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Matlab_Project

Matlab_Project

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05/22/2013

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ADRIAN BAZAJ

ID: 003719771
PATTERN CUTTING MACHINE
COMPUTER PROJECT
ECE 4330
Table of Contents
Topics Page
Introduction / Problem Statement ___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________ 2
Original X and Y Channel & Error Plots______________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________4
Transer !unctions / !inal Parameters ________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________"
#ill o $aterial / $odiied #loc% &iagram____________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________'
$odiied X and Y Channel Plots____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________(
$odiied Error Plot_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________)
&escri*tion o Plots_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________+
Trial and Error ,**roach -_________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________-.
Trial and Error ,**roach 2_________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________--
/sing no Saturation 0imits_________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________-1
2esol3ing the Problem / Conclusion__________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________-4
Introduction
I 4ill be s*ending this summer 4or%ing at m5 uncle6s tool and die com*an57 $5 uncle
has been 3er5 successul 4ith three locations around the countr57 8e li%es to bid on 3er5
lucrati3e contract or ma%ing *atterns or #oeing7 8e has one o the e4 9:5 *attern:cutting
machines in the countr5; but the machine is e4 generations old and doesn6t meet the
re<uirements to satis5 the #oeing contract7 7 8e has as%ed me to ta%e a loo% at the machine and
tr5 to ind the right s*eciications to i9 the machine so that it can 4or% at a aster *ace and that
4ill lead in meeting the re<uirements or the contract 4ith #oeing7 I I get this =ob done he 4ill
not end u* in3esting in a ne4 machine that 4ill cost him >'..?7
$o3ing the machine in the 5:direction; the laser head mo3es on a trac% along a si9:meter long
beam7 The laser head mo3es along the 5:motor; 4hich is on the beam; and directl5 turns a shat
4ith a s*iral cut into it7 To reduce riction there are ball bearing that ride in the s*iral groo3es in
the head7 ,s the shat rotates C@ and CC@ laser head mo3es bac% and orth along the beam7 To
mo3e the laser head in the 9:direction; the motor must mo3e the entire beam and head assembl57
The motor is mounted on a table structure that dri3es a second s*iral shat that *asses through
one end o the beam and o*erates in the same 4a57 This entire machine 4or%s 4hen the
s*eciication in*ut is *ut into the com*uter and then the machine cuts that 4a57
The 9:5 machine shall be able to res*ond to ste* in*ut o both 9 and 5 channels o i3e meters
and a trac% 4ith a matched accurac5 *lus or minus 1A or less o the scale; 4hich is about *lus or
minus .7-" meters7 In addition; the cutting head must reach its inal stead5:state *osition at the
i3e:meter location in both the 9 and 5 direction in less that or e<ual to .74. seconds7 ,ll this
should be able to res*ond simultaneousl57 There also is a deadline that needs to be met o three
4ee%s and sta5 4ithin the budget o our to i3e thousand dollars7
This is the original $at0ab bloc% diagram B4ith original *arametersC
,s 4e going along this *ro=ect the bloc% diagram is gong to loo% the same; onl5 the *arameters
4ill change along each trial7
The gra*h o X & Y channels 4ith original *arameters7
Studding the abo3e gra*h; 4e can conclude that both X and Y are mo3ing in dierent times; and
saturation is not ta%ing *lace at .747 Thereore some more 4or% is needed in order to get this =ob
done7
This gra*h re*resents the error *lot o original *arameters7
!rom the error gra*h o the *re3ious *age; 4e can see that our error is much larger than the one
that 4as assigned7 The error is close to 27' meters instead o .7-" meters7
,ssociating the *art BaC o s*ecial *roblem D( 4ith this *ro=ect I get these transer unctions
Bsho4n on table belo4C rom their corres*onding dierential e<uations7 &oing this 4ill hel* us
to get the right s*eciications7
Differentia !"uations Transfer #unctions
e
error
E e
com
F e
b
-
e
*s
E ? e
error
G E ?
e
m
E e
*s
: e
g
-
e
m
E 0
m
dt
di
m

H 2
m
i
m
G E
R Ls +
-
t
ag
E ?
T
i
m
G E ?
T
t
ag
E I
t

dt
dw
m
H #
t
ω
m
G E
B Js +
-
e
3
E ?
3
ω
m
G E ?
3
θ
m
E

+
t
m
dt t w
.
C B
G E
s
-
9
*osition
E ?
sht7lead
θ
m
G E ?
sht7lead
e
b
E ?
*os7sensor
9
*osition
G E ?
*os7sensor
The table belo4 sho4s the inal selection or all *arameters or both the 9 and 5 channels7
Transfer Function X Channel Y Channel
Gain (K) 500 480
Total Friction (BL) 0.05 0.01
Spiral Lead (Ks) 0.05 0.05
Voltage Constant (K) 0.445 0.!!
"esistance (") 1.0 1.0
Tor#$e Constant (KT) 0.445 0.!!
Total %nertia (&L) 0.001 0.0001
Voltage Li'it ( 1)0 ( 100
C$rrent Li'it ( )0 ( 50
%nd$ctance (L) 0.001 0.001
The *arameters that considered necessar5 change 4ere the gain B?C; a ne4 *o4er su**l5 4as
needed or the 5:channel to ad=ust the current limit and 3oltage limit saturation7 , need to
re4ound the motor6s 3oltage constant B?
J
C; and motor6s tor<ue constant B?
T
C7 I ca**ed the same
3alues or the tor<ue constant and the 3oltage constant 4hen the motors 4ere re4ound7 The
same changes 4ere necessar5 and or channel X7
The belo4 table summariKes the bill o materials that I made the selected changes and the total
*ro=ect cost7
Quantity Equipment Model Price Price for Time to Total Price
per
Item delivery Deliver
1
*o+er
S$ppl,
-1)0V .
)0/ 012800 0100 1 da,s 0!2000
1 KT 0.445 0400 00 5 da,s 0400
1 KV 0.445 0400 00 0400
1 KT 0.!! 0400 00 0400
1 KV 0.!! 0400 00 0400
Total ) da,s 042)00
The reason that m5 uncle hired me 4as; so he could sa3e man5 and time7 The goal 4as not to
s*end more than > "%; and 1 4ee%s on time7 I ordered one ne4 *o4er su**l5 4hich 4ill be
shi**ed in a da5; and some custom made $otors 4hich 4ill be shi**ed in " da5s7 In 4orst case I
4ill need onl5 ' da5s or shi**ing7 I calculated the cost and I maintained the budget7
This is the bloc% diagram build using $atlab 4ith the correct *arameters7
This is Error Gra*h BY:XC using the correct *aremeters7
,s sho4n on the abo3e gra*h; 4e ha3e res*ected the boundaries o the *ro=ect; 4hich 4ere
bet4een F.7-" and .7-"7
This is X and Y Gra*h sho4n 4ith the correct *arameters7
The abo3e gra*h sho4s us that both channels X and Y ha3e been saturated at .747 The5 meet
each other at " 3olts in .74 seconds7
To get started I had to change the dierential e<uations to transer unction; so I could use them
in the calculation o m5 bloc% diagram7 Trial ater trial and understanding the *roblem; I came u*
4ith the s*eciications that 4ere needed7
,**l5ing these *arameters into the cutting machine; I achie3e to reduce the error that 4as assign
or this *ro=ect7 The error in meters is *ro9imall5 .7.) meters; 4hich is close to the hal o the
goal o .7-" meters that 4as assigned7 The saturation o both X and Y ha**ened beore .74
seconds7 $eeting these re<uirements 4ill lead m5 uncle to close the contract 4ith #oeing7
I got these *arameters; so m5 uncle could be able to bid or the contract that he ho**ed to sign7
The *arts that I ordered arri3ed in a 3er5 short time and 4ere aordable or m5 budget7
Approac$es t$at ead us to t$e rig$t pat$
@hen I irst started this *ro=ect I realiKed that the motors needed to be ad=usted to get the right
results7 I changed both KT and KV or the t4o motors X and Y7

Y Channel X Channel
KV 0.41 0.41
KT 0.41 0.41
This is the 4orst case o the *ro=ectL here is the stage 4hen I irst started; using the abo3e gain
3alues7
This is the gra*h o the X and Y or the 4orst case trial7
This is the result o one o m5 irst trials7 &ecreasing the gain 4ill shit the gra*hs to the let and
ma%e both channels o3erla* beore .74 sec7 This gra*h sho4s that ne9t I ha3e to do some
changes 4ith saturation limits7
This is the gra*h o the error BY:XC o the 4orst trial7

,s the abo3e gra*hs sho4s; the error here is 3er5 large7 To decrease the error I had to reduce the
gain in Y channel7
Getting closer to the motor 3alues that I needed; I ad=usted the saturation o the 9:channel7 X:
channel needs more *o4er than 5:channel because it also hel*s on mo3ing 5:channel7 I
decreased the Y gain also because that 4ill lead shiting the gra*h to the let o the timing line7 7
The table belo4 sho4s 4hat the 3alues are o the saturation and Gain that I used or this trial7
X Channel Y Channel
Voltage Saturation (1)0 ( 100
Current Saturation ( )0 ( 50
Gain 500 480
This is Error gra*h 4hile 4or%ing to get the right results7
Chec%ing the abo3e gra*h 4e can see that the error bounds are outside the boundaries o the
*ro=ect; but it gets better than the *re3ious trial7
This is the X and Y gra*h 4hile 4or%ing to get the right results7
The 9:a9is has not been saturated 5et; but it is getting reall5 close to the real 3alue o it7

%sing no saturation i&its
This is the bloc% diagram 4ith out using saturation7
This is the gra*h o error 4ithout using saturation7
/sing no saturation 4ill lead us in a big ga* o error7 ,s 4e obser3er; the error here is larger
then our boundaries7 The error it gets closer to .7' meters7
This is the gra*h o the X and Y 4ithout saturation7
This is the gra*h o the trial 4ith out using the saturation7 ,s 4e see the gra*h starts at 1 instead
o .7 This ma%es the motors to 4or% closel5 together but not e9actl5 4hat 4e are loo%ing or7
Reso'ing t$e pro(e&
X Channel Y Channel
Characteristic Roots
31.!!012
1.1)45 ( 41.0!51
30.54152
0.4608 ( 40.81)5
Characteristic Modes
e
31.!!01
2
e
1.1)45
cos 1.0!51 e
30.5415
2 e
0.4608
cos0.81)5
Characteristic
Equation c e
31.!!01
7c1 e
1.1)45
cos (1.0!51t 7 θ ) c e
30.5415
7c1 e
0.4608
cos (0.81)5t 7 θ )
Table abo3e sho4s the characteristics modes; 3alues and e<uations7 ,ll the abo3e are based on
the ne4 *arameters7
)oncusion
,ter I inished m5 =ob; I 4ent and *resented it to m5 uncle7 ,t irst he did not ta%e m5 =ob
seriousl57 8e sadM N#oeing6s not going to care t4o cents about 5our anc5 com*uter studies7
The5 4ant to see hard4are 4or%ing and so do I7 Thro4 the s4itch and let6s see i this machine
4or%s7O I started the machine 4ith the right *arameters; m5 uncle obser3ed that saturation started
beore .74 second and the error *ercentage 4as much lo4er then .7-" that 4as needed rom
#oeing6s standards7 @hen I 4as lea3ing the garage m5 uncle 5elledM M NOh m5 gosh; 5ou gotta
=ob 4hen 5ou graduate %id; >).? starting; com*an5 car; -.A share in the business; and I6ll
thro4 in >-.? to hel* 5ou through 5our senior 5ear7O

Table of Contents Topics Page Introduction / Problem Statement ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2 Original X and Y Channel & Error Plots______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________4 Transfer Functions / Final Parameters ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________5 Bill of Material / Modified Block Diagram____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________6 Modified X and Y Channel Plots____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________7 .

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