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Kondapak Village, Siddipet Mandal, Medak District.
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE.
´A technology for the handicapsµ
SUBOOHI SHAHEEN Medak College of engineering and tech Kondapak Village, Siddipet (M), Medak District - 502372, Andhra Pradesh, India. email@example.com,
The human brain is the most complex physical system we know of. actuate and communicate with the world directly through brain integration with peripheral devices and systems. Recent technical and theoretical advances. which has the ability to send and receive signals from the brain. and we would have to understand its operation in great detail to build such a device. BMI uses brain activity to command. By combining the latest developments in computer technology and hi-tech engineering. BMI transforms mental decisions and/or reactions into control signals by analyzing the bioelectrical brain activity. 2 . It is an area of intense research with almost limitless possibilities. paralyzed persons will be able to control a motorized wheel chair. It is a new communication link between a functioning human brain and the outside world. have demonstrated the ultimate feasibility of this concept for a wide range of space-based applications. The signals from the brain are taken to the computer via the implants for data entry without any direct brain intervention. While linking the brain directly with machines was once considered science fiction. control. In this era where drastic diseases are getting common it is a boon if we can develop it to its full potential. computer painter. An immediate goal of brainmachine interface study is to provide a way for people with damaged sensory/motor functions to use their brain to control artificial devices and restore lost capabilities. advances over the past few years have made it increasingly viable. or robotic arm by thought alone. These are electronic interfaces with the brain. Besides the clinical purposes such an interface would find immediate applications in various technology products also.ABSTRACT: A brain-computer interface is a communication system that does not depend on the brains normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles.
e. The first peripheral devices were robotic arms. BCIs are intended to enable both the severely motor disabled as well as the healthy people to operate electrical devices and applications through conscious mental activity. These experiments lend hope that people with spinal injuries will be able to someday use their brain to control a prosthetic limb. this means that the device is actually implanted into the brain or head of the individual that it is designed for. Brain Computer Interfaces are devices to bring an alternative channel of control and communication between people severely disabled and the ³outside´ world. This technology has the capability to impact our 3 BCIs are often divided into three categories: invasive. partially-invasive. In the near future. and the recovery rate is 0.7%. or even their own arm. When a BCI is labeled as invasive. INTRODUCTION: Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a communication system.. allow a paralyzed patient to convey her/his intentions to a computer program. and non-invasive. Of these new cases 56% are in the 16 ± 30 age groups. most devices would be remote/logically controlled.g. which enables the user to control special computer applications by using only his or her thoughts.lives in ways that have been previously thought possible in only sci-fi movies. e.g. An example of an invasive BCI would be a . The Organization of BMI When we talk about high end computing and intelligent interfaces.. Its approach is based on an artificial neural network that recognizes and classifies different brain activation patterns associated with carefully selected mental tasks. we just cannot ignore robotics and artificial intelligence. A BMI could. But also applications in which healthy users can benefit from the direct brain computer communication are conceivable. to speed up reaction times. Millions of dollars are spent by the government of different nations trying to reincorporate into the society thousands of people with severe disabilities. There are approximately 200000 cases of spinal cord injuries ± growing at a rate of 11000 new cases per year.
. which is implanted into the head of a blind patient to allow for artificial vision. the 4 ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method used in measuring the electrical activity of the brain. the recording of which is known as the electroencephalogram. which is connected to the electrodes via thin wires. Examples of alpha. The hardware consists of an EEG machine and a number of electrodes scattered over the subject¶s skull. but is often much more dangerous and expensive. Non-invasive indicates that the device does not need to penetrate the skin at all. records the brain-electrical activity of the subject. ³understand´ the subject¶s intentions. Partially-invasive means that certain parts of the device need to be implanted into the person¶s head while other parts of the device do not. and generate appropriate output. theta and delta rhythms. These potentials get summated as millions of cell discharge synchronously and appear as a surface waveform. BCI COMPONENTS: A brain-computer interface (BCI) in its scientific interpretation is a combination of several hardware and software components trying to enable its user to communicate with a computer by intentionally altering his or her brain waves. The values in each dimension (also called channel) represent the relative differences in the voltage potential measured at two electrode sites. yielding a multi-dimensional (analog or digital) output. This allows for better signal recognition that a normal non-invasive device. The brain generates rhythmical potentials which originate in the individual neurons of the brain. The EEG machine. The alpha rhythm is one of the principal components of the EEG and is an indicator of the state of alertness of the brain. and preprocess the EEG data (separately for each channel). beta. digitize (in the case of an analog EEG machine). To interpret the data.vision BCI. The software system has to read.
Now the BMI components are described as follows: 1: IMPLANT DEVICE: The EEG is recorded with electrodes. There are several different possibilities for the realization of a classifier. Neural implants can be used to regulate electric signals in the brain and restore it to equilibrium. The user is thinking task number 2 and the BCI classifies it correctly and provides feedback in the form of cursor movement. which are placed on the scalp.stream of EEG values is cut into successive segments. which conduct electricity. They provide the electrical contact between the skin and the EEG recording apparatus by transforming the ionic current on the skin to the electrical current in the wires. Electrodes are small plates. and processed with the help of a classifier. otherwise it will stop sending useful information after a short period of time. A BMI based on the classification of two mental tasks. transformed into a standardized representation. Usually small metal-plate electrodes are used in the EEG recording. An array of microelectrodes. 5 . Electrolyte gel is applied between the electrode and the skin in order to provide good electrical contact. one approach ± involving the use of an artificial neural network (ANN)± has become the method of choice in recent years. the outer layer of the skin called stratum conium should be at least partly removed under the electrode. The implant must be chemically inert so that it doesn¶t interact with the hostile environment inside the human body. To improve the stability of the signal. All these factors must be addressed in the case of neural implants. They must be able to move inside the skull with the brain without causing any damage to the brain.
i. In this stage. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT function). the goal is to form distinct set of features for each mental task. 3: SPIKE DETECTION: Real time spike detection is an important requirement for developing brain machine interfaces. it is very difficult to classify mental tasks. the analog EEG signal is digitized. Processed signals are time-division multiplexed and sampled. no matter how good a classifier is used. certain features are extracted from the preprocessed and digitized EEG signal. 2: SIGNAL PROCESSING SECTION: Multichannel Acquisition Systems Electrodes interface directly to the noninverting opamp inputs on each channel. This compression reduces the transmitted data rate per channel.noise ratios (SNRs). thus increasing the number of channels that may be monitored simultaneously. Incorporating spike detection will allow the BMI to transmit only the action potential waveforms and their respective arrival times instead of the sparse. if the feature sets are distinct enough. 4: SIGNAL ANALYSIS: Feature extraction and classification of EEG are dealt in this section. The features Block diagram of the neurotrophic electrodes for implantation in human patients. On the other hand. A hardware realization of a spike detector in a wireless BMI must operate in real-time. for example.Three-dimensional arrays of electrodes are also under development. A BMI under design. any classifier can classify them. In the simplest form a certain frequency range is selected and the amplitude relative to some reference level measured. and function at realistic signalto. Spike detection can further reduce the data rate if spike counts are transmitted instead of spike waveforms. but give a much great range of stimulation or sensing than simple ones. Spike detection will also be a necessary first step for any future hardware implementation of an autonomous spike sorter. They are difficult to implement. raw signal in its entirety. be fully autonomous. Also A/D conversion is made. initial filtering of EEG signal and possible artifact removal takes place. Typically the features are frequency content of the EEG signal) can be calculated using. These can be constructed using a polymer substrate that is then fitted with metal leads. No matter what features are used. At this section amplification. The voltage gain improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by reducing the relevance of electrical noise incurred in later stages.e. These devices are constructed as twodimensional sheet and then bent to form 3D array. 6 . If the feature sets representing mental tasks overlap each other too much.
extracted in the previous stage are the input for the classifier. However. 7 . The BMIs based on the pattern recognition approach and using mental tasks do not definitely require feedback training. The action can be. Feedback is needed for learning and for control. Real time applications provide an action or an answer to an external event in a timely and predictable manner. enabling phenomenal math capabilities and computer memory. The other is learning: the gradual adaptation of motor commands.g.. although the user may be informed about the rejection. 5: EXTERNAL DEVICE: The classifier¶s output is the input for the device control. In the BMIs based on the operant conditioning approach. Also it provides better living. Linking people via chip implants to super intelligent machines seems to a natural progression ±creating in effect. So by using this type of system we can get output nearly at the same time it receives input. One is the µonline¶ control and correction of errors during the execution of a movement. FEEDBACK: Real-time feedback can dramatically improve the performance of a brain± machine interface. feedback can speed up the learning process and improve performance. 2. especially EEG biofeedback. feedback normally allows for two corrective mechanisms. In the brain. Nowadays real time processing is used widely. more advancement in technologies etc. In this era where drastic diseases are getting common it is a boon if we can develop it to its full potential. no action is performed. feedback training is essential for the user to acquire the control of his or her EEG response. Linking up in this way would allow for computer intelligence to be hooked more directly into the brain. ADVANTAGES: Depending on how the technology is used. thought controlled wheel chair etc. there are good and bad effects: 1. allowing immediate access to the internet. Examples are robotic arm. 4. Feedback used in BMIs has similarities with biofeedback. Cursor control has been the most popular type of feedback in BMIs. e. which takes place after the execution of one or more movements. The host station accepts the data via either a wireless access point or its own dedicated radio card. The classifier can be anything from a simple linear model to a complex nonlinear neural network that can be trained to recognize different mental tasks. Telemetry is handled by a wearable computer. By this humans get gradual coevolution with computers. more features. 5. The device control simply transforms the classification to a particular action. 3. if the classification was ³nothing´ or ³reject´. Real-time feedback can dramatically improve the performance of a brain±computer interface. However. super humans. It is the device that subject produce and control motion. an up or down movement of a cursor on the feedback screen or a selection of a letter in a writing application. some of them beneficial and some harmful. Feedback can have many different effects.
resulting in the loss of feelings or movement.Cochlear implants . your brainwaves jump ever so slightly.Artificial silicon retina 2. NASA and DARPA has used this technology effectively. Virus attacks may occur to brain causing ill effects. e. Connecting to the nervous system could lead to permanent brain damage. APPLICATIONS: The BMI technologies of today can be broken into three major areas: 1. defense areas etc. in space missions. or continual pain. Auditory and visual prosthesis . Intendix works using an EEG-sensitive cap that measures brain activity that is focused in a particular way.CHALLENGES: 1. When the letter you want lights up. 8 Other various applications are Mental Mouse Applications in technology products.Synthetic vision . allowing the EEG to determine what to type. 3. System lets you speak without saying a word In effective construction of unmanned systems. Functional-neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) .Various neuroprosthetic devices. . You simply watch a grid of letters that flashes on the screen.Thought controlled motorized wheel chair. They can use brain to control their own limbs by this system. Prosthetic limb control . LATEST INFORMATION ABOUT BCI: The world's first commercial effort at a patient-ready brain computer interface is on display over at CeBIT 2010. the Intendix from Guger Technologies allows users to input text using only their brains. a mobile phone attachment that allows a physically challenged user to dial a phone number without touching it or speaking into it.FNS systems are in experimental use in cases where spinal cord damage or a stroke has severed the link between brain and the peripheral nervous system.g. Guger Technologies claims . Communication over internet can be modified.Thought controlled prosthetic arm for amputee. . Intended for patients suffering from locked-in syndrome and other communication-impairing conditions. 2.Brainstem implants . focusing on the letter you want to type. In the networked brain condition ± what will mean to be human? 3..
or neurons. grimaces the headset can detect the expression and translate it to the avatar in game. Brain control headset for gamers: Gamers will soon be able to interact with the virtual world using their thoughts and emotions alone. FUTURE EXPANSION: A new thought-communication device might soon help severely disabled people get their independence by allowing them to steer a wheelchair with their mind. winks. which emit an electrical impulse when interacting. And just as humans have always valued themselves above other forms of life.that the interface is simple enough that users can utilize it relatively well after just ten minutes of training. The brain is made up of about 100 billion nerve cells. if the player smiles. super humans. and several methods hold promise for implanting information. . motorized wheelchair or other prosthetic device using a headset with scalp sensors that send signals from the brain to the device. The headset implements a technology known as non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) to read the neural activity. A neuro-headset which interprets the interaction of neurons in the brain. non-invasive technologies for portable brain-computer interface systems. These cyborgs will be one step ahead of humans. Mind-machine interfaces will be available in the near future. 9 Non-invasive brain-computer interface technology: . Linking people via chip implants to super intelligent machines seems to a natural progression ±creating in effect. The Epoc technology can be used to give authentic facial expressions to avatars of gamers in virtual worlds. Such technologies potentially could allow people with disabilities or paralysis to operate a robotic arm. it is likely that cyborgs look down on humans who have yet to µevolve¶. New findings by a team of University of Maryland researchers may lead to new. For example.
bbc.tomshardware 4.e. but instead. individual liberties and human life are always valued over and above machines. In that accelerated future. X-rays.com/realeases/200 9/10/091006102637 3.news. www. Google.uk/2/hi/technolog y/7254078. Someday these devices might be more common than keyboards. CONCLUSION: Cultures may have diverse ethics. Is someone with a synthetic eye. but regardless.medicalnewstoday. www.stm. etc. What an interesting day that will be. Will you need to learn any math if you can call up a computer merely by your thoughts? Thought communication will place telephones firmly in the history books. What happens when humans merge with machines? The question is not what will the computer be like in the future. 2. www.Will people want to have their heads opened and wired? Technology moves in light speed now... REFERENCES: 1. but at some time they will have to be answered./worlds-firstcommercial-brain-computerinterface. They will also change the way a person looks at the world. www. And some image and data¶s are with the help of the prominent site i. or ultrasounds as robots do? These questions will not be answered in the near future.com/. what will we be like? What kind of people are we becoming? BMI¶s will have the ability to give people back their vision and hearing.co. 10 .com 5. today¶s hot neural interface could become tomorrow¶s neuro trash. less a person than someone without? Shall we process signals like ultraviolet.sciencedaily.popci. www.
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