Well Log Analysis For Geologists



George Asquith

Charles Gibson

The American Association of Petroleum Geologists







- tortuosity factor - bottom hole temperature - bulk volume water
- conductivity


C ~r.i

~t ~tf


GR'Tlax GRn",


x., x.,





Prnd R



- compensated neutron log - compaction factor for sonic porosity - radius of invaded zone - interval transit time of formation - interval transit time of fluid in borehole - interval transit time of formation matrix - diameter of borehole - diameter of invaded zone (flushed zone) - diameter of invaded zone - formation factor - formation density compensated log - gamma ray reading from formation - gamma ray reading from shale - gamma ray reading from dean sand - thickness of rnudcake - absolute permeability - effective permeability - relative permeability to gas - relative permeability to oil - relative permeability to water - cementation exponent - Microlog - Microlaterolog' - moveable oil saturation (Sxo - Sw) - Proximity Log - porosity - pseudostatic spontaneous potential - bulk density of the formation - density of fluid in the borehole - hydrocarbon density - density of the formation matrix - resistivity of shallow focused log - resistivity of invaded zone - resistivity induction log medium - resistivity induction log deep - resistivity of Latcrolog" deep - resistivity of Laterolog" shallow - resistivity of drilling mud - resistivity of rnudcake - resistivity of mud filtrate - resistivity of Mierospher ieaily Focused Log' - resistivity of the formation IOO';{ water saturated (i.e , wet resistivity) - residual oil saturation ( 1.0 ~ Sxo)

water saturation of flushed zone .\\IES USED Ix TEXT microcaliper \1 icrnlatcrnlog" (!VI LL)'" Microlog" (!\ILl" Microspher ically Focused hulk density log caliper log ('ompensated Density Log Combination Gamma Ray ~eutron-Iknsit' Combination ".)': spontaneous potential log (SP) Luu' or (RSfl ) .moveable hydrocarbon index ..resistivity of Spherically Focused Log' .j neutron log normal logs nuclear logs porosity log Proximity Log" or (I'Ll" resistivity logs Resistivity Spherically Focused short normal log Sidewall Ncutrrm Log sonic log Spedralog' Sphcricallj Focused Log! (SH.sidewall neutron porosity .formation temperature .irreducible water saturation . RSf I RI Rw RWd k.water saturation of uninvaded zone (Archie method) .eutron-Densit~ Log Compensated Neutron Log dcnsitj log Dual Induction Log Dual Induction Focused Log Dual Laterolog electrode logs gamma ray log Induction Electric Log induction log Lateral Log Latcrolog Laternlog-S'' Log Log or (1\ISF).resistivity of flushed zone .P SP SPI SSP SWd x.0 .resistivity' of formation water" .secondary porosity index .water saturation of uninvaded zone (Ratio Method] ."' .resistivity of adjacent shale' .hydrocarbon saturation (1..volume of shale S. S". SI1 .short normal log .R.apparent formation water resistivity .Sw) .static spontaneous potential SSP = -K log (RmrlRw) . SWi SXU SXO Tr \" •• 11 Lor: N.spontaneous potential .resistivit~' of uninvaded zone .


Gibson Methods in Exploration Series )ublished by fhe American Association of Petroleum Geologists Tulsa. Asquith Pioneer Production with Alpar Resources Inc. Oklahoma USA . By Corporation Charles R.Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists George B.

~ Tulsa.. Beaumont Project Editors: A. Horn Science Director: E. Asquith. L. 82-73052 ISBN: 0-89181-652-6 For AAPG: Editor: M. August 1983 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. K. USA . R. L.. A. Hart II . Oklahoma The American Association of Petroleum Geolozists Copyright· 1982 by The American Association All Rights Reserved of Petroleum Geologists Published October 1982 Second Printing (revised).Published try 74101.

. . ... .. . . ... . . . Log Interpretation Archie Equation Ratio Method Bulk Volume Water Quick Look Methods Pickett Crossplot Method Hingle Crossplot Permeability from Logs Shaly Sand Analysis .. ... .. ..... . . . . . . . .. .... ... ..... The Spontaneous Potential Log Formation Water Resistivity Volume of Shale (Rw) Determined 3. . 118 118 118 Lithology Plot Mapping from SP Log Sand or Carbonate Maps from Gamma Typing and Facies Mapping 118 119 120 120 140 8.. 7. 66 66 66 67 68 . ... . . . . .. .. . .. ...... 5 28 28 40 41 41 42 43 43 43 44 44 2.. ... .. . . . . ... . .. . . .. .. . . . . .. . . 5. . . .. Permian Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation.... ... . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . Porosity Logs Sonic Log Density Log ~u~n~g Combination Neutron-Density Log . .... . . Gamma Ray Log \blume of Shale Calculation 91 91 96 96 96 98 98 100 101 6. . . . .. Anadarko Basin Appendices of Charts Used in Plotting References Index " . ..Table of Contents: 1... San Juan Basin Devonian Hunton Formation. 209 213 215 iii . . .... . . . ..... . . .. . Resistivity Logs Induction Electric Log Dual Induction Focused Laterolog* Log Focused Log* Log* Dual Laterolog-Microspherically Microlog* Microlaterolog* and Proximity Resistivity Derived Porosity 4.. . . Basic Relationships of Well Log Interpretation Introduction Borehole Environment Invasion and Resistivity Formation Temperature Profiles . .. . . ... .. . . . . . .. . .... .. .. . ... .. Eocene Wilcox Sandstone.. Ray Log .. .... .. . .... . 102 103 .. .. . . Anadarko Basin Cretaceous Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. .. 2 4 .. . . .... . .. ... . Lithology Logging and Mapping Techniques Combination Gamma Ray Neutron M-N* Lithology Plot MID* Alpha Clean Rock Density Log ... . Gulf Coast Basin Williston Basin Pennsylvanian Upper Morrow Sandstone.. . Log Interpretation Case Studies Pennsylvanian Atoka Sandstone.. .. .. . .

By assisting her husband with some of the drafting and graphic layout work. IV . She helped her husband with both the writing of the manuscript. Hart. Pearl Gibson helped ensure that the text's complex figures would be legible and easily understood. Many charts and figures used in the text were provided by Dresser Industries and by Schlurnberger Well Services. who critically read the and offered many useful suggestions. The considerable editorial talents of Ronald L. Mr. was by Ann L. Brown. Mitchell also lent his technical CXPCI1isc to a review of the manuscript. Their assistance is recognized and gratefully acknowledged. docs not pass unnoticed. Geologists. Her untlagging efforts to improve readability. helped ensure the book would meet its goal of introducing the reader to fundamental concepts of well logging. Hart. Beaumont early-on recognized rhc need for a logging course designed especially for geologists. Perhaps and editing concerning manuscript the most significant contribution of all. Bette Haimes typed the finished manuscript copy: her commitment to accuracy. Asquith. She was assisted in her editing tasks by Robert V. her assistance with writing.Acknowledgements: The construct 01 this book would have been entirely different had it not been for the creative Beaumont and Ronald L. Campbell and Leon Williams. As Science Director of the American Association of Petroleum contributions of Edward A. Robert 1. The quality of the graphics work was also enhanced by Rick Blackburn's efforts on behalf of the photographic reproduction of various charts and figures. as did Edith C. however. His efforts and encouragement led to the development of the AAPG school on basic logging from which the text was derived. and her suggestions content were an incalculable asset. Manager of the AAPG Projects Department and his assistance with formating and writing figure captions. Their cooperation in allowing reproduction of these items. and their unwavering courtesy eased the task of authorship. the text's introduction owes much to his insight. with a di fficult and often tedious task.

the text is restricted to open hole logs. I hope that the reader initiates his or her own study of other log types which arc beyond the scope of this book. Golden. it is frequently underutilized by many geologists who are either intimidated by logging terminology and mathematics. they feel. a last word . regardless: hopefully they will not be too serious. learning about open hole logging requires more of the reader than a light skimming of the text 's material. and acoustical sources is as important to a geologist as the study of rock properties by more conventional means using optical. awaits the serious student. 1982 -------------- v . it is likely that the success or failure of an exploration program may hinge on a geologist's logging expertise. Consequently. Colorado l:ntitledApplied Open Hole Log l nterprctation (1978). The plain truth is that a great deal of hard work. Texas October. Unfortunate ly. and chemical methods.a substantial effort was expended to ensure that a minimum number of errors would appear in the text. in fact. Certainly. it should be pointed out that the surfeit of information available on petrophysics often discourages all but the most ardent beginner. his book will be a great help. a facility with logs develops only after plenty of real-life experience. And. it more properly belongs in the province of the log analyst or engineer. given the nature of the subject and the almost infinite possibility for mistakes. and even then. despite the importance of petrophysics. no less than achieving an understanding of the ancient record hangs in the balance. The intent here is simply to provide a foundation of knowledge which can be built upon later. Another helpful book is The Glossarv Of Terms and Expressio/lS Used ill Wi'll Logging: The Society of Professional Well Log Analysts (11)75). For those who are interested in expanding their knowledged of logs. However. The rewards are obvious. Finally. many exceptions to rules are left to more advanced books. It is quite possible that some colleagues will raise objections about the lack of time devoted to tool theory: they may also comment on the paucity of qualifying statements in the text. many of the difficult decisions which had to be faced in preparing the manuscript dealt with selecting information judged indispensable at an elementary level. These objections are understood and indeed there may be disagreements about what constitutes over-sirnpl ification. George B. including memorizing log terminology. Many in the audience will note frequent references to a book by Douglas Hilchic . and so that logs used most often in petroleum exploration arc thoroughly discussed. nuclear. or who accept the premise that an in-depth knowledge of logging is only marginally useful to their science because. In the interest of conciseness. In defense of brevity. Asquith Pioneer Production Corporation Amarillo. Nevertheless. there rnuy be slip-ups.Preface: This book is a basic introduction to open hole logging. which explains the meaning of logging terms by extended definitions. The enormous importance of logging dictates that as geologists. Study of the properties of rocks by petrophysical techniques using electric. x-ray. we put aside old notions and apply ourselves diligently to learning log interpretation.

Asquith received his Ph. DL Asquith presented short course lectures for the American Association of Petroleum the United States and in Canada and Brazil. His areas of specialization In petroleum exploration include: subsurface carbonate and clastic depositional models. Asquith has authored two books. for the Pioneer Production Corporation. Texas Journal of Science. he was selected and qualified to serve with the 3rd Infantry (The Old Guard).. Gibson received his B. P. He has a special interest in applying computerized log analyses to solve complex lithologic and production problems... He has applied his areas of specialization to a number of different basins inc luding the Anadarko. Amarillo. and Log Analysis by Microcomputer. Dr. A. prospect development and evaluation. he has held various positions with Humble Oil and Refining Co. Gibson of obtained his M. Asquith: George B. Since joining Alpar Resources.D. G . degree in geology from the University of Wisconsin/Madison and has some 15 years experience throughout North America involving geological consulting. and also in the Gulf Coast (onshore and offshore 1. and has served as a reviewer for the AAPG Bulletin. During 1979-19X I.. the Rocky Mountains. He is presently Exploration Coordinator. and teaching.: Alpar Resources Inc . Texas.: Atlantic Richfield Co. and Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. and Williston basins. S. and computer applications to log interpretation. In addition to independent consulting work. at the termination of his advanced military training. Fort Myer. Gibson has been involved in a diverse range of subsurface clastic and carbonate exploration and development studies from the Gulf Coast to the WiJJiston basin and has co-authored several published technical papers. Texas. He is certified by the A. He has also written numerous articles and abstracts in the fields of carbonate petrology. Permian. Education was postponed for military duty where. he was employed by the Colorado Fuel and Iron Corporation in their Arizona project for geologic field mapping of iron ore deposits and base metal gcochemistry exploration. and is a member vi . and with the University of Wisconsin.A. degree from West Texas State University the Society of Professional Well Log Analysts. in 1972. Gibson: Charles Richard Gibson is exploration manager and vice-president for Alpar Resources.S. and Killgore Research Center. identification of lithologies from logs. Central Texas. Search Drilling Company. 1. Perryton. Virginia. P. Returning to the University of Southern Colorado. and computer geology. research. Inc . San Juan. As a geologic undergraduate in 1965. West Texas State University. and was granted a Graduate Teaching Assistantship to continue advanced studies at West Texas State University. Inc . in 1977. sandstone petrology. collecting soil samples and running wet chemical analyses. He is currently a lecturer and Science Advisor with the American Petroleum Geologists' Continuing Education Program and serves as an AAPG Visiting Petroleum Geologist. G.Biographical Sketches: George B. degree in geology in 1970. Subsurface Carbonate Depositional Models. and Canada. Geologists throughout Association of Charles R.

A set of six case histories in Chapter 8 provides the reader~with diverse. This selection is the author's and the associated service company is not responsible for its accuracy. Inc. and can be used in a class environment or as a self-help program. In the text and examples. Oklahoma Vll . log-based decisions founded in both geology and economics. specific Schlurnberger and Dresser log types are mentioned by name. AAPG Publications Tulsa. we intend for this book to become a training standard in both industry and academia. yet typical. Because it is important to offer examples in a book of this nature. As with the other titles in the AAPG Methods in Geclozv Series.Publisher's Note: Because most new geologists come out of college with little understanding of the industry 's primary tool. that many service COmpany charts are overprinted with colored ink to highlight an example. As a special note of thanks. AAPG acknowledges the logging companies and engineers who cooperated with their advice and examples. and because many experienced geologists use logs only as a means to correlate productive zones (unaware of the many other applications of logging). we have published this book. nor does it reflect on the fine logging service companies whose examples were not used. The book is oriented toward ge()l. Note also. the single asterisk (*) indicates a mark of Schlumberger: a double asterisk (**) indicates a trademark of Dresser Industries.~ists rather than engineers. this is in no wayan endorsement of these two companies.


In addition. Pcnncuhilitv-c-is: the property a rock has to transmit fluids. The amount of void space that is interconnected. and (3) acoustic or sonic.·tive porositv. water-free hydrocarbons Perhaps the best way to begin a study of logging is by Introducing the reader to some of the basic concepts of well log . saturated with that tluid is called absolute perrncabil ity. but also because knowledge of many parameters. and permeability. It is essential that the reader understand these properties and the concepts they represent before proceeding with a study of log interpretation._ total volume of rock The amount of internal space or voids in a given volume of rock is a measure of the amount of fluids a rock will hold. With increasing relative pcrrncabil ities to water. It is measured as a percent and has the symbol 1>. As a consequence. formation water takes up space both in pores and in the connecting passages between pores. Relative pcnncabilit» is the ratio between effective permeability of a fluid at partial permeability at 100% saturation When rc lative permeability of a then the formation will produce saturation. forrnations water is zero. water saturation. to determine depth and thickness of zones.».CHAPTER I BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF \VELL LOG INTERPRETATION Introduction As log!:~ing tools and interpretive methods are developing in accuracy and sophistication. pore geometry. to distinguish between oil. the ones used most frequently in hydrocarbon exploration are called open holt' logs. Also.o log measurements. or otherwise reduce the ability of other fluids to move through the rock. the . and measurements is needed before an understanding I(Jgging process is possible. a suite or group of curves. Permeability is controlled by the size of the connecting passages (pore throats or capillaries) between pores. Rock properties or characteristics which affect logging measurements arc: porosity. gas. logs help define physical rock characteristics such as lithology. and is the ability of the rock to transmit a fluid in the presence of another fluid when the two fluids arc immiscible. and rcsistivitv. a logging tool (sonde). it may block. Stated differently. or the process of logging.e the relative permeability to hydrocarbons is 100%). and so able to transmit fluids. The two primary parameters determined from well log measurements arc porosity. In common usage. Logging data is used to identify productive zones. 1975). !\ geologist's first exposure to log interpretation can be a frustrating experience. the word log may refer to a particular curve. It is measured in darcies or millidarcics and is represented by the symbol K". Formation water (connate water in the formation) held by capillary pressure in the pores of a rock serves to inhibit the transmission of hydrocarbons. poroxitv. the rock surrounding the borehole has certain properties which affect the movement of fluids into and out of it. This is not only because of its lengthy and unfamiliar terminology. and are measured by one of three general types of logs: (I) electrical. al-. The abil ity of a rock to transmit a single fluid when it is 100'7. geologic maps developed from log interpretation help with determining facies relationships and drilling locations. of the unfamiliar with petrophysical logging. The names refer to the sources used to obtain the meusurcrucnts. petrophysical log interpretation is one of the most useful and important tools available to a petroleum geologist Besides their traditional use in exploration to correlate wncs and to assist with structure and isopach mapping. and to estimate hydrocarbon reserves. and therefore.. Remember that a borehole represents a dynamic system: that fluid used in the drilling of a well affects the rock surrounding the borehole. some confusion may develop over the usc of the word fog. Of the various types of logs. they are playing an expanded role in the geological decision-making process. The different sources create records (logs) which contain one or more curves related to some property in the rock surrounding the well bore (see Society of Professional Well Log Analysts. Isolated pores and pore volume occupied by adsorbed water arc excluded from a definition of effective porosity. pcrmcabil itv. It is related to porosity hut is not always dependent upon it. 'Ioclay. or water in a reservoir. and the fraction of pore space filled with hydrocarbons. f:jji'c'lil't' permeability refers to the presence of two fluids in a rock. (2) nuclear. and the (absolute permeability). Porositv=ceti be defined as the percentage of voids to the total volume of rock. is called cjfi. concepts. Porosity «(f» = volll1_lle oj' pl~re2.. For the reader (i.mulys. The name open hole is applied because these logs arc recorded in the uncased portion of the well bore. The parameters of log interpretation are determined both directly or inferred indirectly. All the different types of logs and their curves discussed in the text are this type.

salt or fresh water). Water saturation is measured in percent and has the symbol Sw' . filled with water having a resistivity resistivity of R.0 = 100% water saturation). Archie's experiments showed that the resistivity of a water-filled formation (Rn)..IRt)lin the water saturation formula can be rewritten in the following A = cross sectional S --w L = length of substance being measured _(F xR. Because both the rock and hydrocarbons act as insulators but saltwater is conductive. and freshwater all act as insulators and are. water will not move. hydrocarbons. grain size distribution. The measured units arc ohm-meter-/rneter. Doll in Alsace-Lorraine . regardless of their shape resistivity of the formation 100% water saturated (Rn) divided by the resistivity of the formation water (Rw)' Archie's experiments also revealed that formation factors can be related to porosity by the following formula: and size. The unit of measure used for the conductor is a cube of the formation oue meter on each edge. one (where 1..) and the formation resistivity (Rt) by the following relationship: (ohm-meters) (ohms) area of substance being measured (meters) where n is the saturation exponent whose value varies from 1. Because during the drilling of a well fluids move into porous and permeable formations surrounding a borehole. France. eventually. type of fluid (i. hydrocarbons. and are called ohm-meters. The higher the value for tortuosity the higher the m value. Witter saturation-is the percentage of pore volume in a rock which is occupied by formation water. resistivity measurements recorded at different depths into a formation This is the formula which is most commonly referred to as the Archie equation for water saturation (Sw). resistivity measurements made by logging tools can be used to detect hydrocarbons and estimate the porosity of a reservoir. Conrad Schlumberger in 1912 began the first experiments which led. 1942). The first electric log was run September 5. In log interpretation. the rock.J low resistivity. can be related by means of a formation factor (F): formation water occupying pores ---------. w = often have different values. Saltwater. At irreducible water saturation. G. Resistance is the of all materials. to the development of modern day petrophysical logs. G. Now that the reader is introduced to some of the basic concepts of well log interpretation. however. form: Rw) lin Resistivity is a basic measurement of a reservoir's fluid saturation and is a function of porosity. our discussion can be continued in more detail about the factors which affect logging measurements.) = F x R. water saturation S) (. Texas. Water saturation (SW) is determined from the water filled resistivity (R. the reciprocal of resistivity is conductivity.5 but is most commonly 2. and the relative permeability to water equals where the formation resistivity factor (F) is equal to the Rcsistivitv-is science of logging inherent property the rock property on which the entire first developed. to resist the flow of an electric current. non-conductive and highly resistive to electric flow. E. Resistivity is measured by electric logs. Archie with Shell Oil Company presented a paper to the AIME in Dallas. and Sw = (R. By combining the formulas: R.. And.8 to 2. R =___r:__><_~_ L Where: R = resistivity r = resistance (rncters-) where m is a cementation exponent whose value varies with grain size. is a conductor and has :.1927 by H.e. zero. Different materials have different abilities to resist the flow of electricity. Borehole Environment Where a hole is drilled into a formation. or is held in the capillaries by capillary pressure. and type of rock.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION [ormation will produce increasing amounts ojwat cr relative to hvdrocarhons. therefore. and the complexity of the paths between pores (tortuosity). which set forth the concepts used as a basis for modem quantitative log interpretation (Archie. Irreducible water saturation or Sw irr is the term used to describe the water saturation at which all the water is adsorbed on the grains in a roc k . the rock plus the 2 . all present methods of interpretation involving resistivity curves are derived from this equation. --:--~------total pore space In the rock Water saturation represents an important log interpretation concept because you can determine the hydrocarbon saturation of a reservoir by subtracting water saturation from the value. Resistivity is the measurement of resistance. In 1941.

. I). The diameter of in vasion is measured in inches or expressed as a ratio: d/dh (where dh represents the borehole diameter).resistivity Sw . and maintain an excess of borehole pressure over formation pressure.o) zone and the uninvaded (Rt) zone. The definitions of each of the symbols used in Figure I arc listed as follows: dh .The flushed zone extends only a few inches from the well bore and is part of the invaded zone If invasion is deep or moderate.water saturation of uninvaded zone flushed zone Some of the more important symbols shown in Figure l are: Hole Diameter (dh)-Awell 's borehole size is described by the outside diameter of the drill bit. occurs between the flushed (R. As invasion occurs. = [10 . zone (outer boundary: flushed invaded . I).e .thickness of rnudcake RIll . The size of the borehole is measured by a caliper log Drilling Mud (Rm)--l()day. . The transition or annulus (Ri) zone. most wells are drilled with rotarv bits and lise special mud as a circulating fluid. Figure I is a schematic illustration of a porous and permeable formation which is penetrated by a borehole filled with drilling mud.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION fluids 111 it (rock-fluid system) are altered in the vicinity of the borehole.c'm" sectional L . and dl: Fig. It consists otailushcd Z. Pores in the uninvaded R .resistivity" of the drilling mud Rme . . .diameter zone) dJ .o) and a transition or annulus (Rj) zone. .rexisti vity of formation water R. (III equal volume ojmt«l filtrate C(/II invade low porositv and high porositv rocks If the drilling muds hove equal amouuts ofsolid particles. This occurs because low porosity rocks have Jess storage capacity or pore volume to fill with the invading fluid.:one is defilled as the urea beyond the invaded zone where ajormation 'sfluids ore uncontaminated bv III lid [iltrate . The solid particles in the drilling muds coalesce and form an impermeable mudcakc. you can determine the degree of flushing by mud filtrate from the difference between water saturations in the flushed (S.o).. General invasion diameters are: rocks: rocks: rocks. The density of the mud is kept high enough so that hydrostatic pressure in the mud column is always greater than formation pressure. Fluid that filters into the formation during invasion is called mud [iltratc (Rrnr: Fig.le ngth (rneter : 3 . I).<~ L in ohm-rneters-rmerers (ohms) area (meters-) (ohm-meter) d/dh = 2 for high porosity d/dh = 5 for intermediate porosity and d/dh = 10 for low porosity Flushed Zone (R. the diameter of invasion will be greatest in low porosity rocks.) zone and the uninvaded (Sw) zone (Fig. most often the flushed zone is completely cleared of its formation water (Rw) by mud filtrate (R". Invaded Zone-The zone which is invaded by mudtiltratc is called the invaded zone. Because an equal volume of fluid can be invaded before an impermeable rnudcake barrier forms.water saturation S". 2). A. Borehole sizes normally vary from 7 7/8 inches to 12 inches. as a result. The amount of invasion which takes place is dependent upon the permeability of the mudcakc and not upon the porosity of the rock.radius of invaded zone (outer boundary) hOle . well's borehole and the rock surrounding it are contaminated by the drilling mud. clay minerals from the drilling mud) are trapped on the side of the borehole and form lillie/cake (Rille: Fig. I).. or (2) build-up of rnudcake on porous and permeable formations (Fig. The excess of borehole pressure over formation pressure prevents blow-outs. Uninvaded Zone (Rt)The uninvadcd zone is located beyond the invaded zone (Fig.rc sistivity resistance A . The mud helps remove cuttings from the well bore.resistivity of the rnudcake ROlf .lq . about 70 to 95% of the oil is flushed out. the diameter of the borehole: may be larger or smaller than the bit diameter because of II) wash out and/or collapse of shale and poorly cemented porous rocks. This pressure difference forces some of the drilling fluid to invade porous and permeable formations. The mudcake then ads as a barrier to further invasion.resistivity of flushed zone R. the remaining oil is called residual oil (S". The resistivity values for drilling mud. The uninvaded .diameter zone) (i. mudcuke . which affects logging measurements. I).. Usually..l where Sro equals residual oil saturation [ROS]). The flushed zone (Rw) occurs close to the borehole (Fig. When oil is present in the flushed zone.. many of the solid particles -RcSlstivity (RJ =_r_. I).S.OtlC (R. lubricate and cool the drill bit. of invaded of invaded zone (inner boundary. The depth of mud filtrate invasion into the invaded zone is referred to as the diameter of invasion (d. But.hole diameter d. pores throughout a greater volume of rock will be affected. and mud filtrate are recorded on a log's header (Fig. and.resistivity of mud filtrate of shale R[ . where a formation's fluids and mud filtrate arc mixed.resistivity of un invaded zone (true resistivity) R" .r). I) where the mud filtrate has almost completely flushed out a formation's hydrocarbons and/or water (Rw). and modern logging tools are designed to operate within these size ranges. In general.

) is an index ofh\"drocurholl ntovcahilitv. intermediate (R. Because of their importance. cross sectional views moving away from the borehole and into a form. and deep (R1) resistivity tools all read low resistivity (Fig. Two modern resistivity devices which use these three resistivity curves are: the Dual Induction Log with a Larcrolog-S" or Spherically Focused Log (SFlY' and the Dual Laterolog'i' with a Microsphcrically Focused Log (MSFL)I. The step profile has a cylindrical geometry with an invasion diameter equal to d. By using these three resistivity measurements.. or gas. In some instances. 5). Invasion and Resistivity Profiles Invasion and resistivity profiles are diagrammatic. depending on the relative resistivity values of R. Rml > 3 R. An annulus profile is only sometimes recorded on a log because it rapidly dissipates in a well. A hydrocarbon zone invaded with freshwater mud results in a resistivity profile where the shallow (Rxo).) resistivities (Fig. II geologist C(/II dct crurin« 1/ reservoir's hvilrocarhon soturatinn.).e . transition.uion.\·~Figure 4 illustrates the borehole and resistivity profiles for water-bearing zones where the resistivity of the mud filtrate (ROlf) is much greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) in freshwater muds. They are of particular interest because. by using them.) and high (R. I) of the uninvadcd zone is an important factor in reservoir evaluation because. Three resistivity devices are needed to measure a transitional profile: these three devices measure resistivities of the flushed. 3). the deep resistivity will be higher than the medium resistivity When this happens. These profiles vary.). A hydrocarbon zone invaded with saltwater mud results in a resistivity profile where the shallow (Rxo)' medium (R. resistivity logging tools read true resistivity of the uuinvadcd zone (R1). Water saturation (Sw: Fig. They illustrate the horizontal distributions of the invaded and uninvudcd zones and their corresponding relative resistivities. Even in hydrocarbon-hearing reservoirs. and low (R.) resistivities (Fig.L medium (RJ.BASIC RELAfiONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION zone are uncontaminated saturated with formation by mud filtrate: instead. while deeper reading. (flushed zone) and dJ (transition zone). it is very important to a geologist because the profile can only occur in zones which hear Basic Information Needed in Log Interpretation Lith()logv~In quantitative log analysis. formation water is pushed out in front of the mud filtrate forming an annular (circular) ring at the edge of the invaded zone (Fig. The formula for calculating hydrocarbon saturation is: S" r-: hydrocarbon saturation (i.: (see Fig. However. These three invasion profiles are illustrated in Figure 3. R" co. uninvadcd filled with water) of pore \v = water saturation zone (i. (2) transition. medium (R. theoretical. Figures 6a and 6b illustrate the resistivity curves for wet zones invaded with both freshwater and saltwater muds. bv using water saturation data.). and deep (R1) resistivity tools separate and record low (R. there is always a layer of Iormat ion water on grain surfaces. and (3) annulus.). Log resistivity profiles illustrate the resistivity values of the invaded and uninvuded zones in the formation being investigated. There are three commonly recognized invasion profiles: (I) step.e . there are several reasons why it is important to know the lithology of a zone 4 . Shallow reading. A freshwater mud (i.e. ami deep (R1) resistivity tools all record high resistivities I Fig. 3). The annulus effect is detected by a higher resistivity reading on a deep induction log than by one on a medium induction log. the fraction volume filled with hydrocarbons). RIIlf) results in a wet profile where the shallow (R". water (Rw)' oil. A saltwater mud (i. hydrocarbons move out first.. The annulus profile is detected only by an induction log run soon after a well is drilled. it is called the annulus effect.. Figures 7a and 7h illustrate the resistivity curves for hydrocarbon zones invaded with both freshwater and saltwater muds. and deep (R1) resistivity tools separate and record high (Rxo)' intermediate (Rj). 4). a geologist can quickly scan a log and look for potential zones of interest such as hydrocarbon zones. resistivity logging tools read the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj). and uninvadcd zones RxO" R" and R. fraction of pore volume The ratio between the uninvadcd zone 's water saturation (Sw) and the flushed zone's water saturation (S". medium (Rj).e . 5). Next. It is probably a more realistic model for true borehole conditions than the step profile. resistivity profiles for both water-bearing and hydrocarbon-bearing zones are discussed here. The transition profile also has a cylindrical geometry with two invasion diameters: d. they are hydrocarbons. the deep reading resistivity tool can be corrected to a more accurate value of true resistivity (R1). Hvdrocarbon-Bcaring Zones~Figure 5 illustrates the borehole and resistivity profiles for hydrocarbon-hearing zones where the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmf) is much greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) for freshwater muds. and where Rmf is approximately equal to Rwfor saltwater muds. 4). As the mud filtrate invades the hydrocarbon-hearing zone. and where resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmf) is approximately equal to the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) in saltwater muds. and the depth of invasion can he determined. and ROlf' All the variations and the ir associated profiles are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 Water-Bearing Z(}ne.) results in a "wct " log profile where the shallow (R".

c -X __ . Porosity logs The formation temperature is also calculated equation: C (Asquith. 8).O()O It either by the y = 166 0 formation temperature After a formation's temperature is determined chart (Fig. sands. Texas-Louisiana and (after different fluids (Rill' Rmf.1I5-. Table I Different Coefficients and Exponents Used to Calculate Formation Factor (F). '-limllO'.~ = R(cmp X tTempt- 6.OOO rt c = surface temperature = 7()" for average 1958) f-"= . or Rw) can be corrected to formation temperature. (after Carothers.unction of the complexity must iravcl throuuh the rock.0 I TIt"t or I . the mud filtrate (Rmf).0) IS for clean granular Sethi.RI I(b for carbonates Formation Temperature sandstones for unconsolidated Assume: III Calculation e 15 for consolidated Humble sands formula "'"F= (). 1958) for calcareous 1(58) for carbonates 1958) for Pliocene sands (after Carothers. 'rilU can determine a reasonable value for the formation temperature by using these data and by assuming a linear gcothemlal gradient (Fig._----- general relationship Therefore: 250 ru = --I 111 = 0 Where: a = tortuosity factor' m = cementation exponent (p = porosity 5 . limestone. 1(70) F = sands. 1970) for Miocene Gulf Coast (after Carothers Porter.OO() + 7(j" at X. Figure 9 is it chart that is used for correcting fluid resistivities to formation temperature.77) 1. Table I is a list of the different methods for calculating forrnation t'aCl(lf.2° II 00 ft "F= ttF= I'w'. 1(79) formations resistivity temperature at formation temperature other than formation a . temperature of a formation is determined by resistivities of and the The knowing: ( I) formation depth.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION r i. Remember: )' = rnx for shaly sands (after Carothers. n. (Modified after Asquith.oo0 ft _ 7()0 0.0/(/ll'. ILJ80) by using the linear regression y Where: x = depth = mx f- Icnipcnnurc olFormarioll-Formation temperature (Tf) y = temperature rn = slope-s-in this example it is the geothermal gradient c = a constant=-in this example it is the surface temperature An example of how to calculate illustrated here: formation temperature is is also important in log analysis because the the drilling mud (Rrnl.77).OI2) x (R. or dolomite).()OO ft c = surface temperature Solve for 111 (i. Temperature Gradient Calculation Assume: y = bottom hole temperature (BHT) x = total depth (TO) = 15.(Tr + 6. 62 '<be = temperature gradient = 00 12°/ft x = formation depth = X.ity of the path the fluid R'clllp = resistivity at a temperature 5 . water saturations change as F changes. X) or by calc ul arion. formation water (Rwl vary with temperature.e sandstone. a vari. ami illustrates how lithology affects the formation factor. -_ .lblc used in the Archie water saturation equation (S" = \T x R"IRtL varies with lithology. Southern and + c Therefure: y = «(J. And the formation factor (F). require a I ithulogy or a matrix constant before a zone's porosity «b) can be calculated.. As a consequence. " Most conuuoniy used. the resistiv ities 0f California (after Carothers Porter.19RO). (2) bottom hole temperature (BHT): (3) total depth of the well (TO): and (4-) surface temperature. This chart is closely approx irnutcd by the Arps Iorrn ula: Rn Where: RTf . = 250°F = 70°F slope or temperature III gradient) = y.65$1 JJ sands (after Carothers.c.

or dolomite-in order to determine porosity: (2) the formation factor varies with lithology. or from a catalog of water resistivity values.0 Review . temperature corrected (T f) must be determined to T f. 4. the drilling mud invade.c . Rrnf: (3) formation water. Consequently. Table 2. The four fluids that affect logging measurements are: Bm!l__ Pilla . and the temperatures at which they are measured. Shallow. The four most fundamental rock properties used in petrophysical logging are (1) porosity. Rw: and (4) hydrocarbons. medium. The resistivities of the drilling mud (ROl)..Chapter I I. Formation water resistivity (Rw) is also determined from the spontaneous potential log (discussed in Chapter H) or can be calculated in water zones (i..) but most often equals 2. a formation \. and (4) resistivity. =~!l F Willer Saturations: water saturation zone uninvaded flushed zone ratio method (1) drilling mud.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Temp Tf temperature at which resistivity formation temperature 0 was measured BIiLk Volume Water: BVW an = ¢ X S. 6. and all resistivities S. The invasion of the porous and permeable formation by mud filtrate creates invasion zones (RXD and R.018 K. factor water resistivity resistivity (un invaded zone) 3. These formulas are discussed in detail in subsequent chapters. (2) permeability: 13) water saturation. mudcakc (Rnil).n= F x (RmtJRw) s. R. 2. S. and deep reading resistivity logging tools provide information about the invaded and uninvadcd zones and about the depth of invasion. of 0. R. a water producing well. = [79 X (¢3/Sw irr)]2 gas ----~ Resistivity values of the drilling mud (Rm). 7...04 measured Rwlhl> RwlM temperature of 166 and assuming at 70". are recorded on a log's header (Fig.77) Permeability K" = [250 X (¢J/Sw irr)!2 oil K" = permeability in millidarcies = 0. (3) the variation in formation factor causes changes in water saturai ion values._ F = 10/(/)2 General Carbonates Consolidated Unconsolidated Sandstones Sands F = 0. limestone. = (~:'J~'J 11625 water saturation water saturation 6 . = I OO''1c) by the apparent water resistivity (Rw.uucrual equations that are used for the log evaluation of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs... the formation as mud filtrate (Rmf). 2).81/(p2 F = O. The resistivity of a formation's water (Rw) is obtained by analysis of water samples from a drill stem test.Pt Log _eg.) and an uninvaded zone (R)..) method (sec Chapter VI) which varies from 1.62/¢2IS Formation SSP R W Watcr Resistivitv: K X =- log (Rmt/Rw) Rwc .. Where a porous and permeable formation is penetrated by the drill bit.04 >< (7(H 677)/( 166 + 6. 5.8 to 2. The lithology of a formation must be known because: (1) porosity logs require a matrix value=-sundstonc . mud filtrate Sw irr = irreducible "n = saturation exponent water __ saturation -------- ---- (Rmtl. Using a formation R. at 166 will be: 0 = 0. Porosity: Sonic Log Density Log Neutron-Density Formation F = a/(b Factor: lll Sw Where: =(F R X Rw)ln t Sw = water saturation F = formation = formation = formation of uninvaded zone Equations of Well Log R. Fundamental Interpretation. mudcake (ROlJ. the R. The Archie equation for water saturation is: Fundamental Equations Table :2 is a list of fund. Rm: (2) mud filtrate. mud filtrate (Rmf) and formation water (Rw) all vary with changes in temperature.

.. Dotted lines indicate the cylindrical nature of the invasion...m-uuon d .--------....--....1 IHl step-contact tr. Schlumberger Well Services. This schematic diagram illustrates an idealized version of what happens when fluids from the borehole invade the surrounding rock. Courtesy. Copyright 7 . - HOLE O\AMETER dh-l • lor (ic' . The borehole environment and symbols used in log interpretation.--.. ADJACENT ..-- -../ BED -- -__ .. Figure 1. / ( - lINVASlON OlAMETERS) ADJACENT BED --------'1_..j ~~ ~~------------------.... 1977./ . Schlumberger.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION 6 o D Resistivity of the zone Resistivity of the Water in the zone Water Saturation In the zone. InLaSiOIl profile /llnL' or annulus 1()IlL')_ d...

.l Elev.l.. 3731 *BHT = Bottom Hole Temperature 8 . .:.: 0 U ~ ~ • g U ~ ~ ~ w "- 0 u I z • ~ >- RANGE HOT Permanent log Drilling Dalum: From __ From GR~~NO LEVEL Measured --=-==-KB _.B.. 3742 _ Fl......: K.bASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION COMPANY WELL FIELD _ COUNTY z __ STATE Other Services: _ FOC/CNL/GR ~ OJ z 0 . Measured G.:..F. Above Perm.l.: 3731 Dalum Elev. D.

Information on the header about the resistivity mud filtrate (Rn1f) are especially useful in log interpretation and are used in calculations. NOTE: Sometimes. a value for the resistivity of mud cake (Rille) values for drilling mud (Rill) and is not recorded OJI the heading.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION "igure 2. as in this example. Reproduction of a typical log heading. 9 .

* 10 Ro • resistivity formation of the zone water (Rw). ~.~~ Distance --.:... TRANSITION PROFILE ANNULUS PROFILE Borehole I~V > If) If) Wall Borehole ~WOII Rao ~ >- Rr > If) If) Rt >- ~ I a:: Q) a:: Q) .BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION STEP PROFILE V Borehole Wall > If) If) a:: Q) Ro • d"j Distance ---.-~-~----~------~------------------------------------------------------------- ... I b Ro d· J d· j Distance --.. with pores 100% Also called wet filled with resistivity.. .

and is a condition which should disappear with time (if the logging operation is delayed. or R. if present. if a B. The annulus profile represents a fluid distribution which occurs between the invaded zone and the uninvaded zone and denotes the presence of hydrocarbo ns. of the uninvaded zone is either R. In the in vaded zone. thus the resistivity beyond the invaded zone is low. The resistivity of the invaded zone" flushed part is R"" and the resistivity of the transition part is Ri. A. pores are filled with either formation water. transition. In this diagram. In the flushed part (Rxo) of the invaded zone. Beyond the annulus is the uninvaded zone where pores are filled with formation water (Rw) and hydrocarbons. Formation water has been pushed ahead by the invading mud filtrate into the annulus zone. so resistivity of the uninvaded zone is low. gradually. In the transition part of the invaded zone. In this example the uninvadcd zone is wet (100% water and no hydrocarbons). Beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone is the annulus zone where pores are filled with residual hydrocarbons (RH) and formation water (Rw)' When an annulus profile is present. 111 As mud filtrate (Rmf) moves into a porous and permeable formation. pores are filled with mud filtrate (ROll). Transition Profile-This in this profile.. formation water (Rw). hydrocarbons arc not present. pores are filled with mud filtrate (Rill!)' gi ving a high resistivity reading. it may not be recorded on the logs at all). The diameter of the cylinder is represented as dj. if water-bearing. Beyond the outer boundary of the invaded lone (dj on diagram).) arc filled with a mixture of mud filtrate (Rmf). several different ways. formation water (Rw)" and residual hydrocarbons (RH). Here again in vasion is cylindrical. pores are filled with mud filtrate (ROlf): pores in the uninvaded zone are filled with formation water (Rw) or hydrocarbons. Remember that true resitivity of a formation can be measured in the uninvaded zone because of its virgin nature. if hydrocarbon-bearing or R. Thus the resistivity reads high. True resistivity (Rt) will be higher than the wet resistivity (R. In the flushed part (Rxo) of the invaded zone. rather than abruptly. Annulus Profile-This reflects a temporary fluid distribution. The abrupt resistivity drop is due 10 the high concentration of formation water (Rw) in the annulus zone. Typical invasion profiles for three idealized versions of fluid distributions in the vicinity of the borehole. it can invade the formation Various fluid distributions are represented by the step. residual hydrocarbons (RH). ------. or (if present) hydrocarbons.------------------------------------II . Step Profile-Mud filtrate is distributed with a cylindrical shape around the borehole and creates an invaded LOne. Resistivity of the uninvaded zone is R. pores are filled with both mud filtrate (Rlllli and residual hydrocarbons (RH). C. or annulus profiles. and. through but the invasion of the mud filtrate (Rrnf) diminishes of the invaded a transition zone toward the outer boundary zone (sec dj on diagram for location of outer boundary). The resistivity of the invaded zone is Rxo.) because hydrocarbons have a higher resistivity than saltwater. is the most realistic model of true borehole conditions.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 3. and the resistivity formation is hydrocarbon-bearing. in their turn. have been pushed ahead of formation water. Pores beyond the flushed part of the invaded zone (R. there is an abrupt drop in measured resistivity at the outer boundary of the invaded zone. if a formation is water-bearing. This causes a temporary absence of hydrocarbons which. The cylindrically shaped invaded zone is characterized by its abrupt contact with the uninvadcd zone.


as we will see later Muds-The resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmt) is greater than the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) because of the varying salt content (remember. The geologist needs to be aware that a difference exists.. the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rw) is greater than the resistivity invaded zone (R. Rw).) which in tum has a greater resistivity than the uninvaded zone (Rt). or saltwater-based drilling muds (sec Fig. A general rule when freshwater muds arc used is: Rmf> 3 Rw' The flushed zone (R. usually exclusively. Away from the borehole. ask your drilling engineer. true resistivity (Rt) will be equal to wet resistivity (Rn) because the formation is IO()% saturated with formation water (R. 13 . = R. 5 for resistivity profiles Note: These examples are shown because freshwater muds and saltwater muds are used in different geographic regions. Freshwater The type of mud used affects the log package selected. Horizontal section through a permeable water-bearing formation and the concomitant resistivity profiles which occur in a when there is invasion by either freshwaterhydrocarbon-bearing formation)... = from the flushed (R.~ saturation with formation water). saltwater is conductive). of the R.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 4. = R" where the formation is 1()()C. Xl. the resistivity of the invaded zone (Rj) will decrease due to the decreasing amount of mud filtrate (Rmf) and the increasing amount of formation water (Rw)' With a water-bearing formation. the resistivity of the uninvaded zone will be low because the pores arc filled with formation water (Rw)' In the un invaded zone. in water-bearing zones. OR) find out which mud is used in your area. will ha vc higher resistivities. To summarize: in a water-bearing zone.n) to the invaded zone (Rj) to Both the above examples assume that the water saturation of the uninvaded zone is much greater than 60'7<. water Saltwater Muds-Because (Rmf the resistivity of mud filtrate (Rmt) is approximately equal to the resistivity of formation there is no appreciable difference in the resistivity the uninvaded zone (R. Therefore: R R.o)' which has a greater amount of mud filtrate. = R): all have low resistivities.


. the resistivity of the is Away from the borehole as more hydrocarbons invaded zone (Rj) begins to increase. So. in hydrocarbon-bearing zones. The presence of hydrocarbons in the uninvaded zone causes higher resistivity than if the zone had only formation water (Rw). resistivity of the invaded (R) zone.).bearing formation). Freshwater Muds-s-Because the resistivity of both the mud filtrate (Rmf) and residual hydrocarbons (RH) is much greater than formation water (Rw)' the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo) is comparatively high (remember that the flushed zone has mud filtrate and some residual hydrocarbons). and some residual hydrocarbons (RH). because hydrocarbons arc more resistant than formation water. Beyond its flushed part (Rxo)' the invaded zone (Rj) has a mixture of mud filtrate (Rmf). the invaded zone's resistivity (Rj) may be slightly lower than the uninvadcd zone's resistivity (R). sometimes when an annulus profile is present. resistivity of the invaded zone (R. 4 for resistivity profiles in a water. So. the resistivity of the flushed zone (R. 1() summarize: Saltwater Muds-s-Bccause water (Rmf low. Such a mixture causes high resistivities.!(. In some cases. Resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) is much greater than if the formation Resistivity was at I OO. Z R.l almost equals that of the flushed zone (R".o) mix with mud filtrate in the invaded zone. Horizontal section through a permeable hydrocarbon-bearing formation and the concomitant resistivity profiles which occur when there is invasion by either freshwater. of the uninvaded zone is greater than the Both the above examples assume that the water saturation of the uninvaded zone is much less than 60%. ---~--~~~~~~~--~~~-------- IS .BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 5. > Ro' The resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt) is normally somewhat less than the resistivity of the flushed and invaded zones (R". > Rxo. > R. > R.or saltwater-based drilling muds (see Fig. formation water (K. the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rillf) is approximately equal to the resistivity of formation = Rw)' and the amount of residual hydrocarbons (RH) is low. and Rj). R". However.). R. R.water saturation (Ro) because hydrocarbons are more resistant than saltwater. therefore.

--.~ i t- .. .!.0 ~ ..ttit -- t: ~_l_' tt --+----- .~L_ _ __ _ SFLU JOHMM~ _ _ .1- . . I-- 1-: I-: t: ...00 40. ""p~l: cu 5. 2000....__ . j + '--~~~ 1-1 1-...~~.-:--__---+-------+. '1)'j 4 + .. ~~+.00 __.'.-1- .. :.. +-.. t • 1-- L+-r 1---.... __ ..2000 0..__ t .._----------------------------------------_--- . ---+.--." :~-=:._ _._ 0. =. 'Il 'T' i :. r' 5970 :i r-l_L J'--1L-i~-:i-::~~ !i--L--.- +: rllt ::::±:__ -.. I + ••• ff --'--"'I.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION r-. . ..--'.-~= .. --- ---- ----2000 ...--..-~--- 5870 -~--t:-r-t ~..~RrnJRT:_-::: = -..--:=== 1--" ~----t----- + .0 ..!-'M ....l---' ' -- L .l q\f . ---_..i-+ I .__ 5900 t . .. 2000.~- : l~-= f--.. . Ii.L 30..- ... 1--_1 1-- .' . I.. 0.~!-:. I--C-'r ..'=E_(.-------1t- +·t~ :t:...-..2000 ..2~M~2.I.J!1~l_ fI + -::::L'. ~ __ 16 .L -170.. ____ -160... --+--- -t..2000 __ .....• ->i- ---+.1 ! ' . (Q!:!M." ..

).970 ft). the curve will read high resistivity because freshwater mud filtrate (ROlf) has a high resistivity..870 to 5. and compare increases the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks #2 and Resistivity values are higher as distance from the left side of the log.). Given: the drill ing mud is freshwater-based Wcve seen that where freshwater drilling muds invade a water-hearing formation (S" the flushed zone (R. This is a measure of the un invadcd zone. Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite #l).o). the curve will read a low resistivity because the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) is less than the resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rlllf)' L(lg Curve R'LM-Medium induction log resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the invaded zone (R. resistivity Fi gure 4 for re view.. deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone..L See page. and a 1m. 17 . In a water-bearing zone. Log Curve RSFL -Spherically Focused Log* resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (R".) induction curves. a lesser resistivity in the invaded zone (R). In water-hearing zones (in this case from 5.. In a water-bearing formation. the curve will read intermediate resistivity because of the mixture offormation water (Rw) and mud filtrate (Rmf). The SFL* pictured here records a greater resistivity than either the deep (Rlld) or medium (RIl. 6()%). there is high resistivity in in the uninvadcd zone (R.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 6A Example of Dual Induction (ROlf> 3Rw)' Focused Log curves through a water-bearing zone. Log Curve R'LD-Deep induction log resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R.) or the resistivity ofthe formation.

..L ------------------------------------------18 ..... ~_......!......I ?' :\ I - --.. .0 t f L: I 100.JQ.0 2000..Li~l_ _ 16..I::!!!!M...00 6......2000 0...2000 ____ _f~L. .•. 0.. 0. ..... .... I: - ~ . : .- .BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION LLD (OHMM) RXO -20ci6.\: l- i !.....200000110000.. It· J r. _.!-:2. -"1>'" ~~): • ......S:... ____________ ~~~~~~l 2000. t· 'L .r..0 2000..000 GR (GA PI) ..2000 _ h-. (OHMM) I TENS (LB) 0..: .- -.. 1 I ! !: C-:$.j...-.. \ .... .-.L. _ 0.. . / : 1....-- - ~-~--.

In water-bearing zones (in this case from') .o)' In water-bearing zones the curve will record low resistivity because saltwater mud filtrate has low resistivity.Microspherically (Rmf Focused Log (lvlSFL)" curves through a water-bearing zone. and un invaded (R. See Figure 4 for review. Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite #3. In a Rill I is approximately equal water-bearing to Rw' will record a low resistivity Log Curve SFL-Microspherically Focused Log" resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (R. Because RJI1fis approximately equal to Rw' [he pores in the flushed (Rxo)' invaded (R. The resistivity recorded by the Microspherically Focused Log* will be low and approximately equal to the resistivities of the invaded and uninvaded zones.1. #2 and Log CUrYe LLD-Deep Laterolog* resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R. Example of Dual Latcrolog" mud is saltwater-based .BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 6B.).830 to 9. a low resistivity in the invaded zone (Rj). Given: the drilling = Rw)' We 've seen that where saltwater drilling muds invade a water-bearing formation (Sw 60%1. the curve will read low resistivity because the pores of the formation arc saturated with connate water (Rw)' Log Curve LLS-Shallow Laterolog* zone the shallow resistivity Laterolog+ curves (LLS) measure the resistivity in the invaded because zone (R.) or the resistivity of the formation deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone. there is low resistivity in the flushed zone (Rxo).). 19 . and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks increases from the left side of the log.).980 I'll.) zones are all filled with saline waters: the presence of salt results in low resistivity. Resistivity values are higher as distance page. and low resistivity in the uninvadcd zone (R.

.. 0.. 1-..M.._ _ .vl __ - 8700 --- f---+-------I-:-- -~l~t --- -.~~:-0-- .. 2000.._.J .2000 • l1Q.J.0 51: _l':1.2000 0.9.._+++. 0..-~------------ .0 _9h.em__c_p--+_--cQ_' __ =-=--_O_F-----I ~ax_ Rec.. .. + n -+J--l. .._ -170. - /..- .:c 40.JQt"!M~.t...2---r ~---~(:---=---!=-: ~l!.... F ~ Rm at meas...l.ct.~. f=~:j_±: H-' Depth Size t__J ~ll i 'f+ .2000 .._ 2000.·.\ L 30.. =-! f.h-.:'r-T-:----:-- • __ +0' i.!:!M. . ----------+-----~--7 7/8 Fluid in hole ____ 10085 ---r------~--~ 160 -L 0 21 at 650 F F L_ G ~ Temp..00 .I... temp 067 at 670 F ~ -20 __ -_----. Rm_c_Q'_m_e_Q_.00 --.' .· ~.~ ..~. -t i-. -t-t+H-t+ Rmf at meas temp..-. .. .BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION . _ _ 5FLU (OHMM) _ 2000. -160._. ~ ~t±= 8748 h:~! ~_pe ~.

)' formation water IRw). Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page.J' pictured here (IlO) or medium (lLM) induction curves.'). The SFl. III a a higher resistivity than the deep (IlD) or medium II LM l induction mud filtrate and residual hydrocarbons. the medium curve IILM) m~\y record a resistivity slightly less than the deep induction IIlD) curve Log Curve SFL-Spherieally Focused Log resistivity hydrocarbon-bearing zone. and high resistivity in the uninvadcd zone (R. the curve will read a high resistivity because hydrocarbons are more resistant than saltwater in the formation (R. (liven: the drilling mud is We've seen that where freshwater drilling muds invade a hydrocarbon-bearing formation (Sw « ()()'!'. there is high resistivity in the flushed zone (R. Log Curve ILM-Mediu!11 induction log resistivity curves measure the resistivity of the invaded zone (R In a j).). and residual hydrocarbons (RH) in the pores. in an annulus situation..». and compare the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks # '2 and values arc higher as distance increases from the left side of the log.) or the resistivity of the formation #.). hydrocarbon-bearing zone. the curve will record a high resistivity. Sec Figure 5 for review.~ Curve deep beyond the outer boundary of the invaded zone. In hydrocarbon-bearing zones (in this case from 8. beyond the flushed zone some diminishment of resistivity takes place. R"l.774 rn. because of a mixture of mud filtrate (Rill. ILD-Oeep induction log resistivity curves measure the true resistivity (R. This is a measure of the uninvadcd zone.74S to 8. the curve will read curves because the flushed zone (R". This resistivity is normally equal to or slightly more than the deep induction curve (lLD). Resistivity Lo. Focused log curves through a hydrocarbon-bearing zone.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 7 A. But.). Exampk of Dual Induction frcshwater-based (Rmf > 3Rw). high resistivity in the invaded zone (RiJ.) contains records a greater resistivity than either the deep curves measure the resistivity of the flushed zone (1<'". But. normally. 21 .

ib-~ --I-.~k"V - r--------~· ::.t-- 9409 f-..r-I-- t--- ..<:: ~ I-- f-.2 I..Q___ 11.._ +----4- t--.W::P'H 1122 err 8 Y4 MuD 01 RMC MAX F _. 19 SHALLOW LATEROLOG .. -- f-----lt-- r-- '.~ f..~. ~_ [Q._. IIICRO-SFL II!'" .-+-..QQl.. RAY API unit...t--' 1--.: r._-----------REC TEMP at rn eo s temp at -- 0 F TYrE FL.t-t--- f-*= -~ t--- ~l ---t\- + t--- l- f-c_ . Inc .LLd 100 • ~~ f-.f-f-- - 9306 ~-t---b:: f-.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION r--CALIPER e________________ . GA .LL.f-t--..!l!li... t--- ~ f:!..~ l'--'- f-.. 1000200 100 ZOO Lo<~ DEEP IQ__ 10 ~ IOQ02()()( ~ I ~L !i300 t--.t-I--- +-.--r-t-r-: 1:.t-- t---.0 RESISTIVITY .:.~ C._ I..Ill.JQ2_ . 10 100 LATEROLO~ .jIO iN HOLE RM ot me u s temp SALT 056 Thermometer Broke 740 22 .

o) has the lowest resistivity. The reason for the increase in resistivities deeper into the formation is because of the increasing hydrocarbon saturation. in a hydrocarbon-bearing zone with saltwater-based drilling mud.Microspherically (Rmf Focused Rw)' Log (MSFL)* curves through a hydrocarbon-bearing zone. See Figure 5 for review. the shallow Laterolog* (LLS) will record a lower resisti vity than the deep Laterolog" (LLD) because the invaded zone (R. Resistivity values arc higher as distance from the left side of the log.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 7B. Log Curve SFL-Microspherically Focused Log* resistivity curves measure the resistivity hydrocarbon-bearing zones.o)' In mud filtrate has low resistivity the and the residual hydrocarbon (RH) saturation in the flushed zone (R.306 to 9.). Log Curve LLD-Deep Laterolog" beyond the outer boundary resistivity curves measure true resistivity (R(). there is low resistivity in the flushed zone (R. « 60%). In hydrocarbon-bearing zones (in this case from 9. 23 . the eurve will read high resistivity Log Curve LLS-Shallow Laterolog resistivity curves measure the resistivity in the invaded zone (R.o)' an intermediate resistivity in the invaded zone (R). Ignore the left side of the log on the opposite page. In a hydrocarbon-bearing zone. ft). the uninvaded zone (R() has high resistivity. and compare increases the three curves on the right side of the log (tracks #2 and #:.). or the resistivity of the formation deep of the invaded zone. invaded wne (Ri) has a lower resitivity. and high resistivity in the uninvaded zone (R(). Given Example of Dual Laterolog* . Therefore.o) is low. the drilling mud is saltwater-based drilling = We 've seen that where saltwater muds invade a hydrocarbon-bearing zone (S.) has a lower hydrocarbon saturation than the uninvadcd zone (R().409 because of high hydrocarbon saturation in the uninvadcd zone (R(). and the flushed zone (R. the curve will record low resistivity because saltwater of the flushed zone (R.

~-~-~--~.ld'l. 24 . '00 60 80 120 100 140 120 160 140 180 160 200 180 220 200 240 220 260 240 280 260 300 280 320 300 340 320 360 340 mean surface temperature temperature OF ~---~~----- .SIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION ESTIMATION OF FORMATION TEMPERATURE 20000 E 8.

1975. Chart for estimating formation temperature (Tf) with depth (I incur gradient assumed).000 feet Formation depth = 6. . Formation temperature (140°) is read on the bottom scale vertically intersects the temperature gradient. defines the 3. . Dresser Atlas. Copyright Dresser Industries. Courtesy. up until it intersects 10. Follow BHT (180°) vertically temperature gradient.O()O ft (TO) line. and 60° is used commonly in the Northern States.000 feet = 180° Procedure: I. Given: Surface temperature = 80° Bottom hole temperature (BHT) Total depth (TO) = 10. Locate BHT (180°F) on the 80 scale (bottom '1 of the chart: surface temperature = 80°F). However. This intersection depth).()()() ft line NOTE: In the United States (as an example) 8Ct is used commonly as the mean surface temperature in the Southern States.000 ft (formation 4. Follow the temperature gradient line up to 6.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION figure 8." i-. a person can calculate his own mean surface temperature if such precision is desired. down from the point where the 6.

0. ~ . ! N 0 =@ (/) 000' OOr ...1 II: (I) (I) o u..._ 0 a: w . .... 000. 00.. os 00. (/) > 0 z ~ -E -.. q Q ... 000'01 000'11 • ~ C! C! . (/) (/) >- i Q. II: 11.1 00. OOl'.. It') <. II) d . ~ C! ..' "'0::1 oI ~ ::I 0 "I 0 "'11.. 000.... " C ·0 ... s ~ ~ ~....... .. 00.. N . !_. >... .. 00.. 000. hJ. .." a: a: :J _J 0 c( C) -. . "00• K....BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION o.. O.L 10 10~/UIOJ~ 4' dd 0°"-1 OOOl' .. '" OJ o OJ _ . :> ~ 0 (I) Z 0 0001 u.\f~3dW3J. t . :--.. s 1&...... 0001 "oc7~1 . ---------------------------------------- .. ~ ....2: -~ ~ ~ =<.. P- '" ~ ~ 0 0 0 !!! on !:: 0 P- ~ N ~ ~ ! 0 '" '" s i I 0 Ia I 0 0 I ~ I !! I 0 ~ ~ . 000... .:= :~ ?'. 0 0 2 . C? 000. 00 . .1 0001 ~'""'k- ~ = 0 :J: 000' ... a.< 00' . o ..l:: J: 0 Z =~ _.:Io ~-:>o 3~nJ. ~ E a.. ~ ... o -.:Io':. 0" 001 00< 000" 000..

Because resistivity page. 1. Schlumberger Well Services. 27 . Use the chart on the opposite Courtesy. 3. and find a resistivity value of 0. follow the vertical line to the scale at the bottom. Follow the vertical line up to a temperature value of 75°F (point A Oil the chart). From point B. Given: Resistivity of drilling mud (Rm) equals_I_:J. Copyright 1972. 4.2. on the scale at the bottom of the chart.BASIC RELATIONSHIPS OF WELL LOG INTERPRETATION Figure 9. Follow the diagonal line (constant salinity) to where it intersects a temperature value of 16()OF (point B on the chart) . you must adjust before calculation. 2. at 75°F Formation temperature (Tr) = 16(}o. Schlumbcrger. varies with changes in temperature. Locate the resistivity value.56. Procedure: I.

}suppre"sion of the SP response. Next. Permeable bed b.c. porosity. (3) determine formation water resistivity (RwL and (4) determine the volume of shale in permeable beds. SPcurve deflections are measured ZOIlCS ofwellx today have this type of log included in their log spontaneous potential log is used to zouc s such as shale. In hydrocarbon-bearing zones the amount of SP reduction is greater than the volume of shale and is called "hydrocarbon suppression" (Hiichie . The concept of static spontaneous potential (SSP) is important because 5SP represents the maximum SP that a thick. take note. and gamma ray logs. to minimize for the effect of bed thickness. But. . 19(8). what factors affect these measurements. invasion. shale-free. bed resistivity. the SP curve can be corrected by chart for the effects of bed thick ness. The magnitude of SP deflection is due to the difference in rcsistiv ity between mud filtrate (Rmf) and formation water (Rw) and not to the amount of permeability. as will be discussed later. In water-bearing zones the amount of SP reduction is proportional to the amount of shale in the formation. By far the largest number Bed thickllcss-As a formation thins (i.to sand. IY4X). The spontaneous potential (SP) log was one of the earliest electric logs used in the petroleum industry. porous and permeable formation can have t()r a given ratio between RnjRw. it cannot be used in non-rondiutivc (i . These electrochemical factors arc brought about by differences in salinities between mud filtrate (Rll1r) and formation water resistivity (R. Bed resistil-itr-Higher resistivities reduce the deflection of the SP curves. l Ob). oil-basc. permeable zones are present. in general. Primarily the identify impermeable "-". Oklahoma.) within permeable beds. The spontaneous potential log is a record of direct current (DC) voltage differences between the naturally occurring potential of a moveable electrode in the well bore. For example. shale from this shale baseline. where a particular curve is recorded. Brcaus« a conductivctluid is 1I1'I'Lll'dill the boreholefor the SP log to operate. However. when recording the shale zones or non-permeable permeable zones where ROlf is equal to Rw' the SP curve will not deflect from the shale baseline. The text discusses how different log types measure various properties in the well bore ami surrounding formations.. the SP should be corrected for bed thickness. l Ob). (2) detect boundaries of permeable beds. suites. and p' . and how data arc obtained from the log using both charts and mathcmatical formulas. the SP curve is used ttl find a value for R. l Oa).:. [rout the shale baseline.CHAPTER II THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG General This chapter and succeeding chapters (III through V) introduce the reader to spec-ific log types such as SP. 'An auxiliary usc of the SP curve is in the detection of hydrocarbons by the . The SP response of shales is relatively constant and follows a straight line cal leu a shale baseline.l) drillillg nuuls. SSP is determined by formula or chart and is a necessary clement for determining accurate values of Rw and volume of shale. to the left (negative > Rw) or to the right (positive deflection: Rmf < Rw) of the shale baseline. you correct the resistivities (obtained from the log heading) of the mud filtrate (Rmt) and drilling mud (Rm) to formation temperature (see Chapter I). by the following procedure: After you determine the formation temperature. borehole content. In this example.. < 10 fed thick) the SP measured in the borehole will record an SP value less than SSP (Fig. Resistivity of Formation 'Vater (Rw) Calculated from the SP Curve Figure II is an electric induct ion log with an SP curve from a Pennsylvanian upper Morrow sandstone in Beaver County.'iill'~lhle However. resistivity. can be ignored. such .e . The SP log is recorded on the left hand track of the log in track # I and is used to: (I) detect permeable beds. (Fig. the SP log has several other uses perhaps equally important. and the potential of a fixed electrode located at the surface (Doll. deflection: if the SP curve Rmf moves Permeable either arc indicated where there is SP cicflccti. Shale cOl1tent-The presence of shale in a permeable formation reduces the SP deflection (Fig. and most important-the by bed diameter. The SP value that is measured in the borehole is influenced thickness. and has continued to playa significant role in well log interpretation. As a general rule whenever the SP curve is narrow and pointed in shape. Borehole and il1l'asioll--Hilchic (197R) indicates that the effects of borehole diameter and invasion on the SI' log arc very small and.uuularic: arc detected bv the point ofinflectionfrom baseline.'. the SP ratio of Rlllf/R".». It is measured in millivolts. Electric currents arising primarily from electrochemical factors within the borehole create the SP lug response.

Once the value of SSP is determined.77)/81. mud (Rill) at formation it is used on the a value for the The value illustrated of Rllc' IS then corrected to R".77) RJI:i'c'IlIP = Rill! at a temperature other than 75°F ~tThe c subscript ( i .77 + (0. But.: resistivity of the drilling if unaffected by bed to correct SP to SSP. chart illustrated in Figure 11 to obtain R:nIIR"c ratio. especially -- 1977). Muthcmatical Instead of charts. UJx: Rm!" = (146 x Rill! . & Konen.JI] R. and rcsult« in to» high a Table J..77/(T! + 6. flO x (temp of Rml to 75° Tt) + 6. 29 . rather than using charts in the procedure. I R" at 75" formula if R"c < 0.12 b9\Rwc-O C.10111 R" at formation temperature = R" at 75°< ~1.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG is corrected max imum to static SP (SSP).1 R. at 75°F =- [0. arc: ( I) bed thickness. if they want to L'(llllpUlL'rize the procedure. resistivity tool (R. SSP represents the SP a formation can have thickness Figure 12 is a chan used ThL' data necessary to usc this chart (21 resistility from the shallow-reading and 11) th. chloride solutions.5)/(117 if Rml at 75°F x Rm! + 77) 0.c Rll1k) stands for cquivnlcnt rcsistivitv.1I1c formula Rm1c formula if Rm! at 75"> O.) is obtained by di viding Rill! by the Rmt/Rwc value from the chart (Fig.). for average deviation from sodium tc m perature. and for the influence of formation temperature _ A careful examination of Figures I 1-14 should help you gain an understanding of the R" from SP procedure.58 . you might prefer using the mathematical formulas listed in Table 1. using the chart in Figure 14. U). Equivalent rcsistivitv (Rw. It is important to remember that normal ly the SP curve has less deflection in hydrocarbon-bearing zones: this is called hvdrocarbon supprcssion. individuals -- using Rml at 75°F Correction K =. Calculation some - of R" from SSP (modified may prefer = Rmllemp' after Bateman these formulas.


and water-bearing ("wet"") sandstone for a gi ven ratio of RrntjRw. shale-free. Remember. SSP= -K X log 3I . is the SP response due to the presence of thin beds and/or the presence potential) is the SP response if shale is present. Examples of SP deflection from the shale baseline.133 x A formula for the theoretical Tt) + 60. Where ROlfis greater than Rw. where K = (. the spontaneous potential This is called positive (saltwater-based) deflection. Where Rrnf Where Rmfis less than Rw. All other deflections are less. the kick is to the right of the shale baseline. of IOA-SP deflection with different resistivities of mud filtrate (Rrnf) and formation water (Rw)' Where resistivity the mud filtrate lRmf) is equal to the resistivity of the formation water (Rw) there is no deflection. positive or negative. calculated value of SSP is gi veri. PSP SP (spontaneous potential) (pseudo-static spontaneous Note at bottom of diagram: (Rm/Rw). the SP line kicks to the left of the shale baseline greatly exceeds Rw.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Figure 10. drilling muds. and arc relative in magnitude. (negative deflection). log (SP) is used only with conductive lOB-SP deflection with resistivity of the mud filtrate (Rmr) much greater than formation water (Rw)' SSP (static spontaneous potential) at the top of the diagram. from the shale baseline. the deflection is proportionately greater. of gas. is the maximum deflection possible in a thick.

I I -+.Tl1 c- 8007 9 OM 1-------...... -- 8: ~t .""iI!!.9:..-~- .~.j -r g_..-.j--.j (]I ."-- -r r-- H' 7442 7450 f--. t " ~ t ~---t--..--=~=t---++--+--1 ~ -0-- =-----. 1= +- H: 'I + . Tr".c-_.... 1-· 1- -- - -'._ ...!l1 121 13:10 at 13!1 0 F at 13!1° F at 13110 F F --_.~-±-r ....r . 0.- :i- "l'.. TU'.. ··r-tt 1=+ ......----. __c K '>. . III UIO IN HOl £ Oil 'l99 E". ..-L-+ . .- ..POTENTIAL MILLIVOLT5 C ONDU CTIVITY ". r _:f..... c ~ j-- Q_________ INDUCTION L ______ ~O r-' . ~ t--- rr -. _. f--- c- -' j--.- c- r--f- o o ------_------. 'U'C F .' -. r-f-- -_ t--. t I t I ' ..._. ______ J ______ _?Q<2.: "T SIll D[ .620 .1-. r.. r-I1-- . OHT MOT IHT 111ft. - _. ..~± --r -.._----------------- .. __ . 0 I 10QQ o 0 50 500 r-rT~:( ' I f f- : ~ rl - t t--.TnE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG SPONT ANEOUS ...t--. . .---- ~ 1---..-1 l- f I t1 . -. -~--. . ~ .. t- _.r-t--f- ~_ 1--- 1-- l-' -i 1---+ - t -t==I +-- r+ ~ + 1-t--.94 0.'-- -~~-~--"--~~~-+~ --l-t ."ion -. r-. __ __ ~ -+.-_ .ilhMOI/fIIII jQQQ 1000 INDUCTION 5?0 1500 RESISTIVITY 16" NORMAL ___l ___l ..._. .--r-- .

40 rnv) negative.446 ft.106 7. surface temperature = 600E and the temperature of the formation (Tf). directly from the SP curve in Fig. water resistivity (Rw) from an SP log. Bed thickness (read from SP log) Fig.3 SSP = .91 at 13soF and Rmf = 0. usc the chart in Figure 12 3. I I NOTE: The term short normal describes a log used to measure the shallow formation resistivity. Correction SSP = SP x SP Correction factor (Fig.52 m v (Your answer) 5. . The deflection is negati vc . using Tf(130"F) from step I. 12) = 1. Procedure: from the shale baseline. (Rsn) was used in Procedure Step 4 above. II. 4.3.91 at l3So (BHT) Surface temperature = 60°F Total depth = 8.007 ft Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) 0 = 135°F From the Log track: I.94 factor (from Fig. the corrected value for ROlf by the ratio RmrlRwc value. Determine Tr-Use Figure 8 to determine 8. SP for the thin-bed effect will give a value for SSP. Use BHT = 13S°F. and its lise as a 33 . Given R/Rm (or RjRm) = 28/0. TD = formation depth = 7.53 at l30°F). It measures two units (at a scale of20 mv per di vision) from the shale baseline. SP = -40mv (spontaneous potential measured from log at a formation depth of 7. II equals 8 ft. Rwe = Rrnt/(ROlriRwe) Rwe = 0.007 ft .51 at 135 (BHT) Rm = 0. is negative. .0). Correct Rm and Rmfto T_r-Use Figure 9 to correct the values for the resisti vity of mud and of mud filtrate. Bed thickness equals 8 ft (7. SSP = (-40 mv) x 1. Determine SP-Read 4.442 to 7.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Figure II. so your answer is also (. and the Rwc value in step 6 (Your answer should be R" O. = 30.0 Rwc = 0. Correct SP to SSP-Correcting to find the SP Correction Factor.446 ft. Short normal resistivity logging/resistivity term is common. It is measured here as two 20mv divisions so the value (-40mv) is negative. Resistivity short normal (Rj) equals 28 ohm-meters. Determine 6. Correct at Tt).S3/S. This example is an exercise involving the charts on Rmf = 0. (Your answer should be 130°F). Formation depth equals 7. Use Rm = 0. Determine Rmt/Rwe ratio-Use Rwe-Divide 12) the chart in Figure 13 (Your answer should be 5. 3.94 at 130°F and Rmf= 0.51 at USOF (Your answers should be: Rm = 0. I.450 ft). Determination Figures 12 through Given: offorrnation 14. Rwe to Rw-Use the chart in Figure 14.44() ft and uncorrected The deflection for bed thickness). or the rcxi st ivitv of the invaded zone (R).

I '-~-~_--T-+_L ! ::K---t---I-+l+T'-II 50 ._:~-_l____L__~-L.-- --1.----------------------.. 90 80 ._ 4 3 1. -i--~I =~Fr---:: ' I ! i • ' I 1 i P From Log 120 SSP 20 30 40 51. I ii' 80 70 60 60 SP Correction Factor --+--'~n---.J '---rl. -t-.~t"-j I - -4----~ I L_ c.---.__! - ! - IS 10 9 ____ L J..+------i-_J.0 1.___.5 3 9 10 SP correction factor 34 .- 8 7 6 5 J _____..j ..-_-+---iitl. 1 20 I+--+--'I-~~' -r--+-+-LI--J_~-r tI:' . • t 70 80 90 100 110 120 so 40 30 20 30 I--t++--!-------H-~ .----I' i 40 IH_-+---i--: --j --i-~i:-----1 I j ~-. ..THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG SP CORRECTION 100r---. I ' !: 'I'!· f H---+---__.-~--~--~~--'------'--~-----.

Multiply SP by the SP Correction Factor to find SSP.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Figure 12. R/Rlll = 30. see Fig. Defined: R. Copyright Dresser Industries.lROl = 30 Bed Thickness == mud at formation temperature 8 ft Procedure: 1. Courtesy. I I) SSP = -52mv 35 . Drop vertically from this intersection and read the SP correction example.= shallow resistivity ROl = resistivity of drilling Example: R. Fig. Locate a bed thickness on the vertical scale (in this case 8 tt). 3.446 ft. Dresser Atlas. so point factor on the scale across the bottom (in this For the exercise in Figure II: SSP = SP x Correction Factor SSP = -40mv x 1. 1975. Chart for finding SP Correction Factor used to correct SP to SSP (see exercise.3). 11).3 (-40mv is SP value taken at 7. 4. '") Follow the value horizontally across until it intersects the RJRfTl curve (in this example will be to the right of the 20 curve). a value of 1.

GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF THE SP EQUATION spontaneous potential (millivolts) 36 1 .

imagine the ratio one between the lines for 100 and 150 temperature lines). Courtesy. 1975. 3. Drop vertically from this intersection and read the ratio value on the bottom scale (in this example. the Rm~Rwe ratio from SSP values. 12) T. Locate an SSP value on the vertical scale (in this case -52mv). I Follow the value horizontally 0 across until it intersects 0 the sloping formation temperature line ( l3()OF. Dresser Atlas. 37 .0). value is 5.52mv (from SP log and Fig.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Figure 13. Chart used for determining Dresser Industries. = 130°F Procedure: I. Copyright Example: SSP = .

0 R. ohm-meters -------------------------- .THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Rw FROM Rwe 1.

53/5 or Rwe = 0. Locate the value of Rwcon the vertical scale (in this case 0. 3. Copyright 1975.THE SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL LOG Figure 14. Follow it horizontally until it intersects the temperature curve desired (in this case 130°F between the 100° and 150° temperature curves). 2. Given: Rwcis calculated by dividing Rmtcorrected to formation temperature (Tr) by the ratio Rm!Rwc' From the exercise example you can calculate Rwc = 0. Procedure: I. II). Dresser Atlas. Dresser Industries.53. from Rwe. Rmfat Tf = 0. on the scale at the bottom (in this case O. Courtesy. Chart for determining a resistivity value for R.106). Tf = l30°F.106. Drop vertically from the intersection and read a value for R. 39 .

Review . (3) determine formation water resistivity (Rw\.133 X Tf) continuity of amplitude is referred to as the shale baseline. Therefore. by thin beds. whenever possible. The volume of shale in a sand can be used in the evaluation of shaly sand reservoirs (Chapter VI) and as a mapping parameter for both sandstone and carbonate facies analysis (Chapter VII) 40 . to usc the SP curve opposite known water-bearing zones.h) in a permeable beel.Tc.K >< log (Rmf/Rw) K= -1 (0.:E :. and (4) determine volume of shale (V. The SP response in shales is relatively constant and its Volume of Shale Calculation The SP Ing can be used to calculate the volume ofshale a permeable zone by the following formula: I . In permeable beds the SP will do the following relative to the shale baseline: (I) negative deflection to the left of the shale baseline where Rmf > Rw. to determine Rw from SP it is best. (3) no to the right of the shale baseline where Rmf < eo deflection where Rmf = Rw' 4. (2) detect boundaries of permeable beds. The spontaneous potential log (SP) can be used to: \ I ) detect permeable beds.:J ><iAf\)EOUS POTENTIAL LOG value for Rw cnlculaud from SSP. and the presence of gas.Chapter II I.0Where: Vsh PSI' SSP PSP SSP = volume = pseudo = of shale stalic spontaneous potential (SP of shaly formation) static spontaneous potential of a thick clean sand or carbonate SSP = . in 2. (2) positive deflection Rw. The SP curve can be suppressed shaliness. The variations in the SP are the result of an electric potential that is present between the well bore and the formation as a result of differences in salinities between Rmf and Rw' 3.

true formation resistivity as measured reading resistivity log n saturation exponent (most commonly by a deep 2. Rw) /"('9I1ir" c/l'("/r(!i/c logs. the refo re . The receiver signals are essentially proportional to mductivityt .-~--'- 41 . device is the An induction tool consists of one or more transmitting iils that emil a high-frequency alternating current of constant intensity The alternating magnetic field which is created induces secondary currents in the formation. Borchotcsfillcd 11"/117 salt-saturutcd drilling nu«!s (Rmf co. A geologist. and the current flows from the electrodes through the borehole fluid into the formation. and (3) determine resistivity porosity. values. are non-conductive./iJr/lIUlio/l is pCl"lncuh/c. The two types of induction devices arc the Induction Electric Log: and the Dual Induction Focused Log. These .\/1II-.c . A second type of resistivity measuring electrode log. as the hydrocarbon saturation of the pores increases. the short normal curve can be used to calculate a value for resistivity porosity if a correction is made for unflushcd oil in the invaded zone. 1L)72). an amplified short normal !Je('wis<' -. Figure 16 is a chart which assists in determining when usc of an induction lug is preferred over an electrode log such as the Latcrok.\IIIII/"(I//'(1 drilling muds (i.~--~-------~-- :siSlivity --- . call determine a formation's Archie equation Sw = nearby formations. the rock's resistivity also increases. = IOOO'resistivity.0) The Induction curves: (I) short potential or SP These curves arc obtained during [he logging of the well. such as the Larcrolog' or Dual L. Rmf 3 Rw) to obtain a more accurate value of true resistivity (R).CHAPTER III RESISTIVITY LOGS General Resistivity logs are electric logs which are used to: (I) determine hydrocarbon versus water-bearing zones. and then to a remote reference electrode.condary currcms now as ground loop currents . (2) Lateral. and (3) spontaneous ximultaneouxly rn = cementation exponent R~ resistivity of formation water R... (5) Microlog". the in vadcd Conductivity zone. (2) indicate permeable zones. in ohni-mcterv. and other conductivitv in rnillimhos/rneter: it indicate» u. Log i Fig.irmation resistivity arc induction and electrode logs (Table ).0 Where: S~ F a water saturation formation factor tortuosi ty factor (aJ¢m) Induction Electric Log Electric normal. In addition to providing a value for Ri. The short normal tool has an c lcctrodc spac ing of I () inches and can record a reliable value for rcsixnvity Irum a bed thirk ncss of four feet. Examples of electrode rcxixt iv itv tools include (I) normal. and (7) spherically focused logs. The short normal curve is usually recorded in track #2 (Fig 17) Because the short normal tool works best ill conductive. Because the rock 's matrix or grains are non-conductive. 11.3 Rw). rhe ability of the rock to transmit a current is almost entirely a function of water in the pores. high resistivity muds I where R[l'(:. By far the most important use of resistivity logs is the determination of hydrocarbon versus water-bearing zones. (6) Proximity Log".aterolog* with or without a Microsphcrically Focused Log*. like the rock's matrix.-------. The multiple coils arc used to focus the resistivity measurement to minimize the effect of aterials T Shint NUr/llul-·The short norlllal tool measures resistivity at a shallow depth of investigation which IS the resistivity of the invaded LOne (R. salt muds (where Rml Rw) are not a good environment [or its lise. The presence ofinvasion is importunt in the borehole. 15). (3) Laterolog". 17). The most common type of logging induction tool (Dresser Atlas. The two basic types of logs in use today which measure .). Hydrocarbons. and a value for the cementation exponent (m) (Table I). When [he resistivity of the short normal is compared with the resistivity of the deeper measuring induction tool (Rd. by knowing a formation 's water resistivity (Rw)' its porosity (¢). Induction logs sholiid 1)(' usrd //1 /lol/-.g water saturation (Sw) from the ( F XRtRw )1. which is the reciprocal of resistivity (Schlumborger. invasion is detected by the separation between the short normal and induction curves (Fig. (4) Microlatcrolog". zrpcndicular to the axis of the borehole (Fig. in the borehole device is the arc connected to a power source (generator). 1975). 17) is composed of three (2) induction.) obtain a more accurate value of Ri from the short normal curve . and create magnetic fields that induce signals to the receiver iils. Elcctrodc-. to determine accurate R.

18) and correspond to tracks #2 and #3 on the Induction Electric Log. Uninvaded Zone (Rt) Short Normal H Laterolog -8*tT Spherically Focused Log" Log+tt Long Normal Lateral Log Deep Induction Deep Laterolog* Laterolog -3* Laterolog -7* Log Medium Induction Log Shallow Laterolog* ________ __. 17). short normal curve.------ of Resistivitv ----- - -- - Logs. '" curve is sometimes displayed in track #2 along with the Dual Induction Focused Log The modern induction log is called the Dual Induction Focused Log (Tixier et al. an induction derived conductivity curve is presented in track #3 (Fig. 19) can also help determine the diameter of invasion (d. _::_I(X)()/R( formation where C[ -= conducuviiy in ohm-meters in rnillimhovrneter. the borehole. -' .-_------ .. and R. Because the induction log does not require the transmission of electricity through drilling fluid... or foam-filled boreholes. By focusing the current and eliminating unwanted signals.:cIc_:n=duction 6FF40 Log tFor a review of how to use Lateral logs sec: Hilchie ( 1(79). 19) This tornado chart (Fig... • C. Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)* A. Spherically DEPTH OF RESISTIVITY t'!UY~I'(l!-()ne (R.) and the ratio of R. IS much greater than R. and the invaded zone. The induction curve on the Induction Electric Log value appears in track #2 (Fig. Laterologs* D. a spontaneous potential (SP) curve is placed in track #1 (Fig. a deep reading induction log (R1Ld) may not accurately measure the true resistivity of the formation (Rt). The Dual Induction Focused Log is used in formations that are deeply invaded by mud filtrate. value of low resistivity formations. Because of deep invasion. and to eliminate possible errors when calculating true resistivity from conductivity.. Because the induction device is a conductivity measuring tool. it can be run in air-.o/Rt• An example of the procedure is presented in Figure 19. illducliulI.o) Microlog* M icrolaterolog' Proximity! Log Microspherically Focused LOG INVESTIGATION lnv(/de~f Zmll'_JJ1) __ . Normal logs B.2 to 2000 ohm/meters (Fig. and the short normal... 17) measures electrical conductivity+ using current generated by coils.. ttWhen R. The induction log has a transmitter/receiver spacing of 40 inches and can measure a reliable for resistivity down to a bed thickness of five feet. The three resistivity curves on the Dual Induction Focused Log are recorded on a four cycle logarithmic scale ranging from 0. and is similar to an Induction Electric Log. The shallow reading Laterolog* may be either a Laterolog-S (LL-8)* or a Spherically Focused Log (SFL)* . 17). Proximity Log (PL)* H. The Dual Induction Focused Log (Fig.The induction device (Fig. Microlog (ML)* Focused Log (SFL)* G. This log (Fig. Microlaterolog (MLL)* F. Classification . 1963). The track #3 conductivity curve is necessary to more accurately determine the R. Modem induction devices have additional coils which focus the current so that signals arc minimized from adjacent formations. Resistivity values obtained from the three curves on a Dual Induction Focused Log are used to correct deep resistivity (R1Ld) to true resistivity (R) from a tornado chart (Fig.:sistivi!y 42 . The transmitting coils produce an electromagnetic signal which induces currents in the formation. and more accurate values of true formation resistivity (R) are determined from the induction log. a deeper reading of conductivity is taken.__ ---------- -- . Normally.------ INDUCTION ELECTRODE LOGS (measure conductivity) LOGS (measure resistivity) E. These induced currents are recorded as conductivity by receiver coils. 18) also has a medium-reading induction device (RILm which measures R) and a shallow reading (Rxo) focused Laterolog* which is similar to the short normal. the Latcrolog . = true n. 18) consists of a deep-reading induction device (R1Ld which measures R).8* and Spherically Focused Log* will have a shallower depth of investigation (closer to R ) than the medium induction. 18). Lateral Logt C. shallow Laterolog*.Table 4. oil-.

21) appears in track #2 of the log and has a linear scale. an alternate method to determine true resistivity (R. t Shale zones are indicated by no separation or "negative separation " (i. Because saltwater-based mud where Rmf R. A Microlaterolog* is sometimes recorded in track #3 (Fig. Therefore. invasion does not strongly affect R. The focusing. tPoS:. 2:?) The Microspherically focused electrode Focused Log* is a pad type.livc separation can only occur when 1~IlK Rill Rill!" "R) verify these RI· The Latcrolog' CO" curve (Fig. a Laterolog* should not be used (see Fig. WheIl a Microsphcrically Focused Log (MSFL *) is run with the Dual Latcrolog" (Fig. min = (LL-8* gamma ray log is run in track # I as a lithology and correlation curve (Fig. Permeable zones show up on the M icrolog" as positive separation when the micro normal curves read higher resistivity than the micro inverse curves (Fig. The technique is called R. because resistivity of the mud filtrate is approximately equal to the resistivity offormation water (Rmf '''' Rw) when a well is drilled with saltwater-based muds.) should be used. whereas the micro invcr-c curve measures only the mudcuke (RJllc) which has a lower re xixtivitv than rock. and part of the resi:-. 21). R. the resulting three curves (i. The borehole size and formation thickness affect the Laterolog". Both arc displayed in tracks #2 and #3 of the log on a four eye Ie logarithmic scale.. Under these conditions. The Dual Laterolog+ (Fig. 22). The micro normal device investigates three to four inches into the formation (measuring R". But. dri llinz mud. resistive (where Rt:> 100 ohmmeters) zones. 19) and from the RI rrun formula. from both the Dual Induction Focused Log tornado chart (Fig. and mud filtrate" Remember that even though the resistivity of the mud filtrate (R. is the greater. and M SFL*) arc used to correct (for invasion) the deep resistivity (RU_d) to true formation resistivity (Suau et al. 1972).tlvity IllL'<t~ured by the micro nortuul curve is read from the rock matrix. . The focusing electrodes emit current of the same polarity as the surveying electrode but arc located above and below it. and use whichever value of R. 20). prevent the surveying current from flowing up the borehole filled with saltwater mud (Fig. log has log (a pad type focused electrode R" electrodes mounted in a pad that is forced against the borehole wall) that has a very shallow depth of investigation. two resistivity measurements are made. The effective depth of Laterolog* investigation is controlled by the extent to which the surveying current is focused. and measures resistivity of the flushed zone (R""J. 1979. heading for resistivity values of the n. or guard electrodes.c. shallow. minimum (R. deep. mIn) and is calculated by the following formula: R. one is called the micro normal and the other is the micro inverse (Fig. Deep reading Laterologs" arc therefore more strongly focused than shallow reading Laterologs*. gives a very poor SP response. micro normal < micro inverse).) rcsisitivity device (RLLSJ. 24).ut) is less than the n-xi st ivitv ofthe mudcuke (R"" l."'4-55) arc available log resistivity (RlLod) to R. when a well is drilled with freshwater-based muds (where Rill I 3 Rw:'. a natural value» if there "any doubt.) and the micro inverse investigates approximately one to two inches and measures the resistivity of the rnudcuke (Rmc)' The detection of rnudcakc by the Microlog" indicates that in vas ion has occurred and the formation is permeable. minimum) resistivity of mud filtrate at formation temperature re sistivity of formation water at formation temperature LL-8* = shallow resistivity Latcrolug-S" SFL* = shallow resistivity Spherically Focused Log* The rule for applying RtrnIn is to determine R. check the lo!. to COITect the deep induction Laterolog* The Latcrolog" is designed to measure true formation resistivity (R. 1978). the Laterolog can be strongly affected by invasion. 16). In addition to the R. correction curves (Schlurnberger.RESISTIVITY LOGS The deep induction log (R1Ld) does not always record an accurate value for deep resistivity in thin. 22) consists of a deep reading device (RU_d) and a shallow reading (R. 43 .udcake . and to determine diameter of invasion (d) and the ratio of R/R".. 21). A natural gamma ray log is often displayed in track # I (Fig. Invasion can influence the Laterolog>. p . but normally the effect is small enough so that Laterolog" resistivity can be taken as Microlog (ML*) The Microlog+ (Fig.) resistivity Focused Log* or SFL'") X RjRmf Where: true resistivity (also called R. From the pad. min method for determining in thin resistive zones.c. 23) is the The necessary to correct RU_d to R. 24) is a pad type resistivity device that primarily detects mudcake (Hilchic . procedure is illustrated in Figure 23. A tornado chart (Fig.) in boreholes filled with saltwater muds (where Rmf = Rw)' A current from the surveying electrode is forced iruo the formation by focusing electrodes. 24). the micro normal curve will rcud a hIgher resistivity In a pcrrncuhlc zone than the shallower-reading micro inverse curve This is because the filtrate has invaded the Iormuuon . values derived from a Laterolog=. Dual Laterolog-Microspherically (R. However. The pad is in contact with the borehole and consists of three electrodes spaced one inch apart.

is designed to investig~a.= 1.0 for carbonates a = 0. 24). 25). (R... The Microlog" docs not work well in saltwater-based drilling muds (where Riffle Rw) I. Therefore.0 = F x so I ve for F: R. Because the Microlatcrolog" is strongly influenced by rnudcake thicknesses greater than 1/4 inch (Hildie. The Pro x imiiv Log~. drilling n~uds <b Rill I formation porosity resistivity of mud filtrate at formation temperature water saturation of the flushed zone resistivity of flushed zone from Microlarcrolou Proximity Log". or Microsphcrically Focused constant a = 1. the calculated rcsistivitv " porosity in hydrocarbon-bearing zones will be too low l() correct for saturation estimated. remember: 44 . like the Mien~sphericallv Focused arc pad type focused electrode log~ designed ¢= Where: measure the resistivity in the flushed zone (R. a rnicrocalipcr log is run in track # 1 (Fig.81 for consolidated sands constant rn = 2. wutcr of the flushed zone (S.)g to (Fig. 1< too high because hydrocarbons have a higher resistivitv than formation water.()=~ V I A -R. These residual hvdrocarbons will result in a value for shallow re sistivitv -' (R-\0 ) which . Normally. Hilehie (1(j78) states that resistivities of approximately ten times the resistivity of the drilling mud (R'll) at formation temperature indicate an impermeable zone. a formation's shallow resistivirv (R ) can to porosity by the following: -. which is more stronulv focused than the Microlater\..~ eLJuati. positive separation.) by the following F a = 0. in enlarged boreholes.. 21) and the Proximitv L. measurements of a formation's resistivity close to the borehole (flushed zone. the Microlaicrolog" should be run onlv with saltwater-based drilling muds. positive separation cannot occur. a <DOl solve for porosity (m) -'3'\1 Rmf Microlaterolog" and Proximity Log" The Microiaterolog Log (PLJI (MSFL)" (MLL)* (Fig..) must be known or Then. or gypsum-based muds..").logl~. formation water is displaced by mud filtrate.. . Shallow resistivity devices. Thus resistivity measurements can be used to determine porosity. he related residual hydrocarbons in the flushed zone. remember therefore: F = a/¢m because the mudcukc may nut he strong enough to keep the pad away from the formation.() for consolidated sands and carbonates m = 2.. used to measure R". 24). Laterolos-S"... ms: S xo now square both sides: F = a/mOl _~Rmf - X ---- n.62 for unconsolidated Log* values ~ a Resistivity The minerals Derived Porosity that make LIp the grains in the matrix of the m sands rock and the hydrocarbons in the pores arc nonconductivc.... R. so that borehole irregularities are detected. Where the pad is in contact with the Iormar iou .. 1(j78). Nonporous and impermeable zones have high resistivity values on both the: micro normal and micro inverse curves (Fig. Porosity in a water-bearing formation can he related to shallow resistivity (R".. In order to detect zones of erroneous positive scparat ion .e deeper where so it can he used with freshwater-based mudcake is thicker. When a porous and permeable water-hearing formation is invaded by drilling fluid.) arc used to determine porosity. the ability of rock to transmit an electrical current is almost entirely the result of the water in the pore space. Therefore.LUGS However. R. a shale zone can exhibit minor.0 ( 1O()7r) in water-hearing zones.15 for unconsolidated sands formation factor the shallow resistivity residual hydrocarbon-s In hydrocarbon-bearing zones.. Rmf square both sides: 1. or invaded zone.") is affected by the unflushcd left by the invading mud filtrate. and R" include the following: (I) Microlaterolou=: (2) Prox imitv Log": (3) Latewlog-HI': (4) Micmspheri~ally Focused Log": (5) short normal log: and (6) Spherically Focused Log" . Where S".

Powsity_q 25 to 35 15 to 20 40 to 5 40 to 50 20 to 40 1_0_to_2_(_1 __ ___ ~ 10 to 5 60 to 95 90 to 95 80 to 90 20 to 10 3_Q__t(_l _20 BHSo/c __ ZQ_t_c)__§_O_ ~'o(. Hydrocarbon and porosity Saturation as a function of hydrocarbon density t rnodificd after Hilchie . Courtesy.).2 X Rxo Rmf J11 sul vc tor porosity «(p): [ at R. formation factor .s. 4.!_f'_L_I"~_~FJI !CAU.R_rn[_ R xo resistivity a of the flushed zone F= Therefore ~".. Sec Table 5 I(Jr exumplc».2. ami Proximity") logs. ( I) determine hydrocarbonversus water-bearing zones: (2) indicate permeable zones: and (3) determine resistivity porosity.MITTER OSCILLATOR lit. Microlutcrolog' .0 for carbonates a c= 0. Resistivity logs are used to.__ F lim constant a = 1. Therefore. )2 Review . Induction logs (induction electric log or Dual Induction Focused Log) should he: run in non-salt saturated drilling muds (where Rlllf 3 R. AI..81 for consolidated sands constant 111 = 2. 1972. can be corrected for the 'effects of inv.__X_Q_ . normal. -i~ I' I I . i' NOUSi. Schematic illustration of a basic two-coil induction system.30 15 . 45 .RESISTIVITY LOGS S' x()solve for l: = F X . . 1978).JVity oil Low_gra_\I_it:'_oil.). l AMPLIFIER AND OSCI LLATOR I and the hydrocarbons in the pores arc non-conductive.~ER ~ RECEIVER t. Lateral./CO'L I ____ ~TRANSMITTtR TRAN'. Latcrologs" or Dual Latcrologs' with Rxo.) 5.rsion to determine a more accurate value of true formation resistivity (R. II -zzr: IGR~~~~ _ 'S' =--:=-::::-I II -::::J FORMATION [I / _. Copyright Schlumbcrgcr Well Services. Schiumberger.Chapter III I.0 fur carbonates and conxol idutcd sands 111= 2.houlu be run in salt-saturated dr il ling muds (where Rlllt = R. By use of tornado charts.7(' 70 85 ._ T rUI~R~~n C C '-1r ~ ~-.. the ability of the rock to transmit an electric CUITent is almost entirely a function of the water in the roc k \ pores. A formation \ resistivity can be measured by either induction or electrode t Laternlop". . the deep resistivity log on either the Dual Induction Focused Log or the Dual Latcrolog" with R".0 minus residual hydrocarbon saturation (RHS)..i RE~~.= 1.!!l_ __ ) ] t/R.62 for unconsolidated sands a = 0. 6.3. Most minerals which make up the matrix of the rock Where: (~ formation porosity at formation Rmt resistivity of mud filtrate temperature Percentages of Residual Table 5.'JG c--------~- --c==-~--~ ._c__ Cas High gravity or! Medium gr. _A_!:'_tQravi_ty__ ~~H_S_o/.. spherically focused logs. Microlog". 15 for unconsol idatcd sands water saturation of the flushed zone S. BORE HOLE Figure IS.

..I..-I_.. 5 . ~ 0 INDUCTION LOG PREFERRED ABOVE R APPROPRIATE - w CURVE '5 ~ (J) >- 0 0 CL 0::: '0 -~~~--~--+ LATEROLOG PREFERRED ~i I ~ '--'----r-+-L~~W _=_ ~ _~ M_~ ---+-+-~~~---~-+--~ ~~=O.J.25 20 l --.. 46 .. 20 30 Rmf/Hw . . -___L_____.... Rw CURVE o L--. .'...--~3. 7 I USE BELOW BOTH 4.-L.... '0.. 5..l._.• ...l...Q-M 51---+----I-+-+-+---+-------+-~T1 rF~ LOGS APPROPRIATE ti_:.L2 -. 7.

1972. Courtesy. Copyright Schlumberger Well Services. Chart for quick determination 1972) of preferred conditions for using an induction log versus a Laterolog" (Schlumbcrger. of the ratio of Rmt/Rw and. porosity.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 16. Se lection is a function 47 . to some extent. Schlumberger.

-.-- --z-f - -+--l 7446 f-..W f-'''_ __. -+-- r------t--+----j-+ ..:...~I at 13~0 F ------~--...so IN .0-F:--_t ._- J ~+~-+-. f. ---I ~. ~ --+-H.-- - i .~-~---j --C-- i._---- 48 .--+----------j TY. .~ .m 1000 1500 RESISTIVITY 1 o 1000 o o Q~.- t-r-r+ - ---+-~~ f-+-.:::::._I_C. _. . __ LL_9_9_"_62_0_F_~"_'_'. 16" NORMAL I I INDUCTION 50 ~O 9. l ---~r+ i ~ ~ _..~ . L J .'~13~~-0-F~ 0i~'I_Em_II __ .._T_'_"_ •.-I~:. e4t---_ .._-+ ..+-------+-----.C-'. . .-T·"r' -~1-._1_3_~ _o _F --_.-I[ nUID ."-H-T---_+-'L2=-I~at-._. (-7' r= '-- -.~..T sal ~0~0~7----_r._-+-... -t-'It. __ .- -- ~-.. -._. " "T O.I UI o o ~~..-+~- .?QQ f- ~O ':::!:~' ~T -- i __ -::: . _.SPONTANEOUS- POTENTIAL CONDUCTIVITY milillWtol/'" MILLIVOLTS 1000 . ~ 9 ". ..- ~-r--- -.....H-T----+0~.. .~ f-~--.. -- j :-J~ 1----....i_ t= .l. f--+'-- -.~N-..~-t._--+-t-----+- +-~r-~ t- r----+-+ft_~-+.-"_."..' r-...f-. ._ __. --' '.11.----+--~~ .-tOl!: +"=:::.~~~.

The second-cycle scale measures from 0 to 500 ohm-meters in increment values of 50 ohm-meters. conductivity to resistivity from the induction log is [0 ohm-meters. It contains no curves in this example because the second-cycle scale is used only when the resistivity curves in the first-cycle scale exceed the maximum scale values.446 ft read a value for the I ()' . The scale values increase from left to right. so that the value at the sample depth of 7.. This first scale contains both the RI and R. track #2 resistivity values can be checked for accuracy. track #3 shows a value of I ()O mmhos/rneter. The induction log actually measures conductivity.000 to [ . resistivity can be derived.000. curves and to give you guidance log values. This is done automatically as the log is recorded in track # 3. resistivity = 1. Typically. t The purpose for presenting Electric this log is to illustrate the different R". and two scales arc present: values from () to 1.. Track #I~ The log track on the far left contains the spontaneous potential (SP) log. Example Induction on picking Electric Log. almost 6 increments of 5 ohm-meters per increment (28 is nearly 6 x 5 or 30). but because conductivity is a reciprocal of resistivity. -norrnal of 28 ohm-meters. or 2 increments (from the right) of 50 rumhos/rnctcr for each division. each small division 49 .000 arc marked in 50 mmhos/mctcr increments for the first cycle. This is counted reading horizontally on track #2 as At the sample depth of 7. Track #3~ The log track on the far right contains a conductivity curve measured by the induction log. The Induction Log is normally used when ROlf» Note that log scales are shown horizontally at top of log.. However.446 ft is about 40.000/100 or. Therefore. in this case. I • Track #2~ The middle log track contains two resistivity curves. The induction is counted at 10 ohm-meters.sOO an: marked for the second cycle (second cycle values are not necessary on this log). Because converted resistivity equals 1. each increment on the scale equals 20 millivolts. and values from 1. For example. tOn this and all subsequent logs in the text.. conductivity. to convert track #3 values to resistivity the procedure is as follows: The values on the conductivity scale increase from right-to-left.446 ft. curves.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 17. on the depth scale is equal to 2 ft. but two scales arc present: The first scale measures from 0 to 50 ohm-meters in increment values of 5 ohm-meters. In this way. an induction log represented by dotted line). or approximately -40 mv. 10. Because the deflection is to the left (negative deflection) the log value is negative. One measures shallow resistivity (R 16" -normal or short normal electrode log represented by solid line) and the other measures deep resistivity (R. not resistivity. at a depth of 7. the conductivity curve can be used to convert values to resistivity. . or 2 increments of 5 ohm-meters per increment. So.

_---_.." at at 800 II' C at mea •.QLRA ( ) -160-.2000 ILD (OH .-=-~-R IN HO_I. _ '=i60-:O..-----...--F__ ----1 ---_.__ ..19~1 O~.. lf-.!: _!!ARITE '. 2000.p. 0..0 I!lO.---2000. 138~~ RMF at mea •. _J_~'!cI_iQ!'_~. temp.10HIUU 0. meOI. X.2000 t n t- ~- r--. REC.0-----------------40~0-0 GR (GAPI) 0.".19 at 80° . .-0.S' {"' t=± -- 0.._c··t. --. temp...O 6-:2000-·--·--------. . SP \..~ r- ~ c· .Yl 2000._----_. 1. ) .. FLUID at .. .-=~ .. ~DEPTH BIT ~~ RM SIZE------r.". TE"p.J SFLU.-00 r-- -'b?._---_---- so .!!.

6 105nO = 1.jRt quick The resistivity scale in tracks #2 and #3 is a logarithmic Note the following logs. increasing from left to right. Deep induction log resistivity-The close to true resistivity (Rt).o) reads a value of320. 19).590 ft). or resistivity of the flushed zone (R. dashed line ILD represents R1LJ and measures the deep resistivity of the formation. and also where invasion is deep. or resistivity of the invaded zone iRl). Track # I in this log suite contains a gamma ray. resistivity of Spherically Focused Log* resistivity-the solid line SFL* represents RSFL* and measures the shallow forrnation . SP. and R". and R. medium resistivity (R) reads a value of 105. Example of a Dual Induction Focused Log. resistivity of the ft). Medium induction log resistivity-The dotted-and-dashed line IUVI represents RILm and measures the medium resistivity of the formation.o)' At the sample depth in this exercise (13.000 ohm-meters. deep resistivity (lLD) reads a value of 70. scale from 0 to 2. The following example log: RSFL/RtLJ RILm/RILd ratios are needed for work on the tornado chart (Fig.590 the flushed zone (R./Rt quick look curves. The gamma ray. and the values arc picked from the = 320nO = = 4. At the sample depth in this exercise (13.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 18. or At the sample depth in this exercise (13. look curves will be discussed in subsequent chapters.590 ft).5 51 . Use this log to pick values and determine ratios for the tornado chart exercise in Figure 19. The Dual Induction Focused Log is normally used when Rrnf is muc h greater than R". SP.

u.7 1.DUAL INDUCTION -.3 1.SFl* Cl a:: <.Ilm .4 1.2 1.9 52 .SPHERICALLY FOCUSED LOG Ild .5 1. _J a:: (f) 1.

1l2. Schlumbergcr oftrue resistivity. read the R/RIl.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 19.!R.s Procedure: By using the tornado chart. horizontally oriented I incs. (R/R1LJ) X R1Ld = Rt (corrected) (Ratio value from chart) x log value = R.0 to O.u) over the true resistivity of the formation (uncorrected. pick the following values: R./R'LJ = r. midway between the 6().6 RIII. with values taken from the chart as outlined numbers midway corrected across the lines.) is 65 inches. Courtesy. and the scale values arc shown as whole plotted sample falls on the scale with a value of 7 . and is given in meters through the midpart of the tornado chart ). Log values Given: R'Ld = 70 R'Lnt = 105 RSFL = 320 RSFL/R'LJ = 4.4 (R. In this example. calculate values for R.0. corrected. derived from the chart. the above.) x R..82 x 70 = 57... = R'(l (corrected) (ratio value from chart) x (corrected R.IR'Ld-Plot the ratio values for RSFdRILJ and RILm/RJld by using the scales on the vertical axis (RSFliRILd) and horizontal axis (R'Ln/RILJ)' Where the values cross. (corrected) 0. This ratio. vertically oriented lines. In this example. and R'(l . vertically oriented lines on the tornado chart (note that the \I. Finally. Note that the scale decreases ill intensity from left to right (from 1.d value from the tornado chart scale depicted by solid. The scale is represented hy the solid. Copyright Schlumberger Well Services. and the scale reads horzontally. value) = Rxo (corrected) 7 x 57. on the d. is used in later calculations. as an indicator used in this exercise are picked from the example Dual Induction Log in Figure 18. or true formation resistivity). 1979.and RxufRt-Ratio of resistivity of the flushed zone (R. and (R.). giving us a value of O. The scale is indicated by the dashed. dj"~Find the diameter of invasion surrounding the borehole by locating the same point used above.4 = 401. Dual lnduction-j Sf'L") tornado chart used for correcting R'LJ values to R. so we determine that the diameter of invasion (d. R. scale is given in inches across the top of the tornado. the sample value is plotted 70-ineh value line. scale of the chart.8 (corrected resistivity of the flushed zone) 53 .1l0) and that the R/R1LJ value falls just to the left of the 0))0 Iinc .

~JGS S4 .--.RESISTTVTT'''. '.

As cited in the example. Copyright 1974.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 20. AI (above) and A2 (below) are the focusing (or guard) electrodes which direct and force thc current from the Ao electrode into the formation.M2') are brought to thc same potential by adjusting the current that emits from the focusing electrodes AI and A2. Dresser Atlas. Courtesy. The monitoring electrodes (M I . S5 ._ M I' and M2 . Dresser Industries. Schematic illustration of a focused Laterolog* illustrating current flow.

--f... i ! -t iT ~. ~ '.~---:+'_'_.77 1100 CIt CIt !!II to F Size Fluid at in hal..~?.:.~Et t- +---~-t -~- =:« · ~: · ~: ~ -: ~ :? --~ .... 7 7/B Rrne at meal. . .--+. . • a a a .~.-- ~T)'p. t t. 810--'.- :r- -~~ ~ .5 7.5 15 o 50 0 50 o 50 67 IJo ~O~ SPONTANEOUS- POTENTIAL MICROLA TERO LOG CALI"ER millivolts .:.--~ ('" .. __. lemp.---+--c---- - = --1--+ ~ o --1_- :::::.11 al 81 0 F m~a!l F 56 . 4. : . ~ '" w a a . temp. -. ~ +-~~:t--1- --.-:= -:_-.: "~' ----t -.---(i'.'. t --1- : · : i ~ --- t.. Rm JrIIAGCOGEL .+-.~--- -' ' f- ':'1 +- ..__-::.GAMMA ug RAY LATEROLOG -ohm s m MICROL ATEROLOG -ohms m 2 1m Ro-eq/fon 21m o 7. :~+ . . : ..:::::::_ ~ ----+_::>-:. + ..082 1. -----+--- : ...:~ Depln Bi t 46B~ Rm' 01 mea!.::>-. -+---. .'" . i f --- -.t-.. .-:-T--_. ~. I ~ ...-+~ ... -.-----=.J-+- 1-__ . temp.....a-+: -.

) (Hilchie. Note that the scale increases from left to right. = 28. There is no second cycle recorded. or the depth line intcr-ccts the 1()!2 curve of 5 ohm-meters. and in hybrid increments At the sample depth of 3. of 5 ohm-meters from 0 to 50 on the rirst cycle. reads I() ohm-meters. = 1.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 21.67(21) R.4 ohm-meters Where: R Ru 1\. These logs arc used when Rill!" =0 Rw' Track #1-The log track on the far left in this example is a gamma ray log. in increments on the second cycle. but they commonly accompany Latcrologs".67 (R. zero for the ivliuolaterulog' is no: the same point as zero for the Laterolog* farther to the left..67(10) 1979) R. At the sample depth of 3.+S fr ): R.948 ft ) at 3. = 1.67 (R. .948 ft the Microlaterolog" at two increments from zero. The scale r~lIlges from () to 50 ohm-meters in incrcmcut-.948 ft the Laterolog= Track #3-The right-hand log in this suite is the Microlaterolog" which measures the resistivity of the flushed ZtlllC (Rw)' Note that the scale starts with zero between tracks il2 and #3-that is. do the following t usc the example at _\_'J. Note: In order to correct (for invasion) the Laterolog* to true resistivity (R.0. and to give you guidance on picking log values. ray logs are discussed ill a later Track #2- The middle log track here is the Laterolog" from 0 to »: which measures the deep resistivity (Rtl Ot' true rcxixt ivitv or the formation.) .0. The purpose for presenting this Ing is to illustrate the log curves.). Example Lateroiog' and Microluterolog" .0 = resistivity = Laterolog* of the uninvaded resistivity resistivity zone at 3.. value reads 21 ohm-meters.948 tr ) (10 ohm-meters (21 ohm-meters = Microluterolog' ---------. Gamma chapter.-- ..

.. I---f'-I---. - t-- f~ 1-\~ ) . . .. _.~=l -- fl- 9324 ....£ -. 100 IOOO200( 1000200( LATEROLOG 0 GAlnlA RAY API unitt 100 1100 '-00 / r---v LQ....- -- r- C- '..J 9400 . I 1 I t~ I OCPTH BIT TYPE SIZE I 11122 RMF 01 m"OS 0 temp. ~_ ~ 0. _ ...LLd 100 1000200C 1. IIICRO-SFL lQ_ SHALLOW 10 11'-"" lQO_ .0 --+ '""'"'" ~ L 9300 -~IZL ~ __ --...2 I~O 1.z DEEP LATEROLOG 10 .TEMP [Thermometer t- Br_ e ck RM of 056 740 _j -----------------------------------------------58 .' r--.0 RESISTIVITY 0._ . .... < ... - '. Temp' 046 at Of 74 - 0 F --~..~. '. _ .. ='. '.LL.-----6________________ CALIPER dl-.-~--FLUID meo s 8- :/4 MUD of ! RMC a' me c s oF IN H_O_L_E SALT te_mc_p--'- i -+-MAX F -'- REC.. .. \ - - - - . 1ft IRe ...


Figure 22.


of Dual Laterolog=

with Microspherically


Lug (MSFl)'i'.

Usc this log to pick values and determine is deep. from

ratios for the tornado chart in Figure 23. These logs arc used when The resistivity left-to-right. scale in tracks #2 and #3 is a four-cycle logarithmic


R; and invasion

scale ranging frorn 0 to 2.(01); the values increase

Deep Laterolog resistivity-The dashed line LLd represents RU",J and measures the deep rcxixt i vity of the formation. true resistivity (R,). At the sample depth of this exercise (9.324 tu. true resistivity (R,) reads a value of 16.0.


Shallow Laterolog* resistivity-The
the formation or the resistivity (Rj) reads a value of 10.0.

dotted-and-dashed line LLs represents Rl.Is and measures the shallow of the invaded zone (Rj). AI: the sample depth of this e xerc isc (9.324

resistivity of ft), rcsisti vity

Microspherically Focused Log (MSFL)* resistivity->- The solid line SFL' represents RMSH'i and measures the resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo). At the sample depth in this exercise (9.:124 ft). resistivity of the flushed zone (R,,,) reads a value of 4.5. The following ratios are needed as shown above: RujRMSFL* Rl.u/RLLs

for work on the tornado

chart (Fig. 23). and the values represented

are picked from (he log




= 16/10 = 1.6


ILld--lls - R.o




Figure 23.

Dual Latcrolog=-c-Microsphcricallv Focused Log" tornado chart for correcting arc picked from the example Dual Laterolog*-MSFL* in Figure 22 Courtesy, Schlurnbcrger Well Services.

RLLd to Rt. Log val ucs in this exercise


1979. Schlumbergcr.

Rt.Ld = 16.0 RLLs = 10.0 R!'.tSFL* = 4.5 RLLjRMSFL" = 3.6 RujRLLs = 1.6

Plot the values for RLLjRMSFL* (3.6) and RLLjRLLs (16) using the vertical and horizontal the chart. Determine subsequent ratio values from the tornado chart. scales at the side and bottom of


The seale for this value is represented by the sol id , vertically oriented lines. The scale values read across the top part of the tornado chart. and range from 1.1 to I.S. Our value falls between the scale values 1.3 and 1.4. so we assign a value of 1.35. diameter of invasion around the borehole is picked from the chart: the scale is represented by the dashed. vertically


oriented lines. and the scale values read across the top of the tornado chart ranging from 20 to 120 (inches) or 0.5 to 3.04 (meters). Our value falls between the scale values of 30 and 4() (inches), so we assign a value of 36 inches.

R/R",-- The scale for this ratio value is represented
bottom to top on the left part of the chart.

by the solid, horizontally oriented lines. The scale values read from and range from 1.5 to 100 Our value falls between the scale values 3

and 5 (much closer to 5). so we assign a value of 4.5. F '111 <1 Ily. corrected u~;ing these ratios. (RtiRLl.J) X RLlJ = Rt (corrected Rt) (ratio) x log value = corrected R, 1.35 x 16.0 = 21.6 (R, corrected. And: (corrected (corrected or true formation resistivity). values for true resistivity of the formation (Rt) and resistivity of the flushed zone (R,,,) arc determined


R, )/( Rt/R,,,) = R,,, (corrected Rxu) R, )/( ratio value from chart) = corrected R,,, = 4.S (corrected resistivity offlushed zone)



Ohm. m 21m



I" X





2" 15






: .L
1- .




-t--:-._.7",(_._ ••



'" o








--: T':.~
=_.... .. ...




ti: .. "-- ._ ..~ -+-----_:--=

.~ -



. "






1 ...

~+_:=...~~ ~ :• +--..
" •



: ~~ :


: .~ ~-it·l , J_:~--

~~epth I Bit Size _~ ~_~~ __ 8 3/4 __J,_~mf al meo~ temp 12 01 660 F F

[i,p. FI"'d';_h;;;j___'CH-~_~~-~u~~_=~_~~ __ ~~~_~~~_~~~-'fli3~0-;; ----1_~~~_ffl~~~_'_!_~_P

Arne III me c s, temp

2.3 01 660






L, _



mudcake . This higher micro normal resistivity value is because the micro normal curve reads deeper into the flushed zone. thus indicating the presence of rnudcakc and a permeable zone. formation water and/or residual hydrocarbons and rock in the flushed zone gives a higher resistivity reading than the rnudcake (measured by the micro inverse curve). detected Examine the log from a sample depth 5. is shown by the Track #2~Note the positive separation between the micro normal log and the micro inverse log: the separation is about '2 hy the ohm-meters.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 24. Positive separation is indicated where the resistivity value ofthe micro normal log (shown dashed line) is greater than the resistivity value for the micro inverse log (shown by the solid line).'238 ft. Example Microlog* with spontaneous potential log and caliper. that the caliper shows a borehole diameter of approximately II inches just above the sample depth. The combination of mud filtrate.5 inches within the sample interval (the caliper measurement solid line in track # I). This log demonstrates permeability two ways: positive separation between the micro normal and micro inverse logs in tracks #'2 and #3 and decreased borehole size due to by the caliper log in track # I. but Track #l~Note the hole size decreases to about 8.146 ft to 5. 63 .

--- . . .:..-: -~ . IN INCHES 6 I I I I I I I I 16" I ~.• ' MIN -- .. '" ~'... :"£ ~--~ - <5 o '--: - .IRm 01 rneo s.. .: :._ . .~: rc .-"" ~ L-ufi~j-<---t ~_"'--t' ~~-:-=-___.. PL--: - -- ./ ---t .. " "I'- _~__'..RESISTIVITY o .'-r' "-~ ~'-___:__ . ~ 11 :r ' .:.2 0..2 10 10 MICRO 10 INVERSE I" X I" o CALIPER HOLE DIAM... --- . ~ __ ~ _ 64 .~ . ~~'.. ~~_-' : . ._- ~- -- . -.. . : : ~I .. " I Ul RESISTIVITY PROXIMITY LOG 100 10002000 IQ MICRO NORMAL 2" .:_1--= :~=~ --- :t------' --- :~~--: r= 'I..:"'!~: . . ..T -~--:_-~: I ~' " ~ :~. o o ---_~~. . " - ~-"'- ( _ ..'""7_= -~-. ::: :~.~ ---____r-=::: ~=== :::::- :_. •• ::'. . ~: ~ • ~ i·' • .--f. " 'j . 't~~ __ L __ L_ .~ .- --..t:..-= -------- ._.-:.._-+-'a... " I : ::::t 4144 -= - --- '~" ~- . •.. _... . .~ '_:...

In this example the scale is logarithmic.0.o)' This particular log package includes: a Proximity permeable zones. 144 ft we read a proximity curve value (R". Micro inverse has a zone.:5. At the sample depth of 4. the resistivity values for micro normal and micro inverse increase from right-to-lcjt indicates . Example of a Proximity Log" with a Microlog and caliper.RESISTIVITY LOGS Figure 25. Tracks a permeable #2 and #J-Thc Proximity Log' measures resistivity of the flushed zone (R.).) or 18 ohm-meters.. The value of about 1.144 ft. reading from left-to-right. and a caliper to determine the size of [he borehole. Track # I-Track # I depicts both a Microlog* and a caliper log. the Microlog caliper log indicates a borehole slightly less than 9 inches. At the sample depth of4.. and micro normal has a value of about 3. 6:5 .144 ft note that micro normal (shown by the dashed line) shows higher resistivity than micro inverse (shown by the solid line). a Microlog" Ex amine the log curves at the sample depth of 4. The Proximity Log!' is dexigncd [0 read the resistivity to determine of the flushed zone (R. Note: on this example. Log'" to read Rxo.

(J 66. when sonic porosities of carbonates with vuggy or fracture porosity are calculated by the Wyllie formula. Therefore. hydrocarbon is not corrected. The percentage of secondary porosity.0 (Hilchie .0 57. 'Iotul porosity values are obtained from one of the nuclear logs (i. and two or more receivers. The interval transit time (~t) is dependent upon both lithology and porosity. called spr or secondary porosity index.(J()() to 26.6 43. salt the matrix (Table 6) formation the fluid in the well bore mud = 185) The Wyllie et al (1958) formula for calculating sonic porosity can be used to determine porosity in conso I idatcd sandstones and carbonates with intergranular porosity (grainstones) or intercrystalline porosity (sucrosic dolomites). C The interval transit time (ilt) of a formation is increased (i . along with the ilt curve (Fig. as well as errors due to tilt of the sonic tool (Schlumbcrgcr.R T"i POROSITY LOGS Sonic Log The sonic log is a porosity log that measures interval transit time I ~t) of a compressional sound wave traveling through one foot of formation. The sonic log device consists of one or more sound transmitters. J lJ72).e.CHAPT":. 26). If the effect of hydrocarbons 66 .0 to 43. 1978). These devices greatly reduce the spurious effects of borehole size variations (Kobesh and Blizard.(1)(J 23.5 SO. 27) or by the following formula (Wyllie et al . This will happen because the sonic log only records matrix porosity rather than vuggy or fracture secondary porosity. the (Psonic ==: Where: (Psonic sonic derived porosity due to the presence of hydrocarbons effect).'1 The compaction formula: factor is obtained Salt Casint! (Iron) ilts'h x C Cp = ~"'---~ 100 Where: = compaction factor Cp = interval transit time for adjacent shale iltsh = a constant which is normally 1.(J 67.5(051.(JOO to 23.7 S7() 10 38 . Track # I normally contains a cal iper log and a gamma ray log or an SP log (Fig.OOO (0 19. ~tlTl" ¢sonic Where: = (ill~~" _- il~:a ) X lICp <Psonic = sonic derived porosity (~sec'ft) VIlla ~Lma ~tlog ~tf Cp ~Ima commonly I lt/xcc) (~seC!ft) 55. density or neutron). a formation's matrix velocity (Table 6) must be known to derive sonic porosity either by chart (Fig. Modern sonic logs are borehole compensated devices (BHC"). salt the matrix (Table 6) formation the tluid in the well bore mud = 185) Sundxronc Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite 1iI.OO(J 17.000 20. A sonic derived porosity curve is sometimes recorded in tracks # 2 and # J. These constants are used in the Sonic Porosity Formula (after Schlurnbcrger. The percentage of vuggy or fracture secondary porosity can be calculated b) subtracting sonic porosity from total porosity. 1958): ~tma ~tlog ~tf interval transit interval transit interval transit (fresh mud = time of time of time of 189. Interval transit time (~t) in microseconds per fool. .0 47.5 used 55. can be a useful mapping parameter in carbonate exploration.SO() 43.e. Where a sonic log is used to determine porosity in unconsolidated sands. 1972).50() factor from the following 21 . porosity values will be too low. Interval transit time (~t) is recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (example Fig. an empirical compaction factor or Cp should be added to the Wyllie et al (1958) equation: Table 6.5 SO. However. Sonic Vclocities and Interval Transit Times for Different Matricics.n interval transit interval transit interval transit (fresh mud = = compaction time of time of time of 189. 26). 26).StoSI. is the reciprocal of the velocity of a compressional sound wave in feet per second. 1959).O 47.000 IS.

the maximum amount of energy loss is a function of a formation '5 hydrogen concentration.71 () 2. Oil does not significantly affect density porosity. Wheneverthe correction curve (. Matrix Densities of Common Lithologies. either by chart (Fig.1. the rnatri \ density (Table 7) and type of fluid in the borehole must be known. along with a correction curve (. Consequently.7 X (gas) formation bulk density fluid density ( 1. cner. There fore. Whenever pores are filled with gas rather than oil or water. the correction curve (.POROSITY LOGS sonic derived porosity suggests the following h) drocarbon effect: will be too high. and dolomite. - Density Log The formation density log is a porosity log that measures electron dcnsitv of a formation. 0. neutron porosity will be lowered.) - Plll. but gas docs (gas effect). limestone. (2) detect gas-bearing zones. (3) determine hydrocarbon density.c .)O and 31). 1 salt mud. and PI ¢ = ¢sonic x 0. The formula for calculating density porosity is: a on: (I) differences \\'here: ('>. Track # I contains gall1111aray log and a caliper (example. These neutrons collide with the nuclei of the formation material. Tittman and Wahl (1965) called the interaction between incoming gamma ray particles and electrons in the formation. fresh mud.0 fresh mud. The gamma ray source is either Cobalt-hO or Cesium-137.11'.7 grn/cc for fluid density (Pt) in the density porosity formula if gas density is unknown. Fig. The chemical source llIay he a mixture of americium and beryllium which will continuously emit neutrons..icrcd invalid.876 2. It can assist the geologist to: (I) identify evaporite minerals. 28) records how much correction has been applied to the bulk density curve (Ph). Constants presented here arc used in the Density Porosity Formula (after Schlumberger. and result in a neutron losing some of its energy.20 grnlcc.(gm/cc) Sandstone Limestone Dolomite Anhydrite Salt 2. A lowering of neutron porosity gas is called gus "ffeer. Because the hydrogen atom is almost equal in mass to the neutron.. Neutrons arc created from a chemical source in the neutron logging tool. and density of the fluid in the pores (salt mud. Neutron log responses vary. and (4) evaluate shal . the value of the hulk densi tv oi)luillelifi'o/li ili« hulk densitv curve (Ph) should he consi. Because the modern density log is a compensated log (dual detectors). shale-free) where the porosity is filled with water or oil.e. 28). Hilchie (1978) empirical corrections for Pmo Ph matrix density (see Table 7) 1. The number of Compton Scattering collisions is a direct funct ion of the number of electrons in a formation (electron density). and (3) lithology--i. A geologist should remember that neutron logs (unlike all other logs) 67 . Fig. are counted as an indicator of formation density. or hydrocarbons). sand reservoirs and complex lithologies t Schlumberuer. Because hydrogen in a porous formation is concentrated in the fluid-filled pores. A density derived porosity curve is sometimes present in tracks #2 and #3 along with the bulk density (Pbi and correction (.9 (oil) Table 7.~p). The bulk density curve is recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (Fig 28). This occurs because there is less concentration of hydrogen in gas compared to oil or water.977 2.648 2. maximum energy loss occurs when the neutron collides with a hydrogen atom.032 Where invasion of a formation is shallow. Hilchic (1978) suggests using a gas density of O. 29) or by calculation. Neutron Logs Neutron logs are porosity logs that measure the hydrogen ion concentration in a formation.7 gas) ¢ = ¢sonic 0. Gamma rays collide with electrons in the formation: the collisions rcsul t in a loss of energy from the gamma ray panicle.gy loss can be relutcd to the formation's porosity. The density logging device is a contact tool which consists of a medium-energy gamma ray source that emits p"mna rays into a formation. Formation bulk density (Pb) is a function of matrix densilY. porosity. sandstone. (2) spacing between source and detector.11') curves. the neutron log measures liquid-filled porosity. To determine density porosity. 111 clean formations t i. low density of the formation \ hydrocarbons will mcrcasc density porosity. electron density can be related to bulk density (Pb) of a formation in gm/cc. located a fixed distance from the gaml11a ray source. depending by exceeds (). These variations in response can he compensated for by using the appropriate charts (Figs. 1972). COIl/pion Scattering Scattered gamma rays which reach the detector. due to borehole irregularities. 1972).kn = density derived porosity in detector types.

Both the Sidewall and Compensated Neutron logs can be recorded in apparent limestone.irc ax. Fiuure 35 is a schematic illustration of how Iithology affcc~s the Combination Gamma Ray Neutron-Density log The relationship between log responses on the Gamma R:. The first modern neutron log was the Sidewall Neutron Lou. 34) indicates that the lithology is a limey dolomite and the porosity is 6'Yr.b\l + 'bD)/~ in oil.c.324 ft are entered into the root mean square formula. The procedure is identical for each of the charts and is shown in Figures ]0 and :II .ncr-bcarinu lorrnationx. ]J or ]4) to find true porosity. Gas in the pores causes the density log to record too high a porosity (i. The Sidewall Neutron Log has both the source and detector in a pad which is pushed against the side of the borehole. these values are cro ssplottcd on a neutron-density porosity chart (Figs. The most modern of the neutron logs is a Compensated Neutron Log which has a neutron source and two detectors. The oil. . The Neutron-Density Log consists of neutron and density curves recorded in tracks #2 and #3 (example. The alternate method of determining neutron-density porosity is to use the root mean square formula. a geologist can construct facies maps. first. sandstone. Then. Fig.O-a common value in anhydritic dolomite reservoirs (Fig. The reason for this is that whih. ] I for CO~lpensated Neutron Log).or wuter-beuring sand and a gas-bearing sand.324 ft. 36 tSlj~hl lise vuri. Examination of the neutron-dcnxity porosity chart (Fig. Gas effect is created by gas in the pores.IIlLi log . S01l\e [() gas-heal'illg Iorru.~(""-0. the gas-bearing sand has a density reading of~up to [0 porosity units more than the neutron log. ~ Fisure is a schematic illustration ofa Gamma Ray Neut~on-Density Log through several gas sands.v!-.urfa:e geologist. and a caliper and gamma ray log in track # 1. reading apparent lirncsronc porosities from the neutron and density curves (example: Fig. Besides its use as a porosity device.. In contrast. Where: cb:-lD ~ (Do neutron-density porosity neutron porosity (limestone units) density porosity (limestone units) If the neutron and density porosities from Figure J2 at a depth of lJ. However. This calcularccl porosity value compares favorably with the value obtained from the crossplot method Whenever a Neutron-Density Log records a density porosity of less than O. gas is lighter than oil or water). and shale content alter the degree of gJS effect observed on the Neutron-Density Log.328 ftJ-the following formula should be used to determine neutron-density porosity: Pki Where: $.e . IlJ75).l) Ncutron-Densitv Loz and rock type provides a powerful tool for the sub. (P" = R% and </)1) = 3. Therefore. when the lithology of a formation is sandstone or dolomite.o. True porosity can be obtained by.nalysts the use of this formula (bN. The advantage of Compensated Neutron logs over Sidewall Neutron logs is that they are less affected by borehole irregularities. it is called gas etIi'l·f.D (.irion». apparent porosity is equal to true porosity. neutron logs arc not (Dresser Atlas. hydrocarbon density. Where an increase in density porosity occurs along Vii ith a decreasc in neutron porosity in a gas-bearing zone.or water-bearing sand has a density log. apparent limestone porosity must be corrected to true porosity hy using the appropriate chart (Fiu. 34) reveals that the porosity values are only slightly affected by changes in litholouv. gas has a lower concentration of hydrogen atoms than oil or water). Both the neutron and density curves are normally recorded in lirncstonc porosity units with each division equal to either two percent or three percent porosity: however. ]0 till' Sidewall Neutron Log: or Fig. It illustrates how changes in porosity.uions restrict = of [his formula may' he used in some . sandstone and dolomite porosity units can also be recorded.must be interpreted from the specific chart designed for" specific log (i . other logs are calibrated in basic physical units. 32).reading of four porosity units more than the neutro-n lo~g.e . If a formation is limestone. porosity from a Neutron-~Density Lo.5'1t). .]24 ft (Fig. and the neutron log is recorded in apparent limestone porosity units. Figu. The effect of gas on the Neutron-Density Log is a very important log response because it he Ips a geologist to detect zas-bearina zones.or w. 32: depth 9. it is also used to determine lithology and to detect gas-bearing zones. 68 .-D ~ = = + (Dn 2 cbD neutron-density porosity neutron porosity (limestone Units) density porosity (limestone units) Combination Neutron-Density Log The Combination Neutron-Density Log is a combination porosity log. In the example from Figures 32 and ]4.~an be calculated mathematically. Schlurnbcrgcr charts for Schlurnbergor lous and Dresser Atlas charts for Dresser Atlas logs). we calculate a porosity of 6. or dolomite porosity units.]2 at ().e 35 :dso illustrates the change in neutron-density response between an oil. By identifying rock type from logs. and causes the neutron log to record too low a porosity (i. invasion. the position of the crossploucd ncutron-dcnsuy porosities at 9.

4 The neutron log is a porosity log that measures the hydrogen ion concentration in a formation. The Neutron-Density Log is a combination porosity log. the neutron log can be related to water-filled porosity. the neutron log will record a lower porosity than the formation \ true porosity because gas has a lower hydrogen ion concentration than oil or water (gas effect) . The un it of measure is microseconds per foot (fJ. and (l) neutron.sec/ft). In shale-free formations where porosity is filled with water.\:c. Additional uses of the combination Neutron-Density Log are: ( I) detection of gas bearing zones: and (2) determination of lithology. Interval transit time is re luted to formation porosity. ::: The sonic log is a porosity log that measures the interval transit time (~t) 0 f a compressional sound wave through one foot of formation.POROSITY LOGS Review·· Chapter IV The three types of porosity logs are: ( I) sonic. _< The density log is a porosity log that measures the electron density of a formation. . 6. Porosity can be determined from a Neutron-Density Log either by a crossplot chart or by formula. 69 . in tum.5 In gas reservoirs. 7. can be related to formation porosity. Bulk density. (2) density. The formation's electron density is related to a formation's bulk density (Pb) in glll.

- ~. 0. "-~ . > --.0 . 100.f-- _<.---.--<: ~ <.00 -------.00 GR (GAPI) CALI (IN) DT (US/F) 80. --C 9400 - 70 . I-.00 SPHI ( 0..-L r--r-- 1300 t-/ '-..---.-....0 40.-6..0 .000 18.TENS (LB) 110000.

71 .LseC/ft. Tracks #2 and #3-Both right-to-left. and is represented by a The caliper scale ranges from 6 to 16 inches.J 10ft). read a sonic log interval transit time At the sample depth used in Figure 27 (9. The sonic porosity the interval transit time (~t) scale and the porosity by a solid line. on a scale ranging from --10% to + 30% porosity increasing from right-to-left. Sonic log from 40 to SO j. Example sonic log with gamma ray log and caliper.Lscc/ft increasing from interval transit time (ilt) is represented scale ranging measurement (limestone matrix) is shown by a dashed line. is shown to display the scales of a sonic log. This example be used in picking an interval transit time (ilt) value for Figure 27. (.POROSITY LOGS Figure 26. on :J: scale are shown in this track. increasing from left-to-right in increments of 10 units. Note that the gamma ray scale reads from () to 100 APr gamma ray units. and to Track # I-This track includes both the gamma ray and cal iper curves.~nvalue of 6J j. The gamma ray scale is represented by a solid line. from left-to-right in one-inch increments. dashed line.

500 21.000 55.5 -38.1ma x _I 1 f. 30 ::i c.300 ft Isec 40 ¢= 1... microsec/ft Vma (ft/sec) .5 .POROSITY T_(~J~b POROSITY EVALUATION FROM SONIC POROSITY EVALUATION FROM i Vt " 5. -&- 0 0 10 1. INTERVAL TRANSIT TIME.51.000-26. IVl Vl f- >- >- n: n. 0 0 -&- n: 20 o.5 43.5 -~----------72 .000-19.1ma Bcp 40 ::i a.000 23.000-23.f me (microsecl ft) Sandstones limestones Dolomites 18.6-43.3 47.

follow the value horizontally this case. 3. using values picked from a some log.5% (¢ = 16.5%). 2 Follow the value (63) vertically until it intersects the diagonal line representing 26. Given: V ma = 26. 1977. Chart used for converting interval transit time (. to the left. and read the porosity value from the porosity scale. COUnTS).:1t) taken from the sonic log in Figure 26 (in this ex ample 03 j. in this case) .:1t (from log) = 63 j. Schlurnberger. Find an interval transit time value (.()OO fl/scc (dolomite.POROSITY LOGS ~igure 27. the value is 16.isee/ft at a depth of 9. 26) sec Procedure : I. From that point.isec!fl) on the scale at the bottom of the chart.000 ft/sec where V rna is the sonic velocity of the matrix (in this case dolomite: Table 6) . Copyright Schlumberger Well Services.:1t) values to sonic porosity. .310 It (see Fig. In .

3.~ - "- I> I.000 2...Nl______ 16.0 -0.______ .I-.000 RHOa ~ (6/CS) c_A~I_(..O_~H~!L 0.d-"' I--f-- .1---I-.~~~?_~i~~ _______ 6..G 9400 ---------------------------------------74 . rL .L.0110 1...c--. 0.000 _______ ..k .Pt· f._ .0 9300 I-.000 GR (GAPI) 1 --10000.-- - ...!..4110·01 !!.00 100.

E xarnple of a bulk density log with a gamma ray log and caliper. and is used in picking values for Figure 2<).0 grn/cc to 3. This log is presented to show you the scales of a density log. and the bulk density scales increase in value from left to right.0 grn.45 gm/cc in increments of OJ)) gm/cc .56 grn/cc. The curve (~pl ranges in value from -(l.cc and is represented by a solid line. and the caliper measures the borehole size from 6 to 16 inches.05 gm/cc to +0. The bulk density (Ph) density log correction but only uses the left (discussed later) and in this Tracks scale ranges in value from 2.310 It) read a bulk density 75 . half of the log track.OO() is represented by a dashed line.POROSITY LOGS Figure 28. Note that both scales read left-to-right: the gamma ray values range from 0 to 100 APT gamma ray units. Track #I-This track includes both the gamma ray and caliper logs. and formation factor curve (F). The formation factor curve (F) ranges in value trom I to IO. At the sample depth used in Figure 29 (9. value (Ph) of 2. Thc correction (~p)' formation factor. #2 and #3-The bulk density curve (Ph)' correction curve (~I»' and formation factor curve (F) arc recorded track.

u CPD 76 .71 (limestone) 1. ..31 2.6 2.31 gm/cc in limestone lithology Pms Pt SOLUTION: 2. gm/cc EXAMPLE: Pb 2.FORMATION DENSITY lOG DETERMINATION OF POROSITY FORMATION POROSITY DENSITY COMPENSATED DETERMINATION ~ ci. BULK DENSITY.0 Pb.1 (solt mud) 25 p. !:: (f) o 0: o Q_ ~ 20 © Schlumberger 2.

Find a value for bulk density (Ph) on the horizontal 2. Schlumberger Copyright 1977. Chart for converting bulk density Well Services. I.3 10ft (from log. the porosity «p) is 18'70. follow the horizontal line to the left where the porosity (rp) value is represented on the porosity scale at a fluid density (Pr) of 1. (Pb) to porosity (1)) using values picked from a density log. Fig. Schlumberger. From that point. 28) scale at the bottom of Figure 29 (in this example Procedure: I.56 for salt mud: see text) gm/cc at a depth of 9. 3. 77 . Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal line representing the matrix density (Pma) used (in this case 2. In this case.87 gm/cc (dolomite. Table 7) PI = I.87 for dolomite).56 gm/cc). PITI" = 2. 2. I grn/cc (suggested constant fluid density Ph = 2. C'OUIteSY.POROSITY LOGS Figure 29.

.I I a: w I- I--r--' L .--~---. ! .I-tTL tI .__ C __ I .__--~--~- 1=1H .~~~ ._ ~..' . !. ! .EF=.Z V / I I ~ 77 7 /1/ r'f ! . V -/r-7- 7 . ! i ' i I ! .:- . I I . --. ~~'-I. . I TT ! ! ' i I I • ! ! I i .~-. ! .. i a:~ t:~ a: ~ w I- ~ . --~. I I ' . ::::=c "TT)+ I· I • .~ i -. --r ./. • .I t i I . ! I+ !_w_ i I I J r . ! 7~. - ! +t ---+~-~1--i I i -i L:_ . ~7 ~"'v: I ~+-i 1 I 'V: .--f-- ---> ~~------ ~I/ ~~i-'r17 ._!___:_-~ ./ IV .i ' ~- Iii ~.LIi40 o 10 20 SNP NEUTRON INDEX (¢SNP)C (Apparent POROSITY Limestone Porosity) (¢sNPlc CORRECTED 30 LOG DERIVED POROSITY ¢SNP(%) 78 .--~ I. ~~ .t iii ~'}F~ _. '. ~© 1969 Schlumberger' . I i I I I . ~ ~-t-l- -=-+ ° U) 10 f_J_ t -1'.. ! i 1 I ! i ! .r-' .i I .~1 ! ' I I -I I 'r i I . --- . U Ll.= I- I ' l/'t~--/ [. --.1 I-+--~--I- ~--1-- !tL ~=-L' t i f-~ -. _~_ -----. --. ! L- f---- (5 20 Z 0_ LL c Q) o +----<--- . _"_. i _'. I .. ~~. a: ::> o ~+t ! .L. I I : I I! ! . 30 ..NEUTRON MAY POROSITY NEUTRON I~ I EQUIVALENCE CURVES POROSITY I SIDEWAll ALSO lOG I (SNP) LOGS BE USED FOR GNT NEUTRON -e~ <:{ 40 1.~. ~. v._.i t--[_-~-~--L- ·r=L-. I . ! i • I Ii. f-----'J$ . ! .Z-. r---Ti'-I I _~ ..1-- ii v~~ ---t---++ _. ~ x a: I<:{ <:{ --T--' -- 30 ~ I-t~ ~-H-~-----~=l:1+L .-._- i ~'-++~ 1/ I Tl ~-H .! ! i I I7.T i ! ---+-----_+ : '7 V V I VI!V V' .. + . i ! . LI:t. [7' i ---__C. .L-~t. I ! I I I i I .--.___j_j---i . t. _~__ _ i7 1/ v-t-7 --:! i !i i .LL_~_ ! I I --+-t---~-_.17'Y T.i I . I : I . I .rr: t--·V i / 1/ 7' j_______-- -- -- - - !' 1-----I V o w I<:{ L.--" T+~-~_: :0k2~~(V 1____ . I .. VI i V /' V i---..~ -IT c ~ I .. -. I I J_ I I 'I ! I I i I i i ! '+-H ·'r . v.--" -~~-.- ! I i ! I . .- I ././ + ~:.7 ... /i IV i [//i f/~ 1/ I V-r·lf-i i : ~. • lQ~~ _~'.

Schlumberger. Also. 3. The value for apparent limestone porosity is read directly from a Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log (SNP*) A Sidewall Neutron Log (SNP*) is not shown here. Copyright type neutron log (see text) Schlumberger Well Services. instead the value is given to you. follow the value horizontally to the left. The lithology is dolomite.6) on the left-hand scale: 12%. and read the true porosity ((. Given: Procedure: 1. 7Y . the value is 15 %. Find the value for apparent limestone porosity (read from an SNP* log) along the scale at the bottom of the correction chart. From that point. In this example. {he apparent limestone porosity is 15%. 1969. Note: this is a Schlumbcrgcr example: do not use this chart with another Courtesy. ') Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal curve representing dolomite.POROSITY LOGS Figure 30. Chart for correcting Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log (SNP") for lithology.

.U ..NEUTRON POROSITY EQUIVALENCE LOG (CNL) CURVES COMPENSATED NEUTRON _J <{ a:: w ~ <{ ~ - ~ <{ ~ ~ a:: X30 o w o z a:: u 20 LL 0::C o a::: o a. '=~ en --- ~ >..__ ~~ __ ~ ~ ~ ~~ __ ~ _' _' ~ o CNL NE UTRON 10 INDEX 20 30 Limestone Porosity) 40 (¢CNL)C (Apparent so . 10 o 1972 Schlurnberger L.

rL*). Chart for correcting Compensated type of neutron Neutron Log (CNL*) for lithology. Procedure: !.. Courtesy. Copyright 1972. A Compensated Neutron Log: (eN!_'!) is not shown here: instead the value is given to you. Sehlumberger.--. Also. Porosity = 24%. 81 . sandstone). 3. the value is 20%. From that point. follow the value horizontally to the left. '") Follow the value vertically until it intersects the diagonal curve representing litholugv tin this case. In this example. the apparent limestone porosity is 2Wlt . Schlumberger Well Services. The value fOi apparent limestone porosity is read directly from a Compensated Neutron Log (C. Note: this is a Schlumbcrgcr chart: do not lise this chart with another log (see text). Given: The lithology is sandstone.POROSITY LOGS Figure 31. and read the true porosity (b) on the left-hand scale. Find the value for apparent limestone porosity (read from a CN L" log) along the scale at the bottom of the chart.

0 CALI (IN) --111:-00 QR (UPI) 100.. ~ ... ....e-- r 5000. -- - _--.- - - _ .0 -0. _ -_ ~ ::> _.0 Co 0...- 1-6 9400 - _- -- - __ -- = - 82 .3000 8300 I-. ....100 ..>- c _ - -.... DPHI ( NPHI ( I TENI (LI) 0. ------0...... ) ------.100 . 9310 ~. - .11-:000-0..------- LIMESTONE ) --'-- ---_ _ ~ .

and the neutron porosity (IbN) is represented by a dashed line.. ranging from ." POROSITY LOGS Figure 32. . J. Figure 33 is used to correct porosity for lithology where there is freshwater-based drilling mud (where RIll! > -' Rw). Figures 33 and 34 are charts and examples for correcting Neutron-Density Log porosities for lithology. . . but is also used here for picking in Figure 33 and Figure 34. and the density is 83 ..310 ft. the neutron porosity 9%. and the other (Fig. 34) is used where there is saltwater-based drilling mud (where Rmf i q)N) = R. Note that the gamma gamma ray units and the caliper measures a borehole size from 610 16 inches. porosity value (. Because salt versus freshwater drilling muds can affect the porosity values.. Tracks #2 and #3-Both neutron porosity (WN) and density porosity (d)[)) curves are in tracks #:: and # -'. ray scul« reads from () to I ()() API Track # I-This track contains both gamma ray and caliper curves. i On this log the density porosity (1)0) is represented by a sol id I inc. The scale for both is the same. value is 24'7c . and is measured III I imcstonc porosity units.10% to + 30S1c: n increments of 2'k. E '(ample of a Combination Neutron-Density Log with gamma ray log and caliper.. two different charts are used.bJ)) At the sample depth of 9. This log illustrates values for exercises the log curves and scales of a combination log..

> <..POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY FORMATION COMPENSATED FRESH DETERMINATION FROM DENSITY LOG AND NEUTRON LOG (CNL) LIQUID-FILLED HOLES WATER.7 w -5 Z 0 -10 -15 20 30 40 CNL NEUTRON INDEX (<PCNJC (J\PPARENT LIMESTONE POROSITY) 84 .0 5 tO ef) ~ Q. 25 Z 0 <..> E 20 w ~ __J 01 2. 2. w ef) r- <. <t 0 __J w __J ~ (!) CD :::> .5 r- Z W 0 10 c:: ~ a..4 ~ ref) 15 Z 2.... 40 35 ~ ref) 0 30 0::: 0 o.

Locate the neutron porosity value ((PN) on the bottom scale (24%) and find the density porosity value ((/)Il) on the right-hand scale (9'.{-. Procedure: I. Copyright 1972. Schlumberger Well Services. 85 .0 grn/cc (suggested and fluid density of fresh muds: see text under the heading: Density rD[) Logs). Rmr Chart for correcting 3 Rw)' Neutron-Density Log porosities for lithology where freshwater-based drilling mud is used (where Courtesy. Schl urnberger. In this example. '1 Follow the values until they intersect on the chart. = 9<?c at a depth of 9. 32). Given: fir = 1.{'.310 ft (from log: see Fig. and the intersection shows a true porosity value of 16.POROSITY LOGS Figure JJ.5c. the values meet 011 the lithology curve for dolomite. (bN = 24 (.'0).

-15 (¢CNl)C (APPARENT LIMESTONE POROSITY) ------------------ 86 ._ .3 c--- >...6 ~Q.0 :0 2.__.----:--.- -~-i --t-r r.' 1972 Schlurr. .~-----~ . -. -. ".4 ~ 2. DETERMINATION FROM DENSITY LOG AND NEUTRON LOG (CNL) LIGUID-FILLED HOLES 2.2 r--- (J (J <. 0 W en Z 2. -... __'_j .- -- . . ~O~----~----_L----~------~-----~----~~----~----~----~ o 10 20 30 40 CNL NEUTRON INDEX --.5 -- _j :::J (1) 2.POROSITY LOGS POROSITY AND LITHOLOGY FORMATION COMPENSATED SALT WATER. 0' E 2.7 r--- -..---.berger _--.

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