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OF ELECTRONIC/ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC SOLARPOWERED STREETLIGHT
By Morakinyo Ayodeji, Amusan Olusola, Sekoni Seun & Adebunmi Femi
January 12, 2011.
[In this project, a solar panel is used to convert sunlight into direct current electricity which charges a battery during the day. At night, a dark detector employing a photoconductive cell senses darkness and this activates the circuit. The circuit then powers the load (lamps) to give required illumination.]
This is to certify that this project work was carried out by the following students: MORAKINYO, Ayodeji James (051217); AMUSAN, Olusola Samson (050976); SEKONI, Oluwaseun Adeyemi (053652); ADEBUNMI, Oluwafemi Solomon (050736) in the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
This project work is dedicated to the Almighty God, the giver of life and talent for every academic work. Without him, this project could not have been a success. We also dedicate this work to every great legend in the field of electrical and electronic engineering. We have only succeeded in this work because we built on the foundations they have laid.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly, we acknowledge our heavenly father and creator. It is by Him that we are enabled, equipped and empowered to reach this point in our academic journey. With great joy, true respect and deep gratitude, we appreciate our supervisor Engr. I. A. Adeyemo, for every piece of advice, each session of counsel and every other form of support he gave us during the project process. Finally, we would also like to express our gratitude to our parents (Mr & Mrs S.O Morakinyo, Mrs Amusan, Mr & Mrs Sekoni and Mr & Mrs Adebunmi) for their financial, emotional and spiritual support. But for them, we would not be here today.
MORAKINYO A.J AMUSAN O.S SEKONI O.A ADEBUNMI O.S January, 2011.
This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J, Amusan O.S, Sekoni, et al. ©2011
2 SOLAR PANEL 2.6 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE CERTIFICATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF FIGURES TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES ABSTRACT i ii iii iv v vi viii ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.3 SIMILAR WORK 1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY 1 1 2 2 2 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 1. ©2011 .9 BATTERY 4 5 7 7 10 12 12 13 14 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.S.3LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR 2.7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR 2.J.8 RELAYS 2.2 AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1. et al.6 CONSTANT VOLTAGE REGULATOR 2. Amusan O.4 RESISTORS & LIGHT EMITTING DIODES 2.1 PREAMBLE 1.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 2.1 SOLAR ENERGY 2. Sekoni.
S. Amusan O. ©2011 .2 RECOMMENDATION 33 33 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.7 PRECAUTIONS 4.1 METAL FRAMEWORK 4.2 WELDING 4. Sekoni.1 CONCLUSION 5.8 BILL OF QUANTITY 23 26 27 27 29 30 30 31 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 5.3 SCREWING 4. et al.2 CHARGE CONTROLLER 3.4 INSTALLATION 4.4 PARAMETERS FOR CHOOSING A BATTERY 3.7 CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION 3.3 CHOOSING SOLAR PANEL 3.1 BASIC DESIGN 3.5 TESTING 4.6 OBSERVATIONS 4.J.5 DARK OPERATED SENSOR AND SWITCHING CIRCUIT 16 17 19 19 20 CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION & INSTALLATION 4.
Amusan O. ©2011 .2 3.3 2.3 3.2 2. et al.S.J.7 3.1 3.4 4.1 4.1 2. Sekoni.6 2.5 2.2 Title Schematic Symbol for a Photovoltaic Cell Array of Photovoltaic Cells Circuit Symbol of a Photo-resistor Circuit Symbols for Fixed and Variable Resistors Non-inverting Amplifier Schematic Diagram of LM324N OP-AMP Circuit Symbol of a Relay Switch Block Diagram of a Solar-powered Street Light (Automatic) Block Diagram of Charge Controller Unit Circuit Diagram of a Charge Controller Sensor and Switching Circuit Solar-powered Street Light Wiring Block Diagram of Automatic Solar-powered Street Light 5 6 7 8 Page 10 11 14 16 17 18 21 24 29 LIST OF TABLES This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.4 2.8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.
3 Title Resistor Tolerance Band Values Tolerance Colour Band Values LM324N Pins and their Functions Page 8 8 11 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.S. et al. Amusan O.9 Table 2.J.1 2. Sekoni. ©2011 .2 2.
it thus offers the advantage of reliability compared to the lightening system powered by electricity received from utility company. This lightening system is highly suitable in Nigeria where power supply is erratic. a dark detector employing a photoconductive cell senses darkness and this activates the rectifier circuit. a solar panel is used to convert sunlight into direct current electricity which charges a battery during the day.10 ABSTRACT This project work is concerned with the design and construction of an automatic solar-powered street light. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. ©2011 . At night. Except for the initial high cost of installation. Amusan O.S. et al. Sekoni. the system is easy to maintain since the original source of power (sunlight) is free. In this project.J. The rectifier circuit then powers the load (lamps) to give required illumination.
meaning that while solar power is not available at all times. Even the human eye requires some amount of light to function well (Blurtit. from human beings to domestic insects. Solar power is a predictably intermittent energy source. Sekoni. This sunlight can serve as a source of solar power which is converted to electric power for both household and industrial utilization. et al. Solar power is the generation of electricity from sunlight.S. Light from the sun is natural and it is called sunlight. Instead of the manually operated street lights. This vital use of light gives rise to the idea of using solar energy to power street lights as an alternative to electricity. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.J. 2010). This can be direct as with photovoltaic (PV) or indirect as with concentrating solar power (CSP) where the sun’s energy is focused to boil water which is then used to provide energy.1 PREAMBLE Light is crucial in everyday activity for the continuity of normal life.11 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. One area of application of solar energy is found in the construction of solar-powered street lights. Solar street lights are beneficial in that the day to day running and maintenance costs are reduced (Solar Street Lightning. 2010). an equipment that is paramount to meeting the security needs of every community in the 21st century. we can predict with a very good degree of accuracy when it will not be available (Wikipedia. making use of power generated by the utility company. And with the use of a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR). it is interesting that lead-acid battery and photovoltaic cells or solar modules can be used as the power source for the street lightning system. From plants to animals. from technology to science. ©2011 . 2010). Amusan O. These solar-powered street lights can then be used for the provision of illumination on roads at night to enhance security and prevent accidents that may otherwise occur due to poor visibility. nothing seems to maximise its existence without the availability of light. automatic control can be included in the equipment.
. Therefore. But. “Automatic Solarpowered Street Lightning System” Unpublished B. they indicated that their work involved design and construction. ©2011 . et al.12 1. In a country such as Nigeria where the availability of uninterrupted power supply remains a major challenge. under the Department of Electronic/Electrical Engineering at the Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering. street lights powered by electricity from utility companies have repeatedly failed to provide consistent illumination but the proposed project seeks to amend this inadequacy. 1. OBJECTIVES 1. without the need for a utility power source.S. a Solar-powered Street Lightning System was discussed by Akinola A. (2004). To design a workable solar powered street light that does not utilize an inverter circuit 2.S & Odubola A.J. 4.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The use of solar modules with Lead acid battery to serve as power source for energy saving appliances is efficient and most reliable where there is erratic power supply. they did not specify whether or not their work included installation of the equipment. and discharges in the evening. To design and construct a charge controller for the battery To install the solar-powered street light with two wings providing illumination 1. Sekoni. Ladoke Akintola University of Technology. construct and install a street light that charges in daytime. The lightning system operates through the This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Ogbomoso. the renewable property of energy makes it easier to use solar as a natural source of power through energy conversion process.2 AIM & OBJECTIVES The aim is to design.Tech thesis. Ogbomoso. Amusan O.3 SIMILAR WORK Previously. In their dissertation. To eliminate the necessity for manual switching in the operation of community street light 3.
13 combination of a dark operated automatic switching circuit and the energy saving lamp made from LED array to give a stress-free operation and save more energy. 1. The LDR senses light and differentiates daytime from night time. Amusan O.S.J. This is planted on the equipment at a position where it is exposed to light from the atmosphere. ©2011 .5 SCOPE OF STUDY This project is focused at using a Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) which responds resistively to light for the automatic control process. Sekoni. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. A comparator is used in the charge controlling circuit to sense the charging voltage of the battery so as to prevent it from overcharging. et al. and then the sensor circuit triggers the switching circuit.
Power produced in this way is called hydroelectric power. peaking at solar noon and declining to a minimum at sunset. There are two main types of artificial collectors to directly capture and utilize solar energy: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. thin boxes with a transparent cover that are mounted on rooftops facing the Sun. central power generation. and many industrial heat requirements. Since just a little amount of the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s surface. ©2011 . a system called the water cycle or hydrologic [Holladay. The power stored in the water cycle can be tapped by directing the flowing waters through modern turbines. flat plate collectors cannot provide carrier fluids at temperatures high enough to be effective so. The total radiation power (1. both types of collectors require large surface areas exposed to the Sun. Approximately 30 percent of the solar power reaching the Earth is consumed by the continuous circulation of water. For applications such as air conditioning. more complex and expensive This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Energy from the sun can be directly or indirectly collected. The solar intensity varies with the time of day.1 SOLAR ENERGY Solar energy (energy from the sun) travels to Earth through space in discrete packets of energy called photons (which are particles of light energy. Amusan O.J. "Solar Energy. The amount of light that reaches any particular point on the ground depends on the time of day.2 percent every 30 years. the amount of cloud cover. that in turn heats fluid (air or water) running through tubes within the collector. The first type which is called the Flat plate collector is made of typically flat. The Sun heats a blackened metal plate inside the box.S. Earth's atmosphere. and plant life. or energy that is generated by moving electric charges). The oceans also collect and store solar energy while radiant energy from the Sun is transformed to the potential energy of water in streams and rivers. the day of the year. collect solar energy that can be extracted to power technology. April. and the latitude at that point. called the solar constant) varies only slightly. about 0.14 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Sekoni.4 Kilowatts per square meter." Microsoft® Student 2008 DVD]. called an absorber plate. for example. oceans. et al.
Concentrating collector types reflect the Sun’s rays from a large area and focus it onto a small. 1996). Kilowatt-hours or Kilowatt-hours per day is often used. rain. Power output is measured in watts or kilowatts. ©2011 . Maloney. In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application. Amusan O. Illumination of the materials results in the creation of an electric current as excited electrons and the remaining holes are swept in different directions by the built-in electric field of the depletion region. When cells are connected in parallel.J. Concentrating solar energy is the least expensive way to generate large-scale electrical power from the Sun’s energy and therefore has the potential to make solar power available at a competitive rate. 2. An example is the popularly known solar panel. hail. 1999). Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front facing the sun. et al. Fig 2. Solar cells are usually connected in series in modules.S.1 Schematic Symbol for a Photovoltaic Cell Solar cells are often electrically connected and encumbered as a module. Average power according to the rule of thumb is that average power equals 20% of This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Photovoltaic effect is simply the creation of a voltage in a material upon exposure to electromagnetic radiation. creating an additional voltage of 12Volts. allowing the light from the sun to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements. they yield an additional current.15 concentrating collectors must be used (John Perlin. Sekoni. a measurement in Watt-hours.2 SOLAR PANEL A Solar panel or photovoltaic cell is a type of photo electric cell that uses the photovoltaic effect to generate electrical energy using the potential difference that arises between materials when the surface of the cell is exposed to electromagnetic radiation. etc (Timothy J. blackened receiving area.
8KWh).8KWh per day (24hours x 1kw x 20% = 4. Fig 2. There are three types of solar cells.16 peak power.J. ©2011 . compared to the Monocrystalline silicon cells. with a very high cost of production.2 Array of Photovoltaic Cells A solar cell’s energy conversion efficiency is the percentage of power converted from absorbed light to electrical energy and collected when a solar cell is connected to an electric circuit. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Amusan O. Sekoni.S. Monocrystalline silicon cells Multicrystalline silicon cells Amorphous silicon cells Monocrystalline silicon cells are the most efficient. Amorphous silicon cells are also very efficient. et al. They have a relatively less cost of production compared to the Monocrystalline silicon cells. but the Monocrystalline silicon cells have been found to be the most efficient of the three. so that each peak kilowatt of solar array output power yields energy of 4. Multicrystalline silicon cells are less efficient.
On each side is a metal film which is connected to the terminal leads (A. ©2011 . it requires the presence or absence of light. Sekoni. The snake like track on the face of the LDR is a Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) film.K. typically 1K ohm.3 LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) This is a special type of resistor whose resistance value depends on the brightness of light which is falling on it. typically around 1M ohm. In the dark.4 RESISTORS & LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs) RESISTORS: are passive circuit components which are bilateral in function. a connected relay can be automatically activated.L. the resistance of the LDR is very high.J. It is also called a photo-resistor (from the Greek word. They can also be referred to as electronic components that offer resistance to the flow of electric current in a circuit. et al. For instance. Theraja. Amusan O. LDRs are very useful especially in light/dark activated circuits when coupled with a variable resistor such that the LDR’s sensitiveness can be adjusted by this variable resistance. Theraja & B. when the light dependent resistor and a variable resistor are used to form a voltage divider with bias applied to a transistor. 2. To limit current 2. To cause a voltage drop or voltage divider This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. The continuous power dissipation is 80mW and the maximum voltage which can be applied to it is 100V. They are always applied in circuits for the following reasons: 1. Fig 2. In bright light it is low.17 2. “photo”) because to operate as desired.S. 2005).3 Circuit Symbol of a Photo-resistor (LDR) The LDR needs an external voltage source to produce current which is controlled by the variable resistance of a photosensitive material that it is made of (Cadmium compounds as Cadmium sulphide and Cadmium Selenide).
The last of the four colour bands indicates the tolerance values of the resistor. B is the second band value and C. 2.18 3.S. resistor value = AB x 10c. the third band value.J. Amusan O. For example. Where A is the first band value. Fig.4 Circuit Symbols for Fixed and Variable Resistors. Sekoni. ©2011 . Band Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Code 0 1 2 3 4 This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Resistor values: the resistance values of a resistor is either stamped on it or determined by colour codes. To dissipate heat Types of Resistors (i) (ii) Fixed resistors which have fixed values Variable resistors whose values can be varied. Colour Gold Silver No colour Table 2. et al.1 Tolerance Value ±5% ±10% ±20% Resistor Tolerance Band Values Note that the third band colour indicates the value of the multiplier.
Relatively low energy consumption. LED units naturally emit light in a very small band of wavelengths. ©2011 . Since the output of an individual unit in terms of power is small compared to incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps.J. LED lamps offer long life and high efficiency. The following are the characteristics of LED lamps: Long life expectancy. Amusan O. Creating white light from LED units require the use of a phosphor to convert some of the light to other colours. vibration. making them resistant to impact. They are dimmable over a wide range of voltage for AC transmission 85V and 240V. The colour is characteristic of the energy band gap of the semiconductor material used in manufacturing it. while internal parts are rigidly supported. the brand of bulbs to be used. the most recent of these lamps possess internal circuits that make them operate from standard AC voltage. thereby producing strongly coloured lights. However. DC lamps are to be used. 5watts rated DC bulbs is the specification for the project. since they are energy-saving bulbs. However. Good reflection of lights with small reflectors or lenses. 12V. but with initial high costs compared to fluorescent tubes or lamps. The only major shortcoming with LED bulb is the high cost of manufacture. and all other forms of mechanical stress. They do not have glass tubes that can break. Sekoni. et al. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.2 Resistor Colour Band Values LAMPS: are lamps made from semiconductor materials in the similitude of light emitting diodes such that several light emitting diodes are combined to yield an LED lamp. for the sake of this project.S.19 Green Blue Violet/purple Grey White 5 6 7 8 9 Table 2.
Also. then output becomes more negative (Jones L.S.The output voltage changes in phase as that of the non-inverting input. If the non-inverting input (+) is more positive than the inverting input voltage (-). Sekoni. If it is more negative in value than the inverting input. Where. ©2011 . A very high input impedance A large common mode reflection ratio A low output impedance The typical LM324N OP-AMP used in this project is a quad comparator of two inputs with an output each. They are also called differential voltage amplifiers due to their ability to amplify the difference in the voltage between the two inputs. et al. the output will be positive. RA and RB are Resistances.20 One of the major advantages of LED bulbs is that it is good for spotlighting or floodlighting because it tends to be directional. 1996). 2. Amusan O. Characteristics of Op-Amp It has a very high open loop voltage gain. They are always incorporated in circuits meant for This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.5 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (LM324N) Operational amplifiers are popularly known as OP-AMP.J. The output voltage is simply the difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs multiplied by the gain. LED screw-in bulbs offer either low levels of light at a moderate cost or moderate levels of light at a high cost.
6 Schematic Diagram of the LM324N OP-AMP PINs 1.3 LM324N Pins and their Functions 2. 12. 12 4 11 Function Output Inverting Input Non-inverting Input Vcc+ GND Table 2. care must be taken not to supply excessive voltage to its input terminals otherwise. 10. or 24) provides up to 1A load current and has on-chip circuitry to shut down the This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.e. The 7800 series (i. et al. However. 9.21 sequential switching or voltage comparison. 5. 10. The general arrangement is to fix or reference one of the input voltages. 13 3.S. ©2011 . either by using a zener diode. 08. Sekoni. They can be used for amplifying signals in different modes.J. 15. The minimum input voltage must be 3Volts higher than the regulated output voltage. 6. It offers a fixed output despite the amount of voltage supplied to its input. a regulator or a potential divider network. 06. 14 2. 18. the IC would be damaged.6 CONSTANT VOLTAGE REGULATOR (LM 7808) The linear LM7808 is an integrated circuit linear positive regulator with three terminals. Amusan O. Fig 2. 05. 8.
S. Sekoni. ©2011 . Bardeen and Brattain at Bell Labs in 1947 and today. But if this happens. such as Silicon. A BJT works based on the principle that certain materials. Amusan O.5 volts – 23 volts No external component Output voltage of 8Volts Also offered in plastic package of TO – 220 Its applications are found in post regulator for switching DC/DC converter and in bias supply for analog circuits. Silicon has very few free electrons but if "impurities" such as Arsenic are introduced in a controlled manner then the free electrons or conductivity is increased.7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR (BJT) This is a three layered. In PNP type.5A Output voltage tolerance of 5% Internal thermal overload protection Operating voltage range: 10. three terminal semiconductor device which is used in electronic circuits either as a switch or for amplification purpose. Its features include: Output current of 1. an electron deficiency or hole is created. Semiconductor material which conducts by free electrons is called n-type material while material which conducts by virtue of electron deficiency is called p-type material. the holes encourage conductivity and the material is called a semi-conductor. There are two types of BJTs: the more common NPN type and the PNP type. The reverse is the case for the NPN type. 2. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.22 regulator if any attempt is made to operate it outside its safe operating area. Any material is only conductive in proportion to the number of "free" electrons that are available. It was invented by Schockley. the solution is to let the chip cool down and then attach the heat sink. As with free electrons. the emitter is made positive with respect to both the collector and base and the collector is made negative with respect to both the emitter and base in normal operation. et al. By adding other impurities such as Gallium. it has revolutionised the way we live. can be made to perform as “solid state" devices.J.
c) The common collector (CC) circuit uses collector as its common electrode. Sekoni. Drop-Out Voltage: the voltage on an operated device is decreased. Relay Terminologies: Nominal Coil Voltage (Rated Coil Voltage): the voltage intended by design to be applied to the coil to operate it. Amusan O. the value at or above which all contacts must function. the CB circuit is seldom used. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Pick-Up Voltage: the voltage on an un-operated device is increased. The voltage gain is less than 1 and is usually used for impedance matching. ©2011 .S. For this reason. 2.J. This name means that the output signal voltage at the emitter follows the input signal at the base with the same phase but less amplitude. et al. AC coils (VA).23 The bipolar junction transistor can also function in 3 different configurations: a) The common emitter (CE) circuit uses emitter as its common electrode. the value at or below which all contacts must revert to their un-operated position. DC coils (watts). They could also be used as electromagnetic switches that are triggered by an electronic switch. b) The common base (CB) circuit uses base as its common electrode. Nominal Operating Current: the current flow in the coil when nominal voltage is impressed on the coil. such as transistors which switch from one point to another. Nominal Operating Power: the power used by the coil at nominal voltage. Maximum Continuous Voltage: the maximum voltage that can be applied continuously to the coil.8 RELAYS They are electromechanical switches which operate based on electromagnetic principles. The input signal is applied to the emitter and the amplified output is taken from the collector. The input signal is applied to the base and the amplified output is taken from the emitter. This is the one generally use because it has the best combination of current gain and voltage gain. This circuit is also called an emitter follower. It has high input at the base as a load for the preceding circuit and low output impedance at the emitter as a signal source for the next circuit. The input signal is applied to the base and the amplified output is taken from the collector. The relatively high emitter current compared to the base current results in very low input impedance value.
They range from 5Amps. Batteries in which the chemicals cannot be reconstituted into their original form once the energy has been converted (that is. but the term is also used for single cells. and other vehicles. producing electrons. an electrical current flows. one of the electrodes will react. 15Amps. Batteries in which the chemicals can be reconstituted by passing an electric current through them in the direction opposite that of normal cell operation are called secondary cells. Fig. 2. which consists of three or six cells connected in series. and a negative electrode. ©2011 . 30Amps. trucks. paste. storage cells. batteries that have been discharged) are called primary cells or voltaic cells. Namely. Its chief advantage is that it This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. or solid electrolyte and a positive electrode. etc. while the other will accept electrons. The lead-acid battery. which can be recharged by reversing the chemical reaction. The storage battery. rechargeable cells. Amusan O. was invented in 1859 by the French physicist Gaston Planté. All cells consist of a liquid.7 Circuit Symbol of a Relay Switch 2. et al. is used in automobiles.J.9 BATTERY A Battery is an electric cell or a device that converts chemical energy into electricity. or secondary cell. or accumulators.24 Relays usually consist of three contacts of connection. 20Amps. It consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel.S. called a load. Sekoni. Common contact ( C ) Normally open contact ( NO ) Normally closed contact ( NC ) There are various ranges of relay ratings. When the electrodes are connected to a device to be powered. aircraft. 10Amps. The electrolyte is an ionic conductor.
The electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. releasing lead ions in the electrolyte to form additional lead sulphate. But. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.S. Amusan O.25 can deliver a strong current of electricity for starting an engine. a suitable charge controller. another chemical reaction occurs.J. When the electrons re-enter the cell at the positive lead-dioxide electrode. A lead-acid battery has a useful life of about four years. The electrons travel through the external electric circuit. and the positive electrode of lead dioxide. it runs down quickly. Thus. The lead dioxide combines with the hydrogen ions in the electrolyte and with the returning electrons to form water. According to H. overcharging of some batteries results in loss of electrolyte. Prakash. and the positive lead ions combine with the sulphate ions in the electrolyte to form lead sulphate. repeated failure to reach full charge leads to stratification of electrolyte. there is a need of charge regulators/controllers to optimize the battery life. When the cell is being recharged. Also. A lead-acid storage cell runs down as the sulphuric acid gradually is converted into water and the electrodes are converted into lead sulphate. Sekoni. as this will help the battery perform better and last longer. plate growth and loss of active material from the plates. the negative lead electrode dissociates into free electrons and positive lead ions. it is a good practice to utilize along with the battery. In operation. however. the chemical reactions described above are reversed until the chemicals have been restored to their original condition. causing reduction in battery life. ©2011 . et al. Garg and J. the negative electrode consists of lead. corrosion.P.
1 Block Diagram of a Solar-powered Street Light (Automatic) The solar panel is tilted at an angle in the range of 15°≤x≤30° facing the geographical south. Fig. The 12V dc battery that will power the LED bulbs will be connected to the solar panel via the charge controller for charging purpose. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. relay.1 BASIC DESIGN The design is such that the solar panel will be installed on the galvanized pole considering some specifications like angle of tilt and direction of sunlight.26 CHAPTER THREE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION 3. 3. transistor and some other electronic components. Sekoni. ©2011 .S. The photovoltaic cells on the solar panel would generate voltage when it is well illuminated by light. The pole will be constructed such that it will have two wings with each wing carrying one LED bulb or lamp. The automatic switching of the lamp (ON or OFF) will be performed by the light sensor circuit which consists of the light dependent resistor (LDR). After erections have been made on the erected pole of about 18ft. Amusan O. This is because Nigeria (wherein this project is being executed) is situated in the geographical north of the globe. The sun rises at the east and sets at the west and illumination is directed towards the geographical north.J. The fabricated pole will be bolted on a flat slab and its uprightness will be checked using a plum. et al. the panel would be tightened up using bolts and nuts. opamp.
27 3. The block diagram of a charge controller is shown on figure below: Fig 3. Sekoni.J. an electronic switch (transistor) and an electromechanical switch (relay). et al. The battery is prevented from over-current or over-charging by the charge controller.2 Block Diagram of Charge Controller Unit This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Amusan O.2 CHARGE CONTROLLER The charge controller serves as an interface between the current generated by the module and the battery charging during the day. ©2011 . The charge controller is an electronic circuit comprising an operational amplifier (connected in comparator mode).S.
But R2 must be obtained: This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. ©2011 . et al.J.3 Circuit Diagram of a Charge Controller When When VCC = 14V. Choosing VP = 9V for us to have a high output. R1 = 1K . a variable resistor will be ideal for R2. VCC = 14V. Sekoni. Amusan O.28 Fig 3. Hence. VP = 7V (which is less than the reference voltage).S.
et al. Amusan O. Hence.4 PARAMETERS FOR CHOOSING A BATTERY Ampere-hour of the battery needed = Amp-hr needed per day x number of days of autonomy /Depth of discharge.e.m till 7a.3 CHOOSING SOLAR PANEL (RATINGS) Using four of the 5W LED bulbs amounts to 20W of electrical power being dissipated at 12V rating. 3. ©2011 .67A.2A per 50W panel. While current needed from the solar panel is: Hence. Sekoni.S. Ampere hour needed per day (i. 2days) This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. 3. R2 = 5K variable. from 7p. A freewheeling diode is connected across the coil terminals of the relay to protect the components from back emf from the inductive coil. PSH = 5hrs (time of maximum illumination) Current consumption of the 20W load = Power/Voltage = 20/12.J. Autonomy number is the number of days that could be cloudy that you want the system to work effectively. (e.g. There is usually a high output from the OP-AMP if VP>VN which will switch on the transistor that will trigger the relay once the +VCC on the battery rises to 14V in order to cut off the battery from charging throughout the photovoltaic supply. The comparator (LM 324) IC compares the non-inverting input voltage VP and the non-inverting input voltage VN. a panel that could supply a current of 4A is needed. IL = 1.m (12hours)) becomes: (1. Preferred value is 4.67 x 12) this yields approximately 20Ah.29 14R2 = 9 + 9R2 5R2 = 9 Preferred value.
D.5 is allowed for it without damage caused to it. Amusan O. The incorporated sensor and switching circuit is shown in the next page: This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.30 Depth of discharge (D.) of a battery is a measure of how much energy has been taken away from a battery. a discharge of 50% or 0.O. 3. With the lead-acid dry cell battery in use for this project. et al. Sekoni.S.J. ©2011 .5 DARK OPERATED SENSOR AND SWITCHING CIRCUIT The light dependent resistor (LDR) senses the dark and daytime and responds correspondingly to changes in the weather by causing the resistance of the resistor to vary from about 1K to 100K and vice versa. Therefore. : Preferred value for battery is 60Ah to allow for losses.
we assume that R1 = R2. Here. et al. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. (daytime). Amusan O. ©2011 .S. Then.J. When LDR is at 1K . 3. V 3 2 4 © Amusan Olusola 2011 T D N 1 11 V © Amusan Olusola 2011 Fig.31 .4 Sensor and Switching Circuit This change in resistance causes a change in the voltage levels or the value of the non-inverting input (VP). Assuming that VN is being regulated constantly by the voltage divider between R1 and R2. which in turn equals 10K . Sekoni. implying that there is low output. it is seen that VP < VN.
f. The high output of the comparator would switch on the transistor and it conducts to trigger the relay which will switch on the LED bulbs at the dark time.m. Amusan O. Sekoni. A freewheeling diode is connected across the coil terminals of the relay for protection against back e. VP>VN which in turn fulfills the condition for high output of the comparator. ©2011 . The maximum current of the LED is 10mA which is IF. . Then VP is Here. This has a value of 12V. (Dark time). This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.32 When the LDR (Rλ) is at 100K .S. et al.J. The variable 10K operated sensor. The output voltage VCC is also known as the LED operating voltage (VLED). The 1K resistor is used to tune up the sensitivity of the dark resistor connected in series with the LED indicator for the output serves as a current limiter for the light emitting diode.
For the most part.33 CHAPTER FOUR DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION & INSTALLATION 4. During the process. Sekoni. 2002). and this prevents the rust from getting to the pure steel. the steel gets coated in layers of zinc to prevent rust. The major method of preventing steel from corrosion is by alloying it with another metal such as zinc. The chemical reactions between the two metals cause a bonding to occur. the zinc part of it gets corroded first. Galvanized steel is an essential fabrication component for outdoor applications as well as industrial marine use. As such. Mischke. Galvanized Steel According to William F. it becomes part of it on a permanent basis. This action does not make zinc a paint or coat.1 METAL FRAMEWORK The metal framework upon which the circuitry. et al. Hosford (2005). Zinc protects the steel by acting as a sacrificial layer. Because zinc is anodic to iron. since zinc is resistant to rust. if rust occurs on the surface of galvanized steel. mild steel solar tray guide. galvanizing protects the steel from corrosion. the material science and the engineering mechanics science (Charles R. Galvanized steel is a form of steel that has gone through a chemical process to keep it from corroding. ©2011 . Mechanical design means the design of things and systems of a mechanical nature.J. Amusan O.S. base plate. battery and luminaries will be installed requires a suitable mechanical engineering design. This comprises a galvanized steel column. Instead. galvanized means zinc plated. light brace support. mechanical design utilizes mathematics. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. The two main types of metallic materials utilized are discussed in the following paragraphs. battery and circuit container as well as a variety of suitable fasteners.
and rust resistance is required. An advantage of this form of steel is its effectiveness. The galvanic process was discovered by Luigi Galvani in the 1700s when he invented the galvanic cell. steel or aluminium with a thin layer of zinc.S. The use of galvanized steel at temperatures above this will result in peeling of the zinc at inter-metallic layer.3%). Galvanized steel is very practicable in applications where this is high proximity to rust. high degree of stiffness and magnetic property. Steel in galvanized form can be found everywhere as it has wide applications. Carbon steels that have about 0. Mild Steel Also referred to as low carbon steel. It is used where large amount of steel has to be formed such as structural steel. It is the process of coating iron.34 Galvanization process is termed hot dip galvanization. Galvanization is the name given to the electrochemical processes in his honour. These properties are due to the presence of minute quantity of carbon content for hardening. and is neither extremely brittle nor ductile. because it is not an electrochemical process. This however should not be confused with galvanizing steel. as it is the most common form of steel. though the result remains the same. availability of wide variety with different properties. and as such can be forged. by passing the metal through a molten bath of zinc at a temperature of around 460˚C. et al. And above all. Hot dip galvanized steel can be referred to as galvanized iron. up to (0. Galvanized steel is also suitable for high temperature applications of up to 200˚C. It has a low content of carbon. Other advantages of using mild steel include relative cheapness. mild steel is weldable and hard. It is malleable when heated. Mild steel also has wide applications. It has got a relatively low price while it has properties that are acceptable for many useful applications. ©2011 . Sekoni.J.3% require This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. It is used in heating and cooling duct systems in building. Amusan O. it can be recycled and re-used multiple times.
Relative to stainless steel. it should not be used in corrosive environment unless a provision for protective coating is made. et al. Welding of Galvanized Steel This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. They use either direct current or alternating current consumable or non-consumable electrodes. Callister. 4. Higher content or alloy steels tend to form hard welds that are brittle and could crack. The molten materials cool quickly and the two metals are permanently bonded. Materials that are similar in composition cannot be welded by spot welding method due to different melting properties and terminal conductivities. Sekoni.2 WELDING It is a process of permanently joining two or more metal parts by melting both materials. two or more parts are joined to form a single piece when one-part fabrication is expensive or inconvenient (William D. implying that it rusts easily. Arc welding This is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material. Steel that is plated can be assumed to take the characteristics of its coating. In welding. thereby melting the metal at the welding point. the surface-cleaning process which is becomes necessary when aluminium is used can be easily avoided. whereas aluminium. there are fewer problems associated when welding mild steel. preventing further cost. ©2011 . Amusan O.35 special precautions. It has poor corrosion resistance. Welding may be considered to be a fabrication technique. Nickel and chrome plate steels are relatively easy to weld by spot welding.S. When low carbon steel is used. 1997). zinc and tin need special preparation to be able to weld them. This unsuitable tendency can be reduced by tempering. Hence.J. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert gas known as a shielding gas. This method of welding is widely used because of its low capital and running cost.
cheese heads. while the other part has to have a tapping hole. 4. Weld toughness. Also. brass. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. which distinguishes them from screws used for wood. In screwing work together. They are made of iron. shape of head metal and length under head. four 15Watt D.C. Screws are made in various pitches. 4.36 The welding of galvanized steel is done in the same way as the welding of base steel of the same composition. half round and counter sunk combined.4 INSTALLATION The automatic solar-powered street light is installed with a twin arm lighting kit to operate in a dusk-to-dawn operation mode using an automatic ON/OFF feature. corrosion resistance. half-round heads. The successful welding of galvanized steel is so widely accepted that there is little mechanical property that compares uncoated and galvanized weld. screws can be identified by their diameter standard. supply from the battery are employed.S. and this is known as the core diameter. bronze or steel and have heads of various shapes. etc are much more complex that the strength of the weld. This enables the work to be drawn tightly together. porosity control. It consists of proper cleaning of the parts to be joined. ©2011 . The pitch of screw is the distance it will move in the direction of its axis in one revolution through a fixed nut. et al. counter sunk heads. and then using the appropriate joining pieces.C. The lighting kit does not utilize an inverter circuit but instead. The difference between welding galvanized steel and uncoated steel is a result of low vaporization temperature of the zinc coating.J. All screws used for metals are known as tapped screws or metal thread screws.3 SCREWING Screwing is another method of joining metals. the part that takes the head of the screw has a clearing hole in it. bulbs powered by D. Sekoni. Amusan O.
©2011 . Amusan O.e. Consequently.S. Installation/Erection of Pole An anti-skid unloaded metal pole having a square base is erected on a concreted square-shaped foundation. put the battery in the box attached to the erected pole. Ensure that the standard polarities are observed i. This base of the pole then fastened to the foundation by means of rag bolts. both units are installed on the same electronic board and planted in the same enclosure together with the battery. ensuring appropriate connection of cables unto it with battery clips. Installation of the Lighting Kits & the Battery Carefully secure the lighting kits into the lamp holders and fix the luminaries. et al. The battery. Adjust the solar panel’s direction and angle to obtain optimal performance. from the battery to the electronic circuit unit.J. Connect the 6mm cables from the panel terminals to the battery and also. and fasten the bolts and nuts tightly. lighting lamps and the solar panel are connected This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Also. the pole is made to stand uprightly. black for negative (labelled –ve) and red for positive (labelled +ve).37 Installation of Solar Panel Attach the solar panel tray guide or carrier upon the pole and slightly fasten its bolts and nuts. Sekoni. Fix the solar panel into the tray guide and tighten the appropriate screws effectively. Installation of the Charge Controller of the Automatic Switch Since circuitry of this design incorporates both a charge controller unit and a dark-operated sensor switch together as a kit. Then connect the wires to the controller as shown in the associated wiring diagram of this project.
S.38 appropriately to the charge controller/automatic switch as shown in the block wiring diagram as shown below. R LA SO L NE PA 4. ©2011 .J. Amusan O.5 TESTING This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. et al. Sekoni.2 Wiring Block Diagram of Automatic Solar-powered Street Light 4.
In other words. On the other hand. Testing is the act of examining of the normal working operation. At night.39 After the installation process has been completed. Also. ©2011 . it was noticed that the charging current increases with illumination received by the panel from the sun. If any performance deviation is observed. it switched off the lamps by itself. it was observed to have worked from dusk to the early hours of the morning. since this street light is meant to work without the need for manual switching. the proper charging of the battery from the solar panel was checked and noticed to be appropriate. Therefore. This project has been tested ok. seeking to know the characteristics of the equipment and noting where appropriate changes can be made. et al. troubleshooting is the art of isolating problem areas and using a variety of techniques and experience to solve it. Amusan O. At the testing stage.S.6 OBSERVATIONS The following observations were made: • To enhance the sensitivity of the LDR and hence. These are done to ensure that the fabricated lightning equipment is in optimal working condition. an act of testing and if necessary. improve the performance of the streetlight. 4. the potentiometer was removed from inside the circuitry’s container and be put on the outside the casing. Lastly. the charging rate is directly proportional to the illumination received from the sun. Sekoni. the operation of the equipment must be troubleshooted in order to isolate the problem and fix the fault.J. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. switching on the luminaries and by dusk. the characteristics of the equipment were normal and there is no need for further changes. • Measured charging current and optimal or average output voltage of PV cell were respectively. a troubleshooting session must be executed. the streetlight operated by itself.
subassemblies. Factors such as cost and quality of materials. Sekoni. and even the intangibles that contribute to the costs of manufacturing a product. ©2011 . 4.S. • The LDR must be well exposed to an atmosphere where light intensity can be properly sensed. • The battery should be connected first to the circuit unit to prevent unwanted oscillation of the relay. Amusan O.J. et al. bulbs were utilized instead of the more common LED array lamps to ensure that high cost of production does not hinder the successful completion of the project. environmental condition of installation location and affordability of finished product must be checked when planning.7 PRECAUTIONS Considering the socio-economic and quality control factors involved in this project work. See next page for the associated BEME. It itemizes the raw materials. fabricating and criticizing the work done.C. cost and quality must be well balanced to ensure that finished equipment does not become too expensive or be of poor quality. The following should be considered when executing this project work: • The materials used for the project must be carefully selected to ensure a balance between cost and quality thereby making finished product affordable and reproducible. D.40 4. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A.8 BILL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS & EVALUATION (BEME) It is the bill of materials identifying and listing the components of a finished engineering product. Also. When implementing this kind of project on a commercial scale. High quality galvanized steel (expensive) was coupled with moderate quality mild steel (relatively inexpensive) in fabricating this project work. certain cautions must be taken at the fabrication stage.
et al.S. 12V Relay Soldering Lead Veroboard Jumper Wire LDR LM 7808 Battery Clip IC Socket 10mm Copper Wire 5mm Copper Wire Casing Cement Bricklayer's Labour Cost MAKE/BUY Make Buy Buy Buy Make Buy Make Make Make N/A Buy Buy Buy N/A Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy Buy N/A UNIT PRICE QUANTITY 1 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 N/A 1 4 1 N/A 3 2 6 6 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 6 6 1 1 N/A Overall Cost 41 AMOUNT (Naira) This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Sekoni. Amusan O.BILL OF ENGINEERING MATERIAL AND EVALUATION S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 2 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 DESCRIPTION Base Plate Stud & Rag Bolt Steel Column Positioner Locknut Split Positioner Bulb Holder Light Brace Suppport Battery & Circuit Container Solar Panel Tray Guide Weldering Cost Battery Bulbs Solar Panel Logistics & Transport 10KΩ Resistor 470µF Capacitor C945 Transistor 1KΩ Resistor 10KΩ Variable Resistor 5KΩ Variable Resistor 92XX Series Diode Red LED Green LED LM 324N 30A. ©2011 .J.
Amusan O. This is to ensure proper balance between the cost. the services of skilled and seasoned labourers should be employed for the mechanical and civil aspects of this project. 5. This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. It should however be noted that the use of such lamps implies a higher cost of production for the project implementers. Also. quality and durability of the metal framework and the concrete slab.1 CONCLUSION The solar-powered streetlight was designed and constructed such that the conventional need for inverter or utility power source is eliminated. the equipment was fabricated along with a switching circuit and charge controller unit that prevents the battery from overcharging. Sekoni.S.2 RECOMMENDATION It is recommended that LED array lamps be utilized instead of DC bulbs in order to achieve greater efficiency and luminosity. Also.J. et al.42 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION 5. The main improvement of this project has been the elimination of a dc to ac inverter unit. ©2011 .
wikipedia.P. USA. 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc. (2000).html http://www.com http://www. Prentice-Hall Inc. & Prakash J. New Delhi. USA. (2002) Mechanical Engineering Design. Solar Energy: Fundamentals and Applications. Mischke C. Microsoft Student 2008 Edition. Canada. Aatec Publishers. http://www. R.43 REFERENCES Array of Photovoltaic Cells. ©2011 . T (1996) Modern Industrial electronics. et al. (2005) Physical Metallurgy. USA. Maloney.com/q856738.edu/publications/CIRASNews/fall97/bom. & Shigley J.J. Garg. McGraw-Hill Inc. (2008) "Solar Energy". (1999) From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity.html http://www. Microsoft Encarta 2008 Edition. H. CRC Press. Perlin. W. (1997) Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction. J. Hosford.solar-street-lighting.iastate. USA. E.S. Florida. Sekoni. Holladay. USA.com This publication is a scholastic property of Morakinyo A. Amusan O. Callister. Microsoft Corporation. W. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd.blurtit. Microsoft Corporation.ciras. A.
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