PREPARATION OF COLLOIDS

Lyophilic and lyophobic colloidal solutions (or sols) are generally prepared by different types of methods. Some of the common methods are as follows.

(1) Preparation of Lyophilic colloids

(i) The lyophilic colloids have strong affinity between particles of dispersed phase and dispersion medium.

(ii) Simply mixing the dispersed phase and dispersion medium under ordinary conditions readily forms these colloidal solutions.

(iii) For example, the substance like gelatin, gum, starch, egg, albumin etc. pass readily into water to give colloidal solution.

(iv) They are reversible in nature become these can be precipitated and directly converted into colloidal state.

(2) Preparation of Lyophobic colloids : Lyophobic colloids can be prepared by mainly two types of methods.

(i) Condensation method : In these method, smaller particles of dispersed phase are condensed suitably to be of colloidal size. This is done by the following methods.

(a) By oxidation : A colloidal solution of sulphur can be obtained by bubbling oxygen (or any other oxidising agent like HNO3, Br2 etc.) through a solution of hydrogen sulphide in water.

2H2 S + O2 (or any other agent)

2H2O + 2S

(b) By reduction : A number of metals such as silver, gold and platinum, have been obtained in colloidal state by treating the aqueous solution of their salts, with a suitable reducing agent such as formaldehyde, phenyl hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide, stannous chloride etc 2AuCl3 + 3SnCl 2 3SnCl + 2Au
Gold sol

2AuCl3 + 3HCHO + 3H2O
Gold sol

2Au + 3HCOOH + 6HCl

The gold sol, thus prepared, has a purple colour and is called purple of cassius.

(c) By hydrolysis : Many salt solutions are rapidly hydrolysed by boiling dilute solutions of their salts. For example, ferric hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide sols are obtained by boiling solutions of the corresponding chlorides.

FeCl 3 + 3H2O

Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl

Colloidal sol

Similarly silicic acid sol is obtained by the hydrolysis of sodium silicate.

(d) By double decomposition : A sol of arsenic sulphide is obtained by passing hydrogen sulphide through a cold solution of arsenious oxide in water.

As2O3 + 3H2S

As2S3 + 3H2O

(e) By excessive cooling : A colloidal solution of ice in an organic solvent like ether or chloroform can be prepared by freezing a solution of water in the solvent. The molecules of water which can no longer be held in solution, separately combine to form particles of colloidal size.

(f) By exchange of solvent : Colloidal solution of certain substances such as sulphur, phosphorus, which are soluble in alcohol but insoluble in water can be prepared by pouring their alcoholic solution in excess of water. For example, alcoholic solution of sulphur on pouring into water gives milky colloidal solution of sulphur.

(g) By change of physical state : Sols of substances like mercury and sulphur are prepared by passing their vapour¶s through a cold water containing a suitable stabilizer such as ammonium salt or citrate.

(ii) Dispersion methods : In these methods, larger particles of a substance (suspensions) are broken into smaller particles. The following methods are employed.

(a) Mechanical dispersion

‡

In this method, the substance is first ground to coarse particles.

For the preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols different methods are used.

Preparation of Lyophilic Sols
Since lyophilic sols are quite stable, they can be easily prepared by shaking the lyophilic substance with the dispersion medium. Examples are: Colloidal sols of gum, starch, gelatine and egg albumin.

Preparation of Lyophobic Sols
Lyophobic sols are prepared by two methods. They are: 1) Condensation methods 2) Dispersion methods.

Condensation methods
In condensation methods particles of atomic or molecular size are induced to combine to form aggregates of colloidal dimensions. To achieve this, chemical as well as physical methods are employed.

a) Chemical methods
Colloidal sols can be prepared by chemical reactions, which involve double decomposition, oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis. Examples of sols made by these methods are given below: i) Double decomposition

ii) Oxidation

iii) Reduction

iv) Hydrolysis

Sols of silver halides are prepared by mixing dilute solution of silver salts with alkali halides in equivalent amounts. Similarly, silica gel sol is prepared by mixing dilute solutions of sodium silicate and HCl.

b) Physical methods
i) Exchange of solvent In this method, a true solution in mixed with an excess of another solvent in which the solute is insoluble but the solvent is miscible. For e.g., a solution of sulphur in alcohol mixed with excess of water results in a colloidal sol of sulphur. ii) By excessive cooling A colloidal sol of ice in an organic solvent such as CHCl3 or ether is obtained by freezing a solution of water in the solvent. The molecules of water, which can no longer be held in solution separately come together to form particles of colloidal size.

Dispersion methods
In dispersion methods, colloidal particles are obtained by breaking large particles of a substance in the presence of a dispersion medium. Since the sols formed are unstable, they are stabilized by adding stabilizing agents. Some of the dispersion methods are: a) Mechanical dispersion b) Electrical disintegration c) Peptization.

a) Mechanical dispersion
In mechanical dispersion, the coarse suspension of the substance is ground in a colloid mill, a ball mill or an ultrasonic disintegrator. The colloid mill consists of two metal discs, close together and rotating at high speed (7000 revolutions per minute) in opposite directions. By the process of such grinding, the suspension particles are torn off to the colloidal sizes.

b) Electrical disintegration or Bredig's Arc Method
In this method, an electric arc is struck between electrodes of the metal immersed in the dispersion medium.

fig 7.12 - Bredig's arc method The intense heat produced by the arc vaporizes the metal, which then condenses to form particles of colloidal size. By this method, sols of metals such as gold, silver and platinum can be prepared.

c) Peptization
The process of converting a precipitate into a colloidal sol by shaking it with the dispersion medium, in the presence of a small amount of electrolyte, is called peptization. The electrolyte used is called the peptizing agent. This method is used to convert a freshly prepared precipitate into a colloidal sol. In the process of peptization, the precipitate adsorbs one of the ion of the electrolyte onto its surface. The ion adsorbed on the surface is generally common with those of the precipitate. Adsorption of ion results in the development of positive or negative charge on precipitates and which ultimately break up into colloidal size particles. For e.g., a precipitate of silver iodide already formed can be dispersed by the addition of potassium iodide. Here potassium iodide is the peptizing agent.

Methods of preparation of colloidal sols
The methods of preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic colloids are as under :

Preparation of lyophobic sols
The following two methods are used for preparation of hydrophobic sols. (l) Condensation methods (2) Dispersion methods. (l) Condensation methods ‡' In these methods the particles of atomic or molecular size are induced to combine so that the associates having dimensions of colloid are formed. For this physical or chemical methods are used. (a) Chemical methods : The colloidal solutions are prepared by chemical reactions like oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis. * e.g. As203 + 3H2S Do^le decomposition ) ^ (coUoid) + 3h2o Oxidation S02 + 2H2S -> 3S (colloid) + 2H20 2AuC13 + 3HCHO + 3H20 Reduction > 2Au (colloid) + 3HCOOH + 6HC1 FeCl3 + 3H20 Hydrolysis > Fe(OH)3 (colloid) +3HC1 (b) Physical methods : (1) Exchange of solvents : When a true solution is added in excess of other solvent in which the solute is insoluble but the solvent is soluble a colloidal sol is obtained, e.g. The sulphur colloidal sol is obtained when the solution prepared by adding sulphur in alcohol, is added to a large amount of water. (ii) Excessive cooling : To obtain the colloidal sol of ice in organic solvents like chloroform or ether, its solution in water is cooled in the solvent. The molecules of water which cannot remain separate, combines and form particles of colloidal particle size. (2) Dispersion methods : In these methods, the bigger particles of the substance are broken in the presence of dispersion medium. They are stabilized by addition of suitable stabilizers. Some of the dispersion methods are given below : (a) Mechanical dispersion : In this method, the suspension of macromolecules are brought to colloidal state in dispersion medium by grinding in the colloid mill. In such mills ball mills or ultrasonic dispersers in addition to colloid mill are used for grinding.

As shown in fig. 7.7 there are two metal discs which are moved in opposite directions at a high speed (7000 revolutions per minute.) The suspended particles are broken or crushed and changed to colloidal size.

Electrical arc or Bredig arc method

In this method, dispersion and condensation are involved. The colloidal sols of metals like gold, silver, platinum are obtained by this method. In this method, as shown in fig. 7.8 the electric arc is struck to metal electrodes kept in dispersion medium. Very high temperature is produced which vaporises the metal. Hence the colloidal particles of the metal are obtained in the medium. To cool this, ice is filled in the outer vessel.

Peptization
The small amount of precipitates when shaken in the dispersion medium in the presence of an electrolyte it is converted into colloidal sol. This is known as peptisation. The electrolyte used in this reaction is called the peptizing agent. This method is used to change only the freshly prepared precipitates to colloidal sol.

During peptisation, the precipitates adsorb one of the two ions of the electrolyte. The ion adsorbed on the surface is similar to the positive or negative ion of the electrolyte. Because of this the positive or negative charge is produced on the precipitates, which as a result break into smaller particles and these particles are of the size of colloidal particles, e.g. The freshly precipitated Fe(OH)3 are shaken with o» peptising agent aqueous FeCl3 so that Fe ions are adsorbed on the surface of Fe(OH)3 and as a result, changed to smaller size colloidal particles.

hemistry Grade 12 Additional Resourses > INTRODUCTION OF COLLOIDS > Lyophilic and Lyophobic sols

Lyophilic and Lyophobic sols: ( lyo-solvent, philic = loving, phobic = hating) Sols can also be further classified into (a) Lyophilic and (b) Lyophobic sols on the basis of the affinity of the colloidal particles with the dispersing medium. The sols in which the dispersed phase has an affinity for the medium or the solvent is called lyophilic sols. They can be easily prepared by mixing the dispersed phase and the medium. Examples: Starch, albumin and protein sols in water. They are reversible i.e. when the sol is heated until all the solvent evaporates, only the residue remains. Later, the sol can be regenerated by adding the solvent to the residue. The colloids in which the dispersed phase has no affinity for the medium or the solvent are called lyophobic colloids. These colloids cannot be easily prepared by mixing the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. Ferric hydroxide in water, sulphur in water, gold sol and arsenious sulphide sol are lyophobic sols. Comparison of lyophilic and lyophobic sols: Property 1) Affinity 2) Reversibility 3) Viscosity 4) Hydration Lyophilic sol They have affinity for the medium. Reversible. Viscosity is more than that of the medium. The particles are extensively hydrated (i.e. molecules of water are attached to particles) Lyophobic sol They do not have affinity for the medium. Irreversible. Viscosity is nearly same as that of the medium The particles are not hydrated extensively.

5) urface tensi n 6) Visi ilit

urface tensi n is l of t e medium.

er t an t at

urface tension is nearl same as t at of t e medium. Particles though invisible, can be 'detected' under an ultramicroscope. Particles migrate towards cathode or anode. They are unstable. Addition of small amounts of electrolytes can cause precipitation.

The particles are not easil detectable even under an ultramicroscope.

The particles may migrate to the 7) Migration under cathode or anode or may not an electric field migrate at all. 8) tability They are stable. Addition of small amounts of electrolytes cannot precipitate them.

Preparati

l

ome of the lyophobic sols are prepared as follows:

1) Bredig's Electric Arc method: This method is suitable for the preparation of metallic sols such as gold sol or silver sol. Water containing a little of al ali li e KOH (in order to stabilise the resulting sol) is taken in a vessel. It is kept cold by immersing the container in ice water bath. An electric arc is struck between two geld (or silver) electrodes. Heat produced by the spark causes a small amount of

gold to vapourise.The atoms of the metal in the vapour state aggregate to form the colloidal state. 2) Peptization: Peptization is a method of converting a freshly prepared precipitate into colloidal state by adding a suitable electrolyte. The added electrolyte is called 'peptizing agent.' Generally, the peptizing agent contains a common ion with that of the precipitate. Example 1: When a freshly prepared precipitate of ferric hydroxide, [Fe(OH)3 ] is treated with ferric chloride solution (FeCl3) and stirred well, ferric hydroxide sol' is formed. Example 2: A freshly prepared precipitate of Agl can be converted into colloidal state by stirring it with AgN03 solution.

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