Broiler Management tips

Dr Tauheed Iqbal

Broiler is white feathered, fast growing, vigorous and well fleshed bird raised for meat purpose. y In control environment, broiler get its market weight(1700- 1800 gm) in less than six weeks with better feed conversion ratio.

Average Chick Rate
2003-04 y 2004-05 y 2005-06 y 2006-07 y 2007-08

14.4 18.11 15.87 16.73 14.00

10 65.56 .Average Broiler Farm Rate 2003-04 y 2004-05 y 2005-06 y 2006-07 y 2007-08 y 46.35 64.69 68.11 62.

Broiler meat y Broiler meat is cheaper. It is equally ideal & safe food for infants . y y . It is free from any adulteration. adults and old people.children. easily available and economical to buy.

‡As poultry meat is having smaller percentage of fat than either beef /mutton.Broiler meat ‡It is good for people conscious about controlling their undesired body weight or seeking dieting to look smarter . . so it is beneficial in reducing risks of hardening of arteries.

Broiler meat has appealing flavour and blends up well with other food items to make various recipies.Broiler meat y Broiler meat is tender and easy to chew or grind and so it is easily digested. y .

inviting many investors from other part of society which could be healthy sign for the uplift of broiler industry as it has change the image of poultry farming.General characteristics of broiler sector in Pakistan Broiler farming in Pakistan is converted in to modernized & scientific based environmental control shed a decade ago. y . which need to be given utmost importance by promoting consumer education and mobilizing other parts of society. e. g religious scholars. teachers and doctors. y Broiler sector is weak in its marketing due to non availability of sufficient processing facility & consumers disliking of frozen meat.

y As fast food concept is gaining popularity now a days. Iran and Afghanistan. and also we have no organized goat/sheep or calf farming: there is huge gap still exist which could only be fulfilled through commercial broiler farming. so it will be very beneficial as far profitability is concerned. y If we could reduce our cost & improve quality by following HACCP criteria. so this business could flourish in coming days. Live bird brand shops will be the bright future of broiler industry in Pakistan.Opportunities in broiler business? As we are still deficient in providing optimum protein to our common people to fulfill their daily requirement. y . then we could manage its export to middle east. y As food commodities are getting short in whole world.

y .Broiler production as a successful business in Pakistan As we know there is a consistent growth of minimum 10-20 % in broiler sector every year & there is still profitability exist at least 10 rupees on an average per kg of live bird Produced. After integration people will feel comfort in doing this business. Feed miller are getting 100 rupees per feed bag profitability. y Due to some true business man participation in this sector. y Banks are very comfortable while doing business with poultry-men & due to its shorter span businessman feel good regarding money circulation. we could hope that processing will come & its export will start & when it become stock-able item then its volume will also increase. Chick companies are also getting 15% profitability per chick produced.

We are facing harsh weather condition in Pakistan and our sheds are not equipped properly to handle the situation effectively. so its related persons have to keep their nerve strong to avoid any disaster situation.Threats faced by broiler industry in Pakistan y y y There is lack of expertise in managing this logical business. As broiler production is very hectic business due to its shorter life span and faster metabolic growth. .

. fuel & electricity rates etc is a continuous threat to broiler industry. Lack of managemental expertise in broiler sector is also a big constraint.Threats face by broiler industry in Pakistan y y y y y Fluctuation in rates of ready to sale birds .& still we are not having enough processed meat. Persistence of deadly infectious diseases also causing huge losses in broiler industry. and it cause huge losses to our farmers. Consistent quality of feed & chicks is not ensured. day old chick rate. feed rate. Broiler meat is a perishable item.

Right medicine & right dose for calculated duration y y y Proper dose of medicine should be given for proper recommended period. feed formulation and flock health status. Water consumption of birds depends on body weight. so be careful in giving medicine to birds in coming weather . . Dosage are based on specific concentration of antimicrobial in its formulation: given via water/feed based on live body weight of bird. environmental temperature.

y .Medication Style Medicine should be given after consulting with professionals doctors. Dosage of medicine should be set on body weight basis & complexity of disease should always be kept in mind. y Medicine should be selected after antibiotic sensitivity test . it might be oral or parentral. y Route of medication should also be kept in mind when expecting quick recovery. rely on that medicine company which are following good manufacturing practices (GMP). As quality product will do its job and lead to profitibility. y While selecting medicine. irrespective of its cost. not by quakes.

Record keeping of medication and vaccine. Checking & maintenance of poultry equipment/generator to avoid any problem.Routine monitoring by owner Daily mortality counting and proper disposal. y y y y y y y . y Weekly samples of feed should be tested from labs to check its quality. Daily monitoring of temperature and humidity. y Weekly weight of birds and FCR comparison. y Daily record keeping of ventilation like temperature kept for cooling/heating. Daily water usage record. Daily feed bags consumed record. Daily racking of litter. fans on timer /temp and inlet opening.

Bio-security of farm should be kept always at red alert. representative samples of birds could be sent to lab for confirmation of any disease.Routine monitoring by owner y y y y y Owner should remain in regular / close contact with doctor. If necessary. managing staff to monitor the health status of birds (anti mortem & postmortem). Water sample should be checked at least after six months for microbial and chemical analysis. Visitors necessary to visit farm must understand the spirit of biosecurity. . so that disease or any abnormality could be judged early and could be controlled in beginning. Antibiotic sensitivity test/ titration for monitoring antibodies could also be done.

keeping person always on toes. . Utilize shed controller to its max capacity and get help from indoor cameras. we could make three shifts rather than two to get max potential without creating any loophole/fatigue in management because it is not a 9 to 5 job. this will help in early diagnosis of disease symptom. Labor/worker and supervisory staff must be trained to deal any emergency at farm. Always take help from technology . it is 1000 hours job . Managing staff must know the basics of ventilation and could have strong observation regarding status of bird.Managing Labor by owner y y y y We have still constraint in having skill. trained and efficient Labor at farm.

It is fairly in-expensive and quite reliable. Normally ratio of feed to water is 1/1.Feed & water intake monitoring y y y y y Water intake is very good measure and useful gauge of broiler performance. We could measure water intake by digital meters. We could measure feed intake by counting feed bags(50kg) or by measuring by digital scale attach with silo /hopper.5. But this ratio could be changed in heat stress and in disease condition. .

Chicks should not have any deformity. Chick should be alert. active and responsive. Chick should not be dehydrated. Chick¶s eyes should be bright. Chick should be chirping.Chick receiving criteria y y y y y y y y Chicks should not weigh less than 40 gm and its wt should be uniform. Chicks should have healed navel. Chick should stand up well. .

MS and Salmonella. Check hatch out time and travel time to farm. Chicks samples should be sent to lab for testing against MG. .y y y y Chick should be transported in vehicle having temperature not less than 80 F. Check weight loss from hatchery to farm should also be noted.

HEAT STRESS If birds have difficulty in achieving a balance b/w body heat production and heat loss. . then birds are heat stressed.

Heat production is affected by y y y y y y y y . absorption & metabolism within the body. Heat is also added from roof & walls (non insulated). Body weight of bird Breed of bird Level of production of bird Level of feed intake by bird Feed quality presented. Bird produced 11 BTU/Kg excess heat which need to be get rid of body. Heat also added from working litter. which also includes maintenance and growth of bird. Activity of bird.How heat is produced in body of bird & in shed? y Heat is produced by digestion.

Birds simply crouch near walls or nipple lines with their wings spread away from body and birds are busy in panting to alleviate in some way from rise up of their body heat.How birds behave in heat stress? y y y y Birds will rest more and stand quietly. Birds refused to take feed but water intake increases many fold. Birds reduce their activity & exercise to limitise its heat production. .

Steps to reduce heat stress .

We could rectify it by adding electrolyte and could get quick relief by using vitamin C (Poustin c) in feed/water.Add additional supplement in feed/water y y Electrolyte balance of heat stressed birds are altered due to panting. . Blood pH is increased due to loss of carbon dioxide resulting in respiratory alkalosis. which ultimately reduces bird ideal water intake.

So we should manage its time of feed presentation and we could give period of darkness in late afternoon.Proper time of feeding & withdrawing feed y During late afternoon. . there is rise in body temperature due to peak time of digestion in birds (when birds eat feed in early mid morning) .

in order to get them on nipples to drink more & reduce their internal heat. .Should have readily available water? y y Water should be of optimum quality and should be freely available. We should walk through the house to rise up the birds . We could add nutritional supplement in water (vit c etc) to encourage water intake. Nipples height should be at right according to age of birds.

y Air exchange rate should be less than one minute in hot get max wind chill effect.Ensure good ventilation By providing adequate ventilation to birds we could be able to reduce the heat stress faced by the birds.5 m/sec. In this regard we could provide max air speed . Air speed should not less than 2. y .

y Fat level should be increased in feed. y Adequate level of vitamins and electrolyte should be added in feed. although fat digestion also increase metabolic heat.Modification in feed formulation Energy content of diet should be increased as there is reduced feed intake in heat stressed birds. y . y Amino acids profile should be balanced.

. absorption and metabolism in hotter part of the day.Fasting could be helpful? Fasting could be done to reduce heat production in body of birds during digestion. Fasting will calm the birds.

What panting actually do? y Panting is a protective mechanism of bird in some manner to help the birds in reducing heat stress. Panting will normally remove 540 calories per gram of water loss by the bird. Panting could start when temperature rise above 30 C (when birds are young) y .