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Experiment #2: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions David, Reynaldo Jr.

Padilla, Vince Lambert Pesigan, Jane Mierial

FAB3, Group 7, Ms. Fatima Joy Cruz January 27, 2011

Abstract Oxidation-reduction reaction (redox reaction) is a process in which there is a net movement of electrons from one reactant (reducing agent) to another (oxidizing agent). This is also shown by a change in oxidation number. Oxidation number method was used in this experiment to balance equations. In this experiment, different reactants were combined respectively in four different test tubes to test if they exhibit the characteristic of the redox reactions. The properties of compound before and after the reaction took place were observed. Visible results of the reaction, such as color change, presence of precipitate, and evolution of gas were also noted so as to identify whether redox reaction occurred or not. Based on the results, it can be concluded that all reactions in the experiment exhibited oxidation and reduction. II. Keywords: Redox Reaction, Oxidation, Reduction, Oxidation Number/State, Oxidizing Agent, Reducing Agent III. Introduction Oxidation-reductions (shorthand: redox) reactions are among the most common and important chemical processes that are of great significance. Redox reactions are involved in a wide variety of essential processes: from the formation and mobilization of minerals to electroplating. Reactions that generate electricity, combustion reactions, and even our own biological processes are engaged in redox reactions. Oxidation-reduction reaction involves a net movement of electrons from one reactant (reducing agent) to the other (oxidizing agent). Electrons¶ movement occurs from a reactant of less attraction for electrons to reactant of greater attraction for electrons. Redox can be shown by the change in oxidation number of two elements. Oxidation number (oxidation state) is a number equal to the magnitude of the charge an atom would have if its shared electrons were held completely by the atom that attracts them more strongly. A few rules regarding the oxidation states of atoms are as follows: 1. Oxidation number of elements in the free/uncombined/elemental state such as Fe and O2 is zero (0). 2. For monoatomic ions or atoms with charges, the oxidation number is the same as the valence of the ion. ex. Fe (III) in the Fe2O3 molecule has an oxidation number of +3. 3. Oxidation number of hydrogen in compounds is always +1 except when bonded with less electronegative elements as in hydrides, where O.N. of H is -1. (e.g., CaH2). 4. Oxidation number of oxygen is always -2 except in peroxides where its O.N. is -1 and in compounds with flourine where its Chemistry 14.1, Oxidation-Reduction Reactions O.N. is +1. (O is -2 in H2O, -1 in H2O2, +1 in OF2) Oxidation number of flourine is always -1 since it is the most electronegative element. The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion is equal to the ionic charge. (ex. S2O32- : 2[+2] + 3[-2] = -2 ) The sum of the oxidation numbers in a compound is zero. (ex. Na2C2O4: 2[+1] + 2[+3] + 4[-2] = 0; compound is neutral) Alkali metals (Group 1 or 1A) have an oxidation number +1 in all compounds. Alkaline earth metals (Group 2 or 2A) have an oxidation number +2 in all compounds.

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In redox reaction, oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. In the formation of magnesium oxide, for example, Mg and O2 develop a change in oxidation number as the reaction occurred. From zero (0), magnesium acquires an oxidation number of positive two (+2) while oxygen obtains negative two (-2). Hence, O2 oxidizes Mg and is the oxidizing agent, while Mg reduces O2 and is the reducing agent. The oxidizing agent, O2, is reduced because it removes the electrons. The reducing agent, Mg, is oxidized because it gives up electrons. Indications of redox reactions involve: evolution of gas, formation of precipitate, change in color, light emission, and absorption of heat. The experiment aimed to identify the function of each element regarding the changes in a compound as it undergoes certain reactions. Thus, oxidizing and reducing agents were identified. In this experiment, visible indications were observed as the different reactants were combined to form redox reactions. Changes were noted as the process took place. Balancing of the equations Page 1 of 4

A strip of Mg ribbon was added to the reagent. Results Test Tube A Balanced Equation Observation Cu(NO3)2 + Mg Mg(NO3)2 + Cu There was evolution of gas (formation of bubbles). were labeled A. Chemistry 14. The table shows the balanced equations of the reactions and the corresponding observations. H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide). Balanced equations were also presented on Table 1. Color changed from yellowish to being colorless.through the oxidation number method was then employed. C. B K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3H2O2 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 3O2 + 7H2O There was evolution of gas (formation of bubbles). Table 2 below shows the elements¶ and compounds¶ colors and oxidation states. 2 drops of 0. I2 in KI (Iodine in Potassium Iodide Solution). H2SO4 and Na2C2O4 are colorless. 2 drops of 0.1 M K2Cr2O7 was placed and was added with 6 drops of 6 M H2SO4. H2SO4 and H2O2 are colorless. there was a slow change of color from deep purple to being colorless. Na2S2O3 (Sodium thiosulfate).1 M KMnO4 were placed inside the test tube D. Na2C2O4 (Sodium oxalate). C 2Na2S2O3 + I2 Na2S4O6 + 2NaI I2 is yellow orange. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Page 2 of 4 . formation of bubbles. Experimental Colors of the following reagents used were noted before the reaction: Cu(NO3)2 (Copper II nitrate). V. Cu(NO3)2 is light blue and Mg is silver. respective results observed were recorded.1 M Cu(NO3)2 was placed using a medicine dropper. Upon the addition of Na2C2O4.1. As Mg was added to Cu(NO3)2. B. In test tube A.1 M of Na2S2O3 was added. D As the reagents were combined in the following reactions displayed in the table below. H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid). Table 1.1 M Na2C2O4. Na2S2O3 is colorless. Lastly. in test tube C. 5 drops of 0. followed by 4 drops of 3% fresh H2O2. 2 drops of 0. Subsequently. K2Cr2O7 is orange. 2KMnO4 +8 H2SO4 + 5Na2C2O4 2MnSO4 + 10CO2 + H2O + 5Na2SO4 + K2SO4 There was formation of bubbles. the mixture turned into light green. Visible results and observations such as changes in color.1 M I2 in KI solution was placed. In test tube B. Six drops of 6 M H2SO4 followed and to was the added with 6 drops of 0. Two drops of 0. KMnO4 (Potassium permanganate). KMnO4 is violet. IV. Four test tubes. Color changed from orange to yellow to bluish green as reagents combined. and D. or presence of precipitate were observed and recorded after every reaction was accomplished. used as apparatus for combining reagents. K2Cr2O7 (Potassium dichromate).

Cu(NO3)2 is the oxidizing agent. Reducing agent is Na2S2O3.Reducing agent is Na2C2O4. the oxidation numbers of magnesium and copper in the reaction changed from zero (0) to positive two (+2) and two (+2) to zero (0). From the results observed.1. There was also a change in color that occurred (from purple to colorless). oxidation-reduction reaction took place as indicated by the changes in colors of the mixtures and the evolution of gas. In test tube B. These showed a change from positive two (+2) to positive two and a half (2. Color change is due to a compound¶s absorption of a characteristic set of colors of light. Chromium caused the Chemistry 14. Mg is the reducing agent. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions . 3. In test tube C. There was a change in yellow orange to being colorless.5). In the 2+ experiment. 2 H2O2 2 H2O + O2 Thus. it is therefore concluded that substances or elements Page 3 of 4 VI. and from zero (0) to positive one (+1). Conclusions and Recommendations Based on the results and discussion. Not all reactions involve the changing of oxidation states. hydrogen peroxide must be in freshly prepared state so as to be useful for the characteristic reaction. the excess energy is released. while the reducing agent is H2O2. 2. oxygen changed its oxidation state from negative one (-1) to zero (0). The oxidizing agent is K2Cr2O7. In test tube D. There are reactions that only involve the exchange of elements of the reactants. Discussion Based on the results of the experiment. VIII. Theoretically. This can be supported by both quantitative and visible indications of the reactions. Cu2+ is light blue. making the surroundings hotter. there was formation of bubbles. Chromium also changed from positive six (+6) to positive three (+3). bluish green color. The table shows the color and oxidation states of compounds/elements. Oxidizing agent is I2. making them cooler. Oxidizing agent is KMnO4. These are called metathesis or double-displacement reactions. These were the gaseous products that were produced by the redox reaction. Why must H2O2 be freshly prepared? y Hydrogen peroxide should be freshly prepared since it decomposes or disproportionates exothermically into water and gas spontaneously. What are the visible indications that a redox reaction took place? y The visible indications of a redox reaction are the formation of gases and precipitates. change in temperature was observed. a change from positive three (+3) to positive four (+4) in carbon and from positive seven (+7) to positive two (+2) in manganese occurred. carbon was oxidized and manganese was reduced. VII. When the reaction involves more bond-breaking than bond making. I2 caused the yellow coloring. When there is more bond-making than bond-breaking. Guide Questions and Answers 1. CO2. In test tube A. sulfur was oxidized and iodine was reduced. The formation of bubbles was due to the presence of CO2 as one of the products. it can be said that an oxidation-reduction reaction took place in all the set-ups A to D. Energy is needed to break chemical bonds. change in color and temperatures. This energy is released when new chemical bonds form. there were changes in phases. the energy needed is often absorbed from the surroundings.Element Cu Mg Cr I Compound/ Element Cu(NO3)2 Cu Mg(NO3)2 Mg K2Cr2O7 Chromic Ion I2 KI H2O H2O2 Na2S2O3 Na2S4O6 KMnO4 MnSO4 MnO2 CO2 Na2C2O4 Color Light blue Brick red Colorless Silver Orange Green Yellow Orange Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorless Violet Colorless Brown precipitate Colorless gas colorless Oxidation State +2 0 +2 0 +6 +3 0 -1 -2 -1 +2 +2. Also. Also. Formation of bubbles appeared in most of the mixtures. respectively. respectively. Do all reactions involve oxidationreduction? Why? y No. Due to the presence of O2. In the reaction.5 +7 +2 +4 +4 +3 O S Mn C Table 2. free Cu caused the solution to absorb light and shift the solution¶s color to green. the reaction must produce a colorless solution with brick red precipitate.

chem. substances which gain electrons and have a decrease in their oxidation states after a reaction are said to undergo reduction (Copper. the oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction. Iodine. 4th edition. Internet Sources: http://chemed. Not all reactions involve oxidation-reduction since metathesis or double displacement chemical reactions do not display a change in oxidation state.which lose electrons and have an increase in oxidation states after a reaction undergo oxidation and are called reducing agents (Magnesium.1. forms a complete reaction.latech. Sulfur and Carbon). It is recommended that more experiments be conducted to demonstrate more clearly the results of redox reaction and to identify the visible indications of these reactions.chem. They are called oxidizing agents. Jane Mierial Chemistry 14. inspection method and further balancing are being used. David. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Page 4 of 4 .php http://www.wikipedia. IX. Evolution of gas. Redox reactions can be balanced using the oxidation number method where the electrons gained and lost are xns10. absorption of heat and formation of precipate were observed and are therefore concluded to be the visible indications of a redox reaction. M. Reynaldo Jr. Conversely. Manganese). and what reaction took place.htm http://www. Vincent Lambert Pesigan. Oxygen. The combination of the two reactions. Chromium. Different elements have different oxidation states depending if they were a part of a compound or not. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. References Silberberg. Padilla. The change in oxidation states could be used to identify this. oxidation and reduction. color ew/bp/ch19/ I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to this report.