu-za: throne. stoker ('kiln' + 'to burn'). little shekel = 1/60 shekel = 1/3600 square nindan (sar) = 3 surface še = 36 square fingers = surface of the side of a cube of 1 sìla capacity. gi-1-ninda: gi4-an: gi4-in: measuring reed ('reed' + 'one' + 'a distance measure') . of lasting value.ñar: urudu to cause trouble.lal/lá: gu-sum: gu-ul). gal.. gilim). gir-ab-ba: sea fish.. the first time ('new' + adverbial force suffix) . gu. chair-bearer ('throne. sometimes = gul. giri17-zal: (cf. impression on a tablet (a wedge) ('needle' + 'to give').. gi-zi: a kind of reed ('reed' + 'good..

... 'to stretch the neck' as something that mourners do ('neck' + 'to stretch out') ..dirig: to submit.dù: gú.ñar/ñá-ñá: gú ñiš... to cut (off) the neck ('neck' + 'to cut'). a type of (high-quality) wheat (cf..lal/lá: to style or dress hair. gú-nida[NUNUZ]: gú-ri-ta: from the other side ('side.kud: gú ñiri16. to bow... edge' + 'to extend') ... plant') . the turning edge ('edge' + 'to revolve') . gú-en-na: gú-gal: ñiš river mud.. often reduplicated) ('chick pea/bean' + 'basket') . Version 3. collect.è: gú-è: gú... (cf. zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ ). to submit ('neck' + 'to set down'... extend') ..or -ta -).. in order... to bow down. gú-en-bar-ra: outer throne room. gú.....ñar/ñá-ñá: gú.aka). to embrace (with -da . to assemble. to cut down ('neck' + 'to separate' + 'to effect') .gíd: gú-gir: gú-gíd-gíd: processing of bitumen.. bank' + 'that' + 'from')..ñar/ñá-ñá: gú-a. 'city walls') ('neck' + 'to hang. cf. an agricultural tool ('neck' + reduplicated 'long') . gú-gur5..ñar)..ñar).0 94 . to gather. determine' + 'to gú. lift'). gú. throne room ('river bank' + ?)..aka: gú-an-še: gú-bala: gú. to sum accounts ('loads' + 'to add') . bull'). gú-gú-GUD: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'ox.ñál: to submit (to someone: dative) ('neck' + 'yoke' + 'to place'). to someone: dative ('neck' + 'to do'.. to despise. gú.. cf... gú-tar.dug4/du11/e: gú.. úgu. organize ('necks' + 'to be upright. to neglect ('neck' + 'to fasten... ñiri16...si(-a): Sumerian Lexicon.. gú-gú-UÞ: gú.ba-a-ñar which is the later Neo-Sumerian form of this Old Sumerian original) ('neck' + 'upon' + 'to place [a load of debt]') .mar: gú-mun: GIG to pile up.lal/lá: to breach walls ('to submit' + 'fortress') . wrap.. gú gú. and still') . to bind an animal's mane ('neck' + 'to cut.gú. all things considered ('land' + 'sky' + 'barley').... to cover ('neck.. chick peas ('chick pea/bean' + 'large') . vermin') . to peer out (with bàd . caraway ('pea' + 'salt'). to kneel. gú-ñiri3/16: breach (cf. amass (often with -da -. gú..gur: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'insect.

mur: gù-mur-aka: to be lax with respect..ra(-ra): to shout. to talk to (with dative) ('sound' + 'to give.. lentils ? ('chick pea/bean' + 'small'). to make a pleasant/loud sound ('sound' + 'fine. roar ('sound' + 'to strike')... gù-téš-a. gù-nun. gal. Version 3. the planet Mercury ('bull' + great (cf. gù. to make obedient ('voice' + 'to apply. to roar.tumu2/4: to call ('noise' + 'to carry').. gud-áb(-ba): gud-alim: bison ('bull' + 'bison')..gú-šè: up to the edge... to call. do') .. left arm ('left-hand' + nominative with vowel harmony). to raise the neck ('neck' + 'to join'). bray. gù.. bank' + terminative suffix) . lend') . bellow ('sound' + 'lungs') . gú. deep' + 'to say.. foremost ('neck [for carrying ?]' + 'to have') .. to be united ('voice' + 'to come together' + locative + 'to surround') ...0 95 . breeding bull ('bull' + 'cow' + genitive).ta-dé: gù. to shout ('voice' + 'to make tremble').sè(-g/k): to repeat. gu-ul). fluency') ... chattering.sum: gù... hero.si-il: gù.. to cause') ... great. to the other side ('side.. shape') . gú-un: tribute. mighty. gu4-ud: 'sun') . noise-making ('sound' + 'to strike repetitively.. load (cf. to echo.. to scorn (with -ši -) ('neck' + 'to make fall').. to scream with an ear-splitting voice ('voice' + 'to split').ñar: gù. gú-za: a jewelry (?) ('neck' + 'precious stone') .zi: gù. to cry. to flutter. gu5-ul: gùb-bu: gùb-kaš4: gu7-kur-kur-ra: bread-basket of all the lands ('food.dé: gù..ús: gú.sì: gu4: (cf.dug4/du11/di/e: describes the twanging of bows ('sound' + 'to deliver') . back of the head ('neck' + 'to cut (hair)').. gud). gun). sustenance' + 'lands' + genitive). to have success ('neck' + 'to raise').. Sumerian Lexicon.šub: gú-tar: gú-tuku: gú-tur: gú.... professional mourner ('to roar... to dance (reduplication class: gu 4-gu 4-ud ). to make a noise or sound ('noise' + 'to effect'). gù. to read aloud ('voice' + 'from' + 'to pour out'). to jump. shake') ... bray' + 'to do') .di/e: gù-ra-aþ: gù.dúb: gù. to say ('sound' + 'to pour out. stud farm manager (?) ('left-hand' + 'speed.

ox' + 'tool'). fattened ox ('bull. gu4-dam: gud-apin-níñ-túg: iti a mythological entity ('bull' + 'wild ox'). ox' + 'aurochs cow'). gud-si-su: calendar month 2 at Nippur during Ur III. ox' + 'tablet'). year' + number). gur-sañ-ñál: a capacity measure. destroy. ox driver ('bull. to butt. cat ('to fall upon.gud-am. harrow'). gore. to graze'). suitable. wild-cow ('bull. oxen for the harrow ('bull. ki-gul-la). ox' + reduplicated 'great'). blanket for a plow ox ('bull. ox' + 'old'). = 240 sìla . to slaughter' + nominative). ox' + rá. ox' + 'subordinate' + nominative). ox driver ('bull. ox' + 'plow' + 'thing' + 'cloth garment'). measuring container of either 24 or 40 sìla'). join'). ox' + 'assigned task') . ox' + 'threshing floor').0 96 . work ox ('bull. ox' + 'beam.. ox' + 'name. oxen for sowing on the field ('oxen for sowing' + 'field parcel'). gud-dun-a: subordinate ox ('bull.. gud-du7(-du7): perfect. fierce. ox' + 'fattened'). Version 3.ús: ñiš reserve oxen for sowing ('oxen for sowing' + 'excess') . gud-dub: ox (recorded) on a tablet ('bull. a capacity measure of 72 sìla in Presargonic Girsu. a kind of wood ('evil. gud-numun: oxen for sowing ('bull. adv. ox' + 'complete. gud-numun-diri: gud-numun-gána: gud-ra: gud-sún: gud-su7-ra: gud-šár(-a): gud-šu-gi4: gùd. to extinguish' + 'to uproot') .. ox' + 'to drive'). extinguish' + 'fertile'. to build a nest ('nest' + 'to moor. cf.. toss') . gud-šúþub: grazing or trampling oxen ('bull. full-grown ox ('bull. GUL-BU: gul-lum: gur-ra: gur-2-ul: gur-sá-dug4: a capacity measure. = 160 sìla ('reed basket' + 'offering. where Civil says the difference is that this gur has been filled from measuring containers topped off with a 'head' of grain instead of being leveled off at the top ('reed basket' + 'head' + 'to place') . 'to drive along') . old ox ('bull. threshing ox ('bull. Sumerian Lexicon. gud è: oxen taken out (of work) ('bull. gud éš-gàr: gud-gal-gal: gud-ñiš: gud ñiš-ùr: gud-mu-x: gud-niga: working oxen ('bull. perfect bull ('bull' + 'to be many. in return ('to return' + subordination suffix /-a/). ox' + 'to step. ox' + 'seed'). ox' + 'to exit'). goring ox ('bull. unblemished bull. gud-laþ5[DU-DU]: x years-old ox ('bull.

. understanding' + 'to make available to listen to (with dative) ('ears' + 'to give').. guruš šà-saþar: ñá-e-me-en: I. ñe26-nu: come!. it is me.... ñe26-nam-ma-da).. to pass the night ('night' + 'to go'.sá: ñi6-sa9: ñeštug(2. to bare the fangs (sign for 'mouth-needles' ( + 'to send' + guru7-du6: guru7-maš: ñá-e: grain stack ('granary' + 'heap') . ñá-la.0 97 . ñagia)..3).ñar: [to]'). pay attention (to: with -ši -) ('ears. plump') . stay to midnight ('night' + 'half'). ñeštug(2. ñeš'u: six hundred ('sixty' + 'ten'.. I am one who.. and oil. female tender of goats ('work-woman' + 'goats').. ñá-nun: storage area (ñar... 'to accumulate')..šú: to stop one's ears ('ears' + 'to cover'). earth moving workers ('laborer' + 'essence' + 'earth') . ge-eš-tu). raisins ('grape vine' + 'dried'). profit').. ñá-ñá: adding.gur4-gur4[LAGAB+LAGAB]: a standard size container for wine. beer..u18-lu: to forget ('ears. cf. Version 3. ñalga-sùþ: nitwit ('consideration' + 'to be confused') . Sumerian Lexicon..gub: ñeštug(2.. round.búr: 'poison') + 'to release') . possessing intelligence ('ears. ù-di). stay to midnight ('night' + 'to make equal'). ñeštug(2. ÑÁ-nu: (cf.3).. imperative form of ñen. ñá-gi(4)(-a): (cf. grain depot ('granary' + 'interest. = 10 liters (reduplicated 'thick.. ñe26[ÑÁ]-nam-ma-da: come with me! (ñe26-na. come' + conjugational prefixes î -ba with locative force + 'with') .3)-tuku: ñi6. ñeštug(2. 'to go... understanding' + 'great storm') . ÑÁ-nam-ma-da: (cf.di: ñi6-par3/4: ñi6..3). ('I' + enclitic copula + 1st or 2nd person ending).. addition (reduplicated form of ñar. to listen.3).. 'storeroom' + 'noble') .uš(11)). ñéme-maš: ñeštin-þád: ñéš×u. myself ('I' + subjective ending). residence of the en priest or priestess ('night' + 'to stretch out') .. gur5[KA×GU](ru.dag: to cease (doing something) (often with -ta-) ('to be somewhere' + 'resting place') . cf. ñál.3). understanding' + 'to have') . ñe26-nu).taka4: to open ('to be somewhere' + 'to open') . to set the mind to (with -ši -) ('understanding' + 'to set') ..sum: ñeštu(2..

ñir5-ñir5ku6: ñir5-ra: a fish (reduplicated 'to seek refuge') .nú: ñidru(-mu)-u4-sù-rá: far away' + genitive).. ñír. to trample. to set one's foot on ('foot' + 'to follow. slip. to take a path.. step. courier ('to run. footstool. to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect').. be on one's way ('path' + 'to traverse.. Version 3.. stir'). set down') ... ñír-pa: ñír-tab: ku6 ñír-ús: ñír-zal: ñìri. 'triumph').. fruit-cake ('way.. cf.ús: to follow on foot. pass along') . ñìri-saña11[KIN].ñar: to clear the way ('road' + 'to place...zé-er: to lose one's footing.. scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine'). path' + 'abundance') ...ñi6-ù-na: down') .. ñìri. ñìri. an inexpensive fish ('knife' + 'length').dug 4)..díb: ñìri. Sumerian Lexicon. to trample (with -ni -) ('foot' + 'to place.DÙ: lú ñír.ñál: ñìri-šè.. scorpion ('knife' + 'sting'). ñìri. ñin-na: ordinary ('ordinary' + nominative). do').. in the middle of the night ('night' + ù-na.ra: to stumble ('foot' + 'to strike. fine').. ñìri KU-bi-šè..... to step on ('foot' + 'to stand') . domestic(s) ('foot' + 'to apply.. ñìr-pad-rá[DU]: ñìri. slide ('feet' + 'to remove'. establish'). ki-ma-an-zé-er). butcher knife ('knife' + 'branch').ñar: set down') .gub: ñìr-lam: to step forward.. to join').ñar: ñìri-gub(-ba): ñìri. to be subjected ('foot' + 'at their place' + 'to be located') .. to place something under the authority of someone ('foot' + terminative + 'to place. ñidru-šè.. anše ñír-nun: a type of donkey ('expedition' + 'great. pedestal ('foot' + 'to stand') .siñ18[KIN]: (cf. to stamp out ('foot' + 'to harvest'(?) + 'to ñìr-sè-ga: menial(s). to lay (heaped-up grain) under the (measuring) stick ('stick' + terminative + 'to lie a scepter of long (years and) days ('scepter' ( + years) + 'days' + 'lasting. to take an unfamiliar path ('path' + 'strange' + 'to traverse') . ñìri-saña 11. ñìr-šúþub: hoof ('foot' + 'boot').díb: ñìri-kúr. ñír-lá: butcher ('knife' + 'to weigh'). bone(s) ('foot' + 'to break off a piece' + nominative).dug4/du11/e: effect').....0 98 .. trot' + nominative).

ñiskim-ti: recognized ('signal' + 'to stay alive'). ñiskim...tuku: ñissu...lal:
ñiš

to get recognition ('signal' + 'to get').

ñiskim-zi an-na: good omen from heaven ('signal' + 'good, firm' + 'heaven' + genitive).
to cover with a shadow ('shadow' + 'to extend, reach') .

ñiš:

plow ('the' tool, par excellence). a type of thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' +

ñiš-ab-ba(-k):
genitive).

ÑIŠ-BAD: ñiš-bad: ñiš-búru: ñiš-dù-a: ñiš-e11: -ñiš-en:

in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 1 cubit, 1 kùš . a basket with a wooden handle; threshing sledge. net, trap ('tool' + 'to spread out' + nominative with vowel harmony). timber ('wood' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

key; door pin ('tool' + 'to exit'). irrealis suffix, 'unreality' form suffix ('tool' + 'enigmatic background') . to conclude a sale ('pestle' + 'to hand over') . harrow ('tool' + 'field' + 'to drag over the ground') .

ñiš-gan...bala: ñiš-gána-ùr-ra: ñiš-gaz: ñiš-gi: ñiš-gaz-mè:

cudgel ('tool' + 'to crush, vanquish') . battle cudgel ('cudgel' + 'battle').

reed bank, thicket, cane brake ('tree' + 'reed'). answering chorus ('tool' + 'to answer' + 'to be') .

ñiš-gi4-ñál, ñiš-ki-ñál: ñiš-gíd-da: ñiš-gíg:

long wood; punting pole; javelin, spear ('wood' + 'long' + nominative).

a date palm ('tree' + 'black, dark').

ñiš-gú-ba: a piece of tableware ('tool' + 'chick pea, bean' + 'to give'). ñiš-gù-di: a loud musical instrument ('tool' + 'to make a noise or sound') . ñiš...ñar: to assign ('tool' + 'to deliver'). ñiš-ñiš-lá: ñiš-ÞAR: ñiš-þé: ñiš-þum: ñiš-þur:
battle ('tools' + 'to raise'; cf., ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá).

dredging (?) work in the canal ('tool' + 'obligation' ?). firmament, sky ('tool' + 'abundant') . bench on a wagon ('wood' + 'to bruise') . plan, drawing ('tool' + 'to draw, sketch') .

ñiš...þur: to draw; to make plans ('tool' + 'to draw'). ñiš-ì: (cf., še-ñiš-ì). ñiš-KÁ: ñiš-kad5:
(cf., ákan ). stepladder ('tool' + 'to tie, bind together') .

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ñiš-kar2/3: ñiš-kíñ-ti: ñiš-maþ: ñiš-ná: ñiš-nañ: ñiš-nu(11): ñiš-pàr: ñiš...ra: ñiš-rín: ÑIŠ-RU: ñiš-si4: ÑIŠ-ŠAR: ñiš-šu:

task (cf., éš-kàr).

ñiš...lal/lá: to be silent ('tool' + 'to hang up') .
craftsmen ('work tool' + 'side'). (cf., ñiš-kad 5). bed; bedspread ('tool' + 'to sleep' + nominative). wooden water pail ('wood' + 'to drink'). lamp, light ('tool' + 'light, fire, lamp'). (cf., ñiš-búru ). to thresh ('stick' + 'to beat'). weighing scale (cf., érin, (cf.,
ñiš

rín).

illuru).

a date palm ('tree' + 'red-brown'). (cf., kiri 6). shackle; haft ('tool' + 'hand'). (cf.,
ñiš

ñiš-šu-kin:

šu-KIN).

ñiš-šub(-ba): lot, share ('tool' + 'to cast, throw, drop' + nominative). ñiš...tag: to make a religious offering, sacrifice (often with dative) ('tree' + 'to adorn'). ñiš...tuku: ñiš-ùr(-ra): ñiš...ùr: ñìš...dù: ñìš-zu:
to hear, listen to ('tool' + 'to get, have') . log, beam, rafter (e.g., of a roof); harrow ('wood' + 'roof').

to harrow (often with -ni -) ('tool' + 'drag').

ñìš á-zi...e: to commit rape (ñìš, 'penis', + 'violence' + 'to do').
to have sexual intercourse (ñìš, 'penis', + 'to plant') .

ñìš-nu-zu: virgin (said of animals) (ñìš, 'penis', + 'not' + zu, 'to know').
having born young; open (ñìš, 'penis', + zu, 'to know').

ñizzal...aka: to pay attention ('attention' + 'to do', cf., sañ-kéš...aka). ñizzal-kalam-ma(k): the most intelligent person in Sumer ('intelligence' + 'land (of Sumer)' +
genitive).

þa-al-ma:
(urudu)

vandals (þa-lam + nominative ).

þa-bu(2,3,6)-da: a heavy copper hoe (Akkadian loanword, hap/buutum).
to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta -) (cf., þul(3)).
ñiš

þa-la: (inheritance) share, lot (cf., þal). þa-lam:
ñiš

þa-lu-úb,

þu-lu-úb: oak (?); sapling (?) [one Akkadian equivalent means 'young maiden'].

þa-luþ:

(cf., þu-luþ ).

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þa-mun:

mutually opposing; contrasting, harmonizing; clashing (þum, 'to wrestle' conjugated as Akk. huud, 'joy', conjugates into hadûm, 'joyful' - except in Sumerian there is no syllable 'mum', just the syllable mun ).

(ñiš)

þa-šu-úr: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('abundance' + 'to pour' + 'tree trunk') . þa-zi(-in):

þa-za: to hold, grasp; to retain (Akk. ahaazum, Orel & Stolbova 25).
urudu ñiš

ax (Akkadian loanword, Orel & Stolbova 1318, cf., 1305).

þar-þar:

a musical instrument; chain (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet') (cf., kíkkin).

þar-ra-an: road (a city on the route to the Mediterranean, Akkadian loanword). þaš4...ñá-ñá:
ñiš

to rejoice ('lower abdomen' + 'to deposit') .

þaz...aka: to slaughter ('tool' + 'to thresh' + 'to do'; cf., gaz, 'to slaughter') .
[that] is our wish ('wish' + î + 'to be') .

þé-àm: 'so be it', 'let it be', consent, approval, wish (precative prefix + î + 'to be'). þé-àm-me-àm: þé-du7:
be') .

decoration ('let it be suitable, fitting').

þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: it is indeed (precative prefix + î + na-nam, 'indeed' + enclitic copula, 'to þé-ñál:
overflow; abundance ('let there be available') . let it be. abundance, fruitfulness ('may it be; numerous' + 'great, fine, deep') . knowledge (reduplicated [with vowel alternation]:

þé-...nam-...: þé-nun; þi-nun:

þé-zu-þé-zu; þé-zu-þé-za:
'numerous' + 'to know') .

þi-a:

(cf., þá ) ('to mix' + nominative).

þi-li: beauty; (sexual) charm, appeal; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'cedar oil, fragrance'). þi-li...aka:
to behave gracefully ('beauty' + 'to do') . to apply adornments ('beauty' + 'to adorn; to spread') . to be full of opulence ('beauty' + 'to bear, carry') . joyous (?) beauty ('beauty' + asa, 'cage, fetter' or ingredient in asilal(3,4,5),

þi-li...du8(-du8): þi-li...gùr-ru: þi-li-ma(-ra)-az:
'joy, gladness') .

þi-li...sù(-sù): full of appeal ('beauty' + 'to rejoice'). þi-nun:
ñiš

(cf., þé-nun ). (cf.,
ñiš

þu-lu-úb:

þa-lu-úb).
to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away') .

þu-luþ, þa-luþ: þu-rí-in:

þu-nu, þu-þu-nu: helpless (þuñ-(ñ), þun-(ñ), 'to hire' + 'none').
eagle (Akkadian loanword, urinnu I; Orel & Stolbova #52 *’ar-/*war- 'eagle'; note that AHw says that urinnu II, 'standard, totem', is a Sumerian loanword). idiot, hillbilly, boor (Akkadian loanword ?).

þu-ru(-um):

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ñar: i-dutu: i-zi: í-kú: ì-áb: i-si-iš. cry for justice. contrivance ('to go out' + 'to traverse. i-bí[BIL]: smoke.. lament. þul. waste').. pitchers ('oil' + 'to store. waves (cf. ì-dùg-nun(-na). 45 degrees . ì-áb-sè-ga: ì-bí-la: (cf..0 102 . rise' + 'to rise. very happy. sing'). to see' ('to go out. to wail (to someone: dative) (isiš2. i-ti: (cf..šú: (cf. to trample (?) ('athlete' + 'to cover') . Version 3. lament (cf. rise' + 'to burn') . 'face. þáš).. joyful ('joy' + subordination suffix /-a/). make') þul. inclined angle... 'moaning' + 'to set') . 'Oh.3.. itud ). Shamash!' ('cry' + divine determinative + 'god of justice') .du11/e: to sing a dirge ('dirge' + 'to speak. inclination (e.. complaint. clarified butter.þu-su: (cf.3. ibila ).. device. ì-dùg(-ga). slab. cause pain ('evil' + 'to create... cream.sar: to run ('athlete' + 'to run'). slaughter ('athlete' + 'to slaughter') . ì-dub: storage jugs. i-lu: song. outcry.. porter. hill-country. ghee (Old Sumerian) ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]') . þuš-a: something red ('angry' + nominative). valleys' + 'points. ir).. þu-úr-sá-ñá/ne: þúb-gaz: þúb. i(-r): (cf. complaint.. ì-du10-ga: (lú) perfume. isiš2. fat of cows. ì-du10-nun(-na): ì-duþ/du8: janitor. flagstone. 'moaning' + 'to hang').. i-lu. þúb. dirge ('cry' + 'to multiply'). as.. cream (?) ('fat' + 'cow'). mountainous region ('holes.. þul-ñál: þúl-la: þur-sañ: i-i: evil ones ('evil' + 'to be').3). (reduplicated éd ). Sumerian Lexicon. peaks') . iz-zi ) ('to go out.the angle formed by animals eating fodder) . good oil ('oil' + 'sweet').lá: to sit in anguish (isiš2. like (used in hypothetical comparisons).dím: to hurt.. door keeper (impersonal verbal conjugation prefix + 'residue.gig: to hate ('evil' + 'to be sick'). go out') . heap up').g. cross') . þur-sañ ). i-dib: threshold.. perfume ('oil' + 'sweet' + 'fine'). Emesal dialect for igi... i-gi4-in-zu: indeed!. i-si-iš: i-si-iš.

tallow ('fat' + 'sheep'). ì-udu: fat.ì-gu-la): perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty..DU: 'unto') . i5-ñar[KA.. ì-dùg-nun(-na). ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominative). ghee (Neo-Sumerian) ('fat. ì-ÞI-nun(-na): ì-ir-a: ì-ku6: ì-laþ4: ì-lí: (cf. oil' + 'noble'). to bolt the door ('door' + 'hand' + 'base' + 'to go') . Version 3.dib(2): igi-þul. fine oil ('oil' + 'prime'). kuše-íb-ùr). Sumerian Lexicon. ì-ñiš: sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree'). (cf.bad: to open one's eyes ('eye' + 'to open'). mix')... leftover ('middle' + 'to disregard'). leader (also read as palil ) ('front' + 'to walk').. igi-bala: traitor... ì-sañ: best. ib-si8[DI]: íb-lal: íb-tag4: kuš square ('eye' + 'to crack open') . stretch. þi-nun). establish'). ì-rá-rá: ì-si-na: ì-ti: ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir. to strengthen'). a profession (impersonal verbal prefix + 'to fling away').bar: to choose. ig-šu-úr. íb-ùr: íd-a-dug: ñiš irrigation project ('canal' + 'water' + 'vessel').. extend') .. (cf.. revolt') .. igi-zi. igi-dañal: wide seeing eyes ('eyes' + 'wide')..za. before his father ('front' + 'father' + ni-a(k) .du: to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by') . íb-dam-za: anger ('to be angry' + dum-dam.bar: to look at ('eye' + 'to open').0 103 . predict. 'word' + 'to make. fine oil'). igi(-šè). ì-nun: butter. for a lead animal.. to legitimate ('to look at' + 'legitimate. igi.. turncoat.. fine oil (jar) ('oil' + 'true measure. e-si-na ).. shiftiness ('eyes' + 'to turn..ÑAR]: to promise.dím: igi-du: igi-šè... þé-nun. adj. fish oil ('oil' + 'fish'). igi-a-a-na-šè: igi. itud ). to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion'). ì-šaþ: pig lard ('fat' + 'pig'). ominous remark (inim. moonlight (cf. 'to grumble'). clarified butter. underwear (?) ('hips' + 'to hang. change. desire'). to walk in front of ('to the front' + 'to walk').. 'his + genitive' + terminative suffix.

... igi-sig5: igi-su: pulverized (onions) (cf... inspection. front' + X + terminative suffix) .. knock down'..ñar: to face..lal: to close one's eyes ('eyes' + 'to diminish. igi. Version 3. igi-tùm-lá ).or bi -). to see (often with -ni .. ka-sìg).. face' + 'to set') .kár: to look upon..dù: igi. look at (with -ši.ñál: to (be able to) see.. (cf. igi(-tur). visibility (of the moon) ('to see' + nominative). igi-ñál(-la): clever. turn away'). igi-sìg-sìg[PA-PA]: an insulting face ('face' + reduplicated 'to strike. retreat'). igi-lá: (cf. igi.. igi-6-ñál: 1/6. igi. igi-nu-du8(-a): blind person . unskilled worker ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open'). Sumerian Lexicon. cf.gíd). igi. igi-gub(-ba): coefficient ('inverse' + 'fixed'). igi.. mun-gazi ) ('eye' + 'to be good') . proportions. i-gi 4-in-zu ).gíd: to despise. igi-nim(-ma): upper country . igi-gu4: a stylized biconvex geometric figure constructed from 120 degree arcs ('eye' + 'ox'). to understand. igi. to select (often with -ši-) ('eyes' + 'to illuminate').0 104 . to spy.a slave. to unite ('eyes' + 'to soften.suþ: to stare with wide-open eyes ('eyes' + 'to pop out') .. face' + 'to sparkle. look upon with disfavor or anger ('eye.igi.. to appear before someone ('eye.. face' + 'little' + 'to lengthen'.. allay') . igi-gùn-gùn: igi-4-ñál: 1/4. front' + 'battle' + genitive). inspect. supervision. sañ-ki... igi. to direct the eyes to (with -ši -.. to have on makeup') .te-en: igi-te-en: fraction. igi-X-šè: in the presence of X ('face.íl: review.si(-g): to see ('eyes' + 'to fill'). cf..from Sumer either the east or the northwest ('to face' + 'east'). igi.. vanguard ('before. igi-íl-la: choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + nominative). symmetry.. to examine.. IGI-ÑAR(-m): igi. to witness ('eye' + 'to crack open') .....du8: igi-du8-a: to be on the lookout for (with -ši -) ('eye' + 'to raise erect') .gub: to look at ('eye' + 'to set'). to look upon (often with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to place [into]'). at a specific object).. flashing eyes ('eyes.. intelligent ('eye' + 'to place [into]' + nominative). igi-níñin: treachery ('eye' + 'to wander. to view. to look over ('eyes' + 'to lift'). igi-mè(-/ak/): before the battle.adds intensity to the gaze).

.. imri-þa-mun). 'it is too much' . vigilant ('eyes' + 'to watch. guard') . lump of earth or metal (cf. im. whitewash ('clay' + 'white'). whirlwind ('weather' + 'to blow' + 'mutually opposing'). clump of clay ('clay' + 'piece'). ní. carry away' + 'to facing the sunrise. igi-u4-è-a: igi. im-me: to be the one for (ì + me + a). precious ('eyes' + 'to choose' + nominative). Version 3. im-sa12-ti-um: eastwind ('wind' + 'eastern mountains').. before' + dutu-è.dirig ). earth' + 'contrasting'.. igi-zàg-ga: igi-zu: (cf... i-gi 4-in-zu ). one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side').dirig: im-dugud: im-ñíri: (cf. facing east ('face.. íldag[A-AM]-zi-da: im-ba: loss ('the paid out') . dùn-lá. earth' + 'weight'). erect' + nominative). longing. also. immal (2)).. clan ('the sent out') . to register on a clay tablet ('clay tablet' + locative + 'to write down'.mir: im-nun: to be windy ('wind' + 'storm wind').. . lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash').0 105 . im-dù-a. edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great'). family.gub: im-ma-si-im-ma-diri-ga: travail (a deverbalized fixed form).. im-mar-tu: westwind ('wind' + 'western desert'). añar x) ('clay. adobe wall ('mud' + 'to build. íl-lá: elevation ('to lift' + 'to hang'. cf. im-ru(-a). igi-zàñ-ñá. igi-zé-zé: dry-eyed (?) ('eyes' + 'to cut. IM..the scream of suffering men or of women in im-ma.. im-ri-þa-mun: storm. Sumerian Lexicon.. im-ri(-a): relatives.igi-tùm-lá: weigh'). pleasant poplar tree ('poplar tree' + 'good') . cf. im-šu-gub). im-gíd-da: small. im-babbar(2): gypsum.. im-þa-mun: a dark-colored earth used for a high-contrast dye ('clay. previous (year) ('the named').. cf. im-ma-al: milk cow (cf. greedy eyes. shear. width ('clay' + 'to hold').ùru: to be on guard. im-ma: last. select. 'depression') .. pluck'. 'sunrise' + locative). im-lá: container. coveting.suhhutum means 'pressed out') . Akk. im-du8-a: wall of rammed earth. a starving person ('eyes' + 'to obtain. im-þul: im-lag: evil wind ('wind' + 'evil').

IM: im-u18-lu: in-dal: in-dub: southwind ('wind' + 'storm'). to cut. im-šu: paragraph. loosen' + nominative). im-šu-gub: list tablet ('sections' + 'to write down'..gu7).. Sumerian Lexicon.gu7(-gu7): sig. good') . excessive words..TAK4. arrogance. hubris ('words' + 'to exceed'). straw ('straw' + nud.ñar: inim. inim.. bul).. to have a conversation. to rain ('storm' + 'to rain'). in-na: insult. an-na. to answer (with dative prefix and -ni -). to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down') .. to interpret.bu5-bu5: chaff ('straw' + 'to fly'). to claim ('word' + 'to set. to blow away the straw/chaff ('straw' + redup. IM×TAK4.. inim-inim-ma: compositions.bala: inim-búr-ra: inim-dirig: inim-dùg: inim.0 106 . 'to blow'. document ('clay' + 'to write' + nominative). cf.. to call back one's word (with bi -) ('word' + 'to to (produce) slander ('word' + 'low.dug4/du11/e: to say ('words' + 'to speak'). cf.... wisdom ('word' + 'word' + genitive ?)... in-ga-na-nam: it is also ('equally' + emphatic + 'to be'). im-šu-rin-na: oven.. fix').kíñ: to bring an action against someone (before the court). IM. extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion'). in. section. in-nam-gíd-da: in-nu(-da): inim. cf. in(-nu)(-šè). inim. TAK4. Version 3.. to seek or find the right word ('word' + 'to seek. in-nu: negation (cf.gub).. equally (frequently follows -gim ). TAK4. curse').šèñ: clay tablet.. im-ma. inim.ku5(-r): to swear ('word' + 'to cut. to translate ('words' + 'to revolve') .im-sar(-ra): im-si-sá: im. storehouse (rare variant of uš-gíd-da)... northwind ('wind' + 'straight')...dúb: to insult...gi4: return') . marked out border ('straw' + 'to heap up') . small' + 'to consume'. in.. to be cut out. good word ('word' + 'sweet.. breach of treaty ('words' + 'to dissolve.dé-a: cleaning straw after winnowing ('straw' + 'to pour' + nominative). in-ga-: again. eme- inim-sig.. 'yes').... 'bed' + genitive). fetch') ..

. ér). fire. to accuse (reduplication class) ('mouth' + 'to build. torch ('fire' + 'to raise up'). Version 3. learned ('words' + 'to know') ..dù: kuš to render a decision. kalû. soul').... izi. bowl (Akkadian loanword.. to search for clarification ('word' + 'to request. ka-dù: ka-dù-a. 'vessel'). ir-sim: Afroasiatic cognates). ka-gáraš-a: ka-guru7: granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo')...sè(-g)[SUM]: to imagine... Sumerian Lexicon. current. inim-sig-ga: inim...bar: ka. izi... izi-gi6-eden-na: izi-lá: izi.0 107 . is-þáb: ñiš fool ('organ' + 'foul-smelling'). a word of prayer ('word' + 'to pray' + nominative). coal ('fire-place' + 'liver. ka-aš-bar: decision ('mouth' + 'one' + 'to divide'.. to converse ('mouth' + 'to give').šub: to hurl fire ('fire' + 'to throw'). extinguish').. ízi[KI-IZI]-ur5: ka(-al)-lu5: a vessel. no indication of ir-si-im. fierce or accusing mouth.ba: ka. iz-zi8[ÑIŠ-KAL]: house wall. Orel & Stolbova #1423. small' + nominative). cf.te-en: ka-al: clay pit. a leather wrapping for part of the plow. ír: (cf. KA-dúb-ba: a field tool (?). 'to winnow').. é-sig4). a tool. fire approaches ('fire' + 'to approach').inim-ma. implore'). cf. one who knows the (proper) words. IŠ-gi4: iz-zi[ÑIŠ-ZI]. flood ('wood' + 'to rise up'. izi. fragrant aroma. spine') .ne-ne(-r): to fan the fire ('fire' + reduplicated nir. to purify with fire ('fire' + 'to raise up').. conceive an idea ('in a word' + 'to place').lá: shadow ('fire' + 'night' + 'steppe.. scent ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind'. ka-dù-dù: ka-duþ-a: ñiš with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominative)..šár: inim-zu: inim-šùd(-da): slander ('word' + 'low.sìg[PA]: izi.. demolish'). izi. eš-bar). ka-aš..te: to set on fire ('fire' + 'to knock down. *kalVy-.. to extinguish or calm a fire ('fire' + 'to calm... make'). catastrophe ('mouth' + 'military encampment' + nominative).

. chariot. to put together.. a type of fungus or rot ('mouth' + 'to decide.. (cf. way. zú..gi4(-gi4): ka-lu5: KA-nun.dug4: (dug) ñiš to measure or count commodities for accounting or taxation ('string' ? + 'to do') . cf. kiri 4 KA šu. an empty mouth ('mouth' + 'to be empty' + nominative).ur 5).. ka-al-lu 5).. Alster reads munus-kar-ke4) ('marketplace' + 'reed mat').. abul ). to take away ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away').... to destroy') .. supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar')... ka-tar. to become undone. ká-mè: wings of a temple door ('gate' + 'battle'). princely.. pleasing') . cart. praise. to praise ('praise' + sil... knock down'. gù-nun.. (cf. gù-nun.. KA. cf.. value') .di/e: ka.di/e: (cf.di/e). (cf.GAL: (cf.. to be clogged ('mouth' + 'to clasp') .kéš-(d): to organize. ka ki..0 108 .. káb. káb-dug4-ga: KAK+LIŠ-la(2): kak-ús: goad ('nail' + 'to drive'. an insulting mouth ('mouth' + 'to strike.. to reach the quay (in a boat) ('quay' + locative + 'to reach. disorganized (with -ta -).. KA×LI.sag9-sag9: ka-sìg[PA]: ka-sù-ga: ka-šakan: ka-ta-è: ka-tab: ka-tar: (cf..... regiment ('mouth.. kar(-ra). ka-al-ka-al: kal-la-kal-la: (munus) barren. path') . canal intake ('mouth' + 'river' + genitive).kar: šu. a sweet person ('mouth' + 'honey') . bar-úsurudu)..ÞAR: ka-íd-da: KA-kešda: path ('mouth' + 'feet. sig 14. empty ('to be rare').ñál: ka-ta. (cf.gi 4). 'to praise') .. utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out').si-il: KÁ... KA×LI.di/e ).ka-ñìri: KA. kal-kal.. word' + 'to bind') . kar-kid: prostitute (B. igi-sìg-sìg).. precious (reduplicated 'to esteem. challenger..ús: Sumerian Lexicon. to have an agreement.. to make the mouth pleasant ('mouth' + reduplicated 'good. highly esteemed or valued... a measuring jar with a capacity of 20 sìla . ká-bar-ra: outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + nominative).ñál). Version 3.zu-zu: ka-làl: to kiss the ground ('mouth' + 'ground' + reduplicated 'to know') .... moor to') .

run away') . cf... dark' + 'sweet.0 109 .sur: to urinate ('urine' + 'to expel a liquid').. to continue') .dar: rebellious country..aka). tie' + 'to carry'). excellent'). answer ('place' + 'exposed'). libation. to brew' + nominative). ki-bad-rá: distant places ('places' + 'to be at a distance' + nominative).. ki-áñ: beloved. rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt'). kaš-dùg/du10: kaš-gíg: kaš-kal: kaš-si4: kaš-sig5: kaš-sig15: kaš-sur-ra: sweet drink ('beer' + 'sweet. kaš-dé-a: banquet. (cf.. Sumerian Lexicon. ki-tuš ) ('place' + 'to dwell (plural)')... secret.. ki-á-áñ-(ñá): the place of issuing orders (cf. good dark beer ('beer' + 'black. 'instructions. to show affection ('ground' + 'to measure' = the first recorded euphemism ?.. to make flat... obscure point ('place' + 'to cover. cf. á-áñ-ñá.. adj. to clear a road ('road' + 'to place. pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press. fresh') . to engrave.. ki-en-gi 7(-r) ). to break the ground ('ground' + 'to split'. kaš-dé. Version 3.aka: to put on a banquet ('banquet' + 'to do') . cf. 'to desire'. or the result of popular etymology from kam(2).kar: ke-en-ge-ra: kéš-de6: ki-a-nañ: to run ('speed' + 'to effect') . kàš. put in. zíd-sig15). valuable'.áñ-(ñ): to love (someone: with dative infix. orders') . party ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominative). something: with locative/loc. solution. dark beer ('beer' + 'black. ki-di-ku5-da/ru: ki-dul: ki-dúr: place of judicial decisions ('place' + 'decisions' + 'to cut. or adv.... hide') . ki.. light beer ('beer' + 'pleasing.dug4/du11/e: kaš4-di: kaš4. ki-bala: ki-búr: ki. cf. decide' + nominative without/with vowel harmony). a fish measure ('to join. good beer ('beer' + 'good... running.. fresh' + nominative). kaš4. dark'). fine quality') .kaskal. death offering ('place' + 'water' + 'to water').de6: ki..-terminative infix). libation place. reddish-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown'). ki-in-dar). to run fast ('speed' + 'to escape.. kaš-gíg-dùg-ga: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong. ki-ná. nest or den for animals (plural.sig10/sì(-g): even') . to bury ('ground' + 'to bring...

ki-in-dar: hole. riverbank. path') . leaves..gi4: ki-gibil-gibil-lá: ki-gub(-ba): ki-ñar: big place. to bring success ('place' + šár. ki-iz: to trim. restore'). cf.. settled place. piš10. (cf. lú-ki-inim-ma ) ('place' + 'oath' + genitive). place where something is built ('ground' + 'to place') . ki-kal-la-kal-la: hard ground ('ground' + 'strong'. di-ir-ga ). return [to its] place) constant renewal ('place' + reduplicated 'renewal' + nominative)... cf. Version 3. ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). the earth ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to walk') .... ki-e-ne-di: ki-è: ki-gal: playing ground. 'great Heavens').. to restore (usually with bi -. kankal). crevice ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to split'.A]) ('ground' + 'moist'). lift'). where weight refers to area or volume. socle ('place' + 'to stand' + nominative).. mourning rites ('ground' + 'to destroy.kíñ. ki.ki-duru5: parts of the field where the ground is moist and productive. peš10. generosity (cf..ñar: ki-ñìri: ki-þul: ki-ñiš-ñiš-lá: ki. abundance' + 'to establish') . ki-en-gi(-r): ki-(bi-šè). or with dative prefix) (lit. (place of) dancing (also read as ešemen ) ('place' + 'to play'). ki-dar). esteem' + nominative). to paw the ground ('ground' + 'to scratch') .0 110 . battlefield ('place' + 'tools' + 'to raise'. grounds.. or vegetation) (cf. guz).. arrangement ('area' + 'to weigh. excavation.ñar: ki-šè. place of testimony (cf.. silo.. ground' + 'to seek. kin-gi4-a). kin: ki-kúkku: dark place ('place' + 'dark'). empty')..denoting the object of the search) ('place. to seek (with -ši . exit ('place' + 'to go out') . shape.. great Earth (as opposed to an-gal . 'to be many. station. assigned place to stand. cellar granary. a place of reed mats ('place' + 'reed mat'). foundations ('place' + 'big').or bi -) ('ground' + 'to place') . to clean (of hair. to found. grave. evil') . path ('place' + 'feet. ki-kal-kal-la: ki-kalag: ki-kid: scour') the very precious place ('place' + reduplicated 'to value.. ki-gul-la: waif ('ground' + 'to fall upon' + nominative. cf. Sumerian Lexicon. ki-in-gi4-a: (cf. ('place' [ + 'its' + 'to' ] + 'to return.. ñiš-ñiš-lá). pešx[KI. gul-lum). the barren place = the netherworld ('place' + 'barren. Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble.. cf. establish (a building or town) (often with -ni .þur: ki-in-du: ki-inim-ma: ki-ir-ga: to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set') . ki. native') .. to scratch the earth. ki-lal/lá(-bi): (its) weight. way...ñar: ki-še-er.

'to calm down'). set' + nominative)..0 111 .to gather') .tag: ki. to delimit'). ki-ná: sleeping quarters. to bring') . Sumerian Lexicon.tùm: ki-še-er: to fix the boundary ('place' + 'ditch. pay attention to. kislaþ). calendar month 5 at Ur during Ur III.lá: ki-lugal-gub(-ba): ki-ma-an-zé-er: ki-maþ: ki-lul-la: place of murder or violence ('place' + 'malicious act' + genitive).. lower ('ground' + locative with remote deixis). enclosure. to bury (a dead person) ('ground' + 'to prepare. to heed.ri: ki-sá-a: ki-saþar: ki-sì-ga: iti resting place ('place' + ní. to make obeisance ('to kiss the ground' + 'to do') .te-en.. ki-sikil: ki-a.. ki. everywhere ('place' + 'totality'). threshing floor.... še-er-tab-ba).aka: to make love ('bed' + 'to do') .ñiš ki-lá: water meter.zé-er).. ki-sig-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 4 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3.. young woman. ki-ná. to lay the foundation ('ground' + 'to adorn') . KI. ki-su-ub. bedding ('place' + 'bed'). ki-nam-nitaþ: battlefield ('place' + 'manliness').NE: (cf.. grave. ñìri. to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck') ..aka: ki-sug8. ki-sum-ma: onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive). select fallow land whose surface was conditioned to act as a threshing floor ('land' + 'threshing floor'.. cavity in the ground ('place' + 'fierce'). funerary offering. to lay on the ground.. cf. a slippery place ('a place where it slips for me'.sur: ki-šár: ki-šúr: ki-X-ta: ki. 'to be many'. ki-ninda-gu7: to scratch the ground ('ground' + 'to touch .. 'in the great courtyard'. ki. Version 3.. ki-sá-al-ma-þe: place of silt deposits ('place' + 'silt'). ki-ní-te: ki. quarantine hut ('ground' + 'to place. calendar month 5 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand') ... socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominative). high place. disbursed by X ('from the place of X'). ki-ta: below. cf... place of honor. syllabic writing for kisal-maþ-e . virgin ('place' + 'pure').. fence. cf. horizon.. bed. limit ('place' + šár.su-ub: to kiss the ground. place to eat bread ('place' + 'bread' + 'to eat'). ki-su7: to kiss the ground. dinig and nemur).... grave ('place' + 'exalted'). snake hole.

aka: to put to work ('orders' + terminative + 'to do'). Sumerian Lexicon.aka: to work. (cf.. hold') . to manufacture ('orders' + 'to do')... sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue') . kìri[KA]-zal: prosperity. deliver').. kíñ-dInanna: calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III. sharp edge ('place' + 'teeth' + 'mill stone..ñá: kíñ-gi4-a: iti construction work ('tasks' + 'to build.. splendor.ús: to set on the ground.til: to finish one's work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). kíñ ).túmu: to obtain homage. kíñ-sig(7/17)(-g). dry'). ki-zú-ur5-ra: KÍD-alam: kíñ/kinku6: kí-sa: (cf. knowledge').. ki-umun2-(m): KI-UD(-k): desert land ('place' + 'sun.. join').bad. envoy. ki-dúr ) ('place' + 'to sit. to work ('orders' + 'to make. evening. kíñ. kíñ-saþar: earth-moving work ('tasks' + 'earth. large beer container ('place' + 'idea. living grounds ('place' + 'roofs'). dwelling place (singular. ki.. hammering work ('tasks' + 'to strike.za: remote'). cool kíñ-sig-gin7: kíñ. ki-uri: the land of Akkade ('place' + 'protectors ?') ...... to throw to the ground. time of the evening meal. kíñ[-kíñ].. to establish (often with ni-) ('ground' + 'to moor. message ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who') . kíñ-dù-a: kíñ-dúb-ba: kíñ.. submit (reduplication class) ('ground' + 'to make a repetitive motion') . kìri/kir4[KA]-dib/dab: groom (for leading donkeys and horses and as a title of a court official) ('nose' + 'to catch. to bow down. kíñ-šè. dwell (singular)'). silt').ki-tuš: seat. evening meal. a fish. to assign work ('orders' + 'to keep alive'). to make homage far from ('homage' + 'to be at a distance. ki. kíñ-se11/12(-g): of the evening ('tasks' + 'late')... messenger..0 112 . ki-zàþ: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide'). wonderful ('nose' + 'to shine') . "place of knowledge" (school)...ti: kin: na4 during the evening ('evening' + 'during') .. to chew' + nominative). cf.. ki-za. to refuse obeisance ('homage' + 'to obtain'). to touch the ground.sù: ki-za. Version 3. kín-an-na: upper millstone ('millstone' + 'to be high' + nominative). ki-ùr: territory. hammer' + nominative). erect' + nominative). ki-za. gi-sa). splendid.

kišib-ñál: seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have'). erudite. kù-dam-taka4: kù-dím: kù-du8: kù-ñál: kù. impress').. to lose money ('silver' + 'loss' ( + plural marker + 'to enter. kù-zu-nì-nam-ma: the all wise ('expert' + níñ-na-me. ku6-a-dé: fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour. kù-im-ba(-aš. goldsmith.dù: kiš-nu-ñál: to sneeze ('nose' + 'cold') . water'). ransom money (for a slave) ('silver' + 'to untie').dug4: dug to profit ('solid base' + 'to heap.2 liters ('solid base' + 'true measure'). clever.1. make'). to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on') . to sniff at.. silver' + 'to clean' + nominative). prosperity ('dam in a stream' + 'to be full. one who has silver ('silver' + 'to have')... sea fish ('fish' + 'sea' + genitive). to sneer at ('nose' + 'to smell'). kisal-maþ: main courtyard ('courtyard' + 'foremost').. kiri4. to subpoena ('seal' + 'to roll... pile up' + 'to speak. ku-nu: to approach. Version 3. KU-KU: ancestors (?) ('to found. a standard size clay beer pot in range 0.5 . kù-luþ-þa: refined silver ('noble metal. kù-babbar: silver ('noble metal' + 'white'). wisdom ('bright' + 'to know'). to lie down') .. 'anything' + genitive).. kiri4 šu.te-en: kiri4.. to lay out a garden ('garden' + 'to set up. turn into'). to be near.kiri4-šu-dù: supplication(s) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to fasten. metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion') .ra(-ra): to seal.. gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow'). kù-zu: expert.. do') .ku4): to settle an account ('silver' + 'to weigh').. to plant') . silversmith. kišib.. cumin (Elamite ? loanword).. joy.ñál: to pay homage to.lá: kù-sig17: kù-tuku: divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person') . ku-dun. dragonfly ('friend' + 'sky' + genitive).. ku-li-an-na: ku-mul: friend of heaven. inspector ('silver' + 'to have'). kú: (cf. brightly lit ('the city of Kish' + 'lamps' + 'to have') . ku6-ab-baku6: Sumerian Lexicon. apply') . abundant') . gu7).ur5: kiri4-zal: kiri6. ku-kur-dù: a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould. ku-li: friend.0 113 ..

ku6-banšur-ra: ku6-dar-ra: ku6-íl: kug: fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive).... la-gal: (cf. to run ('herd' ( + ground) + 'to touch') . mythological sea monster ?. vigor (reduplicated 'happiness') . to be long') . chief'). appeal. to treat or dress skin ('leather' + 'to raise up. mountain of cedar trees ('mountain' + 'cedar' + genitive). la-ga: (cf.. charms. to sneak away.. kuš7.. leather cord ('leather' + 'to hang. kun-kà-an. kušu/kušumx(-ki). inspection record.dù: kuš-dù: kuš-lá: kuš-nañ: supreme over the lands ('lands' + locative + 'to be supreme' + nominative). treated or flayed skin.. geese ('mountains' + 'to return').. to inspect ('to watch.. lookout' + 'to do') ... ku6-engur(-ra-k): kud-kud-rá: (cf. deep mountain ('mountain' + 'low').. leather water pail or hose ('leather' + 'to drink'). staircase of the sanctuary ('tail. make'). kun-zi(-da): kur-ñišerin-na: kur-gal: ('mountain' + 'big').di: kur7.aka: kur7-aka: kuš.. to wag a tail. to crawl. staircase' + 'head. kù ). abundance. lag). Version 3. to speak hostile words ('hostile' + 'to speak') . kùš-numun: in the Akkad period. kur-ra diri-ga: kur-sig: kúr. a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative). long-haired hero(s) ?. fish-pond fish.0 114 . fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry').sud/sù/su: la-ag: (cf. strap') . a length measure equal to 2 cubits. to level. fish of the marshes ('fish' + 'fresh waters' + genitive).a metaphor for temples and for Sumer as a place where earth and sky meet kur-gi4mušen: goose.tag: la-þa-ma: la-la: joy.. 2 ÑIŠ-BAD.za: kun-sañ: to bubble (see the definition for za). kuš-dù-dù: leather-dresser. lú-la-ga).. = 1 meter.. great mountain . Sumerian Lexicon. kun-zi(-da): ku6 weir ('canal reservoir' + 'to strengthen') . kun-su3/13(-su3/13): long-tailed ('tail' + 'to stretch. lagar ). to devastate ('devastation' + 'to immerse') . dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice' + nominative).

lug). lalla). may be a connection to ia4. cf. despot ('man' + 'large'). interpret (a dream)' + nominative with vowel harmony). lú-búr-ru: interpreter (of omens/dreams) ('person' + 'to reveal. 'clay.. pond ('honey. 'to speak' + nominative). bathe' + nominative). date syrup' + 'ring') .. stag (Akkadian loanword ?. lu-gú: to twist. hostile'). beet ('abundant' + 'container') . 'jail' and šaña. influential person ('man' + 'strength' + 'to have'). but Hebrew/Arabic LH/LHH means 'moist'. exercise tablet (loan from Akkadian liginnu). be crooked. turnip. lagab na4 za-gìn-na: a block of lapis lazuli ('block' + 'lapis lazuli' + genitive). pasture' + 'thousand') . mythological lake. lu-ga: (cf. é-éše. don't find Semitic parallels to Akk. difference.. lum.aka: ('leather bag' + 'testicles' + locative case ending + 'to do') . Sumerian Lexicon.. lú-ñišbala: man of the spindle ('man' + 'spindle'). lunch bag ('abundant' + 'container') . Version 3. 'fertilizer. lunga ) ('man' + 'beer bread').lá-ìa[NI]: remainder of debt left over. cf. ningi . 'captive'). arrears ('to weigh. cf. minus' + 'oil'. Li9-si4: calendar month 9 at Umma during Ur III. lú-a-tu5(-a): a priest who bathes the statues of the deities and rulers ... manager of the treasure-house ('man' + 'house' + 'treasure' + double genitive [a]k- lú-é-níñ-ka: lú-érim: lú-éše: enemy ('man' + 'evil. leather bag for holding food.. luhummû. 'to graze.'to wash' + imi. opposing party (in a legal case) ('man' + 'law suit' + 'with'). prisoner ('man' + 'rope'. làl-þar: li-gi4-in: iti d li-um. lú-dam-tuku: lú-di-da: lú-du-du: a[k]). cf. lú-á-tuku: strong man. mud'. brewer (cf. to prepare (gold or silver) for the precious sack (by sifting) lu-úb: lu-úb-šir(-ra).. ru-gú). lú-gi-di(-da): lú-gu-la: piper ('man' + 'reed' + di-dé. lú-gi-gíd-da: flutist ('man' + 'reed' + 'long' + nominative).0 115 . not straight ('numerous' + 'edge'. manure'). lu-þu-um: lu-lim: lu-úbsar: kuš kuš mud (luþ. lú-bappir(2/3): lú-bar-ra: foreigner ('person' + 'outside' + genitive). vagabond ('man' + reduplicated 'to walk'). 'counter'.lustration priest ('man' + 'water' + 'to wash. le-um: plate. lú-ga-šum: assassin ('man' + 'I will' + 'to slaughter'). a married person ('person' + 'spouse' + 'to have') .

lú-ñiš-e3/11: lú-im/tum9: lú-inim-ma: lú-kal-(l): lú-kaš4: doorkeeper. acquaintance ('man' + su-a. treacherous man ('man' + 'lies' + genitive). peel. witness ('person' + 'word' + genitive). cf. 'wind man': unreliable person ('man' + 'wind'). debtor ('man' + 'thing' + 'not' + 'to have') . lú-ní-zu(-/ak/): thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'your' + genitive).. numerous individuals. lú-þun-ñá: hired worker ('man' + 'to hire' + nominative). myriads ('men. uš7. expose. lú-šuku-ra-ke4-ne: persons with allotted portions ('allotted portions' + genitive + plural). doorman ('man' + 'key'). lú-ní-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'one's own' + 'to steal. split' + nominative). river ordeal. u4-na- lú-lul(-la): lú.. friend. incantation priest (cf. mu7. and sig14)... lú-ki-inim-ma: lú-kúr-ra: stranger. wealthy person ('man' + 'thing' + 'to have'). no man does X ('man' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'no. tu6. lú-tu-ra: a sick person ('person' + 'to be weak.. to decide an insoluble legal case. ma-la-(g)). enemy ('man' + 'mountains. rich man. not'. oppose') . 'to withstand.nu-tuku).. healthy') .ŠE: (cf. lú-silim: lú-su-a: lú-šár: LÚ. lú-kurun(-/ak/): brewer. lú-KA×LI-KA×LI: dear one ('person' + 'precious') . release. zug4. Version 3. lú-nam-tag-ga: sinner ('man' + 'guilt' + genitive).. níga).nu-: me. innkeeper ('man' + 'alcoholic drink' (+ genitive)). intractable individual(s) ('man' + ru-gú. rob'). lú-níñ-nu-tuku: lú-níñ-tuku: lú-ru-gú: lú-ru-gú-da: poor man. ru-gú). people' + 'to be many') . lú-kar-ra: refugee ('person' + 'to escape' + nominative). lú-la-ga: lú-má-gur8: robber (cf. foreign country' + genitive).. which involved swimming a certain distance and returning to shore without being pulled under by the current ('man' + 'to send' + 'river bank' + 'to be near'. sick' + nominative).na-me. Sumerian Lexicon. courier ('man' + 'fast runner'). unfaithful. boat captain ('man' + 'large boat')... perfect man ('man' + 'good. witness ('person' + 'place' + 'oath' + genitive). lú še bad-rá: to thresh ('man' + 'grain' + 'to open.lú-gub-ba: ecstatic ('man' + 'to stand' + nominative). cf.0 116 . 'cat'). recalcitrant..

2 ma-na = 1 sìla of water) (Akk. maatu(m) I. 'reed bundle') . má-da-lá: má-diri-ga: má-DU-DU(-d): má-egir-ra: nominative). barge captain ('boat' + ?. ride' + nominative). má-laþ4/5). fugitive ('man' + 'to flee').. ñiš má. ma-da: district. rob'). cf. = 60 še ..GA. ma-az: exuberant.. ma-mu(2)-(d): dream ('it is growing for me').dug4: lum-ma: (gi) to tell a lie ('lie' + 'to speak'). ma-ra-az: (gi) (ñiš) (gi) ñiš lú ma-sá(-ab): a basket ('to bind' + 'to equal in value' (+ 'container') ?. joyful. a thick bundle of reeds used to build rafts ('boat' + 'to hold near' + 'to strap. merciful king ('king' + 'merciful'). the boat sailing downstream ('boat' + 'to float (with the current)' + nominative). runaway. cornel (?). ma-an-sim: sieve ('it sifts for me'). lugal-šà-lá-sù: lul. lú-zu(-a): acquaintance ('person' + 'to know' + nominative). ma-na: a unit of weight measure. productive' + nominative).0 117 . human being ('humans' + 'huge' [ + 'numerous']). as a volume measure. firewood bundle ('to bind' + nu11. lú-zi(-d): righteous. good man ('man' + 'faithful. ma-al: Emesal dialect for ñál.. Semitic root means 'circle').. (ñiš) má-gan-an-naki: (ñiš) má-gi(4)-lum: Sumerian Lexicon. little mina = 1/3 shekel = 60 surface še = 720 square fingers.si(-g): to keep silent ('lie' + 'to stay silent'). 'fire'). bridge'). bind') .. manûm. 'land'). lú-zuþ: thief ('man' + 'to steal. 500 grams = 60 gín (since Akkad period.lú-u5-a: lú-u18-um: lú-zàþ: rider ('man' + 'to mount. má-addir: ferryboat ('boat' + 'ferry. lul. name of a breed of small cattle (possible Semitic loanword). mina = ca. true'). ma-na-tur: a surface area measure. ñiš ma-nu: dwarf ash (?). 'an obscene name for the female genitalia' per Landsberger) .. a female dancer. realm (Akkadian. the stern of a boat ('boat' + 'back' + nominative).du8: to caulk a boat ('boat' + 'to spread with pitch') . ma-la-(g): friend (among females) ('to bind' + LA. a fecund female ('to be fertile. Version 3.. 'to count') . Magan (a country on the sea route to India) ('boats' + 'support' + 'to be high' + a type of small sailing boat ('boat' + gilim. lú-u18[ÑIŠGAL]-(lu): mankind. (variant of ma-az ).

(cf. má. mar-uru5). (tu15) mar-uru5[TU/GUR8]: gazelle (cf. sailor. deep'). cf. powerfully ('great' + adverbial force suffix) . Version 3. flood (cf.. load') . head' + nominative). calendar month 2 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. má-lá: cargo boat ('boat' + 'to extend. riding with the wagon ('wagon' + comitative + 'to be located' + nominative). má. má-ñéš-gur: (ñiš) lú a boat of sixty-gur capacity ('boat' + 'sixty' + kor basket measure). loanword from maškanum. má-laþ4/5: má-nisañ-ñá: ñiš ñiš má-ru-ru-gú: má-sañ-ñá: the bow of a boat. má-tùn[GÍN]: má(-a).. bandage') . to tow a barge ('boat' + 'to draw. calendar month 2 at Ur during Ur III. to embark ('boat' + 'to mount'). maþ-bi: ñiš ñiš adv.(ñiš) (ñiš) má.. cargo boat. šakaanum 'to place') (ZATU356 archaic frequency: 4). yield ('profit. 'location. the boat sailing upstream ('boat' + 'to move in a direction opposite to [the current]') .. má-su(-a): sunken boat ('boat' + 'submersed' + nominative). Amorite .. concatenates 2 sign variants] . agricultural income.du8).. maš-gána: maš-ñi6: maš-ki: Sumerian Lexicon. má(-a). pot stand ('boat' + 'high.gíd: to sail (with -da-). prow ('boat' + 'point.. floodstorm (cf. produce..ñar: to load a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to place'). settlement (Akk. má-še(-/ak/): grain boat ('boat' + 'grain' + genitive)... asphalt specialist ('boat' + 'to bind. é-mar-uru 5) ('to immerse' + 'high.... barge captain ('boat' + 'to drive along') .Semitic nomad of the western desert ('wagon' + 'to be born') . pull. mà-ùr: ravine. yield' + 'earth'). má-gur8: a large boat.. mašda ). boat with first-fruit offerings ('boat' + 'first-fruits' + nominative).0 118 ... gorge ('to go' ? + 'mountain pass') . ñar7-dú: nomad. wagon ('wagon' + 'to draw.. deep') [MAGUR archaic frequency: 5. MAR-TU[-KI]. tow' + nominative). maš-dà: iti maš-dù-gu7: calendar month 1 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3. ñiš ñiš ñiš ñiš (cf.su: má-sù-a: ñiš má(-a)-si-ga: describes products used to fill a boat ('boat' + 'in' + 'to fill' + nominative). site'. máš-ñi 6). mar-da ri-a: mar-gíd-da: mar-ru10[TU/GUR8]: mar-sa: lú boat transport center ('to lock up' + 'to compensate') . pull').u5: to go on board. a deep-draught boat ('boat' + 'empty' + nominative).

you (plural) ('to be' + '2nd person plural ending') . (cf. the beneficial functions. a type of priest .. how numerous are. me-en-dè(-en): me-en-zè(-en): -me-eš: me-gal: we. maš-ñi6: night-time vision. especially in late Sumerian and Akkadian context texts. all the functions of civilized life.ñar: me-þuš: to make silent ('divine decree' + 'to set') . ñiš me-dím: ship's railing (?) ('function' + 'to build') .. provide') . the good 'me's.(great) exorcist (reduplicated 'goat kid. maš-da-rá-a: máš-ñi6. máš.probably the Indus valley civilization in Pakistan.. 'function' ('to be' + '1st & 2nd person ending') .. all the 'me's. livestock ('goats' + 'equids') . I. me-kìlib-ba: me-lám/li9(-m). halo. light (myth. me-li-e-a: 'woe is me'.) ('divine power' + 'awe-inspiring quality. good' + nominative). me-te. dream.ñál: me. me-lim5[LAM]: me-lám. loan interest.šub: describes an animal dropping or birthing its young ('goat' + 'to drop')..maš-maš(-gal): profit')... angry') . to shine') . us ('to be' + '1st person plural ending') ..? ('how ?' + 'numerous') . to prepare something for the sake of one of the civilized functions ('me ' + locative + 'to be suitable... great office ('function' + 'great').0 119 . omen ('goat/extispicy' + 'black/night').túm: me-a.. aura. me-àm: where is ? ('to be' + locative + enclitic copula). ('civilization's functions' + reduplicated me-du10-du10-ga: 'sweet. to be fitting ('fitting thing' + 'to be'). terrible 'me's. máš-lulim: hind (female of the red deer) (smaller goat-like animal + 'stag. hart'). máš-da-ri-a. negative attributes ('functions' + 'terrible.. furnish. animals. to prepare') . máš-niga: grain-fed kid (smaller goat-like animal + 'fattened').... also a writing for me. šu-maš-gíd-gíd ). a country . mí-a: me-a. me-en: I am. offering ('goat kid' + 'driven [animal]').sù-sù: me-luþ-þaki: me-maþ: terrifying glance. exalted'). Version 3. maš-šu-gíd-gíd: maš-tab-ba: máš-anše: young twins ('twin' + 'to be double' + nominative).lu(-lu): breeding he-goat ('he-goat' + 'she-goat' + genitive). the high functions ('function' + 'high. one-half. used as plural suffix. radiance. splendor. where ?. to deck with splendor ('splendor' + 'to strew. the high 'me's. how ? ('to be' + locative). Sumerian Lexicon. máš-ùz-da(-k): me-a.

crown of heaven and earth ('crown' + 'heaven' + 'earth' + genitive). to praise. heifer. tatoos. mer). to take great care with (often with -ni -) mí. how will X attain or succeed ('function' + comitative + 'to obtain') . mè-šen(-šen-na): battle. men-ri-ba. men-rib-ba: supreme crown ('crown' + 'supreme'). men-dalla: beaming crown ('crown' + 'beam. suitability. to be numerous' + nominative). sediment' (ñiš) mi-tum: a mace (Akkadian. me-nam-nun-na: me-nì-galam: along with himself ('to be' + 'self' + 'with'). to be bright'). mi-ir: Emesal dialect for ñíri. me-te-ñál-sañ-ñi6-ga: me(-da). befit ('to be its fitting thing') . ornament.dug4/du11/e: MÍ-eden-na: MÍ-gir: MÍ-u5-a: MÍ-u8: mí-ús-sá: ('female' + 'to speak. son-in-law ? ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value') . such as national totems. me-šè: where to?. unique. ray. mi-rí: (cf. mí-ús-sá-tur: son-in-law ('woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value' + 'young. (ñiš) sieve. perfected 'me's ('functions' + 'thing' + 'artistic.. young cow ('female' + 'young heifer').. to fill' + 'sand. how long? ('to be' + èn. to where ? ('to be' + terminative).. little'). 'scorpion'. men-sañ: head-crown ('crown' + 'head'. 'time. complicated') . Sumerian Lexicon. Version 3. until' + enclitic copula). until' + terminative). bride ?. caress. proper dress ('function' + 'to meet'). 'dead man') . the (god-given) 'me' of royalty ('function' + 'rulership' + genitive). ewe lamb ('female' + 'ewe'). miitum. moray eel (?) ('dark'(?) + 'ray-like. 'time.. to handle gently.. selected for breeding ('female' + 'to mount' + nominative).. cf. me-šár-ra. me-ša-ra: all the 'me's ('functions' + 'totality. sañ-men). costumes or other symbols of the Sumerians ('ornament' + 'to be' + 'the black-headed' + genitive).me-na-àm: me-na-šè: me-ni-da: when? ('to be' + èn.. do'). me-re: Emesal dialect for ñìri. ñiš mi-rí-tum: a musical instrument (loanword). rub. me-a ).tùm: men-an-uraš-a: adornment of the black-headed people. me-te: fitting thing.0 120 . MI(-si)-saþar(-ra)(ku6): + genitive/locative). me-te-bi-im: to suit. war ('battle' + 'copper implement'). mí-a: (cf. she-ass of the steppe ('female' + 'steppe' + genitive).

delivery (personal prefix + 'to bring'). mu-dili-dili: individual entries (in a lexical series) ('entry.. mu-X: year X (indicates a date according to a notable event that occurred during the year).. the following year ('year' + 'to follow' + nominative). to choose ('name' + 'to call. emmer groats. 'to give birth' + 'human being') .. because (in a nominalized sentence).. previous') . mun-gazi: spices. múru).0 121 . mud-ñál: mun-du: begetter ('to give birth' + 'to be') .. mu-dur7[BU](-ra): assigned lines ('word.. to swear by the king's name ('name' + king + 'to call. mundu). an acceptable food offering for the dead (Akk. mu. appear') .dun: to sort out the tow (from the usable. an industrial process of reducing the volume of goods by pulverizing until 'like salt' ('salt' + 'cassia spice') . to give as name ('name' (+ terminative) + 'to name'). spouse (mud.iti min-èš: calendar month 7 at Umma during Ur III..sa4: túg mu-ru(-b): (cf. to invoke. Sumerian Lexicon. calendar month 9 at Lagaš during Ur III. mu6[PA]-sùb: shepherd (PA as mu6 only occurs in this compound + 'shepherd') . feverish' + nominative).šè: iti because ('name' + terminative). mu-sír-ra: mourning garment ('garment' + personal prefix + 'weak. murub4. sentence' + 'to set down') .pàd/pà: mu(-šè). for somebody's sake ('name' + genitive + mu-. mu-dù-ù-bi: mu-gub: all year long ('year' + 'to work' + 'after' + 'it')... swear'). mu-lá: (cf. line on a tablet' + reduplicated 'single'). mu-ša-lum: mirror (Akkadian loanword). mu þé-ñál-la: a year of abundance ('year' + 'overflow. mu-ud-na: mu-ús-sa: mú-mú: always being reborn (such as the moon) (reduplicated 'to ignite. mu. mu-im-ma: mu-mu-a: last year ('year' + 'last. swear'). longer fibers) ('tow' + 'to heap up').pàd/pà: mu-lugal. gal5-la). mug.. this year ('year' + ? + nominative).. to sprout. word' + 'to write' + nominative). to name.. mu-sar-ra: (royal) inscription ('name. morning meal (time)... abundance' + genitive). Version 3. dirt. dirty (rags). mu-šu-du7: mu-tuku: mu-túm: mu-ú-a: to be famous ('name' + 'to have').-a(k)-šè: terminative). among all names = among known persons (reduplicated 'name' + locative).

Version 3. tell') ... incense ('incense' + 'fire').. mùš. 'advice. 'shepherd') ..dub: comb or set hair ('appearance' + 'to heap up') . to cease ('appearance' + 'to prepare') . forage. weight' + 'inside' + 'cloth garment') .ri(-g): (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to pick'). equal') .de5[RI]: to give advice. inanimate pronominal prefix + e. (cf. plant' + nominative).. indicating a place for cattle to be inseminated). to fell trees (cf.ri6.. loanword.. appearance' + 'to say. shell . after ('back' + ablative). na(4)-rú-a: ñiš stele. a cattle pen (Akk. na-RI: instructions (cf.ri(-g) ) (prohibitive/affirmative + 'to advise') . múrgu[LUM]-. anvil ('weight' + 'hand..de 5) herdsman (from Akkadian naaqidum... fodder.. reservoir created by erecting embankments off to the side of a canal to which to divert some of the flood water within the canal ('drink' + 'to cut')..de6/túm: mùš-me: mušen-dù: na-ab-bé-a: to stop working. na-DU: read na. conjugation prefix + b... divine bed ('bed' + 'fruit. strength' + 'partner. na. sides' + 'plump. fool ('human being' + 'to deliver' + 'spittle' ?). slavery ('human being' + 'to check. nañ-TAR: Sumerian Lexicon. na-gada: na-ñá-aþ: na-izi: na-nam: na-kab-tum: indeed. to counsel in a friendly way (cf. 3rd person marû singular subject marker + nominal) . city ruler beverage ('drink' + 'city ruler' + genitive). lizard ('reptile'+ 'arms. big'). painful') .de6 or na. lung cancer (?) ('lungs' + 'illness. múš. measure' + 'slave') .0 122 .. fowler ('bird' + 'to mould')..-ta: murub4: calendar month 4 at Umma during Ur III.. na. to inspect. dedicatory stone ('stone' + 'to erect. muš-da-gur4: gecko. na(-šè).. instructions.mur-gig: mur-gu4: iti paralysis (?). 'to speak' in marû singular + e. instructions'.. calendar month 5 at Lagaš during Ur III. thus does he/she speak (affirmative + î. flowers' + genitive).. feed ('fodder' + 'domestic ox').. turtle carapace. na-áñ-gi4-in: na. na-DU). (munus) munu4-gu7: munus-kar-ke4: murgu-ba: iti kar-kid).used as a mixing bowl or trough ('back' + 'turtle'). ná-gi4-rin-na: na4-šag4-túg: na4-šu-mìn: nañ-énsi-ka: nañ-ku5: stone weight for cloak ('pebble. to be sick.. face. to cleanse. features ('face. drinking water reservoir ('drink' + 'to separate') .

ruler') .. trade (abstract prefix + 'merchant'). naña. nam-ab-ba: the older generation. worker'). alkali' + 'to crush. Version 3. nam-kalag: strength (abstract prefix + 'strong'). elders (abstract prefix + 'father. nam-érim. nam-ama: nam-bára: nam-dam: motherhood (abstract prefix + 'mother').dúb: naña-gaz: naña-kum: to wash with soap ('soap' + 'to flop about. gi4-me-a-aš).. naña-si-è: sprouted alkaline plant ('soapwort' + 'antennae' + 'to go forth') . destruction'). cleverness (abstract prefix + 'expert'). nam-a-zu: medical arts (abstract prefix + 'physician') . monarchy (abstract prefix + 'throne dais. crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. come back' + 'office. nam-kiri4-šu-dù-a: supplication(s) (abstract prefix + 'supplication(s)'). feeling of importance (abstract prefix + 'to feel big'). lordship. nam-dugud: heaviness.su-ub: to rub with soap ('soap' + 'to suck [away with]'). perfection (abstract prefix + 'artistic. nam-á-ñál: strength (abstract prefix + 'arm. nam-galam(-ma): nam-gi4-me-a-aš: nam-gur4: nam-þé: nam-þul: nam-išib: majesty. fellowship (abstract prefix + 'to return. nam-érin: solemn oath. collegiality. to decide ('destiny' + 'to cut') . function' + locative + plural suffix) (cf. nam-guruš: youthful vigor (abstract prefix + 'young man. high priest (abstract prefix + 'lord'). alkali' + 'to crush...kar: to take away one's destiny ('destiny' + 'to take away').. abundance (abstract prefix + 'abundant') . expertise. complicated' + nominative). strike') . nam. something favorable (abstract prefix + 'sweet') ... elder'). bruise') . curse (abstract prefix + 'enemy. nam-en-zi-da: true 'en'-ship ('lordship' + 'legitimate. pain.naña. nam.0 123 .. office of lord. marital status (abstract prefix + 'spouse') . childhood. true' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon. nam-dam-gàr: nam-dùg/du10: nam-dumu: nam-en: nam-diñir: divinities (abstract prefix + 'deity'). nam-kù-zu: wisdom. youth (abstract prefix + 'child').kud/ku5: to curse (often with -ta -). purification. strength' + 'to be available'). importance (abstract prefix + 'heavy').. pride. nam-ki-áña: love (abstract prefix + 'to love') . crushed soda (plant ?) ('soda. discomfort (abstract prefix + 'to harm'). powder') .

dug4/du11/e: nam(-ga)-me-a/àm: nam-mu: nam-mul: nam-nin: nam-nar: may he/she/it not be (na. used for work. captivity (abstract prefix + 'to impress with a seal').nam-ku-li: friendship (abstract prefix + 'friend'). prohibitive + î. distinction. reputation. prohibitive prefix + nasal î. quarreling. nam-maþ.. purification (abstract prefix + 'to clean') . fine. to swear. harmony (abstract prefix + 'musician'). great'). to exalt ('greatness' + 'to effect') . position of supreme power (abstract prefix + 'queen') .. 'why' + 'my. why does it concern me? (a-na-àm. nam-RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) (abstract prefix + 'to tend' + 'bird').. to treat with respect (abstract prefix + 'first-class' + nominative + 'to do') .aka: nam-luþ: nam-lul: nam-maþ: nam-me: to treat with human dignity ('humanity' + 'to do') . to practice shepherdship (abstract prefix + 'shepherd' + 'to do') . sing.. profound (abstract prefix + 'great.. ill-fated ('destiny' + 'not' + 'cut') . mankind. axe'). nam-ra-ag: prisoner of war.. 'to be' } + (-a)-m.. confirm by oath ('destiny' + 'hostile' ( + adverbial force suffix) + PN nam-kúr-re: 'may PN not change it' (na.kud: 'to cut') . nam-nir-ñál: nam-nu-tar: nam-nun: deep. bitterness (abstract prefix + 'to taste bitter') .. treachery (abstract prefix + 'to lie. enclitic copula)..aka: nam-sipa. conjugation prefix + 'to be') . greatness (abstract prefix + 'high. should there not be (na. + 'to change' in marû form). exalted. mine').. satisfy') . + -ib-. 'impersonal conjugation prefix'. conjugation prefix + ga. Sumerian Lexicon.0 124 . sparkling (abstract prefix + 'stars') . Version 3. deceive').aka: nam-sun5: nam-sun7: humility (abstract prefix + 'modesty') .aka: to use violence ('violence' + 'to do'). nam-sañ-ñá.. nam-lugal: kingship (abstract prefix + 'king'). prohibitive + { î. superiority (abstract prefix + 'noble. nam-sa6-ga: pleasure (abstract prefix + 'to please. humanity (abstract prefix + 'human being' nam-lú-inim-ma: + 'huge') . rulership. 'it'. nam-érim(-bi).. bickering (abstract prefix + 'quarrel'). nam-šilig. nam-šeš(-a): nam-šilig: violence (abstract prefix + 'powerful. 3rd. people. nam-lú-ùlu: nam-lú-ùlu. deep') . concert. nam-lú-u18/lu7. the act of witnessing (abstract prefix + 'witness') . conjugation prefix 'and then' + me. authority') .

ne-sañ: (cf. incantation. bí-ra). death (abstract prefix + 'to die').. 'to suck') ..gum/gú-ñá-àm: place' + 'it is').tar: to decree the fate (most often with -ni-. or -ri-..gub). ì-dub ). destiny (abstract prefix + 'to determine. it is disastrous (?) ('violence' + 'mortar/back of neck' + 'to nam-šita: nam-šub: nam-tag: nam-tar: prayer... fine steed (from Akkadian nisqum). a resin ('this one' + 'to restore' + 'loins') .. ni-gi-da: ni-gi4-íb: ni-is-ku: ní-a: ni-ik-tum: a resin (loanword ?). NI-KUŠ-NÍÑIN: a vessel. security'). 'peace.. a class of persons or animals. supplication (abstract prefix + 'clean. poverty (abstract prefix + 'to be poor') . thing of sixty = ba-rí-ga (níñ-ñešta).. responsibility. (cf. with -da. choice.nam-šilig.. 'its' + a. cf. as a result ('destiny' + 'it' + genitive). ne. decide') . nominative ?). nam-ti.0 125 .gub: ne-mur: iti ne-þa: rest. ní. unit of sixty. nam-tar-eñir-ra(-/ak/): nam-ugula[PA]: nam-ur5-ra: nam-umun-na: nam-úš: NÁM-di: the future order ('fate' + 'future' + genitive). sg. concerning someone ('this one' + terminative suffix) . spell (abstract prefix + 'to cast') . glowing coals. after that. bathed') .. fire. fate. to position oneself ('precise' + 'to stand'.. nam-til-la: life (abstract prefix + 'to live'). nam.indicates that several parties are deciding the fate).. nam-ùkur/úku(-r): sovereignty (abstract prefix + 'title of respect' + nominative). ní-ba: by itself ('self' + bi. NE-izi-ñar: NE-ra: (cf. repose (from Akkadian neehtum. foremanship (abstract prefix + 'foreman'). to kiss ('an instance' + sub.. ní-bi(-a): (by) itself ('self' + adverbial force suffix) . calendar month 5 at Nippur during Ur III. Sumerian Lexicon. nisañ ). swindle (?) ('planning ability' + 'legal case'). 2. by itself ('self' + adverbial suffix) .. ne. Version 3.. to make a firm promise ('destiny' + 'to determine') .su-ub: NI-dub: ne-šè: on whose behalf ?. guilt (abstract prefix + 'to handle') .

a measuring vessel ('thing' + 'junior'). Sumerian Proverbs). trading of merchandise ('things' + 'to revolve. to raise oneself ('fear. túg níñ-XXX: (cf. myself ('self' + 'my'). ní-mu: ní. to inspire awe.... lengthen') . prostrate oneself') . cf. activity ('thing' + reduplicated 'to do')... níñ-áña: a temple servant ('things' + 'to measure. to cool ('fear. to be afraid of something.gub: ní-gùr-(r). check') . cool down'). lú-ní-zu.. 'to extinguish... great fear. have').gi4: ní. níñ-a-ru: níñ-á-ñar: violence ('thing' + 'arm. to stretch out ('self' + 'to reach out.. strength' + locative + 'to to be scared. to submit oneself to someone's protection ('self' + 'hand. body' + ten.. ní-zu/zuþ: (cf. ní(-zu). ní-zu: yourself ('self' + 'your'). allay. ní-guru6: ní-ñu10. ní-te(-n): alone. níñ). ní.íla: ní. awesome ('fear' + 'to get. ní-diñir(-/ak/): the fear of god ('fear' + 'god' + genitive). níñ-ak-ak: deed. ní reading from Alster. awe' + 'bearing'). to be fearful ('fear' + 'to slice.... awe. níñ-á-sì-ga: lú well-established (?) ('thing' + 'strength' + 'to set in place' + nominative).lá: to diminish or humiliate (your)self ('self' + 'your' + 'to diminish').ri: ní-su-ub: return to') . to fear.. nì: (cf.. níñ-bal-bal: níñ-bàn-da: Sumerian Lexicon.gub). deliver') .tuku: to experience awe or fear. ní. a consecrated gift ('thing' + 'to give as a votive gift') .. present ('thing' + 'to give'). to inspire fear (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to strike'). Version 3.. transfer..0 126 . ní-balañ: ní. to position oneself ('self' + 'to stand'. níñ-ba: gift.gíd: ní. self' + 'to raise')... ne.ní-buluñ5[DÚB]. personally ('fear' + 'to be frightened'). túg-níñ-XXX )....dúb: ní-gal: ní-ñál: to sail ('self' + 'to float over'.dar: pompous ('self' + 'to grow big'). terrifying ('fear' + 'to place'). to calm down.dirig: ní.... coward ('fear' + 'to suck. awe' + 'great').te(-en): to rest. shatter'). ní[IM]. to relax ('self' + 'to knock down') . to pray.. lú-ní-zuþ). ní šu-a. respect (with -da -) ('fear' + 'to attack'). awe ('fear. awesome ('fear. imposing.... strength' + 'to set').te/ti(-ñe26): ní.

mongoose ('thing' + 'to twist'. injustice ('thing' + 'hostile'). maul. nourishment ('thing' + 'to eat' + contraction of marû participial and nominative suffixes).0 127 . wages ('thing' + 'to hold. níñ-gi-na: justice.. or as it should be ('thing' + 'suitable').. níñ-dab5[-ba]-ke4-ne: níñ-dañal: teeming. a measure for fruit ('thing' + 'to erect on the ground' + nominative). taboo. something designated for consuming ('thing' + 'to eat' + marû participial suffix) ...dug4: submission ('thing' + 'subordinate). níñ-á-zi. fattened. a length measure. (cf. níñ gal-gal: níñ-gig: níñ-gu7: níñ-gu7-a: níñ-gu7-da: níñ-gu7-dè: níñ-gul: things of all sort ('thing' + reduplicated 'big') . níñ-gilim: sieve. create' + nominative). wickedness. abomination ('thing' + 'illness'). prescribed. evil. receive').dug4: níñ-DUN: níñ-érim: gi created creatures ('things' + 'to fashion. to say something ('thing' + 'to speak') . reliable' + nominative). hire. property owner ('thing' + 'piled up').. cf. níñ-þu-þu-nu: helplessness ('object' + 'helpless'). food ('thing' + 'to eat'). dishonesty. níñ-en-na: 'gentlemen's possession' ('thing' + 'lord' + genitive). níñ-gur 11). níñ-dím-dím-ma: níñ-diri: NÍÑ-DU: níñ-du7: níñ-dù-a: níñ. níñ-esir-ra: washbowl (made of bitumen-coated reeds) ('thing' + 'bitumen' + genitive). evil. food consumed ('thing' + 'to eat' + nominative suffix) . trustworthiness. truth ('thing' + 'true. what is suitable. níñ-igi. níñ-ñiš-tag-ga: offering ('object' + 'to make a religious offering').níñ-bún-na(ku6): níñ-dab5: lú turtle ('thing' + 'blister. ruining.nu-du8-a: nominative). to be swollen') . consumption. wide ('things' + 'copious') . something held or for which responsibility is assumed. Version 3. níñ-gur11[GA]: property.. something never seen (by an eye) ('thing' + 'eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open' + níñ-íl(-l): support ('thing' + 'to raise up') . níñ-ñál(-la): sickle ('object' + 'to fill a storage basket' + nominative). warehouse keepers ('thing' + 'to hold. supplement ('thing' + 'addition').. possession. níñ-GA: níñ ga-ti: I promise it ('thing' + 1st person cohortative modal prefix + 'to keep alive'). Sumerian Lexicon. receive') . spoiling. dnin-kilim). used to break the clods left after harrowing ('thing' + 'to destroy') .. to speak unjustly ('thing' + 'violence' + 'to speak') .

níñ-sám/sa10-ma(-šè): Sumerian Lexicon.. níñ-nam: anything ('thing' + emphatic prefix + 'to be').. beasts ('things' + 'ground') . níñ-na-me. sell' + nominative [ + terminative suffix]). níñ-nam-kù: property made of precious metal ('possessions' + abstract prefix + 'precious metal') . muthummu ). 'deduction'. wedge to tighten a bound join ? on a plow ('thing' + 'to separate' + nominative). Version 3. níñ-ku5(-da): níñ-kúr: níñ-maþ: belligerence. n i k k a s). níñ-nu-sa6-ga: níñ. esteem' + nominative). níñ-ki-sè: funerary offerings (cf. níñ-ka-bi ba-ak: account settled ('account' + 'its' + conjugation prefix + 'to make'). níñ-lul-la: níñ-me-ñar: a lot. acclaim. price ('thing' + 'to buy. balanced account ('account' + 'made') . . from nakaasu . 'to cut off') . accounting. nothing is precious ('anything' + 'not' + 'valued') . too much ('thing' + 'to be large') . springtime fruit ('thing' + Akk. happiness ('thing' + 'sweet.níñ-im-ba: loss ('thing' + 'the paid out'). sell') . níñ-nam-nu-kal: níñ-nam-tar-ra: níñ-nu-dùg: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. treachery ('thing' + 'to lie. níñ-sá[DI]: níñ-sa6-ga: níñ-sám: goal ('thing' + 'to compare with. níñ-gu 7). 'something small'. esteem' + nominative). níñ-sa-þa(2): fruit remaining after the harvest. pleasure. to beat (up) ('thing' + 'to strike'). cf. result (of a mathematical operation or calculation) (from níñ-kal-kal(-la): níñ-kas7/ka9[ŠID]: níñ-ka9-ak: níñ-ki: níñ-kú: ñiš Akk.. the 'perfect tribute' ('thing' + 'to make silent'). good') . good') . to throw something.. (for) purchase ('thing' + 'to buy. to compete') . nikkassu . níñ-nu-mu-da-sá: nothing is comparable with it ('things' + 'not' + conjugation prefix + 'with' + 'to equal in value') . ki-sì-ga) ('things' + 'ground' + 'to apply') . (cf. níñ-kal-la: precious ('thing' + 'to value. níñ-mí-ús-sá: wedding gift ('thing' + 'woman' + 'to come near to' + 'to equal in value').0 128 . (urudu) níñ-sa-sa: roasting oven ('thing' + 'roasting') . account. níñ-kas7. silence. good') . deceive' + nominative). nature ('thing' + 'fate'). also Akk. níñ-gaz: half-reed = 3 cubits (Akk.sahharu . vermin. garden fruit. everything valuable ('things' + reduplicated 'to value.ra: unpleasant (things) ('things' + not + 'sweet. breaking an agreement ('thing' + 'hostile'/'to change') ..

blanket (for an animal). weak'). contents ('things' + 'interior' + 'its'). níñ-šu-ti-a: níñ-túg: níñ-tuku: níñ-tur: what(ever) one receives ('object' + 'to receive' + nominative).níñ-si-sá: equity.. níñ-sila11[ŠID]-ñá: níñ-šà-ñar-ra: níñ-ŠID: níñ-šà-bi: what is in it. mood' + 'to soothe' + nominative). níñ-ZUM-DIM4: niñir-si: paranymph. nim. níñ-úr-limmu: four-legged creature. nin-diñir: high priestess ('lady' + 'gods').. níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6: sweetness. (cf. níñ-tukum-ta(-/ak/): a small amount ('thing' + 'small'). food' + 'to spit out ?'). níñ-šu-ñá: everything in my hands ('thing' + 'hands' + 'in my'). pack-saddle ('thing' + 'cloth')... níñ-ú-zug4[KA×LI]: foul food ('thing' + 'plant. níñ-šu-taka4-a: objects that will be given away ('object' + 'to send.. a temple servant.ñír: to lighten. níñ-u4-da-rí(-/ak/): níñ-u4-ì[ZAL]-li: with vowel harmony).0 129 . dough. níñ-zú-gub: níñ-zuþ: lú food ('thing' + 'teeth' + 'to set') .. fairness ('thing' + 'straight'). normal') . a man who had to take care of the bride before the young couple was married ('a bride's male attendant' + 'upright.šub: to neglect something ('thing' + 'to let drop'). níñ-kas 7/ka 9). níñ-sig-ga: weakness ('thing' + 'small. rob') . wealthy ('thing' + 'to have') . acquisition ('thing' + 'personal. níñ.sa6. lustration priestess ('lady' + 'to purify'). nin-uru 16). to flash ('upper country' + 'lightning flash') . níñ-šà-te-na: soothing to one's heart or mood ('thing' + 'heart. private'). nin-išib: Sumerian Lexicon. (sexual) happiness ('thing' + ur5. níñ-zi(-šà)-ñál: living creature ('thing' + 'alive'). Version 3. abandon' + nominative). livestock ('thing' + 'legs' + 'four'). persistent ('thing' + 'days' + 'long lasting' + genitive). everlasting. something for the future ('thing' + 'days' + 'to pass' + participial marû e(d) níñ-ul: what is fit for the cult ('thing' + 'primordial'). nin-EN: (cf. something coincidental ('thing' + 'if' + 'from' + genitive). something stolen ('thing' + 'to steal. níñ-ú-rum: possession. rich. famine ('thing' + 'hunger' + nominative). 'to feel comfortable')... justice.

. good' + nominative). NITAÞ-dun-gi: a type of jackass ('male' + 'yoke' ?). dwell.DÚR]-na: ninda-gu: ninda-gu7: ninda-ñíri: ninda-KA-gu7: long-lasting bread (?). ninda-kum4[UD]-ma: a type of bread ('bread' + 'mortar-ground flour' + nominative). nir-ñál-mè-a: respected in battle ('authority' + 'battle' + locative)..ñál: to have authority.5: nu-dùg(-ga): nu-dug4-ga: nu-gi-na: nu-gig: nu-èš: knife bearer . ninda-àr-ra: bread offering ('bread' + 'to give. a fish ? ('frog' + 'bite. nir-gam-(m): nir-padku6: vault ('raised high' + 'to curve') . nìta[MUNUS-UŠ]-dam: husband ('male' + 'spouse'). trip'). small repast'). šer 7-da ). authority. ninda-durunx[DÚR.. unfit ('not' + 'just. morsel'). nu-a: to lack. nu-banda3. a type of bread ('bread' + 'expedition. firm' + nominative). authorities. hierodule ('not' + 'sick. opposed to ninda-gub-ba. a type of bread ('bread' + 'liter'). nin-uru16: ninda-ba: mighty queen ('lady' + 'mighty'). ninda-bar-si: a type of bread made with bar-si emmer wheat flour. sweetheart ('lady' + 'to be/make comfortable. painful').a cultic functionary ('image. ninda-sañ-gu7: ninda-síki[UD]: ninda-SÌLA: NIR-da: nir-ñál: the best bread for eating ('bread' + 'prime' + 'to eat'). nin-nínnamušen: owl ('divine proprietress' + 'owl'). bread to eat while sitting (?) ('bread' + 'to sit. níñ-gilim). to rely. pulpy dish (prepared) of green-malt ('bread' + 'to chew' + nominative). expert. likeness' + 'shrine'). be without ('not' + nominative). 'snack-bread') . temple prostitute. reliance ('raised high' + 'to be') . unpleasant ('not' + 'sweet.0 130 . trust in (with -da-) ('authority' + 'to be with'). to dry out' + nominative. nin ur5 ì-sa6: lady. unjust. a type of bread ('bread' + 'net' ?). overseer ('not' + 'young') . happy'). a type of bread ('bread' + 'mouth' + 'to eat') . apportion') . ninda-pad-rá: morsels of bread ('bread' + 'bite. noble (one). to divide. food ('bread. Sumerian Lexicon. supervisor of works. nir. a type of bread. food' + 'to eat') .d d nin-kilim: mongoose ('divine proprietress' + 'herd of wild animals'. to be reliable.. not talking ('not' + 'to speak' + nominative). Version 3. (cf. cf.

(cf.. a part of the seeder plow ('seed' + 'to place' + 'to obstruct') .. cf. to not notice ('not' ( + 'him.. bring forth offspring ('seed' + 'to send forth') . to sow ('seed' + 'to place. i. ('not' + 'to be' + nominative).nu-ñar-ra: thriftless...til: NUN. to not recognize. nu-siki/síg: nu(-un/ub)-zu: nu-zu-a: nu-úr-ma: pomegranate (tree) (Akk. 2nd pers. precious metal').. which is not.. nurmû. pa-áñ: nostrils ('wings' + 'to measure. (cf.è. to make appear..ME(. 'to be clean..aka: to show. nu-sa6: (ñiš) not good ('not' + 'sweet.e. nu-ñiškiri6(-k): ñiš gardener (pronominal prefix or dialectal lú --> nu ?). lurmûm.ñar: ñiš to issue seed. put an end to') .'fruit'). her'/'it') + 'to know'). a plant (asa foetida) the fetid gum resin of whose root was used as a medicine ('not' + nu-kúš-ù: nu-luþ-þa(sar): nu-ma-su: nu-me-a: suffix) . nu-ma-su: widow ('she has not replaced [her husband]') . deposit') . a-pa4). nu-kúš: door pivot ('not' + 'to be tired') . to let shine.. to make resplendent (often with -nior bi -) ('bud. orphan ('not' + 'wool [garment/blanket?]') .0 131 . níñ-nu-mu-da-sá ).PÙ): a tool ('seed' + 'rudder') . temporal clause nu-me-en-na-ta: nu-mu-da-sá: (cf. rubbish' + genitive).. nu-mu-un-su. disorderly ('not' + 'to store' + nominative). unknown ('not' + 'to know' + nominative).. good') .. nu-ra: not stamped with a seal ('not' + 'to stamp'). to not know. numun-ñar-GUL: NUMUN-ñisal: numun-sum-gaz: numun. num-saþar-ra: fly (insect) ('flying insect' + 'dust. fresh' + nominative).. Version 3. pa-è. you don't exist ('not' + me-en. nu-mu-un-su ). sprout' + 'to send forth' + 'to make') . Orel & Stolbova #2122 *riman. sing. nu-kù: no money. abgal (2)). Sumerian Lexicon. to run out of seeds ('seeds' + 'to finish... a worthless penny ('not' + 'silver.è/i-i: numun. payment. nu-zu: ignorant ('not' + 'to know'). + a-ta. 'to be'. numun. PA+DUG-um: an allowance. check'). luriinu. restlessness ('not' + 'to be tired') . pa(4)-þar: wages ('small canal' + 'coil of silver'. crushed onion seed ('seed' + 'onion' + 'crushed') . pa..

physically handicapped (reduplicated 'womb. pa4[PAB]-a-da-ga: flowing irrigation ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'flowing with water').tag: pu-úþ-ru-um: púñiškiri6: (cf. unkin). to declare' + nominative). lock"). inner sanctum of a temple (cf. to peel') .. (cf. to hang. poverty. an intestinal disease (?) ('legs. thigh. to be wide') . a bundle of brushwood ('branch' + 'bundle' + 'to lift. to walk. puhru 'assembly'. to bind' + nominative). Sumerian Lexicon... garden' ?). pil(2)). canebrake mouse or mole rat ('mouse' + 'reeds') . pa4. PIRIÑ. a functionary. assembly (Akk.. lú ša13-dub-ba) ('vessel' + 'clay tablet') . iti pa4-ú-e: calendar month 11 at Umma during Ur III. to expand. leprosy' + 'to divide. to go aground (said of a boat) ('shore. þal.. Version 3. canal' + 'small'). '36 liters in Old Sumerian period'. strike') . spacious. pil (2)). v. nemurx).. adj.zil). pil(2)). reach') . billuda ). parim ).pa-paþ: pa-rim4: pa-TAR: PA+USAN: cella. *pah. þa-la).. pú-lá: deep well ('well. pa-sa-lal-a: cut-off branches/twigs ('branch' + 'to cut off') . cistern' + 'to be high. cf. pa4-úgur[SIG7]: pa5-sig: paþ-zil: small branch canal ('irrigation ditch. leather worker (??) ('bellows' + 'to cut'. metaphor in pe-el(-lá): pe-en-zé-er: dùg... a shepherd. confinement.. river bank' + 'to touch.. + 'plow'). cf. pi-lá: (cf. loan. fresh figs ('figs' + 'fresh')... movable. pà-da: an occupation ('to find. hearth tender (?). stretch. peš-mur7: peš-peš: péš-(ñiš)gi: ñiš ñiš ñiš a palm tree product ('palm frond' + 'ridge'). pèš-duru5: pèš-þád: PI-apin: pi-il: (cf.. Orel & Stolbova #1926. leg. cistern' + 'orchard'). carry. pisan-dub: container for clay tablets piš10. irrigated orchard ('well.TUR: (cf.ba-al: to dig ditches ('irrigation ditch' + 'to dig'). pap-hal(-la): n. very wide. dried figs ('figs' + 'dried').. cf. pi-lu5-da: (cf. share (Akk.. ditch ('irrigation ditch' + 'field.... walking about. (cf.."close.0 132 . ñadub. a part of the seeder plow (barig.

lal/lá: to stretch the net. sa-par4.0 133 . lú-ru-gú-da). courier (Akkadian rakbu). šadû(m) I. 'mountain(s)'). sa. samaanu 'skin disease') . supreme (Akkadian rabbu).DI: to evaluate ('value' + 'to judge') . sa-tu: mountain.pú-níñ-ñìr(-/ak/): ra(2)-gaba: pitfall ('well.. of straw) ('net' + 'produce.. ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: sa-gaz.g. sa-gaz. net' + šúš/šú. ri-ba: enormous. si-par4: a type of net ('net'/'to fill' + 'to stretch out'). sañ-gaz: highway robber ('head' + 'to smash'). to shake ('to strike' + þ. upper parts (Akk.. sa-ZI-ZI-a. sa-li: a type of lyre ('string' + 'true measure'). bundle (e. a trawling (?) net ('net' + 'to take out.. tendon' + 'to build ?'). sabiitu 'gazelle'). grain diseases such as leaf rust (Akk. low-lying end of a farmer's field ('?' + 'buttocks') . cf. Version 3.DU: ñiš sa-du8(-a): sa-dúr(-ra).. sa-ZI-ZI-ŠÈ: terminative suffix) .gi4: sa-þab: sa-þir: to prepare ('mat' + 'to restore' ?). to roast ('to roast (barley)' + 'for the sake of' + 'to go') .. cistern' + 'thing' + 'path' + genitive). roasting' + 'residue' + nominative). sa-ma(-a)-ná: skin disease.. to face (cf.. numerous') . to move in a direction opposite to. rib-ba: ñiš enormous. extract' + locative or sá[DI]. to sweep. to make wide (reduplicated 'to stamp') . ra-ra: to flatten. = 24 sìla in Presargonic Girsu and 40 sìla starting with Akkad period. sa-sa: roasting. sa-šè... ri-þa-mun: (cf.. sa-KU: arms (rare meaning. sa-šú-uš-gal: huge net ('cord. sá-dug4/du11: a capacity measure. sa-bí-tum: a musical instrument (Akk..aka: to rob (someone: dative infix). Sumerian Lexicon. ru-gú: to withstand. reddish (reduplicated 'to roast (barley)'). sa. rider. ñiš ri-gi4-bil-lú: a tool. to commit murder ('robber' + 'to do'). 'to cover' + 'big'). ra-aþ: to strike repetitively [with a hoe]. to tie with cords ('net' + 'to stretch') . yield') . 'many. supreme (Akkadian rabbu). RI-ÞU: bird breeder (?) ('to tend' + 'birds').. im-ri-þa-mun). to oppose. net. burning. a tool ('net. sa-dúr) ('sinew. bundle. (metathesis of zipaþ ).. regular "tithe" or "offering" important to the temple economy ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') .

gi4: to slay ('head' + 'smash' + 'to do'. sañ-an-na: upper end of a field ('head' + 'to be high' + nominative).bul: to toss or shake the head ('head' + 'to blow'. overwhelm (often with -ni -).ñar/ñá-ñá: to proceed.tar: to notice ('head' + 'to investigate') .dug4/du11/e: sá-ñar: to reach.. Sumerian Lexicon. counselor ('guidance' + 'to halt.. to oppose (someone/something: -da-) ('the head' + 'to set') .gíd). also read sa12-du5). sañ-èn-tar: overseer..aka: to care ('head' + 'to do'). sañ šu.. to pay attention (with -ši -)...sè(-g/k): to plot.dúb: to smash the head (often with -da-) ('head' + 'to knock down') ... ñizzal. sañ-du nu-tuku: triangle ('head' + 'shape') . adviser. sá-sug5: land register manager.bala: sañ-du: sañ-dù: sañ-dub: SAÑ-DÙN: plow guide ('head' + 'plow' + genitive). to provide regular offerings (reduplication class) ('to equal in value' + 'to effect') .gíd: (cf... sañ-apin(-na): sañ. arrive.aka: sañ. sañ. to turn round') . sá-niñin(2): sá-pa: part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'branch.. sañ.sá.. sa12-su5[SAÑ-KU]. to plan ('advice' + 'to apply. to close ('head' + 'to send back') .. head ('head' + 'to walk')...aka: to enslave ('slave' + 'to take captive')... regular worker ('head' + 'tablet-recorded') .. part of a harness (?) ('guidance' + 'to halt. sa-gaz).bala).. guardian ('head' + 'to investigate. librarian ('head' + 'to lay the warp of the land' ?.... Version 3.. sa 12-du 5. to topple.0 134 . sañ. to shake the head ('head' + 'to turn') . both good and bad ('good' + 'bad') ... sañ-gaz. to compare') .. sañ... handle') . sa12-sug5.. idiot. a term of derision ('head' + 'not' + 'to have') . cf. sañ. cf.. sañ-kešda/kéš. to admonish ('head' + 'to fasten' + 'to do'. šassuk). sá. šaaqû).aka: cf. sañ-èn.. wing').aka). registrar of deeds... from the Akkadian form šassukkum). sa12-du5: read sa12-sug5 ?.. sañ-gú-ne(-/ak/): cupbearer (loan from Akk.. (cf. to take care of. sañ-ki. lower end of a field ('head' + 'water' + 'to be lower' + nominative).. sa12-ti-umki: sag9-þul: sañ-a-ki-ta: the eastern mountains. to turn round') . sañ..

. ki-en-gi(-r)). Sumerian Lexicon.þa-za: up') . sañ/sa12. murder ('head' + 'wood tool' + 'to strike'). slave' + 'female'). sañ.. to watch.. sañ-níñ-gur11[GA]-ra(-ak): sañ-rib: sañ-rig7: (cf...ra: to kill. cf. leader ('head' + 'excellent'). bestow. lock ('head' + 'thick'). black-headed people. capital on hand ('in front. sañ-ki-gud: SAÑ-KU: ñiš trapezoid ('head.and -ri-) ('present. prefer. slave' + 'male'). (cf. gift' + 'to deed..kéš: to attend to.. to pay attention ('head' + 'to apply. bow of a boat ('head' + 'boat') . female slave ('head.. sañ-kal-(l) ).. Sumerians ('head' + 'black' + nominative..íl: sañ-kal-(l): foremost. grasp.sá: to vie with (with -da -) ('head' + 'to compare') ..ñar: weak' + 'to place') ..gíd: to get angry (with someone: -da-) ('forehead' + 'to lengthen'). (grown) man ('head. men-sañ ). sañ-ñišmá: sañ-men: sañ-mí: sañ-nitaþ: male slave. sañ. point' + 'location' + 'bulky like an ox'). sañ..sè/sì-(g): to entrust.. give as a present (with -ni..sal-la: to be silly (?) ('head' + 'to belittle'). to make foremost.0 135 . dowry. sañ-ki: forehead ('head... to lift the head (towards heaven)..kal: to choose. sañ-ki. retain') . dumu-gir15/gi7 sañ-ñi6(-ga): and ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r). sa 12-su 5). head-crown (cf. sañ-kul: sañ-kur-ra: ku6 sañ-kúr[PAB]: a fish ('head' + 'strange'). guard ('head' + 'to bind'). sañ. sañ. point' + 'place') . where these meanings derive by back-formation from this compound which derives from Akkadian šaraakum). sañ and 'capital' refer to the 'head' of an accounting column in different languages).. prominent ('head' + 'to value'). grant'..rig7: to donate.. gift. to bend or lower one's head (before someone/something: -ši -) ('head' + 'small. grant.. to raise up ('head' ( + 'unto heaven') + 'to lift sañ (an-šè).. a foreign slave ('slave' + 'foreign land' + genitive). to surround') . at first' + 'what' + 'piled up' [ + genitive].. sañ-ñiš.. Version 3. sañ. sañ.sar: to shave the head ('head' + 'to crop ?'). to take care of. sañ-sig-ga: head-covering ('head' + 'small' + nominative).... to attach securely ('head' + 'to hold.sañ-sig. kuš sañ-kéš: a thong connecting the yoke to the plow ('head' + 'to bind') .

to collect earth ('earth' + 'to receive' + nominative).. šittu. saþar šu-bal-a: sar-KA×SAR-KA×SAR: (cf...0 136 .sañ. sig5 and sig).. sig5 and sig). silent.. Version 3.. weak (cf.túm: to defame ('first position' + 'to carry away'). deficit') (cf.. to turn into dust.. silt' + 'hand' + 'to transfer. to scatter (with -da . to care for something's maintenance ('point' + 'to be moored to') . increase' + nominative). to go away. croissant ('horn-shaped' + 'large') . si(-g): silence. adj. euphemism for 'to die' ('dust' + 'to turn.... deduct' + nominative).. earth for a levee or temple foundation)..A: to raise a cloud of dust ('dust' + 'to shake. cap ('head' + 'to cover') ... SAÑ-SUG5: (cf. to strike down. earth moving ('earth.. class) ('dust.. šassuk). 'to leave v.dub: saþar(-da). ki-lá). royal attendant ('head or slave' + 'warrior'). to si-ñar: si-ì-tum: behind'... dirig or (gi) ušub). quiet. si-ga: adj. to place into the ground. 'remainder. lá-ìa[NI]). appearance') . Sumerian Lexicon.. si-ig. to pile up earth. agitate') . to be available..dug4/du11/e: saþar. sila). immerse'). to transport earth ('earth. to calm or put out a fire. si-ga: n. sig5).. saþar-ñar-ra: volume ('earth' + 'to accumulate' + nominative) (cf. si-il: to split. sañ. a vegetable. straight' + 'form.. to move the head from side to side (with -da-) ('head' + 'to shake').. sa 12-sug 5. earth piling ('earth. to pile or fill up (e. sañ ú-a. silt' + 'to fill..gi4: saþar si-ga: saþar.šub: sañ-ur-sañ: sañ-ús: to hide ('head' + 'in the grass' + 'to drop') . to remove earth or silt. sañ-sum-sikil: sañ-šu4: bulb of garlic ('head' + 'garlic'). weak (cf. silence (cf. eunuch. bolt ('horn.sum: to hurry towards ('head' + 'to give'). to tear apart.or -ta -) ('scattered' + 'to effect') . return') . si-ga kala-ga: si-gal: ñiš weak and strong points.. silt' + 'to tear out. si-ga/ge: v.su(3): saþar šu-ti-a: saþar zi-ga: SI. sañ.. silt' + 'to sprinkle.. constant.. deliver' + nominative). sáñ. absent oneself (cf. to cover with dust or silt (redup. balance owing carried forward from an earlier account (from Akkadian šiaatum. level..g.sìg: to tremble. si-BÀD-na: top of the sky ('straight up' + 'to ascend' + nominative).

aka: si-li-ig: (cf. half-brick ('brick' + 'cow' = 'cow pat'). sig. wool' + 'white').dug4/du11/e: whirlwind (reduplicated sìg..peš5: síg-ud5: sìg-sìg: sig4-áb: síg ga-zum-aka(-a): carded wool. appear') . narrow (reduplicated 'small'). si-sá: right. whirlwind (reduplicated sìg.. si-mùš: si-par4: si. calendar month 2 at Umma during Ur III.. a garden plant ('reddish' + 'to grow luxuriantly'). 'an aromatic si-im-si-im.. class) ('straightness' + 'to equal') . si. kettledrum(s) ? ('to fill' + 'wind')..sá: shining horns.ñar: to prostrate onself ('low' + 'to set'). sig4-báþar(-ra): sig4-ga: calendar month 3 at Nippur during Ur III. sìg.. cf. wool' + 'share. 'to demolish. to assemble in order.. horned [can indicate a 'male' animal if only the male sex grows horns] ('horns' + 'to sprout. silig). light rays ('horns.or bi -) (redupl. blow' + 'to apply') .. expose') .. wool' + 'to spray out. rations') . rays' + 'to glisten. expel' + nominative). to march in line. si-mú: to have horns.... 'coal'). to put in order. get ready. wool allotment. ration ('hair.. flatten') . to stack a brick pile ('brick' + 'donkey' + 'to set'). sa-par 4).0 137 . to sniff (reduplicated 'to fill' + 'wind' + 'to do'. wool' + 'to comb and clean') . sig4-al-ur5-ra: sig4-anše.. shine') . to card wool ('hair. kiln-burnt brick(s) (cf. baked brick (?) or potter's brick(?) ('brick' + 'potter' + genitive). (cf.... wall' + 'turtle'). to prepare.(urudu) si-im: substance') .. white wool ('hair. loosely hanging hair ('hair' + 'to uncover. to tune (an instrument). to make straight. goat's hair ('hair' + 'she-goat'). Version 3.si-sá: si-si-ig: si4-lum: sig-sig: síg-ba: síg-bar: si-šuš-nu: a sea creature ('antennae' + 'to go down' + 'do not') . flatten') . to do something in the right way. to be destroyed ('stroke. ízi-ur5.gub: sig4-ba: iti iti turtle shell (?) ('brick. legal ('straightness' + 'to equal') . šim-im. síg-babbar: síg. síg-sur(-ra): spun wool ('hair. sig4-ñišì-šub-ba-ñar: Sumerian Lexicon. šilig. to yoke (often with -ni . 'to demolish.

borax (?) powder ('to stretch' + 'to support') . loosen') . to take a different way ('street' + 'different' + 'to take'/'to traverse') .sum: to greet. to howl (reduplication class) ('walls' + 'to sig4-gi4-a: roaring ('to resound' + nominative). Version 3. 'to restore' + shepherd of wool sheep ('shepherd' + 'sheep' + 'wool' + double genitive)... silim-šè gù..sig4.gi4: answer') .. sipad-udu-siki-ka: siskur. say "Hello" ('greeting' + 'to give') . su-zìg/zi.. bat ('body' + 'to cure'. awesome radiance. silim.dab5/díb: sila4-ga-sub-ba: small sìla -vessel ('liter' + 'junior'). say "Hello" ('health' + 'to speak'). quagmire ('to immerse' + 'to dissolve. sig14. a type of copper. to greet. to resound. quicksand. pleasing') .]GAN: shepherd of mother animals ('shepherd' + 'mother' + 'to bring forth'). quoted speech in the texts] ('prayer' + 'to speak') . to be afraid of (with -da -) ('flesh' + zìg.. consume') . sig 4.ri: su.. slag. zi. s/šu(t)tinnu). še26. (cf. to have/give gooseflesh.gi 4)..dug4/du11/di/e: to greet. sipad-ama-[ŠA. cf.0 138 . sug 8). 'to stand up. ñiš su-din(-dal)mušen: su-gu7/kú: su-lá-a: su-lim: butterfly.. skin' + 'to eat. sipad-amar-ru-ga: genitive). še25... mock ('body' + 'manure' + 'to coat... shepherd of brought back (?) ('shepherd' + 'young ones' + rúg. early spring lamb ('lamb' + 'early'). Sumerian Lexicon.gi4: sìla-bàn-da: sila4-gub: sila4-nim: sila-kúr.... su(11)-lum. sig14[KA×LI].mar: sulummar). sig7-sig7: to be beautiful (reduplicated 'to be beautiful. šalummu ). mature young of animals ('lambs' + 'to stand') . skin disease ('flesh. part of a wagon or plough (cf.... treat with contempt. to shout. šudun)..zìg/zi: rise'). to say a prayer [often introduces direct.. splendor (Akk..e: su-a: su-búru: su-din: cat (cf. to disgrace. to scare ('gooseflesh' + 'to put into') . su(3)-þé[GAN]: salted or cured meat ('flesh' + 'to hang' + nominative). say'). say "Hello" ('health' + 'regarding' + 'to call. su-ub: (cf. milk suckling lamb ('lamb' + 'milk' + 'to suck' + nominative).. sub). šalummatu..dé: silim. Akk.. su-zi: terror.. offspring (children or of flocks). apply'. sila4-nitaþ: lamb buck ('lamb' + 'male').

remove') .. a type of onion ('onion' + 'robust like a bull'). sù(-ud)-áña: su6-nam-ti-la: su6-za-gìn(-na): gi diamond ?..... offspring ('womb' + reduplicated 'to revolve.. might be some wordplay with Akk. descendant. su7-su7: a basket (reduplicated 'threshing floor') .bala: to breed ('womb' + 'to revolve. lapis lazuli (-colored) beard. vizier. zú. Version 3. immerse' + 'freshness') . sug-zag-gi4. ziqnu. brass ? ('to be lasting. clean' + genitive. šà.. šà-bar: cleaned fish ('intestines' + 'to cut open. stomach' + 'to grasp.0 139 . concentrated') . beard of life ('beard' + 'life' + genitive).. to destroy ('swamp' + 'territory' + 'to surround' + 'to finish off') . deducted from the state-bestowed capital debt (usually precedes account of credit transactions followed by zi-ga[-àm] ) ('contents' + 'its' + 'from').... a type of onion ('onion' + 'good.. sug4). šà-da: voluntarily ('heart' + 'with'). 'minister of the interior' ('minister' + 'grand').dab5: to be angry ('heart. check') . sum-za-þa-ti/din: ša-ga-ru: sún-si-mú: horned (or male) aurochs cow ('aurochs cow' + 'horned') . za-þa-ti/din ).. prime minister. (cf. electrum ?. deliver'). bastard ('womb' + locative or 'seed' + 'to be foreign' + nominative).su(3)-ud: (cf. šár-ra-ab-du ).li9-li9). a quality of the ground ('to sprinkle. clench') . ŠÀ.. sud ). 'beard').ÁB: creation ('womb' + 'cow'). pleasing') . šà-bi-ta: therefrom.. sù-rá: far-reaching ('far away' + 'to go'/indicator of ð phoneme in sud). ša-ra: syllabic spelling for šár-ra. deliver') . zú-lum(-ma) ). 'numerous'. sum-sikil: garlic ('onion' + 'pure. clean beard ('beard' + 'lapis lazuli. ša-ra-ab-du: šà-a-bar-ra: šà-bal-bal: ku6 (cf.. sum-tab-ba: binding double sheaf ('to give' + 'double' + nominative).gu7: sukkal-maþ: sum-GUD: sum-sag9: suþ-kešda: ornament ('carefully chosen' + 'to fasten') . to rejoice' + 'to measure. ša-ra(-g): to dry up. sù-ga: deceitful(ly) (cf. a kind of copper. šà. su11-lum: SUD-la: (cf. wither ('to dry up' + 'inundation') .li9-li9: (cf. su11. Sumerian Lexicon.

true heart. a voluntary offering ('heart' + 'eyes' + 'to shine. šà-gada-lal). will' + 'gods'). one's nature ('heart' + 'to be firm. to choose ('heart.. painful' + nominative). worry') ....dím: to grieve ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to make'). grain heap') .0 140 .. sustenance ('stomach' + 'enlarge') . be bright. will. true' + nominative). Version 3.. stuff ('stomach' + 'to extend.e... individual').pàd: Sumerian Lexicon..lá: šà-lá-lá: šà-ne-ša4: to (en)gorge. stomach' ( + 'in the') + 'to find. šà. šà-dùg: a term for young animals ('heart' + 'sweet'). to take counsel with (with -da-) ('heart' + 'to be tired..... cf.. stomach' ( + 'to the') + 'a large silo') . to change one's mind ('heart. šà-þúl-la. to be hungry ('hunger' + 'to have') . linen-clad ('midst' + 'linen' + 'to drape'. belt ('stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. the (secret) will of the gods ('interior.dirig: to be overflowing with joy ('delight' + 'to exceed'). to make haste'). hatred ('heart' + 'evil' + 'to be sick.. clothed (cf. load') . fodder.diri: to overeat ('stomach' + 'to exceed'). the heart's desire ('heart' + 'to dwell').guru7: what is in one's heart.kúr/kár: change') . šà-lá-lá).. šà-ki-áña: a loving heart ('heart' + 'to love' + nominative)..dar)... šà-ga-dù: šà-gal: šà-gada-lal: šà-gi-na: food. šà-íb-ba(-/ak/): anger ('midst' + 'loins' + genitive).. šà-ñar. mood' + ergative agent marker + 'to šà.þuñ: šà-þul-gig: to pacify. declare') . painful'). all that one wants ('heart.. to make love to. šà-þúl-la: delight ('heart' + 'to rejoice' + nominative).šà. cf.. to bear in mind ('heart' + 'concerning' + 'to measure') .. ní... šà(-ge). i. šà-diñir-re-e-ne: šà. šà-gi8[IGI]-guru6/7: šà-šè. shepherdess ('heart' + 'to extend' + 'far'). cf.gíd: šà-ñál: šà-ñar: šà-gig-ga: an aching heart ('heart' + 'to be sick. šà(-ge).dar: to be afraid ('stomach' + 'to slice'. hunger ('stomach' + 'to deposit'. šà-þul. to care. shape') . šà-ka-tab: hunger ('stomach' + 'mouth' + 'to tremble. šà-dub-didli: recorded on an individual tablet ('contents' + 'tablet' + 'separate.. supplications ('heart' + 'this' + 'to grieve').. šà(-ge).tuku: šà. to calm down the heart ('heart' + 'to rest')... šà-lá-sù(-d): merciful..kúš(-ù): to rest the heart. šañar)..

without recompense ('stomach' + 'empty' + nominative). to obtain') . fleece' + reduplicated 'dot. še-búr-ra: grain released for transport. porcupine ('pig' + 'to cut' + 'to protect' + 'outside. šà-uru(-/ak/): šà-zi-ga: lú excitement ('heart' + 'to rise up' + nominative).. etc. ('barley' + 'portion. šà. field. to spawn eggs (said of a fish) ('intestines' + 'to expel a liquid'). starved. 'king'. palace. hungry. barley lost in processing. dry river bed ('river bed' + sug4. + abdu. (reed-mat) sieve ('gut-like container' + 'to press out a liquid') . trader ('a large jar for oil' + 'to carry'). Version 3. 'policeman'). šàr-ra-ús-sa: body guard (from Akkadian šarru . pasture grazing pig ('pig' + 'plants. commissioner ('heart' + 'to be polished') . trustworthy..sur: šà. midst' + 'town' + genitive). speckle') .0 141 . administrative director. empty' + nominative).sìg: šà-su-ga: šà-sù-ga: (gi) to be oppressed ('heart' + 'to strike. pisan-dub). + 'to bind. fattened pig ('pig' + 'fattened'). 'to fall. šà-sur: šà. porcupine ('bush pig' + 'it eats') . fleece' + 'to šáþ(2)-zé-da-bar-sur-ra: spray out') . to prepare. ñadub... acre ('womb' + 'to be suitable. cf. cool down') .. wrap'). to cool/soothe the heart ('heart' + 'to calm. grass') . šà-zu: midwife ('womb' + 'to know').. release'). áña-ús. + 'to follow' + nominative. rations') . šár-ra-ab-du: a temple official (from Akkadian šarru . storage.šà-sig-ga: a depressed heart ('heart' + 'low. 'to lay bare. womb ('insides' + 'child').. še-ba: to be careless. crush') . disappear') . še-bal: iti šab.. grain tax ('barley' + 'to demolish'). porcupine ('pig' + 'outside. 'king'. šub. še-bar-ra-ñál-la: še-bi: value-equivalence in barley (used as a standard) ('barley' + 'its'). negligent (cf. še-ba: barley rations distributed by the administration of the temple. to have diarrhea.. 'slave'). šáþ(2)-bar-gùn(-gùn)-nu: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4): šáþ(2)-niga: šaþ(2)-ú: šáþ(2)-ñiš-gi(4)(-ì)-gu7-e: "bush pig" ('pig' + 'trees' + 'reeds'). šagan-lá: peddler. calendar month 3 at Umma during Ur III. Sumerian Lexicon. and further distribution ('barley' + 'to open. small. ša13[ÑÁ]-dub-ba: archivist (cf.šed7: šà-tam: šà-túm: šà-tur: credible. town center ('interior. šakan-kéš: basket weaver (?) ('large jar for oil'. weak' + nominative).

. grain' + 'to pour'). še-ñiš-ì. barley sprouts ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). še-ga/ge: še-GAZ: še-gibil: še-gu-nu: še-GUD: favorite. barley delivery ('barley' + 'to deliver.. good crops. še-er-gu/kum: a long string of dried fruit (probable syllabic spelling of Semitic root. to sow barley. še-er-še-er.. shine. sim. glimmer (syllabic spelling of šér... (cf. new grain ('grains' + 'new. itiše-sañ11-ku5). še-sañ11-ku5).. fine grains.0 142 . deposit') .. 'to be many' or zár. set' + nominative).. late barley ('grains. sè(g). še-li: pine or juniper seeds ('grain corn' + 'juniper'). 'to be many' + gùn. light.dug4/du11/e: decorate with colors' + 'to effect') ..še. (cf.. 'to še-er. sínmušen).lá: še-LÚsar: še-muš(5): še-namušen: to carry grain.ñar: še ñiš-è-a: ('grain + 'stick' + 'to exit from' + nominative).. še ñiš. še-lum-lum: bitter grain ('grain' + 'bitter'). to buy with barley ('barley' + 'to deliver. crushed barley ('barley' + 'to crush') . harvested grain that has just been threshed and only roughly measured with a stick še-ñar: še. 'sheaf' + 'to bind.. 'to lace. še-er-zi: shine brightly') . grain spent as oxen feed ('barley' + 'bull. einkorn wheat ('grain' + 'robust like a bull'). deposit') . coriander ('grain corn' + 'man or many') [ŠELU archaic frequency: 28]. še še-dùg: še. še gud(-rá) gu7: iti še-gur10-ku5: (cf. še-gur10-ku5: (cf.. cornstack.. barley' + gunu. to obey.... še-gub-ba: barley deposit ('barley' + 'to stand. 'to še-er-ka-an. join' + nominative). še-er.. še-ì-ñiš: sesame seeds. sesame oil ('grain' + 'tree' + 'oil').. to winnow grain ('grain' + 'to lift').ra(-an/aþ): iti to thresh grain by beating with a flail ('grain + 'stick' + 'to strike'). 'load' ?).dé: ñiš to clean barley after winnowing ('barley. to be obedient. 'sweet corn tree' = licorice tree (?) ('corn' + 'sweet'). a type of reed fence (šár. interweave') . sig10). Sumerian Lexicon.. to agree (with -ši -) (cf..ñál: to have authority (Emesal dialect for nir. to adorn (with -ni -) (šár. še-íl-la: calendar month 12 at Lagaš during Ur III. še-er-tab-ba: haystack.è: ñiš-è-a). ox' ( + dative) + 'to feed'). še.ñál). Version 3. to cover with. fresh').

an aromatic substance . šim-su-SÁ: cologne. sig4. šim-gig: šim-im: lú frankincense . si-im-si-im.. calendar month 11 at Lagaš during Ur III. calendar month 3 at Ur during Ur III..áña: to sing.. to follow').. calendar month 1 at Ur during Ur III.. sa-dúr(-ra)).dúr: to fart ('excrement' + 'to break wind'). ŠIM×KÚŠU: šìr-kug: ambergris ('aromatic substance' + 'turtle... še-sa: roasted barley ('barley' + 'to roast'). calendar month 1 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. še-sañ11-ku5: calendar month 12 at Nippur during Ur III. ba-an). punishment. capital offense.šub: še. junior') . to thresh grain by beating ('barley' + 'to throw').. sacred song.. compete with') . crime. šeš-gal: šika-ri: older brother ('brother' + 'large'). še. Sumerian Lexicon.. strife (reduplicated 'mirror' or 'shield' ?). holy') . Version 3. šen-šen: šer7-da: iti combat. cf.ús: ŠÈ-ba-an: to harvest barley ('barley' + 'to suck'). tiny' + 'to mourn'). calendar month 1 at Umma during Ur III.še-numun: še-ri-ga: seed ('grain' + 'seed'). blame.. spice drinkers (?) ('spice' + 'to drink'). še10. an aromatic substance ('aromatic substance' + 'wind'. 'to sniff'). perfume (?) ('aromatic substance' + 'body' + 'to equal.ša4: še. to throw away') . calendar month 3 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3. še-sañ(11)-ku5: iti harvest ('grain' + 'to harvest ?' + 'to cut') .. šìr.zil-zil(-la): a measure for fish ('portion' + 'a measure'. gleaned grain ('grain' + 'to bring'). šim-nañ: šim-PI-PI: an aromatic substance.0 143 ..ak... še25/še26.turpentine (?) ('aromatic resin' + reduplicated 'to bend. to dehusk barley ('barley' + reduplicated 'to peel') .gi4).. incantation ('song' + 'sacred. shattered potsherds ('potsherd' + 'to break open. še.. calendar month 12 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3. šim-gam-gam(-ma): to shrivel') ... to moan ('grain.. younger brother ('brother' + 'young.. šeš-bàn-da: šeš-da-gu7: calendar month 2 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3..gi4: (cf. ŠEŠ-dúr-rá/a: (cf.su-ub: še... 'treading' by animals as a way of threshing grain ('barley' + 'to drive. cf. to cry (out) ('song' + 'to mete out') . whale ?') .used in making medicinal plasters ('aromatic resin' + 'to be sick').

šìr-ra-nam-en-na; šìr-re-nam-nir-ra:
genitive).
ñiš/urudu

song of lordship ('song' + 'lordship' +

šìr-šìr:

chain (probable Akkadian loan word). regular, daily offering ('hand; portion' + locative + 'steady' + nominative).

šu-a-gi-na: šu...aka:

to take captive ('hand' + 'to do') .

šu-bal...aka: to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change' + 'to do') . šu-gibil-gibil...aka: šu...ba: šu...bad: šu...bal: šu...bar:
to renew ('hand' + 'to renovate' + 'to renovate' + 'to do') .

šu/šú-luþ...aka: to clean (a canal) ('hand' + 'to clean' + 'to do').
(cf., šu...bad , šu...bar ). to release ('hand' + 'to open') . to alter; to tamper; to set aside ('hand' + 'to change') . to release, let loose ('hand' + 'to open, release') .

šu...búru: to open the hand ('hand' + 'to open') . šu-da: hand and forearm, as a unit of measurement, ell/cubit (cf., kùš) ('hand' + 'arm'). šu-dab(5)(-ba): šu...dab(2,4,5): šu...dag: šu...dar: šu...de6: šu-dù-a: šu...dù: šu...du7: šu...du8: šu-du8-a: šu-dim4-ma:
sale ('hand' + 'to clasp, take away' + nominative). to take or accept ('hand' + 'to hold, take, receive') .

šu-kíñ...dab(5): to perform a service; to kneel down ('hand' + 'order, task' + 'to hold/seize').
to roam about; to run away ('hand' + 'to roam'). to slaughter (redupl. class) ('hand' + 'to slice, split, shatter') . to set to work ('hand' + 'to bring') . loyal ('hand' + 'subservient' + nominative).

length measure of 10 fingers = 16.666 cm. ('hands' + 'to stack') . to bind the hands; to apply one's hands to ('hands' + 'to fasten') . to destroy ('hands' + 'evil' + 'to fasten') .

šu-þul...dù:

to embellish; to put on the finishing touches; to complete; to make perfect (with -ta -) (reduplication class) ('hand' + 'to complete') . to hold in the hand (with -ni - or bi -) ('hand' + 'to open') . guarantee ('to hold' + nominative).

šu-du8-a...DU(de6/túm): to act as guarantor for ('guarantee' + 'to bring, carry'). šu...dug4/du11/e:
to touch; to place, put ('hand' + 'to effect') . to supply, to provide (generously) with (with -ni -) ('hand' ( + to be haunted ('hand' + 'spirit of a place' + 'to effect') .

šu(-dañal)...dug4/du11/e:
'wide, copious') + 'to effect') .

šu líl-lá...dug4/du11/e:

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

144

šu pe-el lá...dug4/du11/e:
'to penetrate, pierce' + 'to effect') .

to defile; to be defiled ('hand' + pil, 'to be/make dirty, defiled' +

šu sá...dug4/du11/e:
effect').

to attain ('hand' + 'to reach, arrive') .

šu sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: to confuse, disconcert; to be confused ('hand' + 'in confusion' + 'to šu-tag...dug4/du11/e: šu ùþ-a...dug4/du11/e: šu-dul5:
iti

to adorn; to decorate (with -ni -); to sprinkle; to paint ('hand' + 'to (cf., šu

weave, decorate, strike' + 'to effect') .

sùþ-a...dug4/du11/e).

(cf., šudun ). calendar month 8 at Drehem before Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 9 at Ur during Ur III.

šu-eš-ša:

šu-gána: šu-gi(4):
return') .

agricultural tool ('hand' + 'field'). old ('hand' + 'to return' ?, 'to lock up' ?, 'reed-like' ?). to bring back; to lead back; to repay; to repeat; to answer ('hand' ( + locative) + 'to

šu(-a)...gi4: šu-gíd:
out') .

dues; general obligation ('hand' + 'to reach out; to measure out') . to accept; to observe/inspect the offering animal (cf., šu-maš-gíd-gíd; 'hand' + 'to reach to jumpily move around ('hand' + 'to leap, dance') .

šu...gíd:

šu...gu4-gu4-ud: šu...gur: šu...ñál: šu-ñar: šu...ñar:

to roll; to wrap; to wipe ('hand' + 'circular motion'). to hold by the hand ('hand' + 'to place in') .

effect ('hand' + 'to deliver'). to perform a task; to carry out; to be favorable; to cease doing something (with -ta -)

('hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu(-a/šè)...ñar: to be/place in the hand; to subdue ('hand' + locative/terminative + 'to deliver'). šu-šu...ñar: šu...þa-za: šu...þu-uz:
(lú)

to grant a pardon ('hand' + 'hand' + 'to deliver') .

šu-þa: robber (cf., šu-ku6(-d)).
to hold in the hand ('hand' + 'to hold, grasp') .

šu-þal-la: open hand ('hand' + 'to divide, distribute' + nominative).
to roast; to burn ('hand' + 'to rage at') (cf., šu...ru-uz ).

šu-i:

barber ('hand' + 'to sprout' ?). prayer (hand-raising) ('hand' + 'to raise' + nominative).

šu-íl-la(2): šu...íl:
ñiš

to build; to grow rich ('hand' + 'to raise') . to take away; to withdraw ('hand' + 'to take away') .

šu...kar(2): šu-kár:

tools, parts, components ('hand' + 'to encircle, besiege') .

šu ki-in-dar: full of cracks ('handful' + 'crevices'). Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0 145

ñiš gi

šu-KIN:

sickle ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . faggot of reeds ('hand' + 'work, task'; cf., saña11/siñ18, 'to cut, break, harvest') . fisherman ('hand' + 'fish' + ?; should read ešsadx ?).

šu-KIN:

šu-ku6(-d): šu-lá-a:

šu(-a)-lá: paralyzed, folded, idle (said of hands) ('hands' + locative + 'to bind, diminish').
entrusted ('hands' + 'to hold' + nominative). to defile; to reach; to bind (the hands); to wring the hands ('hand' + 'to pierce, to hold in the hand, suspend from the hands ('hand' + 'to bind, hold, hang') .

šu...lal/lá-lá: šu-šè...lal/lá: šu(4)-luþ:

penetrate; to stretch; to bind; to hold') .

ritual cleansing, purification ritual, lustration ('hand' + 'to clean') . purification ritual man, lustration priest ('ritual cleansing' + nominative). diviner; omen (cf., šu...gíd; 'hand' + 'goat kid' + reduplicated 'to reach out') .

šu-luþ-þa:

šu-maš-gíd-gíd: ŠU-ME-EREN: šu...mú:
na4

cypress resin (cf., (ñiš)šu-úr-me).

to enlarge; to expand (with -ni -); to pray (with dative) ('hand' + 'to grow') . pestle ('hand' + 'stone') . grand total ('hand' + 'circle, whole') [? ŠUNIGIN archaic frequency: 1]. subtotal ('hand' + 'circle, whole'). to proceed; to hurry ('hand' + 'to make the rounds') .

šu-na:

ŠU+NIÑIN: ŠU+NÍÑIN: šu...niñin:
(ñiš) iti

šu-nim-ma: early to work ('hand' + 'early' + nominative). šu-nir:
standard; emblem with woolen streamers; totemic device ('hand' + 'to raise high') . calendar month 4 at Lagaš during Ur III; calendar month 4 at Nippur during Ur III. to expand; to spread out ('hand' + 'womb; to expand') . to knead clay and form it into a tablet; to erase ('hand' + 'to beat, stir') . to wring the hands over (with -ši -) ('hands' + 'to place against') .

šu-numun:

šu...peš: šu...ra: šu...ri:

šu-ri(2)(-a): one-half ('hand' + 'to take, remove' + nominative). šu...ru-uz:
to burn; to roast; to glow (cf., šu...þu-uz ). to rub ('hand' + 'to make a harvesting motion') .

šu...sañ11/siñ18: šu(-a)...si: šu-šè...si: šu si...sá: šu...si-ig: šu...su-ub:

šu-si: finger ('hand' + 'horn, ray, antenna') .
to fill the hands (with) ('hand' + locative + 'to fill'). to hand over; to deliver ('hand' + 'towards' + 'to fill'). to do things to perfection; to see that all is right ('hand' + 'right; legal'). to hit with the hand ('hand' + 'to strike down, silence') . to wave the hand ('hand' + 'to beat rhythmically') .

šu...sìg(-sìg):

to gather up; to collect; to scrape together ('hands' + 'to suck') .

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

146

to send.. to cover. received ('to receive' + nominative). to adorn. partner ('to join.ús: out') . te-eš. bound' ? + 'grain.. adopt.... (cf. to receive. (cf. to grab. ta-àm ). also with -ta -) ('hand' + 'to drag over') . šu-úr-me: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('to pour' + 'tree trunk' + 'to be').. Sumerian Lexicon.0 147 .. Version 3... person assigned to pick up allotted rations ('rations' + 'to hold' + nominative). šúr-dùmušen: tab-ba: TAG.dug4/du11/e: to put together (?) (téš. dispatch. to erase... to hold out in the hand ('hand' + 'to reach to raise one's hand (in violence) ('hand' + reduplicated 'to rise up') .ùr: šu-ùr-ra: šu. šum ). (trained) falcon ('fierce' + 'to work').. to deprive') . to leave (something) to (someone) ('hand' + locative + 'to push') ..... to push or knock on (a door). šul-zi: worthy young man ('young man' + 'good. (cf.and bi -. to wipe (with -ni .. to delegate' + 'king'). šuku-dab5-ba: šul-a-lum: punishment (probably Akkadian loanword from šalaalu. to nibble or lick one's fingers ('hand' + 'to gnaw. accepted (with terminative and -ši -) ('hand' + 'to approach') ..rá: lú šub-lugal: subordinate of the king ('to drop. goods.sum: šu-šúr: šu. to entrust ('hand' + 'to give') .. to borrow..tag: šu. šu..taka4: šu-a. decorate') . to take up. to gain.šu. perhaps from the boxwood ('shiny. to come.. to be double' + nominative). decorate (often with -ni -) ('hand' + 'to weave. to take (variation of šu. 'to plunder. 'together'. šu.. sing. true') .ti: šu-ti-a: šu-tu-tu: šu. ten )..sud/sù: šu. etc. go') . to be taken. staples. furious').. to pray ('to pray' + 'plural.taka4: šu. accept.. enclitic copula).. seed' + 'productive') .. + 'to speak/do') . taka4. to send. escape ('hand' + reduplicated 'to interfere') ..ME: ta-àm: what is it? ('from' + 3rd.. tám-še-lum: te-àm: te-en: a resin. to give. scraping or grinding by hand ('hand' + 'to shear' + nominative).ti).zi-zi(-g): šùd..túkur: (ñiš) to stretch the hand out after something ('hand' + 'to make remote').te: šu. seizing ('hand' + 'fierce. dispatch (with dative) ('hand' + 'to push') ... nibble') .lal: to open ('to open' + 'to reach') .

'flood'. to assault' + 'to return. meet (someone: dative). tigi-nì-du10-ga/e: til-lu-ug: elephant ('lion-killer' ?). to answer') .bal: ti-gi4: dug kettledrum ('to approach.0 148 . temen). assault. (cf.. TU-gur4mušen: (cf.. téš(-a)... rib ('rib'). to be frightened. ti-lim-da: a vessel ('lives' + 'thousand' + 'with'). ti.. téš(-bi). cause') . ñiš ti: strut. ní. téš. deep'). to attack.. ti-mar-uru5: arrow quiver (?) (play on tu15-mar-uru5 (?). 'arrow' + 'to enclose' + 'high..(nu-)tuku: to have (no) shame... ñiš tu-lu-bu-um: plane tree or wood (Akkadian dulbum. Sumerian Lexicon. 'Oriental plane tree')... a small bird ('arrow' + 'city' + 'to dwell').gu7: to devour everything. TÚG-DU8: textile fuller ('cloth' + 'residue. place. túg-dim-gal(-la-k): sail on a mast ('cloth' + 'mast' + genitive). strongly ('to live. te-ñe 26)..ra: ñiš to shoot an arrow ('arrow' + 'to stab'). shameless ('shame. ti-rí-ñálal: ti-zú: barbed arrow ('arrow' + 'teeth. tu6-tu6: tud-sum: incantations (reduplicated 'exorcistic formula'). worried (alternating class. healthy' + subordination suffix /-a/). te-te(-ma): téš-bi: (cf.. to consume ('together' + 'to eat'). te-me: (cf. tur5).. te-me-en.. tum12-gur4mušen). téš. flint').. tu-ud: (cf. tu15. tu-ra: (cf.. túg-bir7-ra: torn clothes ('cloth' + 'to rip to pieces' + nominative). ti-mud. Version 3. ti-na: adv.dirig ).i-i: to pray ('together' + 'to rise')...dirig: onion or garlic bulb for planting ('to beget' + 'onion') . harp of beautiful sound ('harp' + 'thing' + 'sweet' + genitive).. ti.. tir-an-na: rainbow ('forest' + 'sky' + genitive).ñál: to create life ('life' + 'to give birth' + 'to be'). to bake') .. modesty' + ('not' + ) 'to have'). together ('together' + adverbial force suffix) . 'to hang up') ..te-ñe26(-d): to approach. to signal (?) ('arrow' + 'to revolve').. te) . tud).sì-ke: to make agree ('together' ( + locative) + 'to put. cf. marû stem.. brace. tu-lu: to be/make loose or limp (Akkadian tulluu..

. hips' + 'to mould'). túg-níñ-dára: loincloth ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind. túg-íb-dù: a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'waist. lip' + 'bite of food') . sash' + 'vulva' + 'dense. belt. túg-níñ-dára-gála-sír-ra: túg-níñ-dùn-dù: túg-níñ-lal: túg-níñ-lám: pubic band or napkin for a woman ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bind. north. hurt') . túg-níñ-sal-la: túg-siñ18: shape') . túg-ZI-ZI-a: tukul. stupor') .. dress ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'an awe-inspiring quality') . belt.bar: to hew or split with an axe. big'). 'daze. sanctuary with the loud voice ('birth-hut as metaphor for sanctuary' + 'voice' + 'great. morsel of food ('stomach. little ones (cf. túg-ku-ru-um: mourning (?) clothes (Akkadian kuuru .. sash').gu7: tur-tur: noble') .sìg: tukumbi.-nu: tumu-mer: TÙN.PAD: tur. harvest') .0 149 .. to make a sacrifice ('clothing' + 'to drag') .. magnificent (?) robe ('cloth' + 'to spend' + nominative). túg-me-zé-er-ra: rags ('cloth' + 'function' + 'to tear up.. to eat modestly ('little' + 'to eat').. feverish' + nominative). a festive garment. bed spread ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'stretched out') . short-cut robe (?) ('cloth' + 'to cut'). fine quality clothes ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to gasp' + nominative). a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'vulva' + genitive). Version 3. TÚG-TAG: túg-TAR: túg. túg-níñ-ur5-ra-ak-a: the first plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'to cut. pigeon' + 'plump.. depression. northwind ('wind' + 'anger'). break' + nominative). the last plowing (originally LAK 483 + 'deep'). tùr-gù-nun: tuš. túg-mu-dur7[BU]-ra: túg-níñ-bàra-(g): (cf. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to drape') .túg-gú-lal: túg-gur8/gur: blanket (for an animal) ('cloth' + 'back of neck' + 'to drape') . TÙN. slice..ùr: ñiš to fill or pile cloth (?) ('cloth' + 'to weave.. break. a woolen garment ('cloth' + 'thing' + 'to bring low' + 'to mould').. tum12[TU]-gur4mušen: turtle (?) dove ('dove. di 4-di 4-la ) (reduplicated 'little'). to slaughter ('mace. to strike') . didi . mu-dur 7(-ra) )..ñá-ñá: Sumerian Lexicon. túg-šà-ga-dù: cloth belt or woolen belted garment (?) ('cloth' + 'stomach' + nominative + 'to mould. weapon' + 'to strike... to dwell ('home' + 'to establish') . except ('if' + 'not').

unclean. ú-šim: grass and herbs = pasture (a Sumerian example of asyndetic hendiadys). work' + nominative).zé: ú-sal-la. hay or dry brushwood ('grasses' + 'to dwell. Ú-TIR: a spice or seed measured by weight.. provider ('food' + 'water' or nominative).lá: ú-li: to go to fetch food ('food' + terminative + 'to go/to stand') . sar ú-lipiš-gig: ú-lu-úbsar: ú-lu5-ši: leeks (cf.ri(-g): ú-sañ11: a resin measured by volume... harvest') ... Version 3..U. to dine. udul). (cf. U.. to be lost (ugu.. ú-kíñ-ñá ). to disappear. caretaker..tag ). to eat ('food' + 'to sip.nú: ú-si4-an ú-sug4: ú. to cut fascine plants ('fascine' + 'to cut') . the eating of which is a metaphor for sexual intercourse ('plant' + 'honey'). ugun). udul ). udug )...þúb: ú-kíñ-ñá: ú. Ú-NINNI5 [TIR/TIR]: ú-nu-kíñ-ñá: ú. ).... to deafen..tag: ú-a: ú. ú-rum: private.. food' + 'to seek. to tear out plants ('plant' + reduplicated 'to tear out') . ú-gu(3)..0 150 .. possession (cf. menstruating woman (cf. to be deaf. ú-durunx[DÚR. ú-làl: a sweet water-plant. ulušin ). ú-tul: (cf. to lie down in security ('food' + 'to persist' + 'to lie down') . to stem (the flow of water). grass.GÙN: (cf.. to bring') .. to diminish.. Sumerian Lexicon.PIRIÑ. ú-sañ11..dé: to lose. lu-úb (cf. guard.ñin/gub: ú.bu-bu(-r): ú-du(-l): ú-dug4: (cf. ú-šè.... 'to watch.DÚR]-na: ú-gíd-da: long grasses ('grasses' + 'long' + nominative).. to collect firewood ('plants' + 'to glean. protect') . (cf. to sprinkle') . fascine to sustain a canal bank or levee ('plants' + 'to cut. herb(s) ('plant' + 'fine smelling').'top of the head' + 'to sink') . nettles (?) ('plant' + 'anger/heart' + 'illness').. personal (property). plants' + 'to persist') ...sud/sù: ú-sal: a low-lying fertile area along a watercourse ('grass.. kušu/kušum x(-ki). úzug). untested grazing grounds (cf. ùru[-m]. pasturage ('plants. evening ('food' + 'red' + 'sky').... to dry out' + nominative). break.

. ù-nu-ñar-ra: sleep ('sleep' + 'to equal in value'. tud). daze. pustule. en .sá. pronominal prefix + 'to throw. ù-na: anything.. scepter of pure. adj.dab5: to be overcome by sleep (ù-sá.. pus.. fraud (pronominal prefix + 'not' + 'established' + nominative).á-bi/ba(-/ak/): u4-an-na: light of the heavens ('light' + 'heaven' + genitive). while... depression (cf. foul food ('food' + úzug. cf.. encircling wall') . pugnacious. when').. drop..... triumph ('when in battle' + 'to emerge standing') . apportion out') .-a-ta: force suffix) .. Sumerian Lexicon. ('time' + 'after'). unclean woman') . bu(5). n. 'kiln for bricks'.ku(4): ù-luþ-gi4-rin: ù-luþ. domineering. 'confusion. to create ('to lie down' + 'to create'. cf. to send out offshoots (pronominal prefix + 'clean' + 'to stretch...0 151 . u4.ñar/ñá-ñá: take oaths') .... u 6-di ) ('sleep' + 'to go'. ñi6.di).. (cf. rejoice').. ('time' + 'as.. to pray to. sleep ('to sleep' + nominative). to enter') .. (at the time) when. to uproot. ù. to be or do on time.. victory. impetuous.. ù-mu-un: ù-sá: ñiš Emesal dialect. rest. cf. u 4-bar ). ñi6. nothing (pronominal prefix + 'numerous')... to enter') . 'to chip out. [this brackets an entire phrase] ('time' + nominative or genitive). to entreat (with dative) (prospective modal prefix + 'evil' + 'to ù-gul. cf. to give birth. to ignite.. ù-suþ5: fir or spruce tree or wood (phonetic spelling shows original full pronunciation of suþ 5. ù-ma/ù-na. Version 3.(-a): u4..-a-gin7: u4.gub: to attain victory.. 'sleep' + 'to seize').. šab.. cf... sleep. after (the time) when. cf. ù-sun[BAD]: ñiš ù-šub: brick mold. 'midnight'). at the right moment ('time' + 'moment' + adverbial ù-tu-(d): ù-ur5-re: u4.. wild cow.. plop'. 'menstruating. 'when in battle') ... triumph (prospective modal prefix + me-a. all this (pronominal prefix + 'these'). bright light (?) (ù for u4 ?)..sù: ù-ma. ù-sá. to sleep badly ('sleep' + 'treacherous' + 'to lie down. flame (pronominal prefix + reduplicated bul(4).ú-za-gìn: ú-zug4: ù-a: fresh hay ('grass' + 'clean').. sún . ù-lul-la.ku(4): ù-la: to sleep (reduplication class). a platform for molding or drying bricks (same form as udun. to sprout. to rest ('sleep' + 'to lie down... ù-an-bar: ù-bu-bu-ul: ù-di: Akkadian bubu’tu(m) ).

u4-ba: u4-bar:

at that time; in those days; then ('time' + bi-a, 'that; its') . midday (cf., an-bar). the past ('days' + 'those' + 'from'). at the time of the harvest ('days, time' + 'harvest') .

u4-bi-ta: u4-buru14: u4-da:

today ('day' + 'with, near, present') . if ('today' + irrealis suffix) .

u4-da ñiš-en: u4-da-tuš: u4-gíd-da: u4-þuš: u4-imin:

a clown who performed with bears and pigs ('today' + 'to set up camp') .

u4(-bar)-dañal: extensive daylight, long day ('day' ( + 'middle') + 'wide').
all day long ('day' + 'to be long' + nominative suffix) .

raging storm ('storm' + 'furious, terrible, awesome'). seven days ('day' + 'seven') . there was never ('time' + prohibitive modal prefix + 'to be' + 'to not have'; cf.,

u4-na-me...nu-tuku:
lú...na-me...nu-).

u4-nu-dùg-ga: u4-ri-a: u4-sa9-a:

unhappy days ('day' + 'not' + 'sweet, good' + nominative suffix) .

in those (far remote) days ('days' + remote demonstrative affix + locative). half a day ('day' + 'half' + nominative suffix) .

u4-sakar[SAR](-ra):

crescent moon; new moon; segment of a circle; a plant, possibly rushes or nettles ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., é-u4-sakar).
u4-sakar).

u4-sakar-gibil: reviving new moon, thin crescent moon ('day, light' + 'to begin' + 'renewal'; cf., éu4-sud-ra:
for eternity ('time' + 'remote' + dative 'for').

u4...(al-)šú-šú-ru: u4-šú-uš(-e):
postposition).

to become cloudy or dark ('daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + šur, 'to rain' ? + marû 3rd. sing. ending with vowel harmony). daily; day by day ('day, daylight' + šúš/šú, 'to become dark' + locative-terminative evening ('daylight' + 'to extinguish, cool down') . morning ('daylight' + 'to approach') . birthday ('day' + 'birth' + genitive).

u4-te(-en): u4-te(-na):

u4-tu(-ud)-da:

u4-tur(-ra): early in the day; short in duration ('time' + 'small'). u4-u: ten days ('day' + 'ten'). u4-ul-la; u4-ì-li: u4-ul-lí-a-ta: u4...zal:
tomorrow ('day' + Akkadian elûm, 'to come up' and eli, 'above, beyond') .

from long ago ('days' + 'ancient' + nominative + 'from'). to waste a day; to disappear ('time' + 'to flee, hide, be lost' + 'to cause') .

u4-za-þa...(al-)aka:

the day dawns; to spend the day; to elapse; to waste time; to be late ('time' + 'to flow, pass').

Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0

152

u4-zal-la:

day, morning, dawn ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative).

u4-X zal-la: on the Xth day ('day' + 'to flow, elapse' + nominative). u5-a: lullaby ('raised high' + nominative). u5-bímušen; ú-bímušen; ub-bìmušen:
iti

whooping swan (onomatopoeic).

u5-bí-gu7:

calendar month 3 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 4 at Ur during Ur III. admiration, amazement ('to be impressed' + 'to judge') .

u6-di:

u6(-di)...di/dug4/e: to admire; to gain admiration ('admiration' + 'to speak, do'). u6...è/i(-i): u6-e...gub: u8-udu-þá
to look; to appear ('to look at; to stare at' + 'to be or become visible') . to be wonderful ('amazement' + ergative agent marker + 'to stand') .

sheep; (flock of) sheep and goats. southwind [with classifier
IM

u18[GIŠGAL]-lu:

]; storm; sandstorm ('huge' + 'numerous, abundant') .

u18-lu(-da)...dul: u18[GIŠGAL]-ru(-n): ub-ba...gub:

to cover with a storm ('storm' + 'with' + 'to cover'). exalted; high; overwhelming; mighty ('huge' + 'to send'; cf., uru16(-n)).

to deposit in the corner ('corner' + locative + 'to set') .

ub-líl-lá: outdoor shrine ('niche' + 'wind, spirit (of a place), fresh air' + nominative or genitive). ub-šu-ukkin-na:

assembly ('corner' + 'power' + 'meeting' + 'human being').

ub5-kug-ga: keeper of the sacred drum ('drum' + 'pure, holy' + nominative).

ud: (cf., u4). UD.KA.BAR: (cf., zabar). UD.UD: (cf., babbar, dadag). udu-dub:
tablet-recorded sheep ('sheep' + 'tablet') . fattened sheep ('sheep' + 'fattened') .

udu-níñ-gu7-a: udu-sar: udu-siki:

udu-nitaþ: male sheep, ram ('sheep' + 'male').
a vegetable (?) ('sheep' + 'vegetable') . wool sheep ('sheep' + 'wool') .

udu-šag5-ga: slaughtered sheep ('sheep' + 'to slaughter' + nominative). udu-šár-a: perfect sheep ('sheep' + 'totality; to slaughter' + nominative). udu-še-gu7-a: udu šu-nir: udun-maþ:
(wool from) barley-fed sheep ('sheep' + 'barley' + 'to eat' + nominative). sheep whose wool was used to make streamers for the group standards. huge baking oven ('oven' + 'huge') .

udun-še-sa-a: barley roasting oven ('oven' + 'barley' + 'to roast' + nominative).

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153

úgu...ba-a-ñar:

to place in a person's debit account ('account' + impersonal conjugation prefix +

locative infix + 'to deposit') (cf., gú-a...ñar).

ugu4-bi; a-gáb: ape, monkey ('to give birth' + inanimate demonstrative ["Inanimate are things and
animals." Thomsen, p. 49]) .

ugula-àga-ús: overseer of vassals ('overseer' + 'crown' + 'to follow'). ugula-íla: foreman of the porters ('overseer' + 'to carry'). ugula-ñéš-da: officer in charge of sixty men ('overseer' + ñeç, 'sixty' + genitival suffix /a(k)/). ugula-uru(-na-/ak/): ùña-lu-a: uþ...uš7: uku-ús: ÙKU.ÍL:
(cf., aþ...uš 7). (cf., aga (3)-ús ). (cf., un-gùr ). captain of the/his city ('overseer' + 'city' + 'his' + genitive).

multitudes ('people' + 'to be numerous' + nominative).

ul.KU: receiver (?). ul-šár-ra: jubilation ('joy' + 'to multiply' + nominative). ul...šár: ul4-la-bi: um-me-da: um-mi(3)-a:
genitive).

to gladden; to exult ('joy' + 'to multiply').

ul-ti(-a): happy mood ('joy' + 'life' + genitive).
very soon, quickly ('quick' + adverbial ending).

um-ma: elderly lady; witch ('old woman' + 'to bind').
(cf., ummeda ). schoolmaster; scholar; artisan ('wise or skillful teacher' + 'offices, functions' + nominative or

umbin-gud: oxen hooves; oxen tracks ('fingernail' + 'ox'). umbin...kud: umuš...kúr: un-íl-me: un sañ-ñi6: unu(2,6)-gal:
iti

to shave; to shear; to manicure ('fingernail' + 'to cut off'). to change one's mind ('discernment; decision' + 'to change') . a menial worker ('people' + Umma reading for íla sign, 'to bear, carry' + 'to be') .

un-gùr/ga6(-me):

menials ('people' + 'to carry' + 'to be') . black-headed people = Sumerians ('people' + 'heads' + 'black') .

unkin-ñar-ra: communal assembly ('people' + 'to fetch' + 'to establish' + nominative).
great dining hall ('elevated shrine, fortress' + 'great') .

UR: calendar month 7 at Ur during Ur III; calendar month 10 at Umma before Šulgi 30.
together (cf., téš-bi ). dog ('dog' + 'domestic') .

ur-bar-ra: wolf ('dog' + 'outside' + nominative). ur-bi; ur5-bi: ur-gir15/gi7[KU]:

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154

.gúr: ur5-ra-šè: ur5. thus shall it be indeed ('thus' + 'it is indeed') . to gasp ('liver. ur-ur-a.0 155 . the countryside ('city' + 'outside' + nominative). strong copper ('copper' + 'thing' + 'to be strong' + nominative). schedule. uru-bar-ra: uru-kúr(-ra): (in) a foreign city ('city' + 'strange' + locative). uru-šà-ga: the interior city (contrasts to uru-bar-ra)('city' + 'inside' + nominative). lay bare (reduplicated 'to harvest') . soul' + 'to satisfy'. loan' + 'to have') . ùsan-mar: usu-tuku: uš-bar: ñiš (cf. to hear ('heart. ušbar ).. ur5. famous (one) (?) (cf.. cf.. níñ-ur5-sa6-sa6). ur5-e: in such manner.sa6: ur5. ur-mú-da: ur-sa6-ga: ur-sañ: ur-tur: hero.ša4: ur5-šè: ur5-tud: ur5-tuku: to be mindful. uru-tuš: (cf.ñar: ur4-ur4: ur5-da: úr. urudu-A-EN-da: us-ga: a type of priest.. to assemble a list. outskirts of the city.. soul' + 'to bow down. happy ('liver. a pampered dog ('dog' + 'to be friendly' + nominative).. creditor ('debt.. soul' + 'to mourn') (contrast še. domestic servant ('debt' + 'to be born') ..zé(-zé): to roam ('legs' + 'to cut continuously') . wagon whip (?) ('whip' + 'wagon'). to roar. 'to sing' + nominative). ús-sañ: urudu-nì-kala-ga: rigging (of a ship) ('side. or plan ('servants' + locative + 'to set') . soul' + 'with'). lú-di-da ). uš-bar: Sumerian Lexicon. strength' + 'to have') . thus ('it. careful. soul' + 'to do'). a pet dog or puppy ('dog' + 'small'). ñišmá-sañ-ñá).. to devastate.. to bow down (in grief) ('liver.ša4).. Version 3. bellow ('liver.. cf. a type of copper. in front') . a strong person ('skill.. to be/make comfortable.aka: ur5-di-da: ur5. submit') . scepter ('penis' + 'to see. debtor. ruler's staff.ur-maþ: lion ('carnivorous beast' + 'mighty') .. show') . to join' + 'bow of a ship'. ur5-re. debt with interest ('loan' + 'portion'). watchdog (?) ('dog' + mud6.. thus' + locative terminative e). warrior ('young man' + 'first. outside the city.. ur5 þé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: to be like that ('in such manner' + nominative + 'towards') ... ki-tuš ).

TURmušen: (cf. ('venom' + 'to apply. šìr. za-ra: pole. uzu-libx[Í..za)... say: it is thine ('you' + /ak/. silo (for barley. za-þa-din. wagons..dug4: to spit ('spittle' + 'to speak.UDU]: (ñiš) mutton fat ('meat' + 'mutton fat'). lapis lazuli.tag: za-pa-áñ: za-pa-aþ: sound. lustrous.. stone cutter ('[precious] stone' + 'to fashion') .. breath (za..áña). shaft of chariots. shiny lapis lazuli ('lapis lazuli' + 'moist'). ki... Version 3. piling up an earthen block or dam (cf.dug4/du11: za-za: (cf. yourself. za-þa-ti: cure') . put in') .... you. 'of' + àm. granary. a type of onion.. ñiš ñiš za-na: puppet. precious stone (in general) ('stone' + 'colorful'). handle') .uš-gíd-da: storehouse. araþ4) ('foundation' + 'to be long' + nominative).. za-a-kam. utu-è: sunrise ('sun' + 'to rise. uš-sì-ga: úš-a: unsafe foundation ('foundation' + 'to damage' + nominative). cf.0 156 .3). zaþ2.. bibad mušen ). to become visible') . clean ('precious stone') . za-gìn: za-gìn: (na4) za-gìn-duru5: za-þa: (cf... and doors (cf.. a úš-a) ('to block' + nominative). uz-ga: (cf. uš11.. to handle a puppet ('puppet' + 'to touch. do.. dates.sig10/sì: d to throw/inject venom on/in.. 'breathing' transformed by vowel harmony + 'puffing sound' + 'to mete out'.. za-za-ga: marjoram or oregano (?). possibly Allium desertorium ('kernel' + 'many' + 'to za-na: caterpillar ('monotonous repetition' + 'distinct things or selves') . ñišzar). uš-ñar-ra: firm foundation ('foundation' + 'to establish' + nominative). é-uz-ga). to lecture ('to you' + 'to speak') . za-na.. (cf..dug4/du11: za-ba-lum: za-dím: za-e: na4 a variety of juniper (resin) ('kernel' + 'to give' + 'abundance') . Sumerian Lexicon. za-ra. harrows. uzu-ì: fatty meat ('meat' + 'fat'). make'). uš7. UZ. 'it is' + 'to speak'). 'rhythmic sound' or zi. zipaþ ). ùz-ga-nañ: milking goat ('goat' + 'milk' + 'drinking').. oil) (cf.

limit' + 'city'). zag-bar: zag-du8: zag. sexually mature female goat kid ('female goat kid' + 'breasts') . zé-me ñiš that is yourself (za. 'you'. sahlû)..ús: záþ-bi: outskirts of the city ('edge. zi-bí: a form of caraway seed (Akkadian loanword. to spread.. zag. zà[ZAG]-þi-li(-a)sar: a condiment made from a prickly plant such as wild safflower ('border. zag). cf. to set aside ('edge. zag-sá[DI]. bed ('limit' + 'to the'). until disappearance ('to perish' + adverbial force suffix) .. (metal) quantity left over by cutting ('percentage' + 'to pare away') . zé-na: zeþ-gaba: zi-ba-tum: an aromatic seed (?). to remove.. to slip.zà: (cf. palm frond ('to be cut.. to heap up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to be zàr-tab-ba: šáþ the work of binding sheaves ('sheaf' + 'to bind' + nominative). a fifth (as a division) ('percentage' + 5 or other number + 'length') .kéš: to endow with ('side' + 'to bind to'). zag. to break (often with -ta-). zag. to overthrow. to tear out.sal: wide'). launch ('edge. sum. (ñiš) zà-mí: musical instrument . zé-eþ-tur: small pig (phonetic spelling of šáþ + 'small'). zag-munus: (cf. seat of honor ('side.. limit' + 'to touch.. zag-ša4[DI]: zag-še(3). zag-gal-la: a type of chair.. cf.a lyre. zag-uru: zag 5-ús: zag. beginning' + 'charm. to the bitter end. zag-gu-la. limit' + 'to lean against'). from zibû. shoulder' + 'great'). threshold ('boundary' + 'to adorn') . zà-mí: (hymn of) praise ('territory' + 'woman'). zag-ša4: equal.0 157 . zag-è: buttress (?) ('barrier' + 'to rise').dib: to elevate over ('barrier' + 'to cross'). zar(-re-eš). dùg.. to spread') ..tag: to push away. to push off. to stand by... zi-re: to tear up.. with vowel harmony + 'to be . to border on.. Version 3. Akk.. adv. strength.. zar(-re-eš). rival ('limit' + 'to equal').du8: to pile up ('sheaves' + phonetic complement + 'much' + 'to open.. 'black cumin'). to reject. zé-eb: Emesal dialect.. push'). zé-er. sheared' + 'an individual case of') . to mark ('side' + 'to throw down'). Sumerian Lexicon. zé-èm: Emesal dialect. zà-mí). appeal'.šuš: to brand..

. zi. zi-dè-eš(-šè). zíd). wise.pà(-d): (ñiš) to take an oath. deduct' + nominative + 'to establish') . old men (Akk. zikru(m) I. adj. put') . a reed or clay pipe or pipette (Akkadian loanword ziriiqu from zaraaqu)... a coarse. torn out.. living being ('breath' + 'to be available' + nominative).. move in a circle. zi... to breathe ('breath' + bun.ñar: ñiš to tell the truth ('truth' + 'to speak') . zi.. zì: (cf. to be broken ('faith' + 'to lead away [plural]').. divine encouragement. extracted. Sumerian á-lá ). subtracting.ñál: zi-zi-i: to provide (someone: -ši -) with life ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to place') . alive. chick pea flour ('flour' + 'chick pea'). to revolt.dug4: zi-ga(-àm): zi-ga. shake. revolting (reduplicated 'to tear out') ..3/de6: to take refuge ('life' + ('into') + 'to bring').. zi-ik-rum: zikru II. sustenance ('breath' + 'innards' + 'to be available'). worried. subtraction. expended. to place. Version 3.. inspiration. zíd-bar-si: zíd-dub-dub: zíd-gu: a type of emmer wheat flour ('flour' + 'to release' + 'like a sprout'). zi-gan: rudder. to conjure ('faith' + 'to swear'). loyally. strew') . risen up ('to tear out.. to be on good terms ('faith' + 'to restore'). 'utterance' and zikaru(m) and zi-ik-ru-um. oar ('to rise up' + 'pestle') . 'to blow').. zi.(ši)-tum2.pà-da: to faithfully choose ('faithfully' + 'to choose')...0 158 . zi-du: a good person ('good' + 'to walk'). involving a water bucket hanging ñiš from a swinging beam (cf.zi-dè-eš(2)(-šè): adv.. zi-šà. a type of barley flour ('flour' + 'mortar-ground' + nominative).. oath ('breath.gi4: zi. zi-ri/rí-gúm/qum: a device for moving irrigation water. to impose a levy ('to tear out.. legitimate (and) lofty ('legitimate' + 'lofty'). fine barley flour ('flour' + 'net'). soul' + 'king') . zi. flour for the best ritual actions ('flour' + reduplicated 'to pour.pa-an-pa-an: zi. deducted.ñál: zi-ñál(-la): to grant life. to have life ('breath' + 'to be available. sprinkle off. sad.. rebel. zi-šà-ñál: n.ir/ra: zi lugal: zi-maþ: to be troubled. to rise up' + nominative)... faithfully ('truth' + adverbial force suffix) . zíd-gú-gal: zíd-kum4[UD]-ma: zíd-milla[IŠ]: Sumerian Lexicon... cheap type of flour ('flour' + 'mountain' or 'scorching' ?).. 'male').

harness') . cf. Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran. iti zíz-a: calendar month 11 at Nippur during Ur III.. imñaña ).. shake (reduplicated 'to tend.. cleaning emmer after winnowing ('emmer wheat' + 'to pour' + nominative).. (cf. dabin ).. pierced (Akkadian sahlu..du8: to chew. zú. to rock. su(11)-lum...... zú. zíd-za(-tum): a type of flour. 'to pass through a hole.mar: (cf.du 8). (cf.. cracked barley mixed with wheat flour (?) ('flour' + 'pleasing. zíz-AN: zíz-bal: zíz-babbar: zíz. stab') .. zíd-še-sa: flour from roasted barley ('flour' + 'roasted barley').kud/ku5: zú..ur5[ÞAR]: zú. zú.. acquaintance ('to know' + nominative).. zu-þu-ul: zú..ur 5).. zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ: a form of emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'chick pea' + 'eggs')..zalag: zur-zur: zur-re-eš..ra(-ra): to bite ('teeth' + usually reduplicated 'to strike.mar).0 159 . to crush with the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush') . kaš- ZÍD-ŠE: (cf.li9-li9: zú-lum(-ma): zú-lum.... zú. zú.zíd-sig15[KAL]: sig15). gleam') .. zú. to oblige ('teeth' + 'to bind.. bite ('teeth' + 'to chew') ... Last revised August 11. to laugh ('teeth' + 'to glisten') . to show one's teeth ('teeth' + 'to shine.gaz: zú-gub: zú. white emmer wheat ('emmer wheat' + 'white'). shake') ..kešda: lunch ('teeth' + 'to stand') .dé-a: zu-a: emmer wheat lost in processing ('emmer wheat' + 'to demolish')..súd-súd[ŠÌTA]: to gnash the teeth ('teeth' + 'to crush.. to thread') .ra-aþ: to devour ('teeth' + 'to strike repetitively.ÞAR: zú. to rock') . zar-re-eš. valuable'.sumerian. 1999 Home page for the Sumerian lexicon: http://www. All Rights Reserved... to bite ('teeth' + 'to cut') . Version 3... (animal) nurse.. (cf.org/ Sumerian Lexicon... gnash') . date fruit ('teeth' + 'to be satiated') .. zaatum flour.

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