BCJ'_
British Cement Association
Charts for the design of circular columns to BS 8110
W.G. Batchelor BTech(Eng) and A.W. Beeby BSc, PhD, CEng, MICE, MIStuctE
I ntrod uction
When CP 110(1) was published in 1972, Part 3 included a series of design charts for circular columns and prestressed beams. The British Standards Institution found that sales of CP 110 : Part 3 were not high, so these charts were not included in BS 8110(2) when it was published in 1985. The charts for prestressed beams do not seem to have been missed, but both the British Cement Association and BSI have received a steady stream of enquiries for design charts for circular columns. This publication is the response to these enquiries.
The charts are presented in a form which is as close as possible to that in CP 110:
Part 3 so that they will be familiar to users of the old charts. The derivation of the charts is, however, slightly more rigorous than the method used in CP 110. This will be discussed further in the next section.
The charts in CP 110 were developed, not unreasonably, for use when designing members in strict accordance with the Code. It was therefore necessary to cover only the specific grades of concrete and steel recommended in the Code. There are. however, situations where nonstandard concrete grades have to be taken into account, or possibly where the reinforcement to be used is not in accordance with the appropriate British Standard (for example, when designing for jobs abroad, or checking an existing structure). To cope with these situations, four extra charts have been included which use nondimensional parameters and which can be applied to any grade of concrete or steel. These charts are not as rigorous as the main set because they do not allow for the slight changes in geometry of the parabolicrectangular stress block with change in cube strength. Nor do they allow for the fact that changes in the yield strain of the steel with change in steel grade will have an influence on the lower parts of the curves. These effects are, however, relatively minor.
Contents
Derivation of charts.............. .. .. I
References 4
Notation 4
Figures 1  7 5
Design charts 9
43.503 First published 1989
ISBN 0 7120 13805
Price group F
© British Cement Association 1989 British Cement Association Century House, Telford Avenue Crowthorne, Berks RG45 6YS Tel: (01344) 762676
Fax: (01344) 761214
All advice or information from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
New or revised British Standards Update for BeA publications
New or revised British Standards for concrete and for most cements have now been published. These changes may result in parts of some BCA publications being out of date.
This insert will help readers by outlining the main changes in the British Standards and explaining how the information in this publication, where relevant, may be converted to accord with the new standards.
Specifications for cement
Most parts of a new European Standard for the testing of cement (EN 196) have been published. This standard will have little effect on concrete practice, but it should be noted that the method of testing cement strength by using concrete cubes (BS 4550) has been replaced by a mortar prism test (EN 196: Part 1). This gives higher results, and an approximate relationship between mortar prism and concrete cube compressive strengths, for the same cement, is given in Table 1.
Table 1
Value of mortar prism compressive strength, y(N / mm'')
concrete cube compressive strength, x(N / mm")
Age at 2 3 7 28
test, days
y/x 1.48 1.41 1.34 1.30 In anticipation of a European Standard for cements
(EN 197), new British Standards have been published as follows:
BS 12: 1991 Specification for Portland cement
BS 146: 1991 Specification for Portland blastfurnace cements
a) Portland slag cement
b) blastfurnace cement
BS 4027: 1991 Specification for sulfateresisting Portland cement
BS 4246: 1991 Specification for high slag blastfurnace cement
BS 6588: 1991 Specification for Portland pulverisedfuel ash cements
a) Portland fly ash cement
b) pozzolanic cement
BS 6610: 1991 Specification for pozzolanic pulverisedfuel
ash cement
BS 7583: 1992 Specification for Portland limestone cement
All these cements contain Portland cement clinker as a 'main constituent'.
Most cements are divided into 'strength classes', defined by a number (32.5,42.5,52.5 or 62.5) that is the cement's specified minimum strength at 28 days, in N / mrrr', as measured by the new mortar prism test.
This number is followed by a letter (L, N or R) that indicates a low, ordinary, or high early strength. The strength classes specified for the various cements are given in Table 2.
No strength classes are specified for cements to BS 4246 and BS 6610, but they must comply with specified minimum strengths.
In this publication, when relevant, the following equivalents may be assumed:
• Where ordinary Portland cement is mentioned, the equivalent is Portland cement  class 42.5, complying with BS 12: 1991.
• Where rapidhardening Portland cement is mentioned, the equivalent is Portland cementclass 52.5, complying with BS 12: 1991, or Portland cement  class 42.5R, complying with BS 12: 1991.
• Where sulfateresisting Portland cement is mentioned, the equivalent is sulfateresisting Portland cement  class 42.5, complying with BS 4027: 1991.
Although there are some changes in cements complying with BS 4246,6588 and 6610, the information given on these cements is still generally applicable.
Table 2 Strength classes of British Standard cements
Cement Strength class
to: 32.5N 32.5R 42.5L 42.5N 42.5R 52.5L 52.5N 62.5N
BS 12 / /  / /  / /
BS146 / / / / / / / 
BS 4027 / /  / /  / 
BS 6588 / /  / /  / 
BS 7583 / /  ,;' /  /  Concrete mixes
BS 5328: 1981 has been replaced by a new edition, published in four parts, as follows:
BS 5328: Concrete
Part 1: 1991 Guide to specifying concrete
Part 2: 1991 Methods for specifying concrete mixes
Part 3: 1990 Specification for the procedures to be used in producing and transporting concrete
Part 4: 1990 Specification for the procedures to be used in sampling, testing and assessing compliance of concrete
The following types of mix specification are now included:
Designed mixes
There were in the earlier edition of BS 5328, and almost no changes have been made.
Prescribed mixes
These are essentially the same as the old special prescribed mixes.
Standard mixes
These are similar to the old ordinary prescribed mixes, but the designations have changed as follows:
C7.5P becomes STl ClOP becomes ST2 C15P becomes ST3 C20P becomes ST4 C25P becomes ST5 C30P has been deleted.
The workabilities of these mixes have increased to 75 and 125 mm slump to reflect current site practice.
Jan 1996
INF 109  0196
© British Cement Association 1996
Designated mixes
These are new mixes, introduced in BS 5328: Part 2, SectionS.
They may only be supplied by a plant that has thirdparty quality assurance, so that:
• The specifier or purchaser needs to specify onl y a mix designation, chosen from BS 5328, and a few other essential items applicable to the end use.
• The producer then supplies a mix complying with all the requirements of BS 5328 for the specified designated mix.
• Conformity is assured by the thirdparty quality assurance scheme, so there is no need for purchasers to do any acceptance testing, although they may do so if they wish.
It is expected that designated mixes will be the usual method for specifying readymixed concrete in future.
More details of designated mixes are given in Designated mixes for structural applications and Designated mixes for housing and associated works, obtainable from theBCA.
When using any publication for guidance on specification or practical applications, the latest revisions of British Standards and similar documents should be consulted.
B~
British Cement Association Century House, Telford Avenue, Crowthorne, Berks RG45 6YS Telephone: (01344) 762676
Fax: (01344)761214
All advice or mformation from the British Cement Association is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and lmutahons of its content and take responsibility for its use and application. No hability (including that for neghgence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted. Readers should note that all BCA publications are subject to revisions from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.
Derivation of charts
The charts have been drawn using the assumptions set out in BS 8110 clause 3.4.4.1 and the stressstrain curves for concrete set out in BS 8110 Figures 2.1 and 2.2. The stressstrain curves are reproduced here in Figures 1 and 2 and the application of the assumptions is illustrated in Figure 3 (see pages 6 and 7).
CP 110 : 1972 stated that circular columns should contain at least six bars. This provision does not appear in BS 8110, though it is believed that the omission was inadvertent. Six bars seem a reasonable minimum so this number has been assumed in developing the charts. The charts will be slightly conservative if more bars are used, but could be unconservative if fewer than six bars are present.
In CP 110, the charts were drawn on the assumption that the arrangement of reinforcement relative to the axis of bending is as shown in Figure 4(a). However, it has been discovered that this is not necessarily the worst case for all combinations of axial load and moment since the arrangement shown in Figure 4(b) is more critical in some circumstances. In producing these charts, the more critical of the two arrangements is chosen for each combination of axial load and moment. The effect of this on the shape of the curves is illustrated in Figure 5, which shows the interaction diagrams for the two arrangements of bars for a particular steel percentage. The curves on the design charts are envelopes of these two cases.
In carrying out the calculations for the charts, the forces carried by the concrete are obtained by dividing the compression zone into 20 strips, assessing the stress in each strip from the parabolicrectangular diagram and then using numerical integration to obtain the total force and moment on the concrete.
The nondimensional charts, numbers 2528, have been produced simply by changing the chart axes drawn for 30 Nzmnr' concrete and 460 Nzmrrr' reinforcement. To indicate the magnitude of the approximation involved in using the charts for other steel and concrete strengths, Figures 6(a) and 6(b) compare curves drawn for high and low concrete and steel strengths. It will be seen that the effect of concrete strength is negligible, while the curves will be slightly conservative if used for lowstrength steels.
Slender circular columns
BS 8110 does not give any indication of how slender circular columns should be designed. In fact, the derivation of the equations for additional moments is equally applicable to both circular and rectangular columns, and the research report  where the derivation of the CP 110 method is describedv''  reports parameter studies on both types of column. Design of slender circular columns is intrinsically simpler than design of rectangular columns since the section dimensions are the same in all directions, and moments about two axes can always be transformed to uniaxial bending. This makes clauses 3.8.3.3 to 3.8.3.6 of BS 8110 redundant and reduces equation 34 to:
Ba = (112000) x (le/h)2
where h is the overall diameter of the column. The only modification to the Code is in 3.8.1.1 where Nbal needs redefining. It is suggested that, for circular columns, this may be taken as:
Nba1 = 0.15 feu h2
This definition of Nba1 was used to calculate the Kfactors (defined in equation 32), which are presented as a series of straight broken lines on the charts.
1
Charts
Examples
2
The charts are drawn for 460 grade steel, the only grade steel generally used at present in the UK, for concrete grades of 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 and for values of hslh of 0.9,0.8,0.7 and 0.6.
1. Short column
Design the crosssection of a circular column to withstand the following moment and axial load at the ultimate limit state:
M = 153.5kNm N = 2400kN
The column is 400 mm diameter, requires 30 mm cover to the main bars and will be made using 50 grade concrete. Assuming 25 mm bars, the cage diameter, h., will be:
400  2 x 30  25 = 315 mm. Therefore hslh = 315/400 = 0.79
Chart 23 will be near enough.
N/h2 = 15
M/h3 = 2.4
From chart 23,100 AsdAc = 1.95% Hence Asc = 2450 mrrr'
Use six 25 mm bars = 2946 mm2
2. Slender column
Design the critical section of the braced column shown in Figure 7. The column is 300 mm in diameter and will be made of 40 grade concrete.
(a) Estimate the effective length. The end conditions are best described as Type 2 in Table 3.21 of BS 8110 at both top and bottom.
Hence l,
= 0.85 x 10
= 0.85 X 7100 = 6035mm
Hence slenderness ratio = le/h = 6035/300
= 20.12
(b) Resolve moments to uniaxial moments.
17
Bottom iZJ 10
35
This gives
Ml = 19.80 kNm M2 = 41.34 kNm
(c) Moment near midheight
= greater of 0.6 x 41.340.4 x 19.8 = 16.88 or 0.4 x 41.34 = 16.54 Hence M, = 16.88 kNm
(d) Additional moment
Madd = 1/2000 x (le/h)2 NhK
= 112000 x (20.12)2 x [1700 X300/1000] x K kNm = 102 x K kNm
(e) Steel area
N/h2 = 1700/3002 X 1000 = 18.89
Mlh3 = [(16.88 X 106)/3003] + [(102 X 106 x K)/3003]
= 0.63 + 3.78 x K Assuming 25 mm bars,
hs =3002x3025=215
h/h = 0.72
Use chart number 14.
As K is unknown, trial and error has to be used.
(i) Guess K = 0.5. This gives Mlh3 = 2.52.
Using the chart gives Asci Ac = 4.7% and K = 0.42.
(ii) Since the moment will be smaller than assumed in (i), K will be below 0.42.
Try K = 0.35. This gives Mlh3 = 1.95.
Using the chart gives Asc/Ac = 4% and K = 0.34. This is near enough.
Hence Asc = 0.04 X 3002 x rt 14
= 2827mm2
Use six 25 mm bars, which gives Asc = 2946 mnr'.
(f) Check other sections.
Final design moment was 1.95 h3 = 52.65kNm
This is greater than the maximum end moment (41.34 kNm) and also greater than the minimum end moment plus half the additional moment (37.7 kNm). Hence the design is controlled by conditions at midheight.
The minimum eccentricity (emin) = 300/20
Hence, minimum moment = 1700 x 0.3/20 kNm = 25.5kNm
The design moment exceeds this, hence no action is needed.
3
References
1. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. The structural use of concrete.
Part 1: Design, materials and workmanship. London, the Institution, 1972. CP 110 : Part 1 : 1972.
2. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Structural use of concrete. Part 1:
Code of practice for design and construction. London, the Institution, 1985. BS 8110 : Part 1 : 1985.
3. CRANSTON, W.B. Analysis and design of reinforced concrete columns.
London, Cement and Concrete Association, 1972. 54 pp. (41.020).
Notation
Ae Area of concrete = nh2/4
Ase Total area of reinforcement
feu Characteristic strength of concrete
r, Characteristic strength of reinforcement
h Overall diameter of column
hs = Diameter of reinforcement cage
K = Additional moment reduction factor
10 Clear height of column between end restraints
t, Effective length of column
M Design ultimate moment
Mj Initial design ultimate moment near midheight of a
braced column
Madd Additional moment induced by deflection of column
Ml Algebraically smaller initial end moment
M2 Algebraically larger initial end moment
N Design ultimate axial load
Nbal Design axial load capacity of a balanced section
Ba = Deflection coefficient 4
Figures
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Stress
Parabolic curve
fy/1·15
5·5 j...k..kN/mm2 1·5
Strain
0·0035
Shortterm design stressstrain curve for normal weight concrete.
Tension
200kN mm2
Compression
Shortterm design stressstrain curve for reinforcement.
Strain
5
0·0035
0·67foo
I~ 1·5 'I
A.c f51 3
r./+ A.c fo2
3
Figure 3:
Assumptions.
Axis of
(a)
(b)
Figure 4:
Arrangements of reinforcement assumed in calculations.
Arrangement (b)
Figure 5:
Effect of bar arrangement on interaction diagram.
6
0·8
feu = 25 N/mm2 feu = 50 N/mm2
0·6
0·4
0·2
0·05
0·1
Figure 6(a): Influence of concrete strength on shape of diagram.
0·8
 fy = 250 N/mm2
   fy = 500 N/mm2
0·6
0·4
0·2
o
o
0·05
0·1
Figure 6(b): Influence of yield strength on shape of diagram.
7
Figure 7:
Design charts
10
17 Vaxis
Xaxis
I I
I I
o
Braced column.
The charts which follow are drawn for 460 grade steel, concrete grades of 25,30,35, 40,45 and 50 and for values of hslh of 0.9,0.8, 0.7 and 0.6. Chart numbers are given in Table 1 below. Note that charts 25 to 28 are nondimensional.
h, = diameter of reinforcement cage h = overall diameter of column
Ratio hsfh
Concrete grade
30 35 40 45
50
Nondimensional
25
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
5
13 17 21
25
9
1
14 18 22
26
6
10
2
15 19 23
27
7
11
3
16 20 24
28
8
12
4
Table 1: Chart numbers
8
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32
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Chart 25 (nondimensional)
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33 Chart 26 (nondimensional)
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Charts for the design of circular columns to BS 8110 W.G. Batchelor and AW. Beeby
BRITISH CEMENT ASSOCIATION PUBLICATION 43.503
__ ..  
CI/SfB I
I Hq4 I (J)
UDC
624.075.23:624.04