If you believe in the

wrong religion or
the wrong god you
regret it forever.

Buddha’s Prophecy of
the Messiah

Inta Chanthavongsouk

Xnh:YsEy:e]h Wh]h;
Xnh:YsEy:e]h WoZh:Awo
YvoêAIyBut[øEy Ph\Z
TpeGs:Qo£ eZhAy[wXyt
XIy<

VoµA TeZhUAy æTBtue]h
eXËnwY
(`ZweXe³Yk)

Do good Make Merit.
Seek the one that will
come after me His name
is Siariyamettrai Or
Messiah. He will save
you from this
destructive world to
Nirvana.

Ao]ow[yZUÓweAhEy:ZhAow
æTTi< A÷¹oyTyeShAyXn
[hXIyt]pAowËnhTi;
]p=ShXIy]Iy
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TkAyFx:eSe]h
@e[hAXn ]EyOÓwAow
AYyOEy?
SwÆSy]ÓweZhAyeFXIy<

Burmese Version
(A¸y]OyPoOye\]Iy)

Inta Chanthavongsouk
LAO CONFERENCE OF CHURCHES
P.O. BOX 893. Rialto, CA 92377

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ATw[\Oy (kabinhlaphath) eQ]Awo `oTyBßTyBut]Iy< Wwo:eW: Xkh:A `hZYSy (Aryan) Xkwl:¹sYyXn GEy:]Ay[hAh. `Z]hBkwlåXwSye]h `Fh: `FhXkh:¹nEyt `eFBvXkh:Awo[Iy:eT:But]Iy< eCiOX`h:. ‘]hXSy[p]h:W\`áUFy `]AyËnEy[øEy WoZEyOFyTi:áUFy[wXytXIy. AGoSy[áTIyt. CkhXSy[pXßw:Xkh:[Iy: Pow Xßw:¹sYyXnGEy:]AyBtueêAhEy:]wËnwZ]Iy< eCiOXVoµ]Iy Bo¹nFyXkh:`h:XnIyteBj]Iyt eBs:¹nFy. 15 ZAy e¸OsEy eXs:Ush:ButTi]Iy< eXs:Ush:áBEy:Bve]he¸OsEy. `]Ay 16 ¹nFy`ËsYyOsEy BXIyy:eOhyA eQ\Q^ (Thevathaha) áTIyXn XEy:]Xx:e[: Ye]hyRZhVwÈh (Yasothala/Phimpha) ¹nEyt [Ay PTyeT:But]Iy< `h^sSy (Arhon) ^pe]h ]h:eOhyOFyTi:PsSy:Ah:But]Iy< Pwo ]wÓe]hW\> 13 ¹nFyêAheSPwoEyBut]Iy< eCiOX]Iy Pow 13 ¹nFy `eOh`OsEy: SSy:eOhyXne[:îAwXyPsAyBut]Iy< OFyîAwXyFxOsEy XOpIxe]h`áUFy`TkAy OFyBoFx eOúBut]Iy< TPX`îAwXyOsEy `Wwo:`woOFyax:¹nEeyt OúBut]Iy< QoOwY`îAwXO y sEy e][oSx:Ti: eZhCiBvFh:eSe]h]p¹nEyteOúBut]Iy< OOwY`îAwXyOsEy `e[hEy: ]YyeGhEy[he]h]p¹nEyteOúBut]Iy< FOo²`êAwXy>Xp ]¸yËnEy:?e[:Fh:PwoAy e]h To¥wl[yOFyax:¹nEyteOú? áXEytáXOye]h]p^o ]p=FwOy>BvFh:But]Iy< PwoTo¥wl[y `eêAhEy:Awo e]Bkhe[t[h]Iyt`Bi Pwo]p]Iy ]ÊhOZh:¹nEyt eTkhyËòEyáBEy:Awo ËnheUsáBEy:Enh e[hAQo£e\QShXkh:AwoeAkhy[sSyåTx: e[hA`ZhXkh:¹nEyt XwXwAwoYy Awo áUOyeOhAyBut]páUFyeêAhEy: ]wËnwBut]Iy< eCiOX]Iy TPX]vo:îAwXy> eOúËnwBute]h`áUFy`TkAyXkh:Xn [ÔW\Aow e[:e[:SAySAy Fay:Fh:But]Iy< [p]h:Xkh:=e\QShXkh:Aow eOúËnwBvFh:But]Iy< eXøhy[EytáBEy:TkAy]oSy:eSe]h [p]h:Xkh:=W\AwoeOs:ZEy: \Xy:SIy:But]Iy< [p = 11 = . ]¸yËnEy:e]h[Xy:Aow [owAye[øhAyBtu[øEy `[Ey:eT:]p áUFy[wXytXIy’ ^o TeZhUAyæTButêA]Iy< Pwoe¸XnhTEy ^wX\ºh eOhEyAoSy:Xn GEy:[he]h Ah_eQ\x[ (Kanthevala/Kanthevin) ^oeBje]h Ze]tA eCiOXe[:Awo [h?ASyeOhtBut]Iy< Pwo]pA ‚@Ae[:]Iy ]¸yËnEy: e]h[Xy:Awo [woAye[øhAy[wXytXIy‛ ^oTeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< PwoTeZhUAyæTBkAy ]Iy eCiOX= `]AyOh> `XnSyOAYyTEy áTIytFvoBut]Iy< eCiOX]Iy WoZEyt]h:eOhye[:áUFy]Iyt`OwoEy: Ae[:W\Xn eOs:eBj TIh. ]wÄvTIh. FFySIy:Và^hXkh:¹nEyt FxXvB¸yBuseZ:TIhXkh:Awo e[t[hGIy:Tp: But]Iy< BXIy:eOhyA ]¸yËnEy:e]h]páUFyZSy X[wo[h:e]heêAhEyt SIy:eTiEy:Fvo áUEyt eTkhyËòEye`hEy`[ow[owAyBut]Iy< aOo]vo:Ti:`OsAy eËòSSy:eGhEy]ov:eGhEyAow eGhAyeT:Btu]Iy< PwÓáTEy [nTe]h`\Oy`Fh:Xkh:.XhYh OwÓ=]h:eOhyáUFyBut]Iy< WxFx 563 OsEy `w»wY¹owEyEveOhEyTwoEy: GhBZh (Sakra) áTIySYy.

]h:Xkh:=W\]Iy eXs:Ush:áBEy:. îAx:Psh:áBEy:. e\QShBvFh:áBEy:. TkAyFx:áBEy:OwÓáUEyt W\OsEy XeTkhyËòEyZWu \Xy:SIy:FZhXkh:]h eOúïAveSêAZ]Iy< (Qo£]¨h/GEy:ZuáBEy:`XnSy) B) \Xy:SIy:áBEy:]Iy XeAhEy:e]h`ZhAwo OTyXAye]heêAhEyt áUFy]Iy< OTyXAyáBEy:A [ÔFwOyAwoXOIyáXue]h`Zh`áUFy]wÓ eZhAyËenw F]Iy< (]XoQY]¨h) C) TpeGs:\Xy:SIy:áBEy:]Iy [wo`EyG»FwOyAwo eáUeUkhAyáBEy:áUEyt Ao]¹woEy ]Iy< (SweZhR]¨h) D) [woBkEyOTyXAyOOye]h e[hWFwOyAwo e`hAyTi`BkAy ËnFyBkAyáUEyt eáUeUkhAy¹woEy]Iy< (X¥]¨h) 1< XnSFy sh áXEyáBEy:< 2< XnSyFsh eOs:eBjáBEy:< 3< XnSFy sh eáTháBEy:< 4< XnSyFsh æT[oTyáBEy:< 5< XnSyFsh `]AyeXs:áBEy:. Trans. = 12 = . by John Kouthapanya. XwUoZh:¹nEyt ]h:eOhyOwÓAwo Fs¸y? XwXwFwOy> BvFh:eS e]háTcShXkh:=`eáU (]ÊhOZh:) Awo ËnheUsBut]Iy< eáBhAy¹nFyB¸y ]ÊhOZh:Awo ËnheUsZEy:AoSy[sSyeFBut]Iy< ]peOúGvoBute]h áXEytáXOye]h]p¹nEyt`OpËnheUse]hy[Iy: XIy]Iyt`eáUAwoXøXeOúËnwButeT< eShAy Gvo:OsEy eCiOXAwoYyOwoEyATEy ]¨hOZh:e[:Ti:Aow ËnheUseOúËnwBut]Iy< PwoOZh: `h:áUEyt Voµ (`[Ey:eT:]p) ^o PEyËnh:[hBut]Iy< 1< ]¨hOZh:(4)Ti:<1 A) AÉheTjËnw ]³\iXkh:`h:[vo:]IyXOIyáXuáBEy:. e]áBEy:¹nEyt áTSy [IyeXs:Ush:áBEy:Pu>]h ]v]Zh[IyeS]Iy^o YovêAIyBtu]Iy< @]wÓ [IyTOy eSe]h]v]ZhXn `WYy]pXøX[sOyeáXhAy¹woEy^oBvFh:Ah [ÔW\=`áUFyGwo:Xkh: eêAhEyt ZOAyXe`:BvFh:ButZ]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt eCiOX]Iy @]v]ZhXn `A÷Oy OZh:Awo ËnheUsZSy G»áTEy:áTBut]Iy< FOo²`îAwXy> eOúáXEyBute]h`áUFy`TkAyeêAhEyt e[hA`ZhXkh:Awo Fs¸y [sOy? ]¸yËnEy:e]h]p AkEytêAvBut]Iyt`OwoEy: åEwXy:e`:BkXy:]háBEy:Awo ËnheUs? e[hA`ZhXkh:Aow e`hEyáXEye]h]páUFye`hEy íAw:Fh:ZSyGvo:áUOyBut]Iy< PwÓ eêAhEyt eCiOX]Iy SSy:eOhy. 1 Comparison of Religion by Sathian Pahthalangsy. Eng.

Voµ]sSy]EyBkAy= `RwA`BkAy[Iy: áUFy]Iy< C) eAhEy:áXOye]hAkEyt\Oy< 1< ]pOFyTi:`h: eT:AXy:Ti< 2< Bkwl]hFsh eáThGwoGAyGvTi< 3< `BkEy:BkEy: XFApIxTi< 4< ]pOFyTi:`h: Ìowe]FshGAyGvTi< D) eAhEy:áXOye]hFwOyPh:< 1< êAXy:OXy:Fsh XæTWu ]pOFyTi:`h: êAEyShTi. eX³hPh:Ti< 2< Qo£áTcShXeZhAyeFWu êAEyShe]hFwOyáUEyt ]pOFyTi:Aow ApIxTi< 3< WAy[woAyáBEy:XæTWu `h:[vo:Awo OSy:OpZIyOpGAyGvTi< = 13 = . 7< XnSyFsh ]OwZáBEy:.6< XnSyFsh `h:PoOyáBEy:. 8< XnSyFsh Fp:FowAyOIyêAIyáBEy:< 2< AkEyt\OyOZh:Xkh:Aow ]sSy]EyáBEy:< VoµWh]hOZh:= `RwA`BkAyXnh AkEyt\OyOZh:Xkh:Awo ]sSy]EyáBEy:áUFy]Iy< A) eYWoYk FIy:AXy:Xkh:< 1< XeAhEy:XrAwo eËnhEyêAayTi< 2< eAhEy:e]h `[oTy[oTyTi< 3< FwOy¹n[vo:]¸yËnEy:Ti< B) TIhOZh:= ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:< 1< TIhOZh:Awo ËnheUsáBEy:]Iy XsSyáXOye]h`ZhAwo ZnheUsáBEy: áUFy]Iy< 2< `OsEy:FwOy¹n[ov:PwSy:BßTyZSy ]sSy]EyáBEy:< 3< eOs:eOhêAvGOOye]h fNyTIhËnwZSy ]sSy]EyáBEy:< @OOwY]sSy]EyBkAy]Iy \wXo³w (veemudti) eBj [sOyeáXhAyáBEy:]Ów TÓweGhEy]Iy< gEy:]Iy GEy:ZuáBEy:¹nEyt [owBkEyOTyXAyXrXn [sOyeáXhAyáBEy: áUFyåTx:.

eCiOX[Iy:eOúËnwBtuáBEy:áUFy ]Iy< @]ÊhOZh:Awo BZFyYhSyRÊe^hEy:AkXy:OsEy eOúZeT]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt @]XowEy:`Z. 8 > ‚eOhEy:êAe[ht< eOhEy:[øEyZXIy< ËnhêAe[ht< Ënh[øEyeOúXIy< OvBi:Awo eBiAyêAe[ht< eBiAy[øEyUsEytXIy< eOhEy: e]h]pXIy]IyAh:Z=< Ënhe]h]p[Iy:eOú=< eBiAye]h]p`h:[Iy: OvBi: AwoUsEyt=‛ ^oGwoPh:Ti]Iy< [woAye[øhAyZXIyt OZh:ËnFyTi: (X¥EyËnFyTi:)< @OZh:ËnFyTi:]Iy GEy:ZuQo£Awo eáTåEwXy:eFe]hOZh:X^oOyeT< GEy:Zu Qo£Awo `Gvo:]OyeFe]hOZh:[Iy: X^oOyeT< ]wÓe]hy XnSyFsháXEyáBEy: Xn F? eShAyGov:TIOyáUFy]Iyt XnSyFshFp:FowAyOIyêAIyáBEy: ËnwAh. eCiOX]Iy OIyËnwåTx:e]h ]ÊhOZh:Xkh:Aow ]pAowYyOowEy ËnheUs Ah AkEytêAvBtuáBEy:áUFy]Iy< Xcu 7:7. [ÔW\`eêAhEy:eáTh¹woEy]p. [p`Xkh:A. ðAYy\]p. VkhQwOy 20:15)< ‚XOZh:e]h]pOwÓ=OwoAyOsSy:áBEy:]wÓX[woAy.@`BSy:Xn ]EyBSy:FhYp]Eyte]h `RwA`BkAyXkh:< ]¨hOZh:e[:Ti:< ]XwoEy:eUhyáTBkAy`Z. TIhËnEy îAx:^o eBjButêAáBEy:áUFy]Iy< = 14 = . XwXwAwoYyAwo Owo:OAye`hEy[oTyeGhEy]p‛ áUFy]Iy< [p`Xkh:A YvoêAIyêA]Iyt`OwoEy: FFyXnSye]hWoZh:]Ów eáThEy:[ueFBtuáBEy:X^oOey T< Pwo ]¨hOZh:e[:Ti:Awo eUhyPoOyBut]páUFye]heêAhEyt. ¹wo:P eF]p. `PAyOsEyeUhyáTPh:e]h ]¨hOZh:e[:Ti:Xnh ]wµ²eCiOX AkEyteGhEyBute]hOZh:Xkh:áUFy]Iy< PowOZh:Xkh:Xnh VoµWh]h XFOEyXnxAOIy:A OIyËnwBute]hOZh:Xkh:áUFyAh. IXTkAyGEyáBEye`hAyeXte]h]p]Iy XCz[hËnw =<‛ (Gh[v 1:1-3)< ‚`ZhZh> e`hEyáXEy[XytXIy< BkXy:]hðAYy\? îAx:Tsh: áBEy:]wÓeZhAy[wXytXIy‛ (eYhÌr 1:1-5) ^p? eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< eCiOX]Iy ]¨hOZh:e[:Ti:= ]sSy]EyXreêAhEyt ]wµ² eCiOX ^p e]h`XIyXn ‚Voµ” ^pe]h`XIyAowZBtu]Iy< `RwÄiYyXnh ‚]weFe]h]p. Ph\ZWoZh:=OZh:eOhy> eXúe[khy? OZh:eOhyAwo e¸. @OZh:ËnFyTi: `h:[vo:Awo áTIytFvoe`hEy[woAye[øhAyZSyáUFy]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:Fh= ]sSy]EyBkAyOsEy BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy [Xy:BZx:áUFyeêAhEy: Awo ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:6 OsEyeUhyáTPh::]Iy< BZFyeOhy`h: YvoêAIyAwo:Fh:e]h ]pOwoEy:]Iy ‚Ph\ZEZuXn AYyOEyáBEy:BvZXIy‛ (eYh^Sy 5:24. XwXwAwoYyAwo ]wËnw Sh:[Iy]p. eAhEy:áXOye]h[Xy:Xn[h]p. [pGwo:OwÓ=[Xy:OsEyXZTy XeS. XPxXutáXEyæTe]h]pOwÓ= `FIy:e\:>XPwoEy.

FhOSyËnweêAhEy:Aow[Iy: YvoêAIyButêA]Iy (AÉhax: 3:1-7)< PwÓeêAhEyt [pOwÓ= YvoêAIyáBEy:Awo e`hAyTi`OwoEy: ]XwoEy:eêAhEy:`Z eOúZ]Iy< A) `F`ax:>e[hA[p]h:`h:[vo:]Iy WoZh:OFyTi:OIy:Awo]h YvoêAIy = 15 = .]Ey]w]Eyte]h]ÊhOZh: 1< ]wµ² eCiOX ]Iy WoZh:X^oOye]heêAhEyt WoZh:áUFyeêAhEy: eUhy áTZSy ]p>AwoYyTwoEyShX XËnweT< ]p]Iy ]Ey¹nEyt A÷¹yoTyAut]wÓ ]ÊhOZh:Awo ËnheUs e]h]pOFyax:]h[øEyáUFyBtu]Iy< ]wÓe]hy ]p=`]AyOh> `áBh:]pXkh: PAy ]ÊhOZh:AwoíAw:Fh:ËnheUsBut]páUFy]Iy< WoZEyt]h:áUFye]heêAhEyt XEy:]h:e[: ^o eBjBt] u Iy< WoZh:áUFyeêAhEy:eUhyáTPh:áBEy:XËnweT< gEy:Awo Sh:X[Iye]h]p Xkh:A WoZh:`áUFy YvoêAIyAwo:AsYyButêAáBEy: áUFy]Iy< 2< `Xkh:A BvYp]Iyt`OwoEy: VoµWh]hOZh:]Iy e[h¹woEyEv= Wh]h OZh:X^oOyeT< [sSyBute]h¹nFyXkh:FshA `w»wY¹woEyEvXn `hËnOFyBsEy]wÓ Ttkv¹Òv[h e]h Wh]hOZh:OFyBo]háUFy]Iy< @Wh]hOZh:OsEy ^w»mWh]hOZh:= ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:¹nEyt eZhe¹nheS]áUEyt Wh]h\EyXkh:A XIy]IytOZh:A Voµ Wh]hOZh:. WoZh:]BEy Awo YvoêAIyAwo:AsYy]Aut]wÓ. ^w»mWh]hOZh:áUFy]IyAowTEy Xe\BsuOOyêAeT< WoZEyXEy:îAx: UhEovXy (Fa Ngum) A VoµWh]hOZh:Awo ¹woEyEveOhyWh]h`áUFy ]OyXnOy[h e]h`Bi e[h[pXkwl:Xkh: YBEyAYvoêAIyAow:AsYyButêAe]h SOy\wIhay YvoêAIy áBEy:¹nEyt eZhePs:]sh:But]Iy< PÓweêAhEytYe¸OwoEye`hEy e[h¹woEyEv> PwoWh]h OZh: ¹nFyBoXnh ÌrTyePs:eSGuáUFy]Iy< 3< VoµWh]hOZh: e[h¹woEyEvOsEy:]wÓ \EyeZhAy[háBEy:< 1353 Bo¹nFyOsEy WoZEyXEy: UhEvoXy (Fa Ngum) A AeÉhQx:Yh:¹woEyEvXn e[h¹woEyEv]wÓ YpeGhEy[h But]Iy< ¹woEyEveOhyWh]h`áUFy PpePhEyAh OFy¹woEyEv[vo:`h: YvoêAIyAow:AsYy eFBut]Iy< `BýwA OwVAy¹woEyEv¹nEyt OÌoOy¹woEyEvXkh:Xn[Iy: OZh:X\Ey ]h]Sh æTZSy eZhAyËnwButêA]Iy< 4< \wIhayYvoêAIyáBEy:= HFyáXFy< e[h¹woEyEv]wÓ VoµWh]hX\EyXnx e[h[pXkwl:Xkh:]Iy SOy\wIhayXkh:Awo ¹nFy eTiEy:Xkh:Fsh YvoêAIyAwo:AsYyButêA]Iy< BZFyYhSy]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy.

XwWXkh:= YvoêAIyZh. Sh:X[Iy]IyáUFyeF. ¹owEyEveOhy A ax:eGhEyZheShAy[woAy? YvoêAIy Awo:AsYBy utêA]Iy< F) Wh]hOZh:OwoEy:]Iy eAhEy:áXOyTi][h:< e[h¹woEyEv]h:Xkh:]Iy. Ye¸OwoEyOIyËnweS]Iy< D) [p]h:Xkh:]Iy WoZh:]BEy¹nEyt `BkwSyêAháXEytFsh e\:AshButZhXn áTSy? WoZh:]BEyPv[nIyt[hêA]Iy< E) e[h¹woEyEv> VoµWh]hOZh:Awo ¹woEyEveOhyWh]hOFyBo`áUFy ]OyXnOy BtuBkwSyA VoµWh]hAwo Sh:[Iy]IyáUFyeF. \wIhay.ButêA]Iy< SOy\wIhay¹nEyt `áBh:Wh]hXkh:Aow Aow:AsYyáBEy: XæTBtueT< B) FhOSy]Iy [p]h:Xkh: YvoêAIye]h QoOwYTo¥wl[y]háUFyBut]Iy< C) AsuáTh:e]h CwoNy:CNXkh:. Wh]hOZh:OowEy:A eAhEy:áXOyáBEy:Aow]h ]sSy ]Eye]heêAhEyt Wh]hOZh:OwoEy:]IyeAhEy:áXOy]Iy^o XkAyFwXnwOyYvoêAIy [AyBvêA]Iy< Pow]Ów[AyBváBEy:]Iy Wh]hOZh:`eêAhEy:Awo Sh:X[Iye]h eêAhEytáUFy]Iy< Wh]hOZh:OwoEy:A eAhEy:áXOye]h`ZhAwo X]sSy]EyeT< `Býwe]hWh]hOZh:Xkh:A `áBh:e]h]pXkh:=`]AyAwo TkAyFx:eF? XwXw= `]AyAwo[Iy: TkAyFx:eF¹woEyTi]Iy< eAhEy:e]hWh]hOZh:[Iy:ËnwTi]Iy< ]Ówe]hy[Iy:[p]h:Xkh:= [wo`TyBkAyAwo XáUIytGIy:¹woEyeT< eAhEy:]Iy^oBvYp e]hWh]hOZh:OowEy:]Iy ‚WoZh:]BEy. `áTFyXnAYyOEyáBEy:OZh:¹nEyt Ph\Z `]Ay‛ F]IyOÓwAowXeT:¹woEyTi< @`Zh]vo:Ti:Awo OFyBoOIy:e]h[Xy:Xn]h ZËnw ¹woEyTi]Iy< Pow[Xy:Xnh. e[h ¹woEyEv> eXs:Ush:[h]pOwoEy:]Iy VoµWh]h\EyXkh:áUFyButêA]Iy< X]wSh: X[Iye]hy[Iy: eOúáXEyZe]h`Zh. YvoêAIyBkAy¹nEyt Wh]hOZh:Xkh:]Iy eShAy[owAy`ZhXkh:áUFyAh. WoZh:]BEyXnh OFyGpOIy:]hËnwTi]Iy< `Býwe]h]pXkh: A WoZh:`Xkh:(Xkh:Fsh)Ënw]Iy^o BvYpêA]Iy< SOy\wIhayGwo:Xkh:FshËnw]Iy< Pw\o wIhayGwo:Xkh:=eBiEy:eGhEyXnh FhOSyáUFy]Iy< Wh]hOZh: Xkh:FshËnw]Iy< `¨[Xy]h]h¹nEyt BZFyYhSyWh]hOwÓ]Iy WoZh:]BEyOFyTi:OIy:]h Ënw eêAhEy: YvoêAIy[AyBvêA]Iy< ^w»mWh]h¹nEyt GFyByWh]hOwÓA WoZh:Xkh:Fsh ËnweêAhEy: YvoêAIy[AyBvêA]Iy< `Býwe]h]pXkh:AXp WoZh:]BEyËnweêAhEy: = 16 = . Wh]hOZh:¹nEyt CwoNy:CNXkh:Xnh AsuáTh:áBh:Sh: êATi]Iy< ]Ówe]hy. BZFyeOhyeYÌrAowYovêAIyáBEy:áUFyTi]Iy< `WYyteêAhEyt Gwoe]hy BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy AÉhe[hA[p]h:OwoEy:¹nEyt VoµWh]h\EyOwoEy:A eFhEyteXøhyeS]p eXËnwY`ËnEyTEy áUFyTi]Iy< G) ]OwæTZXIyt `ZhXkh:< WoZh:]BEy.

1990. (Webster’s Unbridged Dictionary) 3 The native religion of Japan. divination. ËnEyOow (Shintoism.3) Wh]h OZh:Xkh:Xnh [p=FsXy:eGhEyXr`ZhAow]h [AyBvYvoêAIyêA]Iy< H) VoµWh]h]Iy WoZh:]BEy¹nEyteAhEy:AEyOXSyAwo XYvoêAIye]h]p Xkh:`[Yy>OIyePhEyBut]Iy< Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:Xnh Ti_wWh]háUEyt]h eZ: ]h:Ph:e]heêAhEyt ]ÊhOZh:AwoeOúËnwZSy Voµ=eOs:eBjXr. originating in the doctrines of Lao-tzu but later highly eclectic in nature and characterized by a pantheon of many gods and by the practice of alchemy.2). (Webster’s Unbridged Dictionary) 4 Lao Cultural Awarness by John C. ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:Awo eAhEy:XsSyFshe[t[hZXIy< @Wh]hAwo YvoêAIye]h]pOwoEy:]Iy gEy:]sSy]Ey BkAyXkh:= `RwÄhYyAwo ËnheUse[t[hZXIy< VoµWh]hOZh:]Iy fNyTIhAwo `]vo:æTZSy¹nEyt ¹rOyATOyeOhyAwo e[:Fh:ZSy]sSy]Ey]Iy< ¹rOyATOyeOhy Gwo ]IyXnh XIy]pSIy:< ¹rOyATOyeOhyGwo]IyXnh `WYySIy:< @]sSy]EyBkAyAow êAh:Sh]pOwoEy: Sh:[Iy]wËnwZSy fNyTIhAwo`]vo:æT? e[t[hZXIy< A÷¹yoTy `OsAyXnh ¹rOyATOyeOhy]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌrWoZh:TEy áUFyTi]Iy< (ËnEyeYh ^Sy 1:1-3 AowUOyTi<) Fk) Voµ= ]sSy]Eye^heáThBkAy<4 VoµWoZh:e^hBut]IyXnh ‚]Êh]OwËnw[øAy AYyOEyáBEy:Awo ËnheUsZ XIy‛ ^p? ]sSy]EyButTi]Iy< [Ay[sOyFTYyeSOOy]p]Iy AYyOEyáBEy:XBv ZeOhteT< AYyOEyáBEy:OZh:Awo ËnheUseOúËnwZSy CÌoOFwoAye[t[hUwÓ fNyTIh Awo `]vo:æTZXIy< 2 A popular Chinese religion. Oh`ow (Taoism. Kounthapanya. and magic. primarily a system of nature and ancestor worship.XYvoêAIy êAeT< VoµWh]h. = 17 = .

page 389 (Thai Edition) = 18 = . Seventh Edition. 24rd edition. eáThe[tËnwe]h TvoáTEyOFyToQyËnwBut]Iy< PowTvoáTEyPuOsEy VoµAow YvoêAIyXrOwXyeAh[h]Iyt`BkwSyOsEy OFyTi:OIy:]hËnwe]hWoZh:.`BSy: (3) Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAy]Iy XIy]Iyt`BkwSyAh[OwoEy OIyeSXIySIy:< `ZEyeZhAy[háBEy:¹nEyt eShAyXneZhAy[háBEy:]Iy `eZ:XîAx:eT< eZhAy[h]Iyt]p= ZIyËsYyBkAy]h[øE y`eZ:îAx:Ti]Iy< ]wÓe]hy Voµ¹nEyt BZFyeOhyWoZh:= ZIyËsYyBkAyXnh AsuáTh:áBh:Sh:Ti]Iy< `EyOh BkSyOh\XyeGhEyt VoµAkXy:CSy> eOúZe]h AkXy:FAh:eOhyXkh:< A÷¹yoTy]Iy [eTiEy:Xkh:Fsh`BkwSyYp? VoµAkXy:CSy¹nEyt BZFyYhSyAkXy:FhAow ¹rwEy:Ynaye[t[hButTi]Iy< Pwo]wÓe[t[h]Iyt`Bi VoµAkXy:CSy>. AYyOEyËnEyWoZh: GEy:]Ay[h? AYyOEyáBEy: `XræTXIy^o GowPh: ]Iy< Voµ=TeZhUAyæTBkAy> eShEy¹nFyEi:ZhOsEy VoµWh]hOZh:Xnh AsYy eTkhAy]sh:? CÌoNhËnEyWoZh: OFyTi: eTjPsSy:[hXIy^o eUhyáTButTi]Iy< Pow `BkwSy> WoZh:]BEyA TeZhUAyæTBkAyeT:? BZFyeOhyAwo `áTFyPuXn [p]h:Xkh: 5 6 Book of Buddha. page 330 (Thai Edition) Book of Buddha.6 BsEytæTáBEy:ZËnwBtu ]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt PowTeZhUAyæTBkAy`OwoEy: Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyXnh ¹nFyeTiEy:Ei:Zh `OsAy]h áUFyButTi]Iy< VoµáT£QwSy¹nEyt BZFyYhSyáT£QwSyAwo ¹rwEy:YnayêAIyte]h`Bi VoµWoZh: TeZhUAyæTåTx:eShAy ¹nFyeTiEy:Ei:Zh`êAhOsEy BZFyeOhyeYÌr eTjPsSy:ButeêAhEy: eOúZ]Iy< gEy:]IyOwoAyGwoEyáBEy:OFyBo[h:< [pXkh:eZ:e[t. `Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax:]Iy \Oy[voáUm\Oy? ]x[ËnEyXæTBute]hy VoµWh]h ]Iy `¹nFyEi:ePhEyêAheIhEy:[wXytXIy< `Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax: ]x[ËnEy æTBut[øEyXp @]sSy]EyBkAy]Iy `¹nFyEi:ZhOsEyGvo:[wXytXIy‛5 ^o GwoPh:Ti]Iy< eShEyOFyBkwSyOsEy X^hVwoeQ:BpPXx: (Mahavodeekotamee) ^o `XIyOsEy e]h `Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax:]Iy ]x[ËnE\y OyBsEytæTZSyeOhEy:GwoButAh. eX³heOhy ËnEyWoZh:. ‚êAIytTi.

[Ô`]AyOh `eêAhEy:Aow]h FwOy\EyFh:[hBut]Iy< @Aut]wÓ áUFyZáBEy:Xnh ]p=FwOyPu> áUFy eTj[he]h eX:BsSy:Xkh:Awo `eáUËnhZhXn áUFyeTj[háBEy:áUFy]Iy< PoweX:BsSy: Xnh. [p]Iy`WYy]Ówe]h]³\iáUFy]SIy:< `WYy`ZTyXn [h]SIy:< `WYyt `OsAyeêAhEyt `]AyËnEyZ]SIy:< e]åTx:eShAy `WYy`ZTy]wÓ]sh: XIySIy:< @eX:BsSy:Xkh:Aow A÷¹yoTy[Iy:eX:áXSy:[owFwOyËnwBut]Iy< ]wµ² ]Iy @ eX:BsSy:Xkh:= `eáUAwo]wËnw[woe]heêAhEyt WoSy:îAx:Xkh:¹nEyt ^w»mTeZhUAyXkh:> e[t[h ]EyYpBut]Iy< ]wÓe]hy]pFwOyeAkSTye]h `eáUAwo XZËnwButeT< `]Ay 16 ¹nFy> `wXyePhEyæTAh ]h:eOhyOFyTi:PsSy:Ah:Btu]Iy< ]wµ² ]Iy [AyPTyåTx: ]h:eOhyOFyax:TEy ZËnBw ute]hy[Iy: ]ÊhOZh:Awo ËnheUs [woe]h ]p=G»Xnh eTkhAyX]sh:ButeT< PwÓeêAhEyteShAyGvo:OsEy `]Ay 29 ¹nFyËnw[he]h`Bi Xw]h:Fo. T¨Iy:a¨h ¹nEyt SSy:eOhyAwoFs¸y? eOhPsAyAh ]ÊhOZh:Awo ËnheUsZSy Gvo:áUOyBut]Iy< ]wµ² ËnheUsBute]h`ZhXnh VoµWh]h= ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:TEyáUFy[h]Iy< ax:FsheZhAy]p¹nEyteShAyXneZhAy[h]p. GAy(B)XháTIySYy. ATw[\OyèXwAwo `oTyFwo:Bute]h WoZEyXEy: ]oeµiQS¹nEyt XwUoZh: ]xZwX^hXhYh OwÓ= ]h:eOhyáUFy]Iy< Pwo`BkwSyOsEy WoZEyXEy:¹nEyt OwoEy:]páTIy ]h:Xkh:]Iy ^w»mWh]h> ^w»mWoZh:Xkh:¹nEyt [IyTOyeSe]h W\]v]Zh> áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:áBEy:Awo YvoêAIyButêA]Iy< XEy:]h:e[: ]wµ² ]Iy `oTyBßTyeZ:TIhAwo eAhEy:XsSyFsh ]EyYpBute]hy [Iy: îAx:áTEy:[he]h`Bi ¹woEyEveZ:Awo FwOy\EyFh:áBEy:XæTWu. `WYy]p]Iy `eZ:îAx:]SIy:< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ¹woEyEv> ]BEyeYÌr`eêAhEy: FOEy]sSy]Ey[h]Iyt`Bi eËÒAke]h ]p¹nEty eShAyAke]h]p`WYy]p]Iy]h? `eZ:îAx:eêAhEy:áEEy:BvoBut]Iy< = 19 = .`h:AYyOEyZSy eF[sOyButáBEy:áUFyeêAhEy: Sh:[IyZTi]Iy< gEy:Xnh OwoAyGwoEy áBEy:[h:< WoZh:]BEy= `êAvFIyeOhy[h:< BZFyYhSy]ÊhAkXy:Fh eUhyáTBkAy `Z USyGEy:ËnEyWoZh:=`êAv`FIyTEyáUFyTi]Iy< WoZh:]BEy]Iy [p]h:OwoEy: Awo ]BEyeYÌr]Iy e[hA]h:Xkh: eXøhy[EyteFhEytFh:eSe]h AYyOEyËnEy áUFyeêAhEy: ]weF[ow]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt BZFyeOhyAow`WYy]wÓáEEy:TYy¹woEyXIySIy:< ]p]Iy VoµeShAyXneTjPsSy:XIy^o VoµAGowBtu]Iyt`OowEy: WoZh:]BEy= eXËnwY ËnEy`áUFy PEyËnh:Btu]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt BZFyeOhyAwo eXËnwYËnEy`áUFy [AyBváBEy:Xnh Voµ= TeZhUAyæTBkAyAwo [AyBváBEy:TEyáUFyTi]Iy< A÷¹yoTy]Iy WoSy:îAx:eAkhEy:> Voµ]Iy `[Ey:eT:]p XáUFyBEy ]p=`XIy Xnh ]wµ² eCiOXáUFyeêAhEy: ]EyYpButTi]Iy< WxFx 543 Bo¹nFy> `w»wY¹woEyEv.

FwOyAp:`OwoEy: eXs:Ush:[h e]h ]hXSy[p]h:OFyax:]háUFy]Iy< 4< WoZh:]BEy= COweOhy`OwoEy:. RÊe^hEy: AkXy:Fh> eUhyáTPh:e]h COweOhy`OwoEy: eXs:Ush:[h]páUFy]Iy< 5< [p]h:= FwOyG»`Z ]Wh\`OwoEy: eXs:Ush:[h]páUFyTi]Iy< 5< [ÔG»áUEyt X^oOyWu ]¸yËnEy:e]h \wIhay eOhy`h:áUEyt TJw]eÀOIy? eXs:Ush:But]p áUFy]Iy< 6< XIy]Iyt `vtUY s yZh SwXwOy[£NhXn X[oTyáTButeT< 6< `vtê]WsYy SwXwOy[£NhXkh:áT]But]Iy< `PEy Ënh:Gov:¹nEyt `eZ:`îAx:Gvo:Xnh [pAow e]áBEy:Xn ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy:áUFy]Iy< 7< ]hXSy[pXkh:Aut]wÓTEy TIh]EyYpBut]Iy< 7< fNyTIh¹nEyt áTIytFvo]Iy< 8< ]h:XYh:ËnwBut]Iy< 8< ]h:XYh:XËnwButeT< = 20 = .OFyax:A ‚Voµ]IyeËn:Ake]heêAhEytTwo?áXEytáXOy]Iy< TeZhUAyæTBute]h]p áUFy e]heêAhEytTwo?áXEytáXOyeêAhEy: ]wZ]Iy‛ ^oGwo]Iy< ]wÓe]hy `áBh:e]hOFyax:A ‚BZFyeOhy]Iy eShAyXn[he]heêAhEyt ]h? áXEytáXOy]Iy‛ ^o eáTh]Iy< Two?e[t[he[ Two?Sh:[Iy[h]IyXnh @`eáU¹nFyBoF[vo:Xnh `RwÄiYyËnwTi ]Iy< ]wÓe]hy[Iy: Pow]p¹nFyax:=ZIyËsYyBkAy¹nEyt XIy]pXIy\i áUFyeêAhEy:Xnh `EyXOSyXn AsuáTh:áBh:Sh:eêAhEy: e`hAyTi`OwoEy:]wËnwZTi]Iy< Voµ eYÌrBZFyeOhy 1< XeXs:Ush:BEy `WYy`ZTyXn[h? `WYy]páUFy XnSy:X]wZTi< 1< e[hAAowUSy:GEy:e]hWoZh:áUFy]Iy< eAhEy:AEyWvo> BXIy:eOhyWoZh:¹nEyt `OpËnweSe]h]páUFy]Iy< 2< `w»wY¹woEyEvWZo EytXkwl:¹sYyXn GEy:]Ay[h ]páUFy]Iy< ]p=UBEyXnh ]oeµiQS áUFy? XwBEyXnh ]xZwX^hXhYh áUFy=< 2< ¢]eZ[WoZEyXkwl:¹sYyXn GEy:]Ay[h]p áUFy]Iy< WePs:áUFy]pXnh eYh]TyáUFyåTx: XwBEyXnh XhZwáUFy]Iy< 3< ]hXSy[p]h:OFyax:]háUFy]Iy< eXs:Ush: ZSy eF[sOyáBEy:BvZe]h WoZh:X^oOyeT< 3< BXIy:eOhy= eF[sOyáBEy:BvZ? [p]h:Xkh: `h: `áTFyXnAYyOEyZSy e[hA]wÓðA[h e]h]páUFy]Iy< 4< XwBEy=`wTyXAy.

eShAyXn[h]p^o BsuáBh:]IyXnh `eZ:XTieOhteT< Pwo]p=eZhAy[háBEy: ZIy ËsYy BkAy¹nEyt XIy]pXIy\iáUFyeêAhEy:]Iy]h `eZ:îAx:Ti]Iy< Voµ]Iy ]ÊhOZh:Awo ËnheUs]páUFy]Iy< BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy ]ÊhOZh:áUFy]Iy< (ËnEyeYh^Sy 5:24) = 21 = .9< `]Ay 80 OsEy \Ay]h:`GwTyOAyåTx: e]Gvo:Bu] t Iy< ]p=e]Gvo:áBEy:> ZIyËsYy BkAyXËnweT< 9< `]Ay 33 ¹nFyOsEy [Ay\i:Ah:OwoEyeTj `e]BvBut]Iy< ZIyËsYyBkAyXnh `áTFyPuXn [p]h:Xkh:Aow AYyOEyZSyáUFy]Iy< 10< e]áBEy:Xn áTSy[IyPeáXhAyáBEy:XËnwButeT< `áXu e]e]h]páUFy]Iy< 10< AkXy:Fh> TeZhUAyæTPh:]Iyt `OwoEy: e]Buet ]hy[Iy: ]vo:ZAyeáXhAy e]he¸> ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyBut]Iy< 11< ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyåTx: OTIyteOhyXkh:¹nEyt ZAyeTiEy: 40 `OpeSButåTx: [peTiEy: 500 XkAyeXnhAy> eAhEy:AEy]wÓ BkxeGhEyáBEy: BvBut]Iy< 11< e]Gv:o åTx: `WYy`ZTy]Ów ]sh:]IyAwo `WYy]pXøX]weT< 12< YBoBkwSy Wh[oTyeS]IyAwo[Iy: `WYy ]pXø X]weT< 13< Voµ]Iy áTSyðA[hXIyX^oOyeOhteT< 12< BZFyeOhy]Iy WoZh:]BEy= [AyYh WAyOsEyPwoEyåTx:. A÷¹yoTyOwÓ`OsAy GoeOhEy: eT:eS]Iy< A÷¹oyTyOwÓ`OsAyeS`wXyAwo áTEyGEyeT:eS]Iy< 13< @e[hA]wÓ OUSyáTSy[h? OZh:FxZEy `oTyFow:[wXytXIy< @ 13 BkAyáUEyt Voµ¹nEyt eYÌrBZFyeOhy= FFyXnSye]h ]eWh]Wh\Xnh AusáTh:áBh:Sh:eêAhEy:Awo ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh]wËnwZTi]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt ax:FsheZhAyËnw[h]p.

= 22 = .`BSy: (4) Toáv TEyPuA AYyOEyËEn yOFyTi:.   Fh:e]hAye]h]p]Iy eAkSTy[wXytXIy. 7 Tranditional Lao Poem. ]EyFh:e]h`Fh`h:áUEyt XFh:e]h]pAow eAkSTyeFXIyX^oOy< ]Eyt\wIhayËnEy]SyZSy AYyOEyËnEyAwoYvoêAIy[AyBvZXIy. AYyOEyZSy CÌoNheX³hËnEyWoZh: ]wÓX^oOy AYyOEyËnEy WoZh: ðA[hXIyáUFyeêAhEy:‛ eáTháTPh:]Iy< ‚eAk:[AyeOhËshe[:OsEy GEy:Zu]h:Xkh:¹nEyt`Op eXs:Ush:BvZe]hy[Iy: OSyBwo:îAx:[wXytXIy< BÀhAowYy> QNyBkAyXkh:eêAhEyt ËsvËnhUsYyáUFy[wXytXIy< Pwo]p `h: YvoêAIy[AyBve]h]p]Iy EZu]wÓAkeZhAyáBEy:Xn [sOyeáXhAy[wXytXIy‛7 ^o VoµA TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< BZFyeOhy=]AyeOhyFayAwo e[t[h]Iyt`Bi PwoTvoáTEy¹nEyt `[sSySx:FTy eêAhEy: eOúZ]Iy< OFyeêAhEy:BkEy:Awo e[t[h]Iyt`Bi. A) VoµOZh: OwXyeAh[h]Iyt`Bi AYyOEyËnEyWoZh: ðA[hXIy< VoµWoZh:TeZhUAyæTåTx:eShAy 543 ¹nFyêAhe]h`Bi BZFyeOhyeYÌr e[hA]wÓ ðAGEy:But]Iy< `Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax: ]x[ËnEyáUFy[h]Iyt`Bi VoµWh]h OZh: Gvo:BSy:]wÓeZhAy[wXytXIy^p]Iyt TeZhUAyæTBkAy`OwoEy:TEy ]XwoEy:eUhyáT BkAy`Z `Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax: ]x[ËnEyæTBut]Iy< B) eOhËshe[:OsEy eXs:Ush:[wXytXIy< BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy WoZEyQi\wQyXkwl:¹sYyXn GEy:]AyBute]hy[Iy: WePs: eYh]TyXnh GEy:Zue]h[Ay]Xh:OFyax:áUFyBut]Iy (Xcu 13:55)< BZFyeOhy eYÌrAwo SSy:eOhyPuOsEy X^oOyWu ¹sh:OEy:AoOyOsEy eXs:Ush:But]Iy ([oAh 2:6. `áBh:e]h]p=YvoêAIyáBEy:áUEyt ]EyAYyOEyáBEy:XZ¹woEyeT< ðAGEy:[hXIyt AYyOEyËnEy`OsAyTeZhUAyæTBkAy< `eFhTwoEy:OsEy eUhyáTPh:]Iyt`OwoEy: A÷¹oyTyOwÓ¹woEyEvOsEy eËn:e^hEy:TvoáTEy OFyToQyËnwBut]Iy< PwoTvoáTEy> ‚VoµWh]hOZh: OwXyeAh[h]Iyt`BiOsEy WoZh: OFyGpËnweêAhEy:.

7)< eXs:Ush:ZhHhOw VAy[EyèXwAwo èXwEYye[:`áUFy]h [p]wXkh:]Iy (Xw£h 5:2. eAhEy:AEyWvo>Ënwe]h Ei=BXIy:eOhyeËÒXnh Pow]pAwo Ei\SyBvXIy< `êAEy]p ]Iy[pOwÓeËÒXnhEitAwoáEEy:TYy`vt. 33 OsEy BZFyeOhyA ‚`êAEy]p]Iy[pOwÓeËÒXnh EitAwo\Sy Bv`vt. `SheZhCiåEwXy:eFáBEy: (Xcu. [pPoA áTAyZYyæT Ah ËsvËnhUsYyáUFy? eOúáXEye]h]pOwoEy:A [nIytáTSyBkEyêAXIy< Pwo]BEyAwo [AyBv YvoêAIyZXIyt`Fh: IÕEy:TSy:¹nwTyFAyBtuêA]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:Fh> ËnEyeYh^Sy A 3:18 OsEy ‚Pwo]BEyAwo YvoêAIye]h]p]Iy OZh:FxZEyáBEy:XBvZWu. [nváUEytPow:áBEy:. ]Ey]Iy]BEyeYÌrAwo ¹rOyáUEyt \SyBv ?. Xcu 27:27. WoZh:]BEy]Iy]ÔAwoe]áBEy:Xn ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyeFåTx^o FwOy¹n[vo:Pu> YvoêAIy = 23 = . eAhEy:AEyWvo>Ënwe]h Ei=BXIy:eOhyeËÒXnh Pow ]pAwoEiáEEy:TYyXIy‛ ^oGwoBut]Iy< eZhX 10:9.31)< PwÓ`áTEy Ah:OowEyeTjOEy? AsTyáXAyButeêAhEy: (eYh^Sy 19:18). WoZh:]BEy= `XkAyeQi]]h AkeZhAy[wXytXIy‛ ^o eZ:]h: eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< ËnEyXcu 10:32. ‚`WYy]wÓSIy:^pXpAh:. e]e]h]p`h:`]AyËnEyeFáBEy:(eYh^Sy 11:36-45). [nváUEytPwo:¹nAy BtueêAhEy: (ËnEyeYh^Sy 19:34) eOúZTi]Iy< @`áUFy`TkAyXkh:`h:[vo:Awo Voµ A íAwOEy? TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< ÌowAy¹nAyáBEy:. 23:16-17. 15:29-31). XYvoêAIy e]h]p]Iy WoZh:]BEy= ]h:eOhyAow [AyXBve]heêAhEyt OZh:FxZEyåTx:]h: áUFyeêAhEy:. XwXwAowYyOowEy e]áBEy:Xn ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy: (eYh^Sy 20:1-10) F]Iyt SwXwOy[£NhXkh: áT]But ]Iy< @`ZhXkh:]Iy e[hA¹nEyt¹rwEy:Ynay?XZe]h BZFyeOhyeYÌr= OSyBwo: eOhy áUFy]Iy< E) ËsËv nhUsYy QNyZhXkh:¹nEyt eYÌr BZFy\EyAkXy: (4)AkXy:OsEy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo QNyZhQNyBkAyXkh:¹nEyt IÕEy: GuButáBEy: eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy ([oAh 22:63-65.‛ eUjáTPh:]Iy< eYh^Sy 3:16 OsEy ‚Pwo]h:eOhyAwo YvoêAIy e]h]p]Iy Ph\Z`]AyAwo Z? XYvoêAIye]h]p]Iy Ph\Z`]AyAwo Z[wXytXIyX^oOy. SOyGwo: Xkh:`h:¹nEyPoOyáBEy:(Xcu 8:8-34). Xcu 2:1-6)< @`BkAyXkh:`h:[vo:]Iy Voµ=TeZhUAyæTBkAy¹nEyt AowAyIxTi ]Iy< C) OSyBwo:ËnEy ]ÊhAkXy:Fh> BZFyeOhy=]AyeOhyFayAow UOyÌr]Iyt`Bi BZFyeOhy]Iy [pTZw]Oy`[IyOsEy SwXwOy[£NhOSyBwo:Xkh:áT]ButeêAhEy: eOúZTi]Iy< Ukh: Sh]pXkh:AwoAkSy:XheFáBEy:. eZeTj[Xy:e[øhAyáBEy:(Xcu 14:25-27).

AYyOEyáBEy:]wÓ eZhAy[wXytXIy<‛ VkhQwOy 20:15. ‚`]AyFheFhEy> FhZEy:X\Eye]h]pËnw]XøAwo[Iy: Xx:`woEy Pu]wÓ BkTFye[=<‛ EZuXx:`woEy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:= QoOwY¹nEyt eShAyGvo:`îAwXye]áBEy:áUFy]Iy< eYÌrBZFy= `]AyFheFhEy> ShXIyeZ:]h:Ph:e]h]p]Iy AOweOhy `OwoEy: áTEyGEyeT:e]h eAhEy:AEy]Fy. eáXîAx:]FyAwo \EyFh:Z[wXytXIy< PÓweêAhEyt eShAyGv:o e]h OZh:FxZEye]he¸> EZuXx:`woEPy u]wÓBkTFyáBEy:BvZe]h]p]Iy `áTFy]h: áUFy e]heêAhEyt X^oOyWu. BZFyeOhy`h:áUEyt `áTFyXn BsEyt[sOáy BEy:OZh:Awo [AyXBve]heêAhEy]t háUFy]Iy< = 24 = .[øEy.

`BSy: (5) eXËnwY`eêAhEy: TeZhUAyæTBkAy A÷¹oyTO y ÓwËshOsEy. îAwXyeTiEy:]Sy:BkxXA GoeOhEy:e]hy[Iy:. XwXw]Iy `áTFy¹P sv uXA n YyOEyáBEy: ZËnw ¹woEyXIySIy:< Voµ< eT:AXy:e]hy[Iy:. WoSy:îAx:\OyåTx: OZh: 227 Ti:Awo [woAey [øhAye]hy [Iy:. OFye¸OsEy Ei:îAwXyOZh:`h:PoOye]hy[Iy: ]Ey]Iy AYyOEyáBEy:XZ¹woEyeT< @OZh:Xkh:Aow e¸OwoEy:[oTyeGhEye]hy[Iy: GvTEyOFyTEy= ËnFyTvo OFyTBvo ¸yXø¹nEyt Ixe]hAo]ow[y]h[øEy ZËnw[wXytXIy< XwBEy\Xy:Pu>]h Ënwe]:e]hAe[:TEy[øEy eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEv OvBi:\]wXÓ \Ey¹woEy< áV^‰h< Pow]wÓGwo[øEy AYyOEyáBEy:ZËnwZSy `WYy]wÓ[oTyeGhEyZXIySIy:< Voµ< [p=`áTFy]Iy Xkh:[sSy:[n]Iy< e[:[sSy:[n]Iy< eAhEy:AEy PAy e[:]Iy< eáXîAx:PAy Pp]Iy< eáXîAx:OFyáTEy[vo:>Ënwe]h eAkhAyOvo:Xkh:PAyîAx:? Pp]Iy< ¹nFyFay eAhEy:AEyOXSyXkh:A 8 Book of Buddah (Tri Pee Dok Bible. = 25 = . page 23. ËnFyTi:]x[ eFhEyt e]hy[Iy:. Ei:Ti:]x[eFhEyte]hy[Iy:. Ësh]h:OwoEy:]we]h TeZhUAyæTBkAyOFyBoËnwBut]Iy< ]Ów e]hy A÷¹oyTyEYyFayW\>áUFy? FwO\y EyFh:XrXËnwBtueT< eShAyOsEy. eËnhEyêAayáBEy:. The Monk Siri Visouthivong in the temple Phra Sing in Chaingmai certified to its accuracy. BZFyeOhyeYÌr `eêAhEy: e[t[hZEy: PowTeZhUAyæTBkAyXnh `[sSyTEy `SAy`RwÄhYyËnweêAhEy: GEyáBEyXwButTi]Iy< eAhEy:XrXkh:. CÌoNhFwOyáUEyt [oTyeGhEye]h`[oTXy kh: `h:áUEyt eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEv]wÓ XeZhAy¹woEy. `FheËnhEyáBEy: ¹nEyt eT:AXy:áBEy:Xkh:áUEyt. e[hAAwo AYyOEyZSyðA[he]h eXËnwYAow [AyBv. [AyXBvGwo]Iyt`BkA>y ]h[øEy `RwAáUFyeêAhEy: Sh:[Iy [hButTi]Iy< VoµAowYyOwoEy TeZhUAyæTBkAy>[Iy: @]wÓeOúËnwZTi]Iy< Voµ]Iy BZx:[nIyt[IyeSButFay `]Ay`ËsYy`woXEy:eSåTxáUFye]h `w»wY `Wwo:`wo áV^‰h (Brahman) A @]wÓeX:But]Iy<8 áV^‰h< `WYy]wÓe]hOZh:`h:PoOyáBEy:. Thai Edition) book 7.

= 26 = . OTyXAyUsYye]h AhXCoNyXkh:Awo Fs¸yáBEy:áUEyt WoSy:îAx:\Oye]hy[Iy:. hence the word “lead” instead of “carry.9 SwÆhSy]wÓ TÓweGhEy eT:¹woEy]páUFy]Iy< ]Ey]Iy fNyTIhËnEy]vo:Ti:Awo eOú[wXytXIy< OZh:[Xy:e^hEy:]wÓ X[woAy¹nEyt< AYyOEyáBEy:ZXIyX^oOy< OZh: [Xy:e^hEy:Awo Fs¸y[øEy e[hA> GAyåTx:`]AyËnEyZSy¹nEyt Ph\Z `]AyZËnwZSy ]Eyt¹n[vo:]h:PuXnh Xx:Aut]wÓe]h \wIhayZËnw[wXytXIy< PwoWoZh:]Iy \Oy[voâU\OyGEy[kAy eAhEy:AEyêAYyXkh:Aut]Ów eOhAyT]Iy< [p]h:Xkh:Awo eAhEy:AEy]wÓeBjeGhEyåTx: eËò`wXy eOhyáTEyGEyeT:[wXytXIy< ]p=ShXAwo îAx:áXOye]h CÌoNh eX³hËnEy^o eBjêA[wXytXIy< ]ÔAwoeFhEyteXøhyTi< eAk:Hp:æT? [Fy[àXÌrTi¹nEyt<10 Voµ= ]sSy]EyBkAy¹nEyt BZFyeOhy= ]sSy]EyBkAyAwo ¹rwEy:Ynaye]hy e`hAy Ti`OwoEy: SwCvo:BßTyZTi]Iy< 9 In Asian area. `áXEytGvo:e]h]peOhyeAhEy: `áUFy ]v]Zh> `USyUSyAkEy[Iye]hy[Iy: AYy OEyáBEy:XZ¹owEy eT< @]wÓGwo[øEy. [AyeOhyXnh QNyZh Xkh:eOú[wXytXIy< SveW:eOhyXnh[Iy: [nvBkAyQNyZh¹nEyt eBiEy:eOhy >[Iy: `XhËsOXy kh:Ënw[wXytXIy< Pow]p]Iy `Fay[IyTOyeSe]h ]v]ZhFAyAsE:y PuXn [sOyeáXhAyeF¹woEye]h]p. boats were often used as walkways or bridges across rivers.áV^‰h< Voµ< áV^‰h< Voµ< PwoeAkhAyOvo:Xkh:Awo ËnEy:TFy? eTkhAy]sh:Btue]hy `áTFy]Iy[Iy: eTkhAy]sh:[wXytXIy< XwXwAowYyAwo YHyTpeHhyáBEy:.” 10 Tranditional Lao Poem. `WYy]wÓ [oTyeGhEyZXIySIy:< CÌoNheX³hOZh:¹nEyt `[oTy[oTyZEy: e[hAAwo AYyOEyZSy ðA [hXIyt WoZh:AwoËnhTi< ]p]Iy]EytAwo AYyOEy[wXytXIy< ]p= `XIyXnh `ZweXe³Yk (AYyOEyËnEy) áUFy]Iy< Pwo]p]Iy Eit`ZEy ËnwBut? EiteShAyXn[hXIyt]páUFy]Iy< AYyOEyËnEyWoZh: ]wÓX^oOy CÌoNhËnEyWoZh: `ZweXe³Yk = AwoYy AkEytOZh:Xnh `WYy]wÓSIy:< e[hAAow ðAGEy:[hXIyt AYyOEyËnEy= eáB. XwXwTwoEyGwoEy]Xø FIy: FwXya¨hXkh:Awo Fs¸y[sOTy ep HhyáBEy:.

‚`áTFyOZh:]Iy eAhEy: AEyPAy e[:?.áV^‰h= eX:BsSy:Xkh:Awo eáUêAh:Ph:e]h `eêAhEy:`ZhXkh:Xn `eZ: îAx:e]h ]ÊhOZh: ËnFyBoAwo A÷¹oyTyËnheUseOúËnwButTi]Iy< 1< e[hA[p]h:OwoEy:]Iy `áTFyPuXn AYyOEyZSy[wo`Ty]Iy< áV^‰h]Iy VoµPv]sh:? ]p]w[woe]h `ZhXkh:Aow eX:e[øhAyButåTx: Voµ= eáUêAh:BkAyXn OSyUwo:Ënwe]h]EyBSy:FhAwo GEyáBEyXwTi]Iy< Wh]hOZh:OwoEy:>. [p]h:OÓw=`áTFyîAx:e[: Xr]Iy ¹rwEy:YnayXIy` t Zh XËnweêAhEy: Gwo[woáBEy:áUFy]Iy< WoZh:]BEy= FAh:Aow XShBvWu. QoOwYXnh `áTFyOZh:¹nEyt Ao]wo[yeAhEy:XrêAh: Ash^Xr Aow eOúËnwZSy¹nEyt OOwY`BkAyXnh `áTFyOZh:Xn [sOyeáXhAyZh[Xy:XnSy eOúËnwZSy OwÓ áUFy]Iy< `áTFyOZh:¹nEyt TOy]Oy? VoµAGwoBut]IyXnh. eáXîAx:PAy Pp]Iy<‛ `RwÄiYyXnh. XYvoêAIyáBEy:]Iy WoZh:]BEyAwo G¸yAkEyáBEy:áUFy]Iy< WoZh:]BEyAwo G¸yAkEyáBEy:]Iy `áTFyáUFy]Iy (eZhX 1:21)< [p]Iy FhOSyFAh:Aow Sh:ePhEy? `áTFyæTBut]Iy (AÉh 3:1-7)< USyGEy:ËnEyWoZh:]BEyAow XAow:AsYyWu USyGEy:Bv`ZhXkh:Awo Aow:AsYyButêA]Iy< = 27 = . `FheËnhEyáBEy:¹nEyt eT:AXy:áBEy:Xkh:áUEyt AYyOEyáBEy:Z¹woEyXIySIy:‛ ^p e]heX:BsSy:]Iy e[hA[p]h:OwoEy: eX:]Eyte]heX:BsSy:áUFyTi]Iy< VoµA `XnSyOZh: ]vo:BoeUhyáT?`eáUAow eT:ButTi]Iy< TPX`BkAyXnh `áTFyOZh:= îAx:e[:XrAow eOúËZnw Sy. USyGEy:ËnEyWoZh:`áUFy XAwo:AsYy. Aow:AsYyYvoêAIy]pOwoEy:= `[ow[h:Go:v ¹nEyt `eZ:îAx:Gvo:TSy:OowEyXnh `áTFyOZh: PuXn [sOyeáXhAyZSyáUFyeêAhEy: ]wZ]Iy< CwoN:y CN ]wÓX^oOy Wh]hOZh:Awo e]BkhFsh Sh:X[IyWu XkAyASy:Aut]Ów YvoêAIyáBEy:. XwWXkh:¹nEyt Re[tPvo:OXy:Fay[h`Z Awo:AsYyYvoêAIyêAe]h eêAhEyt `Xkh:FoA Wh]hOZh:Awo:AsYyYvoêAIyXr=TSy:OwoEyAwo X]wêAeT< ]pOÓw = `XnSyOAYy[wo`TyXrAow X]wSh:X[IyêAeT< `PAyOsEyeUhyáTBute]h `Wwo:`wo áV^‰hAut]wÓ AYyOEyáBEy:OZh:¹nEyt TOy]Oy? FwOy\EyFh:XrXËnwêAeT< áV^‰hAut]wÓ FFyXnSye]hWh]hOZh:¹nEyt ]ÊhOZh:Awo Sh:[Iy[owe]h G»Ënw]p]Iy FFyXnSye]h AYyOEyáBEy:[Xy:Awo ËnheUsZh> `Oh:`Gx:XËnweT< 2< [p=`áTFy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:=FsXy:`EyPAy îAx:Xh:[sSy:[ne]heêAhEyt eAhEy:XrAo]ow[y`[oTyXkh:`h:áUEyt XeG:eêAh¹woEyeT< áV^‰h= eX:BsSy:áUFye]h ‚`WYy]wÓe]h OZh:`h:PoOyáBEy:. eËnhEyêAay áBEy:.

ËnEyeYh^Sy 4:25 > eUhyáTPh:e]h ËnhXhZw[pXkwl:Xkh:¹nEyt Cà:[pXkwl:Xkh:A AYyOEyËnEy eXËnwY]BEyAwo eFhEyteXøhyButêA ]Aut]wÓ Voµ[AyPAy `w»wYáTIy]páTIy]h:Xkh:¹nEyt VoµWh]h\EyXkh:A[Iy: UhZhGxXy (Phra Sian) Awo eFhEyteXøhyButêA]Iy< `XnSyXnh ]pOwÓ]IyOpIxe]h AYyOEyËnEyeYÌr OFyTi:OIy:Awo]h eFhEyteXøhyButêA]Iy< UhZhGxX` y eêAhEy: Voµ=TeZhUAyæTBkAyXnh BZFyeOhyWZo h:= `]AyOh¹nEyt OpIx]Iy< BZFyeOhyeYÌr= `e]BváBEy:`eêAhEy:Awo êAh:e]h`Bi Voµ=FAh:eOhy Xkh:Awo Sh:[IyButZTi]Iy< ]p=eáB.‛ PwÓeShAy ËnFyZAyeáXhAye]he¸> OTIyteOhyOwÓ]Iy OUSy`PuXnhËnwêA? e]h X[Iy:Ti=< OvBi:Xkh:TwOyPh:Fay`Bi. ]vÌowAyZhBkAyAwo [AyIÕwl:¹nEyt XOwÓXFXy:. Voµ=]sSy]EyáBEy:Awo [Iy: G¸yAkEyáBEy:áUFy]Iy< [p]Iy `áTFyPuXnXwXwAwoYyAow XAYyOEy¹woEyeT< AYyOEyáBEy:]Iy CwoNy:CN¹nEyt Wh]hOZh:Xkh:>[Iy: XpOIyeSáBEy: X^oOy eT< BZFyeOhyeYÌrXnOFyTi: `áBh:`WYy]pXø AYyOEy¹woEye]hShX]Iy eAhEy:AEye`hAy [pOwÓOsEyXËnweT (OXSyeOhy 4:12)< PÓweêAhEyt Voµ]Iy ‚EiteShAyXn ðA[hXIyt]pAwo eFhEyteXøhyêATi‛ ^o TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< 3< AYyOEyáBEy:]Iy EitPvXnX^oOyeT< EiteShAyXn ðA[hXIyt AYyOEyËnEy eXËnwYPvXn Z]Iy^o VoµA GowBtu]Iy< BZFyYhSyXkh:= ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy.(eZhX 1:21-25)< @`Zh]Iy [p]h:Xkh:æTBtu]Iyt îAx:Xh:e]h`áTFy áUFyAh. e]hXA [AyeOhy> ]vÌowAyZhBkAyAwo XáXEy. ‚]EyOwÓ> åEwXy]AyáBEy:ËnweF]OIy:^o Xw¸yeOhyXp=< Pwo`Bi e]hX`h: ]Ey= [Ay«rw:Awo G¸y? Eit[AyAwo êAIyte[ht< ]Ey= [AyAwoG¸y? EitSveU:eOhy Awo FXy:]Tye[ht< YvoXnh:áBEy:XËnw¹nEyt< Yvoe[ht^o Xw¸yeOhyXp=<‛ ^o eZ:]h:Ph:Ti ]Iy< = 28 = . eYÌr]IyðA[h? `[YyXnh ZTyeOhyXp [kAy. e]áBEy:OZh:Aow \Ey[heFBt] u Iy< PÓw`áTFyAow `WYy[p]h:Xn XTYyËnh: eT:¹owEyTi< Voµ]Iy Pow`áTFyOZh:¹nEyt eAhEy:XrAo]wo[y¹nFyBoêAh:Ënw Ash^BkAyAwo `WYy]wÓe]h eAhEy:XrAo]wo[y`h:áUEyt[Iy: TYyËnh:áBEy:XæT¹woEyeêAhEy: ËnEy: [Ey:FsheUhyáTBut]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt eAhEy:XrAo]wo[yæT[oTyáBEy:áUEyt `áTFyOZh:Xn [sOyeáXhAyZSyíAw:Fh:]p]Iy BvYpBkAy[òuXnh:]Iy]hXA. [AyOsEyËnwe]hQNyZhXkh:Xnh Ah:OwoEy eTj> ]vXrwáUEyt ÌowAyPh:áBEy:BvBute]heêAhEytáUFy]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 20:25-27 OsEy ‚Pow]pOwÓA[Iy: `A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy ]BEyAwoáXEyZêAåTx^o e]hX`h: eáThGwoêA [øEy. SveU:eOhyAwo[Iy: [Ay¹nEyt XFXy:X]TyZ[øEy `A÷¹oyTyXYvo^oGow=.

[p]h:`h:[vo:`OsAy [voe[hAye]h WoZh:]BEy= AYyOEyáBEy:[Xy:Awo ZIy«òSy:Ti]Iy< 5< `]Fye]h\wIhay]Iy Xx:[øvAut]wÓ `PAyXnGEy:]Ay? ]Eyt¹n[vo:]h:Pu Xnh Ënw[wXytXIy< Xx:[øvAut]wÓe]h \wIhayeOhyGwo]IyXnh ]¸yËnEy:e]h\wIhayeOhyAwo Gw[ o wo ]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:15-17 ‚EitAwo BkFy[øEy EitTIOyOwÓAwo eFhEyteËnhAyêA e[ht< Ei]Iy BXIy:eOhyAwo eOhEy:?. @ ]p]Iy YoQËnEyWoZEy eYÌreTOIy:^o eZ:? eBiEy:eOhyeTjXnh OTy]OIy:<‛ ^o eOúZTi]Iy< 4< PowWoZh:]Iy W\]v]ZhFAyAsEy:Xn [sOyeáXhAyeF¹woEye]h ]eWzhîAx: áUFy[wXytXIy< eYÌrWoZh:]Iy `UBXIy:eOhyPv]wÓ TÓweGhEyeT:XIyt [Xy:BZx:. ]Êh OZh:¹nEyt`]Ay áUFyeêAhEy:AwZo Iy«òSy:Ph:]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:1-3. = 29 = . 6 ‚OUSyOvo eYÌrA ]EyOwÓFwOy¹n[vo:TpTSyáBEy: XËnweF¹nEyt< WoZh:]BEyAwo YvoêAIy êAe[ht< EitAwo[Iy: YvoêAIyêAe[ht< Eit`W=`wXyeOhy> eSFZh`BSy:`Xkh: Ënw=< ]wÓX^oOy[øEy X^oOyeêAhEy:Awo ]EyOwÓ`h:EiXeáThWuXeS< ]EyOwÓeSFZh `ZTyAwo áTEyGEyáBEy:Eni Ei]sh:Z=< Ei]Iy]sh:? ]EyOwÓeSFZh`ZTyAwo áTEyGEyåTx: Xn OUSy[háTSy? EiËnwZh`ZTy> ]EyOwÓËnweFáBEy:Eni ]EyOwÓAwo EitPv]wÓ ]wXy:GIy: XIy<‛ ‚eYÌrA Ei]Iy [Xy:BZx:áUFy=< ]ÊhOZh:[Iy:áUFy=< `]Ay[Iy: áUFy=< EitAwo `XnxXæT[øEy `WYy]pXø BXIy:eOhyPv]wÓ XeZhAyZ<‛ ]eWzhîAx:]Iy `A¸y`]OyXËnw. Pwo]pOwÓeSPwoEye]h `wXyAwoáUIyte[=< PowBNáBEy:OsEy AsuáTh:e]h[øhOwÓ]Iy Xx:[øvAut]wÓ PEyËnh:?.]p= SveU:eOhy> QNyBkAyOFyBoËnw]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 19:34 OsEy ‚FFy]pZu OFyeYhAy]Iy SveU:eOhyAwo [nv¹nEytPwo:eUhAy? e]s:¹nEyteZ]IyBkAyBkEy: PsAy [h=<‛ ^o eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< ]p=eBiEy:eOhyXn QNyZhXnh Gp:ZFy]ZUp=QNyBkA¹y nEyt ÌrOyBkáBEy:Xkh:eêAhEyt áUFy]Iy< Xcu 27:37 OsEy ‚`áTFyeWhyáTe]h AÈIy:[wTyFhBkAy^pXpAh:. BXIy:eOhy]Iy ]ÊhOZh:Aow áTe]h \wIhayeOhyOIy:^pe]h OTi:e]h aT©lhYyGZhAwo ]EyOwÓ¹nEyt`OpOIyeS áBEy:Eni ]EyOwÓ`h:eT:eOhyXp=< Pow\wIhayeOhyAwo e[hAx]h:OwÓ]Iy X]wXáXEy e]heêAhEyt XBvXYp¹woEyêA< Pwo\wIhayeOhy]Iy ]EyOwÓ¹nEyt `OpOIyeS? ]EyOwÓ >ËnweOhyXpe]heêAhEyt ]EyOwÓ]wZêA=<‛ OXSyeOhy 2:2-3 ‚Pwo`Bi e[áTEy:XoSy OwEo y:Aut]wÓe]h`]v]Iy OBNáBEy:OsEyeAhEy:AEyXn[h?.

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ZTi]Iy< BZFyeOhyeYÌrA Two? ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh eUjáTAh ]OweT:ButTi]Iy< Xcu 24 > ‚@`ZhXkh:Awo eOúïAvZ]Iyt`Bi AÉhTkAyBkwSySx:ATy[hXIy< AÉh]IyTkAyFx:[oSx:åTx< Xnh:YsEy:e]hWoZh:Xkh:eTjeTiAy[h? FFyXnSye]h WoZh:PvX[ n Xy:[suêA[wXytXIy< FFyXAy. `BýwXnh XáUFyTkAye]:eT< AÉhTkAyBiSx:OsEy @Aut]wÓ áUFy[wXytXIy‛ ^o eáTháTPh:Ti]Iy< Voµ]Iy ¹nFyeTiEy: 5000 [sSyåTx:eShAy AÉheáXîAx: Xx:e[hEy? PowXx:Xn `WYy]pXø X[sOyeáXhAy¹woEyeêAhEy: TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< PÓweShAy BZFyeOhy eYÌrA[Iy: @`eêAhEy:Xkh:Awo TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< ]wÓe]hy Pwo`BkwSy`BiAwo `UBXIy:eOhyXn [su?XIy]pXø X]weêAhEy:eáThBut]Iy< PwoGEy:Zu Qo£¹nEyt AÉh TkAyáBEy:Xnh `XnSyOAYyáUFy[h[wXytXIy< eShAyGvo:e]he¸OsEy WoZh:]BEy ]Iy AÉhe[hAAwo Xx:áUEytUkAyGx:[wXytXIy (VkhQwOy 20:9. ]sSy]EyBkAy¹nEyt WoSy:îAx:Xkh: Aow ZIy«òSy:]Iy^o UsEytGowêA]Iy< (C) OwoAyÌowAy`RwÄhYy. FFyeW:Qo£Xkh: AÉheáX`¹Òv êAh:Z[wXyt XIy< AÉheáXOoSy[Tr y? eOhEyXkh:äTwTkAy[wXytXIy< XOZh:XrXkh:. IÕEy:GuáBEy:. GwoËnYy[Fy\iQ. = 33 = . Xnh:YsEy:e]h TeZhUAyæTáBEy:Xkh:eTj[h[wXytXIy< Pow`ZhXkh:]Iy YBo[Iy: áUFyTkAyeSêA ]Iy< `BýwXnh áUFyTkAyåTx:. BZFyYhSyAkXy:Fh Xn)< VoµWh]h¹nEyt BZFyYhSyWh]hOwÓ]Iy PowAÉhTkAyFx:XIyt`ZhAwo YvoêAIy Zh> OpIx]Iy< BkFye]hXwOyeGs @`ZhXkh:áUFyTkAy[h]Iyt`Bi `WYy]wÓ`]AyËnEy XIySIy:< AYyOEyZSyeXøhy[EytBkAy `WYy]wÓZËnw¹woEyXIySIy:< ]Ey `GEy]Eyt áUFyåTx[h:< eShAyXAke]:BEy A÷¹oyTyOÓw OX[sSyW\`OsAy @eX:BsSy:Xkh: `OsAy `eáUËnwZSy[wo`Ty]Iy< B< eIhEyTEyîAx: ]vo:TEy=`ZwTye`hAy> e[hA[p]h:Xkh:FoÌov:êA[wXytXIy< [pXkh:A PwoeIhEyTEyîAx: ]vo:TEyAwo FwOy\EyOFh: `RwÄiYy`Xkwl:Xkwl: UsEytGwo êA]Iy< (A) ¹woEyEveZ:]Xh:OFyax:A. eIhEyTEyîAx: ]vo:TEy= `ZwTy]Iy Voµ. XoSy:Ox:áBEy:. AsSyâX¹nF\y iQOwÓAwo Gwo[wo]Iy^oáXEyTi]Iy< (B) VoµWh]h\EyXkh:A. [nIytFh:áBEy:. `oTyBßTyeZ:OZh:]vo:BoáUFye]h QxXwoAeZFx\iQ. ]¨heUhAyáBEy:. [Ô`]Ay]OyáBEy:.

]wËnw. Xkwl:¹sYy. OwoEy:¹woEyEv XBsuáBh:Wu ]vo:Ti: OFyGp WoZh:]BEy=eAk:Hp:OZh:`ZwTye`hAyOsEy Bwo[rvêAXIyáUFy]Iy< C< WoZh:]BEy @TeZhUAyæTBkAyáUEyt eCiOX]Iy WoZh:X^oOyeêAhEy:¹nEyt eCiOXA WoZh:]BEyAwo XáEEy:TYyeêAhEy: ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< Voµ]Iy WoZh: áUFyTiA ‚]EyOwÓ]Iy EitXkAy¹nhAwo eOúZ[wXytXIy‛ ^o eáThButTi[wXytXIy< ]wÓe]hy ]EyOÓw]Iy ‚WoZh:]BEy= XkAy¹nheOhyAwo eOúZ[wXytXIy‛ ^o eáThBut]Iy< Voµ eShAy ðA[hXIyt]p]Iy BZFyeOhy (eXËnwY) áUFy]Iy< VoµAsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy 543 ¹nFyêAhe]h`Bi BZFyeOhyeYÌrðAGEy:But]Iy< D< eAhEy:áXOye]h]p (Ao]wo[yËnw]p) `WYyAut]wÓe]h]pXkh:]Iy eAhEy:áXOye]h]pXkh:áUFyêA]SIy:< gEy:Awo [pOwÓ]Iy AsuáTh:áBh:Sh:Fsh `SAyUsEyt[øAyËnwêA]Iy< eAhEy:áXOye]h]p]Iy eOúáXEyZSy BAyBue]h`Zh. A÷¹oyTySh:[Iy]IyXnh Voµ= FAh:]Iy ]vo:Ti:OFyGpOIy:áUFy e]h BXIy:eOhyWoZh:. [oTyeGhEyZSyBAyBue]h`ZhOwÓAwoeOúáXEy. ]h:eOhyWoZh:¹nEyt ]¸yËnEy:e]h\wIhayeOhyWoZh: Awo ZIy«òSy:ButáBEy:áUFy]Iy< [p]h:Xkh:`h:[vo:]Iy ]vo:Ti:OFyGp WoZh:= `ZwTye`hAyOsEy FoÌov:êA[wXytXIy< VoµA ‚[Ôe[hAAow AYyOEyZSyðAGEy:[hXIyt]pAwo eFhEytFh:ZSy Xw¸yXnhBut ]Iy< [p]h:`h:[vo:]Iy `GEyt`OSy:.]FyTEy]vo:TEy= `ZwTyGwo]IyXnh ]FyTEyFFy= `ZwTyAwo ZIy«òSy:[øEy ]wSy:]Sy:XAe]h [p]h:OwÓ]Iy Bwo[rvZSy X[voe[hAye]heêAhEyt TkAyFx:áBEy:BvZ[wXytXIy< (D) ]vo:Ti:OFyGpWoZh:. [oTyeGhEy¹woEy]páUFy]Iy< Pwo]pOwÓ]Iy eAhEy:Bkx:Xkh:FshBvFh:ZêA=< VoµATeZhUAyæTZhOsEy eAhEy:áXOy áBEy:¹nEyt áTIyt\e]h]p^o GwoZh> Pow]pXkh:Awo ZIy«òSy:]Iy< Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyAow Sh:[Iy? ]p=]sSy]EyBkAyAwo `SAyUsEytGwo¹woEy]p]Iy eAhEy:áXOyáBEy:¹nEyt áTIyt\ = 34 = . ËnheUsZSy BAyBue]h`Zh. Sh:[IyZSy BAyBue]h `Zh.

e]h]páUFy]Iy< ]wÓe]hy VoµA ‚]EyOwÓ]Iy EitFAh:Aow Sh:[Iy[øEy Ei]Iy `WYy]páUFyeêAhEy: (Ei]IyWoZh:X^oOyeêAhEy:) Aow ]wËnwSh:[Iy[wXytXIy‛ ^o GwoBut]Iy< ¹rOyATOyeOhy^o eBje\j]XoOyBvZe]h WoZh:]BEyAow ËnheUs? Awo:Fh: e]h]pOowEy:]Iy Voµ= ]sSy]EyáBEy:Xkh:Awo Sh:[Iy]eWheTiAy[wXytXIy^o Yvo êAIyTi]Iy< ¹rOyATOyeOhy]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAow ZIy«òSy:eêAhEy: OXSy eOhy ËnEyeYh^SyA @`eêAhEy:`ZhAow ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh eUhyáTBut]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 1:1-3 OsEy ‚`F`ax:> ¹rOyATOyeOhyËnw=< ¹rOyATOyeOhy ]Iy WoZh:]BEy¹nEyt `OpËnw=< ¹rOyATOyeOhy]Iy[Iy: WoZh:]BEyáUFyeOhyXp =< Pwo¹rOyATOyeOhy]Iy `F`ax:> WoZh:]BEy¹nEyt `OpËnw=< Pwo¹rOyATOy eOhy]Iy BTy]wXy:e]h `ZhOwÓAow USy:GEy:eOhyXp=< USy:GEy:eOhyXpáBEy:¹nEyt AEy:[sOy[øAyáUFye]h`Zh OFyFvoOFyBoXøXËnw‛ ^o GowPh:]Iy< ËnEyeYh^Sy 1:14 ‚¹rOyATOyeOhy]Iy[Iy: [ÔHhOw`áUFyAow BvYp?. e¸[Iy WoSy:îAx:eAkhEy:]wÓ GsXy:TwÓ]Iyt`Bi eZ OFyTo[Ey:Yp]sh:e[t ËnwBut]Iy< WoSy:îAx:]Iy OZh:ËsOyGwo? GoeOhEy:eT:e]h `Bi [AyOFyUAyAwoeáXÕhAy? OFyUAyXn eZTo[Ey:Awo G»Ënw]Iy`OwoEy:e[hEy: e[tËnwButêA]Iy< ‚eAhEy:áXOye]h`XrAwo åTx:Fx:? eAhEy:AEyWvo]wÓ Bkx:eáXÕhAyBvTieF< eXËnwY `ËnEy= XkAy¹nheOhyAwo Up:áXEyZ]IytOwoEye`hEy eAhEy:áXOye]h`XrXkh:¹nEyt áTIyt ¹nAyTieF‛ ^o `áXuOXy: GoeOhEy:eT:e[tËnwButTi]Iy< BZFyeOhy]Iy ËnhXhZw`Xkwl:]Xx:Awo ‚`WYy]p]Iy ]EytAow Ei]Iy eX ËnwY áUFyeêAhEy:eáTh]SIy:‛ ^o eX:But]Iy (eYh^Sy 4:26)< Uw[wÄlAwo[Iy: @]wÓTEyeX:But]Iy< BZFyeOhyA ‚]EyOwÓ]Iy EitAow]w[øEy BXIy:eOhyAwo X]wWu XeSZêA. Wx. BXIy: eOhy= ZEyBsEy>Ënwe]h OFyTi:OIy:e]h ]h:eOhy]Iy WoZh:]BEyAwo PEy Ënh:eFeOhyXpåTx<‛ VoµTeZhUAyæTBut]Iyt`OwoEy:. eW:. ]¨heOhy¹nEytgEy:áTIytFvo[øAy EiOwÓOsEyOIyeSeOhyXp]Iy áUFy? BXIy:eOhy> OFyTi:OIy:e]h]h:eOhy= WoSy:Aut]wÓ ]p=WoSy:eOhyAow Ei OwÓ]Iy áXEyZêAåTx<‛ ËnEyeYh^Sy 1:18 ‚WoZh:]BEyAow `WYy]pXø XáXEyFUp:e]hy[Iy:. YBoXnF? BXIy:eOhyAwo ]wáXEyêA=‛ ^o Xw¸yeOhyXp=< BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy eXËnwY`ËnEyWoZh:áUFy? eShEyOFyBkwSyOsEy e[hAAwo = 35 = . eAk:Hp:eOhy¹nEytgEy:. WEyXkh:A `BkwSyêAháXEytFsh eFhEyteXøhyBute]h]páUFy]Iy< Wwo:eW:OwÓ]Iy XSAy. BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy `A÷¹yoTyOwÓ= Wwo:.

CoNy]w£hAkGEy:áBEy:Aow Fow:ZwXey ]h eêAhEyt ¹nwXByt kZSyBAyBu]Iy< WoZh:]BEyPv]wÓ[Iy: [hZSyBAyBu]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy WoZh:]BEyPv]wÓ[hZSy BAyBue]h]pXkh:Awo e`hAyTi `OowEy:eUhyáTPh:]Iy< XwoAyXue]h]peK: ([oAh 12:16-21). SweAhQEy (ËnEyeYh^Sy 3:1-25) OwÓ áUFy]Iy< @]pOwÓ]Iy XwXw=CoNyTAhRSXkh:eêAhEyt WoZh:]BEyPv]wÓ [hZSy BAyBueêAhEy:eUjáTPh:]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt BZFyeOhy]Iy Xcu 19:24 > ‚OUSy EiGwo]IyAh: Ao[h:`oOy]Iy `Ty¹nUh:Awo[ømw[sYy=< eEsZOOye]h]p]Iy WoZh:]BEy= ¹owEyEveOhy]wÓ \EyBu]Iy‛ ^o eáThButTi]Iy< ]Êh]OwËnw? ¹nwXytBkáBEy:Ënwe]h]p]h[øEy WoZh:]BEyPv]wÓ[h? îAx:áXOy e]h AYyOEyáBEy:ZËnw[wXytXIy< [p]h:`h:[vo:Awo WoZh:]BEy BkFye]heêAhEyt `BsEyt`eZ:OFyBo eT:Ph:]Iy< WoZh:]BEy]Iy GSyBkBkZhXnh A÷¹yoTyOwÓAwo áB ]wÓX^oOy GEyAut]wÓáUFyZSy eËò: BkYy TwoEyBsEyteT:Ph:Ti]Iy< `RwÄhYyXnh eáUhEytXOye]h]p ]wÓX^oOy `áTFy]h: áUFyZSy^o Gwo[wo]Iy< `XnSyOZh:OFyBoXnh WoZh:]BEy]Iy [p]h:`h:[vo:Aow BkFye]heêAhEyt ]ÔAwo YvoêAIy[AyBvZSy `Xkwl:Xkwl:[oTyeGhEyButTi]Iy< ]Ówe]hy. eT:AXy:áBEy:XËnw e]h]peK:([oAh 16:19-31). ]pOFyTi: `Ap`IxAwo `áXu[wo`TyeS]pXkh:Awo ZIy«òSy:]Iy< Pwo]pOwÓ]Iy WoZh:]BEyPv ]wÓ [hZSy[sYyAp]Iy< GSyBiBkZhXnh GEy]IyZhPp:áXEyt? CoNyTAhRS¹nEyt ðAYy\]pXkh:Awo Gw[ o wo ]Iy< Pwo]pOÓw]Iy [Ô`Uôu`FIy:PuXnh. EYyËsYye]h]peK:([oAh 18:18-30).AYyOEy[wXytXIy^o VoµA TeZhUAyæTBut]p áUFy]Iy< E< `WYy]p]Iy AYyOEyáBEy:ZËnw? `WYy]p]Iy [Ay[sOy Gvo:Ìrv:Z XIySIy:< áB]Iy [Ay[oTy[AyFh:. ZhPp:¹nwXytAke]h]p. WoZh:]BEy= UwOy eBjXrAow A÷¹oyTyOÓw áEEy:TYy]IyXnh Ye¸OowEy áUFy]Iy< WoZh:]BEy]Iy TeZh UAyXkh:Awo eF[sOy? eXËnwYðA[hXIyt`eêAhEy: eáTháTButTi]Iy< PÓweShAyXn ]h:eOhyAwoeF[sOy? A÷¹oyTyOwÓ¹nEyt`Op @e[hA> `]AyËnEyeFAh `WYy]wÓ `]AyËnEyeSPwoEyZXIyt`eêAhEy: ]sSy]EyeFButTi]Iy< Pow]h:eOhy `e]BváBEy: = 36 = . GEy:Zue]h]p. eU³lXEy: ¹nEytOwoEyTEyUAyXkh: (OXSyeOhy 25:26).

Pwo]p]Iy ¹nwXytBkáBEy:]Ów eZhAy[Ovt< `êAEy]p]Iy XwXwAwo ¹nwXytBk`vt. `GEyt`OSy: áXEyte]h]pXkh:Awo ZIy«òSy:Ti]Iy< GSyBiBkZhOsEy Gvo:Ìrvo:ZáBEy:`eêAhEy:ZEy:Xnh `áBh:]pXkh:PAy ]h[sSyáXEytáXOy]Iy^o \iðAh:e]heêAhEytáUFyTi]Iy< BkXy: ]he]heêAhEyt ¹nwXytBkZSyáEEy:GSy]Iy< WYye]h`BiXø ¹nwXytBkáBEy:XæTeT< a¨h RSîAx:Tsh:e]heêAhEyt WoZh:]BEy=ApIxXFXr X[wo`Ty^o PEyOOy]Iy< PweÓ êAhEytAkÌrv:Z]Iy< `XnSyOZh:OFyBoXnh. WoZh:]BEy=SIy:[Xy:]Iy [pOÓw= SIy:[Xy:¹nEytG¸yAkEy]Iy< WoZh:]BEy=SIy:[Xy:]Iy ePhEy[òh:e]h]pAwo ¹nwXytBk?.áUEyt `áTFy`h:[vo:Awo eG:eêAheT:ButTi]Iy< PwÓeShAy e]áBEy:X©wlXhSyAwo A÷¹oyTy OwÓ `OsAey `hEyáXEyButeêAhEy:áT]ButTi]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:Fh= eUjáTáBEy:`h: áUEyt BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]wZTi]Iy< A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy WoZh:]BEyáUFyBut[øEy [p]h:Xkh:`OsAy `WYy]Ów Fay:Fh: XIySIy:< [p]h:Xkh:¹nEyt `WYy]wÓ[oTyeGhEyXIySIy:< @`eêAhEy:`ZhAwo íAw:Fh:? Fay:Fh:GEyáBEyêATiFwÓ< WoZh:]BEyAwo eAk:Hp:OEyTi< WoZh:]BEy= FwOy ]eWh]Iy [p]h:Xkh:¹nEyt XOpIxeT< BkFyáXuBkFyeS? ApIxeFhEyteËnhAy]Iy< BsEyt[sOyáXu BsEyt[sOy]Iy< eAhEy:AEy¹owEyEveOhy]wÓ áTSy[IyTÓweGhEy? Ph\Z AhAsYyeFhEyteËnhAy[] ow Iy< GSyBiBkZh> GEyAkÌrv:áBEy:`eêAhEy:ZEy: GSyBiBkZh> GEy]Iy ZhPp:áXEyte]h]p. ¹nXw ytBke]h]pAwo Bkx:eáXhAyZSyáUFy]Iy (1 eT 5:6)< Xcu 23:12 ‚`êAEy ]p]Iy XwXwAwo Bkx:eáXÕhAy`vt. BkXy:]hðAYy\?. Ak]sh:e]h GEyáUFyeSXnh[h:< ]Ey]Iy WoZh:]BEy GSyBiBke]h`Bi AkSyZFye]h]páUFy[woTi][h:< Ak]sh: e]h]p áUFy[woTi][h:< = 37 = . Pwo]p]Iy Bkx:eáXÕhAyáBEy:]Ów eZhAy[Ovt‛ ^o GowPh:]Iy< WoZh:]BEy= `êAv`FIy¹nEyt [p=Sh:[Iy¹woEyFsXy:]Iy G¸yAkEy]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy Xcu 16:25 > ‚`êAEy]p]Iy XwXw`]AyAwo AYyGYyáBEy:Enh `[owËnw=< Pow]p]Iy `]AyÌrvo:[wXytXIy< `êAEy]p]Iy EiteêAhEyt `]AyÌrvp:=< Pwo]p]Iy `]AyAow eOú[wXytXIy<‛ @`ZhAwo êAh:e]h`Bi ]EyXIy]wÓGEyáBEyXw]SIy:< `WYy]wÓe]h]p áUFy[wo]SIy:< GSyBiBkZh> AkSyZFye]h áB[h:.

good or bad. Karma refers to “the totality of a person’s actions. FAh:eáThGwoáBEy:¹nEyt 13 In both Buddhism and Hinduism. BÀhAwoYy¹nEyt TOy]Oy? `áTFy]vo:BoËnweêAhEy:. ]Ô`eTjXpOIyáBEy: XËnweêAhEy: ËnEy:[Ey:FsheUhyáTButTi]Iy< ]wÓZhOsEy áTcSh ¹nFyBoËnwTi]Iy< 1< [p]IyTIOyOZh:Xkh:Awo X[woAy¹woEyeT< 2< Voµ>AYyOEyáBEy:XËnwTi< ËnwBut[øEy `PAyTiaTXhAwoeáThButXIy X^oOyeT< ]vo:¹nFyêAh [òEyteXøhBute]h PXy:Tow:¹nEytTOy]Oy?. = 38 = .” Webster’s New 20 Century Dictionary.`BSy: (7) AvOZh:13 GowOh Wh[u< “[p]Iy OFyBiOIy: e]? PwoeShAyXn OZh:FxZEyeOhyXpáBEy:Awo BvZ]Aut]wÓ” (e^áVu 9:27) AkXy:FheOhyáXOy> [p]h:Xkh:= W\]Iy WoZh:]BEy= FxXvXr`Z eXs: Ush:áBEy:BvAh `îAwXyîAwXyeXs:Ush:áBEy:XËnwWu e]áBEy:OZh:]hËnweêAhEy: ]sSy]Ey Ti]Iy< AvOZh: OFyBiA TeZhUAy `Z^v (Orahan) ¹nEyt VoµeShAy[woAyXkh:]Iy AvOZh: Xn AYyOEyáBEy:`eêAhEy: VoµAow eX:áXSy:ButTi]Iy< Voµ= `eáUXnh ‚@SIy:[Xy:áUEyt AYyOEyáBEy:ZËnw[wXytXIy< PXy:Two:OFyBoAow áXFyPu]Ów TFyBk[woAyTi< ]vo:¹nFyêAhe]h`Bi XkAyFwXáXEye]h[wTyOFyeAhEy [sOy ? PowPXy:Two:Awo ËnhBwoEy:Ti< eOúËnwe]h`Bi ]EyOwÓ]Iy AYyOEyáBEy:Z[wXytXIy<14 [p]h:Xkh:Aow EZu]wÓ TÓweGhEye]h`Zh GYyTi:Ënw]Iy< PwoGYyTi:` SAyOFyTi:Awo Bkwl:UkAyBut[øEy GYyTi:F[vo:Awo Bkwl:UkAyáBEy:TEyáUFy]Iy< Voµ= FAh:`Z AvOZh:Xn [sOyeáXhAy? AYyOEyáBEy:ZZSy XwXw`eTj Awo: Fh:áBEy:. in successive states of his existence. eAhEy:e]h`[oTy ]wÓX^oOy OZh:[owAySháBEy:. Voµ`eTj `h:Awo:áBEy:. ]vo:ZAy]hêAhBute]hy [Iy: [wTyA XkAyXáXEye]heêAhEyt áTSy[IyeOúËnwZSyXnh XáUFy¹woEyeOhteT< Voµ]Iy. 14 Oral Tradition. thought of th as determining his fate in the next.

= 39 = .y BXIy:eOhy]Iy WoSy:îAx:eAkhEy:]Ów áUOy[Xy:áUEyt]sh:BtuZh.TOy]Ay? `áTFye[:Ti:ËnweêAhEy:. Voµ]Iy FTi:`vo:eçX`eêAhEy: eZ:]h:Ph:e]h TvoáTEyAow Awo:Ah:? Xnh: YsEy:e]h eOs:eBjXr aTXhOFyBoeT:ButTi]Iy< PowTvoáTEyOsEy `heGhEytX^hZOy (Asok Maharath) WoZEy= BXIy:eOhy]Iy AsYy[sSy]Iyt`Bi FTi:`ov:eçX `áUFy]wÓ W\eáThEy:[uButeêAhEy: eáTháTPh:Ti]Iy<15 `heGhEytX^hZOyWoZEy= BXIy:eOhy`]AyËnEy]Iyt`Bi OZh:AkEyt áBEy:. [Ô`]Ay]OyáBEy:. SwXytAke]hFAh:. `Gvo:XuteQi]. e[hWOTyXAyáBEy:OwÓ áUFy]Iy< AvOZh:= `Aßw:. `Xnh:Awo`XnSy PEyáBEy:. Bow: YpáBEy:¹nEyt [wEyeUhAyáTSyXrOwÓáUFy]Iy< B) FAh:eáThGwoáBEy:= `áTFye[:Ti:Xnh. eT:AXy:áBEy:Xkh:æT? eAhEy:AEy[Xy:Awo ËnheUsBut]Iy< ]p]Iy Voµ=TIOy OZh:Xkh:Awo [woAyShBut]Iy< ]p]Iy [AyeGhEyT¯hXkheT:áBEy:. WoSy:îAx: Xkh:`h: APwSy]AzSy:Xkh:[qQiSy:áBEy: æTBut]Iy< OFye¸OsE. FwOy¹n[vo:]h:Pu> êAvFIyáBEy:¹nEyt TOy]Ay? `áTFy]vo:Ti:Ënw eêAhEy:eáThButTi]Iy< A) BÀhAwoYy`h:áUEyt[oTyeGhEye]h`áTFy]vo:BoXnh. XAwo:Fh:`Tye]h FAh:OwÓáUFy]Iy< C) FwOy`eOs:áUEyát TFyXnh:e]h `áTFy]vo:BoXnh. [wXyIháBEy:. eAkhEy:OowAyîAx:Aow eOúËnwBtu]Iy< PoweAkhEy:OowAy SveW:> Ei:Xkh:eXs:Ph:e]h ASyOFyBoAoweOúBtu]Iy< WoZEy]Iy Ei:Xkh:AwoUXy:?Ei:Tw[oTyFh:ZSy FwOA y p:But]Iy< ]Ówe]hy ]p]Iy VoµWh]h\EyOFyax:áUFy? FwOyAp:áUEyt]heOs:eOhAh `XnSyXnh Pwo]wÓXæT[oTyButeT< VoµWh]h¹nEyt ^w»mWh]hOwÓA ]³\iOwÓ= `]AyAwo ]Oy ZSy Oh:áXFy]Iy< PwoWoZEyXEy:]Iy `woXEy:[h? `Sw¨eZhAyBut]Iy< WoZEyXEy:]Iy SwÆhSyWO ov vBi:eTiAy]wÓeZhAy]sh:e]h`Bi OvBi:eFhEytA WoZEyXEy:= `æT`XpXkh:`OsAy eT:GTyZSy e[hA]wÓáTSy[sOyáBEy:BvZ]Iy< Pwo WoZEyXEy:]Iy áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:áBEy:BvYp]Iyt`BiOsEy ^xX\ºheOh> FTi:`ov:eçX `áUFy eXs:Ush:áBEy:BvYpButTi]Iy< PÓweêAhEyt WoZEy]Iy Poew çXXßw:=]Wh\ áUFy ]Iyt`OowEy: Ei:Xkh:¹nEyt `áBh:`]AyËnEye]h]³\iXkh:Awo UXy:Fh:Ah PoweOh> AkEy[IyBut]Iy< 15 Issan Literature by Preecha Pinthong. XSh[ow`äEw:Ph: e]hFAh:.

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FOo²`GAyOwoEye`hEy. AÉh`GAyGAy `]Ay¹nEyt áTIytFov=< XZNh¹nEytXZNh¹owEyEvAow[Iy: Ei`Fow:Z=<‛ ËnEyeYh^Sy 4:24 ‚WoZh:]BEy]Iy Sv\wIhay áUFyeOhyXp=< WoZh:]BEyAwo Awo:AsYye]h]pOwÓ]Iy Sv\wIhay¹nEtygEy:. `WOwÓ=`áTFyAwo ]h:OwÓ> GTyeT: FxZEye]hWoZh:‛ áUFyeêAhEy:< XhAo 16:6 ‚Pow]pA[Iy:. ]¨h¹nEytgEy: Awo:AsYyZXIy^o Xw¸yeOhyXp=<‛ Xcu 6:33 ‚WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEyEveOhy¹nEyt eáUhEyXOyáBEy: OZh:eOhyAwo eËn:ax:Fsh ËnhêAe[ht< eShAyXn Pwo`ZhXkh:Awo PTy?eT:eOhyXp[ Ovt< = 41 = . EitAwo XoSy:e]h ]pOwÓ= `Xkwl:`Fay`GAy. eShAyGov:e]h]p áUFy=< `]AyËnEye]h]p[Iy:áUFy=< Ei]Iy `ZEy e]]IyáUFy?. eáXîAxe`hAy eZPu>gEy: Ënwe]h`Zh¹nEyt Tvo]°hSyOpe`hEy. OOwY`GAy. PwOy[¸yXwSy:eXháBEy: XËnwêA¹nEyt< [Ay\i:Ah:OwoEyXnh ]Oye]h ShHZAyèXw]h: eYÌrAwo ]EyOwÓËnhêA=< @`ZTy>XËnw< `e[hEy:eOhyPh:Zh `ZTyAwo êAIytêAe[ht<‛ VkhQwOy 1:17-18 ‚Pow]pAowEiáXEye]h`Bi. ÌoTyOoGEy:OoAwo AwoYy`WwÓX[oTy¹nEyt< ax:XBk\OyXæT¹nEyt `eêAhEy:XpAh:. e`hAy`ZTy eáXîAx:eTj>gEy:. Ei]Iy `ax:Gov:e]h]p. e]XOOy áUFy?eáBeOhyZEy:>[u[kAyeS=< Pow]p]Iy [Aykh [AyeOhyAow Eit`eTj]ÓwOEy[kAy. eêAhAyËôváBEy: XËnw¹nEyt.Pw[AyeZhAyAà:[sSyáBEy:XËnwe]hy[Iy: `áTFyæTZSy FwOy>êAvFIyáBEy:]Iy `áTFy áUFy]Iy< êAvFIy]Xø]Iy [oTyeGhEyXr`h:[vo:= `FáUFye]heêAhEyt êAvFIy áBEy:]Iy áTFyXnh:áBEy:TEyáUFy]Iy< AvOZh:=`Aßw:¹nEytTOy]Oy? Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:]Iy BZFyYhSy]Êh AkXy:FhOsEy eUjáTe]h`ZhXkh:¹nEyt OpIxeêAhEy: eOúËnwZ]Iy< VoµAkXy:CSy (TwJwAOy]vo:Tvo) Awo:AsYyZSy ÌoTyOoX[oTyZ< `]AyËnEye]h]pAwo ËnhTi< `áTFyXn AYyOEyáBEy:OZh: [Xy:Awo ËnhTi< ]wÓX^oOy[øEy TkAyFx:áBEy:]wÓ eZhAy[wXytXIy< \wIhay¹nEyt ]ÊhOZh:áUEyt Awo:AsYyTi< `]vo:X\Eye]h `Zh\²l TpeHhyáBEy:áUEyt XAwo:AsYyTi¹nEyt< BZFyYhSy]ÊhAkXy:Fh PsAyeáXhAyZh 20:4-5 ‚`PAy XwoDy:eAhEy:AEy>gEy:. ]Ey> `áTFyËnw]Iy^o Yvo[sYye]hWoZh:. ]Ey= WoZh:]BEy EiPh\ZWoZh:]Iy.

OwZw§hSyXkh:¹nEyt [p]h:Xkh:Ti\Ey]Iy< = 42 = . ]FyTEyXkh:. áXAy TEyXkh:. eOhEyXkh:. Gx\i (Siva) ]Iy UkAyGx:e]hSOyWoZh:. 3:10 ‚`]AyAwo eXúe[khyeF?. eAhEy:XsSye]h Wh]hOZh: AsYyeTkhAy e¸ZAyOwÓAwo eOúáXEyáBEy:Eni. eAhEy:AEyOXSyOFyTwoEy:. UsXy]Iy (Phom) USyGEy:e]hSOyWoZh:áUFy]Iy< @SOyWoZh:Xkh:]Iy áV^‰h áUFy]Iy< ]pOwÓ= ShX `F FAh:[ov:Xkh:Aow FoZhXn `sXy (Ohm) áUFy[h]Iy< eËn:[pîAx:Xkh:¹nEyt SOyGZhXkh:]Iy PowFAh:[vo:Aow `]ov:æTAh `FæT? eáThGow [øAyËnwêA]Iy< Pow`Zh]Iy WoZh:]vo:Ti:AwoZIy«òSy:]Iy< áV^‰h]Iy @ WoZh:Xkh:Awo [pOwoEy:eOhEytOeSe]h W\=`áXEytGvo:OsEyOIyËenw ]h áV^‰h WoZh:Xkh:^o YvoêAIyTi]Iy< QoOwY`GEyt áV^‰h=`áXEy`Z @`GEytOsEy [pOFyTwoEy:. `[woËnwe]h]p]Iy BkwSyOsEy ÌoTyOo¹nEyt SOy\wIhayAow XwXw[øhAwo XeAhEy:e]h`Zh¹nEyt AEy:eF< TpeHhyáBEy: AsYyeáThAyXIy< XwXw¹rOyBXy:[Iy: Xo]hFAh:Awo XeáTheF¹nEyt<‛ AÉh]Iy Xx:Aut]ÓwTpe[hEy? e[hEyA÷Xy:]sh:[wXytXIy< `áTFyXn AYyOEyáBEy: áV^‰h¹nEyt VoµWh]hOZh:`Z [p]h:Xkh:]Iy eXs:Ush:[håTx:eShAy AvOZh:=`Aßw:¹nEytGowEye]h eAhEy:Xr¹nEytåEwXy:BkXy:áBEy:Aow ZËnwZSy`BsEyt`eZ: XËnw eêAhEy: eUjáTPh:]Iy< áV^‰hOZh:A @W\]Iy `GEytGEytËnweêAhEy: ]sSy ]EyBtuTi]Iy< TPX`GEyt @`GEytOsEy SOyWoZh:]vo:Ti:¹nEyt ]pOwÓ=XwUoZh:Xkh:áUFye]h \xËny¹rw (Vishnu) ]Iy AhAsYyeT:e]h SOyWoZh:. eAhEy:e]h\wIhay¹nEyt \wIhayGwo:Xkh:. eAhEy:e]hWoZh:Xkh:¹nEyt SOyGwo:Xkh: Ti\Ey]Iy< @`GEyt]Iy `[Yy`GEytáUFy]Iy< OOwY`GEyt @`GEyt]Iy `SwXytGvo:`GEytáUFyåTx: eAkhAyeGhEyXkh:.¹nFy 3000[sSyåTx:eShAy Voµ 2 eT.

eAhEy:AEyXn GEy: ]AyBtue]heYÌrBZFy eXËnwY áUFy]Iy< BZFyeOhy]Iy [voæBve]h Ei=eËò`wXy eOhy áUFy]Iy< A÷¹oyTye]Gvo:BkwSyOsEy eAhEy:AEy]wÓ TwÓeGhEy[wXytXIy< “TIhËnew ]h]p [woAZy h`]Ay[Xy:]Iy e`hAy`ZTy. = 43 = . W\Ap:eáThEy:áBEy:Fe]h eXøhy[EytáBEy:XuteS]Iyt W\ ]v]ZhFAyAsEy:Xn [sOyeáXhAyZh[Xy:eOúËnwBute]heêAhEyt `[sSyeAkSTy\Xy: eáXhAyXwTi]Iy< Pow[Xy:]Iy. page 504 (Thai Edition). ]pOwÓXnh:YsEy:Bute]h`Zh Xkh:`OsAy eT:GTyZXIy< PwÓeêAhEyt \Xy:SIy:áBEy:Xn [sOyeáXhAyAh eAhEy: áXOyáBEy:¹nEyt eTkhyËòEyáBEy:]wÓeZhAyËnwZSy XáUFy¹owEyeBk< Pow`Zh]Iy VoµWh]h¹nEyt ^w»mWh]h`OsAyGow[øEy `wTyXAy]h[øEyáUFyTi]Iy< PÓweêAhEyt.[pOwoEy:]Iy `áXEtyGvo:`GEyt]ÓweZhAy[woêA]Iy< ]wÓe]hy]pOÓw= [oTy eGhEyXrXkh:A `SwXytGvo:`GEyt]wÓ TwÓeGhEy[øAyËnwAh. PowWh]hOZh:¹nFyBO o sEy eShEyOFyBkwSy> e[hAAwo AYyOEyZSy AYyOEyËnEyOFyTi:ðA[hXIyGwo]Iyt TeZhUAyæTBkAyXkh:eOúZ]Iy< VoµA ‚Pow ]p]Iy ]eWzhîAx:áUFy[wXytXIy ]wÓX^oOy `A÷OyOZh:eT:? eËò`wXyeOhyGx]wÓ TwÓeGhEy[wXytXIy‛ ^o TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< áV^‰hA Pwo]p]Iy TwSyTwSyTi:Ti:[peBkhOFyeYhAyáUFy[wXytXIy< ]p=`XIy Awo BSyBx (Khanki)16 ^o XnIyteBj[wXytXIy^o TeZhUAyæTBut]Iy< Pwo]p]Iy `áTFy Ënwe]h]pXkh:Awo OZh:FxZEyZSy Ri:OFy[AyAwoEyeGhEyPh:]Iy< @AÉh TkAy ]Iyt`Bi `]Fye]hAÉhAwo FOEy[wXytXIy< A÷¹oyT] y Iy e]áBEy:. `áTFy]h:Xkh:AowAYyOEyZSy. `PAy]wÓ TweÓ GhEyOOy=<” (]o³vAkXy: 15:24) 16 Comparison of Religions. XZNh¹woEEy vXn [òueËnhEy?.

`BSy: (8) Voµ=]sSy]EyáBEy:]Iy `WYy]wÓ eXn:XnwSy[wXyXt IySIy:< “]Êh]OwËenw ]h]p]Iy `XrAwo eáXhyXEy? ToSy:eSOOy=< fNyOwXye]h]pXpAh: `Fay`OwEo y:]sh:? `Xr¹nEyt eOúOOy=<” Voµ= ]sSy]EyBkAy eXn:XnwSyáBEy:< Voµ]Iy X^hBiGhUheQZh (Maha Kassapathera) Aow ]sSy]Eye]h`Bi ‚êAIytTi. `TwoEy: (1). Ei=]sSy]EyBkAyOwÓ]Iy OFy¹nFyåTx:OFy¹nFy. ]OwXXpFh:]vo:AoSye]h `Fh:`FhAut]Ów OFFx eXn:XwnSy[wXytXIy<‛ VoµAkXy:CSy `SyOhBiPSy-BwoPhZSy SxBEow y (Anthakathaang-Khutaranikay). FhXkAy¹nh 41 OsEy TkAyFx: áBEy:OZh: Ei:Ti:Awo eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy<17 1< VoµOZh:Awo [woAye[øhAye]h]pXkh: `h:SIy:áBEy:< 2< AkEytêAvXr eXn:XnwSyáBEy:< 3< áTIytFvoáBEy:¹nEyt`Akwl: eXn:XnwSyáBEy:< 4< [p= ]¸yËnEy:Xr eXn:XnwSyáBEy:< 5< Voµ= [£NhXkh: eXn:XnwSyáBEy:< VoµA EZuËnFyPTyËnweêAhEy:. = 44 = . ]x[ËnEy. examined on October 12. Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyOFyBoOsEyeShAyGvo:BkwSyOsEy ‚WoSy:îAx:. who lives in Bangkok. in the year of 2497 of the Buddhist calendar. He certified that this book is correct according to the old manuscript of the th chief of the village. QAhîAx:. AkEyt\OyGYyTi:Awo X[woAyShe]h]pXkh:]Iy PwEo ZuPu]wÓ AkeZhAy[wXytXIy^o e^hBut]Iy< PowEZuËnFyPTyOsEy Tpe¹s:e]h. 29 edition. Tpe[hEye]h. e`:Bue]h ^p? `GEytGEytËnweêAhEy: e^hBut]Iy< XwXw\Xy:Fh`OsAy EitAwo eZhEy:Fh:XIyt VoµWh]h\Ey e[:Xßw:. 17 This portion was taken from a book in the temple Phra Sing in Chiangmai with the permission of Phra Srivisouthivong.

`]AyeXs:\Xy:eAkhEy:`OsAy VoµÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh:Awo Po[oTyeZhEy:Bke[tËnwêA]Iy< 18 Ibid. `[Ah:eOht XZ¹woEyTiWp:. WOy 400 OSyTiOYy‛ ^o áTSyeáThTi]Iy< ]ÔAow PowÌoTyOoáTSyeT:Ah. XYvo[øEy FXy:êAIytTi‛ ^o eáTh? XZXA \YyBwoEy:Ti]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt A÷¹yoTyA. @`ZhXkh: `XnSyTEy áUFyáTAyBtueêAhEy:¹nEyt áUFyTkAyeSGu áUFyeêAhEy: eOúËnw[wXytXIy< 1990 Bo¹nFyOsEy PwoEy:¹woEyEv]wÓ]sh:eZhAy[IyTOyFay. e[h[pXßw:]pEYyBkEy: OFyax:¹nEyt VoµWh]hOZh:¹nEyt ]AyGowEye]hFh`oTyXkh:PuXn OFy`oTyAwo \YyYpBut åTx: PoweFk:OSy:> [nIyt[IyêAIytÌrButêA]Iy< OFyeSZhOsEy eFk:]Iy`Xkwl:]Xx:OFyax:A e`hyîAx:^FyAkYy eêAáEh? WoZh:ÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh: eZhEy:eS]IyAwo eOúBut]Iy< Pwo`Xßw:]Xx:Pv]sh:? @]wÓ eX:áXSy:ButêATi]Iy< ‚`eQjîAx: QxVoµÌoTyOoA WYy[woeAhEy:Oh[u<‛ `eQjîAx:A ‚`wo: OAYyAwo eAhEy:TiOYy< QxÌoTyOoAwo eGhEyPh:ZEy [woOZeFTiOYy‛ A÷¹oyTyA áTSyOFyBi PTy? ‚OAYyeAhEy:][h: `eQjîAx:‛ ^o eX: [woAyTi]Iy< Pwo`Bi `eQjîAx:A `]vAkYyAkYyáUEyt ‚OAYyeAhEy:TiOYy GZh.QAhXOwÓ]Iy ]pOwÓ`]AyËnEyeZ:`OsAy EitAwo eZhEy:Fh:[wXytXIy‛18 ^o e^hBut ]Iy< VoµÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh:AwoeFk:AsAyOsEyOEy? eZhEy:Fh:Ah `eShAy¹woEyEvPw TEyeZhAyË] nw sh:eêAhEy:`h:[vo:`]wáUFy]Iy< WSyeAhAyèXO w sEyËnwe]h `xXZh[y WoSyîAx:eAkhEy:`Sx:Ënw QieOhEyWoSy:îAx:eAkhEy:]Iy VoµÌoTTy sh:eOhyXkh: eZhEy: \Yye]heSZháUFy]Iy< ]Ey¹nFy]Ay]Iyt`ZhAwo \YyYp¹woEy]Iy< `BßÖwe]h WoSy:îAx:Xkh:]Iy ]pOÓw=ÌoTyOoXkh:AwTo Ey eZhEy:ZSy`OsAyPsEy:Poe[tËnwêA]Iy< Voµe^heáThBut]Iyt`OwoEy: VoµOZh:FFyFFyXnh eXn:XnwSyBtue[åTx< Voµ`Oo¹nEty VoµRe[tPvo:Fv]h AkSyZFyTi]Iy< VoµOZh:Aow eFteFtFTyFTy e[t[he]h]p]Iy `XnSyOZh:Aow ]wËnwSh:[IyAh. ‚QiGwo ÌoTyOoAwo BNFXy:AwoEyTiZeF‛ ^o BsEyteOhEy:åTx: `]vAkYyAkYyáUEyt ‚@ÌoTyOo]Iy GwoEyËnEyeáTh]Iyt`OwoEy: `XnSyTEy [woOZeF [øEy @ÌoTyOoAwo `BXutZ[woTi=‛ ^o GoeOhEy:[woAy]Iy< Pow`Bi GwoEyËnEy`Xßw:]Xx:A ‚`ow X^oOyTiWp:. = 45 = . ‚`BXut XZZEy QxÌoTyOoA OSyBwo:XËnwWp:‛ ^o áTSyeáThButTi]Iy< VoµATeZhUAyæT]Iyt `OwoEy: VoµAow Xnh:YsEy:Fsh.

]h[sSye]hOSyBwo:AwoZ[woe]heêAhEyt. XeAhEy:Ti‛ ^o eáTh e]hy[Iy: A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy ¹nFyeTiEy:Xkh:Fsh Awo:AsYyButêAe]heêAhEyt.ÌoTyTsi:eOhyXkh:]Iy XTkAyFx:¹owEye]h`ZhXkh: X^oOyeT< eFk:]Iy=FAh: eêAhEyt eAhEy:e]h`ZhAut]wÓ PEyXnOyZáBEy:]háUFy]Iy< @Aut]ÓweáThGwoáBEy:eêAhEyt ÌoTyOoXkh:Awo ¹nFy]Aye]h]pXkh:]Iy A÷¹oyTyAow XoSy:Ox:êAXIyáUFy]Iy< ]Ówe]hy. `]AyeW: `ºhZhYyXn [sOyeáXhAy[owe]heêAhEyt gEy:Awo YvoêAIyêA]Iy< “Ph\ZWoZh:Awo eêAhAyËeôv ]h]eWh]Iy `]Ay OhAwo ËnIyeFOOy=<” ]o³vAkXy: 10:27 = 46 = . OTyXAy FwOyËnwêAe]heêAhEyt. XeAhEy:eêAhEy: TsEytTsEyt[Ey:[Ey: eáTh e]hy[Iy: [pXkh:]Iy ]h[sSye]hOSyBwo:Awo OTyXAyêAe]heêAhEyt Sh:X\Ey êAeT< ÌoTyOoeZhEy:]pXkh:A ÌoTyOo`]vo:æT]pXkh: [woAyShZSy FIy:AXy:]vo:BoAwo `îAwXyîAwXy `BiBieáThTi]Iy< PwoFIy:AXy:Awo [woAyShXn]h `Akwl:Ënw[wXytXIy^o [Iy:eáThTi]Iy< PwoFIy:AXy:]vo:BoXnh 1< FXy:êAIytáBEy: XæTZ< 2< ÌrTyBkáBEy: XæTZ< 3< Oh:áXFye]h eSZh]wÓ YpeGhEyáBEy: XæTZ< aTXh. `wXye`hAy< @FIy:AXy:BkAyXkh:A ÌoTyOoXeAhEy:eêAhEy:Awo ËnEy:[Ey:FsheUhyáTeSTi ]Iy< `XnSyOAYy OSyBwo:XËnwe]hy[Iy: \YyYpêA]Iy< PwoFIy:AXy:BkAyXkh: `Z gEy:]Iy [voæBvXrXËnweêAhEy:. Pwow`ZhAwo YvoêAIye[:Fh:]pXkh: ]OwæT ¹rw:êAh:eFZSy eáThZáBEy:áUFy]Iy< ÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh:Aow `]ov:XæTe]h]pXkh: `OsAy[Iy: ]OwæTZSy `eZ:îAx:[neT]Iy< OSyBow:]Iy PowÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh:> Ënw]Iy X^oOyeT< Pow`ZhXkh:Aow Po?eZhEy:e]h]pXkh:= ¹rOyFAh:>]h Ënw ]Iy< PowFAh:Xkh:Aow `XnSyPEyAh YováBEy:`h:áUEy ÌoTyTsh:eOhyXkh:OSyBow:Ënw]Iy ^o PEyZáBEy:]h[øEyáUFy]Iy< PowÌoTyOoXkh:]Iy `Akwl:XËnweêAhEy:. `wXy]h. `XnSyOAYy OSyBwo:XËnweêAhEy: ]wËnw¹woEyTi]Iy< `AYy? eFk:]IyXkh:A ‚PwoÌoTyOoXkh:A OSyBwo:XËnwTi. `\Oy [nXy:íAw:e`hAy.

He decided to believe in God by accepting Jesus Christ as his Savior after he finished his study.`BSy: (9) eXËnwY= ¹owEEy veOhy WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEEy veOhy]Iy OwoEy:áTIyOFyáTIy ]wXÓ ^oOy OwAo yîAx:OFyOowAy Aut]XwÓ ^oOyWu. = 47 = . `GEy`t OSy:BsuáBh:Ph:áBEy: XËnew T< “`]FyOFyUSyeXs:Ush:áBEy: XBve]h]p]Iy WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEEy veOhyAwo XeOúáXEy ¹wEo yeT< \wIhayeOhy> ¹nFáy BEy:XCz[hBvYpe]h]p]h[øEy WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEEy v eOhyAow \EyFh:¹wEo y]Iy<” (ËnEyeYh^Sy 3:3-5) e[h[pXßw:Xkh:= TvoáTEyXn eXËnwY= ¹wEo yEveOhy ‚eXZnwY eXs:Ush:[he]h`Bi ¹woEyEveOhy]IyîAx:Tsh:? `FheZFh eTi Xkh:[wXytXIy< `[Ey:eOhAyT[wXytXIy< [Xy:BZx:Xkh:eBkheXú[wXytXIy< Ph\ ZOIyËnw[wXytXIy< GEy:Zu. He assured me that this Jesus Christ is Messiah that Buddha said would come after his time. `A¸y`]OyXËnw< `[s¸y`[sSy îAx:Xh:AkYyáT¸y[nTi]Iy< WoZh:]BEy> [pXkwl:. a former monk. ¹woEyEv. ¹owEyEveOhy`h:áUEyte]hy [Iy:eAhEy:. SwÆhSyWvoAwo Ënh eUsêA[wXytXIy<‛19 AÉheTjOsEy XIy]Iyt eSZhOsEy eSPwoEyêA]IyáUFyeF. XIy]wÓe]h[pXkh:TEyáUFyêATieF. [AyBv YovêAIyêAe]heêAhEytáUFy]Iy< WoZh:]BEyAow X]we]h W\`]Ay]h]Iy TkAyFx:[wXytXIy< eáXîAx:]Iy eáBhAye]úAh EOyXsOyáBEy:eW:QNy¹nEyt GEy:ZuáBEy:]Ów eZhAy[wXytXIy< @]Ów áUFy 19 The prophecy of the legend about Messiah and His land was taken from the memory of Kam May Thammavongsa. BZFyeOhyeYÌrAow YvoêAIy? XwXw`]AyOh> \EyBsEytæT[øEy `]Fye]h `]AyOh¹nEyt `]Fye]h¹woEyEveOhyáUFy[h[wXytXIy< FwoAyTßw:e]h`ZhXkh:¹nEyt Oow:OAyeZ:[oTyESy:Xkh:OÓwAow WoZh:]BEyeAhEy:Bkx: eT:? ðAYy\BkXy:]hAh Owo:OAye]h¹woEyEváUFy[wXytXIy< @]wÓáUFyZáBEy:Xnh WoZh:]BEyAwo XwXw`]AyOh>e]hy[Iy:eAhEy:. BkXy:]háBEy:XËnwWu `OpOpTEy BkXy:]hêA[wXytXIy< @¹woEyEveOhy]Iy AÉhîAx:XGvo:XnxOowEye`hEy eTkhAyAsYy]sh:[wXytXIy X^oOy eT< Pwo`BkwSyOsEy [pXkh:]Iy WoZh:]vo:Ti:¹nEyt eAhEy:AEyWvo.

áEEy:TYyáBEy:`eTjOsEy XpOIy]Iy< BZFy eOhyAwo A÷¹oyTyOÓw áEEy:TYy[øEy ]ÊhAkXy:Fh> XnOyOXy:OEyBute]h Cà:[pXßw:Xkh: Aut]Ów áUFyêA[wXytXIy< WoZh:]BEy= ¹owEyEveOhy SYySwXwOy WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEyEveOhy]Iy [Ôe[hA¹woEyEvXkh:Aut]wÓ SYySwXwOy A¸y]Oy Ph:áBEy:XËnwWu. ËnEyeYh^Sy 3:5-7 OsEy ]Ô`h:[AyBvYvoêAIy? `]FyOUSy eXs:Ush:áBEy: Bve]h]p]h[øEy eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEveOhy]wÓ \EyFh:Z[wXytXIy^o eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< “eáUhEyXt Oye]h]pOwÓ]Iy áTIyeOhy>eS?. XIy]IytAh[>áUFyeF. áTIyeOhyXn TYyËnEy:áBEy:. XIy]IyteSZh>áUFyeF BZFyeOhyAwo ¹n[vo:]h:Pu Xn YvoêAIy[AyBve]h]p]Iy BZFyeOhy=[p áUFyBsEytZ? WoZh:]BEy= ¹woEyEveOhy OsEy Ph\ZFwo:FvZ[wXytXIy< WoZh:]BEy= ¹owEyEveOhy> eSBsEytZe]h]p]Iy @ e[hAOsEyáUFyeF. Fvo[Eye]h]pO]wÓ Iy eSZhAkêA[wXytXIy< `RÊ[pOXwÓ pAh:.ZáBEy:]Iy WoZh:]BEyA eAhEy:Bkx:XCz[hAwo áTSy[IyÌoTy]wXy:]sh:e]heêAhEyt áUFy]Iy< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy @`eêAhEy:`ZhAwo ]we]heêAhEyt AÉheáXîAx:]Iy eAhEy:Bkx:XCz[h¹nEyt ðAYy\? åEwXy:BkXy:e]h ¹woEyEveOhyáUFyZSy eXøhy[EytZ]Iy< AÉheTj> åEwXy:BkXy:áBEy:¹nEyt ðAYy\BkXy:]háBEy:áTIy\t eFZSyXnh eXËnwY`ËnEy BZFyeOhyeYÌrWoZh:Awo [AyBváBEy:. [hXIytAÉhOsEyáUFyeF eXøhy[EytáBEy:ËnwTi]Iy< PÓweêAhEyt BZFyeOhyA ‚¹woEyEveOhy¹nEyteáUhEytXOyáBEy:‛ Awo ax:FshËnheUsZSy ]OweT:Ph:Ti ]Iy< eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEveOhyAwo Ënh? \Eye]h]pOoEw y:Awo WoZh:]BEy]Iy AOw Ph:eOhyXp]Iy`OwoEy: eAhEy:Bkx:eT:]Sh:[wXytXIy< (Xcu 6:33)< BZFyeOhy ]Iy. [sSyAà:e]h]pOwÓ]Iy ¹rOyTFyáBEy:Awo BvZêA[wXXyt Iy<” ]o³vAkXy: 2:21-22< = 48 = . `[sSyTEyîAx:Xh:AkYyáT¸ye]h ¹woEyEveOhyáUFy]Iy< XIy]p áUFyeF.

`BSy: (10)
]Ey]Iy `sWYy[Xy:e[øhAyeSTi]SIy:<
eAhEy:AEy[Xy:]Iy ÌrTey Ps: Akay:eáXhEy:]Iy< ]wÓe]hy EZu[Xy:]Iy eBkheXú]Iy<
e[h[pXßw:Xkh:= FAh:Tvo<

“eYÌrA Ei]Iy [Xy:BZx:áUFy=< ]ÊhOZh:[Iy: áUFy=< `]Ay[Iy:áUFy=<
EitAw`o XnXx æT[øEy `WYy]pXø BXIy:eOhyPv]ÓXw eZhAyZ<”
ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:6<

e[hAOsEy [p]h:`h:[vo:`OsAy [Xy:¹nFy]sYy]hËnw]Iy<
]Ey]Iy `WYy[Xy:e[øhAyeSTi]SIy:<

Pow[Xy:¹nFy]sYyXnh; eAhEy:e]h[Xy:¹nEyt Gwo:e]h[Xy:OwÓáUFy]Iy< eAhEy:
e]h[Xy:]Iy WoZh:]BEy=[Xy:áUFy]Iy< Gwo:e]h[Xy:]Iy FhOSy=[Xy:
áUFy]Iy< @[Xy:¹nFy]sYy= `Gvo:XnhXp XOpIxeT< WoZh:]BEy= eAhEy:e]h
[Xy:]Iy [p]h:Xkh:`h: eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEv]wÓ TwÓeGhEy]Iy< Gwo:e]h[Xy:]Iy
EZu]wÓ TwÓeGhEy]Iy< @[Xy:¹nFy]sYy`eêAhEy:Awo VoµWh]h¹nEty BZFyYhSyWh
]hOwÓOsEy ËnEy:áTPh:Ti]Iy<
Voµ= FAh:eOhy<
VoµWh]hOZh:OsEy

“eAhEy:e]h`ZhAwo [oTyTi; eAhEy:e]h`ZhAwo ZËnw[Xw ytXIy<
Gwo:e]h`ZhAwo [oTyTi; Gw:o e]h`ZhAwo [AyBvZËnw[wXXyt Iy<
eËò:BkYyZSyXnhXp ]Ey`eTj XpOIy]Iy<”
e[h[pXßw:Xkh:¹nEtyeYWoYkVoµWh]h\EyOwÓ]Iy @]sSy]EyBkAyOÓwAwo AkAy
XnOyêA]Iy< A÷¹oyTyBZFyYhSyOFyax:áUFy[he]h`Bi @]sSy]EyBkAy= `RwÄhYy
Awo e[:e[:SAySAySh:[IyButTi]Iy< Voµ]Iy[pOwÓAwo eAhEy:e]h]pXkh:áUFy
[hZSy]sSy]Ey]Iy< ]Ey[oTyeGhEy]Xø ]EyáTSy[Iy BvFh:Z[wXytXIy^o Sh:
[IyButZTi]Iy<
= 49 =

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¹nFy]sYyXnh e[hA[p]h:Xkh: çBEy:BkAyXËnw [woAye[øhAyêAe]h [Xy:¹nFy]sYy
áUFy]Iy< [p]h:Xkh:]Iy OFy[Xy:X^oOy OFy[Xy:> e[øhAyZXIy< XIy]Iyt
[Xy:Xn Xe[øhAyBkEy^o áEEy:TYy?XZTi< ]Ówe]hy; XIy]pXGwo XwXwe[øhAy[woe]h
[Xy:Awo [sOy[TyFsh eËò:BkYyTowEyBsEytËnw]Iy< `RÛXOowAyOsSy:áBEy:; `áBh:]p`Fh:
e[øhAyáBEy:XËnwWu; XwXw]eWh`Z e[øhAy¹owEy]Iy<
XIy]Iyt[Xy:OsEye[øhAyTieF; eShAyGvo:OsEy WoZh:]BEy= `Gvo:`áUOy
Aow BvZXIy< [p`h:áUEyt Gvo:áUOyZSy X^oOyeT< ]Ówe]hy [pOwoEy:> eËò:BkYyTwoEyBsEyt
Ënw]Iy< ]EyeËò:BkYye]h[Xy:]Iy eAhEy:AEy ]ÓXw ^oOy[øEy EZuáUFyXIyXnh
e]Bkh]Iy< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy W\`OsAy XnSyASye]h[Xy:Awo eËò:BkYyZSy `eZ:
îAx:]Iy< `WYyteêAhEytGwoe]hy A÷¹oyTyOwÓ= W\]Iy PwoeËò:BkYyXr`eTjOsEy Xp
OIyTi]Iy<
‚eAhEy:e]h`ZhAwo [oTyTi; eAhEy:e]h`ZhAwo ZËnwXIy< Gwo:e]h`Zh
Awo[oTyTi; Gwo:e]h`ZhAwoZËnwXIy<‛ ^pe]h Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyXnh XnSyASyTi]Iy<
Voµ]Iy [p]h:Xkh:`h: eXøhy[EytáBEy: AEy:Xute]hW\Awo XeËò:BkYyXweFZSy; ]Ow
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OwW
Ó \`]AyOh> [Xy:¹nFy]sYyËnwZhXn XnSyASye]h[Xy:Awo eËò:BkYyZSy; [woAy
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]ÊhAkXy:FheOhy
BZFyYhSyAkXy:Fh>[Iy: [p]h:`h:[vo: [woAye[øhAyZSy [Xy:¹nFy]sYy
ËnweêAhEy: eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy @[Xy:¹nFy]sYyXn OFy[Xy:Awo eËò:
BkYyZXIy< AÉhax:AkXy: 2:15-17 OsEy @[Xy:¹nFy]sYyAwo eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy<
TPX[Xy:Xnh WoZh:]BEyA [woAye[øhAyZSy TIOyPh:e]h[Xy:áUFy]Iy<
QoOwY[Xy:Xnh Oh:áXFyPh:e]h[Xy:áUFy]Iy< @[Xy:¹nFy]sYy= `Gvo:> [woAy
e[øhAyZáBEy:= `Aßw:Awo BvFh:Z[wXytXIy<
AÉhax:AkXy: 3:1-7 > [p]Iy WoZh:]BEyBsEytæTe]h[Xy:Awo eËò:BkYyXIyt
`Fh: Oh:áXFyPh:e]h[Xy:AwoeËò:BkYBy uteêAhEy:eOúZ]Iy< A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy GAy
[Ay? FhOSy=[Xy:AwoeËò:BkYey SêA]Iy< PÓweêAhEyt BÀhAwoYy¹nEyt \wIhay]Iy
`áTFyP]
u ÓwAkeZhAy? Qo£áTcSh¹nEyt e]áBEy:> `FayAkeZhAyeSButêA]Iy<
@Aut]wÓáUFyeSFayOsEy; WoZh:]BEy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:Awo [kFy[àXÌrWu A÷¹oyTy
OwÓ`h: ]ÔPváTSy[hZSy [Xy:OFyBoáTEyGEyeT:ButTi]Iy< Pow[Xy:]Iy BZFyeOhy
= 50 =

eYÌrTEyáUFyTi]Iy< WoZh:]BEy]Iy [p`BýwAwo eËò:BkYy? ]Êh]FyAkXy:Awo eZ:
BwoEy:But]Iy< PowAkXy:FhOsEy BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy [Xy:BZx:áUFyeêAhEy: eUhyáTPh:
Ti]Iy<
‚eYÌrA Ei]Iy [Xy:BZx:áUFy=< ]ÊhOZh:[Iy:áUFy=< `]Ay[Iy: áUFy
=< EitAwo `XnxXæT[øEy `WYy]pXø BXIy:eOhyPv]wÓ XeZhAyZ‛ ^o GowPh:]Iy;
(ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:6)<
]ÊhAkXy:Fh> BZFyeOhy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:`h:[vo:Awo `áTFyEZuXn AYyOEy
ZSy OFyBoOIy:e]h[Xy:áUFyeêAhEy: ]sSy]EyPh:Ti]Iy< Pow[Xy:=`Gvo:> [p
]h:Xkh:]Iy WoZh:]BEyAwo eOúáXEy? eAhEy:AEyWvo]Ów \EyFh:Z[wXytXIy<
PwÓ`áTEy ]ÊhAkXy:FhA BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo [AyBváBEy:áUEyt `áBh:e]h
`ZhXkh:FshAwo[Iy: [AyBvZËnwXIyáUFyeêAhEy: eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy<
ËnEyeYh^Sy 1:12; ‚Pow]pAwo [AyBv]Xøe]h]pOIy:^pe]h AwoYyeOhy
Awo YvoêAIy]pOÓw`h:; WoZh:]BEy=]h: áUFyZe]h`BsEytAwo eT:eOhyXp=<‛
ËnEyeYh^Sy 5:24; ‚Ei`XnSy`ASyGwo]IyAh:; EitFAh:Awo Sh:ePhEy?
EitAwoeF[sOyeOhyXpe]h]pAow YvoêAIye]h]p]Iy Ph\Z`]AyAwo Z]IyáUFy?
`áTFyFxZEyáBEy:XBvZ< e]áBEy:Xn `]AyËnEyáBEy:]wÓ Ap:eáXhAye]h]páUFy=<‛
ËnEyeYh^Sy 3:16; ‚WoZh:]BEy= ]h:eOhyAwo YvoêAIye]h]p`eTiEy:
OwÓ]Iy TkAyFx:áBEy:]wÓXeZhAy; Ph\Z`]AyAwo ZeFáBEy:Eni; WoZh:]BEy]Iy XwXw
> OFyTi:OIy:e]h]h:eOhyAwo Fs¸yeOhyXp]IytOowEye`hEy e[hAx]h:OwÓAwo BkFy
eOhyXp=<‛
VkhQwOyAkXy: 20:15; ‚`]AyFheFhEy> FhZEy:X\Eye]h]pËnw]XøAwo Xx:
`woEyPu]wÓ BkTFye[=<‛
@AkXy:BkAXy kh:Xn WoZh:]BEy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:Awo BZFyeOhyeYÌreShAy
[woAyZSy `[woËnweêAhEy:]wËnwSh:[IyZTi]Iy< BZFyeOhy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:Awo
WoZh:]BEyPv TwÓeGhEyeT:e]h OFyBoOIy:e]h[Xy: áUFy]Iy<
OXSyeOhy 4:12; ‚Pwo]BEy=ShXeOhyXnOTi:; EiOwÓAow AYyOEy¹woEye]h
ShX OFyFvoOFyBoXø eAhEy:AEye`hAy [pOÓwOsEy XeTjXËnw^o eTOÌo]Iy Pwo]pOwÓ
`h:çXOyGwo=<‛
PÓweêAhEyt A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy OvÓGwoEy:XeSWu BZFyeOhyeYÌreShAy [woAyZSy
áTOy]h:Fsh Gvo:áUOyBkAyBk]Eyt]Iy<

= 51 =

]ÓwX^oOy XkAyFweAhEy:e]h]p YvoêAIy ¹owEyZSyXø]h áUFy]Iy<20 Voµ]Iy A÷¹oyTyOwÓ e[øhAyZXIyt[Xy:BZx:¹nEyt eFhEyteXøhye]h]p X^oOye]h eêAhEyt [pOwoEy:]Iy eAhEy:e]h`[oTyAow[oTy? eShEyOFyBkwSy> ðA[hXIyt eXËnwYAYyOEyËnEyAwo eFhEyteXøhyZêAXIy< AÉht]XwoEy:`Z VoµAsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy ¹nFyeTiEy: 543 ¹nFy `êAhOsEy BZFyeOhyeYÌr e[hA>eXs:UsháBEy:Awo BvYpBut]Iy< BZFyeOhyeYÌr`OsAy. eXs:Ush:BváBEy:]Iy W\=`F X^oOyeT< AkXy:FhOsEy BZFyeOhy]Iy `Zh`h:[vo:=Xp[`F¹nEty WoZh:áUFyeêAhEy: eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< (ËnEyeYh^Sy 8:58)< VoµA BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy eXËnwYáUFyeêAhEy: eUhyáT]Iyt `Bi ‚]p]Iy Eit`ZEyËnw? EiteShAyXn [he]h]páUFy]Iy. page 23. 21 Book of Buddha (Tri Pi Dok. Thai Edition) Book 27. ]ÓwX^oOy `eXnhEyPu> Xx:`wXy¹nEyt[Xy:e[øhAyáBEy:. by A. P. ]ÓwX^oOy eTkhAyGvo:e]h`ZhAwoeUhyáTeT:áBEy:. Page 505 and other pages. = 52 = .Voµ]Iy [Xy:BZx:X^oOyTi< VoµA ]p]Iy [p]h:Xkh:eFhEyteXøhyeS]p X^oOyeêAhEy:¹nEyt [p]h:Xkh: [woAye[øhAyZSy[Xy:BZx: X^oOyeêAhEy: `e]`BkheáTháTButTi]Iy< ]ÔeShAyXn ðA[hXIyt]p]h ‚e]áBEy:¹nEty áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:áBEy: ]v]ZhXn `A÷OyOZh:]wÓ TwÓ eGhEyeT:XIyt]páUFyeêAhEy:‛ eáTháTButTi]Iy< VoµA Pow[Xy:BZx:Awo «òSyáT]páUFy ]Iy< Voµ= ]sSy]EyáBEy:]Iy áTSy[IyOIytXOyeT:áBEy:. ]ÓwX^oOy TwOyPh:e]h `ZhAwoUsEyt^eT:áBEy:.‛21 ^o eáThBut]Iy< BZFyeOhyeYÌreShAy [woA[ y owe]h]p]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy WoZh:áUFy eêAhEy:]wËnwZXIy< Voµ=]sSy]EyBkAyOsEy X¥ËnFyTi:=`BkAy `BSy: 1 ¹nEyt 8 OsEy Qo£áTcShXkh: eTkhAyAsYyXIyt[Xy:`eêAhEy: e^heáThButTi]Iy< `Zh`h: [vo:Awo XnSyASye]h `áXEyáUEytFOEyAh ]Êh]OwáUEyt `Gvo:]OyZXIy^o e^hBut ]Iy< PÓweShAy A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy e`hEyáXEy[wXytXIy< PowSIy:Op BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo YvoêAIyAwo:Fh:[øEy ]p=]ÊhOZh:Awo ]wZXIy< FwOy¹n[vo:Ti[øAy [owAye[øhAy [øEy A÷¹yoTyOÓw [woBkEye]h e`hEyáXEyXrXkh:Awo ZËnw[wXytXIy< “[pPEy]Iy`OwoEy: XnSye]h [£NhËnew ]hy[Iy: `Gvo:> e]áBEy:]wÓ TwÓe]h [Xy:OFyXkwl:Ënw=<” ]o³vAkXy: 14:12 20 The Prophecy from the Mouth of Buddha.

`BSy: (11) e]áBEy:OZh:=eShAyXhn eXøhy[Eyát BEy:ËnwTi][h:< VoµWh]h= ]sSy]EyBkAy`Z PsAyåTx:[øEy `áTSy[Xy:XËn<w `wTyFAyåTx:[øEy ¹ow:PáBEy:XËnw< AsYy[sSyåTx:[øEy ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy:XËn.w [sOy[Xy:XËn<w 22 BZFyeOhy> e]áBEy:Xn ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAy¹woE]y Iy< OUSy¹wo:P[wXXyt Iy< ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy:Ën]w Iy<[sOyeáXhAyZSy AYyOEyáBEy:Ënw]Iy< W\= îAx:Xh:e]h eXøhy[EytBkAy [p]h:Xkh:`h:[vo:= îAx:Xh:e]h eXøhy[EytBkAyOFyBoXnh OX[sSW y \OsEy Two?eAhEy:XsSye]hW\Awo ËnheUseOúËnwZSyáUFy]Iy< e[hA>Ënwe]hWh]hOZh: OwoEy:OsEy @eXøhy[EytáBEy:`OsAy XOpIxe]h`eáUXkh:Ënw]Iy< `Pp:]áUEyt `îAx: Xh:Gvo:Wh]hOZh:Xkh:áUFye]h VoµWh]h¹nEty BZFyYhSyWh]hOwÓáUFy]Iy< XOpIxe]heXøhy[EytáBEy:Xkh:Awo e`hAyTi`OwoEy:eOúZ]Iy< VoµWh]h> AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy W\=eXøhy[EytBkAy. = 53 = . ÌrTyePs:]Iy< @e[hA OsEy [p]h:Xkh:]Iy XkAyASy:TXh `]AyËnEyêAZ]Iy< `Pp:]áUEyt A÷¹oyTyOwÓ e[h[pXkwl:Xkh:]Iy e]áBEy:OZh:=eShAy> XIy]áÓw UFyTkAy[hXIyAwoX]w Sh: X[IyêAeT< VoµWh]hOZh:= ]sSy]EyBkAy`Z ‚`ZhZhOwoEy:¹nEyt [p]h:OwowEy: ]Iy OFyFvoOFyBo= ]SyFsXy:e]h(OSyBwo:îAx:e]h) BsSy`h:OFyBoeêAhEyt áUFyeTj [h]Iy^o BvYpêA]Iy<‛ VoµA `áTFy=OSyBwo:. AvêAÊheêAhEytáUFy]Iy ^o OZh:\Ey eUhyáTBut]Iy< @]wÓeUhyáTZáBEy:Xnh W\]v]Zh[IyTOyeSáBEy:¹nEyt 22 Oral Tradition. e]áBEy:]Iy e[:SAye]h [ølÖw\nAyBkAyáUFy]Iy.

Souchip Ponyanouphab. A÷Sy. [h[O•Ùve]he[hA]Ów[Iy:eAhEy: áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:BvAh eZhAyËnw[wXytXIy^o eXøhy[EytêA]Iy< ]Ey]Iy áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:áBEy:BvZe]h`Bi WháUFy[hXIy. `OwOyW\=AvOZh:áUFy]Iy^oGow]Iy< `OwOA y v eêAhEyt [Yy]Xh:. ]pBwo:. `WYy]wÓe]hBÀhAwoYyXkwl:¹nEyt WYy`GEyt>ËnwXIy F]Iyt`Zh `h:[vo:]Iy @W\> ]Ey=[oTyeGhEyXrXkh:¹nEyt ]Eye[øhAy[Xy:e]h[Xy: `eTjXnh XpOIyTi]Iy< VoµAkXy:CSyOsEy eAhEy:e]h]p ]wÓX^oOy XeAhEy:e]h]p áUFy[hZáBEy:Xnh eXs:Ush:ZhXn X^oOyWu.áTSy[IyeXs:Ush:áBEy:Aow BvYpe]heêAhEytáUFy]Iy< PwÓeêAhEty VoµWh]h\EyXkh: ]Iy e]áBEy:OZh:=eShAy> W\Ap:eáThEy:áBEy:BvZSy `BsEyt`eZ:Ënw? @e[hA ]w[ Ó Iy:eAhEy:. = 54 = . TIhËnEy. WoZEyF]áUEyt áUFy [hZ]Iy< e[hAOsEy `ZhZhOowEy:]Iy `OwOyAvêAÊh= `Akwl:Z[QyXkh: ]h áUFy]Iy< ]³\i`h:[vo:]Iy Wx:Aut]wÓe]hAvOZh:= ]v]ZhFAyAsEy:> BkIey ¹nhEyáBEy:BvZêA]Iy< AvOZh:=`Aßw:GAyAwo Sh:[IyZSy VoµA e`hAyTi `OwoEy: e^hButTi]Iy<23 1< `]AyOwoZáBEy:]Iy `OwOyW\OsEy OwZw§hSyXkh:= `]AyAwo]Oy e]heêAhEytáUFy]Iy< `]AyËnIyZáBEy:]Iy OwZw§hSy`]Ay X]OyBtu e]heêAhEyt áUFy]Iy< 2< eZhCiSIy:Ti:e]h]p]Iy OwZw§hSyXkh:AowX¹nwTyFAyBtue]heêAhEyt áUFy ]Iy< eZhCiPpe]h]p]Iy OwZw§hSyXkh:Awo¹wTn yFAyBtue]heêAhEyt áUFy ]Iy< 3< FwOyGwo:?A[utFh:eBkBetu ]h]p]Iy ÌoTyGwo:Z]Iy< FwOyXGwo:. A[utFh:XeBkBtu]pXnh [nTeBkhZ]Iy< 4< `OwOyW\Xnh XSh[wo\SyOwoBute]h]p]Iy ZhPp:AkÌpv:Z]Iy< ]pOTi:Awo eAhEy:XsSyFsh GAyGvBetu ]h]p]Iy ZhPp:áXEytZ]Iy< 5< eT:AXy:áBEy: XËnwBute]heêAhEyt GEy:ZuZ]Iy< eT:AXy:ZAyeZhBute]heêAhEyt BkXy:]hZ]Iy< 6< `OwOyW\Xnh \iðAh:Bute]heêAhEyt `GEy` t OSy: ¹nwXyte]hXw]h:FoOsEy eXs:Ush:áBEy:BvZ]Iy< ¹nwXytBkBute]h]p]Iy `GEyt`OSy:áXEyte]h Xw]h:FoOsEy eXs:Ush:BvZ]Iy< 7< `OwOyW\Xnh TIhXGIy:Tp:Bute]heêAhEyt TIhXutáUFy]Iy< fNyTIhAwo GIy:Tp:But]p]Iy TIhËnwáUFyZ]Iy< 23 History of Religions. AoSy]Iy. FFy]h:.

e[h[pXßw:`Xkh:Fo]Iy VoµWh]h\EyXkh:áUFyêA]Iy< ]pOÓw=Sh:[Iy ]eWheTiAyXr`Z ]pOwÓ]Iy TIhXOOyeêAhEy:eOúZ]Iy< AsYy[sSyåTx: eShAy W\`hXBvBkA[ y Iy: XËnwêAeT. XwOyeGsOFyax:ax: e]Gvo:åTx:eShAy SOy\wIhay`áUFy W\eáThEy:? XwXwOwÓPváTSy[hXIyAwo eêAhAyËôvêAe]heêAhEyt. VoµWh]hOZh:> AsYy [sSyåTx:eShAyOsEy eXøhy[EytáBEy:XËnweêAhEy: eUhyáTáBEy:áUFyTi]Iy< `îAx:Xh:Gvo: Sh:[Iy[suXrOFyBoXnh ‚e]åTx:[øEy SOy\wIhayáUFy]sh:]Iy‛ ^o BvYpáBEy:áUFy]Iy< e[hA> `]AyËnEyFay A÷¹yoTyOÓw]Iy OFyax:¹nEytOFyax: BkFyBEyêA]Iy< PÓweêAhEyt. ¹nFy]wXáyt BEy:[Iy:XËnweT< Pwo `ZhXnh VoµA«òSyáTBute]h eXËnwYAwoX]we]heêAhEyt. “WYyeOhtXn áTSyX[heOhteT< WYyeOhtXn ¹w:o PáBEy:XËnweOhteT< ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy:XËnweOhteT< [sOyeáXhAyáBEy:XËnweOhteT<” @]wÓáUEyt VoµWh]hOsEy eXøhy[EytáBEy:XËnweT. `WYy]ÓwáUFyXIyAowTEy X]wêAeT< @ ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:]Iy `[sSyÌrTyePs:e]heêAhEyt e[h[pXßw:`Xkh:Fo]Iy eShEy W\OsEy áUFyTkAy[hXIyt`ZhAow Sh:X[IyWu AsYy[sSy]sh:êA]Iy< AsY[ y sSy åTx:eShAy `WYy]Ów]sh:? XIy]áÓw UFyXIyAwo X]wêAeT< YBo`]AyËnEy[øAy ËnweSêAe]h]pXkh:]Iy[Iy: e]áBEy:OZh:¹nEyt ZEyGwoEyZSy XáTEyGEyOOyêAeT< áUFyTkAy[hXIyt`ZhXkh:Awo CÌoXFwoAyêATu ]pOÓw=W\Aow AoSy[sSyeFêA]Iy< [p `Xkh:A @]wÓ `]AyËnEyeSêA]Iy< WoSy:îAx:eAkhEy:Xn WoSy:îAx:ATEy eXøhy[EytáBEy:AEy:XuteêAhEy:Awo e^heáTh e[t ËnwêA]Iy< FkhTS`BXy:`Sh:OsEy WoSy:îAxXkh:A ËsOyGwo]IyXnh. Xx:ÌÑwáBEy:áUEyt eáXXr¸y]wÓáTSy]sh:Z=< \wIhay]Iy W\=`FwOy `TowEy:áUFy]Iyt`OwoEy: WoZh:]BEyáTEyGEye]heSZh]wÓ ]sh:Z[wXytXIy< @`Zh Awo X]wSh:X[Iye]h]pXkh:A. SOyGwo:Xkh: X\Ey [h¹woEyZSy íAw:Xkh:Awo `wXyTOyTOy[Iy OSy:Ph:Ah. AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy [p]Iy SOy\wIhay `áUFy]wÓ eáThEy:[uAh W\AvêAÊh`OwoEy: [IyTOyeS]Iy^o PEyêA]Iy< ]Ey]Iy eXøhy[EytáBEy:XËnwe]h e[hA> `]AyËnEyeSTi][h:< WhXnSh: X[IyWu eXøhy[EytáBEy:OFyBo OIyeGhAyeSTi][h:< Pwo`Zh> ]Ey[voæBvXr ËnwTi ][h:< `eáUXnh ]Ey=Gvo:áUOyBkAyeTjOsEy]h XpOIyTi]Iy< = 55 = . AhAsYyêA]Iy< [p]Iy AsYy[sSy]sh:[øEy BÀhAowYy¹nEyt\wIhay As] u sh:êA]Iy< BÀhAwoYy ]Iy ]äCw[yáBEy:.

BZFyeOhy> AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy eXøhy[EytBkAyËnwe]hW\. Ph\ZWoZh:]Iy COweOhy`ZhXnh e¹n:eOhyXXp< EiOwÓOsEy `WYy]pXø XTkAyFx:Wu. `]AyËnEyáBEy:`eêAhEy:áUFy=< EitAowYovêAIy e]h]p]Iy e][sSye]hy[Iy: ËnEy[wXytXIy< EitAowYovêAIy? `]AyËnEye]h]p Ënw]XøOÓw]Iy[Iy: e]áBEy:¹nEyt`FayXáTOy AEy:[sOyêA[wXytXIy<‛ (ËnEyeYh^Sy 11:25-26)< AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy BZFyeOhy> W\=eXøhy[EytáBEy:]Iy VoµWh]hOZh:> AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy W\=eXøhy[EtyáBEy:¹nEyt [vo:\ AsuáTh:áBh:Sh:Ti]Iy< W\= eXøhy[EytáBEy:]hXA AÉht`F`ax:¹nEyt TOy]Oye]h ]sSy]EyBkAyTEy[øEy Asáu Th:áBh:Sh:Ti]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:FhA W\Ap:eáThEy:áBEy:XËnweêAhEy: ]sSy]EyTi ]Iy< A÷¹oyTyOwÓ]Iy OFyîAwXy]h[øEyeXs:Ush:áBEy:BvZ? PwÓeShAyOsEy WoZh: ]BEy áTEyGEyPh:e]h OZh:FxZEyáBEy:]Ów ]sh:Z[wXytXIyáUFy]Iy< (e^áVu 9:27)< ËnEyeTOÌo QoOwYeFhEy 3:9 OsE. e]áBEy:OwÓ]Iy AsYy[sSyåTx:eShAy [p]h:Xkh:=eXøhy[EytáBEy: `OsAy `[sSyTEy `eZ:îAx:Ti]Iy< AkXy:FhA eUjáT]IyXnh.y ‚[p`BýwOwÓ]Iy. e¹n:áBEy:Awo XnOy]Iy `OwoEy:. ‚eYÌrA[Iy:. Ënw]XøOwÓ]Iy eShEyOZeFáBEy:Eni `[woeOhyËnw? EiOwÓAwo ]Iy:BveOhy Xp=‛ ^o GowPh:]Iy< [ÔW\> `]AyËnEyFay BZFyeOhyAwo [AyBvYvoêAIy Awo:Fh:e]h]p]Iy `hXBvBkAyËnw]Iy< = 56 = . OX[sSyW\`OsAy ]sS] y EyBkAyXkh:Awo ]ÊhAkXy:Fh> ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh eUhyáT Ph:Ti]Iy< WoZh:]BEyA e]áBEy:]Iy ]Wh\OZh: ]wÓX^oOy AvOZh: eêAhEytX^oOyWu [p]h:OwÓ= eËò:BkYyXr`Z WoZh:]BEyAwo áEEy:TYye]heêAhEyt áTFyQNyeT:áBEy:áUFyeêAhEy: ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< (AÉhax:AkXy: 3:1-19)< `hQv]Iy `áTFyæTåTx:eShAy e]áBEy:¹nEytZEyGwoEyBut]Iy< ]wÓe]hy WoZh:]BEy ]Iy TFyXPh:Wu [p]h:Xkh:`OsAy `êAvFIyOFyBoêAvFIyBut]Iy< Pw` o êAv `FIyXnh OFyax:OIy:e]h ]h:eOhyeYÌrAwo e[hA]wÓeF[sOy? A÷¹oyTyOwÓ= `áTFy`OsAy `e]BveFButáBEy:áUFy]Iy< PwÓeêAhEyt BZFyeOhy=`]AyOh> eXs:Ush:áBEy:. Ei]IyPeáXhAyáBEy:`eêAhEy:.

eXøhy[Eyt]Iyt`OowEy:.‛ ^o Gow]Iy. (1 ]Ay 4:14)< BZFyeOhy A OTIyteOhyXkh:Awo Ei]Iy áTSy[hXIy^o AOweT:But]Iy< (ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:1-3) BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo [peTiEy: 500 eËÒeXnhAyOsEy eAhEy:AEy]wÓ BkxeGhEy ]sh:]Iyt`Bi eAhEy:AEyOXSy¹nFyTi:eTj[h? ‚`wo Ci[w[u[pOwÓ. BZFyeOhy¹nEyt`Op áTSy[Iy`]AyËnEy[h XIy áUFyeêAhEy: eUjáTTi]Iy< ¹ow:P[h[wXytXIy< ]ÊhAkXy:Fh> BZFyeOhy> e]áBEy:]Iy `wTyFAye]h]pAut]wÓáUFyeêAhEy: [hHÌo = `]AyOh`h:áUEyt ]sSy]EyTi]Iy< eYÌrA OTIyteOhyXkh:Awo eáTh But]IyXnh ‚EiOwÓ`eGs [hHÌo Xnh `wTyeTkhy=< ]ÔAwo¹wo:áBEy:`[wÓEni Ei]sh:XIy^o Xw¸yeOhyXp=.‛ (2 eAh 5:10)< ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy BZFyeOhy> e][sSye]h]p]Iy ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAy[Xw yt XIy^o `BwoEy`Xh]sSy]EyTi]Iy. BZFyeOhy= OZh:TÍEyeËÒ> eTj [hZêAXIy.‛ ^o eáThGw= o . A÷¹oyTyO] wÓ Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAowYovêAIy[øAy e]Gov: ]sh:e]hy[Iy:. `WYyteêAhEty eAhEy:AEy]wÓ êAIyteXøhy[kAy eSêA]SIy:< ]EyOwÓ¹nEyt Bsh? eAhEy:AEy]wÓ eGhEyYpáBEy:Awo BveOhyXpe]h PwoeYÌr]Iy ]EyOXwÓ kAyeXnhAy> eAhEy:AEy]wÓ ðA]sh:eOhyXp]IySIy:Op OUSyðA[heOhyXp[Ovt. EiOwÓËnw]Xø]Iy AowYyBÀh>AkEyte]h`AkEyt.‛ (ËnEyeYh^Sy 11:11)< `RwÄhYyXnh ]Ey]Iy e][sSy]sh: Bute]hy[Iy: BZFyeOhy> `wTyFAyáBEy:]háUFy? ¹wo:P[hXIyáUFy]Iy< BZFyeOhy Aow XYovêAIyWu e][sSye]h]pOowEy:]Iy EZuWvo]wÓX]sh:Xnx BZFyeOhy=OZh: TÍEyeËÒ> XwXwOwÓ= YvoêAIyáBEy:¹nEyt [oTyeGhEyBut]Iyt`OwoEy: FxZEyáBEy:BvZXIy< ‚`eêAhEy:XpAh:. Pwo]BEy¹nEyt`Op WoZh:]BEyTwÓeGhEyeOhyXp[wXytXIy.(1 ]Ay 4:16)< A÷¹oyTyOwÓ ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyXIyt `eêAhEy:Awo 1 eAh 15:1-18 OsEy ËnEy:[Ey:Fsh eUhyáTPh:Ti]Iy< PwÓ`áTEy BZFyeOhyeYÌrA [hHÌo`h: ËnEyáTSyeFBut? BZFyeOhy>ËnEyáTSyPeáXhAyáBEy: `XnSy OAYyËnweêAhEy: ]Aye]áT? `A÷¹yoTyOwÓAwo BsSy:`h:eT:ButTi]Iy< PÓw`áTEy = 57 = .@`BkAyXkh:]Iy VoµWh]hYvoêAIyáBEy:¹nEty OpIxXrXËnweêAhEy:Aow e`hAy OsEy eUjáTPh:Ti]Iy< `áTSy[Xy:Ënw]Iy< ]ÊhAkXy:FhOsEy ‚eYÌr]Iy e]åTx:Xn OUSyPeáXhAyeOhyXp]IyAwo EiOwÓ ]IyYvo[øEy. (OXSyeOhy 1:11)< @AkXy:BkAy`Z. PwoSIy:Op eYÌr> `wTyeTkhye]h]pOwÓAwo[Iy:. eAhEy:XeAhEy: Ënw]Iy`OwoEy: `Akwl:`áTFyAwo `]x:]x:BváBEy:Eni.

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EiOwÓ ]BEyeYÌrBZFy`h:áUEyt WoZh:]BEyteËÒeOhy> åEwXy]AyáBEy:Awo BvFh:êA[wXytXIy‛ (eZhX 5:1). `Pp:]áUEyt åEwXy]AyáBEy:AowZ[ow]Iy< `RwAáTcShXnh A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy `áTFy]h:áUFyêAe]heêAhEyt WoZh:] BEy= WoSy:eOhyAwo XXnxêAeT. (eZhX 3:23)< `áTFyeêAhEyt A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy e`hAy TiOwÓAow BvFh:êAZ]Iy< 1< \Xy:SIy:áBEy:¹nEty ShAkEyáBEy:< (AÉhax:AkXy: 3:16-19) 2< BÀhAwoYy e]áBEy:< 3< \wIhay e]áBEy:< (WoZh:]BEy¹nEyt e\:AsháBEy:) 4< FhOSy¹nEyt`Op OZh:FxZEyáBEy:Awo ZEyGwoEyZXIy< (VkhQwOy 20:7-10) 5< EZuXx:`woEy]wÓ BkTFyáBEy:< (VkhQwOy 20:15) = 60 = . EiOwÓ]Iy YvoêAIyáBEy:Ënw? eáUhEytXOyZh]wÓeZhAy[øEy. gEy:OwÓAwo CÌoXFwoAy. e¹n:áBEy:Awo XnOy]Iy`OwoEy:. XFay:Fh:BkEyêAeT< [p`Býw]Iy `XnSyOZh:AwoX]wWuXkAyASy:TXhYvoêAIyêA]Iy< ]Ey]Iy @`eêAhEy:`ZhXkh:¹nEytTOy]Oy? XIyXøTEySh:[IyYvoêAIye]hy[Iy: BZFy eOhyWoZh:`eTjAwo:Fh:? áTEyGEyáBEy:XæT[øEy e`hAyTiGow:Akwl:Xkh:¹nEyt ZEyGwoEyZ [wXytXIy< 1< ]Ey]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌr¹nEyt eOúe]h`Bi e[hA>`]AyËnEyFay BZFyeOhyAwo áEEy:TYyBute]heêAhEty eêAhAyËôvZ[wXytXIy< 2< BZFyeOhy`h:áUEyt OZh:FxZEy? EZu]wÓ ]sh:ZXIyt`eêAhEy: ]Ey]w e]h`Bi TpeGs:eShEyOZ[wXytXIy< 3< Xx:`woEyPuOsEy Ph\ZQo£ BvFh:Z[wXytXIy< 4< ]Ey`OsAy eShEyOZXIyt`BkwSyXËnweOhteT< Uw[wÄw 2:10. 3:9)< ‚PwÓeêAhEyt. (1 eYh 5:11. EiOwÓOsEy `WYy]pXø XTkAyFx:Wu. (ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:1-3)< [pOowEy:]Iy `[owG»Xkh:FshËnwOOy]Iy.`OsAy eXøhy[Eyt? áTEyGEyZXIy< [p`BýwOwÓ]Iy Sh:[IyZSyBAyBu]Iyt`Zh^o PEyAh.12)< ¹woEyEveOhy> WoZh:]BEy ¹nEyt`Op eSZSy`hXBvBkAyËnw]Iy. Ph\ZWoZh:]Iy AOweOhy`Zh Xnh e¹n:eOhyXXp.‛ (2 eT. XIy]pXø OZh:FxZEyáBEy:Xn X[sOyeáXhAy¹woEyeT< e[hA> XIy]IytWh]hOZh:Awo YvoêAIyTieF eShAyGvo:OsEy OZh: FxZEyáBEy:Xn `WYy]pXø X[sOyeáXhAy¹woEyeT< ‚[p`BýwOwÓ]Iy. Ph\Z`]AyZXIy. Ënw]XøOwÓ]Iy eShEyO ZeFáBEy:Eni `[woeOhyËnw? EiOwÓAwo ]Iy:BveOhyXp=. 11 ¹nEyt 2 eAh. 5:10 `OwoEy:.

BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo XYvoêAIy. `Pp:]áUEyt ]EytAwo `áTFyPuXn AYyOEyBute]h`ËnEy]BEy áUFyeêAhEy: [AyBvTi< 4< BZFyeOhyeËÒXnh `áTFy\SyBvTi< eShEyOZTi< YvoXnh:áBEy: ]v]YAwo UYyËnh:TFyTi< 5< BZFyeOhyAwo [AyBvTi< YBoXnF? WoZh:]BEyAwo ]EytW\> eSZheT:Ti< `]AyËnEyeFTi< = 61 = . (OXSyeOhy 4:12)< eXøhy[EytáBEy:. (VkhQwOy 20:15)< eShAyGvo:e]h OZh:FxZEyáBEy:e¸Awo eAkhy[òh:Z[wXytXIy. 11:25)< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ= \wIhay]Iy EZu]wÓX]sh:ZeOhteT. (ËnEyeYh^Sy 5: 24. [AyXBve]h]p]Iy `PAyeUhyáTTi OZh: FxZEyáBEy: Ei:Xkwl:Xn `WYy]pXø X[sOyeáXhAy¹woEyeT< 2 eAh 5:21. AYyOEyËnEy. [p]h:Xkh:`h: `áTFyXA n YyOEy? ]ÔPv áTSy[IyeBj eGhEy[hAh eAhEy:AEyWvo]wÓ\EyFh:eFZSy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo [Xy:BZx:`áUFy eF[sOyBut]Iy. (ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:6)< `áBh:e]h]p. ‚PwÓeêAhEyt EiOwÓ]IyYvoêAIyáBEy:Ënw? eáUhEytXOyZh]wÓ eZhAy[øEy EiOwÓeYÌrBZFy`h:áUEyt WoZh:]BEyteËÒeOhy> åEwXy]AyáBEy:Awo BvFh:êA=<‛ A÷¹yoTyOwÓ]Iy BÀhAwoYye]ZXIy< ]wÓe]hy BZFyeOhyAow YovêAIyAow:Fh: [øEy A÷¹yoTyOwÓ= \wIhay]Iy Xe]Gvo:eT. 1< Voµ= TeZhUAyæTBute]h eXËnwY]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌráUFyeêAhEy:Awo [AyBvTi< 2< ]Ey]Iy `áTFy]h:áUFyeêAhEy:[AyBvTi< 3< BZFyeOhyeYÌr]Iy WoZh:]BEy. EiOwÓ]Iy Pwo]p`h:áUEyt WoZh:]BEyteËÒeOhy> eáUhEytXOye]h]páUFyXIy`eêAhEy:OIy:<‛ eZhX 5:1. `áBh:e]h[Xy:BZx:. WoZh:]BEy]Iy `áTFy¹nEytAEy:FEy e]h]pAwo EiOwÓ`OsAyeêAhEyt `áTFyËnwe]h]p áUFyeFeOhyXp=< `eêAhEy:XpAh:. 5:24) < WoZh:]BEy]Iy. (ËnEyeYh^Sy 3:18. `áBh:e]hWh]hOZh:Xkh:]Iy @Aut]wÓ XAYyOEy¹woEyeT. ‚`WYyeêAhEytSIy:^pXpAh:. `hXBvBkAy¹nEyt áTFyQNyFxZEyáBEy:Xn[sOyeáXhAy? AYyOEyáBEy: ZËnwZSy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo YvoêAIy[AyBvZXIy< BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo YvoêAIy? `]Fye]h`]AyOh> `]AyËnEy[woe]h ]pXkh:`OsAy `GwoæTBkAyXkh:.

6< ]Ey]Iy [AyBvZSy `GEy]EytáUFy[øEy eAk:Hp:æT? e`hAyTi`OwoEy: GoeOhEy:Ti< ‚BkFye]h`U. `U WoZh:]BEy< BZFyeOhy=ShX> eOhEy:e[øhAy`TyTi]Iy< `hXEy<‛ ]Eyt`OsAy`Pp: 1< A÷¹yoTyOwÓ ]OwæT]Eyt]Iyt `eZ:îAx:e]h`BkAyOFyBkAyXnh ]Ey]Iy AvêAÊh= eF«òSyZh`OwoEy:`]AyËnEyáBEy: X^oOyWu WoZh:]BEy= ]sS] y EyBkAy`OwoEy: `]AyËnEyZSyáUFy]Iy< ]wÓXn]h ]Ey=eXøhy[EytáBEy: ËnEy]Sy[wXytXIy< WoZh:]BEy= ¹rOyATOyeOhy> eUhyáTPh:]Iy` t Zh Xkh:]Iy `XnSyTEy áUFyTkAy[hXIyáUFy]Iy< 2< AÉÞheTjOsEyËnwe]h Wh]hOZh:`B‎ßÖ] w IyeAhEy:Ti]Iy< ]wÓe]hy `h:[vo:]Iy XáTIytFvoeT< PwoWh]hOZh:Xkh:]Iy ]EytW\= [wo`TyXr Aow XáUIytGIy:eT:¹woEyeT< PwoWh]hOZh:Xkh:A XeT:¹woEye]h`Zh ]vo:Xkwl:Ënw]Iy< (A) FFyXnSye]h WoZh: (B) `áTFy BsEyt[sOyáBEy:OZh: (C) Ph\Z`]Ay¹nEty ¹woEyEveOhy @]vo:Xßw:F[vo:Awo eT:¹woEye]h]pXnh BZFyeOhyeYÌr]h[øEyáUFy]Iy< BZFy eOhy]Iy A÷¹yoTyOwÓ eXøhy[EyteFhEytFh:eS]p. VoµAowYyOowEyA [Iy:UeZhUAyæTBtu]p áUFye]heêAhEytTEy áUFy]Iy. FFyXnSye]hWoZh:. (1 eYh^Sy 5:10)< BZFy eOhyeYÌr]Iy `áTFyXn AYyOEyZSy ðAGEy:[h]Iyt eXËnwY áUFy]Iy. (Xcu 1:21)< PwÓ`áTEy BZFyeOhy]Iy [p]h:Xkh:Awo WoZh:]BEy¹nEyt eAhEy:AEy¹woEyEv]Ów áTSy[IyTwÓeGhEyZSy ðAGEy:[he]h [Xy:BZx:TEyáUFy]Iy< (ËnEyeYh^Sy 14:6)< = 62 = . CÌoFwoAyáBEy:. OFyax:OIy:e]h ]h:eOhyAwo eF[sOyeT:Bute]heêAhEyt eAk:Hp:OEyTi=< Ye¸XnF? A÷¹yoTyeShEyOZTiåTx< AwoYyeOhyAwo YvoêAIyTi]Iy< AwoYyeOhyAwo Ph\ZYvoêAIyAwo:Fh:TiXIy< AwoYyeOhyWoZh: A÷¹yoTy¹nEyt`Op `Fay`áXuËnweOhyXpTi< `A÷¹oyTy= `áTFyXkh:Awo BsEyt[sOyeT:? ]h:/]Xx:`áUFy [AyBve]heêAhEyt eAk:Hp:OEyTi=. A÷¹yoTy`OsAy W\¹nEyt`]AyAwoeT:e]hWoZh:Awo ]wBsEyt Ze]heêAhEyt\Xy:eáXhAyTi=< `A÷¹yoTy]Iy AwoYyeOhyAwoX]wWu áEEy:TYy XwBute]heêAhEyt\Xy:SIy:XwTi=< @`ZhXkh:áUEyt AwoYyeOhyAwo áTFyXnh:Bute]h eêAhEyt\Xy:SIy:XwTi=< OUSyáTSy? Pwo]wÓXæTeOhtTi< `wo. WoZh:]BEyAwo eAk: Hp:OEyTi=< `A÷¹yoTyAwo BkFyáBEy:.

]h:eOhyeYÌrWoZh:= CÌoNheX³h eOhy¹nEty]¸yËnEy:e]h\wIhayeOhy=XwOy]^hZUúuáBEy:OÓwáUEyt ]EytAwoAhAsYyTieF< eAhEy:Bkx:XCz[hBvFh:Z? @`ZhXkh:Aow]wËnwSh:[Iy]eWheTiAyAh BZFyeOhy > `áXåu EwXy:BkXy:TieF< Gvo:áUOyBkAyBkPh:åTx:e]h]pXkh: ]ÓwX^oOy eX:BsSy:eX:[wo]pXkh:`OsAy @ Fh`oTy`h:áUEyt `Akwl:æTTieF< BkFyáBEy:¹nEyt eXøhy[EytáBEy:Xkh:FsháUEyt. `EyOh BkSO y h\XyeGhEyt = 63 = .@Fh`oTy UOyÌr]pOwoEy:`eTj WoZh:]BEyXn eAhEy:Bkx:XCz[h ]AyeZhAyTieF< WoZh:]BEy= BkFyáBEy:eX³heOhy.

He has authored and published many Chritian books. ]sSy]EyBkAyXkh:Awoe[t[hButZh Voµ]Iy eXËnwY`eêAhEy: Awo TeZhUAyæTButeêAhEy: ËnheUseOúËnwBut]Iy< FheZ:GZh]Iy BZFyeOhyeYÌrAwo eXËnwYáUFyeêAhEy: YvoêAIy[AyBv]Iy< [p]h:OwoEy:eXøhy[EyteFhEytFh:eSe]h]p ]Iy eXËnwYáUFyeêAhEy:[AyBv]Iy< 1975 OsEy Far East Broadcasting Company > `Fx`Fay AowEyeGhEy]p áUFy[hBut]Iy< [h`wo (Lao) Wh]hFAh:áUEyt `]v[sEytKhSOsEy eBiEy:eGhEy `áUFy `XreOhyeGhEy]Iy< 1975 AOIy:A e¸Fay e[h Wh]hFAh:áUEyt OZh:e^hBkAyXkh:Awo áTEyGEyPoOy[sEyte[t ËnwTi]Iy< His degrees include: Bachelor of Arts from Biola University of La Mirada. CA. CA.FheZ:GZh= ]XwoEy:`Akay: eQiAyOh `EyOh BkSyOh\XyeGhEyt]Iy e[h¹woEyEvOsEy 1953 Bo¹nFyOsEy eXs:Ush:ButTi]Iy< VoµWh]h\EyXw]h:FoXn eXs:Ush:[hAh 1970 OsEy]h BZFyYhSyOFyeYhAy áUFy[hButTi]Iy< BZFyYhSyWh]h]wÓX\EyBEy Voµ= TeZhUAyæTBkAyXkh:. La Mirada CA. Master of Arts degree from Talbot Seminary. In these capacities he speaks in conferences in many parts of the US. Honorary Doctor’s Degree from the School of Theology of the Lao Conference of Churches. = 64 = . He is now Pastor of the Lao Baptist Church of Whittier. He has been president of the Lao Conference of Churches since 1987 and also served as president of the Lao Southern Baptist Fellowship from 1990 to 1993.

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