Timber Pile

Design and Construction
Manual






Timber Piling Council
American Wood Preservers Institute
PREFACE

This Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual has been developed by the American
Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI) as its official recommendation for Timber Piling
Design and Construction.

The data in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized
engineering principles and is based on available technical data. The information in this
manual should not be used or relied upon for a specific application without competent
professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by
a licensed professional engineer.

By publication of this manual, AWPI intends no representation or warranty, expressed
or implied, that the information in the manual is suitable for any specific application or is
free from infringement of any patent or copyright. Any user of this information assumes
all risk and liability arising from such use.

The manual was developed to assist design engineers with the design of timber piling.

Manual Author: James G. Collin, PH.D., P.E. The Collin Group, Ltd.

The manual was reviewed by the AWPI Timber Pile Manual Technical Committee.

AWPI Timber Pile Manual Technical Committee
Grady Brafford Dean Matthews
Bob Gourlay Tom O’Malley
Randy Kelly Morgan Wright

Special thanks is given to the following for their advice on the manual.
Ryan R. Berg, P.E. Ryan R. Berg & Associates
Martin Rollins, P.E., H. M. Rollins Company, Inc.

Future changes to this manual will be posted on the following web site.
www.preservedwood.com www.wwpinstitute.com

 Copyright American Wood Preservers Institute 2002
All rights reserved. Printed in the USA.




BE CONSTRUCTIVE
TM


wood


Deep Foundations Institute Wood Promotion Network Pile Driving Contractors Association

Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual
Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Scope of Manual
1.2 Background
1.3 Seismic Design Considerations
1.4 Organization of Manual

2.0 Foundation Design Procedure
2.1 Design of Foundations
2.2 Foundation Design Process

3.0 Timber Pile Properties
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Allowable Stress Design
3.3 Tabulation of Allowable Stress and Pile Capacity
3.3.1 Pipe Capacity
3.4 Pile Size Specifications
3.5 Working Strength based on Small Clear Wood Specimens
3.5.1 Axial Compressive Stress
3.5.2 Extreme Fiber Bending Stress
3.5.3 Compressive Stress Perpendicular to the Grain
3.5.4 Shear Stress Perpendicular to the Grain
3.5.5 Modulus of Elasticity
3.6 Allowable Stress
3.6.1 Load Duration
3.6.2 Temperature
3.6.3 Pressure Treatment
3.6.4 Size
3.6.5 Load Sharing
3.6.6 Allowable Stress
3.7 Preservative Process
3.7.1 Creosote
3.7.2 Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
3.7.2.1 CCA Industrial Uses
3.7.3 Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA)
3.7.4 CCA and ACZA
3.7.5 Preservative Retention
3.8 Durability Considerations

4.0 Static Analysis Design Procedures
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Soil/Pile Interaction
4.2.1 Load Transfer
4.3 Factors of Safety

4.4 Engineering News Record Formula

5.0 Design of Single Piles
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Meyerhof Method
5.3 Nordlund Method
5.4 Alpha (α) Method
5.5 Effective Stress Method for Piles in Cohesionless and Cohesive
Soils
5.6 Nottingham and Schmertmann Method
5.7 Uplift Capacity of Single Piles

6.0 Design of Pile Groups
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Axial Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils
6.3 Axial Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils
6.4 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils
6.5 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils

7.0 Marine Application Design Considerations
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Broms’ Method

8.0 Pile Installation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Pile Driving Equipment
8.2.1 Leads
8.2.2 Pile Hammers
8.2.3 Helmet
8.3 Hammer Size Selection
8.4 Pile Accessories
8.5 Pile Cutoffs

9.0 Pile Load Testing
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Axial Compression Static Load Test
9.2.1 Interpretation of Load Test

10.0 Quality Assurance During Pile Driving
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Timber Pile Quality Requirements
10.3 Material Certifications
10.4 Pile Driving Equipment and Pile Installation

11.0 Specifications
11.1 Introduction

11.2 Material Specification


12.0 Geotechnical Considerations
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Planning Site Investigation
12.2.1 Desk Study – Available Existing Data
12.2.2 Field Reconnaissance
12.3 Guidelines for Minimum Subsurface Exploration Program
12.4 Methods of Subsurface Exploration
12.4.1 Hollow-Stem Augers
12.4.2 Rotary Wash Borings
12.4.3 Test (Exploration) Pit Excavation
12.5 Soil and Rock Sampling
12.5.1 Soil Samplers
12.5.2 Rock Core Samplers
12.6 Groundwater Conditions
12.7 Subsurface Profile Development
12.8 In-Situ Testing
12.8.1 Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
12.8.2 Vane Shear Test
12.9 Laboratory Soil Testing
12.9.1 Index Tests
12.9.2 Shear Strength Tests
12.9.3 Consolidation Tests
12.10 Laboratory Testing for Pile Driveability Determination

References

Appendix A Design Examples
1
CHAPTER 1.0
INTRODUCTION



1.1 SCOPE OF MANUAL

All objects and structures transfer their load either directly or indirectly to the earth. The
capacity of the earth to support such loads depends on the strength and stability of the
supporting soil or rock materials. Not all foundation materials possess the required
characteristics to carry imposed loads or to resist natural or man made forces without resulting
in damage to the structures they support. Consequently, the engineer is faced with the task of
designing foundations to distribute high-intensity loads in a manner that can be supported by
existing natural subgrade materials, and/or modifying those natural materials.

There are three basic approaches to achieving proper support of structures. These are: a)
distribution of structural loads to foundations, such that the intensity of the loads transferred will
not cause shear failure or objectionable settlement of the structure; b) modification of the
foundation soil (i.e., soil improvement); or c) a combination of "a" and "b" above.

There are two general types of foundations for distributing applied structural loads to the
ground: shallow foundations, and deep foundations. Shallow foundations principally distribute
structural loads over large areas of near-surface soil to lower the intensity of the applied loads to
levels tolerable for the foundation soils. The analysis and design of shallow foundations is not
discussed in this manual. Deep foundations distribute loads to deeper, more competent soils or
to rock, by means of skin-friction, end bearing, or a combination of both. This manual is devoted
to the discussion of the structural and geotechnical aspects of timber pile foundation design.

This design manual follows the design methodology presented in the Federal Highway
Administration’s Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations (FHWA-HI-97-013). The
information from this FHWA document has been condensed to focus solely on timber piles and
has been supplemented to provide additional guidance with respect to the selection of timber
pile structural properties required for design.

1.2 BACKGROUND

Timber piles have successfully supported structures for more than 6,000 years. Over the years,
the methods that man has employed to extend the life of timber piling have evolved to the point
that timber piles will last for over 100 years. Ancient civilizations used various animal, vegetable,
and mineral oils to preserve timber. In Roman times, timbers were smeared with cedar oils and
pitch, then charred to extend their service life. Roman roads built on treated piles were still in
good condition 1,900 years later. A building built in Venice, Italy in 900 A.D. was rebuilt around
1900 on the same 1000 year old piles.

The modern age of wood preserving began in England in 1832. Pressure injection of coal-tar
creosote into wood began in 1838. Following the successful use of pressure treated railroad
ties, U.S. railroads started treating foundation piles in the early 1880’s.

2
Since then, pressure treatment has been recognized as a process that protects wood by
extending its life indefinitely. This is why building codes require wood for certain uses to be
“treated” and why codes explicitly define “treated” as pressure treated.

In recent years, extensive load tests have been performed on pressure treated timber
foundation piles. Design loads as high as 75 tons have been specified, and ultimate loads as
high as 235 tons have been carried by timber piles. There are wooden piles loaded to 60 tons
each under bridges spanning the Thames River in London and 100 ton timber piles in bridges
spanning the River Seine in Paris.

Today wood piles are a mainstay of foundation designers. Wood piles are being routinely used
in all kinds of structures, including manufacturing plants, processing facilities, commercial
buildings, and highway bridges. For example, thousands of pressure treated wood piles were
used for the foundation of new facilities at JFK Airport in New York, and at Dulles International
Airport in Northern Virginia. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana is built on timber piles.
Residential buildings, commercial buildings and the Superdome as well as paved highways in
New Orleans are supported on timber piles. New Orleans, however, is not alone in its use of
timber piles to support highways. The highest ever recorded design load for timber piles in U.S.
highway construction is a 1000 foot long viaduct, supported by timber piles, which have a 75 ton
design load on Interstate 80 near Winnemucca, Nevada.

1.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

The scope of this manual does not included seismic design considerations. There is on-going
research on Performance-Based Seismic Design funded by the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA). A separate bulletin is planned on Seismic Design Considerations
for timber piling in the future.


1.4 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL

This manual is intended to be a stand-alone document and is geared towards providing the
practicing structural and geotechnical engineer with a thorough understanding of the design and
construction of timber pile foundations. The organization of the manual is presented below.

Chapter 2 provides an overview of the design and construction process for a timber pile
foundation.

Chapter 3 covers the selection of the strength properties of timber piles and considerations with
respect to pile durability.

Chapter 4 gives an overview of the static design process for timber piles.

Chapter 5 presents five design methods to determine the static capacity of single piles in both
cohesive and cohesionless soils.

Chapter 6 covers the design of timber pile groups.

Chapter 7 discusses design considerations for Marine applications.

Chapter 8 discusses pile installation considerations.
3

Chapter 9 covers static and pile load testing.

Chapter 10 deals with quality assurance and quality control during timber pile installation.

Chapter 11 provides a model specification for timber pile projects.

Chapter 12 reviews the geotechnical considerations that are important in defining the site
conditions (i.e., subsurface exploration program) and provide the design engineer with the
necessary information to perform the foundation design with respect to the subsurface soils.

This manual does not cover seismic/dynamic analysis. For information on this subject, the
readers are referred to the Federal Highway Administration’s Design and Construction of Driven
Pile Foundations (FHWA-HI-97-013).





































4









5
CHAPTER 2.0
FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCEDURE



2.1 DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS

Foundations are often classified as shallow or deep foundations, depending on the depth of the
load-transfer member below the superstructure. Thus a deep, as compared with a shallow,
foundation becomes a somewhat relative term. A shallow foundation, as defined in this manual,
is one in which the depth to the bottom of the footing is less than or equal to four times the
smallest dimension of the footing.

The foundation engineer must have a thorough understanding of the foundation loads,
subsurface conditions, including soil/rock properties and behavior, foundation performance
criteria, and current practices in foundation design and construction in the area where the work
is to be done to arrive at the optimum foundation solution. When designing foundations, it is
essential to systematically consider the various foundation types and to select the optimum
alternative based on the superstructure requirements and subsurface conditions.


2.2 FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCESS

The timber pile foundation design-construction process is outlined in the flow chart in Figure 2-1.
This flow chart will be discussed block by block, using the numbers in the blocks as a reference,
and will serve to guide the designer through all of the tasks that should be considered (after
FHWA, 1998).
Block 1: Assemble Information Regarding Proposed Structure

The first step in the process is to determine the general structure requirements. The following
questions should be asked and answered during this phase of the design process: Is the project
a new commercial office building, a residential building, a new bridge, a replacement bridge, a
retaining wall, a noise wall, a sign, etc.? Will the project be constructed in phases or all at once?
What is the general structure layout? Is the structure subjected to any special design events
such as seismic, scour, debris, etc.? If there are special design events, the design requirements
for the event should be reviewed at this stage so that these considerations can be factored into
the site investigation. What are the approximate foundation loads? Are there deformation or
deflection limitations beyond the usual requirements?
Block 2: Obtain General Site Geology

A great deal may be learned about the foundation requirements with even a very general
understanding of the site geology. For small structures, this may involve only a very superficial
investigation such as a visit to the site. The foundation design for very large structures may
require extensive geologic studies.

6
Block 3: Collect Foundation Experience from the Area

Frequently there is information available on foundations that have been constructed in the area.
This information can be of assistance in avoiding problems. Both subsurface exploration
information and foundation construction experience should be sought prior to selecting the
foundation type.
Block 4: Develop and Execute Subsurface Exploration Program

Based on the information obtained in Blocks 1-3, it is possible to make decisions regarding the
necessary information that must be obtained at the site. The program must meet the needs of
the design problem that is to be solved at a cost consistent with the size of the structure. The
subsurface exploration program, as well as the appropriate soil laboratory-testing program, must
be selected. The results of the exploration and testing programs are used to prepare a
subsurface profile and identify critical cross-sections.

Block 5: Evaluate Information and Select Foundation System

The information in Blocks 1-4 must be evaluated and a foundation system selected. The first
question to be decided is whether a shallow or a deep foundation is required. This question will
be answered based primarily on the strength and compressibility of the site soils, the proposed
loading conditions and the project performance criteria. If settlement is not a problem for the
structure, then a shallow foundation will typically be the most economical solution. Ground
improvement techniques in conjunction with shallow foundations should be evaluated when a
shallow foundation does not meet the project requirements. If the structure performance criteria
can not be met by a shallow foundation, a deep foundation should be used.

Refined foundation loading information and performance criteria should be established at this
time. In Block 1, this issue was considered. At this stage of the design effort, a better definition
of the design foundation loads and performance criteria are typically available. They should be
included in the design process. The geotechnical engineer should obtain a completely defined
and unambiguous set of foundation loads and performance requirements in order to proceed
through the foundation design.

Block 6: Deep Foundation

At this stage the designer must decide between a deep foundation system and either a shallow
foundation of soil improvement or a shallow foundation. The decision on foundation type should
be based on performance and economics.

Block 7: Driven Piles

Once a deep foundation has been selected, the designer must decide to use either driven piles
or other deep foundation systems (i.e., drilled shafts, auger cast piles etc.). The question that
should be answered in deciding between driven piles and other deep foundation systems is
which system will perform as desired for the least cost. In addition to performance and cost,
constructability should be considered.



7
Block 8: Select Driven Pile Type

The pile type should be selected consistent with the applied load per pile. The general
magnitude of the applied load is known from the information obtained in blocks 1-5. A large
number of combinations of pile capacities and pile types can satisfy the design requirements.
The selection of pile type should consider both the structural capacity of a pile and the realistic
geotechnical capacity of the pile type for the soil conditions at the site, the cost of alternative
piles, and the capability of available construction contractors to drive the selected pile. Timber
piles are economical piles that should be considered when anticipated pile loads are between
50 and 150 kips and when anticipated pile lengths are between 20 – 125 feet. Table 2-1
presents various types of driven piles their advantages and disadvantages, and what conditions
are most favorable for their use.

Block 9: Calculate Pile Length and Capacity

For timber piles, perform a static analysis to estimate the length necessary to provide the
required capacity (i.e., compression, uplift and lateral load). It may be necessary to increase the
number of piles to satisfy the structural requirements.

Block 10: Calculate Driveability

The static design completed in block 9 addresses the structural capacity of the pile. It is also
important to assess the driveability of the selected pile to assure that the required capacity and
penetration depth may be achieved at a reasonable driving resistance. The driveability analysis
cannot be completed until the pile hammer has been selected (this will depend on the contractor
selected for the project). Pile driveability will be covered in some detail in Chapter 9.

Block 11: Satisfactory Design

At this point the computations for the design are complete.

Block 12: Prepare Plans and Specifications

The design is, in fact, not complete until the plans and specifications are prepared. It is
important that all of the quality control procedures are clearly defined to avoid claims after
construction is underway.














8


Figure 2-1: Flow chart timber pile design process
9







10

11
CHAPTER 3.0
TIMBER PILE PROPERTIES

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The design of timber pile foundations requires a firm understanding of the mechanical properties
of the timber pile. There are generally two species of timber used for the manufacture of timber
piles : Douglas Fir and Southern Yellow Pine. Other species such as Caribbean Pine,
Lodgepole Pine, Red Oak, and Red Pine are also used on occasion.

ASTM D 25 Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles establishes physical properties and
manufacturing requirements and ASTM D 2899 Standard Practice for Establishing Stresses for
Round Timber Piles provides the procedures for developing timber piling stresses from small
clear specimens. The strength properties are derived from clear wood strength of small
specimens tested in accordance with ASTM D 2555 Standard Test Method for Establishing
Clear Wood Strength Values.

Recent research (Bodig and Arnette, 2000) on full-scale strength testing has been conducted on
approximately 100 Southern Yellow Pine piles and 100 Douglas Fir piles. This research has
demonstrated that currently used allowable design stresses are conservative. A new ASTM
standard for developing timber piling stresses based on full scale tests is under development. A
condensed report will soon be available.

3.2 ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

The selection of material properties for piles must consider both static and dynamic stresses. A
pile must be able to withstand the dynamic stresses induced in the pile during the driving
process, as well as the static stresses that the pile is subjected to in service.

The allowable stresses for timber piles published in this manual are based on the American
Forest & Paper Association (AFPA) publication, Manual for Engineered Wood Construction –
Allowable Stress Design, Supplement Timber Poles and Piles and procedures outlined in the
ASTM standards referenced above. Allowable stresses and pile capacity are tabulated in
section 3.3 and maximum butt and tip dimensions versus pile length are presented in section
3.4. Section 3.5 reviews the procedures to determine the allowable stresses for timber piles
from small clear wood specimens. Section 3.6 provides an analytical method for determining
allowable stresses using reduction factors to account for load duration, temperature, pressure
treatment, etc.

3.3 TABULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS AND PILE CAPACITY

Table 3-1 provides recognized allowable stresses for timber piles, as published by the American
Forest and Paper Association. The values provided in table 3-1 are applicable for pile groups,
with wet exposures, at normal temperature range (i.e., <100°F), and with a ″normal″ load
duration factor of 1. The tabulated values are given for piles treated with a preservative using a
steam conditioning or Boultonizing processes. For piles that are air dried or kiln-dried prior to
treating stresses may be increased by 11% to 18% (see section 3.6).


12
Table 3-1
Allowable Stress Values for Treated Round Timber Piles Graded in Accordance with
ASTM D25
Species Axial
Compression
(F
c
) (psi)
Bending (F
b
)
(psi)
Shear
Perpendicular
to the Grain
(F
v
) (psi)
Compression
Perpendicular
to the Grain
(F
c⊥
) (psi)
Modulus of
Elasticity (E)
(psi)
Southern
Pine
1

1200 2400 110 250 1,500,000
Douglas Fir
2
1250 2450 115 230 1,500,000
Lodgepole
Pine
1150 1700 80 270 1,000,000
Red Oak
3
1100 2450 135 350 1,250,000
Red Pine
4
900 1900 85 155 1,280,000
1. Southern Pine design values apply to Loblolly, Longleaf, Shortleaf, and Slash Pines.
2. Pacific Coast Douglas Fir design values apply to this species as defined in ASTM D 1760
3. Red Oak design values apply to Northern and Southern Red Oak
4. Red Pine design values apply to Red Pine grown in the United States

3.3.1 Pile Capacity

Table 3-2 provides compression strength parallel-to-the-grain as a function of the specified pile
tip circumference (ASTM D25). The allowable values are only applicable when the pile tip
circumference is specified in accordance with ASTM D25. The values presented in Table 3-2 do
not consider buckling capacity of timber piles.

The tip of the pile represents the smallest circumference and lowest strength section of a pile.
Additional capacity may be computed at other locations in the pile by considering the increased
cross-sectional area away from the tip using linear taper and specified butt circumference.

Table 3-2 for allowable design capacities is based on the following conditions :

• Timber piles meet ASTM D25
• In-service temperature range < 100°F
• Wet service conditions
• Timber piles have had preservative treatment
• Compression members fully laterally supported (fully embedded in soil)
• Piles in a cluster (pile groups)
• Critical location for compression parallel to the grain is the tip of the pile.

When these conditions do not occur the pile capacity should be adjusted using the adjustment
factors presented in Table 3-10.

3.4 PILE SIZE SPECIFICATIONS

The natural taper of timber piles is a factor in the design formula. The natural taper of Southern
pine is approximately 0.1 in/ft throughout the length. Douglas fir has a smaller taper within 20
feet of the butt. The result is often a smaller tip for a given butt size in Douglas fir and other
western species.

13
Table 3-3 provides specified butt circumferences with corresponding minimum tips sizes for
Southern pine. Table 3-4 provide specified tip circumferences with corresponding minimum butt
circumferences for Southern Pine. The corresponding tables for Douglas fir and other western
species are in Tables 3-5 and 3-6.

Table 3-2
Allowable Pile Capacity in Compression (kips)

Allowable Pile Capacity in Compression (kips)
Pile Tip Diameter (inches)
Timber
Species
7 8 9 10 11 12
Southern
Pine
46 60 76 94 114 136
Douglas Fir 48 63 80 98 119 141



Table 3-3 Southern Pine Foundation Piling – Specified Butt Circumferences with
Corresponding Minimum Tip Circumferences
A,B,C,D,E
(from ASTM D25 - Table X1.3)
[Approximate Diameters in Brackets]
Required Minimum
Circumference, in.
3 ft from Butts
22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] 41 [13] 44 [14] 47 [15] 50 [16] 57 [18]
Length (ft) Minimum Tip Circumferences, in.
20 16 [5.1] 16 [5.1] 18 [5.7] 21 [6.7] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 37 [11.8] 40 [12.7] 47 [15.0]
25 16 [5.1] 16 [5.1] 17 [5.4] 20 [6.4] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33 [10.5] 36 [11.4] 39 [12.4] 46 [14.6]
30 16 [5.1] 16 [5.1] 16 [5.1] 19 [6.0] 23 [7.3] 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 32 [10.2] 35 [11.1] 38 [12.1] 45 [14.3]
35 18 [5.7] 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 37 [11.8] 44 [14.0]
40 17 [5.4] 21 [6.7] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33 [10.5] 36 [11.4] 43 [13.7]
45 20 [6.4] 23 [7.3] 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 32 [10.2] 35 [11.1] 42 [13.4]
50 19 [6.0] 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 41 [13.0]
55 21 [6.7] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33 [10.5] 40 [12.7]
60 20 [6.4] 23 [7.3] 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 32 [10.2] 39 [12.4]
65 19 [6.0] 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 38 [12.1]
70 18 [5.7] 21 [6.7] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 37 [11.8]
75 20 [6.4] 23 [7.3] 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 36 [11.4]
80 19 [6.0] 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 35 [11.1]
85 18 [5.7] 21 [6.7] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 34 [10.8]

A
Where the taper applied to the butt circumferences calculate to a circumference at the tip of less than 16 in., the individual values have been
increased to 16 in. to ensure a minimum of 5-in. tip for purposes of driving.
B
To convert to metric dimensions, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.
C
Class A piles are all those listed with a specified required minimum circumference of 44 in. at 3 ft from butt.
D
Class B piles are those listed with a specified required minimum circumference at 3 ft from butt of 35 in. and lengths of 20 to 25 ft minimum
circumference at 3 ft from butt of 38 in. and lengths of 20 to 50 ft, and minimum circumference at 3 ft from butt of 41 in. and lengths of 55 to 80 ft.
E
Southern Yellow Pine piles are generally available in lengths shorter than 70 ft or girth of less than 50 in. at 3 ft from butt. The purchaser should
inquire as to availability of sizes below the lines.




Commonly available sizes are shown
within the bold outline:


14
Table 3-4 Southern Pine Foundation Piling – Specified Tip Circumferences with Corresponding
Minimum Butt Circumferences
A,B
(from ASTM D25 – Table X1.5)
[Approximate Diameters in Brackets]
Required Minimum
Tip Circumference,
In.
16 [5] 19 [6] 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12]
Length (ft) Minimum Circumferences 3 ft from Butt, in.
20 19 [6.0] 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 38 [12.1] 41 [13.0]
25 20 [6.4] 23 [7.3] 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 32 [10.2] 35 [11.1] 39 [12.4] 42 [13.4]
30 21 [6.7] 24 [7.6] 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33 [10.5] 36 [11.4] 40 [12.7] 43 [13.7]
35 22 [7.0] 25 [8.0] 28 [8.9] 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 37 [11.8] 41 [13.0] 44 [14.0]
40 26 [8.3] 29 [9.2] 32 [10.2] 35 [11.1] 38 [12.1] 42 [13.4] 45 [14.3]
45 27 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33 [10.5] 36 [11.4] 39 [12.4] 43 [13.7] 46 [14.6]
50 31 [9.9] 34 [10.8] 37 [11.8] 40 [12.7] 44 [14.0] 47 [15.0]
55 32 [10.2] 35 [11.1] 38 [12.1] 41 [13.0] 45 [14.3] 48 [15.3]
60 33 [10.5] 36 [11.4] 39 [12.4] 42 [13.4] 46 [14.6] 49 [15.6]
65 34 [10.8] 37 [11.8] 40 [12.7] 43 [13.7] 47 [15.0] 50 [15.9]
70 35 [11.1] 38 [12.1] 41 [13.6] 44 [14.0] 48 [15.3] 51 [16.2]
75 36 [11.4] 39 [12.4] 42 [13.4] 45 [14.3] 49 [15.6] 52 [16.6]
80 37 [11.8] 40 [12.7] 43 [13.7] 46 [14.6] 50 [15.9] 53 [16.9]
85 38 [12.1] 41 [13.0] 44 [14.0] 47 [15.0] 51 [16.2] 54 [17.2]
90 39 [12.4] 42 [13.4] 45 [14.3] 48 [15.3] 52 [16.6] 55 [17.5]
A
To convert to metric dimensions, 1 in. = 25.4 mm
B
Piles purchased as “8-in. and natural taper” have a required minimum tip circumference of 25 in. and are available in lengths of 20 to 45 ft.
C
Southern Yellow Pine piles are generally available in lengths shorter than 70 ft. or girth of less than 50 in. at 3 ft. from butt. The purchaser should inquire as to
availability of sizes below the lines.


















Commonly available sizes are shown
within the bold outline:
Dimensions for ASTM Table X1.1
minimum 8 inch tip size, sometimes
known as natural taper piles, are
shown in column for 8 inch diameter
tips. These are for piles up to 45 ft. in
length.

15
TABLE 3-5 Douglas Fir Foundation Piling – Specified Butt Circumferences with
Corresponding Minimum Tip Circumferences
A,B
(from ASTM D 25 – Table X1.2)
[Approximate Diameters in Brackets]
Required Minimum
Circumference, in.
3 ft from Butts
22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] 41 [13] 44 [14] 47 [15] 50 [16] 57 [18]
Length (ft) Minimum Tip Circumferences, in.
20 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 18.0 [5.7] 22.0 [7.0] 25.0 [8.0] 28.0 [8.9]
25 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 17.0 [5.4] 20.5 [6.5] 23.5 [7.5] 26.5 [8.4] 29.5 [9.4]
30 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 19.0 [6.0] 22.0 [7.0] 25.0 [8.0] 28.0 [8.9]
35 16.0 [5.1] 18.0 [5.7] 21.0 [6.7] 24.0 [7.6] 27.0 [8.6] 30.0 [9.5]
40 16.0 [5.1] 17.0 [5.4] 20.0 [6.4] 23.0 [7.3] 26.0 [8.3] 29.0 [9.2]
45 16.5 [5.3] 18.5 [5.9] 21.0 [6.7] 24.0 [7.6] 27.0 [8.6] 30.0 [9.5]
50 16.0 [5.1] 17.0 [5.4] 19.0 [6.0] 22.0 [7.0] 25.0 [8.0] 28.0 [8.9]
55 16.5 [5.3] 17.5 [5.6] 20.3 [6.5] 23.3 [7.4] 26.3 [8.4] 31.3 [10.0]
60 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 18.6 [5.9] 21.6 [6.9] 24.6 [7.8] 31.6 [10.0]
65 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 17.3 [5.5] 18.9 [6.0] 21.9 [7.0] 28.9 [9.2]
70 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.2 [5.2] 19.2 [6.1] 26.2 [8.3]
75 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.1 [5.1] 17.6 [5.6] 24.0 [7.6]
80 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 21.8 [6.9]
85 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 20.6 [6.6]
90 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 19.5 [6.2]
95 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 18.8 [6.0]
100 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1] 18.0 [5.7]
105 16.0 [5.1] 17.0 [5.4]
110 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.1]
115 16.0 [5.1]
120 16.0 [5.1]

A
Where the taper applied to the butt circumferences calculate to a circumference at the tip of less than 16 in., the individual values have been
increased to 16 in. to ensure a minimum of 5-in. tip for purposes of driving.
B
To convert to metric dimensions, 1 in. = 25.4 mm.














Commonly available sizes are shown within
the bold outline:



16
TABLE 3-6 Douglas Fir Foundation Piling – Specified Tip Circumferences with Corresponding
Minimum Butt Circumferences
A,B
(from ASTM D 25 - Table X1.4)
[Approximate Diameters in Brackets]
Required Minimum
Tip Circumference,
In.
16 [5] 19 [6] 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12]
Length (ft) Circumferences 3 ft from Butt, in.
20 21.0 [6.7] 24.0 [7.6] 27.0 [8.6] 30 [9.5] 33.0 [10.5] 36.0 [11.5] 40.0 [12.7] 43.0 [13.7]
25 22.8 [7.1] 25.3 [8.1] 28.3 [9.0] 31.3 [10.0] 34.3 [10.9] 37.3 [11.9] 41.3 [13.1] 44.3 [14.1]
30 23.5 [7.5] 26.5 [8.4] 29.5 [9.4] 32.5 [10.3] 35.5 [11.3] 38.5 [12.3] 42.5 [13.5] 45.5 [14.5]
35 24.8 [7.9] 27.8 [8.8] 30.8 [9.8] 33.8 [10.8] 36.8 [11.7] 39.8 [12.7] 43.8 [13.9] 46.8 [14.9]
40 26.0 [8.3] 29.0 [9.2] 32.0 [10.2] 35.0 [11.1] 38.0 [12.1] 41.0 [13.0] 45.0 [14.3] 48.0 [15.3]
45 27.3 [8.7] 30.3 [9.6] 33.3 [10.6] 36.3 [11.6] 39.3 [12.5] 42.3 [13.5] 46.3 [14.7] 49.3 [15.7]
50 28.5 [9.1] 31.5 [10.0] 34.5 [11.0] 37.5 [11.9] 40.5 [12.9] 43.5 [13.8] 47.5 [15.1] 50.5 [16.1]
55 29.8 [9.5] 32.8 [10.4] 35.8 [11.4] 38.8 [12.4] 41.8 [13.3] 44.8 [14.3] 48.8 [15.5] 51.8 [16.5]
60 31.0 [9.9] 34.0 [10.8] 37.0 [11.8] 40.0 [12.7] 43.0 [13.7] 46.0 [14.6] 50.0 [15.9] 53.0 [16.9]
65 32.3 [10.3] 35.3 [11.2] 38.3 [12.2] 41.3 [13.1] 44.3 [14.1] 47.3 [15.1] 51.3 [16.3] 54.3 [17.3]
70 33.5 [10.7] 36.5 [11.6] 39.5 [12.6] 42.5 [13.5] 45.5 [14.5] 48.5 [15.4] 52.5 [16.7] 55.5 [17.7]
75 34.8 [11.1] 37.8 [12.0] 40.8 [13.0] 43.8 [13.9] 46.8 [14.9] 49.8 [15.9] 53.8 [17.1] 56.8 [18.1]
80 36.0 [11.5] 39.0 [12.4] 42.0 [13.4] 45.0 [14.3] 48.0 [15.3] 51.0 [16.2] 55.0 [17.5] 58.0 [18.5]
85 37.3 [11.9] 40.3 [12.8] 43.3 [13.8] 46.3 [14.7] 49.3 [15.7] 52.3 [16.6] 56.3 [17.9] 59.3 [18.9]
90 38.5 [12.3] 41.5 [13.2] 44.5 [14.2] 47.5 [15.1] 50.5 [16.1] 53.5 [17.0] 57.5 [18.3] 60.5 [19.3]
95 39.8 [12.7] 42.8 [13.6] 45.8 [14.6] 48.8 [15.5] 51.8 [16.5] 54.8 [17.4] 58.8 [18.7] 61.8 [19.7]
100 41.0 [13.0] 44.0 [14.0] 47.0 [15.0] 50.0 [15.9] 53.0 [16.9] 56.0 [17.8] 60.0 [19.1]
105 42.3 [13.5] 45.3 [14.4] 48.3 [15.4] 51.3 [16.3] 54.3 [17.3] 57.3 [18.2]
110 43.5 [13.8] 46.5 [14.8] 49.5 [15.8] 52.5 [16.7] 55.5 [17.7] 58.5 [18.6]
115 44.8 [14.3] 47.8 [15.2] 50.8 [16.2] 53.8 [17.1] 56.8 [18.1]


120

46.0 [14.6]

49.0 [15.6]

52.0 [16.6]

55.0 [17.5]

58.0 [18.5]

A
To convert to metric dimensions, 1 in. = 25.4 mm
B
Piles purchased as “8-in. and natural taper” have a required minimum tip circumference of 25 in. and are available in lengths of 20 to 45 ft.












Commonly available sizes are shown
within the bold outline:
Dimensions for ASTM Table X1.1
minimum 8 inch tip size, sometimes
known as natural taper piles, are
shown in column for 8 inch diameter
tips. These are for piles up to 45 ft. in
length.

17
Table 3-7 Sizes of Class A, B and 8 Inch Minimum Tip Piles

Dia. 3 ft from butt x tip dia. Length (ft) 8 inch min. tip pile*
Class A Class B
To 40 14” @ 3’ x 9” 12” @ 3’ x 8”
40 to 54 14” @ 3’ x 9” 12” @ 3’ x 7”
55 to 74 14” @ 3’ x 8” 13” @ 3’ x 7”
75 to 90 14” @ 3’ x 7” 13” @ 3’ x 6”
> 90
See 8 inch tip sizes
column in tables 3-4
& 3-6
14” @ 3’ x 6” 13” @ 3’ x 5”
* Also known as NYC Building Code Pile


TABLE 3-8 Sizes of Timber Pile per Canadian Standards Association (Can3-056)

Diameter at
Extreme Butt
or Large End
inches
[centimeters]
14 [36] 13 [33] 12 [30] 11 [27] 10 [24]
Length
feet
Diameter at Tip inches [centimeters]
Up to 20 10 [25] 10 [25] 9 [23] 8 [20] 7 [18]
20 to 34 10 [25] 9 [23] 8 [20] 7 [18] 6 [15]
35 to 44 9 [23] 8 [20] 7 [18] 6 [15] -
45 to 59 8 [20] 7 [18] 7 [18] - -
60 to 69 8 [20] 7 [18] 6 [15] - -
70 to 89 7 [18] 6 [15] - - -
90 to 105 6 [15] 5 [13] - - -


TABLE 3-9 Residential Bulkhead and Dock Piling

Diameter at Butt (inches) Southern Pine
Length (feet)
Douglas Fir
Length (feet)
8 12-30 12-30
10 16-35 16-35
12 20-40 20-40


3.5 WORKING STRENGTH BASED ON SMALL CLEAR WOOD SPECIMENS

The method presented is this section is based on ASTM D 2899. Small clear wood samples of
timber piles may be used to determine the allowable design strengths. Section 3.5 provides
guidance on determining the working strength of timber piles using the small clear wood
specimens. Section 3.6 provides guidance on how to determine the allowable strength of
species based on the working strength values determined in Section 3.3.



18
3.5.1 Axial Compressive Stress

The working stress in static compression parallel to the grain for green untreated timber piles
(C⇑) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation:

( ) 88 . 1 / SD 645 . 1 S C − = ⇑ (3-1)

where : S = Average small clear crushing strength determined from ASTM D 2555
SD = Standard deviation of small clear crushing strength.

For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation), the working stress parallel to
the grain is three times the static working stress parallel to the grain for green untreated timber
piles (C⇑).

3.5.2 Extreme Fiber Bending Stress

The extreme fiber bending stress for timber piles (f) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the
following equation :

( ) 04 . 2 / SD 645 . 1 S f − = (3-2)

where : S = Average small clear bending strength determined per ASTM D 2555
SD = Standard deviation of small clear bending strength.

For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation) the working stress for small
clear wood bending strength is three times the static working stress for small clear wood
bending strength for green untreated timber piles (f).


3.5.3 Compressive Stress Perpendicular to the Grain

The working stress in compression, perpendicular to the grain, for green untreated timber piles
(C⊥) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation:

5 . 1 / S C = ⊥ (3-3)

where : S = Average proportional limit stress of small clear specimens determined
per ASTM D 2555

3.5.4 Shear Stress Perpendicular to the Grain

The working stress in horizontal shear perpendicular to the grain for green untreated timber
piles (σ) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation:

( ) 47 . 5 / SD 645 . 1 S − = σ (3-4)

where : S = Average small clear shear strength specimens determined per
ASTM D 2555
SD = Standard deviation of small clear shear strength.

19
3.5.5 Modulus of Elasticity

The average small clear modulus of elasticity values determined per ASTM D 2555 shall be
taken as the values for timber piles.

3.6 ALLOWABLE STRESS

The allowable stress is determined from the working stress, as determined using the equations
in sections 3.5, multiplied by factors that account for wood fiber density, duration of load, service
temperature, pressure treatment, pile size, effect of single pile versus group pile, critical section
and bearing area.


3.6.1 Load Duration

Wood stress properties are affected by the duration of the maximum applied load. The shorter
the duration, the greater the maximum load that can be carried. Design values for round timber
piles established in this manual are based on short-term tests. Normal load duration values in
this manual represents a load that fully stresses a member to its allowable design value for a
cumulative duration of 10 years (dead plus live load). For a duration of load greater than 10
years, the working stress is reduced by 10% (typically dead load, no live load).

3.6.2 Temperature

The strength of wood is a function of the in-service temperature of the wood. Wood at higher
temperatures is not as strong as the same material at lower temperatures. Wood heated to
temperatures above 100°F for extended periods of time lose strength. The correction factor for
temperature should be selected from Table 3-10.


3.6.3 Pressure Treatment

Timber piles should be treated in accordance with American Wood-Preservers’ Association
standards (see chapter 11 on specifications). The non-treated load correction factor provided in
Table 3-9 applies for piles that are either air-dried prior to treatment or are not treated.

3.6.4 Size

The average bending stress of round wood sections based on standard beam formulas is
greater than that of matched rectangular sections. However, the section modulus of a round
beam is less than (1/1.18) that of a square beam of equivalent cross sectional area by
approximately the same ratio of the rounded member to that of a rectangular member.

The clear wood bending stress in ASTM D 2555 is based on rectangular sections. The
correction factor for size applies only to bending stress and is determined using the following
equation :

( ) 10 d / 12 C
9 / 1
f
≤ = (3-5)

where : d = pile diameter (greater than 13.5 inches)
20
For pile diameters less than 13 inches the adjustment factor for size is 1.0.

3.6.5 Load Sharing

Timber piles are commonly connected by reinforced concrete caps or equivalent distribution
elements, resulting in the pile cluster deforming as a single member under axial or bending load.
The load carrying capacity of these pile clusters is greater than the sum of the individual pile
capacities as a result of load sharing.


Table 3-10
Adjustment Factors for Timber Piles

Factors Compres
sion
Parallel
Bending Horizontal
Shear
Compression
Perpendicular
Modulus of
Elasticity
Load
Dura-
tion (C
ld
)
≤ 10 yrs
> 10 yrs
1.0

0.9
1.0

0.9
1.0

0.9
1.0

0.9
na

na
T≤100°F

1.0

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
100°<T≤
125°F
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9
Tem-
pera-
ture (C
t
)
125°<T≤
150°F
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.9
Southern
Pine
1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.0 Untreat-
ment
Factor
(C
u
)
Douglas
Fir
1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.0
Size(C
f
) 1.0
( ) 10 d / 12 C
9 / 1
f
≤ =

1.0 1.0 1.0
Single pile
Load
Shar-
ing
(C
ls
)
Cluster
0.8

1.0
0.77

1.0
na

na
Na

Na
na

na




3.6.6 Allowable Stress

The allowable stress is determined from the working stress multiplied by factors that account for
wood fiber density, duration of load, service temperature, pressure treatment, pile size, effect of
single pile versus group pile, critical section and bearing area. The following equation shall be
used to determine the allowable stress of round timber piles (C⇑
a
, f
a
, C⊥
a
, σ
a
, E
a
):

Allowable stress = (working stress C
ld
x C
t
x C
u
x C
f
x C
ls
) (3-6)

The minimum pile butt and tip diameters specified in ASTM D25 should be the basis for design.

21
3.7 PRESERVATIVE PROCESS

Timber piles are potentially susceptible to biological attack from fungi, marine borers and
insects. Pressure treatment of timber piles has proven to be an effective means of protection
from biological attack. There are two broad types of wood preservatives used in today’s
pressure treating process for timber piles; oil-borne systems (primarily creosote), and
waterborne preservative systems (Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammoniacal Copper
Zinc Arsenate (ACZA)). ACZA is primarily used for Douglas fir.

The American-Wood Preserver’s Association (AWPA) develops and maintains Preservative and
Treating Standards for various products and uses including land, freshwater and marine piling.
These standards should be reviewed and referenced to identify preservative treatment. In
Canada, the Canadian Standards Association standard CSA 080.3 is the treatment standard for
timber piles. The following is a general description of the most common preservatives used in
piling applications.

3.7.1 Creosote

Creosote has been widely used to protect wood from biological attack since 1865. It is a
distillate of tar produced by the carbonization of bituminous coal consisting of various
polyaromatic hydrocarbons over a wide range of boiling temperatures. Common applications for
creosote pressure treated timber products include timber piling for foundations on land, in fresh
water, and in salt water, bridge timber and railroad ties.

3.7.2 Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)

Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is a formulation of copper, chromium and arsenic, dissolved
in an acidic aqueous solution. It was first developed in 1933 and has been widely used
throughout the world as a wood preservative for 60 years. CCA combines the fungicidal
properties of copper with the insecticidal properties of arsenic pentoxide. In CCA the fixation of
arsenic and copper is dependent on the presence of chromium.

3.7.2.1 CCA Industrial Uses

CCA label holders are voluntarily withdrawing CCA treated wood from the retail trade effective
December 31, 2003. However, existing inventories may be sold for an indefinite period.

Although CCA is completely safe for use in all markets where it has been traditionally used,
other preservative treatments, which are approved and included in AWPA Standards, are
available for the retail market.

The EPA has recognized the continued use of CCA for industrial uses and includes foundation
piling, marine piling and structures, utility poles and construction poles in the list of approved
industrial uses.

3.7.3 Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA)

Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA) is an improved formulation of the original
Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate (ACA) and has been available since the early 1980’s and has
now replaced ACA in the AWPA Preservative Standards. The proportions of copper, zinc and
arsenic in ACZA are 2:1:1 respectively. ACA and ACZA are alkaline preservative systems and
22
were formulated to achieve consistent penetration in the treatment of refractory, or difficult to
treat wood species (i.e., Douglas Fir).

3.7.4 CCA and ACZA

Both CCA and ACZA in a waterborne form are carried into the wood cells within a closed
pressure chamber. The metal oxides injected into the wood during treatment react with the
wood fibers resulting in a bonding or fixation of the chemical in the wood. This forms an
insoluble compound and fixes the chemical within the wood fibers to resist leaching and provide
long term protection of timber piles in service.

CCA and ACZA are commonly used for foundation piling and for both fresh and salt water piling
as well as for marine structures. CCA is olive green in color and is commonly used for treatment
of wood used for residential decks and fences. ACZA is a turquoise green and is primarily used
in commercial structures where Douglas Fir is used.

3.7.5 Preservative Retention

The required amount of preservative that should be retained by timber piles is a function of the
application that the pile will be used for and the preservative. Land use piles require less
preservative than water use piles, and salt water applications require higher retention levels of
preservatives than fresh water applications. Table 3-11 provides guidelines on amount of
preservative required for each application.

3.7.6 Pentachlorophenol and Copper Naphthenate

Although pentachlorophenol and copper naphthenate are recognized in AWPA Standards for
use in land or fresh water piling, their use for this purpose is rare. These preservatives are not
recommended for use in AWPA Standards for salt water installations.

3.8 DURABILITY CONSIDERATIONS

Timber piles should be treated with a preservative to prevent degradation of the wood from
insect attack. Typical environments where degradation is a concern exist when the pile is
exposed to alternate wetting and drying cycles or located above the water table. Insect damage
reduces the service life of timber piles significantly, unless the pile is treated with a wood
preservative. The most common treatments for timber piles are Creosote, Chromated Copper
Arsenate (CCA) for Southern Yellow Pine and other species, and Ammoniacal Copper Zinc
Arsenate (ACZA) for Douglas Fir. Treated timber piles are durable structural elements.

Durability of round timber piles is a function of site specific conditions. FHWA has concluded
that :
• Foundation piles submerged in ground water will last indefinitely

• Fully embedded, treated foundation piles partially above the groundwater with a
concrete cap will last 100 years or longer.

• Treated trestle piles over land will last about 75 years in northern areas and about 40
years in southern areas of the United States.

23
• Treated piles in fresh water will last about five to ten years less than land trestle piles
in the same area

• For treated piles in brackish water, the longevity should be determined by the
experience in the area

• Treated marine piles will last about 50 years in northern climates and 25 years in
southern climates.

Round timber pile treatment should be in accordance with the American Wood Preservers’
Association standard, C3-99 Piles-Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes.

3.9 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

Timber piling is a major material used to construct piers, docks buildings , walkways, and decks
used in and above aquatic environments. The pressure treated wood products industry is
committed to assuring its products are manufactured and installed in a manner which minimizes
any potential for adverse impacts to these important environments. To achieve this objective the
industry has developed and encourages the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs). The
BMPs for treated timber piles are available from AWPI.

There are a variety of treatments and treated wood products approved for use in or above
aquatic environments. Because of inherent differences in the treatment chemical and the
processes there are also a number of BMPs. While the goal of the BMPs is common (i.e., to
minimize the migration or leaching of treating chemicals into the environment) the methods for
achieving the goal vary. It is the responsibility of the treating firm to assure that the materials
leaving the plant destined for use in aquatic environments have been produced in accordance
with the BMPs.

To assure timber piles utilized in aquatic environments incorporate BMPs the following
steps should be followed:

1. Specify the appropriate material in terms of performance as defined in the American Wood
Preservers’ Association Standards.
2. Specify that the material be produced in compliance with the industry standards BMPs.
3. Require assurance that the products were produced in compliance with the BMPs.















24


Table 3-11
Preservative Assay Retention Requirements
Creosote (pcf) Waterborne (CCA or ACZA)
(pcf)
Use Category Southern Pine Douglas Fir Southern Pine Douglas Fir
CCA ACZA
Foundation 12 17 0.8 1.0
Land & Fresh Water 12 17 0.8 1.0
Marine
N. of Delaware
1
16 16 1.5 1.5
or San Francisco
1

S. of New Jersey
2
20 20 2.5 2.5
or San Francisco
2
Dual Treatment
3
20 20 1.0 1.0

1. Where Teredo is expected and Limnoria tripunctata is not expected, creosote or creosote solutions
provide adequate protection.
2. Where Teredo and Limnoria tripunctata are expected and where pholad attack is not expected,
either dual treatment, or high retentions of CCA for Southern Pine or ACZA for Douglas fir provide
maximum protection.
3. In those areas where Limnoria tripunctata and pholad attack is expected or known, dual treatment
provides the maximum protection.









25
CHAPTER 4.0
STATIC ANALYSIS DESIGN PROCEDURES



4.1 INTRODUCTION

Static analysis methods are simplified analytical techniques used to model the very complex
soil-structure interaction between driven piles and the surrounding soils. The analysis
techniques that are presented in this manual have been selected because they have been
proven to provide reasonable agreement with full scale field results. The techniques that will be
presented here include the Meyerhof Method and the Nordlund Method for piles founded in
cohesionless soils, the Alpha (α) Method and the Effective Stress Method for cohesive soils,
and the Nottingham Schmertmann Method when CPT data is available. These methods have
also been selected for presentation because they are relatively straightforward to use, and are
the techniques that are recommend by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-HI-97-013).

It is strongly recommended that prior to using any of the static methods presented in this
chapter that the user be familiar with the limitations of that analytical technique. In conjunction
with static analysis, it is also recommended that static load tests be conducted to further
calibrate the empirical models for the regional geology, to perform wave equation analysis and
to perform dynamic monitoring during installation. These tools are essential in assuring that the
design objectives are accomplished.


4.2 SOIL/PILE INTERACTION

The ultimate capacity of a pile is limited by the structural capacity of the pile (Chapter 3) and the
capacity of the surrounding soil to support the loads transferred from the pile. This transfer of
stress between the soil and pile is quantified by two components: the resistance that is
developed along the shaft of the pile (R
s
= shaft resistance) and the resistance that is developed
at the bottom (toe) of the pile (R
t
= toe resistance).

The process of driving piles affects the soil/pile interaction. The effects of this installation
disturbance on the soil/pile interaction is briefly explained here. Timber piles are considered to
be a displacement type pile (versus a non-displacement pile (i.e., H pile). In cohesionless soils,
displacement piles disturb a zone around the pile by a lateral distance of 3 – 5.5 pile diameters
and 3 – 5 diameters below the tip of the pile (Broms, 1966). Figure 4-1 shows the limits of this
pile disturbance. For loose cohesionless soils, the disturbance from driving the displacement
pile increases the relative density of the soil. This increased relative density increases the
capacity of single piles and pile groups and is a major advantage of timber piles driven into
cohesionless soils.

The pile driving process can, also in addition to increasing the density of loose cohesionless
soils, generate high positive porewater pressures in saturated loose to medium fine sands.
Positive pore pressures temporarily reduce the soil shear strength and the pile capacity; as the
pore pressure dissipates, the pile capacity increases. This phenomenon is called “pile set up”
and is generally quicker for sands and silts than for clays, because these types of soils are more
permeable than clays, and pore pressures dissipate more rapidly.
26

In dense cohesionless soils, the disturbance from the pile driving may decrease the relative
density of the surrounding soil. In these dense soils, the increase in horizontal stress in the soil
adjacent to the pile during driving may be lost by “relaxation”. This phenomenon occurs as the
negative pore pressure generated during the driving dissipates. The negative pore pressure
occurs because of the dilation of the dense sand into a lower relative density. The negative pore
pressure temporarily increases the soil shear strength by effectively increasing the normal
stress on the failure surface. As the negative pore pressure dissipates, the shear strength and
pile capacity decrease.



Figure 4 - 1 Compaction of Cohesionless Soils During Driving of Piles (Broms, 1966)

For cohesive soils, the soil pile interaction is different than for cohesionless soils. Soft, normally
consolidated clays have a zone of disturbance around the pile both laterally, and at the toe of
the pile, of approximately one pile diameter (Figure 4-2). The process of driving displacement
piles in cohesive soils typically generates high positive pore water pressure. This increase in
pore water pressure temporarily decreases the shear strength of the soil and the load carrying
capacity of the pile. Reconsolidation of the cohesive soil and dissipation of the excess pore
pressure results in an increase in shear strength and pile capacity. This is commonly referred to
as “pile setup”.


4.2.1 Load Transfer

The ultimate bearing capacity (Q
u
) of a timber pile in homogeneous soil is the sum of the shaft
reisistance (R
s
) and the toe resistance (R
t
):


Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t
(4-1)
27

The shaft resistance may be expressed as the product of the unit shaft resistance (f
s
) times the
shaft surface area (A
s
), and the toe resistance may be expressed as the product of the unit toe
resistance (q
t
) times the area of the toe (A
t
). Equation 4-1 may be rewritten in unit resistance
terms as follows:

Q
u
= f
s
A
s
+ q
t
A
t
(4-2)

The equations presented here assume that both the pile toe and shaft have moved a sufficient
distance with respect to the adjacent soil to simultaneously mobilize the ultimate shaft and toe
resistance. It should be noted that the displacement needed to mobilize the shaft resistance is
generally smaller than that required to mobilize the toe resistance.



Figure 4 - 2 Disturbance of Cohesive Soils During Driving of Piles (Broms, 1966)

Figure 4-3 shows the typical load transfer profiles for piles. The axial load in the pile is a
combination of the shaft resistance and toe resistance. Figure 4-3a shows the case when no
shaft resistance is developed and the ultimate capacity of the pile is developed through toe
resistance. Figure 4-3b shows the load transfer profile for the case where uniform shaft
resistance is developed along the length of the pile. For this case, the resistance at the toe of
the pile is due to the toe resistance. Moving up the pile, the ultimate resistance increases
linearly due to the uniform shaft resistance until the top of the pile is reached, and is typical for
piles in normally consolidated cohesive soils. Figure 4-3c shows the case for a triangular
distribution of shaft resistance. This is the typical case for a pile in cohesionless soils.



28


Figure 4 - 3 Typical Load Transfer Profiles

29

4.3 FACTORS OF SAFETY

Static analysis of piles is used to determine the ultimate capacity of a single pile or pile group.
The allowable capacity of the pile is the ultimate capacity divided by a factor of safety. The
factor of safety typically ranges between 2 to 4 and is dependent on:

• Level of confidence in the input design parameters
• Variability of the soil profile
• Method of static analysis
• Effects of proposed installation method
• Level of construction monitoring
The first two items typically govern the factor of safety that geotechnical engineers use for
assessing the appropriate factor of safety for a geotechnical design of a shallow or deep
foundation, for slope stability or for earth retaining structures. Engineering judgment should be
used in evaluating the risk associated with the unknowns in a project, and then selecting the
appropriate factor of safety. Many of the static analysis methods are documented in the
literature with specific recommendations on the factor of safety to be used with them. These
recommended factors of safety typically do not consider the variability of the soil profile, the
confidence in the input parameters nor the level of construction monitoring. These items should
also be considered when selecting the factor of safety for design. While the range in static
factors of safety is from 2 to 4, most of the static analysis methods recommend a factor of safety
of 3. It is the responsibility of the design engineer to determine the appropriate factor of safety
for the specific application/project. When static load tests are performed, a factor of safety of 2.0
is often used because of the high level of confidence that the piles will perform as intended.

4.4 ENGINEERING NEWS RECORD FORMULA

The AWPI Timber Piling Council recognizes that the Engineering News Formula is still in use.
However, more predictable procedures are provided in this manual for determining the static
capacity of timber piles.

Some years ago, studies evaluating the degree of accuracy of this Formula demonstrated there
was no satisfactory relationship between the capacity of piles determined by load tests versus
calculated by the Engineering News Formula. When using the formula, the actual bearing
capacity may be less than 1.2 or greater than 30 times the calculated value. “In view of these
conditions the continued use of the Engineering News Formula can no longer be justified,
(Terazghi and Peck, 1967).” The Engineering News formula, although not used for piling
design, is used on-site as a quality control tool.










30








31
CHAPTER 5.0
DESIGN OF SINGLE PILES



5.1 INTRODUCTION

The methods to determine the static capacity of single piles presented in this chapter have been
selected because of their simplicity and excellent track record for predicting pile capacity when
compared to pile load tests. A step-by-step procedure is presented for each method. Each
procedure is taken from the FHWA manual “Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations
(FHWA-HI-97-013). The methods presented in this manual and when they are applicable is
provided in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1
Design Methods
Design Method Cohesionless Soil Cohesive Soil Applicable for Final
Design
Meyerhof Yes No No
Nordlund Yes No Yes
α Method No Yes Yes
Effective Stress Yes Yes Yes
Nottingham &
Schmertmann
Yes Yes Yes


5.2 MEYERHOF METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS (Meyerhof, 1976)

Meyerhof developed a method of estimating pile capacity based on empirical correlations
between standard penetration test (SPT) results and static pile load tests. The advantages of
this method are that it is very easy to use and that SPT data is typically available for a project.
The major disadvantage of this method is that SPT values are non-reproducible and can be
influenced by many factors (i.e., rod length, hammer efficiency, overburden depth, etc.).
Because of the simplicity of the method, many simplifying assumptions are contained in the
method, resulting in a less reliable method than the other methods presented in this manual.
This method should be used for preliminary estimates and not for final design.

For displacement piles (e.g., timber piles) Meyerhof has established that the average unit shaft
resistance (f
s
) is:

f
s
=
50
' N 2
≤ 2 ksf (5-1)


' N is the average corrected SPT resistance in blows per foot

The unit toe resistance (q
t
) in ksf for piles driven into sands and gravels may be approximated
by the following equation:
32

q
t
= ( ) b ] D ' N 8 . 0 ' N 8 . 0 [ ' N 8
B O B o
÷ − + ≤
B
' N 8 (5-2)
where:
O
' N = Average corrected SPT N’ value for the stratum, overlying the bearing
stratum

B
' N = Average corrected SPT N’ value for the bearing stratum

B
D = Pile embedment depth into the bearing stratum in feet
b = Pile tip diameter in feet

Equation 5-2 applies when the pile toe is located near the interface of two strata, with the
weaker stratum above the bearing stratum. The limiting value of the unit toe resistance is
reached when the embedment depth into the bearing stratum reaches 10 pile diameters.

For piles driven into a uniform cohesionless stratum, the unit toe resistance in ksf is determined
from the following equation:

q
t
= b D ' N 8 . 0
B B
÷ ≤
B
' N 8 (5-3)

It is recommended that the average corrected SPT N’ value
B
' N be calculated by averaging N’
values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe. For piles driven into non-plastic
silts, Meyerhof recommended the unit toe resistance, q
t
, be limited to 300
B
' N instead of the
400
B
' N given in the above equation.

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR MEYERHOF METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure.
Use correction factors from Figure 5-1.
N’ = C
N
N

where: N’ = corrected SPT N value
C
N
= correction factor for overburden stress (Figure 5-1)
N = uncorrected or field SPT value


Step 2 Compute the average corrected SPT N’ value ( ) ' N for each soil layer.
Along the embedment length of pile delineate the soil profile into layers based on
density indicated by the N’ value. The individual soil layers should be selected
between 10 and 20 feet.

Step 3 Compute the unit shaft resistance in ksf for timber piles from:

f
s
=
50
N 2 ′
≤ 2

Step 4 Compute ultimate shaft resistance R
s
(kips)

R
s
= f
s
A
s


33
where: A
s
= pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length)

Step 5 Compute the average corrected SPT N’ values ( )
O
' N and ( )
B
' N near the pile toe.

In cases where the pile toe is situated near the interface of a weaker stratum
overlying the bearing stratum, compute the average corrected SPT N’ value for
the stratum overlying the bearing stratum, ( )
O
' N , and the average corrected SPT
N’ value for the bearing stratum ( )
B
' N .

In uniform cohesionless soils, compute the average corrected SPT N’ value by
averaging N’ values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe.


Step 6 Compute the unit toe resistance q
t


For weaker soils overlying the bearing stratum, compute q
t
from:

q
t
= ( ) b D ' N 8 . 0 ' N 8 . 0 ' N 8
B O B o
÷ − + ≤
B
N 8 ′

For pile in a uniform cohesionless deposit, compute q
t
from:

q
t
= b D ' N 8 . 0
B B
÷ ≤
B
N 8 ′

For pile driven into non-plastic silts, the unit toe resistance should be limited to
B
' N 6 . 0 ksf.

Step 7 Compute the ultimate toe resistance R
t
(kips)

R
t
= q
t
A
t

Where A
t
is the pile toe area (ft
2
).

Step 8 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)

Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t


Step 9 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
(kips)

Q
a
= Q
u
/ factor of Safety

The Meyerhof Method should be used only for preliminary capacity and length estimates.

34


Figure 5-1: Chart for Correction of N-Values in Sand for Influence of Overburden
Pressure (from Peck, Hanson, Thornburn, 1974)


5.3 NORDLUND METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS (1963)

The Nordlund method considers the type of the pile (i.e. coefficient of friction between the pile
material and soil, displacement versus non-displacement, etc.) and the soil pile interaction in
calculating the shaft resistance. The shaft resistance of a pile is a function of several
parameters including the following:

• Friction angle of the soil
• Friction angle of sliding surface (soil/pile interface)
• Taper of the pile
• Effective unit weight of the soil
• Pile length
• Minimum pile perimeter
• Volume of soil displaced

The Nordlund method attempts to take these parameters into consideration when evaluating
pile capacity. This method is a semi-empirical approach that is widely used.

The Nordlund Method (Figure 5-2) equation for computing the ultimate capacity of a pile is as
follows:

( )
t t q t d d F
D d
0 d u
p A ' N ] cos d C sin p C K [ Q α ω ∆ ω δ
δ
+ ÷ + =

=
=
(5-4)

where:
d = Depth
D = Embedment pile length
K
δ
= Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at depth d
35
C
F
= Correction factor for K
δ
when δ ≠ ϕ
p
d
= Effective overburden pressure at the center of depth increment d
δ = Friction angle between pile and soil
ω = Angle of pile taper from vertical
ϕ = Soil effective friction angle
C
d
= Pile perimeter at depth d
∆d = Length of pile segment
α
t
= Dimensionless factor (dependent on pile depth-width
relationships)
N’
q
= Bearing capacity factor
A
t
= Pile toe area
p
t
= Effective overburden pressure at the pile toe (limited to 3 ksf).






Figure 5-2 Nordlund’s General Equation for Ultimate Pile Capacity (FHWA-HI-97-013)

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR NORDLUND METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the ϕ angle for each layer.

A.) Construct an effective overburden pressure (p
o
) diagram versus depth.

B.) Correct the SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Figure 5-1.
Delineate soil profile into layers based on corrected SPT N‘ values

36
C.) Determine ϕ angle for each layer of soil from laboratory tests or in-situ data.

D.) In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data, determine the average
corrected SPT N’ values ( ) ' N for each soil layer and determine ϕ angle from
Table 5-1.
Table 5-1
Empirical Correlation for Effective Friction Angle of Granular soils based on Corrected
SPT Value (after Bowles, 1977)

Description Very Loose Loose Medium Dense Very Dense
Corrected N’ 0 to 4 4 to 10 10 to 30 30 to 50 50+
ϕ angle** 25 - 30° 27 - 32° 30 - 35° 35 to 40° 38 - 43°
* Corrections may be unreliable in soils containing gravel.
** Use larger values for granular material with 5% or less fine sand and silt.

Step 2 Determine the friction angle between the pile and soil (δ) based on the displaced
soil volume (V) and the soil friction angle (ϕ).

A.) Compute the volume of soil displaced per unit length of pile (V).

B.) Use Figure 5-3 to determine the ratio of the pile soil friction angle to the soil
friction angle δ/ϕ.
C.) Calculate δ based on δ/ϕ ratio.

Step 3 Determine the coefficient of lateral earth pressure K
δ
for each ϕ angle.

Determine K
δ
for each ϕ angle based on displaced volume ,V, and pile taper
angle (ω) using Figures 5-4 – 5-7 and the appropriate procedure in steps 3 A, B,
or C.

A.) If the displaced volume is 0.1, 1, or 10 ft
3
/ft, which corresponds to one of the
curves in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, and the soil friction angle is one of those
provided, K
δ
may be determined directly from the appropriate figure.

B.) If the displaced volume is 0.1, 1, or 10 ft
3
/ft, which corresponds to one of the
curves provided in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, but the effective friction angle (ϕ)
is different from those provided, use a linear interpolation to determine K
δ
for
the required ϕ (see FHWA-HI-97-013 for additional detail).

C.) If the displaced volume is other than 0.1, 1, or 10 ft
3
/ft, which corresponds to
one of the curves provided in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, but the effective
friction angle (ϕ) is one of those provided, use a log linear interpolation to
determine K
δ
for the required volume (see FHWA-HI-97-013 for additional
detail). For preliminary designs K
δ
may be estimated by visual estimation
between curves in Figures 5-4 through 5-7.

Step 4 Determine the correction factor, C
F
, to be applied to K
δ
if δ ≠ ϕ.

Use Figure 5-8 to determine the correction factor for each K
δ
.
37

Step 5 Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each
layer (p
d
).


Step 6 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil. The sum of the shaft
resistance from each layer obtained is equivalent to the ultimate shaft resistance
R
s
.

( ) ω ∆ ω δ
δ
cos d C sin p C K R
d d F
D d
0 d s
÷ + =

=
=


Step 7 Determine the α
t
coefficient and the bearing capacity factor, N’
q
, from the friction
angle of the soil near the pile toe.

A.) Use Figure 5-9a to determine α
t
coefficient based on pile length to diameter
ratio.
B.) Use Figure 5-9b to determine N’
q
.

C.) If the friction angle of the soil is estimated from SPT data, compute the
average corrected SPT N’ value over the zone from the pile toe to 3
diameters below the pile toe. Use this average corrected N’ value to estimate
the friction angle near the toe of the pile using Table 5-1


0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
VOLUME,
V
(ft /ft)
3
δ / φ

Figure 5-3: Relationship of δ/ϕ and pile displacement (V) for timber piles
(after Nordlund, 1979)


38
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
K
ω
6
7
(degrees)
δ
1.00
0.85
0.70
V = 0.1 ft /ft
3
V = 1.0 ft /ft
3
V = 10.0 ft /ft
3


Figure 5-4: Design curve for evaluating K
δ
for piles when ϕ = 25°(after Nordlund, 1979)







0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
K
ω
6
7
(degrees)
δ
1.15
0.85
1.45
V = 0.1 ft /ft
3
V = 1.0 ft /ft
3
V = 10.0 ft /ft
3

Figure 5-5: Design curve for evaluating K
δ
for piles when ϕ = 30°(after Nordlund, 1979)



39

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
2
4
6
8
10
K
ω
12
14
(degrees)
δ
1.15
1.75
2.35
V = 0.1 ft /ft
3
V = 1.0 ft /ft
3
V = 10.0 ft /ft
3

Figure 5-6: Design curve for evaluating K
δ
for piles when ϕ = 35°(after Nordlund, 1979)







0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
5
10
15
20
(degrees)
K
δ
ω
3.00
1.70
4.30
V = 0.1 ft /ft
3
V = 1.0 ft /ft
3
V = 10.0 ft /ft
3

Figure 5-7: Design curve for evaluating K
δ
for piles when ϕ = 40°(after Nordlund, 1979)


40
Step 8 Compute the effective overburden pressure at the pile toe p
t
.

Note that the limiting value of p
t
is 3 ksf.

Step 9 Compute the ultimate toe resistance R
t
with the following two steps:

A.)
t t q t t
p A ' N R α =

B.) Limit
t l t
A q R = where
l
q is obtained from Figure 5-10 and the following
two steps: 1.) With the friction angle near the toe of the pile determined
from laboratory or in-situ test data; and 2.) With the friction angle of the
soil estimated from SPT corrected values (N’) and Table 5-1. Use the
lesser of the two values.

Step 10 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)

Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t


Step 11 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
(kips)

Q
a
= Q
u
/ Factor of Safety



Figure 5-8: Correction Factor for K
δ
when δ ≠ ϕ (after Nordlund, 1979)

41
5.4 α- METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIVE SOILS (Tomlinson, 1979)

The ultimate bearing capacity of a pile in cohesive soil may develop up to 80 – 90% of its
capacity through shaft resistance. The α-Method is a total stress analysis where the ultimate
capacity of the pile is determined from the undrained shear strength of the cohesive soil. This
method assumes that the shaft resistance is independent of the effective overburden pressure.
The unit shaft resistance is expressed in terms of an empirical adhesion factor times the
undrained shear strength. The unit shaft resistance, f
s
, is equal to the adhesion (c
a
) which is the
shear stress between the pile and the soil.

u a s
c c f α = = (5-6)

α is an empirical adhesion factor to reduce the average undrained shear strength (c
u
) of the
undisturbed clay along the embedded length of the pile. The coefficient α depends on the
nature and strength of the clay, pile dimensions, method of installation, and time effects. Figure
5-11 should be used to determine the pile adhesion for the general case of a homogeneous soil
profile. Figure 5-12a should be used when driving a pile through a layer of sand or sandy gravel
which is above a stiff clay layer. This condition will typically develop the highest adhesion factors
as the granular soil is dragged into the underlying clay. Figure 5-12b should be used for
determining the adhesion for piles driven through soft clay into stiff clay. In this case, the soft
clay is dragged into the stiff clay stratum reducing the adhesion factor of the underlying stiff clay.


Figure 5-12c may be used when driving piles in stiff clays without any different overlying strata.
In stiff clays, a gap often forms between the pile and the soil in the upper portion of the pile. The
adhesion factor is, therefore, reduced at shallow pile penetration depths and increased at
deeper pile penetration depths.

The unit toe resistance is determined for homogeneous cohesive soil using the following
equation:

c u
N c q = (5-7)
The term N
c
is a dimensionless bearing capacity factor which depends on the pile diameter and
depth of embedment. The bearing capacity factor is typically taken as 9.
42

Figure 5-9: Chart for Estimating α
t
Coefficient and Bearing Capacity Factor N’
q

(Chart modified from Bowles, 1977)
43
30 35 40 45
0
200
400
600
800
Limiting
Angle of Internal Friction, φ
Unit Toe
Resistance, q
(ksf)
L
(degrees)
Very Loose
L
o
o
s
e
M
e
d
i u
m
D
e
n
s
e
V
e
r
y

D
e
n
s
e
Figure 5-10: Relationship between maximum unit pile toe resistance and friction
angle for cohesionless soils (after Meyerhof, 1976)

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR α-METHOD IN COHESIVE SOIL (FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the adhesion, c
a
, from Figure
5-11 or the adhesion factor, α, from Figure 5-12.

Step 2 For each soil layer, compute the unit shaft resistance, f
s
.


u a s
c c f α = =

Step 3 Compute the shaft resistance in each soil layer and the ultimate shaft resistance,
R
s
, from the sum of the shaft resistances for each layer.

R
s
= ∑f
s
A
s


where: A
s
= pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length)

Step 4 Compute the unit toe resistance, q
t
.

q
t
= 9 c
u


Step 5 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.

R
t
= q
t
A
t

Step 6 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)

Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t


44
Step 7 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
(kips)

Q
a
= Q
u
/ Factor of Safety


0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
0.0
Undrained Shear Strength, c (ksf)
Pile
D=10b
D>40b
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
Adhesion, c
(ksf)
a
u
Timber Piles
D = Distance from Ground Surface to Bottom of Clay Layer or
Pile Toe; Whichever is Less
b = Pile Diameter

Figure 5-11: Adhesion values for piles in cohesive soils (after Tomlinson, 1979)


5.5 EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS AND COHESIVE
SOILS

The long-term drained shear strength conditions of piles may be effectively modeled using
effective stress methods. The effective stress method presented in this manual is based on the
calculation of the unit shaft resistance (f
s
) using the following equation:


o s
p f β = (5-8)

where: β = Bjerrum-Burland beta coefficient = K
s
tanδ

o
p = Average effective overburden pressure along the pile shaft
K
s
= Earth pressure coefficient
δ = Friction angle between the pile and the soil

The unit toe resistance (q
t
) is calculated from:


t t t
p N q = (5-9)

where: N
t
= Toe bearing capacity coefficient
p
t
= Effective overburden pressure at the toe of the pile.


45



Figure 5-12: Adhesion factors for Driven Piles in Clay (after Tomlinson, 1980)
46
The toe bearing coefficient, N
t
, and the beta coefficient, β, may be determined from Table 5-2
and Figures 5-13 and 5-14 may also be used to estimate the beta coefficient (β), and the toe
bearing coefficient (N
t
).

Table 5-2
Range of β and N
t
coefficients (Fellenius,1991)
Soil Type ϕ’ β N
t

Clay 25 - 30 0.23 - 0.40 3 - 30
Silt 28 - 34 0.27 - 0.50 20 - 40
Sand 32 - 40 0.30 - 0.60 30 - 150
Gravel 35 - 45 0.35 - 0.80 60 - 300










Coefficient
β
20
25 30 35 40 45 50
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1.0
(degrees) φ
Sand
Gravel
Silt
Clay
Clay
Silt
Sand
Gravel



Figure 5-13: Chart for Estimating β Coefficient versus Soil Type φ’ Angle
(after Fellenius, 1991)

47
Capacity
(degrees) φ
Clay
Silt
Sand
Gravel
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
3
10
100
2
4
5
20
30
40
50
200
300
400
Bearing
Coefficient,
Toe
N
t

Figure 5-14: Chart for Estimating N
t
 Coefficient versus Soil Type φ’ Angle
(after Fellenius, 1991)


STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine ϕ’ angle for each layer.

A.) Construct the effective overburden versus depth diagram.

B.) Divide the soil profile throughout the pile penetration depth into layers and
determine the effective overburden pressure, p
o
, at the midpoint of each
layer.

C.) Determine the ϕ’ angle for each layer from laboratory or in-situ test data. In
the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data for cohesionless soils, determine
the average corrected SPT N’ value for each layer and estimate ϕ’ angle from
Table 5-1.

Step 2 Select the β coefficient for each soil layer.

Use Table 5-2 and Figure 5-13 to estimate β for each layer.

Step 3 For each soil layer, compute the unit shaft resistance, f
s
.


o s
p f β =
48

Step 4 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil and the ultimate shaft
resistance, R
s
, from the sum of the shaft resistances from each layer.

R
s
= ∑f
s
A
s


where: A
s
= pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length)

Step 5 Compute the unit toe resistance, q
t
.


t t t
p N q =

Use local experience or Table 5-2 and Figure 5-14 to estimate N
t
.

Step 6 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.

R
t
= q
t
A
t

Step 7 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)

Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t


Step 8 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
(kips)

Q
a
= Q
u
/ Factor of Safety

5.6 NOTTINGHAM AND SCHMERTMANN METHOD (Nottingham and Schmertmann,
1975)

Static cone penetrometer test (CPT) data may be used when available to estimate the static
capacity of single piles under axial loads. Nottingham and Schmertmann developed a procedure
to estimate static pile capacity from CPT data. That procedure is summarized in the following
paragraphs.

The ultimate shaft resistance, R
s
, in cohesionless soils may be derived from the unit sleeve
friction of the CPT using the following equation:

( ) ( ) [ ]
btoD 8 s b 8 to 0 s
A fs A fs 5 . 0 K R
S
+ = (5-10)

where: K = Ratio of unit pile shaft resistance to unit cone sleeve friction from
Figure 5-15
fs = Average unit sleeve friction over the depth interval indicated by the
subscript (i.e., 0 to 8b)
A
s
= Pile-soil surface area over f
s
depth interval
b = Pile diameter (average in depth interval)
D = Embedded pile length


49
If cone sleeve friction data is not available, R
s
may be determined from the cone tip resistance
in cohesionless soil as follows:


S c f S
A q C R

= (5-11)

where: C
f
= 0.018 for timber piles
q
c
= Average cone tip resistance along the pile length
A
S
= Pile-soil surface area

The shaft resistance in cohesive soils is obtained from the sleeve friction values using the
following equation:


S S
A fs ' R α = (5-12)

where: α’ = Ratio of pile shaft resistance to cone sleeve friction Figure 5-16.

Figure 5-17 is used to determine the ultimate pile toe capacity in cohesive soils using an
average weighted cone resistance from 8 pile diameters above the toe to 3.75 pile diameters
below the toe. The maximum value of q
t
should be limited to 100 ksf, unless local experience
warrants use of higher values.


STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR NOTTINGHAM AND SCHMERTMANN METHOD (FHWA-
HI-97-013)

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers using the cone tip resistance, q
t
, and sleeve
friction, fs , values.

Step 2 Compute the shaft resistance for each soil layer, R
S
.

A.) For piles in cohesionless soils, compute ultimate shaft resistance, R
S
, using
the average sleeve friction value for the layer, fs , and the K value. The K
value should be determined using the full pile penetration depth to diameter
ratio from Figure 7-18 and not the penetration depth of the layer. Conversely,
the depth d corresponds to the pile toe depth, or the depth to the bottom of
the layer, whichever is less.

( ) ( ) [ ]
btoD 8 s b 8 to 0 s
A fs A fs 5 . 0 K R
S
+ =

For cohesionless layers below a depth of 8b, the above equation for shaft
resistance in a layer reduces to:

S S
A fs K R =

For piles in cohesionless soils without sleeve friction data, compute the
ultimate shaft resistance from:

S c f S
A q C R

=
50

B.) For piles in cohesive soils, compute the ultimate shaft resistance using the
average sleeve friction value for the layer from:

S S
A fs ' R α =

Use Figure 5-16 to determine α′.

Step 3 Calculate the total pile shaft resistance from the sum of the shaft resistances
from each soil layer.

Step 4 Compute the unit pile toe resistance, q
t
.

( ) 2 q q q
2 c 1 c t
÷ + =

Use Figure 7-20 to determine q
c1
and q
c2
.

Step 5 Determine the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.

R
t
= q
t
A
t

Step 6 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips)

Q
u
= R
s
+ R
t


Step 7 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
(kips)

Q
a
= Q
u
/ Factor of Safety







51
40
30
20
10
0
D/b
K for Timber Piles
Mechanical Penetrometer
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
Electrical Penetrometer



Figure 5-15: Penetrometer design curves for pile side friction in sand (FHWA-TS-78-209)

0.0
1.0
Penetrometer Sleeve Friction, fs (ksf)
Timber Piles
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Penetrometer
to Pile
Friction Ratio,
' α



Figure 5-16: Design curve for pile side friction in clay (after Schmertmann, 1978)
52




Figure 5-17: Illustration of Nottingham and Schmertmann Procedure for Estimating Pile
Toe Capacity (FHWA-TS-78-209)

53
5.7 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILES

The uplift capacity for timber piles in cohesive soils may be determined by considering the shaft
resistance as presented in section 5.3 and adding the weight of the pile to obtain the ultimate
uplift capacity. Comparison of uplift pile load tests with compression pile load tests in cohesive
soils reveals that the uplift adhesion between the pile and the soil is approximately the same as
the adhesion developed in compression. It has been found that negative pore pressures may
occur in clays during uplift. The uplift capacity may, therefore, be less than the short-term
capacity because the clay tends to soften with time as the negative pore pressure dissipates.

For timber piles in cohesionless soils, the uplift capacity is generally less than the compression
capacity of the pile. This lower capacity is a function of the taper of the pile and the skin friction
between the pile and soil for uplift loading is less than for compression loading.

FHWA, therefore, recommends that the design uplift capacity of a single pile in cohesionless or
cohesive soils should be taken as one third (1/3) of the ultimate shaft resistance calculated from
either the Nordlund method, the α method, the effective stress method, or the Nottingham and
Schmertmann method. Two uplift connection details that are often used for timber piles are
shown on Figure 5-18.




Figure 5-18: Uplift connection details.

















54



















55
CHAPTER 6.0
DESIGN OF PILE GROUPS



6.1 INTRODUCTION

The design of a group of piles must consider the axial load carrying capacity of the pile group as
well as the settlement of the pile group. In group pile design it is convenient to refer to the
efficiency of a group (η
g
) of piles as the ratio of the ultimate capacity of the group to the sum of
the ultimate capacity of the individual piles in the group. The group efficiency is expressed as
follows:

( )
u ug g
nQ Q ÷ = η (6-1)

where:
ug
Q = Ultimate capacity of the pile group
n = Number of piles in the pile group

u
Q = Ultimate capacity of each individual pile in the group

It is recommended that a maximum pile to pile spacing of 3 pile diameters be used for all
pile groups.

6.2 AXIAL PILE CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS IN COHESIONLESS SOILS

For timber piles driven in cohesionless soils with a center-to-center spacing of less than 3 pile
diameters, the ultimate capacity of the group is greater than the ultimate capacity of the sum of
the individual piles (i.e., η
g
> 1). This is due to the effect of soil compaction between piles; when
the piles are spaced this closely together, the compaction effect on the soil is overlapped. Piles
at spacings greater than 3 pile diameters act as individual piles.


6.3 AXIAL PILE CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS IN COHESIVE SOILS

Use the following procedure for the determination of the ultimate capacity of timber pile groups
in cohesive soils. The lesser of the four calculated ultimate group capacities using the following
four steps should be used (FHWA-HI-97-013).

1.) For pile groups driven in clays with undrained shear strengths less than 2 ksf and the pile
cap not in firm contact with the ground, use a group efficiency of 0.7. If the center-to-center
spacing is greater than 6 pile diameters, then a group efficiency of 1.0 may be used.

2.) For piles in clays with an undrained shear strength less than 2 ksf and the pile cap in firm
contact with the ground, use a group efficiency of 1.0.

3.) For pile groups in clays with undrained shear strength greater than 2 ksf, use a group
efficiency of 1.0.


56


Figure 6-1: Three Dimensional Pile Group Configuration (after Tomlinson, 1994)

4.) Calculate the ultimate pile group capacity against block failure.

Block failure is generally only a concern for pile groups in soft cohesive soils. The ultimate
capacity of a pile group against block failure (Figure 6-1) is determined from the following
equation:

( )
c 2 u 1 u ug
N c Z B c Z B D 2 Q + + = (6-2)

where: D = Embedment length of piles
B = Width of pile group
Z = Length of pile group
c
u1
= Weighted average of the undrained shear strength over the depth of the
pile embedded in the cohesive soil along the pile group perimeter
c
u2
= Average of the undrained shear strength of the cohesive soil at the
base of the pile group to a depth of 2B below the pile toe
N
c
= Bearing capacity factor (for rectangular pile groups)

The bearing capacity factor, N
c
, for a rectangular pile group is generally 9. However, for pile
groups with small pile embedment depths and/or large widths, N
c
, should be calculated from the
following equation.

9 ] Z 5 / B 1 ][ B 5 / D 1 [ 5 N
c
≤ + + = (6-3)

Pile driving in cohesive soils may generate large excess pore water pressures, which may result
in short-term (i.e., 1 to 2 months after installation) group efficiencies on the order of 0.4 to 0.8.
As the excess pore water dissipates the group efficiency will increase.

57

6.4 SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUPS IN COHEHSIONLESS SOILS

For pile groups in cohesionless soils, settlements will be immediate as the pile group is loaded.
This is due to the high permeability of the soil. The settlement (s) of a pile group in
homogeneous sand deposits not underlain by a more compressible soil at greater depth may be
estimated using Meyerhof’s (1976) approach which is based on SPT N’, values and is shown
below :

( ) ' N I B p s
f f
÷ = (6-4a)

For silty sands:

( ) ' N I B p 2 s
f f
÷ = (6-4b)

where: s = Settlement in inches
p
f
= Design foundation pressure (ksf)
B = Width of pile group (ft)
' N = Average corrected SPT N’ value within a depth B below pile toe
D = Pile embedment depth (ft)
I
f
= Influence factor for group embedment = 1 – [D/8B] ≥ 0.5

For use of CPT data see FHWA-HI-97-013. For piles in cohesionless soils underlain by
cohesive soils the method presented in the following section should be used.

6.5 SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUPS IN COHEHSIVE SOILS

The settlement of pile groups in cohesive soils may be modeled as an equivalent footing at a
depth below the pile toe as shown in Figure 6-2. Using this figure the settlement of the pile
group may be determined using classical consolidation theory.

The settlement of a foundation resting on layers of normally consolidated soils (σ′
p
=σ′
vo
) can be
computed from:


vo
vf
10 o
n
i
o
c
c
'
'
log H
e 1
C
S
σ
σ

+
= (6-5)

where: C
c
= Compression index of the normally consolidated portion of the void ratio
versus log σ’
v
curve
e
o
= Iinitial void ratio
H
o
= Layer thickness
σ′
vo
= Initial effective vertical stress at the center of layer n
σ′
vf
= Final effective vertical stress at the center of layer n.

The final effective vertical stress is computed by adding the stress change due to the foundation
load to the initial vertical effective stress. The total settlement will be the sum of the
compression of the n layers of soil.

Normally the slope of the virgin portion of the e-log σ′
v
curve is determined from the corrected
one-dimensional consolidation curve measured on specimens taken from each relevant soil in
58
the stratigraphic column. A detailed discussion on consolidation settlement analysis is beyond
the scope of this manual.





Figure 6-2: Equivalent Footing Concept (FHWA-HI-97-013)






59
CHAPTER 7.0
MARINE APPLICATION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS



7.1 INTRODUCTION

Timber piles have been used extensively to support piers and wharfs because of their excellent
performance characteristics in both fresh and salt water and their ability to withstand lateral
loads without structural failure. This chapter will present details on the design of laterally loaded
piles.

The design of lateral loaded piles must evaluate both the structural capacity of the pile and the
soil deformation with respect to these lateral loads. The design of laterally loaded piles follows
one of two approaches 1.) lateral load tests, or 2.) analytical methods.

Lateral load tests conducted at the site will give a direct measure of the lateral capacity of timber
piles. This may be a relatively costly procedure that is not warranted on many projects.
Analytical methods are available that permit rational consideration of the site parameters. Two
common approaches are Broms’ hand calculation method and Reese’s (1984) computer
solution (COM624P). Broms’ method is a simple method to determine the lateral load and pile
deflection at the ground surface, ignoring axial load in the pile. On small projects or non-critical
projects, the Broms’ method may be used. However, when there are definite limits on allowable
pile movements, a more detailed load-deformation analysis technique should be used (i.e.,
COM624P). This chapter will present the Broms’ method. For a detailed discussion of the
Reese method (COM624P) see FHWA-IP-84-11. COM624P is available from FHWA.

7.2 BROMS’ METHOD

The Broms’ method calculates the ultimate soil resistance to lateral load as well as the
maximum moment induced in the pile as a result of the lateral load. This method may be used
to evaluate lateral capacity for both fixed and free pile head conditions in either purely cohesive
or purely cohesionless soil profiles. For mixed soil profiles COM624 is recommended. For long
fixed head piles in cohesionless soil, the Broms’ method may over-predict lateral load capacity.
Com624 may be used for this condition.

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR BROMS’ METHOD FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES
(FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Determine the general soil type (i.e., cohesive or cohesionless) within the critical
depth below the ground surface (approximately 4 to 5 pile diameters).

Step 2 Determine the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction, K
h
, within the critical
depth for cohesive or cohesionless soils.

Cohesive soils: K
h
= (n
1
n
2
1670 q
u
)/b (7-1)



60
Where: q
u
= Unconfined compressive strength in (psf)
b = Diameter of the pile (ft)
n
1
= Empirical coefficient taken from table 7-1.
n
2
= Empirical coefficient for timber = 1.30

Table 7-1
Coefficient n
1
for Cohesive Soils

Unconfined Compressive Strength (ksf) n
1

Less than 1 0.32
1 to 4 0.36
More than 4 0.40

Cohesionless Soils: Choose K
h
from table 7-2.

Table 7-2
Values of K
h
for Cohesionless Soils

K
h
(kcf) Soil Density
Above Groundwater Below Groundwater
Loose 12 7
Medium 52 35
Dense 112 69

Step 3 Adjust K
h
for loading and soil conditions.

Cyclic Loading (Earthquake Loading) in Cohesionless Soil:

1. K
h
= 0.50 K
h
from step 2 for medium to dense soil.

2. K
h
= 0.25 K
h
from step 2 for loose soil.

Static loads resulting in soil creep (cohesive soil):

1. K
h
= (0.16 to 0.33) K
h
from step 2 for soft to very soft normally consolidated
clay.
2. K
h
= (0.25 to 0.50) K
h
from step 2 for stiff to very stiff clay.

Step 4 Determine Pile Parameters:

• Modulus of elasticity (E)
• Moment of inertia (I)
• Section Modulus (S)
• Allowable bending stress of timber pile (F
b
)
• Diameter of pile (b)
• Eccentricity of applied load e
c
for free-headed piles (I.e., vertical distance
between ground surface and lateral load)
• Resisting moment of the pile M
y
= S F
b


61


Step 5 Determine β
h
for cohesive soils or η for cohesionless soils.

β
h
= (K
h
b/4EI)
1/4
for cohesive soil

η = (K
h
/EI)
1/5
for cohesionless soil

Step 6 Determine the dimensionless length factor.

β
h
D for cohesive soils

ηD for cohesionless soils

Step 7 Determine if the pile is long or short.

Cohesive soil:
1. β
h
D > 2.25 (long pile)

2. β
h
D < 2.25 (short pile)

It is suggested that for β
h
D values between 2.0 and 2.5 both long and short pile
criteria should be considered in step 9. The smaller value should be used.

Cohesionless soil:
1. ηD > 4.0 (long pile)

2. ηD < 2.0 (short pile)

3. 2.0 < ηD < 4.0 (intermediate pile)

Step 8 Determine the other required soil parameters over the embedded length of the
pile.
a.) The Rankine passive earth pressure coefficient for cohesionless soil K
p
.

K
p
= tan
2
(45 +φ /2)

b.) The average effective unit weight of the soil γ′

c.) The undrained cohesion c
u
of the soil (c
u
=0.5 q
u
)

Step 9 Determine the ultimate lateral load for a single pile Q
u
.

a.) Short Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using D/b (and e
c
/b for
free headed case) enter Figure 7-1 and select the corresponding value of
Q
u
/c
u
b
2
and solve for Q
u
.

b.) Long Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using M
y
/c
u
b
3
(and e
c
/b for
free headed case) enter Figure 7-2 and select the corresponding value of
Q
u
/c
u
b
2
and solve for Q
u
.
62
c.) Short Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – using D/b (and e
c
/D
for free headed case) enter Figure 7-3 and select the corresponding value of
Q
u
/K
p
b
3
γand solve for Q
u
.

d.) Long Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil - using M
y
/γb
4
K
p
(and
e
c
/b for free headed case) enter Figure 7-4 and select the corresponding
value of Q
u
/K
p
b
3
γ and solve for Q
u
.

e.) Intermediate Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – calculate Q
u
for
both short and long pile and use the smaller value.

Step 10 Calculate the maximum allowable working load for a single pile Q
m
.

Q
m
= Q
u
/2.5

Step 11 Calculate the working load for a single pile Q
a
.

Calculate Q
a
corresponding to a given design deflection at the ground surface (y)
or the deflection corresponding to a given design load. If Q
a
and y are not given,
substitute the value of Q
m
from step 10 for Q
a
in the following cases and solve.

a.) Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using β
h
D (and e
c
/D for free
headed case) enter Figure 7-5 and select the corresponding value of
yK
h
bD/Q
a
and solve for Q
a
or y.

b.) Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – using ηD (and e
c
/D for free
headed case) enter Figure 7-6 and select the corresponding value of
y(EI)
3/5
K
h
2/5
/Q
a
D and solve for Q
a
or y.

Step 12 Compare Q
a
to Q
m
.

If Q
a
> Q
m
use Q
m
and calculate y
m
.

If Q
a
< Q
m
use Q
a
and y.

If Q
a
and y are not given use Q
m
and y
m
.

Step 13 Reduce the allowable load from step 12 for pile group effects and the method of
pile installation.

a.) Group reduction factor determined by the center to center pile spacing (z) in
the direction of load.
z Reduction Factor
8b 1.0
6b 0.8
4b 0.5
3b 0.4

b.) Method of installation reduction factor.
1.) For driven piles use no reduction
63
2.) For jetted piles use 0.75 of the value from step 13a.

Step 14 Determine pile group lateral capacity.

The total lateral capacity of the pile group equals the adjusted allowable load per
pile from step 13b times the number of piles. The deflection of the pile group is
the value selected in step 12. It should be noted that no provision has been made
to include the lateral resistance offered by the soil surrounding an embedded pile
cap.


64


Figure 7-1: Ultimate lateral load capacity of short piles in cohesive soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)

65



Figure 7-2: Ultimate lateral load capacity of long piles in cohesive soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)
66


Figure 7-3: Ultimate lateral load capacity of short piles in cohesionless soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)
67


Figure 7-4: Ultimate lateral load capacity of long piles in cohesionless soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)
68


Figure 7-5: Lateral deflection at ground surface of piles in cohesive soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)

69


Figure 7-6: Lateral deflection at ground surface of piles in cohesionless soils
(FHWA-HI-97-013)
70

71
CHAPTER 8.0
PILE INSTALLATION


8.1 INTRODUCTION

The installation of timber piles is a process that involves dropping a weight on top of the pile in
order to drive the pile into the ground. Timber piles have been used for centuries to support
man-made structures. The installation process has not changed much over the years. The
equipment that is used to install timber piles includes a crane, a boom, a set of leads, a
hammer, a helmet, a pile gate, pile monkey, and pile (Figure 8-1). This chapter will briefly
discuss the equipment used to install timber piles, preliminary selection of hammer size, pile
accessories which facilitate the installation while minimizing damage from the installation
process, and treatment of pile butts after cutoff. This chapter will only briefly touch on these
items as they pertain to the installation of timber piles.


Figure 8-1: Swinging Leads

8.2 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT

The equipment necessary to install timber piles includes a crane that is capable of handling the
loads from the pile driving equipment with sufficient capacity so that the reach of the crane does
not limit the productivity of the installation process. The boom on the crane must be long enough
to allow the maximum length pile to be installed without severely limiting the reach of the crane.
The crane may be either a truck mounted or a crawler mounted rig. The selection of truck
versus crawler will depend of the site conditions, maximum loads anticipated, and availability.
The selection of the most economical crane for a project is typically left to the contractor.


72
8.2.1 Leads

There are predominantly two types of leads used for the installation of timber piles: swinging
leads and fixed leads. The function of the leads is to maintain alignment of the hammer-pile
system so that a concentric blow is delivered to the pile from the hammer for each impact.
Swinging leads are the most commonly used leads because of their simplicity and economy.
Figure 8-1 shows a typical swinging lead arrangement. The leads and hammer are usually held
by separate lines from the crane. The name swinging leads comes from the leads ability to
rotate freely so that the hammer and pile may be aligned without precisely aligning the crane
with the pile butt (head). Swinging leads are typically lighter in weight than fixed leads and
therefore allow for a larger crane radius than when using fixed leads. Thus, the contractor may
install more piles from the same setup.

Fixed leads have a pivot point at the crane’s boom top and are braced between the crane and
lead, at the bottom of the leads (Figure 8-2). Fixed leads offer good control of the pile alignment.
This control does not come without cost. Fixed leads are typically more expensive than swinging
leads. The production rate may also be slower when using fixed leads as opposed to swinging
leads. Regardless of the type of lead chosen for a project, the leads should keep the pile in
good alignment with the hammer so that eccentric impacts which may cause local stress
concentrations and pile damage are minimized.




Figure 8-2: Fixed leads

8.2.2. Pile Hammers

There are two general categories of pile hammers; vibratory and impact hammers.
Vibratory hammers use counter rotating weights to impart a sinusoidal vibrating axial
force to the pile. Vibratory hammers are typically used for non-displacement piles. It has
been found difficult to install displacement piles, using vibratory hammers, due to the
73
difficulty in displacing the soil laterally at the pile toe with vibrations. Vibratory hammers
are, therefore, typically not used to install timber piles.

Impact hammers may be categorized as either external combustion hammers (i.e.,
steam, air, or hydraulic) or internal combustion (i.e., diesel hammers). External
combustion hammers use cables, steam, compressed air or pressurized hydraulic fluid
to raise the ram. Figure 8-3 shows the typical components of an external combustion
hammer. The energy delivered to the pile when using a drop hammer (a type of external
combustion hammer) is very dependent on the operator. Internal powered hammers use
diesel combustion inside the hammer to move the ram.

Another way to categorize hammers is single or double acting. Single acting hammers
are essentially gravity or drop hammers. Double acting diesel hammers work very
similarly to the single acting diesel hammer. The main difference between the single and
double acting hammer is that the top of the double acting hammer is closed. When the
ram moves upward, inside the hammer, the air in the chamber is compressed, which
causes a shorter stroke, and therefore a higher blow rate. Double acting hammers,
because of this faster blow count are typically more efficient than single acting hammers.
For a more detailed discussion of pile hammers see FHWA-RD-86-160 "The
Performance of Pile Driving Systems: Inspection Manual".

8.2.3 Helmet

The helmet is a heavy steel block between the hammer and the pile. A schematic of a helmet is
shown in Figure 8-4. The helmet should provide a smooth surface for contact between the
hammer and the pile. The helmet should fit snugly over the pile (less than 2 inches of lateral
movement). The top of the helmet is typically recessed for a hammer cushion. The hammer
cushion is used to relieve the impact shock between the ram and the pile. Cushion materials
eventually become compressed, lose their effectiveness, and must be replaced. Hammer
cushion materials are usually proprietary man-made materials. Pile cushions, cushions between
the pile butt and helmet are typically not required for timber piles, but are typically used for steel
and concrete piles.

8.3 HAMMER SIZE SELECTION

The selection of the hammer size for a project is an important consideration that will affect not
only the performance of the pile but the efficiency with which the piles are installed. A hammer
that is too small may not be able to install the pile to the required depth, capacity, or may require
an excessive number of blow counts. A hammer that is too large may damage the pile. A wave
equation analysis which considers the hammer cushion pile soil system may be used to
determine the optimal hammer size.
74


Figure 8-3: Basic components of an external combustion hammer



75


Figure 8-4: Helmet and adjoining parts

8.4 PILE ACCESSORIES

Difficult driving of timber piles through dense soils may cause splitting or brooming of the pile
tip. In difficult driving conditions plywood or steel plates fastened to the pile can aid driving.
Metal boots or points may be added to the pile tip to reduce the potential for damaging during
driving. Boots typically fit over the pile tip without any required trimming of the pile. Pile points,
on the other hand, typically require trimming of the pile tip. Both systems have proven effective
in reducing the damage to the pile tip during driving in difficult ground.

8.5 PILE CUTOFFS

One advantage of timber piles is that after installation, the pile butt may be easily cut off to the
correct elevation, typically with a chain saw. The cutoff surface should be treated with creosote
or CuNp (copper naphthenate), in accordance with AWPI Standard M-4, to protect the end of
the pile from organic degradation.








76






77
CHAPTER 9.0
PILE LOAD TESTING



9.1 INTRODUCTION

Pile load testing is an important tool for design engineers to verify that assumptions made in the
design of the deep foundation are appropriate for the site. Pile load testing may be conducted
prior to the final design of the deep foundation system in order to provide the designer with the
design properties to be used for the final design of the pile foundation. Load tests for timber pile
foundations are routinely used to prove the adequacy of the soil-pile system for the proposed
pile design load.

Static load tests are conducted to measure the response of piles under applied load.
Conventional static load test types include axial compression, axial tension and lateral load
testing. The cost and engineering time associated with a load testing program should be
justified by a thorough foundation investigation and engineering analysis of pile capacity. A
thorough timber pile foundation design requires detailed subsurface exploration, appropriate soil
testing, subsurface profile development, and static pile analysis. This manual will cover the axial
compression load test only. For information on the axial tension or lateral load test refer to
Federal Highway Administration “Static Testing of Deep Foundations” (FHWA-SA-91-042).

9.2 AXIAL COMPRESSION STATIC LOAD TEST

The location of load tests should be selected by the geotechnical engineer responsible for the
pile design where the subsurface conditions have been established directly by SPT or CPT
testing. The number of load tests to be performed should also be determined by the
geotechnical engineer. The number of load tests will depend on the variability of subsurface
conditions throughout the site, and the pile loading.

The magnitude to which the test piles are loaded has in the past been limited to twice the design
load. This does not permit a determination of the pile/soil capacity and negates design
knowledge obtained from a load test that may otherwise be used to reduce the number or the
length of production piles. Load testing to failure is recommended. This will disclose the real
safety factor inherent in the design and will provide the geotechnical engineer with the
necessary information to economize the design.

The test pile should be the same as the production piles (e.g., same proposed length toe and
butt diameters, same pressure treatment, etc.). The test pile should be installed with the same
equipment and procedures as is proposed for the production piles. Complete driving records
should be maintained during the installation of the piles.

Procedures for conducting axial compression tests are provided in ASTM D 1143 Standard test
Method for Piles Under Axial Compression Load. Three procedures are provided in this test
standard; maintained load test, quick test, and constant rate of penetration test. The quick test is
recommended for timber pile projects. This test is conducted to pile failure, or 300% of the
design load; the load increments are 10 – 15% of the design load; the duration of each load


78
increment is 2.5 minutes; and the test duration is 2-3 hours. The advantages of this test
procedure are that:

• A load test may be performed in a matter of hours versus 1 – 2 days, typical of the
maintained load test.
• Load testing becomes feasible for small projects.
• Test results are more nearly “undrained” conditions of shear failure.

The maintained load test, quick test, and constant rate of penetration test should all be
regarded as tests of short duration which may not reflect long-term pile settlements of either
individual or group piles. Any attempt to determine the long-term settlements by means of a
load test would be uneconomical because of the excessive amount of time that would be
required. When the time dependent or drained condition (i.e., creep) performance is desired,
the test duration would have to be measured in weeks, months or even years (Fellenius, 1980).

9.2.1 Interpretation of Load Test

The load displacement curve generated from the pile load test is used to determine the
allowable pile capacity. The allowable capacity of a pile was defined in chapter 5 as the
ultimate capacity of the pile divided by a factor of safety. In order to determine the actual factor
of safety for the installed pile, a definition of what constitutes a failure must be established.
Piles founded in cohesionless soils seldom experience a plunging failure. Therefore, it is
important to define failure, so that engineers are in agreement on what is failure and what factor
of safety a design has. The following methods have been used to define failure:

Offset Limit Method (Davisson 1972): The failure load is defined as the load corresponding to
a movement which exceeds the elastic compression of the pile, when considered as a free
column, by a value of 0.15 inches plus a factor depending on the diameter of the pile (D/120),
where D is the diameter of the pile in inches. AASHTO (1992) and FHWA recommend that the
offset method be used to determine the failure load.

De Beers Method (Fellenius, 1980): The load displacement values are plotted on a double
logarithmic scale, where the values may be shown to fall on two straight lines. The intersection
of the lines corresponds to the failure load.

90% Criterion (Brinch Hansen, 1963): The failure load is defined as the load at which the
movement is twice that obtained for 90% of that load.

Slope and Tangent (Butler and Hoy, 1977): The failure load is defined as the load at the
intersection of a line tangent to the initial straight line portion of the load displacement curve
and a line tangent to the load displacement curve where the slope of the line reaches 0.05
inches/ton).

The results of a pile load test are typically plotted as load versus displacement (movement of
the pile butt). The scale of the plot should be arithmetic and should be selected so that the
slope of the elastic deformation of the pile is inclined at an approximate angle of 20°.

The elastic deformation of a pile may be determined using the following equation:

( ) ( ) AE / QL = ∆ (9-1)


79

where: ∆ = Elastic deformation (inches)
Q = Test load (kips)
L = Pile length (inches)
A = Pile cross-sectional area (in
2
)
E = Modulus of Elasticity of Pile material (ksi)

This equation is accurate for end bearing piles where no stress transfer occurs along the length
of the pile. Timber piles, however, are typically friction piles or a combination of friction and end
bearing. The elastic deformation will, therefore, typically be less than that determined from
equation 9-1. Equation 9-1 will, however, be used in establishing the failure criteria for timber
piles.

The failure load (offset limit method) of a timber pile is the load that produces a movement of
the pile butt (s
f
) equal to:

( ) ) 120 / D 15 . 0 s
f
+ + = ∆ (9-2)

where: D = Pile diameter (inches)

Figure 9-1 presents a typical pile load test load movement curve. The elastic deformation and
the offset limit failure criteria are also plotted. The intersection of the failure criterion line and
load movement line yields the ultimate capacity of the pile.


Elastic Deformation
Failure Load, Q
Failure Criterion Line
Load Cell Pile Head Load (kips), Q
Movement
at
Pile Head
(inch x 10 )
-3
t
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
-40
-45
-50
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550


Figure 9-1: Typical static pile load test results (FHWA-HI-97-013)


80



81
CHAPTER 10.0
QUALITY ASSURANCE DURING PILE DRIVING



10.1 INTRODUCTION

The performance of a timber pile foundation system is not only a function of the design of the
foundation but also its construction. If either is deficient, the performance of the foundation may
not be as desired. Construction control of driven piles is much more difficult than for shallow
foundations where the footing excavation and footing construction can be visually observed to
assure quality. Since piles cannot be seen after their installation, direct quality control of the
finished product is impossible. Construction monitoring should be exercised in three areas; pile
materials, installation equipment, and the estimation of static load capacity. This chapter will
focus on pile material inspection and installation equipment observations.

10.2 TIMBER PILE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS

Timber piles should be monitored at the project site to assure that they meet project
specifications with respect to length, size (butt and toe diameter), sapwood, straightness, twist
of grain, knots, and pressure treatment. ASTM D 25-99 Standard Specification for Round
Timber Piles should be used for establishing the acceptance requirements for timber piles
delivered to the project site.

Pile lengths should be measured and recorded along with butt and toe diameters. ASTM D 25
provides tables for determining if the timber pile meets the minimum nominal circumference
measured 3 feet from the butt and toe of the pile. Piles that do not meet these requirements
shall be rejected.

The straightness of the piles shall also be checked. A straight line from the center of the butt to
the center of the tip shall lie entirely within the body of the pile. Piles shall also be free from
short crooks that deviate by more than 2.5 inches from straightness in any 5 feet length. Sound
knots shall be no larger than one sixth the circumference of the pile located where the knot
occurs.

10.3 MATERIAL CERTIFICATION

Piling manufactures shall submit certification that supplied piles comply with ASTM D25
provisions and appropriate AWPA standards.

10.4 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT AND PILE INSTALLATION

The pile driving equipment, crane, leads, hammer, hammer cushion, and helmet are all
important in the proper installation of a pile foundation. The inspector should check that the
contractor’s driving equipment is in accordance with the project plans and specifications. The
inspector should perform the following tasks prior to pile driving:

• Verify that the pile driving hammer meets the specifications for type and size
• Hammer cushion (if used) meets the specifications for type, size, and thickness
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• Helmet (drive cap) fits the pile
• The lead system conforms to the project specifications.

Inspection of the pile driving equipment during driving is important to assure that the piles are
installed so that they meet the driving criteria and that the pile remains undamaged. The driving
criteria is often defined as a minimum driving resistance as measured by the blow count in
blows per foot or fraction thereof, and is to assure that the piles have a desired capacity. The
driving resistance is also a function of the performance of the pile driving hammer. A hammer
operating at lower energy levels than specified will result in pile blow counts that are higher
than for the same pile, with the same capacity, with the same hammer operating at a high
energy level. In order for the inspector to assure that the minimum driving criteria has been
met, and therefore that the capacity is adequate, she/he must evaluate if the hammer is
performing properly. Each hammer has its own operating characteristics.

During the production pile driving operation, the inspector should check the following items:

• Pile size, length and type
• Location of pile
• If pile toe protection is specified, is it installed?
• Is the pile plumb?
• Is the hammer the specified hammer, and is it working properly?
• Is the hammer cushion the correct type and thickness? Is it being replaced regularly?
• Did the pile meet the driving criteria?
• Did the pile have unusual driving criteria?
• Is there any indication of pile heave?
• Is the pile cutoff at the correct elevation?
• Has the exposed pile cut been treated?
• Is there any visual damage?

Pile driving records are an important part of the quality assurance program. The following
information should appear on the pile driving records:

• Project identification number
• Project name and location
• Date and time of driving (start, stop, and interruptions)
• Name of contractor
• Hammer make, model, ram weight, energy rating. The actual stroke and operating speed
should be recorded.
• Hammer cushion description, size, and thickness
• Pile location, type, size, and length
• Pile ground surface, cut off, and final penetration elevations and embedment length
• Driving resistance data in blows per foot, with the final foot normally recorded in blows per
inch
• Graphical presentation of driving data
• Comments or unusual observations, including reasons for all interruptions
• Signature and title of inspector.
Driving records are an extremely important part of any deep foundation project. The records
provide information which greatly assists the design engineer in assessing the adequacy of the
83
installed foundation system to support the design loads. No timber pile project should be
complete without pile driving records.

















































84


85
CHAPTER 11.0
SPECIFICATIONS



11.1 INTRODUCTION

The following sample specification for timber piles is provided to illustrate the type of information
that should be considered for inclusion in a specification. The traditional approach of a method
and material specification is presented. The method approach requires that a site specific timber
pile design be performed by the owner’s engineer.

11.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
SECTION 02459 - TIMBER PILES


PART 1—GENERAL

1.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS

A. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and
Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections, apply to this section.

[Note: Drawings should indicate the plan layout and spacing of piles, pile design
loads, size and length of piles, butt or tip circumference of piles, cutoff elevation
of piles, details of pile shoes, location and depth of pre-excavated holes for piles,
location of test piles if in permanent locations.]

1.02 SUMMARY

A. This Section includes specifications for furnishing, installing, and testing of driven
piles for structures. Piles shall be end-bearing piles, friction load-bearing piles or
both as indicated.

B. Supply piles of the following types as indicated:
1. Timber piles, peeled and treated, driven.

C. Related Sections:
For bracing, pile caps and framing, see Division 6, Rough Carpentry, or Heavy
Timber Construction.

1.03 DEFINITIONS

A. Test Pile: An individual pile which is observed to determine its behavior during
driving and under static axial compression load.

86
B. Reaction Pile: An individual pile which provides the reaction load required to perform
the load test on a test pile. During this process the reaction pile can be subjected to
either an axial compression load or an axial tension load.

1.04 REFERENCE STANDARDS

A. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).

AASHTO M-133. Specification for Preservative and Pressure Treatment Process for
Timber.

B. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

ASTM D25 Specification for Round Timber Piles
ASTM D1143 Method of Testing Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load
ASTM D3689 Method of Testing Individual Piles Under Static Axial Tension Load

C. American Wood Preservers’ Association (AWPA)

AWPA C3. Piles - Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes.
AWPA C14. Wood for Highway Construction - Preservative Treatment by Pressure
Processes.
AWPA C18. Standard for Pressure treated Material in Marine Construction.
AWPA M4. Standard for the Care of Preservative Treated Wood Products.

1.05 SUBMITTALS

A. General: Refer to Contract Requirements for Submittals, Shop Drawings, Product
Data and Samples.

B. Shop Drawings: Submit shop drawings of pile types as follows:

1. Show any structural connections such as for uplift loads.

C. Pile Driving Sequential Layout:

1. Submit layout drawings showing the proposed sequence of driving the piles.

2. On the sequential layout, show each pile identification as indicated on the
Contract Drawings, its driving sequence number, type, size, load bearing capacity
and pile tip elevation planned.

D. Pile Driving Record: Maintain a pile driving record during pile driving and submit it to
the Project Engineer upon completion of pile driving. On the record indicate, for each
pile driven, the information specified in C above, and the following: type and rating of
driving equipment, overall blow count per foot, number of blows per inch penetration
for the last 12 inches, and any unusual conditions encountered during driving.




87
E. Equipment Review and Drawings:

1. Submit complete list of the equipment proposed for use, including a description
of the characteristics of each piece of driving equipment.

a. The Project Engineer will review the proposed driving equipment,
accessories, and methods of adequacy for the conditions expected to be
encountered. However, the adequacy of the equipment and accessories
shall remain the responsibility of the Contractor. Should the equipment
used by the Contractor prove inadequate to drive the scheduled types of
piles in the locations indicated, or should the use rate of accessories
show damage to the piles, or should the Progress Schedule not be
maintained, the Contractor shall replace, or use different types of
equipment.

2. Submit shop drawings of driving accessories showing compatibility with the size
configuration, handling, and driving requirements of each type of pile indicated on
the Contract Drawings.

3. Submit shop drawings showing the methods and equipment proposed for loading
test piles.


F. Submit data on round timber pile treatment data, including certification by treating
plant stating type of preservative solution and pressure process used, net amount of
preservative retained, and compliance with applicable standards.


1.06 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

A. Handling, storage and field fabrication, including treating of cut ends, shall be in
accordance with AWPA M4.

2.0 PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.01 TIMBER PILES

A. Round Timber Piles: Piles shall be Southern Pine or Douglas Fir and shall conform to
ASTM D 25, unused, clean peeled, uniformly tapered, one piece from butt to tip.


[Note to Specifiers - Size: Specify butt or tip diameters from Tables 3-3 through 3-9.]


B. Pressure treatment shall be in accordance with the following Use Category
Standards:
Foundation piles. AWPA C3.
Land and fresh water piles. AWPA C3.
Marine piles. AWPA C3 and C18.
Highway bridge piles. AWPA C14.
88
Marine, dual treatment. AWPA C3.
Field treatment of cut ends and holes. AWPA M4.

C. Preservatives and Retentions:

Creosote (pcf) Waterborne (CCA or ACZA)
(pcf)
Use Category Southern Pine Douglas Fir Southern Pine Douglas Fir
CCA ACZA
Foundation 12 17 0.8 1.0
Land & Fresh Water 12 17 0.8 1.0
Marine
N. of Delaware
1
16 16 1.5 1.5
or San Francisco
1

S. of New Jersey
2
20 20 2.5 2.5
or San Francisco
2
Dual Treatment
3
20 20 1.0 1.0

1. Where Teredo is expected and Limnoria tripunctata is not expected, creosote or creosote solutions
provide adequate protection.
2. Where Teredo and Limnoria tripunctata are expected and where pholad attack is not expected,
either dual treatment, or high retentions of CCA for Southern Pine or ACZA for Douglas fir provide
maximum protection.
3. In those areas where Limnoria tripunctata and pholad attack is expected or known, dual treatment
provides the maximum protection.

D. Fabrication

1. Field-Applied Wood Preservative: Treat field cuts, holes, and other penetrations
in accordance with AWPA M4.

PART 3 - EXECUTION

3.01 PILE TYPES

Piles shall be end-bearing type or friction type as indicated. Drive end-bearing piles
to the required bearing value. The bearing value for each pile shall be as
determined in Article 3.04. Drive friction piles to the required penetration, as
indicated.





3.02 DETERMINATION OF LENGTH

A. Provide piles of such length as required to develop the specified bearing value, to
obtain the specified penetration, and to extend into the cap or footing block as
indicated.

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B. Assume responsibility for furnishing piles of sufficient length to obtain the
penetration and bearing value indicated.

3.03 TEST PILES

A. The Contract Drawings indicate the required type of piling, the required bearing
value, the minimum penetration, and the estimated pile tip elevation. Estimated tip
elevations are approximate, based upon subsurface explorations, and are given
only to show the basis for the estimated quantities indicated in the Bid Schedule and
to indicate the required lengths of test piles.

B. Order and drive the test piles. Safe bearing capacities of the test piles will be
determined by methods herein specified.

C. From the test pile data and behavior and the subsurface exploration data, the
Design Engineer will determine the penetration required. The Design engineer may
also determine the required penetration based upon settlement criteria or any other
factors which in the opinion of the Design Engineer are applicable to the work.
Submit the final data to the Project Manager for evaluation.

3.04 DRIVEN PILE CAPACITY

A. Design

1. The ultimate pile capacity will be determined by the Design Engineer. Drive
piles with approved driving equipment to the ordered length or other lengths
necessary to obtain the required ultimate pile capacity. Jetting, predrilling or
other methods to facilitate pile penetration shall not be used unless specifically
permitted by the Design Engineer.

2. Penetration per blow may be measured either during initial driving or during
re-driving following a set period of time as determined by the Design Engineer.

B. Practical Refusal: Practical refusal will be determined by the Design Engineer, and
will be a condition where the blow count exceeds either two times the number of
blows required in 1 foot or three times the number of blows required in 3 inches to
achieve the required bearing value, not to exceed 5 blows per inch. Piles reaching
practical refusal shall not be driven further.



3.05 PILE LOAD TESTS FOR PILES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION LOAD

A. Install test piles and reaction piles, of the same type and kind as permanent piles, in
the locations indicated by the Design Engineer. Install test piles vertically.

B. Test piles which pass the load test in an undamaged condition, may be utilized as
permanent piles in the work. Reaction piles which were used to perform the pile
load test may be utilized as permanent piles in the work, provided they are not
damaged and that they are not moved upward.

90
C. Either extract damaged test piles and reaction piles and remove from the site, or cut
them off 3 feet below any structure to be installed above.

D. Comply with ASTM D1143 for pile load test apparatus, for applying load and
measuring movements, and for standard measuring procedures. Perform loading
procedures as follows:

1. Apply the load in load increments of 10-15% of the design load to a maximum
load of 300% or failure, whichever occurs first. Maintain each test load for 2.5
minutes.

2. Measure the settlement and rebound of the test pile to the nearest 0.01 inch.

E. Do not subject reaction piles which are to become permanent piles to uplift loads
greater than 70 percent of the required bearing capacity. Test reaction piles in
accordance with ASTM D3689.

F. Safe bearing capacity of the test pile shall be defined as 50% of the failure load. The
failure load shall be defined as the load that produces a movement of the pile butt
(S
f
) equal to:

S
f
= S + (0.15 + 0.008D)

Where:
S
f
= Settlement at failure in inches
D = Pile diameter or width in inches
S = Elastic deformation of total unsupported pile length in inches

G. The Design Engineer may require additional load tests in the event that the behavior
of the test pile or any other pile shows any peculiarity, erratic action, or otherwise
causes suspicion as to the reliability of the safe bearing capacity.

H. Immediately following completion of load testing, submit two copies of the test report
for each test pile to the Project Manager. Include in the test report the data required
by ASTM D1143.

I. Following the completion of load tests, the Design Engineer will make a
determination of the required penetration.



3.06 INSTALLATION OF PILES

A. General: Provide piles of the type indicated and of the length and configuration
necessary to:

1. Achieve the required penetration determined by the Design Engineer;

2. Extend into the pile cap or structure footing to the location directed by the
Design Engineer; and

91
3. Attain indicated bearing capacity.

B. Penetration and Bearing: Install piles to the required penetration, or to the required
bearing, as indicated, except as specified in Article 3.04, C and D. Jetting will not
be permitted unless specifically approved by the Design Engineer for the location.

C. Predrilled Holes:

1. When necessary to achieve the required penetration, drill holes of diameter
not greater than 90 percent of the average cross-sectional dimension of the
pile at the depth being drilled, and drive the pile therein to practical refusal.

D. Pile Driving:

1. Complete backfill to the required elevations in the area which piles are to
occupy before starting to drive piles.

2. Do not drive piles within 20 feet of concrete less than seven days old.

3. Drive piles at interior of bases of footings before driving perimeter piles.

4. If necessary, provide adequate lateral support for installed individual piles to
prevent excessive temporary flexural stresses or movement of the pile top out
of tolerance.

5. Maintain the hammer coaxial with the pile during the driving operation by
using a combination of driving cap and leads.

6. Investigate any sudden decrease in driving resistance for possible breakage
of the pile. If sudden decrease in driving resistance cannot be correlated to
boring data or some incident in the driving, and if the pile cannot be inspected,
such decrease in driving resistance may be cause for rejection of the pile.

7. Re-drive any pile which is raised during driving of adjacent piles, to the original
tip elevation.

8. Cut off piles at top elevation directed by the Design Engineer. Replace or
repair piles which are damaged when cut off.

E. Installation Tolerances:

1. Deviation from plumb and angle of batter: ¼ inch per foot of pile length, but not
more than 6 inches overall.
2. Deviation from location of pile top: 6 inches.

F. Piles not meeting ASTM D25 requirements will be rejected. Remove such piles from
the site and replace with sound piles. Piles broken under driving stresses may be cut
off and left in place if approved by the Design Engineer for the location. Otherwise
they shall be extracted and removed from the site.


92
G. Fit timber piles with metal shoes on the tip as shown on the Contract Drawings
(when specified). When the area of the head of a timber pile is greater than that of
the face of the hammer, use a suitable cap to distribute the blows throughout the
cross section of the pile.

After timber piles are cut off, treat cut surfaces in accordance with AWPA M4.
Remove cutoff sections of piles from the site and legally dispose.










93
CHAPTER 12.0
GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS


12.1 INTRODUCTION

The design of a structure’s foundation requires adequate knowledge of the subsurface
conditions at the site. These site conditions obviously play a very important role in the
performance of the selected foundation for the structure. Knowledge of the subsurface
conditions is essential for a successful design. The two principal components of site exploration
associated with timber pile foundations are surface studies and subsurface investigations.
Useful information can be gathered from surface studies and from an examination of the
construction records and performance of existing structures in the vicinity of the site. The
surface studies should form the first phase of a site investigation, and the subsurface work
should be planned only after assessing the results of the surface study.

Site investigations can be separated into two main stages: (a) desk studies and (b) field studies.
Desk studies should be carried out before field studies. The engineer should visit the site during
the initial phase of the investigation to get familiar with the site conditions. The planning of the
field studies should be based on observations of the site conditions and findings of the desk
studies with emphasis focused on the potential problem areas.

12.2 PLANNING SITE INVESTIGATION
The purpose of this phase is to obtain information about the proposed structure and general
information on the subsurface conditions. The structural information can be obtained from a
copy of the preliminary structural drawings for the project and speaking with the structural
engineer. General information about the subsurface conditions may be obtained from a variety
of sources as listed below.
12.2.1 Desk Study - Available Existing Data

Maps and Plans: Topographic maps and plans are discussed in this section. Other maps and
plans include Geologic Maps and Soil Survey Maps, which are discussed in subsequent
sections.

Topographic maps and plans can be used to identify geomorphological forms and drainage
patterns. This information can give an indication of the materials to be found on the site. In
addition, topographic maps provide information on the accessibility of the site and the terrain,
both of which may determine the types of equipment to be used for exploration work. Maps do
not have the detail of aerial photographs, but they enable a trained observer to surmise relevant
information about the geology of a site based on landforms and drainage patterns shown. The
amount of information that can be derived from such maps depends on the areas involved and
on the topography.

The major source of topographic maps is the United States Geologic Survey (USGS). The
USGS publishes a series of quadrangle maps, the National Topographic Map Series, which
94
covers the United States and its territories and possessions. Each map covers a quadrangle
area bounded by lines of latitude and longitude. Maps covering areas of 7.5° of latitude by 7.5°
of longitude are plotted to scales of 1:24,000 and 1:31,680. A complete list of all USGS maps is
found in the U.S. Geological Survey (1965) and in the monthly supplements and may be
accessed at their web site (www.usgs.org).

Topographic maps are also produced by the Army Map Service and the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS). Other sources of topographic information include the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, which publishes topographic maps and charts of some rivers and
adjacent shores, plus the Great Lakes and their connecting waterways; the U.S. Forest Service,
which publishes forest reserve maps; and the Hydrographic Office of the Department of the
Navy, which publishes nautical and aeronautical charts.

Geological Maps: Geological maps can be used to obtain information on materials and
geological conditions that affect the site. Geological maps are extremely useful as part of the
site exploration, but they are often based on isolated exposures and boreholes so that much of
their detail is conjecture, not fact. The engineer should keep this in mind.

Geological maps include (1) bedrock geology maps, (2) structural geology maps, (3) surficial
geology maps, (4) tectonic maps, (5) earthquake data maps, and (6) other useful maps, such as
the glacial map of the United States and the loessial soils of the United States.

The major source of geologic maps and information is the USGS, which has published books,
maps and charts in various forms since 1879. Indexes to Geologic Mapping in the United
States is the most useful series available, which comprises a map of each state that shows the
areas for which geologic maps have been published. The maps distributed by the USGS
include a geologic map of the United States at a scale of 1:2,500,000 and other series of maps,
such as the Geologic Quadrangle Maps of the United States at a scale of 1:24,000, Folios of the
Geologic Atlas of the United States, and the Mineral Resources Maps and Charts.

Geologic information also is available from state and local governmental agencies, the
Association of Engineering Geologists, the Geological Society of America, the Geo-Institute of
the American Society of Civil Engineers, and local universities.

Soil Survey Maps: The soil surveys conducted by various governmental agencies also are
useful sources of information for the engineer planning a subsurface exploration program.
These surveys normally map the surface and near-surface soils over a large expanse of land.
They are of two types: agricultural and engineering. Since both types usually encompass an
entire county, the information contained in them is generalized.

Agricultural soil surveys conducted by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture (USDA) are presented in reports that describe the areal extent,
physiography, relief, drainage patterns, climate, and vegetation, as well as the soil deposits of
the area covered. The soil survey maps are usually plotted as overlays on aerial photographs
at relatively large scales. They are prepared on a county basis and illustrate the soil cover to a
depth of about 6 ft. The shallow depth depicted limits their usefulness in many engineering
studies. In some States, local authorities prepare engineering supplements to the agricultural
survey reports. These supplements provide data on the drainage characteristics of the
materials and anticipated engineering problems. County soil survey reports prepared by USDA
usually show soil characteristics from depths of 3 to 15 ft.

95
Landslide Records: Many state highway departments, geologic surveys, and university
departments have gathered records of landslides in their states. Each landslide record may
consist of: (1) location of the landslide, (2) date and time of occurrence, (3) geometry of the
slope before and after the landslide (which is accompanied by a photograph), (4) material of the
slope, (5) possible cause that triggered the landslide, and (6) rainfall data. Locations of the
landslides are usually summarized in a State or county map for future reference. These records
are essential for the engineers planning exploration programs, as well as decisions regarding
slope stability at the site.

Details of particular landslides sometimes can be obtained from local residents. The qualitative
description of such incidents may be reasonably accurate, however the details of timing are
often less reliable.

Literature: Valuable information on the geology of a site may sometimes be found from
published articles in engineering and geologic journals or university publications. Most states
have geological surveys or equivalent agencies responsible for gathering and disseminating
geologic information. The data may take the form of geologic maps, geologic reports, and
records of exploration.

Numerous articles are published by geologic organizations, whose publications are referenced
in two periodicals: Bibliography of North American Geology published by USGS and
Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North America by the Geological Society of
America. The Association of Engineering Geologists and Geologic Society of America publish
geologic maps, as well as monthly journals and special volumes that detail specific geologic
topics on locales.

Previous Geologic Exploration: Geotechnical information about a site may be found in records
of previous site development. These include information on site formations, site investigations,
well borings, foundations used, and previous stability considerations for slopes. These records
are generally held by governmental agencies, and engineers from public and private
developments. Records for old developments may be scant or nonexistent. With previous site
investigation data, subsurface profiles can be used to explain site geology. This information as
well as local geotechnical experience is very valuable in planning geologic explorations.
12.2.2 Field Reconnaissance

The objective of this phase of the Site Investigation is to substantiate the information gained
from the office phase and to plan the detailed subsurface exploration program. The field
reconnaissance for a timber pile foundation should include:

• Inspection of nearby structures to determine their performance with a particular
foundation type.
• Visual examination of terrain for evidence of landslides.
• Recording of the location, type and depth of existing structures which may be affected by
the new structure.
• Determining what equipment will be necessary to perform the boring operation.
• Determining/observing any site conditions which may impact the constructability of the
new foundation system.


96
12.3 GUIDELINES FOR MINIMUM SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION PROGRAM

Field exploration methods usually consist of borings and in-situ testing. Borings are usually
employed to identify the subsurface stratigraphy while in-situ tests are normally used to estimate
the strength and index properties of the subsurface material. Some in-situ tests such as the
cone penetrometer test however, can also be used for stratigraphy identification purposes.
Common boring techniques include augers and rotary wash borings in soils. In rock, coring is
usually performed. Common in-situ tests include standard penetration test (SPT), cone
penetrometer test, field vane shear, pressuremeter test, plate-load test, dilatometer test and
various geophysics tests.

The number of borings required, their spacing, and the sampling intervals depends on the
uniformity of the soil strata and loading conditions. Erratic subsurface conditions require closely
spaced borings. Structures sensitive to settlements require detailed subsurface knowledge and
therefore closely spaced borings. The following guidelines may be used in developing a boring
plan for a project.

• A minimum of one boring per structure. For structures more than 100 feet wide, provide a
minimum of two (2) borings. One boring for every 1000 square feet of building foot print.

• Estimate the required boring depths from data gathered in the planning and field
reconnaissance phases. Confirmation of the proposed boring depths should be made
during the boring operation by the geotechnical engineer as soon as possible after the
field crews have started work.

• All borings should extend through unsuitable strata, such as soft cohesive soil or loose
cohesionless soils to reach hard or dense materials. Where stiff or dense soils are
encountered at shallow depths, one or more borings should extend through this material
to a depth where the presence of underlying weaker strata cannot affect stability or
settlement of the structure.

• Standard Penetration test (SPT) samples, when utilzed, should be obtained at 5 foot
intervals or at changes in material. Undisturbed tube samples should be obtained at sites
where cohesive soils are encountered.

• When rock is encountered, a select number of borings should extend a minimum of 10
feet into rock, where feasible.

• Water level readings in each bore hole should be made during drilling, at the completion
of the boring, and a minimum of 24 hours after completion of the boring. Long-term
evaluation of groundwater may require installation of observation wells or piezometers in
the boring.

These general guidelines should result in a subsurface program that develops the necessary
data to clearly identify subsurface stratigraphy and any unusual conditions, allow laboratory
assessments of soil strength and compressibility, and document the groundwater conditions.
This information is necessary in order to technically evaluate foundation options and their
associated costs.

97
12.4 METHODS OF SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION

A wide variety of equipment is generally available to perform borings and to obtain soil samples.
The method used to advance the boring should be compatible with the soil and groundwater
conditions to assure that soil samples of suitable quality are obtained. Particular care should be
exercised to properly remove all slough or loose soil from the boring before sampling. Below
the groundwater level, drilling fluids are often needed in soft soils or cohesionless soils to
stabilize the sidewalls and bottom of the boring. Without stabilization, the bottom of the boring
may heave or the sidewalls may contract, either disturbing the soil prior to sampling or
preventing the sampler from reaching the bottom of the boring. In most geotechnical
explorations, borings are usually advanced with 4 inch or 6 inch diameter solid-stem augers, 2
inch to 2.5 inch inside diameter hollow-stem augers, or rotary wash boring methods using a 2.4
inch to 5 inch nominal diameter drill bit.

12.4.1 Hollow-Stem Augers

Hollow stem augers used for soil borings typically come in 5 foot lengths that are connected to
one another as the auger is advanced into the ground. As the name suggests, the center of the
auger is hollow. When the hole is being advanced, a plug is inserted into the hollow center of
the auger. The center plug prevents soil cuttings from entering the hollow-stem auger. Most
drillers prefer to advance the boring without the center plug, allowing a natural "plug" of
compacted cuttings to form at the bit and thus avoiding the need to remove and replace the bit
at each sample attempt. Once the augers have advanced the hole to the desired sample depth,
a sampler may then be lowered through the hollow stem to sample the soil at the bottom of the
hole.

Hollow-stem auger methods are commonly used in cohesive soils or in granular soil formations
above the groundwater level, where the boring walls may be unstable. The augers form a
temporary casing to allow sampling of the "undisturbed soil" below the bit. The cuttings
produced from this drilling method have limited use for visual observation purposes. As the
boring is advanced to greater depths a considerable delay may occur before the soil cuttings
appear at the ground surface. The field supervisor must be aware of these limitations in
identification of soil conditions between sample locations.

Significant problems can occur where hollow-stem augers are used to sample soils below the
groundwater level. The unbalanced water pressure acting against the soil at the bottom of the
boring can significantly disturb the soil, particularly in granular soils or soft clays. Often the soils
will heave and plug the auger, preventing the sampler from reaching the bottom of the boring.
Where heave or disturbance occurs, the penetration resistance to the driven sampler can be
significantly reduced. For these reasons, and others, it is considered advisable to halt the use
of hollow-stem augers at the groundwater level and to convert to rotary wash boring methods.

12.4.2 Rotary Wash Borings

The rotary wash boring method is generally the most appropriate method for use in soil
formations below the groundwater level. In rotary wash borings, the sides of the borehole are
supported either with casing or with the use of a drilling fluid. Where drill casing is used, the
boring is advanced sequentially by a) driving the casing to the desired sample depth, b)
cleaning out the hole to the bottom of the casing, and c) inserting the sampling device and
obtaining the sample from below the bottom of the casing.
98

The casing is usually selected based on the outside diameter of the sampling or coring tools to
be advanced through the casing, but may also be influenced by other factors such as stiffness
considerations for borings in water bodies or very soft soils, or dimensions of the casing
couplings. Casing for rotary wash borings is typically furnished with inside diameters ranging
from 2.25 in to 5 in. Even with the use of casing, care must be taken when drilling below the
groundwater table to maintain a head of water within the casing above the groundwater level at
all times. Failure to maintain an adequate head of water may result in loosening or heaving
(blow-up) of the soil to be sampled beneath the casing.

12.4.3 Test (Exploration) Pit Excavation

Test pits and trenches permit detailed examination of the soil and rock conditions at a relatively
low cost but are limited to shallow depths. Exploration pits can be an important part of
geotechnical explorations where significant variations in soil conditions occur (vertically and
horizontally), large soil and/or non-soil materials exist (boulders, cobbles, debris) that cannot be
sampled with conventional methods, or buried features must be identified and/or measured or
on sites with fill.

Test pits are generally excavated with mechanical equipment (e.g., backhoe) rather than by
hand excavation. The depth of the test pit is determined by the exploration requirements, but is
typically about 5 to 10 feet. In areas with high groundwater level, the depth of the pit may be
limited by the water table. Test pit excavations are generally uneconomical at depths greater
than about 15 feet.

During excavation, the bottom of the pit should be kept relatively level so that each lift
represents a uniform horizon of the deposit. At the surface, the excavated material should be
placed in an orderly manner adjoining the test pit in separate stacks to identify the depth of the
each material.

The U.S. Department of Labor's Construction Safety and Health Regulations, as well as
regulations of any other governing agency, must be reviewed and followed prior to excavation of
the test pit, particularly in regard to shoring requirements.
12.5 SOIL AND ROCK SAMPLING

One of the main purposes of a subsurface exploration is to obtain quality soil and rock samples.
From these quality samples, soil identification, stratification, strength, and compressibility are
evaluated.

Soil samples obtained for engineering testing and analysis are either undisturbed or disturbed
samples. Undisturbed samples are typically obtained in cohesive soil strata for use in laboratory
testing to determine the engineering properties of those soils. It should be noted that the term
“undisturbed” soil sample refers to the relative degree of disturbance to the soil’s in-situ
properties. Undisturbed samples are obtained with specialized equipment designed to minimize
the disturbance to the in-situ structure and moisture content of the soils. Specimens obtained by
undisturbed sampling methods are used to determine the strength, stratification, permeability,
density, consolidation, dynamic properties and other engineering characteristics of soils.

Disturbed samples are those obtained using equipment that destroy the macro structure of the
soil but do not alter its mineralogical composition. Specimens from these samples can be used
99
for determining the general lithology of soil deposits, for identification of soil components and
general classification purposes, for determining grain size, Atterberg limits and compaction
characteristics of soils, as well as for correlations to other engineering characteristics (i.e.,
permeability, strength). Disturbed samples can be obtained with mechanical or hand augers,
split barrel samplers, small excavation machines, or small hand tools.

12.5.1 Soil Samplers

A wide variety of samplers are available to obtain soil samples for geotechnical engineering
projects. These include standard sampling tools which are widely used as well as specialized
types which may be unique to certain regions of the country to accommodate local conditions
and preferences. The following is a general guideline to assist geotechnical engineers and field
supervisors select appropriate samplers, but in many instances local practice will control. The
more commonly used types of samplers are:

Split Barrel Sampler: The primary disturbed sampling method is the split-barrel (or split spoon)
sampler. The split-barrel sampler is used to obtain samples in all types of soils. It is typically
used in conjunction with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT), as specified in AASHTO T 206
and ASTM D 1586, in which the sampler is driven with a 120 pound hammer dropping from a
height of 30 inches. The sampler is typically driven 18 inches, and the blow count for each 6
inch increment is recorded. The number of blows required to advance the sampler from a
penetration depth of 6 inches to a penetration depth of 18 inches is the SPT resistance value,
N. The N value provides an indication of the soil density and shear strength. SPT N values are
commonly used for design of pile foundations in granular (cohesionless) soils. SPT N
values are not recommended for pile design in cohesive soils. For a detailed discussion of
pile design see Chapters 5 and 6.

The 1.5 inch inside diameter standard split barrel sampler has an outside diameter of 2 inches
and a cutting shoe with an inside diameter of 1.37 inches (Figure 12-1). This corresponds to a
relatively thick-walled sampler with an area ratio defined by Hvorslev (1949) of 112 percent.
This high area ratio disturbs the natural characteristics of the soil being sampled; therefore
samples obtained as such are considered disturbed.

When the shoe and the sleeve of this type of sampler are unscrewed from the split barrel, the
two halves of the barrel may be separated and the sample may be extracted easily. The soil
sample is removed from the split-barrel sampler and placed and sealed in a glass jar, or sealed
in a plastic bag. Separate containers should be used if the sample contains different soil types.

Thin Wall Sampler: The thin-wall tube (Shelby) sampler is commonly used to obtain relatively
undisturbed samples of cohesive soils for strength and consolidation testing. The sampler
commonly used (Figure 12-2) has a 3 inch outside diameter, a 2.85 inch inside diameter and a
corresponding area ratio of 9 percent. Larger diameter sampler tubes are often used where
higher quality samples are required and sampling disturbance must be reduced. The test
method for thin-walled tube sampling is described in AASHTO T 207 and ASTM D 1587.

The thin-walled tubes are manufactured using carbon steel, galvanized carbon steel, stainless
steel, and brass. The carbon steel tubes are often the lowest cost tubes but may be unsuitable
if the samples are to be stored in the tubes for more than a few days or if the inside of the tube
becomes rusty which significantly increases the friction between the tube and the soil sample.

100
B
A
C
D
F
E
G
OPEN SHOE
TUBE
BALL
VENT
HEAD
ROLLPIN
A = 25 to 50 mm
B = 0.457 to 0.762 mm
C = 34.93 + 0.13 mm
D = 38.1 + 1.3 - 0.0 mm
E = 2.54 + 0.25 mm
F = 50.8 + 1.3 - 0.0 mm
G = 16.0 to 23.0
o o


Figure 12-1: Split spoon sampler


SAMPLER HEAD
BALL VALVE
SCREW
THIN-WALLED
TUBE
CUTTING EDGE


Figure 12-2: Thinned wall sampler






101


Figure 12-3: Schematic of Observation Well



Figure 12-4: Schematic of Open Standpipe Piezometer Installed in a Borehole

102
In stiff soils, galvanized carbon steel tubes are preferred since carbon steel is stronger, less
expensive and galvanizing provides a degree of protection from corrosion.

The thin-walled tube sampler should be slowly pushed with a single, continuous motion using
the drill rig's hydraulic system. The hydraulic pressure required to advance the thin-walled tube
sampler should be noted and recorded on the log. After the push is completed, the driller should
wait at least ten minutes to allow the sample to swell slightly within the tube, then rotate the drill
rod string through two complete revolutions to shear off the sample, and slowly and carefully
bring the sample to the surface. In stiff soils, it is often unnecessary to rotate the sampler.

Piston Sampler: The piston sampler is basically a thin-wall tube sampler with a piston, piston
rod, and a modified sampler head. This sampler, also known as Osterberg or Hvorslev
sampler, is particularly useful for sampling soft soils although it can also be used in stiff
cohesive soils as well.

The sampler, with its piston located at the base of the sampling tube, is lowered into the
borehole. When the sampler reaches the bottom of the hole, the piston rod is held fixed relative
to the ground surface and the thin-wall tube is pushed into the soil slowly by hydraulic pressure
or mechanical jacking. The sampler is never driven. Upon completion of sampling, the sampler
is removed from the borehole and the vacuum between the piston and the top of the sample is
broken by means of a vacuum-breaking device provided for this purpose in the piston. The
piston head and the piston are then removed from the tube and jar samples are taken from the
top and bottom of the sample for identification purposes.

The quality of the samples obtained in this manner is excellent and the probability of obtaining a
satisfactory sample is high. One of its major advantages is that the fixed piston tends to
prevent the entrance of excess soil at the beginning of sampling, thus precluding recovery ratios
greater than 100 percent. It also tends to prevent too little soil from entering near the end of
sampling. Thus, the opportunity for 100 percent recovery is enhanced. The head used on this
sampler also acts more positively to retain the sample than the ball valve of the thin-wall tube
(Shelby) samplers.
12.6 GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS

Accurate groundwater level information is needed to determine the effect of soil stress and is
vital for performing foundation design. Water level readings in each bore hole should be made
during drilling, at the completion of the boring, and at a minimum of 24 hours after completion of
the boring. Long-term evaluation of groundwater may require installation of observation wells or
piezometers in the boring and may be required to evaluate the long-term performance of the
timber piles.

The phreatic surface is defined by the free groundwater level. This surface may be delineated
in the field by using open standpipes or piezometers (Figures 12-3 and 12-4). The observed
water levels in standpipes and piezometers, installed at different depths, can be used to assess
the phreatic surface.

12.7 SUBSURFACE PROFILE DEVELOPMENT

A subsurface profile is a visual representation of surface conditions interpreted from subsurface
explorations and laboratory testing. Uncertainties in the development of a subsurface profile
usually indicate that additional exploration and/or laboratory testing is required. When borings
103
are completed and laboratory classification is done, the initial profile should be prepared. Over-
complication of the profile by noting small variations between adjacent samples should be
avoided. It is recommended that the vertical and horizontal scale of the profile be equal. This is
necessary so that the slope of all strata surfaces is shown at the true angle. The final profile
should include the average physical properties of the soil deposits including unit weight, shear
strength, and a visual description of each deposit. The observed groundwater level should also
be included in the profile. This profile will be instrumental during the design of the foundation
system.
12.8 IN-SITU SOIL TESTING

In-situ tests are used to provide field measurements of soil and rock properties. In-situ tests are
used extensively where standard drilling and sampling methods cannot be used to obtain high
quality undisturbed samples. Undisturbed samples of cohesionless soils are difficult to obtain
and test in the laboratory. Soft saturated cohesive soils are also difficult to sample without
disturbance. In-situ testing may be used in these soils to overcome these difficulties.

The in-situ tests that are used primarily to provide information for the design of timber pile
foundations are the cone penetration test (CPT), the vane shear test, and the SPT (previously
discussed in section 12.5.1). The CPT and vane shear test will be covered in the following
paragraphs. Other lesser used tests like the pressuremeter test (PMT), the dilatometer test
(DMT) and the dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT) are not covered in this manual. For more
information of these tests see FHWA-HI-97-013 Design and Construction of Driven Pile
Foundations and FHWA-HI-97-021 Subsurface Investigations.

12.8.1 Cone Penetration Test (CPT)

The cone penetration test is a simple test that is becoming very widely used in soft clays and in
fine to medium coarse sands. As a soil profile tool, the CPT is unequalled with respect to the
delineation of stratigraphy and the continuous rapid measurement of geotechnical parameters
(i.e., friction and bearing). A CPT rig may complete 300 to 1000 feet of CPT testing in a day,
depending upon equipment and soil conditions.

Electric cones are the CPT of choice in the U.S. This manual will, therefore, concentrate only
on the electrical cone penetrometer. Figure 12-5 shows the typical configuration of an electrical
CPT. The electric CPT consists of a conical tip and cylindrical friction sleeve mounted to the end
of a series of hollow rods. The conical tip has a 60° point angle and a base diameter of 1.4
inches. This results in a projected area of 1.55 in
2
. The friction sleeve has the same outside
diameter as the base diameter of the cone. A set of hydraulic rams is used to push the CPT into
the soil at a rate of 2 to 4 ft/min. Continuous electric signals from strain gages mounted in the
cone to measure the cone tip resistance (q
c
) and the sleeve friction resistance (f
s
) are
transmitted by a cable in the rods to a data acquisition system. For more details on the
procedures for conducting CPT see ASTM D – 3441-98. Figure 12-6 shows typical data
presentation for CPT. This includes the tip resistance (q
c
), the sleeve friction resistance (f
s
), and
the friction ratio (R
f
) (the ratio of sleeve friction to tip resistance (f
s
/q
c
)).

The stratigraphy at a site may be estimated using CPT data. The cone penetration test induces
complex changes in stresses and strains around the cone tip. A comprehensive theoretical
model of the cone/soil interaction has not yet been developed. The interpretation of CPT data is,
therefore, made with empirical correlation. Robertson and Campanella (1986) have done
104
extensive work in correlating CPT data with soil classification. A simplified soil classification
chart for a standard electronic CPT is presented in Figure 12-7.

The development of a soil profile based on CPT data may be difficult to achieve when thin
layers are present. The cone penetration tip resistance is influenced by the soil properties in
front of and behind the tip. The distance with which the cone tip senses an interface increases
with increasing overburden pressure (i.e., depth). For the standard CPT, the minimum stiff layer
thickness to ensure full tip resistance is 15 – 30 inches. Therefore, if a sand layer is less than 30
inches thick, and located between two soft clay layers, the cone penetration resistance may not
be fully reached and the relative density of the sand may be underestimated. The continuous
monitoring of pore pressures during cone penetration can considerably improve the
identification of the soil stratigraphy (Campanella et al 1983). The pore pressure responds to the
soil type in the immediate area of the cone tip. A marked change in pore pressure will be
observed when passing from a cohesive soil to a non-cohesive soil and vice versa.

In addition to the important soil stratigraphy information that is provided from the CPT, it
provides data that may be used in the design of the pile capacity. The CPT is, in effect, a “model
pile” that is pushed into the ground and typically correlates well to the performance of a full-size
pile under static loading conditions.

12.8.2 Vane Shear Test

The vane shear test is an in-situ test that was developed to measure shear strength of cohesive
soils. The test procedure requires pushing a four-bladed vane into undisturbed soil and rotating
the vane until a cylindrical volume of the soil, theoretically having height and diameter
dimensions the same as the vane, fails in shear (Figure 12-8).

The failure mode around a vane is complex. The test interpretation is based on the simplified
assumption of a cylindrical failure surface corresponding to the periphery of the vane blade. The
undrained shear strength can be calculated from the measured torque, provided that the shear
strengths on the horizontal and vertical planes are assumed equal. In general, the ratio of
horizontal to vertical shear strength is less than unity. Therefore, the field vane shear strength is
typically conservative along a vertical plane. The field vane shear test generally provides the
most accurate undrained shear strength values for clays with undrained shear strengths of less
than 1000 lbs/ft
2
.
















105

FRICTION
BASE
APEX
SLEEVE
ELECTRIC
HOUSING
BEHIND
FRICTION SLEEVE
(PIEZO ELEMENT)
BEHIND TIP
(PIEZO ELEMENT)
FACE (PIEZO ELEMENT)
FRONT
CONE
TIP
CONE
PENETROMETER

Figure 12-5: Cone Penetrometer (CPT)



32
24
16
8
0
32
24
0
16
8
0
0 5 500
32
24
16
8
0
0 5
Depth Increment: 0.1m Maximum Depth: 30.9 m
Note: 1 Bar = 100 kPa
Unit Tip Resistance, q (Bar) Unit Friction, is (Bar) Friction Ratio, R (%) c f
D
E
P
T
H
,

(
m
e
t
e
r
s
)




Figure 12-6: Typical CPT Data
106
100
1000
10,000
100,000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
UNDRAINED
DRAINED
P
A
R
T
I
A
L
L
Y

D
R
A
I
N
E
D
11
12
FRICTION RATIO (%), R
C
O
N
E

T
I
P

R
E
S
I
S
T
A
N
C
E
,

q



(
k
P
a
)
f
c

Zone q
c
/N Soil Type

1 2.0 Sensitive fine grained
2 1.0 Organic clay
3 1.0 Clay
4 1.5 Silty clay to clay
5 2.0 Clayey silt to silty clay
6 2.5 Sandy silt to clayey silt
7 3.0 Silty sand to sandy silt
8 4.0 Sand to silty sand
9 5.0 Sand
10 6.0 Gravelly sand to sand
11 1.0 Very stiff fine grained (Silt and or clay)
12 2.0 Sand to clayey sand


Figure 12-7: Correlation Soil Type to CPT Cone Tip Resistance and Sleeve Friction Ratio
(Robertson, et al., 1986)
107






Figure 12-8: Vane shear device

12.9 LABORATORY SOIL TESTING

The design of timber pile foundations requires an evaluation of the soil shear strength
properties. For cohesionless soils, in-situ testing (i.e., SPT and CPT) will be the primary tools
for estimating strength and compressibility soil parameters. For cohesive soils, the use of
SPT resistance values for estimating the shear strength and compressibility of the soil is
not recommended. For soft sensitive clays, where undistubed samples are difficult to obtain,
in-situ vane shear tests may be used to estimate the shear strength parameters of the clay.
However, whenever undisturbed samples can be obtained, laboratory testing should be
performed to evaluate the compressibility and shear strength parameters of the clay.

The purpose of this chapter is to present a summary of laboratory tests performed to determine
basic soil properties required for timber pile design. For detailed information on laboratory
testing, see FHWA HI-97-021 Subsurface Investigations.




108
The laboratory tests that will be briefly covered in this chapter are categorized as follows :

• Index tests
• Shear strength tests
• Consolidation tests

The following subsections briefly decribe each type of test.

12.9.1 Index Tests

Index tests are used to classify a soil for geotechnical engineering purposes. The classification
of the soil enables geotechnical engineers to communicate information about a soil in common
terminology, which results in engineers using data from other engineers in predicting foundation
performance, based on correlations between engineering properties and soil classification. The
classification of soil determines the type of material, its general characteristics, and what
additional testing may be required to determine the consolidation and shear strength properties
of the soil. The index tests that are use to classify soils are :

• Moisture Content (ASTM D 2216-98 Test Method for Laboratory Determination of
Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock)

• Particle Size Distribution (ASTM D 422-98 Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of
Soils)

• Atterberg Limits (ASTM D 4318-98 Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and
Plasticity Index for Soils)

• Unit Weight (ASTM D 4254-91 Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit
Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density)

12.9.2 Shear Strength Tests

A saturated soil mass consists of two distinct phases: the soil skeleton and the water-filled pores
between the soil particles. Normal stresses imposed on such a soil will be sustained by the soil
skeleton and, if the soil is fully saturated, by the pore water. Typically, the skeleton transmits
normal and shear stresses at the inter-particle points of contact, and the pore water will exert a
hydrostatic pressure that is equal in all directions (i.e. no shear resistance). The stresses
sustained by the soil skeleton are known as effective stresses, and the hydrostatic stress from
the water in the voids is known as pore water pressure.

It is the effective stress that controls the behavior of soil rather than the total stress or pore
water pressure. Thus, if the soil particles are to be packed into a denser arrangement, it is the
effective stress, rather than the total stress, that must be increased. When the total stress is
increased, the increase is initially sustained by an identical increase in the pore water pressure,
leaving the effective stresses unchanged. Only as pore water is allowed to escape the soil
mass is stress transferred to the soil skeleton.

This correlation of effective stress with soil behavior, especially compressibility and strength, is
known as the principle of effective stress. The effective stress, σ', acting on any plane within the
soil mass is defined by:
109

σ' = σ - u (12-1)

where σ is the total stress acting on the plane and u is the pore water pressure. The total stress
is equal to the total force per unit area acting perpendicular to the plane, and the pore water
pressure may be determined from the groundwater and loading conditions. It should be noted
that the effective stress cannot be calculated directly. It is always calculated indirectly with
information about the total stress and the pore water pressure.
Most natural, saturated soils derive their strength from the friction at the inter-particle contacts.
Since the shear stresses at the particle contacts are frictional, the strength is directly controlled
by the effective stresses. The shear strength of a soil is described via the Mohr-Coulomb failure
envelope, which may be determined using a variety of tests (i.e., direct shear and triaxial).

Soils that consist predominantly of fine-grained clayey particles may have considerable
cohesive strength under undrained conditions. This cohesive behavior is usually caused by
inherent negative pore pressures within the soil mass that lead to positive effective stresses,
which simulates the effect of a confined sample (e.g. “apparent cohesion”).

Sometimes a load can be applied to a fine-grained sample at such a slow rate that no excess
pore water pressures are generated. The shear strength obtained under this condition is
termed the drained shear strength. The drained shear strength is normally used in an effective
stress analysis while the undrained shear strength is used in a total stress analysis. Timber
pile foundation design will typically use the drained (i.e., effective stress) shear strength
of the soil.

Quantification of the shear strength of the foundation soil is essential for the design of timber
pile foundations. Shear tests on soil samples are performed to determine the effective cohesion
(c’), and the effective angle of internal friction (φ’). The effective cohesion is the inter-particle
attraction effect and is independent of effective normal stress (σ
n
’). The internal friction angle
depends on the interlocking of soil particles and the resistance to sliding between the grains.

The effective shear strength of soil is defined by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria as:

τ = c’ + σ
n
’ tan φ’ (12-2)

For timber pile foundation design, the resistance along the pile shaft and at the pile tip are a
function of the shear strength parameters (τ , c’, and φ’).
Direct Shear Test

The direct shear test (ASTM D 3080-98) is performed by placing a specimen into a cylindrical or
square shaped direct shear box which is split in the horizontal plane (Figure 12-9(a)). A normal
(vertical) load is applied over the specimen. The lower portion of the box is held stationary while
a horizontal load is exerted on the upper part of the box to shear the soil sample on the
predetermined horizontal plane. The results of a series of direct shear tests are plotted in the
form of normal load versus shear strength or stress at failure (Figure 12-9(b)). The cohesion and
internal friction angle of the soil may be determined from the plot of the test results.

The direct shear test has several shortcomings which must be understood prior to using the
results. The failure plane is predefined and horizontal. This failure plane may not be the weakest
110
failure plane for the soil. The area of the failure plane decreases as the test progresses. This is
incorporated into the calculation to prevent errors in computing the unit stress. The distribution
of normal stresses and shearing stresses over the sliding surface is not uniform, which results in
progressive failure of the specimen; therefore, the entire strength of the specimen is not
mobilized.

The direct shear test is commonly used to assess the shear strength of cohesionless soils.
Research has shown that for soils with angles of internal friction of 35 degrees or higher, the
direct shear test may produce results as much as 4 degrees higher than the triaxial test.. Below
35 degrees there appears to be good correlation with values obtained by triaxial tests (FHWA
NHI 01-031).

Triaxial Test

The most versatile shear strength test is the triaxial compression test. The triaxial test allows a
soil sample to be subjected to three principal stresses under controlled conditions. A cylindrical
test specimen is encased in a rubber membrane and placed inside a plastic cylindrical chamber
that is usually filled with water or glycerine. The sample is then subjected to a confining
pressure. To cause shear failure in the sample, axial stress is applied. A plot of normal stress
versus shear stress is developed and the shear strength parameters c’ and φ’ are determined.
There are three typical types of triaxial tests that are performed on a specimen, depending on
the desired shear strength parameters: undrained unconsolidated (UU); consolidated undrained
(CU); and consolidated drained (CD).

The UU test is fast and is mainly used in cases where the subgrade soils will be loaded quickly
without allowing time for foundation consolidation. The CU test with pore pressure
measurements during testing allows for the determination of the undrained shear strength
parameters (total stress strength parameters c and φ) and the effective shear strength
parameters (c’, and φ’). The CD test is performed by first consolidating the specimen. CD tests
are used to determine the drained shear strength parameters.

Total stress and effective stress timber pile design methods are presented in Chapter 4. The
total stress methods use undrained shear strengths and the effective stress design methods use
drained shear strength data.
Discrepancies Between Field and Laboratory Strengths

There are many ways in which the sample strength measured in the laboratory can differ from
the field or in-situ strength (Skempton and Hutchinson, 1969). These include: (1) sampling, (2)
sample size, (3) sample orientation, (4) rate of shearing, (5) softening upon removal of load by
excavation, and (6) progressive failure. Sampling and sampling size will be discussed in the
following paragraphs as they directly affect the shear strength parameters for pile design .

In addition to the factors mentioned above, the shear strength of a given soil is also dependent
upon the degree of saturation, which may vary with time in the field. Because of the difficulties
encountered in assessing test data from unsaturated samples, it is recommended that
laboratory test samples be saturated prior to shearing in order to measure the minimum shear
strengths. Unsaturated samples should only be tested when it is possible to simulate in the
laboratory the exact field saturation and loading conditions relevant to the design.

111
P
H
T

δ
( )


(a) Direct shear device
7
11
14
φ
τ
σ
σ σ σ
n1 n2 n3
n


(b) Direct shear results

Figure 12-9: a.) Direct shear device, b.) Plot of results from direct shear test.



Sampling for Shear Strength Tests

Design predictions based on laboratory shear strengths and compressibility characteristics may
have limitations for both slightly and heavily overconsolidated clays of high plasticity. This is
attributed to the difficulty of obtaining representative samples, measurement of reliable pore
pressures, and the impact of fissuring.

Samples obtained using thin-walled piston samplers or Shelby tubes are recommended when
obtaining samples of cohesive soils. The sample disturbance is likely to affect the sample’s
water content, voids ratio, and structure, which will lead to a poor estimation of in-situ shear
strength. Table 12-1 provides a summary of the various features that are likely to disturb the
soil samples, thus affecting the properties measured in laboratory tests. In general, sampling
and disturbance will tend to reduce the measured strength of the soil. In soft clays, even the
112
best sampling technique will lead to some reduction in undrained strength because of the
changes in total stresses inevitably associated with sampling from the ground. The effect of
sample disturbance is most severe in soft sensitive soils and appears to become more
significant as the sampling depth increases.

Sample Size for Shear Strength Tests

Ideally, samples should be sufficiently large to contain a representative selection of all the
particles and all the discontinuities in the soil. This is particularly true for fissured clays for
which the sample size can play an important role. For 1.5 inch by 3.0 inch triaxial samples, a
wide scatter is usually found among the results, principally because of fissures that may or may
not be present in the test specimen. In this case, samples of at least 4 inches in diameter
should be tested, and an average strength should be selected on the basis of a considerable
number of tests.

12.9.3 Consolidation Tests

The one-dimensional consolidation test (ASTM D 2435) is commonly used to determine the
compressibility of clays. Settlement due to consolidation can be estimated from the slope of the
one-dimensional consolidation test void ratio (e = volume of void/volume of solids) versus the
logarithm of the vertical effective stress (σ′
v
) curve (Figure 12-10). This procedure is generally
used in practice despite the fact that not all points beneath the foundation undergo one-
dimensional compression.

The slope of the one-dimensional consolidation test is typically nonlinear and it is convenient to
use the logarithmic scale for stress. Soils subjected to stress-void ratio states corresponding to
line a-b in Figure 12-10 are called normally consolidated soils. The highest level of stress to
which normally consolidated soils are subjected is due to existing overburden loads. Soils in this
state are compressible and may experience relatively large settlements when the effective
stress is increased.

The slope of the a-b line of the e-log σ′
v
curve is defined as the compression index (C
c
) (Figure
12-10). Although C
c
can be expected to vary with stress level, it can be taken as constant over
the relevant stress range for the soils that will be considered likely candidates for shallow
foundations (when e<1). Numerous correlations have been made between C
c
and common
index tests for normally consolidated soils and several are included in Table 12-2. Note that the
values of C
c
can vary by as much as a factor of 5 (using the average trend line) in these
empirical correlations, and they should not be used for final design.

The effective vertical stress at which the soil begins to undergo a substantial compressibility is
called the preconsolidation pressure (σ′
p
). This stress can be considered as equivalent to the
onset of yield, where plastic strains develop. It also represents the loads to which the soil had
been subjected in the past, which resulted in consolidation (or over-consolidation) of the soil
stratum. The strains that develop at pressures below the preconsolidation pressure (to the left
of σ′
p
in Figure 12-10) are normally considered to result from minor slipping at the soil
interparticle contacts. The magnitude of σ′
p

is influenced by the largest stress to which the soil
has been subjected, and the strength of the bonding and cementation. The more bonding and
cementation in the soil, the more abrupt the change in the slope of the void ratio-effective stress
curve once the stress level exceeds σ′
p
.

113
TABLE 12-1
SOURCES OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE IN COHESIVE SOILS
(AFTER JAMIOLKOWSKI, ET AL., 1985)

CONDITION ITEM REMARKS
Change in stresses
because of drilling hole.
Excessive reduction in σ
v
because light drilling
mud causes excessive deformations in
extension.

Overpressure causes excessive deformation in
compression.
Eventual removal of in-situ
stress
Resultant shear strain should usually be small
Stress Relief
Eventual reduction
(removal) of confining
stress
Loss of negative u (soil-suction) caused by
presence of coarser-grained materials.

Expansion of gas (bubbles and/or dissolved
gas)
Sample geometry:
Diameter/Length
Area ratio
Clearance ratio
Accessories, i.e. piston,
coring tube, inner foil,
etc.
These variables affect:
Recovery ratio
Adhesion along sample walls
Thickness of remolded zone along interior
wall
Method of advancing
sampler
Continuous pushing better than hammering
Sampling
Technique
Method of extraction To reduce suction effect at bottom of sample,
use vacuum breaker
Transportation Avoid shocks, changes in temperature, etc.
Storage Best to store at in-situ temperature to minimize
bacteria growth, etc.

Avoid chemical reactions with sampling tube.

Opportunity for water migration increases with
storage time.
Handling
Procedures
Extrusion, trimming, etc. Minimize further straining (i.e., be particularly
careful)



The slope of the e-log σ′
v
curve at vertical stresses less than σ′
p
is called the recompression
index (C
r
). The recompression index of the soil is significantly smaller than the compression
index. The ratio of C
r
/C
c
typically ranges from 0.02 to 0.20 (Terzaghi, and Peck, 1967). The low
value is typical of highly structured and bonded soft clay or silt, while the largest ratio
corresponds to micaceous silts and fissured stiff clays and shales. In reality, the value of C
r

depends upon whether loading or unloading is occurring, since some hysteresis does occur
when the soil is subjected to cycles of loading and unloading.

114
Generally, it is sufficiently accurate to assume C
r
is constant for unstructured clays. It may not
be adequate to rely on a single value of C
r
, for loading and unloading, in the case of highly
structured soft clays (seldom candidates for shallow foundations) or stiff clay shales. In the
case of highly structured soft clays (Terzaghi, and Peck, 1967) the initial value of C
r
is steep, as
a result of flocculation (edge to face structure of clays) and bonding that allows the soil to be
stable at high void ratios until the stress exceeds σ′
p
. The subsequent rebound slope can be
significantly different than the initial C
r
.




Figure 12-10: Typical Plot of Void Ratio Versus Log Effective Vertical Stress from a
Consolidation Test on Clay







TABLE 12-2
CORRELATIONS FOR C
c


115
Correlation Soil Source
C
c
=0.009 (LL-10) Clay of medium to low
sensitivity (S
t
<4)
1
Terzaghi & Peck (1967)
C
c
=0.0115 w
n
Organic soils, peat ASCE (1994)
C
c
=0.20

Uniform silts ASCE (1994)
C
c
=0.05 to 0.06

Uniform sand, loose ASCE (1994)
C
c
=0.02 to 0.03

Uniform sand, dense ASCE (1994)
Correction of Laboratory One-Dimensional Consolidation Curves

The process of sampling soils will cause some sampling disturbance, no matter how carefully
the samples are taken. This sampling disturbance will affect virtually all measured physical
properties (compressibility, strength, permeability, etc.) of the soil to some degree. The
sampling disturbance will usually cause the measured laboratory void ratio-effective stress
“break” to occur at a lower apparent maximum past vertical pressure (σ′
p
) (preconsolidation),
than would be measured for an undisturbed specimen. The effect of disturbance from the
sampling procedure is illustrated in Figure 12-11.

Figure 12-11 shows three consolidation curves for an insensitive clay from Fond du Lac,
Wisconsin. The curve for the remolded sample is the flattest curve without a well defined break
between reloading and virgin compression (i.e., “fully disturbed”). The curve for a 2 inch tube
sample shows the more typical break in the curve. The curve for the 3 inch tube sample
trimmed to a 2 inch sample shows a well defined break that is very similar to the estimated field
compression curve which is the most accurate.

It is still necessary to “correct” the e-log σ′
v
curve of good quality samples since no sampling
technique is perfect. There are several techniques available to correct the consolidation curve.
For a detailed discussion on field corrections see FHWA NHI 01-031.

Consolidation test results are used to estimate the magnitude and rate of settlement for
pile foundations in cohesive soils.
116


Figure 12-11: Effect of Disturbance on One-Dimensional Consolidation Void Ratio-
Effective Stress Curve (Olson, 1995)



12.10 LABORATORY TESTING FOR PILE DRIVEABILITY DETERMINATION

In order to assess the pile driveability and potential soil setup effects for timber pile foundations
the following soil properties should be evaluated: the remolded shear strength of cohesive soils,
or the gradation and fine content of cohesionless soils.

Cohesive soils may lose a significant portion of their shear strength when disturbed or
remolded, as during the pile driving process. The sensitivity of a cohesive soil (S
t
) is the ratio of
the undrained shear strength of an undisturbed specimen to the undrained shear strength of a
remolded specimen. To determine site specific soil sensitivity from laboratory data, remolded
soil specimens having the same moisture content as undisturbed specimens should be tested.
The best assessment of the remolded shear strength of cohesive soils may be made from field
vane shear tests.

The gradation and fine content of cohesionless soils are useful in determining pile driveability.
Soils with a high fine content generally have a lower friction angle than soils of similar density
with lower fine content. A high fine content may also affect soil permeability, drainage, and pore
pressure during shear which may result in lower effective stress. Depending on soil density,
117
cohesionless soils with high fine content are also more likely to demonstrate soil setup. Routine
laboratory grain size analyses can quantify gradation and fine content.

















































118





119
REFERENCES

American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA), National Design Specification (NDS)
for Wood Construction and Supplement, Design Values for Wood Construction, Timber
Poles and Piles. Washington D. C.

ASCE 20-96 (1996) “Standard Guidelins for Design and Installation of Pile
Foundations, “ American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA

ASCE (1994), “Settlement Analysis,” Technical Engineering and Design Guides as
Adapted from the US Corps of Engineers, No. 9.

ASTM D 25 “Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles,“ American Society for
Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 422 “Standard Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of Soils,“ American
Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 1143 “Standard Test Method for Piles under Axial Compression Load,“
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 2216 “Standard Test Method Test Method for Laboratory Determination of
Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass,“ American Society for Testing and
Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 2555 “Standard Test Method for Establishing Clear Wood Strength Values,“
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 2899 “Standard Practice for Establishing Design Stresses for Round Timber
Piles,“ American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 3441 “Standard Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests in Soil,”
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 4318 “Test Method for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index for Soils,“
American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D 4254 “Test Method for minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and
Calculation of relative Density,“, American Society for Testing and Materials, West
Conshohocken, PA.

AWPA C 3 “Pile – Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes,” American Wood-
Preservers’ Association, Granbury, TX.

AWPA C 14 “Wood for Highway Construction – Preservative Treatment by Pressure
Processes,” American Wood-Preservers’ Association, Granbury, TX.

AWPA C 18 “Standard for Pressure Treated Material in Marine Construction,” American
Wood-Preservers’ Association, Granbury, TX.

120
AWPA M 3 “Standard Quality Control Procedures for Wood Preserving Plants,”
American Wood-Preservers’ Association, Granbury, TX.


American Wood Preserves Institute “Construction Guidelines for Timber Piling Projects,”
AWPI, Fairfax, VA.

Arman, A., Samtani, N., Castelli, R., and Munfakh, G. (1997), “Geotechnical and
Foundation Engineering, Module 1 – Subsurface Investigations,” Principal Investigator:
George Munfakh, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
National Highway Institute Course 13231 – Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-021.

Arman, A., Collin, J.G., Hung, J.C.J., and Brouillette, R., (2001), “Geotechnical and
Foundation Engineering, Module 7 – Shallow Foundations,” Principal Investigator:
George Munfakh, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,
National Highway Institute Course 13231 – Publication No. FHWA-NHI-01-023.

Bowles, J.E., (1977) Foundation Analysis and Design, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill
Book Company.

Broms, B.B., (1964a) “Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesive Soils,” American Society
of Civil Engineers, Journal for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 90,
SM2, page 27-63.

Broms, B.B., (1964b) “Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesionless Soils,” American
Society of Civil Engineers, Journal for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol.
90, SM3, page 21-32.

Broms, B.B., (1966) “Methods of Calculating the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Piles- A
Summary”, Sols-Sols No. 18-19, 21-32.

Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Can3-056-M Round Wood Piles
CAN/CSA-080 Series M Wood Preservation. CAN/CSA 0.80.3 Preservative Treatment
of Piles by Pressure Process.

Davisson, M.T. (1972) “High Capacity Piles,” Proceedings Soil Mechanics Lecture
Series on Innovations in Foundation Construction, American Society of Civil Engineers,
ASCE, Illinois Section, Chicago.

Fellenius, B.H., (1990) “Guidelines for the Interpretation of Static Load Test,” Deep
Foundation Institute Short Course text, First Edition.

Fellenius, B.H., (1991) Chapter 13 – Pile Foundations, Foundation Engineering
Handbook, Second Edition, H.S. Fang, Editor, van Nostrand Reinhold Publisher, New
York.

Graham, J.S. (1992) “Treated Round Wood Piling Specifications,” 17
th
Annual Deep
Foundation Institute Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana.

121
Hannigan, P.J., Goble, G.G., Thendean, G., Likins, G.E. and Rausche, F. (1997),
“Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations,” U.S. Department of
Transportation, Federal Highway Administration – Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-013.

Jamiolkowski, M., Ladd, C.C., Germaine, J.T., and Lancellotta, R. (1985) “New
Developments in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils,” Proceedings 11
th
International
Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol 1, San Franscisco, CA.

Kyfor, Z.G., Schnore, A.R., Carlo, T.A., and Baily, P.F. (1992) “Static Testing of Deep
Foundations,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration –
Publication No. FHWA-SA-91-042.

Meyerhof, G.G. (1976) “Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Pile Foundations,” American
Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division.

Nordlund, R.L. (1979) “Poiny Bearing Capacity of Piles in Cohesionless Soils,” Missouri-
Rolla 5
th
Annual Short Course on Fundamentals of Deep Foundation Design.

Nottingham, L.C. (1975) “Use of Quasi-Static Friction Cone Penetrometer to Predict
Load Capacity of Displacement Piles,” Ph.D. Dissertation to the Department of Civil
Engineering, University of Florida,

Olson, R.E., (1995) “CE 360 – Foundation Design,” Civil Engineering Course Notes from
the University of Texas at Austin.

Peck, R.B., Hanson, W.E., and Thornburn, T.H. (1974) Foundation Engineering, Second
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Poulos, H.G., and Davis, E.H. (1980) Pile Foundation Analysis and Design, John Wiley
& Sons, New York, NY.

Rausche, F., Likins, G.E., Goble, G.G., and Hussein, M. (1986) “The performance of Pile
Driving Systems Inspection Manual,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal
Highway Administration – Publication No. FHWA-RD-86/160.

Reese, L.C., (1984) Handbook on Design of Piles and Drilled Shafts Under lateral Load,
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Publication No.
FHWA-IP-84-11.

Robertson, P.K., and Campanella, R.G., (1983) “Interpretation of Cone Penetration
Tests. Part 1:Sands,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4, Nov 1983.

Robertson, P.K., and Campanella, R.G., (1983) “Interpretation of Cone Penetration
Tests. Part 2:Clays,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4, Nov 1983.

Schmertmann, J.H. (1978) “Guidelines for Cone Penetration Test, Performance, and
Design”, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration –
Publication No. FHWA-TS-78-209.

Terzaghi, K., and Peck, R.B. (1967) Soil Engineering Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York.
122

Tomlinson, M.J., (1980) Foundation Design and Construction, Fourth Edition, Pitman
Advanced Publishing Program.












A1
APPENDIX A
EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

PROBLEM 1
For the soil conditions shown below design a 75 kip Southern Pine timber pile. Use the
Meyerhof method to estimate pile length. Use the Nordlund method for final design. A
static pile load test will be conducted prior to driving production piles.






A2
MEYERHOF METHOD

Step 1 Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Figure 5-1.

Correction provided in definition of problem

Step 2 Compute the average corrected SPT N’ value, ( ) ' N for each layer.
Note: For this example an estimated pile length of 50 feet will be used.

Layer 1 – Loose Sand – Depth = 0 to 15 feet
4
3
3 5 3
=
+ +
= ' N
Layer 2 – Medium Dense Coarse Sand – Depth = 15 to 35 feet
16
4
18 15 17 12
=
+ + +
= ' N
Layer 3 – Dense Coarse Sand – Depth = 35 to 50 feet
30
3
32 29 28
=
+ +
= ' N

Step 3 Compute the unit shaft resistance for timber piles.
ksf 2
50
2
≤ =
' N
f
s
Eq. 5-1
Layer 1
( )
ksf 0.16
50
4 2
= =
s
f
Layer 2
( )
ksf 0.64
50
16 2
= =
s
f
Layer 3
( )
ksf 1.20
50
30 2
= =
s
f

Step 4 Compute ultimate shaft resistance, R
s
,(ksf).

As stated above try 50 foot piles. From Table 3-3 for an 75 kip pile the
required tip diameter is 9 inches. From Table 3-5 for a 9 inch tip diameter
and 50 foot pile the minimum butt is 11.8 inches.


s s s
A f R Σ =
( )( ) ( )( )
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
9.8" 10.9"
ft " 12
20ft 0.64ksf
2
10.9" 11.8"
ft " 12
15ft 0.16ksf
π π
s
R
( )( )

|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
9" 9.8"
ft " 12
15ft 1.20
π

kips 86 kips 44 kips 35 kips 7 = + + =
s
R

A3
Step 5 Compute the average corrected SPT for bearing stratum ( )
B
N' near the pile
tip. The limiting value of unit toe resistance is reached when the embedment
depth into the bearing stratum reaches 10 diameters and the average value
includes the zone within 3 diameters below the tip. Therefore, the values of
N’ averaged should be in an approximate zone of 10*9”=90” above the tip
and 3*9”= 28” below the tip. For this case use N’ values from depth 45’ to
55’.
30
3
30 32 29

+ +
=
B
N'

Step 6 Compute the unit toe resistance.

This example assumes a uniform, cohesionless stratum near the toe
.

b
D N
q
B B
t
' 0.8
= Eq. 5-3

( )( )
( )
ksf 320
0.75ft
10ft 30 0.8
= =
t
q

Step 7 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
( ) ( ) kips 141
12"
1ft
*
2
9"
320ksf r 320ksf A q R
2
2
t t t
= |
.
|

\
|
= = = π π

Step 8 Compute the Ultimate Pile Capacity

t s u
R R Q + =
kips 227 kips 141 kips 86 = + =
u
Q

Step 9 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
. Since a pile load test will be
performed a factor of Safety of 2.0 will be used.

Safety of Factor
Q
Q
u
a
=
required kips 75 kips 114
2
kips 227
2
φ = = =
u
a
Q
Q
Estimated length is O.K. therefore use 50 foot length for final design.


NORDLUND METHOD

Step 1 A. Construct an effective overburden pressure diagram (P
o
) vs. depth.
This is shown with the soil profile in the problem statement.
B. Correct the SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Fig. 5-1.
Correction provided in definition of problem.
C. Determine φ for each layer of soil from laboratory tests or in-situ data.
This example assumes no laboratory or in-situ data is available.
A4
D. In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data use Table 5-1.

From Table 5-1:
Layer 1: 4 = ' N φ ≈ 27
o
Layer 2: 16 = ' N φ ≈ 32
o
Layer 3: 30 = ' N φ ≈ 35
o

Step 2 Determine the friction angle between the pile and soil (δ) based on the
displaced soil volume (V) and the soil friction angle (φ).

A. Compute the volume of soil displaced per unit length of pile (V).
To determine V use average pile diameter:
Butt = 11.8 inches, tip = 9 inches, average = 10.4 inches
Thus, for each foot of length,
( ) lf ft 0.59 1.0ft
12"
1ft
2
10.4"
V
3
2
= |
.
|

\
|
= = π π l r
2

B. From Figure 5-3 determine the ratio of the pile soil friction angle to the soil
friction angle, δ/φ.
For V=0.59 ft
3
/ft δ/φ = 0.55
∴ δ = 0.55φ



Layer 1 δ
1
= 14.9
o
Layer 2 δ
2
= 17.6
o
Layer 3 δ
3
= 19.3
o


Step 3 Determine the coefficient of lateral earth pressure, K
δ
, for each φ angle.

Calculate pile taper angle, ω:

0.0023
50ft
12"
1ft
2
9" 11.8"
tan =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= ω
° = 0.13 ω

A5
Not all of the φ angles chosen in Step 1 match those used to develop the
charts in Figures 5-4, 5-5, and 5-6, and the displaced volume of 0.59 ft
3
/ft
does not correspond to the curves shown. Estimate K
δ
from visual
examination of the charts based on φ angles closest to the estimated φ
angles from Step 1. Figure 5-4 for Layer 1 is shown below, Figures 5-5 and
5-6 are used in a similar manner for Layers 2 and 3.



Layer 1 K
δ
≈ 0.85
Use Figure 5-4 for φ = 25
o


Layer 2 K
δ
≈ 1.25
Use Figure 5-5 for φ = 30
o


Layer 3 K
δ
≈ 1.85
Use Figure 5-6 for φ = 35
o


Step 4 Determine the correction factor, C
F
, to be applied to K
δ
if δ ≠ φ using Figure
5-8.

Layer 1 φ=27
o
δ/φ=0.55 C
F
=0.82
Layer 2 φ=32
o
δ/φ=0.55 C
F
=0.77
Layer 3 φ=35
o
δ/φ=0.55 C
F
=0.72

Step 5 Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each
layer, p
d
.

Layer 1 ( ) 7.5' /2 0' 15' depth midpoint = − =
( ) ( ) 669psf 62.4pcf 110pcf 2.5' 110pcf 5' p
d1
= − + =
Layer 2 ( ) [ ] 25.0' /2 15' 35' 15' depth midpoint = − + =
( ) ( ) 62.4pcf 115pcf 10' 62.4pcf - 110pcf 7.5' psf 669 p
d2
− + + =
psf 1552 psf 526 psf 357 psf 669 p
d2
= + + =
Layer 3 ( ) [ ] 42.5' /2 50'-35' 35' depth midpoint = + =
( ) 62.4pcf 115pcf 17.5' psf 1552 p
d3
− + =
psf 2472 psf 920 psf 1552 p
d3
= + =
A6

Step 6 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil. The sum of the shaft
resistance from each layer obtained is the ultimate shaft resistance.

( ) ω ω δ
δ
cos sin
0
d C p C K R
d d F
D d
d
s
∆ + =

=
=

where C
d
= Pile perimeter, ft
∆d = Embedded length in layer, ft

All other terms previously defined in Steps 2 through 5

Layer 1:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) ' " 2.97 12 1ft 11.35" 15' 0' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
15' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 5387 0.13 15' 2.97' 0.13 14.9 669psf 0.82 0.85 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
1 s
R
Layer 2:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) 2.71' 12" 1ft 10.35" 35' 15' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
20' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 24656 0.13 20' 2.71' 0.13 17.6 1552psf 0.77 1.25 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
2 s
R
Layer 3:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) 2.46' 12' 1ft 9.4" 50' 35' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
15' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 40451 0.13 15' 2.46' 0.13 19.3 2474psf 0.72 1.85 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
3 s
R


= + + = + + = lbs 70494 lbs 40451 lbs 24656 lbs 5387
3 2 1 s s s s
R R R R

Step 7 Determine the α
t
coefficient and the bearing capacity factor, N’
q
, from the
friction angle of the soil near the pile.

These values are found in Figure 5-9 (a) and 5-9(b) using a φ=35
o
at the pile
toe. To find the α
t
coefficient the ratio of D/b must be determined.

67.0
0.75'
50'
diameter Pile
length pile Embedded
b
D
= = =

α
t
= 0.67
N’
q
= 65.0

Step 8 Compute the effective overburden pressure at the pile toe, p
t
.

Add the overburden pressure for the distance from the midpoint of Layer 3 to
the toe of the pile to that found in Step 5 above.
( ) 2867psf 62.4pcf 115pcf 7.5' 2474psf p
t
= − + =

A7
Confirm the p
t
found is less than the limiting value of 3000 psf.
3000psf 2867psf p
t
≤ = O.K.

Step 9 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.


t t q t t
p A N R ' α =
( )( )( ) ( ) 2867psf
12"
1ft
2
9
65 0.67
2
|
.
|

\
|
= π
t
R
lbs 55161 =
t
R

Confirm the R
t
calculated is less than the limiting value found for φ=35
o
from
the chart in Figure 5-10.

Limiting unit toe resistance, q
L
, = 105 kips/ft
2
( )( ) 46388lbs
1kip
1000lbs
12"
1ft
2
9"
105ksf
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = π
t L t
A q R

Use the lessor of the two calculated values, lbs 46388 = ∴
t
R
Step 10 Compute the ultimate pile capacity.

lbs 117,000 lbs 46388 lbs 70494 ≈ + = + =
t s u
R R Q

Step 11 Compute the allowable design load Q
a
. Since a pile load test will be
performed a factor of Safety of 2.0 will be used.


Safety of Factor
Q
Q
u
a
=
required kips 75 kips 58
2
kips 117
2
π = = =
u
a
Q
Q

Since the pile has substantially less capacity than required, recalculate the
allowable design load Q
a
with an increased pile length of 60 feet.
Referencing Table 3-5 for 9 inch tip and 60 foot pile use 12.4” butt diameter
and 9” tip diameter. Calculate the revised pile taper angle, ω:

0.0023
60ft
12"
1ft
2
9" 12.4"
tan =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
| −
= ω
° = 0.13 ω

Since the revised pile has the same tip diameter and pile taper as the original
pile, the volume of soil displaced per length of pile, V, will not change.
Therefore, Steps 1 through 4 of the original calculations do not change.
A8

Step 5A Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each
layer, p
d
. Layers 1 and 2 calculations do not change for this step.

Layer 1 ( ) original from change No 669psf p
d1
=
Layer 2 ( ) original from change No 1552psf p
d1
=
Layer 3 ( ) [ ] 47.5' /2 60'-35' 35' depth midpoint = + =
( ) 62.4pcf 115pcf 22.5' psf 1552 p
d3
− + =
psf 2736 psf 1184 psf 1552 p
d3
= + =

Step6A Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil. The sum of the shaft
resistance from each layer obtained is the ultimate shaft resistance.

( ) ω ω δ
δ
cos sin
0
d C p C K R
d d F
D d
d
s
∆ + =

=
=

where C
d
= Pile perimeter, ft
∆d = Embedded length in layer, ft

All other terms previously defined in Steps 2 through 5
Layer 1:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) ' 3.14 12" 1ft 11.98" 15' 0' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
15' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 5695 0.13 15' 3.14' 0.13 14.9 669psf 0.82 0.85 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
1 s
R
Layer 2:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) 2.87' 12" 1ft 10.98" 35' 15' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
20' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 26112 0.13 20' 2.87' 0.13 17.6 1552psf 0.77 1.25 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
2 s
R
Layer 3:
( )( ) ( )( )( ) 2.54' 12" 1ft 9.70" 60' 35' for diameter pile Ave. = = − = π π
d
C
25' d = ∆
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) [ ] ( ) lbs 76982 0.13 25' 2.54' 0.13 19.3 2736psf 0.72 1.85 = ° ° + ° = cos sin
3 s
R


= + + = + + = lbs 108789 lbs 76982 lbs 26112 lbs 5695
3 2 1 s s s s
R R R R

Step7A Determine the α
t
coefficient and the bearing capacity factor, N’
q
, from the
friction angle of the soil near the pile.

These values are the same as originally found by Figures 5-9 (a) and 5-9(b):

α
t
= 0.67
N’
q
= 65.0



A9
Step 8A Compute the effective overburden pressure at the revised pile toe, p
t
.

Add the overburden pressure for the distance from the midpoint of Layer 3 to
the toe of the pile to that found in Step 5A above.
( ) 3393psf 62.4pcf 115pcf 12.5' 2736psf p
t
= − + =

The p
t
found is greater than the limiting value of 3000 psf.
Use the limiting value of 3000psf in Step 9A.

Step 9A Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.


t t q t t
p A N R ' α =
( )( )( ) ( ) 3000psf
12"
1ft
2
9
65 0.67
2
|
.
|

\
|
= π
t
R
lbs 57719 =
t
R

Confirm the R
t
calculated is less than the limiting value found for φ=35
o
from
the chart in Figure 5-10.

Limiting unit toe resistance, q
L
, = 105 kips/ft
2
( )( ) 46388lbs
1kip
1000lbs
12"
1ft
2
9"
105ksf
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = π
t L t
A q R

Use the lessor of the two calculated values, 46388lbs = ∴
t
R
Step 10A Compute the ultimate pile capacity.

lbs 155177 lbs 46388 lbs 108789 ≈ + = + =
t s u
R R Q (approx. 155 kips)

Compute the allowable design load Q
a
. Since a pile load test will be
performed a factor of Safety of 2.0 will be used.


Safety of Factor
Q
Q
u
a
=
O.K. required kips 75 kips 78
2
kips 155
2
∴ = = = φ
u
a
Q
Q








A10


A11
PROBLEM 2
Design a 60 kip Douglas Fir timber pile for the soil conditions shown below using the α
method. A static pile load test will be conducted prior to driving production piles.


PILE SELECTION

Assume pile length of 60 feet. From Table 3-3 for a 60 kip pile the required minimum tip
diameter is 8 inches. From Table 3-7 the minimum butt diameter for Douglas Fir with a
specified tip diameter of 8 inches is 12.7 inches. Use 13” butt diameter for calculations.

α METHOD

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the adhesion factor, α, from
Figure 5-12.

Layer 1 Depth 0’ to 30’ Soft clay Use Figure 5-12c
D
1
= 30 ft
A12
ft 0.96
12"
1ft
2
10.35 12.7"
b
1
= 




 +
=
D/b=30’/0.96’=31
c
u
= 450 psf
α = 1.0

Layer 2 Depth 30’ to 60’ Stiff clay Use Figure 5-12b
D
2
= 30 ft
ft 0.76
12"
1ft
2
8.00 10.35"
b
2
= 




 +
=
D/b=30’/0.76’=39
c
u
= 1620 psf
α = 0.7

Step 2 Compute the unit shaft resistance for each layer

Layer 1
( )( ) 450psf 450psf 1.0 c
u
= = = α
s
f
Layer 2
( )( ) 1134psf 1620psf 0.7 c
u
= = = α
s
f

Step 3 Compute the shaft resistance in each soil layer and the ultimate shaft
resistance, R
s
, from the sum of the shaft resistances for each layer.
( ) [ ]
ave s s s s
D L f A f R π Σ = Σ =
( )( )( ) 41,528lbs
12"
1ft
2
10.5" 13"
30ft 450psf = 










 +
= π
1 s
R
( )( )( ) 82,384lbs
12"
1ft
2
8" 10.5"
30ft 1134psf = 










 +
= π
2 s
R

12,3912lbs 82384lbs 41528lbs = + = + =
2 1 s s s
R R R

Step 4 Compute the unit toe resistance, q
t


( ) 14,580psf 1620psf 9 c 9 q
u t
= = =

Step 5 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t


( )( ) 5,140lbs
2
0.67"
14580psf
2
= 





= = π
t t t
A q R
Step 6 Compute the ultimate pile capacity


t s u
R R Q + =
A13
( ) 129kips 129,000lbs 5,140lbs 123,912lbs ≈ + =
u
Q

Step 7 Compute the allowable design load, Q
a
. Use a factor of Safety of 2.0 based
on performing a pile load test.

.
2
O.K 60kips 64kips
2
129kips
φ = = =
u
a
Q
Q







































A14




A15
PROBLEM 3

Use the effective stress method to calculate the ultimate capacity and allowable
capacity of a 12” butt diameter and 7” tip diameter Southern Yellow Pine timber
pile driven into the soil profile described below. No pile load test will be
performed before driving production piles.




EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013)

Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine φ’ angle for each
layer.

A. Construct the effective overburden versus depth diagram.
z = 2’ ( )( ) 230psf 115pcf 2' p
o
= =
z = 27’ ( )( ) 1670psf 62.4pcf - 120pcf 25' 230psf p
o
= + =
z = 50’ ( )( ) 2880psf 62.4pcf - 115pcf 23' 1670psf p
o
= + =

B. Divide the soil profile throughout the pile penetration depth into
A16
layers and determine the effective overburden pressure at the
midpoint of each layer.

Layer 1 midpoint at ' 13.5
2
27'
z
1
= =
( )( ) ( )( ) 892psf 62.4pcf 120pcf 11.5 115pcf 2' p
o1
= − + =
Layer 1 midpoint at 38.5'
2
23'
27" z
2
= + =
( )( ) ( )( ) 62.4pcf 120pcf 25' 115pcf 2' p
o2
− + =
( )( ) 2275psf 62.4pcf 115pcf 11.5' = − +

C. Determine the φ’ angle for each layer.

This information was provided in problem definition.

Step 2 Select the β coefficient for each soil layer using Table 5-2 and Figure 5-
13.

Layer 1 Layer 2
From Table 5-2 ave. β≈0.32 ave. β≈0.45
From Figure 5-13 β≈0.28 β≈0.39
Use for calculations β=0.30 β=0.40

Step 3 For each soil layer compute the unit shaft resistance, f
s
.


o
p β =
s
f
Layer 1 ( )( ) 267psf 892psf 0.3 = =
1 s
f
Layer 2 ( )( ) 910psf 2275psf 0.4 = =
2 s
f

Step 4 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer and the ultimate shaft
resistance, R
s
, from the sum of the shaft resistances each layer.

( )
ave s s s s
D L f A f R π = =

For a 50’ timber pile with a 12” butt diameter and a 7” tip diameter the
pile diameter decreases 5”over 50’=1”/10’.

Layer 1: ( )( ) ( ) lbs 20100
12"
1ft
2
9.3" 12"
27' 267psf = 




 +
= π
1 s
R
Layer 2: ( )( ) ( ) lbs 44658
12"
1ft
2
7" 9.3"
23' 910psf = 




 +
= π
2 s
R


A17

Ultimate Shaft Resistance:

lbs 64758 44658lbs 20100lbs = + = Σ =
s s s
A f R

Step 5 Compute the unit toe resistance.


t t t
p N q =
From Figure 5-14 for φ’= 35
o
, N
t
= 55
p
t
= the overburden pressure at the toe of the pile (50’) = 2890 psf

( )( ) psf 158950 2890psf 55 = =
t
q

Step 6 Compute the ultimate toe resistance, R
t
.

( )
2
r q A q R
t t t t
π = =
( )( ) lbs 42480
12"
1ft
2
7"
158950psf
2
= 





= π
t
R

Step 7 Compute the ultimate pile capacity, Q
u
.


t s u
R R Q + =

( ) kips 107 lbs 107000 lbs 42480 lbs 64758 ≈ + =
u
Q

Step 8 Compute the allowable design load, Q
a
. Since no load test will be
performed prior to driving production piles use a factor of Safety of 3.0.


Safety of Factor
Q
Q
u
a
=
kips 35
3
kips 107
3
≈ = =
u
a
Q
Q












A18

PREFACE
This Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual has been developed by the American Wood Preservers Institute (AWPI) as its official recommendation for Timber Piling Design and Construction. The data in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized engineering principles and is based on available technical data. The information in this manual should not be used or relied upon for a specific application without competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by a licensed professional engineer. By publication of this manual, AWPI intends no representation or warranty, expressed or implied, that the information in the manual is suitable for any specific application or is free from infringement of any patent or copyright. Any user of this information assumes all risk and liability arising from such use. The manual was developed to assist design engineers with the design of timber piling. Manual Author: James G. Collin, PH.D., P.E. The Collin Group, Ltd.

The manual was reviewed by the AWPI Timber Pile Manual Technical Committee. AWPI Timber Pile Manual Technical Committee Grady Brafford Dean Matthews Bob Gourlay Tom O’Malley Randy Kelly Morgan Wright Special thanks is given to the following for their advice on the manual. Ryan R. Berg, P.E. Ryan R. Berg & Associates Martin Rollins, P.E., H. M. Rollins Company, Inc. Future changes to this manual will be posted on the following web site. www.preservedwood.com www.wwpinstitute.com
 Copyright American Wood Preservers Institute 2002 All rights reserved. Printed in the USA.

BE CONSTRUCTIVE
wood
Deep Foundations Institute Wood Promotion Network

TM

Pile Driving Contractors Association

Timber Pile Design and Construction Manual Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Scope of Manual 1.2 Background 1.3 Seismic Design Considerations 1.4 Organization of Manual Foundation Design Procedure 2.1 Design of Foundations 2.2 Foundation Design Process Timber Pile Properties 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Allowable Stress Design 3.3 Tabulation of Allowable Stress and Pile Capacity 3.3.1 Pipe Capacity 3.4 Pile Size Specifications 3.5 Working Strength based on Small Clear Wood Specimens 3.5.1 Axial Compressive Stress 3.5.2 Extreme Fiber Bending Stress 3.5.3 Compressive Stress Perpendicular to the Grain 3.5.4 Shear Stress Perpendicular to the Grain 3.5.5 Modulus of Elasticity 3.6 Allowable Stress 3.6.1 Load Duration 3.6.2 Temperature 3.6.3 Pressure Treatment 3.6.4 Size 3.6.5 Load Sharing 3.6.6 Allowable Stress 3.7 Preservative Process 3.7.1 Creosote 3.7.2 Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) 3.7.2.1 CCA Industrial Uses 3.7.3 Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA) 3.7.4 CCA and ACZA 3.7.5 Preservative Retention 3.8 Durability Considerations Static Analysis Design Procedures 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Soil/Pile Interaction 4.2.1 Load Transfer 4.3 Factors of Safety

2.0

3.0

4.0

1 Leads 8.5 Pile Cutoffs Pile Load Testing 9.1 Introduction 6.0 10.4 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils 6.3 Hammer Size Selection 8.2 Timber Pile Quality Requirements 10.3 Helmet 8.3 Axial Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils 6.1 Introduction 5.1 Introduction 6.2 Pile Driving Equipment 8.1 Introduction 7.5 Settlement of Pile Groups in Cohesive Soils Marine Application Design Considerations 7.2.0 9.3 Nordlund Method 5.4 Pile Driving Equipment and Pile Installation Specifications 11.0 Engineering News Record Formula Design of Single Piles 5.1 Introduction 10.0 .4 5.4.7 Uplift Capacity of Single Piles Design of Pile Groups 6.4 Alpha (α) Method 5.1 Introduction 9.2 Pile Hammers 8.2 Meyerhof Method 5.1 Interpretation of Load Test Quality Assurance During Pile Driving 10.2 Axial Compression Static Load Test 9.0 11.1 Introduction 8.0 7.4 Pile Accessories 8.2.2 Axial Capacity of Pile Groups in Cohesionless Soils 6.2 Broms’ Method Pile Installation 8.2.5 Effective Stress Method for Piles in Cohesionless and Cohesive Soils 5.2.3 Material Certifications 10.0 8.6 Nottingham and Schmertmann Method 5.

3 Test (Exploration) Pit Excavation 12.1 Introduction 12.9.1 Desk Study – Available Existing Data 12.1 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) 12.1 Index Tests 12.2 Vane Shear Test 12.5.2.8 In-Situ Testing 12.3 Consolidation Tests 12.1 Hollow-Stem Augers 12.6 Groundwater Conditions 12.7 Subsurface Profile Development 12.4 Methods of Subsurface Exploration 12.2.5 Soil and Rock Sampling 12.4.0 Material Specification Geotechnical Considerations 12.2 12.2 Field Reconnaissance 12.5.10 Laboratory Testing for Pile Driveability Determination References Appendix A Design Examples .4.2 Shear Strength Tests 12.2 Rock Core Samplers 12.9.9.1 Soil Samplers 12.2 Planning Site Investigation 12.4.8.8.11.2 Rotary Wash Borings 12.3 Guidelines for Minimum Subsurface Exploration Program 12.9 Laboratory Soil Testing 12.

end bearing. The modern age of wood preserving began in England in 1832. was rebuilt around 1900 on the same 1000 year old piles. the methods that man has employed to extend the life of timber piling have evolved to the point that timber piles will last for over 100 years.S.e. and/or modifying those natural materials.CHAPTER 1. There are three basic approaches to achieving proper support of structures. more competent soils or to rock. the engineer is faced with the task of designing foundations to distribute high-intensity loads in a manner that can be supported by existing natural subgrade materials. b) modification of the foundation soil (i.D. vegetable. by means of skin-friction. Roman roads built on treated piles were still in good condition 1.900 years later. Following the successful use of pressure treated railroad ties. 1. Ancient civilizations used various animal.2 BACKGROUND Timber piles have successfully supported structures for more than 6. The analysis and design of shallow foundations is not discussed in this manual. then charred to extend their service life. soil improvement). or a combination of both. Italy in 900 A. U. and mineral oils to preserve timber. Shallow foundations principally distribute structural loads over large areas of near-surface soil to lower the intensity of the applied loads to levels tolerable for the foundation soils. such that the intensity of the loads transferred will not cause shear failure or objectionable settlement of the structure. railroads started treating foundation piles in the early 1880’s. or c) a combination of "a" and "b" above. Over the years. In Roman times. Consequently.0 INTRODUCTION 1. There are two general types of foundations for distributing applied structural loads to the ground: shallow foundations. The information from this FHWA document has been condensed to focus solely on timber piles and has been supplemented to provide additional guidance with respect to the selection of timber pile structural properties required for design. 1 . Not all foundation materials possess the required characteristics to carry imposed loads or to resist natural or man made forces without resulting in damage to the structures they support. and deep foundations. This manual is devoted to the discussion of the structural and geotechnical aspects of timber pile foundation design. Pressure injection of coal-tar creosote into wood began in 1838.1 SCOPE OF MANUAL All objects and structures transfer their load either directly or indirectly to the earth. This design manual follows the design methodology presented in the Federal Highway Administration’s Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations (FHWA-HI-97-013).. These are: a) distribution of structural loads to foundations. timbers were smeared with cedar oils and pitch. Deep foundations distribute loads to deeper.000 years. A building built in Venice. The capacity of the earth to support such loads depends on the strength and stability of the supporting soil or rock materials.

In recent years. Design loads as high as 75 tons have been specified. processing facilities. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the static design process for timber piles. The city of New Orleans. There are wooden piles loaded to 60 tons each under bridges spanning the Thames River in London and 100 ton timber piles in bridges spanning the River Seine in Paris. which have a 75 ton design load on Interstate 80 near Winnemucca. This is why building codes require wood for certain uses to be “treated” and why codes explicitly define “treated” as pressure treated. supported by timber piles. 1. commercial buildings. extensive load tests have been performed on pressure treated timber foundation piles. is not alone in its use of timber piles to support highways. New Orleans.3 SEISMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The scope of this manual does not included seismic design considerations.Since then. Louisiana is built on timber piles. Chapter 6 covers the design of timber pile groups. pressure treatment has been recognized as a process that protects wood by extending its life indefinitely.S. Chapter 7 discusses design considerations for Marine applications. including manufacturing plants.4 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL This manual is intended to be a stand-alone document and is geared towards providing the practicing structural and geotechnical engineer with a thorough understanding of the design and construction of timber pile foundations. and at Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia. commercial buildings and the Superdome as well as paved highways in New Orleans are supported on timber piles. Today wood piles are a mainstay of foundation designers. The highest ever recorded design load for timber piles in U. thousands of pressure treated wood piles were used for the foundation of new facilities at JFK Airport in New York. 2 . For example. and highway bridges. Nevada. highway construction is a 1000 foot long viaduct. Residential buildings. There is on-going research on Performance-Based Seismic Design funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). A separate bulletin is planned on Seismic Design Considerations for timber piling in the future. however. The organization of the manual is presented below. Chapter 3 covers the selection of the strength properties of timber piles and considerations with respect to pile durability. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the design and construction process for a timber pile foundation. and ultimate loads as high as 235 tons have been carried by timber piles. Wood piles are being routinely used in all kinds of structures. Chapter 8 discusses pile installation considerations. Chapter 5 presents five design methods to determine the static capacity of single piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. 1.

. For information on this subject. subsurface exploration program) and provide the design engineer with the necessary information to perform the foundation design with respect to the subsurface soils. This manual does not cover seismic/dynamic analysis.e.Chapter 9 covers static and pile load testing. Chapter 12 reviews the geotechnical considerations that are important in defining the site conditions (i. Chapter 11 provides a model specification for timber pile projects. Chapter 10 deals with quality assurance and quality control during timber pile installation. the readers are referred to the Federal Highway Administration’s Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations (FHWA-HI-97-013). 3 .

4 .

2. For small structures. The following questions should be asked and answered during this phase of the design process: Is the project a new commercial office building. depending on the depth of the load-transfer member below the superstructure. foundation becomes a somewhat relative term. and will serve to guide the designer through all of the tasks that should be considered (after FHWA. 1998). etc. a residential building. subsurface conditions. is one in which the depth to the bottom of the footing is less than or equal to four times the smallest dimension of the footing. a new bridge. What are the approximate foundation loads? Are there deformation or deflection limitations beyond the usual requirements? Block 2: Obtain General Site Geology A great deal may be learned about the foundation requirements with even a very general understanding of the site geology.? If there are special design events.1 DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS Foundations are often classified as shallow or deep foundations. 5 .? Will the project be constructed in phases or all at once? What is the general structure layout? Is the structure subjected to any special design events such as seismic. This flow chart will be discussed block by block. it is essential to systematically consider the various foundation types and to select the optimum alternative based on the superstructure requirements and subsurface conditions. The foundation design for very large structures may require extensive geologic studies. A shallow foundation.CHAPTER 2. When designing foundations. Thus a deep. this may involve only a very superficial investigation such as a visit to the site. Block 1: Assemble Information Regarding Proposed Structure The first step in the process is to determine the general structure requirements. the design requirements for the event should be reviewed at this stage so that these considerations can be factored into the site investigation. using the numbers in the blocks as a reference. debris. foundation performance criteria.0 FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCEDURE 2. a replacement bridge. scour. etc. a noise wall. as compared with a shallow.2 FOUNDATION DESIGN PROCESS The timber pile foundation design-construction process is outlined in the flow chart in Figure 2-1. a retaining wall. as defined in this manual. The foundation engineer must have a thorough understanding of the foundation loads. a sign. and current practices in foundation design and construction in the area where the work is to be done to arrive at the optimum foundation solution. including soil/rock properties and behavior.

a better definition of the design foundation loads and performance criteria are typically available. 6 . The subsurface exploration program. In Block 1.e. They should be included in the design process.). Both subsurface exploration information and foundation construction experience should be sought prior to selecting the foundation type. must be selected.Block 3: Collect Foundation Experience from the Area Frequently there is information available on foundations that have been constructed in the area.. Block 7: Driven Piles Once a deep foundation has been selected. then a shallow foundation will typically be the most economical solution. The decision on foundation type should be based on performance and economics. this issue was considered. constructability should be considered. In addition to performance and cost. it is possible to make decisions regarding the necessary information that must be obtained at the site. The first question to be decided is whether a shallow or a deep foundation is required. Ground improvement techniques in conjunction with shallow foundations should be evaluated when a shallow foundation does not meet the project requirements. This question will be answered based primarily on the strength and compressibility of the site soils. Block 6: Deep Foundation At this stage the designer must decide between a deep foundation system and either a shallow foundation of soil improvement or a shallow foundation. The program must meet the needs of the design problem that is to be solved at a cost consistent with the size of the structure. The results of the exploration and testing programs are used to prepare a subsurface profile and identify critical cross-sections. Refined foundation loading information and performance criteria should be established at this time. a deep foundation should be used. drilled shafts. Block 5: Evaluate Information and Select Foundation System The information in Blocks 1-4 must be evaluated and a foundation system selected. Block 4: Develop and Execute Subsurface Exploration Program Based on the information obtained in Blocks 1-3. At this stage of the design effort. The geotechnical engineer should obtain a completely defined and unambiguous set of foundation loads and performance requirements in order to proceed through the foundation design. If the structure performance criteria can not be met by a shallow foundation. This information can be of assistance in avoiding problems. as well as the appropriate soil laboratory-testing program. the designer must decide to use either driven piles or other deep foundation systems (i. The question that should be answered in deciding between driven piles and other deep foundation systems is which system will perform as desired for the least cost. auger cast piles etc. If settlement is not a problem for the structure. the proposed loading conditions and the project performance criteria.

The general magnitude of the applied load is known from the information obtained in blocks 1-5. compression. Block 11: Satisfactory Design At this point the computations for the design are complete. and what conditions are most favorable for their use. The driveability analysis cannot be completed until the pile hammer has been selected (this will depend on the contractor selected for the project). The selection of pile type should consider both the structural capacity of a pile and the realistic geotechnical capacity of the pile type for the soil conditions at the site. It is important that all of the quality control procedures are clearly defined to avoid claims after construction is underway. not complete until the plans and specifications are prepared. Table 2-1 presents various types of driven piles their advantages and disadvantages. Timber piles are economical piles that should be considered when anticipated pile loads are between 50 and 150 kips and when anticipated pile lengths are between 20 – 125 feet. perform a static analysis to estimate the length necessary to provide the required capacity (i. Pile driveability will be covered in some detail in Chapter 9. A large number of combinations of pile capacities and pile types can satisfy the design requirements. It may be necessary to increase the number of piles to satisfy the structural requirements. 7 .Block 8: Select Driven Pile Type The pile type should be selected consistent with the applied load per pile.. the cost of alternative piles. and the capability of available construction contractors to drive the selected pile. Block 10: Calculate Driveability The static design completed in block 9 addresses the structural capacity of the pile. in fact. uplift and lateral load).e. It is also important to assess the driveability of the selected pile to assure that the required capacity and penetration depth may be achieved at a reasonable driving resistance. Block 9: Calculate Pile Length and Capacity For timber piles. Block 12: Prepare Plans and Specifications The design is.

Figure 2-1: Flow chart timber pile design process 8 .

9 .

10 .

2 ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN The selection of material properties for piles must consider both static and dynamic stresses.CHAPTER 3.. The strength properties are derived from clear wood strength of small specimens tested in accordance with ASTM D 2555 Standard Test Method for Establishing Clear Wood Strength Values. Section 3. There are generally two species of timber used for the manufacture of timber piles : Douglas Fir and Southern Yellow Pine. The allowable stresses for timber piles published in this manual are based on the American Forest & Paper Association (AFPA) publication. The values provided in table 3-1 are applicable for pile groups. Supplement Timber Poles and Piles and procedures outlined in the ASTM standards referenced above. as well as the static stresses that the pile is subjected to in service. Recent research (Bodig and Arnette. 11 .6 provides an analytical method for determining allowable stresses using reduction factors to account for load duration.3 TABULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS AND PILE CAPACITY Table 3-1 provides recognized allowable stresses for timber piles.6).3 and maximum butt and tip dimensions versus pile length are presented in section 3. 3. For piles that are air dried or kiln-dried prior to treating stresses may be increased by 11% to 18% (see section 3. as published by the American Forest and Paper Association.0 TIMBER PILE PROPERTIES 3. temperature. Lodgepole Pine. Other species such as Caribbean Pine. 2000) on full-scale strength testing has been conducted on approximately 100 Southern Yellow Pine piles and 100 Douglas Fir piles. A condensed report will soon be available. and Red Pine are also used on occasion. A pile must be able to withstand the dynamic stresses induced in the pile during the driving process. ASTM D 25 Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles establishes physical properties and manufacturing requirements and ASTM D 2899 Standard Practice for Establishing Stresses for Round Timber Piles provides the procedures for developing timber piling stresses from small clear specimens. pressure treatment. Manual for Engineered Wood Construction – Allowable Stress Design. The tabulated values are given for piles treated with a preservative using a steam conditioning or Boultonizing processes. Section 3. with wet exposures. <100°F). Allowable stresses and pile capacity are tabulated in section 3. A new ASTM standard for developing timber piling stresses based on full scale tests is under development. etc. Red Oak.1 INTRODUCTION The design of timber pile foundations requires a firm understanding of the mechanical properties of the timber pile. and with a ″normal″ load duration factor of 1. at normal temperature range (i. This research has demonstrated that currently used allowable design stresses are conservative.5 reviews the procedures to determine the allowable stresses for timber piles from small clear wood specimens.4.e. 3.

250. The allowable values are only applicable when the pile tip circumference is specified in accordance with ASTM D25. 2.000 Pine1 Douglas Fir2 1250 2450 115 230 1.500. Pacific Coast Douglas Fir design values apply to this species as defined in ASTM D 1760 Red Oak design values apply to Northern and Southern Red Oak Red Pine design values apply to Red Pine grown in the United States 3.280. Southern Pine design values apply to Loblolly.000. Shortleaf.1 Pile Capacity Table 3-2 provides compression strength parallel-to-the-grain as a function of the specified pile tip circumference (ASTM D25). When these conditions do not occur the pile capacity should be adjusted using the adjustment factors presented in Table 3-10.000 Lodgepole 1150 1700 80 270 1.1 in/ft throughout the length. 3. 12 . Douglas fir has a smaller taper within 20 feet of the butt.3.000 Pine Red Oak3 1100 2450 135 350 1.000 Red Pine4 900 1900 85 155 1. 3.500.4 PILE SIZE SPECIFICATIONS The natural taper of timber piles is a factor in the design formula. The values presented in Table 3-2 do not consider buckling capacity of timber piles. The natural taper of Southern pine is approximately 0. and Slash Pines.Table 3-1 Allowable Stress Values for Treated Round Timber Piles Graded in Accordance with ASTM D25 Shear Bending (Fb) Modulus of Compression Species Axial (psi) Perpendicular Perpendicular Elasticity (E) Compression to the Grain (psi) to the Grain (Fc) (psi) (Fv) (psi) (Fc⊥) (psi) Southern 1200 2400 110 250 1. Additional capacity may be computed at other locations in the pile by considering the increased cross-sectional area away from the tip using linear taper and specified butt circumference. The result is often a smaller tip for a given butt size in Douglas fir and other western species. 4. Longleaf. Table 3-2 for allowable design capacities is based on the following conditions : • • • • • • • Timber piles meet ASTM D25 In-service temperature range < 100°F Wet service conditions Timber piles have had preservative treatment Compression members fully laterally supported (fully embedded in soil) Piles in a cluster (pile groups) Critical location for compression parallel to the grain is the tip of the pile. The tip of the pile represents the smallest circumference and lowest strength section of a pile.000 1.

4] 19 [6.Table 3-3 provides specified butt circumferences with corresponding minimum tips sizes for Southern pine. B To convert to metric dimensions. the individual values have been increased to 16 in. E Southern Yellow Pine piles are generally available in lengths shorter than 70 ft or girth of less than 50 in.7] 34 [10.5] 29 [9.1] 37 [11.1] 16 [5.2] 31 [9.5] 29 [9.1] 34 [10.B.0] 46 [14.9] 30 [9.1] 16 [5.6] 26 [8.4] 41 [13.3] 22 [7.6] 23 [7.E (from ASTM D25 .1] 37 [11.8] 36 [11.1] 16 [5. The purchaser should inquire as to availability of sizes below the lines. and lengths of 20 to 50 ft. and minimum circumference at 3 ft from butt of 41 in.6] 26 [8.0] 24 [7.6] 40 [12.0] 21 [6.9] 27 [8.9] 30 [9.7] 20 [6.2] 31 [9.7] 17 [5.2] 28 [8.6] 23 [7.9] 30 [9.5] 32 [10.7] 39 [12.5] 32 [10.0] 24 [7.4] 35 [11. and lengths of 55 to 80 ft.6] 23 [7.9] 27 [8.0] 28 [8.C.7] 31 [9.9] 27 [8.4] 19 [6. to ensure a minimum of 5-in.Table X1. in.4] 35 [11. tip for purposes of driving..5] 32 [10.0] 24 [7.7] 42 [13.0] 18 [5.0] 18 [5.2] 28 [8.7] 39 [12.3] 22 [7. = 25.3] 25 [8.8] 33 [10. 1 in.2] 28 [8.8] 33 [10.6] 26 [8.0] 21 [6.0] 21 [6.0] 18 [5. in.6] 23 [7.6] 26 [8.3] 25 [8.7] 20 [6.6] 45 [14.1] 21 [6.3] 44 [14.7] 20 [6.2] 28 [8.1] 16 [5.3] 25 [8. Table 3-2 Allowable Pile Capacity in Compression (kips) Timber Species Southern Pine Douglas Fir 7 46 48 Allowable Pile Capacity in Compression (kips) Pile Tip Diameter (inches) 8 9 10 11 60 76 94 114 63 80 98 119 12 136 141 Table 3-3 Southern Pine Foundation Piling – Specified Butt Circumferences with Corresponding Minimum Tip Circumferences A.0] 43 [13.4] 38 [12. and lengths of 20 to 25 ft minimum circumference at 3 ft from butt of 38 in. Table 3-4 provide specified tip circumferences with corresponding minimum butt circumferences for Southern Pine. at 3 ft from butt.1] 34 [10.0] 21 [6.9] 30 [9. 13 .3] 22 [7.0] 24 [7.5] 29 [9.8] 36 [11.0] 24 [7.7] 17 [5.5] 29 [9.7] 37 [11. 16 [5.4] 35 [11.4] 19 [6. D Class B piles are those listed with a specified required minimum circumference at 3 ft from butt of 35 in.9] 27 [8.3) [Approximate Diameters in Brackets] Required Minimum Circumference.4] 19 [6.1] 16 [5.2] 31 [9.4 mm.1] 34 [10. C Class A piles are all those listed with a specified required minimum circumference of 44 in.6] 47 [15.1] 18 [5.3] 22 [7.4] 38 [12.8] 33 [10.7] 20 [6.8] 36 [11.4] 16 [5. The corresponding tables for Douglas fir and other western species are in Tables 3-5 and 3-6.D. 3 ft from Butts Length (ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Commonly available sizes are shown within the bold outline: 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] 41 [13] 44 [14] 47 [15] 50 [16] 57 [18] Minimum Tip Circumferences.8] A Where the taper applied to the butt circumferences calculate to a circumference at the tip of less than 16 in.3] 25 [8.0] 40 [12.4] 25 [8.9] 27 [8. at 3 ft from butt.

7] 41 [13.9] 51 [16.4] 40 [12. sometimes known as natural taper piles.6] 50 [15.0] 45 [14.1] 36 [11.7] 41 [13.0] 42 [13.9] 54 [17. The purchaser should inquire as to availability of sizes below the lines.6] 50 [15.6] 28 [8.4] 37 [11. at 3 ft. 14 .3] 49 [15.3] 27 [8. 33 [10.2] 55 [17.4] 37 [11.8] 38 [12.8] 35 [11.0] 42 [13.0] 48 [15.7] 41 [13.0] 48 [15.3] 27 [8.6] 47 [15.1] 39 [12.0] 26 [8.4] 28 [8.0] 45 [14.7] 41 [13.3] 24 [7.4] 43 [13.7] 44 [14.3] 34 [10.3] 46 [14.6] 25 [8.6] 42 [13.5] 34 [10.0] 26 [8.9] 29 [9. from butt.4] 40 [12.1 minimum 8 inch tip size. Length (ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 A 16 [5] 19 [6] 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] Minimum Circumferences 3 ft from Butt.4 mm Piles purchased as “8-in.2] 30 [9.8] 35 [11.2] 52 [16.0] 42 [13.4] 43 [13.7] 44 [14.1] 36 [11. and natural taper” have a required minimum tip circumference of 25 in.8] 35 [11.4] 21 [6.8] 38 [12.5) [Approximate Diameters in Brackets] Required Minimum Tip Circumference.Table 3-4 Southern Pine Foundation Piling – Specified Tip Circumferences with Corresponding Minimum Butt Circumferences A.0] 45 [14.6] 25 [8.6] 47 [15. In.6] 53 [16.9] 32 [10.0] 20 [6. or girth of less than 50 in.0] 45 [14.5] 34 [10.4] 31 [9.8] 35 [11.0] 42 [13.3] 46 [14.2] 30 [9.4] 40 [12.7] 22 [7.5] 34 [10.1] 39 [12.3] 38 [12.9] 29 [9.7] 44 [14.1] 39 [12.0] 22 [7.3] 49 [15.1] 36 [11.1] 36 [11.6] 41 [13. B C Southern Yellow Pine piles are generally available in lengths shorter than 70 ft.8] 38 [12. = 25.4] 43 [13.6] 47 [15.2] 33 [10.0] 48 [15. are shown in column for 8 inch diameter tips. and are available in lengths of 20 to 45 ft. in length.9] 32 [10.4] 37 [11.2] 33 [10.3] 46 [14.B (from ASTM D25 – Table X1.9] 32 [10.4] 43 [13.2] 52 [16.9] 51 [16.4] 37 [11.7] 44 [14.5] 31 [9.5] 31 [9.4] 40 [12.2] Commonly available sizes are shown within the bold outline: Dimensions for ASTM Table X1.0] 23 [7.1] 39 [12. 1 in.5] To convert to metric dimensions. 19 [6. These are for piles up to 45 ft.8] 38 [12.1] 39 [12. in.

4] 29.0 [5.0 [6..3] 29.2] 16.1] 16.3 [5.1] 16.6 [6.0] 18.8 [6.0 [5.6] 19.0 [5.0 [5.0] 21.5 [7.0 [5.1] 16.4] 23.3] 24.1] 19.4 mm.8] 31.0 [5.0] 16.1] 16.8 [6.5 [5.0 [5.0 [6.3] 18.9] 16.0] 16.0 [5.3] 26.0 [5.4] 16.5 [5.0] 25. 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] 41 [13] 44 [14] 47 [15] 50 [16] 57 [18] Minimum Tip Circumferences.5] 16. 1 in.0 [8.2 [6.2] 18.0 [5.1] 16.0] 28.0 [5.0 [5.1] 17.5] 26. 3 ft from Butts Length (ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 A Where the taper applied to the butt circumferences calculate to a circumference at the tip of less than 16 in.1] 16.7] 17.0 [7.9] 20.0 [5.3 [7.0 [5.5] 23.0] 25.1] 16.0 [8.0 [5.1] 16.1] 17.0 [6.0 [5.2 [8.1] 16.6 [10.5] 16.0 [5.0 [5.6 [7.0 [7. the individual values have been increased to 16 in.0 [5.9 [9.1] 16. in.0 [7.1] 16.0 [8.1] 16.0 [5.5 [8.6 [6.0 [5.1] 16.0] 22.4] 31.9] 17.1] 16.0 [8.2] 19.2 [5.0 [5.1] 16.0] 22.0 [5.1] 18.7] 24.0 [5.0 [5.0 [5.5 [6.4] 20.0] 28.1] 16.0 [5.1] 17.5 [6.9] 21.0] 28.1] 16. = 25.0 [5.5 [9.1] 28.0 [8.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.0 [5.1] 16.1] 16.6] 21.0 [5.0 [5. to ensure a minimum of 5-in.0 [5.5] 23.1] 16.4] 19.0 [5.0 [5.0 [5.0 [8.1] Commonly available sizes are shown within the bold outline: 16.5 [5.6] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [5.3 [8.4] 16.5 [5.1] 16.0 [5.3 [6.1] 17.9] 21.1] 16.1] 16.6] 20.1] 15 .1] 16. in.1 [5.9] 16.0 [9.1] 16.0 [7.0 [5.TABLE 3-5 Douglas Fir Foundation Piling – Specified Butt Circumferences with Corresponding Minimum Tip Circumferences A. 16.0 [5.1] 18.2] 26.1] 18.6] 27.0 [5.0 [7.1] 16.6] 27.1] 16.0 [5.0] 16.0 [5.1] 16.0 [6.1] 16. B To convert to metric dimensions.0 [5.7] 21.4] 26.0 [7.0 [5.6 [5.0 [5.0 [5.0 [9.9 [6.7] 22.3 [10.0 [5.6] 30.0 [7.1] 16.1] 16. tip for purposes of driving.6] 30.0 [5.0 [9.0 [6.1] 16.5] 18.2) [Approximate Diameters in Brackets] Required Minimum Circumference.1] 16.0 [8.6 [5.9 [7.B (from ASTM D 25 – Table X1.0 [5.1] 16.0 [8.0 [5.0 [8.0 [5.3] 17.4] 20.7] 24.1] 16.9] 24.1] 16.0] 25.

3 [10.5] 24.3 [11.0 [13.1] 36.8 [11.5] 37.7] 47.8 [19.5] 50.3 [17.1] 48.0] 42.8 [14.0 [16.8 [12.3 [8.0 [13.8] 32.9] 51.0] 48.0 [11.8 [15.2] 30.9] 51.8] 29.5 [17.8 [17.6] 37.7] 56.9] 35.5 [15.5 [14.5 [13.0] 42.5] 43.2] 36.5 [11.7] 41.7] 47. 30 [9.9] 60.8 [8.0 [14.8] 44.9] 45.1] 29. These are for piles up to 45 ft.4] 46.5 [16.0] 35.3 [13.3 [17.8 [17.3 [13.5] 34.3] 46.2] 45.4] 40.0 [17.6] 37.3 [14.3 [17. in.6] Commonly available sizes are shown within the bold outline: Dimensions for ASTM Table X1.5 [18.3] 52.8 [12.Table X1.0 [10.3 [18.6] 40.4] 56.5] 59.3 [15.0 [14.5 [11.0 [11.0 [12.9] 45.1] 55.B (from ASTM D 25 .1] 55.TABLE 3-6 Douglas Fir Foundation Piling – Specified Tip Circumferences with Corresponding Minimum Butt Circumferences A.5 [19.3 [15.0 [15.0 [18.9] 26.0 [12.1] 48.6] 24.0 [8.9] 38.8 [12.5 [10.5] 50.5] 53.4] 34.0 [19.0] 29.2] 49.2] 52.8 [18.6] 47.3 [12.4] 37.8 [10.8 [17.3 [9.1] 36.7] 34.9] 57.7] 44. = 25.0 [17.6] 53.8 [13.3 [11.5] 46.0 [13.5] 43. 1 in.0 [14.8 [16.5 [16.1] 45.5 [8.1] 58.8 [13.0 [15.6] 25.3 [14.0 [15.8 [14.8 [15.4] 27.2] 42.3 [16.8 [7.5] 40.8 [11.5 [15.8 [16.2] 52.8] 44.8] 44.7] 44.0 [16.0 [18.8 [15.8 [12.5 [13.9] 54.0 [13.3 [14.4) [Approximate Diameters in Brackets] Required Minimum Tip Circumference.5] 31.0] 45.7] 41.5] 46.0 [12.8] 47.8 [13.8 [9.9] 48.7] 50.7] 56.9] 51.8 [7.5] 36.4] 49. and are available in lengths of 20 to 45 ft.8 [16. in length.4] 43.7] 38.5 [9.5 [15.9] 38.8 [11. are shown in column for 8 inch diameter tips.5 [7.3 [10.8 [18.8 [18.3] 52.5 [10.3 [12. Length (ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 21.0] 39.5 [13.7] 41.3 [14.5 [16.8 [13.5 [17.1] 26.0 [11.3] 39. and natural taper” have a required minimum tip circumference of 25 in.1] 58.2] 58.0 [17.7] A To convert to metric dimensions.4] 30.5 [9.1] 51.5 [17.5 [12.4] 49.5 [13.5] 33.8 [13.9] 54.3] 46.0 [15.0 [16.0 [10.3 [15. 40.0] 32.5 [15.0 [9.5 [14.0] 42.9] 41.7] 28.5 [14.3 [13.3] 27.0 [14.3 [13.8 [14. sometimes known as natural taper piles.0 [12.5 [12.3] 46.3 [16.3 [9.7] 60.3 [11.8] 41.8 [9.9] 38.0 [11.8] 57.0 [13.8 [10.3] 46.6] 31.7] 53.8 [14.3 [14.0 [10.3 [8.3 [18.5 [12.5 [13.1] 23.5] 56.8] 35.0 [16.3] 49.6] 16 [5] 19 [6] 22 [7] 25 [8] 28 [9] 31 [10] 35 [11] 38 [12] Circumferences 3 ft from Butt.0 [15.5] 37.6] 27. In.3 [12.5 [18.1 minimum 8 inch tip size.3 [13.8 [14.3] 55.5] 53.0] 32.1] 45.1] 51.6] 44.6] 28.3] 43.3] 49.5 [16.0 [6.3] 33.7] 22. B 16 .3] 39.8 [15.0 [8.0 [9.3 [10.5 [12.8] 35.1] 42.6] 34.4] 40.5] 43.3 [15.9] 32.7] 53.0 [15.3] 58.7] 50.5] 31.3] 55.3 [10.2] 39.5 [14.5 [10.0] 54.5 [11.7] 41.4 mm Piles purchased as “8-in.1] 48.3] 33.1] 43.3 [16.1] 42.8] 50.6] 47.5 [11.2] 33.1] 39.0 [7.8] 38.5] 43.3] 36.9] 48.0 [14.3] 61.3 [11.

5 provides guidance on determining the working strength of timber piles using the small clear wood specimens.3.Table 3-7 Sizes of Class A. Small clear wood samples of timber piles may be used to determine the allowable design strengths.5 WORKING STRENGTH BASED ON SMALL CLEAR WOOD SPECIMENS The method presented is this section is based on ASTM D 2899. 3 ft from butt x tip dia.6 provides guidance on how to determine the allowable strength of species based on the working strength values determined in Section 3. tip pile* Dia. Section 3. B and 8 Inch Minimum Tip Piles Length (ft) 8 inch min. Section 3. Class A Class B 14” @ 3’ x 9” 12” @ 3’ x 8” 14” @ 3’ x 9” 12” @ 3’ x 7” 14” @ 3’ x 8” 13” @ 3’ x 7” 14” @ 3’ x 7” 13” @ 3’ x 6” 14” @ 3’ x 6” 13” @ 3’ x 5” See 8 inch tip sizes To 40 column in tables 3-4 40 to 54 & 3-6 55 to 74 75 to 90 > 90 * Also known as NYC Building Code Pile TABLE 3-8 Sizes of Timber Pile per Canadian Standards Association (Can3-056) Diameter at Extreme Butt or Large End inches [centimeters] Length feet Up to 20 20 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 69 70 to 89 90 to 105 14 [36] 13 [33] 12 [30] 11 [27] 10 [24] Diameter at Tip inches [centimeters] 10 [25] 10 [25] 9 [23] 8 [20] 8 [20] 7 [18] 6 [15] 10 [25] 9 [23] 8 [20] 7 [18] 7 [18] 6 [15] 5 [13] 9 [23] 8 [20] 7 [18] 7 [18] 6 [15] 8 [20] 7 [18] 6 [15] 7 [18] 6 [15] - TABLE 3-9 Residential Bulkhead and Dock Piling Diameter at Butt (inches) 8 10 12 Southern Pine Length (feet) 12-30 16-35 20-40 Douglas Fir Length (feet) 12-30 16-35 20-40 3. 17 .

5. the working stress parallel to the grain is three times the static working stress parallel to the grain for green untreated timber piles (C⇑). For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation). 04 where : S SD (3-2) = Average small clear bending strength determined per ASTM D 2555 = Standard deviation of small clear bending strength.5. 645 SD ) / 1. 88 where : S SD (3-1) = Average small clear crushing strength determined from ASTM D 2555 = Standard deviation of small clear crushing strength. 3. 3.4 Shear Stress Perpendicular to the Grain The working stress in horizontal shear perpendicular to the grain for green untreated timber piles (σ) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation: σ = (S − 1.1 Axial Compressive Stress The working stress in static compression parallel to the grain for green untreated timber piles (C⇑) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation: C ⇑ = (S − 1. perpendicular to the grain.5. for green untreated timber piles (C⊥) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation: C⊥ = S / 1. 5 where : S (3-3) = Average proportional limit stress of small clear specimens determined per ASTM D 2555 3. 47 where : S SD = Average small clear shear strength specimens determined per ASTM D 2555 = Standard deviation of small clear shear strength. 645 SD ) / 5. (3-4) 18 .3. 645 SD ) / 2. For dynamic stresses (short term stresses due to pile installation) the working stress for small clear wood bending strength is three times the static working stress for small clear wood bending strength for green untreated timber piles (f).3 Compressive Stress Perpendicular to the Grain The working stress in compression.2 Extreme Fiber Bending Stress The extreme fiber bending stress for timber piles (f) is determined per ASTM D 2899 using the following equation : f = (S − 1.5.

5 inches) (3-5) 19 .5. effect of single pile versus group pile. 3. the greater the maximum load that can be carried. The correction factor for size applies only to bending stress and is determined using the following equation : C f = (12 / d )1 / 9 ≤ 10 where : d = pile diameter (greater than 13.4 Size The average bending stress of round wood sections based on standard beam formulas is greater than that of matched rectangular sections.5 Modulus of Elasticity The average small clear modulus of elasticity values determined per ASTM D 2555 shall be taken as the values for timber piles. pressure treatment. the section modulus of a round beam is less than (1/1.6. 3. The shorter the duration. duration of load. Wood heated to temperatures above 100°F for extended periods of time lose strength.5. The clear wood bending stress in ASTM D 2555 is based on rectangular sections.3 Pressure Treatment Timber piles should be treated in accordance with American Wood-Preservers’ Association standards (see chapter 11 on specifications). However.6. pile size. 3. as determined using the equations in sections 3. The non-treated load correction factor provided in Table 3-9 applies for piles that are either air-dried prior to treatment or are not treated. no live load).1 Load Duration Wood stress properties are affected by the duration of the maximum applied load. the working stress is reduced by 10% (typically dead load. 3.3.6. The correction factor for temperature should be selected from Table 3-10.6. multiplied by factors that account for wood fiber density. For a duration of load greater than 10 years. Normal load duration values in this manual represents a load that fully stresses a member to its allowable design value for a cumulative duration of 10 years (dead plus live load). Design values for round timber piles established in this manual are based on short-term tests. service temperature. critical section and bearing area.6 ALLOWABLE STRESS The allowable stress is determined from the working stress.2 Temperature The strength of wood is a function of the in-service temperature of the wood. Wood at higher temperatures is not as strong as the same material at lower temperatures. 3.18) that of a square beam of equivalent cross sectional area by approximately the same ratio of the rounded member to that of a rectangular member.

0 0. 20 .0 na na Untreatment Factor (Cu) Size(Cf) Load Sharing (Cls) Single pile Cluster 0.18 1. The load carrying capacity of these pile clusters is greater than the sum of the individual pile capacities as a result of load sharing.5 1.7 0.18 1.9 1. service temperature.0 Na Na Modulus of Elasticity na na 1.0 Bending 1.0 0. 3. pressure treatment.9 1.5 Load Sharing Timber piles are commonly connected by reinforced concrete caps or equivalent distribution elements.0 0. effect of single pile versus group pile. Ea): Allowable stress = (working stress Cld x Ct x Cu x Cf x Cls) (3-6) The minimum pile butt and tip diameters specified in ASTM D25 should be the basis for design. critical section and bearing area.0.9 0.7 0.11 1.0 1. Table 3-10 Adjustment Factors for Timber Piles Factors Load Duration (Cld) Temperature (Ct) ≤ 10 yrs > 10 yrs T≤100°F 100°<T≤ 125°F 125°<T≤ 150°F Southern Pine Douglas Fir Compres sion Parallel 1. pile size.0 na na Compression Perpendicular 1.6 Allowable Stress The allowable stress is determined from the working stress multiplied by factors that account for wood fiber density.11 C f = (12 / d )1 / 9 ≤ 10 Horizontal Shear 1.8 1.9 1. The following equation shall be used to determine the allowable stress of round timber piles (C⇑a.0 3. fa.0 0.0 0.0 0. duration of load.18 1.5 1.0 0. C⊥a. σa.18 1.11 1.For pile diameters less than 13 inches the adjustment factor for size is 1.9 1.5 1.7 0.9 1.0 1.6.7 0.0 0.0 0. resulting in the pile cluster deforming as a single member under axial or bending load.5 1.77 1.6.0 0.11 1.

2 Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) is a formulation of copper.7. There are two broad types of wood preservatives used in today’s pressure treating process for timber piles. These standards should be reviewed and referenced to identify preservative treatment. Although CCA is completely safe for use in all markets where it has been traditionally used. in fresh water.3. marine borers and insects. 3. zinc and arsenic in ACZA are 2:1:1 respectively. existing inventories may be sold for an indefinite period.1 CCA Industrial Uses CCA label holders are voluntarily withdrawing CCA treated wood from the retail trade effective December 31. In Canada. and waterborne preservative systems (Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA)). 3.2. freshwater and marine piling. Common applications for creosote pressure treated timber products include timber piling for foundations on land.7. bridge timber and railroad ties. The following is a general description of the most common preservatives used in piling applications. oil-borne systems (primarily creosote).7 PRESERVATIVE PROCESS Timber piles are potentially susceptible to biological attack from fungi. The proportions of copper. marine piling and structures.7. It is a distillate of tar produced by the carbonization of bituminous coal consisting of various polyaromatic hydrocarbons over a wide range of boiling temperatures. In CCA the fixation of arsenic and copper is dependent on the presence of chromium. other preservative treatments. are available for the retail market.7. The American-Wood Preserver’s Association (AWPA) develops and maintains Preservative and Treating Standards for various products and uses including land.1 Creosote Creosote has been widely used to protect wood from biological attack since 1865.3 is the treatment standard for timber piles. 2003. CCA combines the fungicidal properties of copper with the insecticidal properties of arsenic pentoxide. utility poles and construction poles in the list of approved industrial uses. ACA and ACZA are alkaline preservative systems and 21 . the Canadian Standards Association standard CSA 080. dissolved in an acidic aqueous solution. It was first developed in 1933 and has been widely used throughout the world as a wood preservative for 60 years. and in salt water. ACZA is primarily used for Douglas fir.3 Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA) Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA) is an improved formulation of the original Ammoniacal Copper Arsenate (ACA) and has been available since the early 1980’s and has now replaced ACA in the AWPA Preservative Standards. However. The EPA has recognized the continued use of CCA for industrial uses and includes foundation piling. Pressure treatment of timber piles has proven to be an effective means of protection from biological attack. which are approved and included in AWPA Standards. chromium and arsenic. 3. 3.

3.7.8 DURABILITY CONSIDERATIONS Timber piles should be treated with a preservative to prevent degradation of the wood from insect attack. 3. FHWA has concluded that : • Foundation piles submerged in ground water will last indefinitely • • Fully embedded. Douglas Fir). their use for this purpose is rare.5 Preservative Retention The required amount of preservative that should be retained by timber piles is a function of the application that the pile will be used for and the preservative. ACZA is a turquoise green and is primarily used in commercial structures where Douglas Fir is used. Durability of round timber piles is a function of site specific conditions.. or difficult to treat wood species (i. This forms an insoluble compound and fixes the chemical within the wood fibers to resist leaching and provide long term protection of timber piles in service.6 Pentachlorophenol and Copper Naphthenate Although pentachlorophenol and copper naphthenate are recognized in AWPA Standards for use in land or fresh water piling.e.7. Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) for Southern Yellow Pine and other species.were formulated to achieve consistent penetration in the treatment of refractory. CCA and ACZA are commonly used for foundation piling and for both fresh and salt water piling as well as for marine structures. Treated trestle piles over land will last about 75 years in northern areas and about 40 years in southern areas of the United States. Insect damage reduces the service life of timber piles significantly. 3. Table 3-11 provides guidelines on amount of preservative required for each application. treated foundation piles partially above the groundwater with a concrete cap will last 100 years or longer. The most common treatments for timber piles are Creosote. unless the pile is treated with a wood preservative. Land use piles require less preservative than water use piles. Typical environments where degradation is a concern exist when the pile is exposed to alternate wetting and drying cycles or located above the water table. CCA is olive green in color and is commonly used for treatment of wood used for residential decks and fences. and Ammoniacal Copper Zinc Arsenate (ACZA) for Douglas Fir. Treated timber piles are durable structural elements. and salt water applications require higher retention levels of preservatives than fresh water applications. 22 . 3. These preservatives are not recommended for use in AWPA Standards for salt water installations. The metal oxides injected into the wood during treatment react with the wood fibers resulting in a bonding or fixation of the chemical in the wood.7.4 CCA and ACZA Both CCA and ACZA in a waterborne form are carried into the wood cells within a closed pressure chamber.

9 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Timber piling is a major material used to construct piers. To assure timber piles utilized in aquatic environments incorporate BMPs the following steps should be followed: 1.. docks buildings . The pressure treated wood products industry is committed to assuring its products are manufactured and installed in a manner which minimizes any potential for adverse impacts to these important environments. 3. There are a variety of treatments and treated wood products approved for use in or above aquatic environments. Round timber pile treatment should be in accordance with the American Wood Preservers’ Association standard. C3-99 Piles-Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes. While the goal of the BMPs is common (i. 23 . Specify that the material be produced in compliance with the industry standards BMPs. It is the responsibility of the treating firm to assure that the materials leaving the plant destined for use in aquatic environments have been produced in accordance with the BMPs. 2.e. Because of inherent differences in the treatment chemical and the processes there are also a number of BMPs. 3.• • • Treated piles in fresh water will last about five to ten years less than land trestle piles in the same area For treated piles in brackish water. Specify the appropriate material in terms of performance as defined in the American Wood Preservers’ Association Standards. walkways. to minimize the migration or leaching of treating chemicals into the environment) the methods for achieving the goal vary. To achieve this objective the industry has developed and encourages the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs). the longevity should be determined by the experience in the area Treated marine piles will last about 50 years in northern climates and 25 years in southern climates. The BMPs for treated timber piles are available from AWPI. and decks used in and above aquatic environments. Require assurance that the products were produced in compliance with the BMPs.

Where Teredo and Limnoria tripunctata are expected and where pholad attack is not expected.8 1.8 1. creosote or creosote solutions provide adequate protection.5 1.0 16 20 20 16 20 20 1. dual treatment provides the maximum protection.Table 3-11 Preservative Assay Retention Requirements Creosote (pcf) Waterborne (CCA or ACZA) (pcf) Use Category Foundation Land & Fresh Water Marine N.5 2. 2.5 1. of New Jersey2 or San Francisco2 Dual Treatment3 1.0 1. 3.0 Where Teredo is expected and Limnoria tripunctata is not expected. or high retentions of CCA for Southern Pine or ACZA for Douglas fir provide maximum protection. 24 .5 2.0 12 17 0. In those areas where Limnoria tripunctata and pholad attack is expected or known. of Delaware1 or San Francisco1 S. either dual treatment. Southern Pine Douglas Fir Southern Pine Douglas Fir CCA ACZA 12 17 0.

Positive pore pressures temporarily reduce the soil shear strength and the pile capacity. and the Nottingham Schmertmann Method when CPT data is available. and are the techniques that are recommend by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA-HI-97-013). The analysis techniques that are presented in this manual have been selected because they have been proven to provide reasonable agreement with full scale field results. The effects of this installation disturbance on the soil/pile interaction is briefly explained here. Timber piles are considered to be a displacement type pile (versus a non-displacement pile (i. It is strongly recommended that prior to using any of the static methods presented in this chapter that the user be familiar with the limitations of that analytical technique. because these types of soils are more permeable than clays. 4. displacement piles disturb a zone around the pile by a lateral distance of 3 – 5. These tools are essential in assuring that the design objectives are accomplished. the disturbance from driving the displacement pile increases the relative density of the soil.5 pile diameters and 3 – 5 diameters below the tip of the pile (Broms. 1966). generate high positive porewater pressures in saturated loose to medium fine sands. H pile). the Alpha (α) Method and the Effective Stress Method for cohesive soils. The pile driving process can. This transfer of stress between the soil and pile is quantified by two components: the resistance that is developed along the shaft of the pile (Rs = shaft resistance) and the resistance that is developed at the bottom (toe) of the pile (Rt = toe resistance). to perform wave equation analysis and to perform dynamic monitoring during installation. These methods have also been selected for presentation because they are relatively straightforward to use.. and pore pressures dissipate more rapidly. 25 . For loose cohesionless soils. In cohesionless soils. also in addition to increasing the density of loose cohesionless soils. Figure 4-1 shows the limits of this pile disturbance. In conjunction with static analysis.2 SOIL/PILE INTERACTION The ultimate capacity of a pile is limited by the structural capacity of the pile (Chapter 3) and the capacity of the surrounding soil to support the loads transferred from the pile. the pile capacity increases.0 STATIC ANALYSIS DESIGN PROCEDURES 4.CHAPTER 4. This increased relative density increases the capacity of single piles and pile groups and is a major advantage of timber piles driven into cohesionless soils. as the pore pressure dissipates. This phenomenon is called “pile set up” and is generally quicker for sands and silts than for clays.1 INTRODUCTION Static analysis methods are simplified analytical techniques used to model the very complex soil-structure interaction between driven piles and the surrounding soils.e. The techniques that will be presented here include the Meyerhof Method and the Nordlund Method for piles founded in cohesionless soils. The process of driving piles affects the soil/pile interaction. it is also recommended that static load tests be conducted to further calibrate the empirical models for the regional geology.

and at the toe of the pile. The negative pore pressure occurs because of the dilation of the dense sand into a lower relative density. This increase in pore water pressure temporarily decreases the shear strength of the soil and the load carrying capacity of the pile. In these dense soils.In dense cohesionless soils. normally consolidated clays have a zone of disturbance around the pile both laterally. Figure 4 . Reconsolidation of the cohesive soil and dissipation of the excess pore pressure results in an increase in shear strength and pile capacity. The process of driving displacement piles in cohesive soils typically generates high positive pore water pressure. the disturbance from the pile driving may decrease the relative density of the surrounding soil.2. This is commonly referred to as “pile setup”. of approximately one pile diameter (Figure 4-2). As the negative pore pressure dissipates. Soft. The negative pore pressure temporarily increases the soil shear strength by effectively increasing the normal stress on the failure surface. the shear strength and pile capacity decrease.1 Load Transfer The ultimate bearing capacity (Qu) of a timber pile in homogeneous soil is the sum of the shaft reisistance (Rs ) and the toe resistance (Rt ): Qu = Rs + Rt (4-1) 26 . the increase in horizontal stress in the soil adjacent to the pile during driving may be lost by “relaxation”. This phenomenon occurs as the negative pore pressure generated during the driving dissipates.1 Compaction of Cohesionless Soils During Driving of Piles (Broms. 1966) For cohesive soils. 4. the soil pile interaction is different than for cohesionless soils.

the ultimate resistance increases linearly due to the uniform shaft resistance until the top of the pile is reached. the resistance at the toe of the pile is due to the toe resistance.2 Disturbance of Cohesive Soils During Driving of Piles (Broms. Figure 4 . and is typical for piles in normally consolidated cohesive soils. The axial load in the pile is a combination of the shaft resistance and toe resistance. It should be noted that the displacement needed to mobilize the shaft resistance is generally smaller than that required to mobilize the toe resistance.The shaft resistance may be expressed as the product of the unit shaft resistance (fs) times the shaft surface area (As). Figure 4-3c shows the case for a triangular distribution of shaft resistance. For this case. Figure 4-3b shows the load transfer profile for the case where uniform shaft resistance is developed along the length of the pile. 1966) Figure 4-3 shows the typical load transfer profiles for piles. 27 . This is the typical case for a pile in cohesionless soils. Moving up the pile. Equation 4-1 may be rewritten in unit resistance terms as follows: Qu = fs As + qt At (4-2) The equations presented here assume that both the pile toe and shaft have moved a sufficient distance with respect to the adjacent soil to simultaneously mobilize the ultimate shaft and toe resistance. and the toe resistance may be expressed as the product of the unit toe resistance (qt) times the area of the toe (At). Figure 4-3a shows the case when no shaft resistance is developed and the ultimate capacity of the pile is developed through toe resistance.

Figure 4 .3 Typical Load Transfer Profiles 28 .

2 or greater than 30 times the calculated value. It is the responsibility of the design engineer to determine the appropriate factor of safety for the specific application/project. Many of the static analysis methods are documented in the literature with specific recommendations on the factor of safety to be used with them. 4. Engineering judgment should be used in evaluating the risk associated with the unknowns in a project. more predictable procedures are provided in this manual for determining the static capacity of timber piles.4. for slope stability or for earth retaining structures. the actual bearing capacity may be less than 1.4 ENGINEERING NEWS RECORD FORMULA The AWPI Timber Piling Council recognizes that the Engineering News Formula is still in use. studies evaluating the degree of accuracy of this Formula demonstrated there was no satisfactory relationship between the capacity of piles determined by load tests versus calculated by the Engineering News Formula. most of the static analysis methods recommend a factor of safety of 3. 1967). a factor of safety of 2.3 FACTORS OF SAFETY Static analysis of piles is used to determine the ultimate capacity of a single pile or pile group. 29 . While the range in static factors of safety is from 2 to 4. although not used for piling design. The factor of safety typically ranges between 2 to 4 and is dependent on: • • • • • Level of confidence in the input design parameters Variability of the soil profile Method of static analysis Effects of proposed installation method Level of construction monitoring The first two items typically govern the factor of safety that geotechnical engineers use for assessing the appropriate factor of safety for a geotechnical design of a shallow or deep foundation. When using the formula.0 is often used because of the high level of confidence that the piles will perform as intended. When static load tests are performed. However. the confidence in the input parameters nor the level of construction monitoring. (Terazghi and Peck. The allowable capacity of the pile is the ultimate capacity divided by a factor of safety. and then selecting the appropriate factor of safety.” The Engineering News formula. Some years ago. “In view of these conditions the continued use of the Engineering News Formula can no longer be justified. These recommended factors of safety typically do not consider the variability of the soil profile. These items should also be considered when selecting the factor of safety for design. is used on-site as a quality control tool.

30 .

A step-by-step procedure is presented for each method. Table 5-1 Design Methods Cohesionless Soil Cohesive Soil Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Design Method Meyerhof Nordlund α Method Effective Stress Nottingham & Schmertmann Applicable for Final Design No Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. overburden depth.CHAPTER 5..0 DESIGN OF SINGLE PILES 5.e. etc. Each procedure is taken from the FHWA manual “Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations (FHWA-HI-97-013). The major disadvantage of this method is that SPT values are non-reproducible and can be influenced by many factors (i. 1976) Meyerhof developed a method of estimating pile capacity based on empirical correlations between standard penetration test (SPT) results and static pile load tests. This method should be used for preliminary estimates and not for final design.). resulting in a less reliable method than the other methods presented in this manual. many simplifying assumptions are contained in the method. Because of the simplicity of the method.2 MEYERHOF METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS (Meyerhof. The advantages of this method are that it is very easy to use and that SPT data is typically available for a project.1 INTRODUCTION The methods to determine the static capacity of single piles presented in this chapter have been selected because of their simplicity and excellent track record for predicting pile capacity when compared to pile load tests. timber piles) Meyerhof has established that the average unit shaft resistance (fs) is: fs = 2 N' 50 ≤ 2 ksf (5-1) N' is the average corrected SPT resistance in blows per foot The unit toe resistance (qt) in ksf for piles driven into sands and gravels may be approximated by the following equation: 31 ..g. The methods presented in this manual and when they are applicable is provided in Table 5-1. rod length. For displacement piles (e. hammer efficiency.

qt. 8 N' B −0. Compute the unit shaft resistance in ksf for timber piles from: fs = 2 N ′ 50 ≤ 2 Step 3 Step 4 Compute ultimate shaft resistance Rs (kips) Rs = fs As 32 . the unit toe resistance in ksf is determined from the following equation: qt = 0.qt = 8 N' o + [ (0. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR MEYERHOF METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure. with the weaker stratum above the bearing stratum. overlying the bearing stratum N' B = Average corrected SPT N’ value for the bearing stratum D B = Pile embedment depth into the bearing stratum in feet b = Pile tip diameter in feet Equation 5-2 applies when the pile toe is located near the interface of two strata. For piles driven into a uniform cohesionless stratum. The individual soil layers should be selected between 10 and 20 feet. Along the embedment length of pile delineate the soil profile into layers based on density indicated by the N’ value. The limiting value of the unit toe resistance is reached when the embedment depth into the bearing stratum reaches 10 pile diameters. Meyerhof recommended the unit toe resistance. 8 N ' B D B ÷ b ≤ 8 N ' B (5-3) It is recommended that the average corrected SPT N’ value N' B be calculated by averaging N’ values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe. Use correction factors from Figure 5-1. N’ = CN N where: N’ CN N = corrected SPT N value = correction factor for overburden stress (Figure 5-1) = uncorrected or field SPT value Step 2 Compute the average corrected SPT N’ value (N' ) for each soil layer. 8 N' O ) D B ] ÷ b ≤ 8 N' B where: (5-2) N' O = Average corrected SPT N’ value for the stratum. be limited to 300 N' B instead of the 400 N' B given in the above equation. For piles driven into non-plastic silts.

the unit toe resistance should be limited to 0. 8 N ' B D B ÷ b ≤ 8 N B For pile driven into non-plastic silts. compute the average corrected SPT N’ value for the stratum overlying the bearing stratum.where: Step 5 As = pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length) Compute the average corrected SPT N’ values (N' O ) and (N' B ) near the pile toe. Step 6 Compute the unit toe resistance qt For weaker soils overlying the bearing stratum. compute the average corrected SPT N’ value by averaging N’ values within the zone extending 3 diameters below the pile toe. compute qt from: ′ qt = 8 N' o +(0. 33 . and the average corrected SPT N’ value for the bearing stratum (N' B ) . compute qt from: ′ qt = 0. (N' O ) . 6 N' B ksf. Step 8 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips) Qu = Rs + Rt Step 9 Compute the allowable design load Qa (kips) Qa = Qu / factor of Safety The Meyerhof Method should be used only for preliminary capacity and length estimates. Step 7 Compute the ultimate toe resistance Rt (kips) Rt = qt At Where At is the pile toe area (ft2). 8 N' O ) D B ÷ b ≤ 8 N B For pile in a uniform cohesionless deposit. In uniform cohesionless soils. In cases where the pile toe is situated near the interface of a weaker stratum overlying the bearing stratum. 8 N' B −0.

e.) and the soil pile interaction in calculating the shaft resistance.3 NORDLUND METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS SOILS (1963) The Nordlund method considers the type of the pile (i. displacement versus non-displacement. Hanson. The Nordlund Method (Figure 5-2) equation for computing the ultimate capacity of a pile is as follows: D Q u = [ ∑ d =0 K δ C F p d sin (δ + ω )C d ∆d ÷ cos ω ] + α t N' q At p t d= (5-4) where: d D Kδ = = = Depth Embedment pile length Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at depth d 34 . coefficient of friction between the pile material and soil.Figure 5-1: Chart for Correction of N-Values in Sand for Influence of Overburden Pressure (from Peck. Thornburn. The shaft resistance of a pile is a function of several parameters including the following: • • • • • • • Friction angle of the soil Friction angle of sliding surface (soil/pile interface) Taper of the pile Effective unit weight of the soil Pile length Minimum pile perimeter Volume of soil displaced The Nordlund method attempts to take these parameters into consideration when evaluating pile capacity. This method is a semi-empirical approach that is widely used. etc. 1974) 5.

CF pd δ ω ϕ Cd ∆d αt N’q At pt = = = = = = = = = = = Correction factor for Kδ when δ ≠ ϕ Effective overburden pressure at the center of depth increment d Friction angle between pile and soil Angle of pile taper from vertical Soil effective friction angle Pile perimeter at depth d Length of pile segment Dimensionless factor (dependent on pile depth-width relationships) Bearing capacity factor Pile toe area Effective overburden pressure at the pile toe (limited to 3 ksf). B. Figure 5-2 Nordlund’s General Equation for Ultimate Pile Capacity (FHWA-HI-97-013) STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR NORDLUND METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the ϕ angle for each layer. A.) Construct an effective overburden pressure (po) diagram versus depth. Delineate soil profile into layers based on corrected SPT N‘ values 35 .) Correct the SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Figure 5-1.

C.) Determine ϕ angle for each layer of soil from laboratory tests or in-situ data. D.) In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data, determine the average corrected SPT N’ values (N' ) for each soil layer and determine ϕ angle from Table 5-1. Table 5-1 Empirical Correlation for Effective Friction Angle of Granular soils based on Corrected SPT Value (after Bowles, 1977) Description Corrected N’ ϕ angle** Very Loose 0 to 4 25 - 30° Loose 4 to 10 27 - 32° Medium 10 to 30 30 - 35° Dense 30 to 50 35 to 40° Very Dense 50+ 38 - 43°

* Corrections may be unreliable in soils containing gravel. ** Use larger values for granular material with 5% or less fine sand and silt.

Step 2

Determine the friction angle between the pile and soil (δ) based on the displaced soil volume (V) and the soil friction angle (ϕ). A.) Compute the volume of soil displaced per unit length of pile (V). B.) Use Figure 5-3 to determine the ratio of the pile soil friction angle to the soil friction angle δ/ϕ. C.) Calculate δ based on δ/ϕ ratio.

Step 3

Determine the coefficient of lateral earth pressure Kδ for each ϕ angle. Determine Kδ for each ϕ angle based on displaced volume ,V, and pile taper angle (ω) using Figures 5-4 – 5-7 and the appropriate procedure in steps 3 A, B, or C. A.) If the displaced volume is 0.1, 1, or 10 ft3/ft, which corresponds to one of the curves in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, and the soil friction angle is one of those provided, Kδ may be determined directly from the appropriate figure. B.) If the displaced volume is 0.1, 1, or 10 ft3/ft, which corresponds to one of the curves provided in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, but the effective friction angle (ϕ) is different from those provided, use a linear interpolation to determine Kδ for the required ϕ (see FHWA-HI-97-013 for additional detail). C.) If the displaced volume is other than 0.1, 1, or 10 ft3/ft, which corresponds to one of the curves provided in Figures 5-4 through 5-7, but the effective friction angle (ϕ) is one of those provided, use a log linear interpolation to determine Kδ for the required volume (see FHWA-HI-97-013 for additional detail). For preliminary designs Kδ may be estimated by visual estimation between curves in Figures 5-4 through 5-7.

Step 4

Determine the correction factor, CF, to be applied to Kδ if δ ≠ ϕ. Use Figure 5-8 to determine the correction factor for each Kδ.

36

Step 5

Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each layer (pd). Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil. The sum of the shaft resistance from each layer obtained is equivalent to the ultimate shaft resistance Rs.
D R s = ∑d =0 K δ C F p d sin (δ + ω )C d ∆d ÷ cos ω d=

Step 6

Step 7

Determine the αt coefficient and the bearing capacity factor, N’q, from the friction angle of the soil near the pile toe. A.) Use Figure 5-9a to determine αt coefficient based on pile length to diameter ratio. B.) Use Figure 5-9b to determine N’q. C.) If the friction angle of the soil is estimated from SPT data, compute the average corrected SPT N’ value over the zone from the pile toe to 3 diameters below the pile toe. Use this average corrected N’ value to estimate the friction angle near the toe of the pile using Table 5-1

2.50

2.00

VOLUME, V (ft3/ft)

1.50

1.00

0.50

0.00 0.00

0.25

0.50

0.75

1.00

1.25

1.50

δ /φ

Figure 5-3: Relationship of δ/ϕ and pile displacement (V) for timber piles (after Nordlund, 1979)

37

7 6 5

4 3 2

1.00 0.85 1 0.70 0 0.0 0.5

V = 10.0 ft3/ft V = 1.0 ft3/ft V = 0.1 ft3/ft

ω (degrees)

1.0

1.5

2.0

Figure 5-4: Design curve for evaluating Kδ for piles when ϕ = 25°(after Nordlund, 1979)

7 6 5

4 3

2 1.45 1.15 0.85 1 0 0.0

V = 10.0 ft3/ft V = 1.0 ft3/ft V = 0.1 ft3/ft 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

ω (degrees)

Figure 5-5: Design curve for evaluating Kδ for piles when ϕ = 30°(after Nordlund, 1979)

38

0 ω (degrees) Figure 5-6: Design curve for evaluating Kδ for piles when ϕ = 35°(after Nordlund.0 V = 10.70 5 V = 10. 1979) 20 15 Kδ 10 4.0 ft3/ft 3 V = 0.0 ft3/ft 3 V = 0.1 ft /ft 0 0.35 1.30 3.5 2.0 1.5 2.00 1.5 1.1 ft /ft 0.0 ft3/ft V = 1.15 8 6 4 2 0 0.0 0. 1979) 39 .5 ω (degrees) 1.0 1.0 ft3/ft V = 1.75 1.0 Figure 5-7: Design curve for evaluating Kδ for piles when ϕ = 40°(after Nordlund.14 12 10 Kδ 2.

) With the friction angle of the soil estimated from SPT corrected values (N’) and Table 5-1. Use the lesser of the two values.) R t = α t N' q At p t Limit R t = q l At where q l is obtained from Figure 5-10 and the following two steps: 1.) With the friction angle near the toe of the pile determined from laboratory or in-situ test data.Step 8 Compute the effective overburden pressure at the pile toe pt. Step 9 Compute the ultimate toe resistance Rt with the following two steps: A. Note that the limiting value of pt is 3 ksf. Step 10 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips) Qu = Rs + Rt Step 11 Compute the allowable design load Qa (kips) Qa = Qu / Factor of Safety Figure 5-8: Correction Factor for Kδ when δ ≠ ϕ (after Nordlund. and 2. 1979) 40 .) B.

method of installation.4 α. The coefficient α depends on the nature and strength of the clay. The unit shaft resistance is expressed in terms of an empirical adhesion factor times the undrained shear strength. In stiff clays. The bearing capacity factor is typically taken as 9. is equal to the adhesion (ca) which is the shear stress between the pile and the soil. Figure 5-12b should be used for determining the adhesion for piles driven through soft clay into stiff clay. f s = c a = αc u (5-6) α is an empirical adhesion factor to reduce the average undrained shear strength (cu) of the undisturbed clay along the embedded length of the pile. In this case. This condition will typically develop the highest adhesion factors as the granular soil is dragged into the underlying clay. The adhesion factor is. reduced at shallow pile penetration depths and increased at deeper pile penetration depths. This method assumes that the shaft resistance is independent of the effective overburden pressure. Figure 5-12a should be used when driving a pile through a layer of sand or sandy gravel which is above a stiff clay layer. The unit shaft resistance.5. 41 . the soft clay is dragged into the stiff clay stratum reducing the adhesion factor of the underlying stiff clay. Figure 5-12c may be used when driving piles in stiff clays without any different overlying strata. 1979) The ultimate bearing capacity of a pile in cohesive soil may develop up to 80 – 90% of its capacity through shaft resistance. Figure 5-11 should be used to determine the pile adhesion for the general case of a homogeneous soil profile. fs. The α-Method is a total stress analysis where the ultimate capacity of the pile is determined from the undrained shear strength of the cohesive soil.METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIVE SOILS (Tomlinson. and time effects. therefore. pile dimensions. a gap often forms between the pile and the soil in the upper portion of the pile. The unit toe resistance is determined for homogeneous cohesive soil using the following equation: q = cu N c (5-7) The term Nc is a dimensionless bearing capacity factor which depends on the pile diameter and depth of embedment.

Figure 5-9: Chart for Estimating αt Coefficient and Bearing Capacity Factor N’q (Chart modified from Bowles. 1977) 42 .

For each soil layer. from the sum of the shaft resistances for each layer. ca. fs. α. f s = c a = αc u Step 3 Compute the shaft resistance in each soil layer and the ultimate shaft resistance. Rs = ∑fsAs where: Step 4 As = pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length) Compute the unit toe resistance. qt = 9 c u Step 5 Compute the ultimate toe resistance. from Figure 5-12. Rt. from Figure 5-11 or the adhesion factor. qL 400 (ksf) 200 600 Loose Medium Dense Very Loose 0 30 35 40 45 Angle of Internal Friction. Rt = qtAt Step 6 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips) Qu = Rs + Rt 43 . compute the unit shaft resistance. 1976) STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR α-METHOD IN COHESIVE SOIL (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Step 2 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the adhesion.800 Very Dense Limiting Unit Toe Resistance. φ (degrees) Figure 5-10: Relationship between maximum unit pile toe resistance and friction angle for cohesionless soils (after Meyerhof. qt. Rs.

4 0.Step 7 Compute the allowable design load Qa (kips) Qa = Qu / Factor of Safety 2. ca (ksf) D>40b 0.0 3. c u (ksf) Timber Piles D = Distance from Ground Surface to Bottom of Clay Layer or Pile Toe.8 Adhesion.0 0.0 Undrained Shear Strength. 1979) 5.5 EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD FOR PILES IN COHESIONLESS AND COHESIVE SOILS The long-term drained shear strength conditions of piles may be effectively modeled using effective stress methods. (5-9) 44 .6 1.2 Pile 0. The effective stress method presented in this manual is based on the calculation of the unit shaft resistance (fs) using the following equation: f s = βp o where: (5-8) = Bjerrum-Burland beta coefficient = Ks tanδ = Average effective overburden pressure along the pile shaft = Earth pressure coefficient = Friction angle between the pile and the soil β po Ks δ The unit toe resistance (qt) is calculated from: q t = N t pt where: Nt pt = Toe bearing capacity coefficient = Effective overburden pressure at the toe of the pile.0 4.0 D=10b 1.0 1. Whichever is Less b = Pile Diameter Figure 5-11: Adhesion values for piles in cohesive soils (after Tomlinson.0 2.

1980) 45 .Figure 5-12: Adhesion factors for Driven Piles in Clay (after Tomlinson.

0.0.The toe bearing coefficient.30 .30 20 .40 28 . Table 5-2 Range of β and Nt coefficients (Fellenius.45 0.23 .3 0. and the beta coefficient.2 Clay Silt Sand Gravel 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 φ (degrees) Figure 5-13: Chart for Estimating β Coefficient versus Soil Type φ’ Angle (after Fellenius.150 60 .1991) ϕ’ β 25 . may be determined from Table 5-2 and Figures 5-13 and 5-14 may also be used to estimate the beta coefficient (β).80 Soil Type Clay Silt Sand Gravel Nt 3 .40 0. Nt.4 0. β.40 30 .35 .300 1.60 35 . 1991) 46 .0.0.34 0.27 . and the toe bearing coefficient (Nt).30 0.0 Sand Silt β 0.5 Clay Gravel Coefficient 0.50 32 .

) Determine the ϕ’ angle for each layer from laboratory or in-situ test data. B. fs.400 300 200 100 Toe Bearing Capacity Coefficient. A.) Construct the effective overburden versus depth diagram. 1991) STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine ϕ’ angle for each layer.) Divide the soil profile throughout the pile penetration depth into layers and determine the effective overburden pressure. at the midpoint of each layer. Use Table 5-2 and Figure 5-13 to estimate β for each layer. f s = βp o 47 . Nt 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3 2 20 25 30 35 40 Clay Silt Sand Gravel 45 50 φ (degrees) Figure 5-14: Chart for Estimating Nt Coefficient versus Soil Type φ’ Angle (after Fellenius. Step 3 For each soil layer. Step 2 Select the β coefficient for each soil layer. In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data for cohesionless soils. determine the average corrected SPT N’ value for each layer and estimate ϕ’ angle from Table 5-1. compute the unit shaft resistance. po. C.

. Step 6 Compute the ultimate toe resistance. Rt. 5 fs As where: K [ ( fs ) 0 to 8 b + fs As ( ) 8 btoD ] (5-10) As b D = Ratio of unit pile shaft resistance to unit cone sleeve friction from Figure 5-15 = Average unit sleeve friction over the depth interval indicated by the subscript (i. Rs. qt. Rt = qtAt Step 7 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips) Qu = Rs + Rt Step 8 Compute the allowable design load Qa (kips) Qa = Qu / Factor of Safety 5. in cohesionless soils may be derived from the unit sleeve friction of the CPT using the following equation: R S = K 0. Rs. The ultimate shaft resistance. 0 to 8b) = Pile-soil surface area over fs depth interval = Pile diameter (average in depth interval) = Embedded pile length 48 . That procedure is summarized in the following paragraphs. from the sum of the shaft resistances from each layer. q t = N t pt Use local experience or Table 5-2 and Figure 5-14 to estimate Nt.6 NOTTINGHAM AND SCHMERTMANN METHOD (Nottingham and Schmertmann. 1975) Static cone penetrometer test (CPT) data may be used when available to estimate the static capacity of single piles under axial loads.Step 4 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil and the ultimate shaft resistance. Rs = ∑fsAs where: As = pile shaft surface area = (perimeter) x (embedded length) Step 5 Compute the unit toe resistance.e. Nottingham and Schmertmann developed a procedure to estimate static pile capacity from CPT data.

compute ultimate shaft resistance.018 for timber piles = Average cone tip resistance along the pile length = Pile-soil surface area (5-11) The shaft resistance in cohesive soils is obtained from the sleeve friction values using the following equation: R S = α' fs AS where: (5-12) = Ratio of pile shaft resistance to cone sleeve friction Figure 5-16. compute the ultimate shaft resistance from: R S = C f ∑ q c AS 49 . and sleeve friction. whichever is less.If cone sleeve friction data is not available. α’ Figure 5-17 is used to determine the ultimate pile toe capacity in cohesive soils using an average weighted cone resistance from 8 pile diameters above the toe to 3. using the average sleeve friction value for the layer. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR NOTTINGHAM AND SCHMERTMANN METHOD (FHWAHI-97-013) Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers using the cone tip resistance. Step 2 R S = K 0. The K value should be determined using the full pile penetration depth to diameter ratio from Figure 7-18 and not the penetration depth of the layer. Conversely. the depth d corresponds to the pile toe depth.75 pile diameters below the toe. and the K value. 5 fs As [ ( ) 0 to 8 b + fs As ( ) 8 btoD ] For cohesionless layers below a depth of 8b. Compute the shaft resistance for each soil layer. Rs may be determined from the cone tip resistance in cohesionless soil as follows: R S = C f ∑ q c AS where: Cf qc AS = 0. values. The maximum value of qt should be limited to 100 ksf. A. fs . RS. the above equation for shaft resistance in a layer reduces to: R S = K fs AS For piles in cohesionless soils without sleeve friction data. RS. or the depth to the bottom of the layer. fs . unless local experience warrants use of higher values.) For piles in cohesionless soils. qt.

B. q t = (q c 1 + q c 2 ) ÷ 2 Use Figure 7-20 to determine qc1 and qc2. qt. compute the ultimate shaft resistance using the average sleeve friction value for the layer from: RS = α' fs AS Use Figure 5-16 to determine α′.) For piles in cohesive soils. Step 3 Step 4 Calculate the total pile shaft resistance from the sum of the shaft resistances from each soil layer. Compute the unit pile toe resistance. Rt = qtAt Step 6 Compute the ultimate pile capacity (kips) Qu = Rs + Rt Step 7 Compute the allowable design load Qa (kips) Qa = Qu / Factor of Safety 50 . Rt. Step 5 Determine the ultimate toe resistance.

0 3. 0.6 α' 0.0 5.0 2. 1978) 51 .8 Friction Ratio.4 0.0 4.0 4.0 1.0 10 D/b 20 Electrical Penetrometer 30 Mechanical Penetrometer 40 Figure 5-15: Penetrometer design curves for pile side friction in sand (FHWA-TS-78-209) 1.0 0.0 2.2 Penetrometer to Pile 0.4 1.0 Timber Piles 1.0 3.K for Timber Piles 0 1.0 Penetrometer Sleeve Friction.2 0. fs (ksf) Figure 5-16: Design curve for pile side friction in clay (after Schmertmann.

Figure 5-17: Illustration of Nottingham and Schmertmann Procedure for Estimating Pile Toe Capacity (FHWA-TS-78-209) 52 .

5. or the Nottingham and Schmertmann method.3 and adding the weight of the pile to obtain the ultimate uplift capacity. This lower capacity is a function of the taper of the pile and the skin friction between the pile and soil for uplift loading is less than for compression loading. The uplift capacity may. Figure 5-18: Uplift connection details. be less than the short-term capacity because the clay tends to soften with time as the negative pore pressure dissipates. the uplift capacity is generally less than the compression capacity of the pile. Two uplift connection details that are often used for timber piles are shown on Figure 5-18. the α method. 53 .7 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF SINGLE PILES The uplift capacity for timber piles in cohesive soils may be determined by considering the shaft resistance as presented in section 5. the effective stress method. Comparison of uplift pile load tests with compression pile load tests in cohesive soils reveals that the uplift adhesion between the pile and the soil is approximately the same as the adhesion developed in compression. It has been found that negative pore pressures may occur in clays during uplift. therefore. For timber piles in cohesionless soils. recommends that the design uplift capacity of a single pile in cohesionless or cohesive soils should be taken as one third (1/3) of the ultimate shaft resistance calculated from either the Nordlund method. therefore. FHWA.

54 .

0. Piles at spacings greater than 3 pile diameters act as individual piles. 6.) For pile groups driven in clays with undrained shear strengths less than 2 ksf and the pile cap not in firm contact with the ground.. If the center-to-center spacing is greater than 6 pile diameters. 3. use a group efficiency of 1.0 may be used.7. the compaction effect on the soil is overlapped. ηg > 1).0 DESIGN OF PILE GROUPS 6.) For pile groups in clays with undrained shear strength greater than 2 ksf. 55 .e. This is due to the effect of soil compaction between piles. use a group efficiency of 0.CHAPTER 6.2 AXIAL PILE CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS IN COHESIONLESS SOILS For timber piles driven in cohesionless soils with a center-to-center spacing of less than 3 pile diameters. the ultimate capacity of the group is greater than the ultimate capacity of the sum of the individual piles (i. 2. The lesser of the four calculated ultimate group capacities using the following four steps should be used (FHWA-HI-97-013).) For piles in clays with an undrained shear strength less than 2 ksf and the pile cap in firm contact with the ground. use a group efficiency of 1.3 AXIAL PILE CAPACITY OF PILE GROUPS IN COHESIVE SOILS Use the following procedure for the determination of the ultimate capacity of timber pile groups in cohesive soils. 1. The group efficiency is expressed as follows: η g = Qug ÷ (nQ u ) where: (6-1) Q ug n Qu = Ultimate capacity of the pile group = Number of piles in the pile group = Ultimate capacity of each individual pile in the group It is recommended that a maximum pile to pile spacing of 3 pile diameters be used for all pile groups. 6. when the piles are spaced this closely together.1 INTRODUCTION The design of a group of piles must consider the axial load carrying capacity of the pile group as well as the settlement of the pile group. then a group efficiency of 1.0. In group pile design it is convenient to refer to the efficiency of a group (ηg) of piles as the ratio of the ultimate capacity of the group to the sum of the ultimate capacity of the individual piles in the group.

should be calculated from the following equation.8. The ultimate capacity of a pile group against block failure (Figure 6-1) is determined from the following equation: Qug = 2 D (B + Z ) cu 1 + B Z cu 2 N c where: D B Z cu1 cu2 Nc (6-2) = Embedment length of piles = Width of pile group = Length of pile group = Weighted average of the undrained shear strength over the depth of the pile embedded in the cohesive soil along the pile group perimeter = Average of the undrained shear strength of the cohesive soil at the base of the pile group to a depth of 2B below the pile toe = Bearing capacity factor (for rectangular pile groups) The bearing capacity factor. 1 to 2 months after installation) group efficiencies on the order of 0.4 to 0. Nc. N c = 5 [ 1 + D / 5 B ][ 1 + B / 5 Z ] ≤ 9 (6-3) Pile driving in cohesive soils may generate large excess pore water pressures.e. As the excess pore water dissipates the group efficiency will increase. which may result in short-term (i. Block failure is generally only a concern for pile groups in soft cohesive soils. 1994) 4.Figure 6-1: Three Dimensional Pile Group Configuration (after Tomlinson. Nc. 56 . for pile groups with small pile embedment depths and/or large widths.. However. for a rectangular pile group is generally 9.) Calculate the ultimate pile group capacity against block failure.

6.6. Using this figure the settlement of the pile group may be determined using classical consolidation theory. values and is shown below : s = pf For silty sands: ( B I f ÷ N' ) (6-4a) s = 2pf where: s pf B N' D If ( B I f ÷ N' = Settlement in inches = Design foundation pressure (ksf) = Width of pile group (ft) = Average corrected SPT N’ value within a depth B below pile toe = Pile embedment depth (ft) = Influence factor for group embedment = 1 – [D/8B] ≥ 0. This is due to the high permeability of the soil. For piles in cohesionless soils underlain by cohesive soils the method presented in the following section should be used.5 ) (6-4b) For use of CPT data see FHWA-HI-97-013. Normally the slope of the virgin portion of the e-log σ′v curve is determined from the corrected one-dimensional consolidation curve measured on specimens taken from each relevant soil in 57 .4 SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUPS IN COHEHSIONLESS SOILS For pile groups in cohesionless soils. The settlement of a foundation resting on layers of normally consolidated soils (σ′p=σ′vo) can be computed from: Sc = ∑ i n Cc H o log 1 + eo = = = = = 10 σ' vf σ' vo (6-5) where: Cc eo Ho σ′vo σ′vf Compression index of the normally consolidated portion of the void ratio versus log σ’v curve Iinitial void ratio Layer thickness Initial effective vertical stress at the center of layer n Final effective vertical stress at the center of layer n. The settlement (s) of a pile group in homogeneous sand deposits not underlain by a more compressible soil at greater depth may be estimated using Meyerhof’s (1976) approach which is based on SPT N’. The total settlement will be the sum of the compression of the n layers of soil. settlements will be immediate as the pile group is loaded.5 SETTLEMENT OF PILE GROUPS IN COHEHSIVE SOILS The settlement of pile groups in cohesive soils may be modeled as an equivalent footing at a depth below the pile toe as shown in Figure 6-2. The final effective vertical stress is computed by adding the stress change due to the foundation load to the initial vertical effective stress.

A detailed discussion on consolidation settlement analysis is beyond the scope of this manual.the stratigraphic column. Figure 6-2: Equivalent Footing Concept (FHWA-HI-97-013) 58 .

Two common approaches are Broms’ hand calculation method and Reese’s (1984) computer solution (COM624P). cohesive or cohesionless) within the critical depth below the ground surface (approximately 4 to 5 pile diameters). ignoring axial load in the pile. For a detailed discussion of the Reese method (COM624P) see FHWA-IP-84-11.CHAPTER 7. when there are definite limits on allowable pile movements. This may be a relatively costly procedure that is not warranted on many projects. within the critical depth for cohesive or cohesionless soils. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE FOR BROMS’ METHOD FOR LATERALLY LOADED PILES (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Step 2 Determine the general soil type (i. The design of lateral loaded piles must evaluate both the structural capacity of the pile and the soil deformation with respect to these lateral loads.1 INTRODUCTION Timber piles have been used extensively to support piers and wharfs because of their excellent performance characteristics in both fresh and salt water and their ability to withstand lateral loads without structural failure. For mixed soil profiles COM624 is recommended. On small projects or non-critical projects. This chapter will present the Broms’ method. For long fixed head piles in cohesionless soil. Lateral load tests conducted at the site will give a direct measure of the lateral capacity of timber piles. Determine the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction. or 2.) analytical methods.e. This chapter will present details on the design of laterally loaded piles. Analytical methods are available that permit rational consideration of the site parameters. Cohesive soils: Kh = (n1 n2 1670 qu)/b (7-1) 59 .. This method may be used to evaluate lateral capacity for both fixed and free pile head conditions in either purely cohesive or purely cohesionless soil profiles. a more detailed load-deformation analysis technique should be used (i. Com624 may be used for this condition. Kh. 7..2 BROMS’ METHOD The Broms’ method calculates the ultimate soil resistance to lateral load as well as the maximum moment induced in the pile as a result of the lateral load. COM624P). COM624P is available from FHWA. The design of laterally loaded piles follows one of two approaches 1.e.) lateral load tests. Broms’ method is a simple method to determine the lateral load and pile deflection at the ground surface.0 MARINE APPLICATION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 7. However. the Broms’ method may over-predict lateral load capacity. the Broms’ method may be used.

Where: qu b n1 n2 = Unconfined compressive strength in (psf) = Diameter of the pile (ft) = Empirical coefficient taken from table 7-1. = Empirical coefficient for timber = 1.e. Cyclic Loading (Earthquake Loading) in Cohesionless Soil: 1. Kh = 0. 2. 2.16 to 0. Kh = (0..50) Kh from step 2 for stiff to very stiff clay.25 Kh from step 2 for loose soil.32 0. Kh = 0.30 Table 7-1 Coefficient n1 for Cohesive Soils Unconfined Compressive Strength (ksf) Less than 1 1 to 4 More than 4 Cohesionless Soils: Choose Kh from table 7-2. Static loads resulting in soil creep (cohesive soil): 1.36 0. vertical distance between ground surface and lateral load) Resisting moment of the pile My = S Fb 60 . Kh = (0. Step 4 Determine Pile Parameters: • • • • • • • Modulus of elasticity (E) Moment of inertia (I) Section Modulus (S) Allowable bending stress of timber pile (Fb) Diameter of pile (b) Eccentricity of applied load ec for free-headed piles (I.25 to 0.40 Table 7-2 Values of Kh for Cohesionless Soils Soil Density Loose Medium Dense Step 3 Above Groundwater 12 52 112 Kh (kcf) Below Groundwater 7 35 69 Adjust Kh for loading and soil conditions.50 Kh from step 2 for medium to dense soil.33) Kh from step 2 for soft to very soft normally consolidated clay. n1 0.

The smaller value should be used.Step 5 Determine βh for cohesive soils or η for cohesionless soils.0 and 2.0 (long pile) 2.25 (short pile) It is suggested that for βhD values between 2. βh = (Khb/4EI)1/4 for cohesive soil η = (Kh/EI)1/5 for cohesionless soil Step 6 Determine the dimensionless length factor. ηD > 4.) Short Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using D/b (and ec/b for free headed case) enter Figure 7-1 and select the corresponding value of Qu/cub2 and solve for Qu.0 < ηD < 4. b. a.25 (long pile) 2. a. βhD < 2. 61 . βhD > 2.) The undrained cohesion cu of the soil (cu=0.0 (intermediate pile) Step 8 Determine the other required soil parameters over the embedded length of the pile.0 (short pile) 3. Cohesionless soil: 1. Cohesive soil: 1. βhD for cohesive soils ηD for cohesionless soils Step 7 Determine if the pile is long or short.) The Rankine passive earth pressure coefficient for cohesionless soil Kp.) The average effective unit weight of the soil γ′ c. ηD < 2.5 both long and short pile criteria should be considered in step 9.) Long Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using My/cub3 (and ec/b for free headed case) enter Figure 7-2 and select the corresponding value of Qu/cub2 and solve for Qu.5 qu) Step 9 Determine the ultimate lateral load for a single pile Qu. 2. Kp = tan2 (45 +φ /2) b.

b. d. Step 13 Reduce the allowable load from step 12 for pile group effects and the method of pile installation.) Method of installation reduction factor.) Group reduction factor determined by the center to center pile spacing (z) in the direction of load. If Qa > Qm use Qm and calculate ym. Calculate Qa corresponding to a given design deflection at the ground surface (y) or the deflection corresponding to a given design load. z Reduction Factor 8b 1.) Short Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – using D/b (and ec/D for free headed case) enter Figure 7-3 and select the corresponding value of Qu/Kpb3γand solve for Qu.using My/γb4Kp (and ec/b for free headed case) enter Figure 7-4 and select the corresponding value of Qu/Kpb3γ and solve for Qu.8 4b 0. e.) Long Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil .) Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – using ηD (and ec/D for free headed case) enter Figure 7-6 and select the corresponding value of y(EI)3/5Kh2/5/QaD and solve for Qa or y. Step 10 Calculate the maximum allowable working load for a single pile Qm. Qm = Qu/2.0 6b 0. a.c. If Qa and y are not given use Qm and ym. substitute the value of Qm from step 10 for Qa in the following cases and solve.5 Step 11 Calculate the working load for a single pile Qa.) For driven piles use no reduction 62 . If Qa and y are not given.) Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesive soil – using βhD (and ec/D for free headed case) enter Figure 7-5 and select the corresponding value of yKhbD/Qa and solve for Qa or y.5 3b 0. a. Step 12 Compare Qa to Qm. 1.) Intermediate Free or Fixed Headed Pile in cohesionless soil – calculate Qu for both short and long pile and use the smaller value. If Qa < Qm use Qa and y.4 b.

It should be noted that no provision has been made to include the lateral resistance offered by the soil surrounding an embedded pile cap.) For jetted piles use 0. The deflection of the pile group is the value selected in step 12. Step 14 Determine pile group lateral capacity. 63 .75 of the value from step 13a. The total lateral capacity of the pile group equals the adjusted allowable load per pile from step 13b times the number of piles.2.

Figure 7-1: Ultimate lateral load capacity of short piles in cohesive soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 64 .

Figure 7-2: Ultimate lateral load capacity of long piles in cohesive soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 65 .

Figure 7-3: Ultimate lateral load capacity of short piles in cohesionless soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 66 .

Figure 7-4: Ultimate lateral load capacity of long piles in cohesionless soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 67 .

Figure 7-5: Lateral deflection at ground surface of piles in cohesive soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 68 .

Figure 7-6: Lateral deflection at ground surface of piles in cohesionless soils (FHWA-HI-97-013) 69 .

70 .

71 . The boom on the crane must be long enough to allow the maximum length pile to be installed without severely limiting the reach of the crane. and pile (Figure 8-1). Figure 8-1: Swinging Leads 8. a hammer. The installation process has not changed much over the years.CHAPTER 8. preliminary selection of hammer size.2 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT The equipment necessary to install timber piles includes a crane that is capable of handling the loads from the pile driving equipment with sufficient capacity so that the reach of the crane does not limit the productivity of the installation process. Timber piles have been used for centuries to support man-made structures. This chapter will only briefly touch on these items as they pertain to the installation of timber piles. and availability. The equipment that is used to install timber piles includes a crane. pile accessories which facilitate the installation while minimizing damage from the installation process. The selection of truck versus crawler will depend of the site conditions. a set of leads. a helmet.1 INTRODUCTION The installation of timber piles is a process that involves dropping a weight on top of the pile in order to drive the pile into the ground. The crane may be either a truck mounted or a crawler mounted rig. The selection of the most economical crane for a project is typically left to the contractor. pile monkey. This chapter will briefly discuss the equipment used to install timber piles. a boom. and treatment of pile butts after cutoff. a pile gate. maximum loads anticipated.0 PILE INSTALLATION 8.

at the bottom of the leads (Figure 8-2). Swinging leads are the most commonly used leads because of their simplicity and economy. Figure 8-1 shows a typical swinging lead arrangement. Figure 8-2: Fixed leads 8. vibratory and impact hammers. This control does not come without cost. Fixed leads have a pivot point at the crane’s boom top and are braced between the crane and lead. Regardless of the type of lead chosen for a project.2. due to the 72 . The production rate may also be slower when using fixed leads as opposed to swinging leads. The function of the leads is to maintain alignment of the hammer-pile system so that a concentric blow is delivered to the pile from the hammer for each impact. The name swinging leads comes from the leads ability to rotate freely so that the hammer and pile may be aligned without precisely aligning the crane with the pile butt (head). using vibratory hammers. the contractor may install more piles from the same setup. The leads and hammer are usually held by separate lines from the crane. It has been found difficult to install displacement piles.2. Vibratory hammers are typically used for non-displacement piles. Pile Hammers There are two general categories of pile hammers. Fixed leads offer good control of the pile alignment. Vibratory hammers use counter rotating weights to impart a sinusoidal vibrating axial force to the pile. Swinging leads are typically lighter in weight than fixed leads and therefore allow for a larger crane radius than when using fixed leads. Thus. Fixed leads are typically more expensive than swinging leads.8. the leads should keep the pile in good alignment with the hammer so that eccentric impacts which may cause local stress concentrations and pile damage are minimized.1 Leads There are predominantly two types of leads used for the installation of timber piles: swinging leads and fixed leads.2.

Double acting hammers. A hammer that is too large may damage the pile. The main difference between the single and double acting hammer is that the top of the double acting hammer is closed. Pile cushions. steam. because of this faster blow count are typically more efficient than single acting hammers. For a more detailed discussion of pile hammers see FHWA-RD-86-160 "The Performance of Pile Driving Systems: Inspection Manual".. A wave equation analysis which considers the hammer cushion pile soil system may be used to determine the optimal hammer size. compressed air or pressurized hydraulic fluid to raise the ram. but are typically used for steel and concrete piles.difficulty in displacing the soil laterally at the pile toe with vibrations. cushions between the pile butt and helmet are typically not required for timber piles. 73 . The energy delivered to the pile when using a drop hammer (a type of external combustion hammer) is very dependent on the operator. A schematic of a helmet is shown in Figure 8-4. A hammer that is too small may not be able to install the pile to the required depth. lose their effectiveness. Impact hammers may be categorized as either external combustion hammers (i. or may require an excessive number of blow counts. the air in the chamber is compressed. air. therefore.e. External combustion hammers use cables. Double acting diesel hammers work very similarly to the single acting diesel hammer. 8..3 HAMMER SIZE SELECTION The selection of the hammer size for a project is an important consideration that will affect not only the performance of the pile but the efficiency with which the piles are installed. Another way to categorize hammers is single or double acting. and therefore a higher blow rate. The hammer cushion is used to relieve the impact shock between the ram and the pile. diesel hammers). Vibratory hammers are. Internal powered hammers use diesel combustion inside the hammer to move the ram. Cushion materials eventually become compressed.2. inside the hammer. 8. When the ram moves upward. typically not used to install timber piles.3 Helmet The helmet is a heavy steel block between the hammer and the pile. or hydraulic) or internal combustion (i. Single acting hammers are essentially gravity or drop hammers. Figure 8-3 shows the typical components of an external combustion hammer. steam. The helmet should provide a smooth surface for contact between the hammer and the pile. which causes a shorter stroke. The top of the helmet is typically recessed for a hammer cushion.e. The helmet should fit snugly over the pile (less than 2 inches of lateral movement). and must be replaced. capacity. Hammer cushion materials are usually proprietary man-made materials.

Figure 8-3: Basic components of an external combustion hammer 74 .

75 . In difficult driving conditions plywood or steel plates fastened to the pile can aid driving. Boots typically fit over the pile tip without any required trimming of the pile. the pile butt may be easily cut off to the correct elevation.5 PILE CUTOFFS One advantage of timber piles is that after installation.4 PILE ACCESSORIES Difficult driving of timber piles through dense soils may cause splitting or brooming of the pile tip. Both systems have proven effective in reducing the damage to the pile tip during driving in difficult ground. on the other hand. Pile points. The cutoff surface should be treated with creosote or CuNp (copper naphthenate). typically require trimming of the pile tip. Metal boots or points may be added to the pile tip to reduce the potential for damaging during driving.Figure 8-4: Helmet and adjoining parts 8. typically with a chain saw. in accordance with AWPI Standard M-4. 8. to protect the end of the pile from organic degradation.

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2 AXIAL COMPRESSION STATIC LOAD TEST The location of load tests should be selected by the geotechnical engineer responsible for the pile design where the subsurface conditions have been established directly by SPT or CPT testing.1 INTRODUCTION Pile load testing is an important tool for design engineers to verify that assumptions made in the design of the deep foundation are appropriate for the site. same pressure treatment. maintained load test. the load increments are 10 – 15% of the design load. the duration of each load 77 . This manual will cover the axial compression load test only. The number of load tests to be performed should also be determined by the geotechnical engineer. same proposed length toe and butt diameters. This will disclose the real safety factor inherent in the design and will provide the geotechnical engineer with the necessary information to economize the design.). Procedures for conducting axial compression tests are provided in ASTM D 1143 Standard test Method for Piles Under Axial Compression Load. Static load tests are conducted to measure the response of piles under applied load. A thorough timber pile foundation design requires detailed subsurface exploration. quick test. appropriate soil testing. Complete driving records should be maintained during the installation of the piles. Load tests for timber pile foundations are routinely used to prove the adequacy of the soil-pile system for the proposed pile design load.. subsurface profile development. axial tension and lateral load testing.g. 9. The number of load tests will depend on the variability of subsurface conditions throughout the site.0 PILE LOAD TESTING 9. and static pile analysis.CHAPTER 9. or 300% of the design load. and the pile loading. The test pile should be installed with the same equipment and procedures as is proposed for the production piles. The cost and engineering time associated with a load testing program should be justified by a thorough foundation investigation and engineering analysis of pile capacity. etc. Conventional static load test types include axial compression. For information on the axial tension or lateral load test refer to Federal Highway Administration “Static Testing of Deep Foundations” (FHWA-SA-91-042). Pile load testing may be conducted prior to the final design of the deep foundation system in order to provide the designer with the design properties to be used for the final design of the pile foundation. The quick test is recommended for timber pile projects. This test is conducted to pile failure. This does not permit a determination of the pile/soil capacity and negates design knowledge obtained from a load test that may otherwise be used to reduce the number or the length of production piles. Load testing to failure is recommended. Three procedures are provided in this test standard. The test pile should be the same as the production piles (e. The magnitude to which the test piles are loaded has in the past been limited to twice the design load. and constant rate of penetration test.

The allowable capacity of a pile was defined in chapter 5 as the ultimate capacity of the pile divided by a factor of safety. The advantages of this test procedure are that: • • • A load test may be performed in a matter of hours versus 1 – 2 days. when considered as a free column.e. and the test duration is 2-3 hours. Slope and Tangent (Butler and Hoy. the test duration would have to be measured in weeks. 1977): The failure load is defined as the load at the intersection of a line tangent to the initial straight line portion of the load displacement curve and a line tangent to the load displacement curve where the slope of the line reaches 0.05 inches/ton). Load testing becomes feasible for small projects. Any attempt to determine the long-term settlements by means of a load test would be uneconomical because of the excessive amount of time that would be required. and constant rate of penetration test should all be regarded as tests of short duration which may not reflect long-term pile settlements of either individual or group piles. When the time dependent or drained condition (i. 1963): The failure load is defined as the load at which the movement is twice that obtained for 90% of that load. The results of a pile load test are typically plotted as load versus displacement (movement of the pile butt). where D is the diameter of the pile in inches. 1980). 90% Criterion (Brinch Hansen. 1980): The load displacement values are plotted on a double logarithmic scale. so that engineers are in agreement on what is failure and what factor of safety a design has.15 inches plus a factor depending on the diameter of the pile (D/120).increment is 2. months or even years (Fellenius. De Beers Method (Fellenius. The scale of the plot should be arithmetic and should be selected so that the slope of the elastic deformation of the pile is inclined at an approximate angle of 20°.1 Interpretation of Load Test The load displacement curve generated from the pile load test is used to determine the allowable pile capacity. quick test. where the values may be shown to fall on two straight lines.2. The maintained load test. The elastic deformation of a pile may be determined using the following equation: ∆ = (QL ) / ( AE ) (9-1) 78 . Piles founded in cohesionless soils seldom experience a plunging failure. The intersection of the lines corresponds to the failure load. Test results are more nearly “undrained” conditions of shear failure. The following methods have been used to define failure: Offset Limit Method (Davisson 1972): The failure load is defined as the load corresponding to a movement which exceeds the elastic compression of the pile. In order to determine the actual factor of safety for the installed pile. Therefore. AASHTO (1992) and FHWA recommend that the offset method be used to determine the failure load. a definition of what constitutes a failure must be established.5 minutes. typical of the maintained load test. by a value of 0. creep) performance is desired. 9. it is important to define failure..

however.where: ∆ Q L A E = Elastic deformation (inches) = Test load (kips) = Pile length (inches) = Pile cross-sectional area (in2) = Modulus of Elasticity of Pile material (ksi) This equation is accurate for end bearing piles where no stress transfer occurs along the length of the pile. Equation 9-1 will. The elastic deformation will. Timber piles. be used in establishing the failure criteria for timber piles. Q Figure 9-1: Typical static pile load test results (FHWA-HI-97-013) 79 . The elastic deformation and the offset limit failure criteria are also plotted. The failure load (offset limit method) of a timber pile is the load that produces a movement of the pile butt (sf) equal to: s f = ∆ + (0. typically be less than that determined from equation 9-1. 15 + D / 120 )) where: D = Pile diameter (inches) (9-2) Figure 9-1 presents a typical pile load test load movement curve. 0 -5 Elastic Deformation Movement -10 at Pile Head -15 -3 (inch x 10 )-20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Failure Criterion Line Failure Load. however. Qt 400 450 500 550 Load Cell Pile Head Load (kips). therefore. The intersection of the failure criterion line and load movement line yields the ultimate capacity of the pile. are typically friction piles or a combination of friction and end bearing.

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and helmet are all important in the proper installation of a pile foundation. If either is deficient. the performance of the foundation may not be as desired. straightness. size (butt and toe diameter). 10.1 INTRODUCTION The performance of a timber pile foundation system is not only a function of the design of the foundation but also its construction. 10. ASTM D 25 provides tables for determining if the timber pile meets the minimum nominal circumference measured 3 feet from the butt and toe of the pile. Piles that do not meet these requirements shall be rejected. Pile lengths should be measured and recorded along with butt and toe diameters. and the estimation of static load capacity.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE DURING PILE DRIVING 10. A straight line from the center of the butt to the center of the tip shall lie entirely within the body of the pile. hammer. Since piles cannot be seen after their installation.5 inches from straightness in any 5 feet length. 10. Piles shall also be free from short crooks that deviate by more than 2. pile materials. knots. This chapter will focus on pile material inspection and installation equipment observations.2 TIMBER PILE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS Timber piles should be monitored at the project site to assure that they meet project specifications with respect to length. size. The straightness of the piles shall also be checked.4 PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT AND PILE INSTALLATION The pile driving equipment. ASTM D 25-99 Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles should be used for establishing the acceptance requirements for timber piles delivered to the project site. Construction monitoring should be exercised in three areas. sapwood.3 MATERIAL CERTIFICATION Piling manufactures shall submit certification that supplied piles comply with ASTM D25 provisions and appropriate AWPA standards. Construction control of driven piles is much more difficult than for shallow foundations where the footing excavation and footing construction can be visually observed to assure quality. hammer cushion. installation equipment. The inspector should perform the following tasks prior to pile driving: • • Verify that the pile driving hammer meets the specifications for type and size Hammer cushion (if used) meets the specifications for type. and thickness 81 . crane. The inspector should check that the contractor’s driving equipment is in accordance with the project plans and specifications. and pressure treatment. leads.CHAPTER 10. direct quality control of the finished product is impossible. Sound knots shall be no larger than one sixth the circumference of the pile located where the knot occurs. twist of grain.

The following information should appear on the pile driving records: Project identification number Project name and location Date and time of driving (start. length and type Location of pile If pile toe protection is specified. • Hammer cushion description. Driving records are an extremely important part of any deep foundation project. stop. In order for the inspector to assure that the minimum driving criteria has been met. and thickness • Pile location. The driving criteria is often defined as a minimum driving resistance as measured by the blow count in blows per foot or fraction thereof. The records provide information which greatly assists the design engineer in assessing the adequacy of the • • • • • 82 . type. she/he must evaluate if the hammer is performing properly. and interruptions) Name of contractor Hammer make. and is to assure that the piles have a desired capacity. size. Inspection of the pile driving equipment during driving is important to assure that the piles are installed so that they meet the driving criteria and that the pile remains undamaged. and therefore that the capacity is adequate. The driving resistance is also a function of the performance of the pile driving hammer. During the production pile driving operation. The actual stroke and operating speed should be recorded. is it installed? Is the pile plumb? Is the hammer the specified hammer. with the same capacity. and is it working properly? Is the hammer cushion the correct type and thickness? Is it being replaced regularly? Did the pile meet the driving criteria? Did the pile have unusual driving criteria? Is there any indication of pile heave? Is the pile cutoff at the correct elevation? Has the exposed pile cut been treated? Is there any visual damage? Pile driving records are an important part of the quality assurance program. size. and final penetration elevations and embedment length • Driving resistance data in blows per foot. ram weight. model. with the final foot normally recorded in blows per inch • Graphical presentation of driving data • Comments or unusual observations. with the same hammer operating at a high energy level.• • Helmet (drive cap) fits the pile The lead system conforms to the project specifications. and length • Pile ground surface. cut off. the inspector should check the following items: • • • • • • • • • • • • Pile size. energy rating. including reasons for all interruptions • Signature and title of inspector. Each hammer has its own operating characteristics. A hammer operating at lower energy levels than specified will result in pile blow counts that are higher than for the same pile.

installed foundation system to support the design loads. 83 . No timber pile project should be complete without pile driving records.

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85 . cutoff elevation of piles. and testing of driven piles for structures. Related Sections: For bracing. peeled and treated. B. 1. size and length of piles. SUMMARY This Section includes specifications for furnishing. Timber piles. Rough Carpentry. 11. Drawings and general provisions of the Contract. or Heavy Timber Construction.1 INTRODUCTION The following sample specification for timber piles is provided to illustrate the type of information that should be considered for inclusion in a specification. installing.01 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. The method approach requires that a site specific timber pile design be performed by the owner’s engineer. driven. C. [Note: Drawings should indicate the plan layout and spacing of piles.02 A. details of pile shoes. location and depth of pre-excavated holes for piles. including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 1 Specification Sections. The traditional approach of a method and material specification is presented. pile caps and framing.0 SPECIFICATIONS 11. Supply piles of the following types as indicated: 1. friction load-bearing piles or both as indicated.03 A.CHAPTER 11. pile design loads. Piles shall be end-bearing piles. DEFINITIONS Test Pile: An individual pile which is observed to determine its behavior during driving and under static axial compression load. butt or tip circumference of piles.TIMBER PILES PART 1—GENERAL 1. apply to this section.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SECTION 02459 . see Division 6. location of test piles if in permanent locations.] 1.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 2. Shop Drawings. and any unusual conditions encountered during driving. overall blow count per foot. ASTM D25 Specification for Round Timber Piles ASTM D1143 Method of Testing Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load ASTM D3689 Method of Testing Individual Piles Under Static Axial Tension Load C. Piles . SUBMITTALS General: Refer to Contract Requirements for Submittals. B.05 A. Reaction Pile: An individual pile which provides the reaction load required to perform the load test on a test pile. 86 .B. D. REFERENCE STANDARDS 1. Standard for the Care of Preservative Treated Wood Products. the information specified in C above. On the sequential layout. for each pile driven. During this process the reaction pile can be subjected to either an axial compression load or an axial tension load. C.04 A.Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes. AWPA M4. B. Product Data and Samples. AWPA C14. Standard for Pressure treated Material in Marine Construction. Submit layout drawings showing the proposed sequence of driving the piles. AWPA C18. size. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). American Wood Preservers’ Association (AWPA) AWPA C3. and the following: type and rating of driving equipment. number of blows per inch penetration for the last 12 inches. On the record indicate. load bearing capacity and pile tip elevation planned. 1. AASHTO M-133.Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes. Wood for Highway Construction . Pile Driving Sequential Layout: 1. its driving sequence number. Pile Driving Record: Maintain a pile driving record during pile driving and submit it to the Project Engineer upon completion of pile driving. Shop Drawings: Submit shop drawings of pile types as follows: 1. show each pile identification as indicated on the Contract Drawings. type. Show any structural connections such as for uplift loads. Specification for Preservative and Pressure Treatment Process for Timber.

the adequacy of the equipment and accessories shall remain the responsibility of the Contractor. including a description of the characteristics of each piece of driving equipment. AWPA C14. Submit shop drawings of driving accessories showing compatibility with the size configuration. or use different types of equipment. AWPA C3. Submit complete list of the equipment proposed for use. accessories. uniformly tapered. AND HANDLING 1.] B. Submit shop drawings showing the methods and equipment proposed for loading test piles. Equipment Review and Drawings: 1. 87 . or should the use rate of accessories show damage to the piles. However. Highway bridge piles. or should the Progress Schedule not be maintained. Land and fresh water piles. including treating of cut ends. 2. 2. handling. and compliance with applicable standards. Should the equipment used by the Contractor prove inadequate to drive the scheduled types of piles in the locations indicated. shall be in accordance with AWPA M4. Round Timber Piles: Piles shall be Southern Pine or Douglas Fir and shall conform to ASTM D 25. STORAGE. Submit data on round timber pile treatment data.06 A. AWPA C3. storage and field fabrication. unused. 3. the Contractor shall replace. F. clean peeled. including certification by treating plant stating type of preservative solution and pressure process used. The Project Engineer will review the proposed driving equipment. and methods of adequacy for the conditions expected to be encountered. a. Handling. one piece from butt to tip. net amount of preservative retained. and driving requirements of each type of pile indicated on the Contract Drawings. DELIVERY.01 PART 2 – PRODUCTS TIMBER PILES A. AWPA C3 and C18.E.Size: Specify butt or tip diameters from Tables 3-3 through 3-9. Pressure treatment shall be in accordance with the following Use Category Standards: Foundation piles. [Note to Specifiers .0 2. Marine piles.

and other penetrations in accordance with AWPA M4. DETERMINATION OF LENGTH Provide piles of such length as required to develop the specified bearing value. Waterborne (CCA or ACZA) (pcf) Southern Pine Douglas Fir Southern Pine Douglas Fir CCA ACZA 12 17 0. AWPA M4.02 A. Field-Applied Wood Preservative: Treat field cuts. Preservatives and Retentions: Creosote (pcf) Use Category Foundation Land & Fresh Water Marine N.0 1. of New Jersey2 or San Francisco2 Dual Treatment3 1. Fabrication 1. AWPA C3. holes.Marine. 2. D. either dual treatment. or high retentions of CCA for Southern Pine or ACZA for Douglas fir provide maximum protection.5 2. C. 3.5 2. Where Teredo and Limnoria tripunctata are expected and where pholad attack is not expected.0 12 17 0.8 1. Field treatment of cut ends and holes.EXECUTION 3. creosote or creosote solutions provide adequate protection. dual treatment provides the maximum protection. 3. and to extend into the cap or footing block as indicated. as indicated. PART 3 . The bearing value for each pile shall be as determined in Article 3. Drive friction piles to the required penetration.5 1.0 Where Teredo is expected and Limnoria tripunctata is not expected.01 PILE TYPES Piles shall be end-bearing type or friction type as indicated. In those areas where Limnoria tripunctata and pholad attack is expected or known. to obtain the specified penetration.8 1. Drive end-bearing piles to the required bearing value.5 1.0 16 20 20 16 20 20 1. dual treatment. 88 .04. of Delaware1 or San Francisco1 S.

3. 89 . and the estimated pile tip elevation.05 A. Practical Refusal: Practical refusal will be determined by the Design Engineer.03 A. B. and will be a condition where the blow count exceeds either two times the number of blows required in 1 foot or three times the number of blows required in 3 inches to achieve the required bearing value. the required bearing value. PILE LOAD TESTS FOR PILES UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION LOAD Install test piles and reaction piles. From the test pile data and behavior and the subsurface exploration data. may be utilized as permanent piles in the work. based upon subsurface explorations. Drive piles with approved driving equipment to the ordered length or other lengths necessary to obtain the required ultimate pile capacity. Jetting. B. DRIVEN PILE CAPACITY B. Order and drive the test piles. Estimated tip elevations are approximate. The ultimate pile capacity will be determined by the Design Engineer. the Design Engineer will determine the penetration required. Penetration per blow may be measured either during initial driving or during re-driving following a set period of time as determined by the Design Engineer. Submit the final data to the Project Manager for evaluation. 2.04 A. provided they are not damaged and that they are not moved upward. predrilling or other methods to facilitate pile penetration shall not be used unless specifically permitted by the Design Engineer. the minimum penetration. Install test piles vertically. C. Piles reaching practical refusal shall not be driven further. The Design engineer may also determine the required penetration based upon settlement criteria or any other factors which in the opinion of the Design Engineer are applicable to the work.B. of the same type and kind as permanent piles. and are given only to show the basis for the estimated quantities indicated in the Bid Schedule and to indicate the required lengths of test piles. Safe bearing capacities of the test piles will be determined by methods herein specified. TEST PILES The Contract Drawings indicate the required type of piling. Assume responsibility for furnishing piles of sufficient length to obtain the penetration and bearing value indicated. Test piles which pass the load test in an undamaged condition. Reaction piles which were used to perform the pile load test may be utilized as permanent piles in the work. not to exceed 5 blows per inch. 3. in the locations indicated by the Design Engineer. 3. Design 1.

or otherwise causes suspicion as to the reliability of the safe bearing capacity. Following the completion of load tests. Maintain each test load for 2. E. Measure the settlement and rebound of the test pile to the nearest 0.008D) F. Extend into the pile cap or structure footing to the location directed by the Design Engineer. 2. 2.06 A. Immediately following completion of load testing. the Design Engineer will make a determination of the required penetration. Apply the load in load increments of 10-15% of the design load to a maximum load of 300% or failure. The Design Engineer may require additional load tests in the event that the behavior of the test pile or any other pile shows any peculiarity. erratic action. Achieve the required penetration determined by the Design Engineer. Do not subject reaction piles which are to become permanent piles to uplift loads greater than 70 percent of the required bearing capacity. whichever occurs first. or cut them off 3 feet below any structure to be installed above. and 90 .5 minutes. Settlement at failure in inches Pile diameter or width in inches Elastic deformation of total unsupported pile length in inches G.01 inch. Safe bearing capacity of the test pile shall be defined as 50% of the failure load.15 + 0. for applying load and measuring movements. Comply with ASTM D1143 for pile load test apparatus. and for standard measuring procedures. Either extract damaged test piles and reaction piles and remove from the site. I. D. Perform loading procedures as follows: 1.C. The failure load shall be defined as the load that produces a movement of the pile butt (Sf) equal to: Sf = Where: Sf = D = S = S + (0. Include in the test report the data required by ASTM D1143. submit two copies of the test report for each test pile to the Project Manager. INSTALLATION OF PILES General: Provide piles of the type indicated and of the length and configuration necessary to: 1. H. 3. Test reaction piles in accordance with ASTM D3689.

3. Attain indicated bearing capacity. Cut off piles at top elevation directed by the Design Engineer. If sudden decrease in driving resistance cannot be correlated to boring data or some incident in the driving. or to the required bearing. Penetration and Bearing: Install piles to the required penetration. Remove such piles from the site and replace with sound piles. except as specified in Article 3. and if the pile cannot be inspected. Complete backfill to the required elevations in the area which piles are to occupy before starting to drive piles. Predrilled Holes: 1. Re-drive any pile which is raised during driving of adjacent piles. Jetting will not be permitted unless specifically approved by the Design Engineer for the location. to the original tip elevation. 2. C and D. D. Otherwise they shall be extracted and removed from the site. such decrease in driving resistance may be cause for rejection of the pile. Replace or repair piles which are damaged when cut off. Deviation from location of pile top: 6 inches. Deviation from plumb and angle of batter: ¼ inch per foot of pile length. Piles broken under driving stresses may be cut off and left in place if approved by the Design Engineer for the location. drill holes of diameter not greater than 90 percent of the average cross-sectional dimension of the pile at the depth being drilled.04. Maintain the hammer coaxial with the pile during the driving operation by using a combination of driving cap and leads. 4. 2. If necessary. When necessary to achieve the required penetration. 7. but not more than 6 inches overall. F.3. provide adequate lateral support for installed individual piles to prevent excessive temporary flexural stresses or movement of the pile top out of tolerance. Drive piles at interior of bases of footings before driving perimeter piles. Installation Tolerances: 1. Pile Driving: 1. as indicated. 91 . C. 5. E. Do not drive piles within 20 feet of concrete less than seven days old. B. and drive the pile therein to practical refusal. 6. 8. Investigate any sudden decrease in driving resistance for possible breakage of the pile. Piles not meeting ASTM D25 requirements will be rejected.

After timber piles are cut off. 92 . treat cut surfaces in accordance with AWPA M4. Fit timber piles with metal shoes on the tip as shown on the Contract Drawings (when specified). When the area of the head of a timber pile is greater than that of the face of the hammer.G. Remove cutoff sections of piles from the site and legally dispose. use a suitable cap to distribute the blows throughout the cross section of the pile.

The surface studies should form the first phase of a site investigation. which are discussed in subsequent sections. topographic maps provide information on the accessibility of the site and the terrain. Maps do not have the detail of aerial photographs. Topographic maps and plans can be used to identify geomorphological forms and drainage patterns.Available Existing Data Maps and Plans: Topographic maps and plans are discussed in this section.1 INTRODUCTION The design of a structure’s foundation requires adequate knowledge of the subsurface conditions at the site. 12. and the subsurface work should be planned only after assessing the results of the surface study. which 93 . The two principal components of site exploration associated with timber pile foundations are surface studies and subsurface investigations. The structural information can be obtained from a copy of the preliminary structural drawings for the project and speaking with the structural engineer. The amount of information that can be derived from such maps depends on the areas involved and on the topography.CHAPTER 12.0 GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS 12. but they enable a trained observer to surmise relevant information about the geology of a site based on landforms and drainage patterns shown. Knowledge of the subsurface conditions is essential for a successful design. This information can give an indication of the materials to be found on the site.1 Desk Study . Site investigations can be separated into two main stages: (a) desk studies and (b) field studies.2 PLANNING SITE INVESTIGATION The purpose of this phase is to obtain information about the proposed structure and general information on the subsurface conditions. The engineer should visit the site during the initial phase of the investigation to get familiar with the site conditions. General information about the subsurface conditions may be obtained from a variety of sources as listed below. 12.2. These site conditions obviously play a very important role in the performance of the selected foundation for the structure. The planning of the field studies should be based on observations of the site conditions and findings of the desk studies with emphasis focused on the potential problem areas. The USGS publishes a series of quadrangle maps. the National Topographic Map Series. Other maps and plans include Geologic Maps and Soil Survey Maps. Desk studies should be carried out before field studies. both of which may determine the types of equipment to be used for exploration work. Useful information can be gathered from surface studies and from an examination of the construction records and performance of existing structures in the vicinity of the site. The major source of topographic maps is the United States Geologic Survey (USGS). In addition.

000 and 1:31. (4) tectonic maps. which has published books. The shallow depth depicted limits their usefulness in many engineering studies. the U. the Geological Society of America.covers the United States and its territories and possessions. which publishes topographic maps and charts of some rivers and adjacent shores. Geological Survey (1965) and in the monthly supplements and may be accessed at their web site (www. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are presented in reports that describe the areal extent. and vegetation. (2) structural geology maps.500. The major source of geologic maps and information is the USGS.000 and other series of maps.5° of latitude by 7.S. physiography. (5) earthquake data maps. and local universities. which publishes nautical and aeronautical charts. such as the Geologic Quadrangle Maps of the United States at a scale of 1:24. These supplements provide data on the drainage characteristics of the materials and anticipated engineering problems. such as the glacial map of the United States and the loessial soils of the United States.org). Topographic maps are also produced by the Army Map Service and the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS). Maps covering areas of 7. Each map covers a quadrangle area bounded by lines of latitude and longitude. Indexes to Geologic Mapping in the United States is the most useful series available. as well as the soil deposits of the area covered. Soil Survey Maps: The soil surveys conducted by various governmental agencies also are useful sources of information for the engineer planning a subsurface exploration program.000. which comprises a map of each state that shows the areas for which geologic maps have been published. climate. the information contained in them is generalized.5° of longitude are plotted to scales of 1:24. A complete list of all USGS maps is found in the U. The engineer should keep this in mind. The maps distributed by the USGS include a geologic map of the United States at a scale of 1:2. Geological maps include (1) bedrock geology maps. drainage patterns. Folios of the Geologic Atlas of the United States.S. and (6) other useful maps.680. They are prepared on a county basis and illustrate the soil cover to a depth of about 6 ft.usgs. The soil survey maps are usually plotted as overlays on aerial photographs at relatively large scales. County soil survey reports prepared by USDA usually show soil characteristics from depths of 3 to 15 ft. the Association of Engineering Geologists. plus the Great Lakes and their connecting waterways. and the Hydrographic Office of the Department of the Navy. In some States. which publishes forest reserve maps. Other sources of topographic information include the U. maps and charts in various forms since 1879. (3) surficial geology maps. Agricultural soil surveys conducted by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U. but they are often based on isolated exposures and boreholes so that much of their detail is conjecture. Forest Service. These surveys normally map the surface and near-surface soils over a large expanse of land. Geologic information also is available from state and local governmental agencies. 94 . Geological maps are extremely useful as part of the site exploration. They are of two types: agricultural and engineering.S. local authorities prepare engineering supplements to the agricultural survey reports. the Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Geological Maps: Geological maps can be used to obtain information on materials and geological conditions that affect the site. relief. and the Mineral Resources Maps and Charts. Since both types usually encompass an entire county. not fact.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

and (6) rainfall data. The Association of Engineering Geologists and Geologic Society of America publish geologic maps. These records are generally held by governmental agencies. The data may take the form of geologic maps. (2) date and time of occurrence. Locations of the landslides are usually summarized in a State or county map for future reference. and previous stability considerations for slopes. (3) geometry of the slope before and after the landslide (which is accompanied by a photograph). 95 . The field reconnaissance for a timber pile foundation should include: • • • • • Inspection of nearby structures to determine their performance with a particular foundation type. as well as monthly journals and special volumes that detail specific geologic topics on locales.Landslide Records: Many state highway departments. With previous site investigation data. Recording of the location. Previous Geologic Exploration: Geotechnical information about a site may be found in records of previous site development. Numerous articles are published by geologic organizations. Each landslide record may consist of: (1) location of the landslide. site investigations. This information as well as local geotechnical experience is very valuable in planning geologic explorations. geologic surveys. Visual examination of terrain for evidence of landslides. well borings. Details of particular landslides sometimes can be obtained from local residents. as well as decisions regarding slope stability at the site. type and depth of existing structures which may be affected by the new structure. The qualitative description of such incidents may be reasonably accurate. Records for old developments may be scant or nonexistent. whose publications are referenced in two periodicals: Bibliography of North American Geology published by USGS and Bibliography and Index of Geology Exclusive of North America by the Geological Society of America. and university departments have gathered records of landslides in their states. geologic reports. These records are essential for the engineers planning exploration programs. subsurface profiles can be used to explain site geology. Determining/observing any site conditions which may impact the constructability of the new foundation system. 12. foundations used. Determining what equipment will be necessary to perform the boring operation. Most states have geological surveys or equivalent agencies responsible for gathering and disseminating geologic information.2 Field Reconnaissance The objective of this phase of the Site Investigation is to substantiate the information gained from the office phase and to plan the detailed subsurface exploration program. (4) material of the slope. These include information on site formations.2. Literature: Valuable information on the geology of a site may sometimes be found from published articles in engineering and geologic journals or university publications. and engineers from public and private developments. however the details of timing are often less reliable. (5) possible cause that triggered the landslide. and records of exploration.

plate-load test. Estimate the required boring depths from data gathered in the planning and field reconnaissance phases. and a minimum of 24 hours after completion of the boring. can also be used for stratigraphy identification purposes. • • • • These general guidelines should result in a subsurface program that develops the necessary data to clearly identify subsurface stratigraphy and any unusual conditions. when utilzed.3 GUIDELINES FOR MINIMUM SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION PROGRAM Field exploration methods usually consist of borings and in-situ testing. Borings are usually employed to identify the subsurface stratigraphy while in-situ tests are normally used to estimate the strength and index properties of the subsurface material. at the completion of the boring. • • A minimum of one boring per structure. In rock. 96 . Undisturbed tube samples should be obtained at sites where cohesive soils are encountered. Water level readings in each bore hole should be made during drilling. This information is necessary in order to technically evaluate foundation options and their associated costs. Structures sensitive to settlements require detailed subsurface knowledge and therefore closely spaced borings. one or more borings should extend through this material to a depth where the presence of underlying weaker strata cannot affect stability or settlement of the structure. such as soft cohesive soil or loose cohesionless soils to reach hard or dense materials. Long-term evaluation of groundwater may require installation of observation wells or piezometers in the boring. should be obtained at 5 foot intervals or at changes in material.12. When rock is encountered. Where stiff or dense soils are encountered at shallow depths. Common boring techniques include augers and rotary wash borings in soils. their spacing. a select number of borings should extend a minimum of 10 feet into rock. The following guidelines may be used in developing a boring plan for a project. Erratic subsurface conditions require closely spaced borings. All borings should extend through unsuitable strata. coring is usually performed. Some in-situ tests such as the cone penetrometer test however. where feasible. allow laboratory assessments of soil strength and compressibility. provide a minimum of two (2) borings. Standard Penetration test (SPT) samples. Confirmation of the proposed boring depths should be made during the boring operation by the geotechnical engineer as soon as possible after the field crews have started work. dilatometer test and various geophysics tests. and document the groundwater conditions. field vane shear. One boring for every 1000 square feet of building foot print. cone penetrometer test. pressuremeter test. and the sampling intervals depends on the uniformity of the soil strata and loading conditions. For structures more than 100 feet wide. Common in-situ tests include standard penetration test (SPT). The number of borings required.

4 inch to 5 inch nominal diameter drill bit. The center plug prevents soil cuttings from entering the hollow-stem auger. In most geotechnical explorations. When the hole is being advanced.5 inch inside diameter hollow-stem augers.1 Hollow-Stem Augers Hollow stem augers used for soil borings typically come in 5 foot lengths that are connected to one another as the auger is advanced into the ground. Once the augers have advanced the hole to the desired sample depth. b) cleaning out the hole to the bottom of the casing.2 Rotary Wash Borings The rotary wash boring method is generally the most appropriate method for use in soil formations below the groundwater level. For these reasons. Where heave or disturbance occurs.12. the bottom of the boring may heave or the sidewalls may contract. the center of the auger is hollow. Without stabilization. Most drillers prefer to advance the boring without the center plug. borings are usually advanced with 4 inch or 6 inch diameter solid-stem augers. The augers form a temporary casing to allow sampling of the "undisturbed soil" below the bit. where the boring walls may be unstable. either disturbing the soil prior to sampling or preventing the sampler from reaching the bottom of the boring. As the name suggests. Where drill casing is used.4. The method used to advance the boring should be compatible with the soil and groundwater conditions to assure that soil samples of suitable quality are obtained. particularly in granular soils or soft clays. drilling fluids are often needed in soft soils or cohesionless soils to stabilize the sidewalls and bottom of the boring. the penetration resistance to the driven sampler can be significantly reduced. the boring is advanced sequentially by a) driving the casing to the desired sample depth. a sampler may then be lowered through the hollow stem to sample the soil at the bottom of the hole. 12. preventing the sampler from reaching the bottom of the boring. The cuttings produced from this drilling method have limited use for visual observation purposes. The field supervisor must be aware of these limitations in identification of soil conditions between sample locations. and c) inserting the sampling device and obtaining the sample from below the bottom of the casing. Below the groundwater level. and others. As the boring is advanced to greater depths a considerable delay may occur before the soil cuttings appear at the ground surface. Hollow-stem auger methods are commonly used in cohesive soils or in granular soil formations above the groundwater level.4 METHODS OF SUBSURFACE EXPLORATION A wide variety of equipment is generally available to perform borings and to obtain soil samples. it is considered advisable to halt the use of hollow-stem augers at the groundwater level and to convert to rotary wash boring methods. Particular care should be exercised to properly remove all slough or loose soil from the boring before sampling. Significant problems can occur where hollow-stem augers are used to sample soils below the groundwater level. 12. a plug is inserted into the hollow center of the auger. Often the soils will heave and plug the auger. The unbalanced water pressure acting against the soil at the bottom of the boring can significantly disturb the soil. In rotary wash borings.4. allowing a natural "plug" of compacted cuttings to form at the bit and thus avoiding the need to remove and replace the bit at each sample attempt. the sides of the borehole are supported either with casing or with the use of a drilling fluid. 97 . 2 inch to 2. or rotary wash boring methods using a 2.

12. the excavated material should be placed in an orderly manner adjoining the test pit in separate stacks to identify the depth of the each material. The U. consolidation. Casing for rotary wash borings is typically furnished with inside diameters ranging from 2. large soil and/or non-soil materials exist (boulders. cobbles. 12. The depth of the test pit is determined by the exploration requirements. During excavation. or dimensions of the casing couplings.3 Test (Exploration) Pit Excavation Test pits and trenches permit detailed examination of the soil and rock conditions at a relatively low cost but are limited to shallow depths. the depth of the pit may be limited by the water table. From these quality samples. strength. It should be noted that the term “undisturbed” soil sample refers to the relative degree of disturbance to the soil’s in-situ properties. soil identification. stratification.4. In areas with high groundwater level. care must be taken when drilling below the groundwater table to maintain a head of water within the casing above the groundwater level at all times. backhoe) rather than by hand excavation. Specimens obtained by undisturbed sampling methods are used to determine the strength. Test pit excavations are generally uneconomical at depths greater than about 15 feet. Disturbed samples are those obtained using equipment that destroy the macro structure of the soil but do not alter its mineralogical composition. debris) that cannot be sampled with conventional methods. particularly in regard to shoring requirements. the bottom of the pit should be kept relatively level so that each lift represents a uniform horizon of the deposit.. must be reviewed and followed prior to excavation of the test pit.25 in to 5 in. Undisturbed samples are obtained with specialized equipment designed to minimize the disturbance to the in-situ structure and moisture content of the soils. but is typically about 5 to 10 feet. density. Even with the use of casing. but may also be influenced by other factors such as stiffness considerations for borings in water bodies or very soft soils. Specimens from these samples can be used 98 . Failure to maintain an adequate head of water may result in loosening or heaving (blow-up) of the soil to be sampled beneath the casing. At the surface. Department of Labor's Construction Safety and Health Regulations. Exploration pits can be an important part of geotechnical explorations where significant variations in soil conditions occur (vertically and horizontally). or buried features must be identified and/or measured or on sites with fill.g. Test pits are generally excavated with mechanical equipment (e. stratification. Soil samples obtained for engineering testing and analysis are either undisturbed or disturbed samples. Undisturbed samples are typically obtained in cohesive soil strata for use in laboratory testing to determine the engineering properties of those soils. permeability.5 SOIL AND ROCK SAMPLING One of the main purposes of a subsurface exploration is to obtain quality soil and rock samples. and compressibility are evaluated. dynamic properties and other engineering characteristics of soils.The casing is usually selected based on the outside diameter of the sampling or coring tools to be advanced through the casing.S. as well as regulations of any other governing agency.

small excavation machines. Thin Wall Sampler: The thin-wall tube (Shelby) sampler is commonly used to obtain relatively undisturbed samples of cohesive soils for strength and consolidation testing. The split-barrel sampler is used to obtain samples in all types of soils. The thin-walled tubes are manufactured using carbon steel. therefore samples obtained as such are considered disturbed.. The soil sample is removed from the split-barrel sampler and placed and sealed in a glass jar. The sampler commonly used (Figure 12-2) has a 3 inch outside diameter. N. This high area ratio disturbs the natural characteristics of the soil being sampled. For a detailed discussion of pile design see Chapters 5 and 6. or small hand tools. and brass. as specified in AASHTO T 206 and ASTM D 1586. Disturbed samples can be obtained with mechanical or hand augers.37 inches (Figure 12-1). The 1. The carbon steel tubes are often the lowest cost tubes but may be unsuitable if the samples are to be stored in the tubes for more than a few days or if the inside of the tube becomes rusty which significantly increases the friction between the tube and the soil sample. for identification of soil components and general classification purposes. permeability. The number of blows required to advance the sampler from a penetration depth of 6 inches to a penetration depth of 18 inches is the SPT resistance value. The sampler is typically driven 18 inches. but in many instances local practice will control.e. SPT N values are not recommended for pile design in cohesive soils. SPT N values are commonly used for design of pile foundations in granular (cohesionless) soils. as well as for correlations to other engineering characteristics (i. These include standard sampling tools which are widely used as well as specialized types which may be unique to certain regions of the country to accommodate local conditions and preferences. for determining grain size. Separate containers should be used if the sample contains different soil types. 99 . a 2.for determining the general lithology of soil deposits. Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of soils. The N value provides an indication of the soil density and shear strength. 12. strength). The test method for thin-walled tube sampling is described in AASHTO T 207 and ASTM D 1587. The following is a general guideline to assist geotechnical engineers and field supervisors select appropriate samplers. and the blow count for each 6 inch increment is recorded. the two halves of the barrel may be separated and the sample may be extracted easily.85 inch inside diameter and a corresponding area ratio of 9 percent.5. When the shoe and the sleeve of this type of sampler are unscrewed from the split barrel. The more commonly used types of samplers are: Split Barrel Sampler: The primary disturbed sampling method is the split-barrel (or split spoon) sampler. or sealed in a plastic bag. split barrel samplers. stainless steel. Larger diameter sampler tubes are often used where higher quality samples are required and sampling disturbance must be reduced.1 Soil Samplers A wide variety of samplers are available to obtain soil samples for geotechnical engineering projects. in which the sampler is driven with a 120 pound hammer dropping from a height of 30 inches.5 inch inside diameter standard split barrel sampler has an outside diameter of 2 inches and a cutting shoe with an inside diameter of 1. It is typically used in conjunction with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT). galvanized carbon steel. This corresponds to a relatively thick-walled sampler with an area ratio defined by Hvorslev (1949) of 112 percent.

1 + 1.54 + 0.457 to 0.0.3 .8 + 1.0 o to 23.0.0 mm E = 2.13 mm D = 38.93 + 0.0 o Figure 12-1: Split spoon sampler SAMPLER HEAD BALL VALVE SCREW THIN-WALLED TUBE CUTTING EDGE Figure 12-2: Thinned wall sampler 100 .0 mm G = 16.25 mm F = 50.762 mm C = 34.OPEN SHOE E G A C D TUBE F HEAD ROLLPIN BALL VENT B A = 25 to 50 mm B = 0.3 .

Figure 12-3: Schematic of Observation Well Figure 12-4: Schematic of Open Standpipe Piezometer Installed in a Borehole 101 .

it is often unnecessary to rotate the sampler. It also tends to prevent too little soil from entering near the end of sampling. When borings 102 . and slowly and carefully bring the sample to the surface. The hydraulic pressure required to advance the thin-walled tube sampler should be noted and recorded on the log. The piston head and the piston are then removed from the tube and jar samples are taken from the top and bottom of the sample for identification purposes.6 GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS Accurate groundwater level information is needed to determine the effect of soil stress and is vital for performing foundation design. Piston Sampler: The piston sampler is basically a thin-wall tube sampler with a piston. and a modified sampler head. piston rod. and at a minimum of 24 hours after completion of the boring. Water level readings in each bore hole should be made during drilling. less expensive and galvanizing provides a degree of protection from corrosion. galvanized carbon steel tubes are preferred since carbon steel is stronger. In stiff soils. The head used on this sampler also acts more positively to retain the sample than the ball valve of the thin-wall tube (Shelby) samplers. 12. then rotate the drill rod string through two complete revolutions to shear off the sample. Upon completion of sampling. The phreatic surface is defined by the free groundwater level. with its piston located at the base of the sampling tube. continuous motion using the drill rig's hydraulic system. This sampler. The sampler. can be used to assess the phreatic surface. the opportunity for 100 percent recovery is enhanced. One of its major advantages is that the fixed piston tends to prevent the entrance of excess soil at the beginning of sampling. The quality of the samples obtained in this manner is excellent and the probability of obtaining a satisfactory sample is high. The thin-walled tube sampler should be slowly pushed with a single. After the push is completed. This surface may be delineated in the field by using open standpipes or piezometers (Figures 12-3 and 12-4). When the sampler reaches the bottom of the hole. Long-term evaluation of groundwater may require installation of observation wells or piezometers in the boring and may be required to evaluate the long-term performance of the timber piles. The observed water levels in standpipes and piezometers. also known as Osterberg or Hvorslev sampler. Uncertainties in the development of a subsurface profile usually indicate that additional exploration and/or laboratory testing is required. is lowered into the borehole.In stiff soils. at the completion of the boring. Thus. installed at different depths. the sampler is removed from the borehole and the vacuum between the piston and the top of the sample is broken by means of a vacuum-breaking device provided for this purpose in the piston. is particularly useful for sampling soft soils although it can also be used in stiff cohesive soils as well. The sampler is never driven. 12. the piston rod is held fixed relative to the ground surface and the thin-wall tube is pushed into the soil slowly by hydraulic pressure or mechanical jacking. thus precluding recovery ratios greater than 100 percent. the driller should wait at least ten minutes to allow the sample to swell slightly within the tube.7 SUBSURFACE PROFILE DEVELOPMENT A subsurface profile is a visual representation of surface conditions interpreted from subsurface explorations and laboratory testing.

As a soil profile tool.. The cone penetration test induces complex changes in stresses and strains around the cone tip. In-situ tests are used extensively where standard drilling and sampling methods cannot be used to obtain high quality undisturbed samples. A set of hydraulic rams is used to push the CPT into the soil at a rate of 2 to 4 ft/min. The observed groundwater level should also be included in the profile. Figure 12-6 shows typical data presentation for CPT. A comprehensive theoretical model of the cone/soil interaction has not yet been developed. The final profile should include the average physical properties of the soil deposits including unit weight. therefore.1). Electric cones are the CPT of choice in the U. and the SPT (previously discussed in section 12.are completed and laboratory classification is done. This profile will be instrumental during the design of the foundation system. The CPT and vane shear test will be covered in the following paragraphs. This manual will. For more information of these tests see FHWA-HI-97-013 Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations and FHWA-HI-97-021 Subsurface Investigations.S. the initial profile should be prepared. Other lesser used tests like the pressuremeter test (PMT). 12. depending upon equipment and soil conditions. Overcomplication of the profile by noting small variations between adjacent samples should be avoided. This is necessary so that the slope of all strata surfaces is shown at the true angle. Undisturbed samples of cohesionless soils are difficult to obtain and test in the laboratory. Soft saturated cohesive soils are also difficult to sample without disturbance. A CPT rig may complete 300 to 1000 feet of CPT testing in a day. The friction sleeve has the same outside diameter as the base diameter of the cone.1 Cone Penetration Test (CPT) The cone penetration test is a simple test that is becoming very widely used in soft clays and in fine to medium coarse sands. concentrate only on the electrical cone penetrometer. the sleeve friction resistance (fs). Continuous electric signals from strain gages mounted in the cone to measure the cone tip resistance (qc) and the sleeve friction resistance (fs) are transmitted by a cable in the rods to a data acquisition system.e. The electric CPT consists of a conical tip and cylindrical friction sleeve mounted to the end of a series of hollow rods. shear strength. 12. and the friction ratio (Rf) (the ratio of sleeve friction to tip resistance (fs/qc)). the vane shear test. therefore. the dilatometer test (DMT) and the dynamic cone penetration test (DCPT) are not covered in this manual. the CPT is unequalled with respect to the delineation of stratigraphy and the continuous rapid measurement of geotechnical parameters (i. For more details on the procedures for conducting CPT see ASTM D – 3441-98.4 inches. This results in a projected area of 1.5. The in-situ tests that are used primarily to provide information for the design of timber pile foundations are the cone penetration test (CPT).55 in2. The stratigraphy at a site may be estimated using CPT data. Robertson and Campanella (1986) have done 103 . This includes the tip resistance (qc). Figure 12-5 shows the typical configuration of an electrical CPT. It is recommended that the vertical and horizontal scale of the profile be equal. The conical tip has a 60° point angle and a base diameter of 1.8.8 IN-SITU SOIL TESTING In-situ tests are used to provide field measurements of soil and rock properties. friction and bearing). The interpretation of CPT data is. In-situ testing may be used in these soils to overcome these difficulties. and a visual description of each deposit. made with empirical correlation.

The failure mode around a vane is complex. A simplified soil classification chart for a standard electronic CPT is presented in Figure 12-7. A marked change in pore pressure will be observed when passing from a cohesive soil to a non-cohesive soil and vice versa. The field vane shear test generally provides the most accurate undrained shear strength values for clays with undrained shear strengths of less than 1000 lbs/ft2.extensive work in correlating CPT data with soil classification. the cone penetration resistance may not be fully reached and the relative density of the sand may be underestimated. depth). if a sand layer is less than 30 inches thick. in effect. 104 . provided that the shear strengths on the horizontal and vertical planes are assumed equal. the ratio of horizontal to vertical shear strength is less than unity. it provides data that may be used in the design of the pile capacity. The test procedure requires pushing a four-bladed vane into undisturbed soil and rotating the vane until a cylindrical volume of the soil. For the standard CPT. the minimum stiff layer thickness to ensure full tip resistance is 15 – 30 inches. In addition to the important soil stratigraphy information that is provided from the CPT. Therefore. The pore pressure responds to the soil type in the immediate area of the cone tip. the field vane shear strength is typically conservative along a vertical plane. The cone penetration tip resistance is influenced by the soil properties in front of and behind the tip. The distance with which the cone tip senses an interface increases with increasing overburden pressure (i.e.8. Therefore. The development of a soil profile based on CPT data may be difficult to achieve when thin layers are present. The CPT is. fails in shear (Figure 12-8). The continuous monitoring of pore pressures during cone penetration can considerably improve the identification of the soil stratigraphy (Campanella et al 1983). The test interpretation is based on the simplified assumption of a cylindrical failure surface corresponding to the periphery of the vane blade. In general. 12.2 Vane Shear Test The vane shear test is an in-situ test that was developed to measure shear strength of cohesive soils. theoretically having height and diameter dimensions the same as the vane. and located between two soft clay layers. The undrained shear strength can be calculated from the measured torque. a “model pile” that is pushed into the ground and typically correlates well to the performance of a full-size pile under static loading conditions..

ELECTRIC HOUSING

BEHIND FRICTION SLEEVE (PIEZO ELEMENT) FRICTION SLEEVE

CONE PENETROMETER

BEHIND TIP (PIEZO ELEMENT) FACE (PIEZO ELEMENT)

BASE APEX

CONE TIP

FRONT

Figure 12-5: Cone Penetrometer (CPT)

Unit Tip Resistance, qc (Bar) 0 0 500

Unit Friction, is (Bar) 0 0 5

Friction Ratio, Rf (%) 0 0 5

8

8

8

DEPTH, (meters)

16

16

16

24

24

24

32 Depth Increment: 0.1m

32 Note: 1 Bar = 100 kPa

32 Maximum Depth: 30.9 m

Figure 12-6: Typical CPT Data

105

100,000 10 DRAINED 9 10,000 8
D NE AI DR UNDRAINED Y LL A TI 6

CONE TIP RESISTANCE, qc (kPa)

12 11

7

R PA

5 4 3

1000

1 2 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FRICTION RATIO (%), R f

Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

qc/N 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 1.0 2.0

Soil Type Sensitive fine grained Organic clay Clay Silty clay to clay Clayey silt to silty clay Sandy silt to clayey silt Silty sand to sandy silt Sand to silty sand Sand Gravelly sand to sand Very stiff fine grained (Silt and or clay) Sand to clayey sand

Figure 12-7: Correlation Soil Type to CPT Cone Tip Resistance and Sleeve Friction Ratio (Robertson, et al., 1986)

106

Figure 12-8: Vane shear device 12.9 LABORATORY SOIL TESTING

The design of timber pile foundations requires an evaluation of the soil shear strength properties. For cohesionless soils, in-situ testing (i.e., SPT and CPT) will be the primary tools for estimating strength and compressibility soil parameters. For cohesive soils, the use of SPT resistance values for estimating the shear strength and compressibility of the soil is not recommended. For soft sensitive clays, where undistubed samples are difficult to obtain, in-situ vane shear tests may be used to estimate the shear strength parameters of the clay. However, whenever undisturbed samples can be obtained, laboratory testing should be performed to evaluate the compressibility and shear strength parameters of the clay. The purpose of this chapter is to present a summary of laboratory tests performed to determine basic soil properties required for timber pile design. For detailed information on laboratory testing, see FHWA HI-97-021 Subsurface Investigations.

107

its general characteristics. Thus. When the total stress is increased. especially compressibility and strength. The index tests that are use to classify soils are : • • • • Moisture Content (ASTM D 2216-98 Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock) Particle Size Distribution (ASTM D 422-98 Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of Soils) Atterberg Limits (ASTM D 4318-98 Test Method for Liquid Limit. This correlation of effective stress with soil behavior. if the soil particles are to be packed into a denser arrangement. Typically. the increase is initially sustained by an identical increase in the pore water pressure. is known as the principle of effective stress.2 Shear Strength Tests A saturated soil mass consists of two distinct phases: the soil skeleton and the water-filled pores between the soil particles. Plastic Limit. rather than the total stress. the skeleton transmits normal and shear stresses at the inter-particle points of contact. 12. based on correlations between engineering properties and soil classification. σ'.1 Index Tests Index tests are used to classify a soil for geotechnical engineering purposes. The classification of soil determines the type of material. by the pore water. Only as pore water is allowed to escape the soil mass is stress transferred to the soil skeleton. The effective stress. no shear resistance). The classification of the soil enables geotechnical engineers to communicate information about a soil in common terminology. and Plasticity Index for Soils) Unit Weight (ASTM D 4254-91 Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of Relative Density) 12.The laboratory tests that will be briefly covered in this chapter are categorized as follows : • • • Index tests Shear strength tests Consolidation tests The following subsections briefly decribe each type of test. acting on any plane within the soil mass is defined by: 108 . It is the effective stress that controls the behavior of soil rather than the total stress or pore water pressure. Normal stresses imposed on such a soil will be sustained by the soil skeleton and. it is the effective stress. and what additional testing may be required to determine the consolidation and shear strength properties of the soil. The stresses sustained by the soil skeleton are known as effective stresses. that must be increased.9. which results in engineers using data from other engineers in predicting foundation performance. and the hydrostatic stress from the water in the voids is known as pore water pressure. and the pore water will exert a hydrostatic pressure that is equal in all directions (i. if the soil is fully saturated. leaving the effective stresses unchanged.9.e.

The cohesion and internal friction angle of the soil may be determined from the plot of the test results. The effective shear strength of soil is defined by the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria as: τ = c’ + σn’ tan φ’ (12-2) For timber pile foundation design. and φ’). Quantification of the shear strength of the foundation soil is essential for the design of timber pile foundations. This failure plane may not be the weakest 109 . The failure plane is predefined and horizontal. The shear strength obtained under this condition is termed the drained shear strength. This cohesive behavior is usually caused by inherent negative pore pressures within the soil mass that lead to positive effective stresses.e. and the pore water pressure may be determined from the groundwater and loading conditions. effective stress) shear strength of the soil. direct shear and triaxial). The shear strength of a soil is described via the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope. The total stress is equal to the total force per unit area acting perpendicular to the plane. which simulates the effect of a confined sample (e. Timber pile foundation design will typically use the drained (i.g. “apparent cohesion”). The internal friction angle depends on the interlocking of soil particles and the resistance to sliding between the grains. Most natural.σ' = σ . The direct shear test has several shortcomings which must be understood prior to using the results. Sometimes a load can be applied to a fine-grained sample at such a slow rate that no excess pore water pressures are generated. Shear tests on soil samples are performed to determine the effective cohesion (c’). Direct Shear Test The direct shear test (ASTM D 3080-98) is performed by placing a specimen into a cylindrical or square shaped direct shear box which is split in the horizontal plane (Figure 12-9(a)). c’. The effective cohesion is the inter-particle attraction effect and is independent of effective normal stress (σn’). which may be determined using a variety of tests (i. The results of a series of direct shear tests are plotted in the form of normal load versus shear strength or stress at failure (Figure 12-9(b)). and the effective angle of internal friction (φ’). The lower portion of the box is held stationary while a horizontal load is exerted on the upper part of the box to shear the soil sample on the predetermined horizontal plane.u (12-1) where σ is the total stress acting on the plane and u is the pore water pressure. saturated soils derive their strength from the friction at the inter-particle contacts.e. It is always calculated indirectly with information about the total stress and the pore water pressure. the strength is directly controlled by the effective stresses. A normal (vertical) load is applied over the specimen... The drained shear strength is normally used in an effective stress analysis while the undrained shear strength is used in a total stress analysis. Soils that consist predominantly of fine-grained clayey particles may have considerable cohesive strength under undrained conditions. the resistance along the pile shaft and at the pile tip are a function of the shear strength parameters (τ . Since the shear stresses at the particle contacts are frictional. It should be noted that the effective stress cannot be calculated directly.

Sampling and sampling size will be discussed in the following paragraphs as they directly affect the shear strength parameters for pile design . the entire strength of the specimen is not mobilized. A plot of normal stress versus shear stress is developed and the shear strength parameters c’ and φ’ are determined. therefore. and φ’). axial stress is applied. The CU test with pore pressure measurements during testing allows for the determination of the undrained shear strength parameters (total stress strength parameters c and φ) and the effective shear strength parameters (c’. (3) sample orientation.. (2) sample size. (4) rate of shearing. The CD test is performed by first consolidating the specimen.failure plane for the soil. Because of the difficulties encountered in assessing test data from unsaturated samples. The area of the failure plane decreases as the test progresses. Research has shown that for soils with angles of internal friction of 35 degrees or higher. depending on the desired shear strength parameters: undrained unconsolidated (UU). Triaxial Test The most versatile shear strength test is the triaxial compression test. 110 . the direct shear test may produce results as much as 4 degrees higher than the triaxial test. (5) softening upon removal of load by excavation. Unsaturated samples should only be tested when it is possible to simulate in the laboratory the exact field saturation and loading conditions relevant to the design. and consolidated drained (CD). In addition to the factors mentioned above. Below 35 degrees there appears to be good correlation with values obtained by triaxial tests (FHWA NHI 01-031). This is incorporated into the calculation to prevent errors in computing the unit stress. The sample is then subjected to a confining pressure. which results in progressive failure of the specimen. The distribution of normal stresses and shearing stresses over the sliding surface is not uniform. and (6) progressive failure. which may vary with time in the field. Discrepancies Between Field and Laboratory Strengths There are many ways in which the sample strength measured in the laboratory can differ from the field or in-situ strength (Skempton and Hutchinson. The UU test is fast and is mainly used in cases where the subgrade soils will be loaded quickly without allowing time for foundation consolidation. The total stress methods use undrained shear strengths and the effective stress design methods use drained shear strength data. These include: (1) sampling. A cylindrical test specimen is encased in a rubber membrane and placed inside a plastic cylindrical chamber that is usually filled with water or glycerine. consolidated undrained (CU). 1969). it is recommended that laboratory test samples be saturated prior to shearing in order to measure the minimum shear strengths. There are three typical types of triaxial tests that are performed on a specimen. the shear strength of a given soil is also dependent upon the degree of saturation. Total stress and effective stress timber pile design methods are presented in Chapter 4. To cause shear failure in the sample. The triaxial test allows a soil sample to be subjected to three principal stresses under controlled conditions. CD tests are used to determine the drained shear strength parameters. The direct shear test is commonly used to assess the shear strength of cohesionless soils.

In soft clays. Samples obtained using thin-walled piston samplers or Shelby tubes are recommended when obtaining samples of cohesive soils. sampling and disturbance will tend to reduce the measured strength of the soil.) Direct shear device. and the impact of fissuring. Sampling for Shear Strength Tests Design predictions based on laboratory shear strengths and compressibility characteristics may have limitations for both slightly and heavily overconsolidated clays of high plasticity.) Plot of results from direct shear test. even the 111 . measurement of reliable pore pressures. voids ratio.P ∆H δ T (a) Direct shear device ( ) τ φ 14 11 7 σn1 σn2 σn3 σn (b) Direct shear results Figure 12-9: a. which will lead to a poor estimation of in-situ shear strength. In general. Table 12-1 provides a summary of the various features that are likely to disturb the soil samples. thus affecting the properties measured in laboratory tests. b. This is attributed to the difficulty of obtaining representative samples. The sample disturbance is likely to affect the sample’s water content. and structure.

The slope of the one-dimensional consolidation test is typically nonlinear and it is convenient to use the logarithmic scale for stress.3 Consolidation Tests The one-dimensional consolidation test (ASTM D 2435) is commonly used to determine the compressibility of clays.9. It also represents the loads to which the soil had been subjected in the past. The effect of sample disturbance is most severe in soft sensitive soils and appears to become more significant as the sampling depth increases. Sample Size for Shear Strength Tests Ideally. The slope of the a-b line of the e-log σ′v curve is defined as the compression index (Cc) (Figure 12-10). Settlement due to consolidation can be estimated from the slope of the one-dimensional consolidation test void ratio (e = volume of void/volume of solids) versus the logarithm of the vertical effective stress (σ′v) curve (Figure 12-10). it can be taken as constant over the relevant stress range for the soils that will be considered likely candidates for shallow foundations (when e<1). principally because of fissures that may or may not be present in the test specimen. This stress can be considered as equivalent to the onset of yield. The strains that develop at pressures below the preconsolidation pressure (to the left of σ′p in Figure 12-10) are normally considered to result from minor slipping at the soil interparticle contacts. samples should be sufficiently large to contain a representative selection of all the particles and all the discontinuities in the soil. The magnitude of σ′p is influenced by the largest stress to which the soil has been subjected. The more bonding and cementation in the soil. Although Cc can be expected to vary with stress level. and the strength of the bonding and cementation.5 inch by 3. In this case. where plastic strains develop. This is particularly true for fissured clays for which the sample size can play an important role. Numerous correlations have been made between Cc and common index tests for normally consolidated soils and several are included in Table 12-2. The highest level of stress to which normally consolidated soils are subjected is due to existing overburden loads. the more abrupt the change in the slope of the void ratio-effective stress curve once the stress level exceeds σ′p. Note that the values of Cc can vary by as much as a factor of 5 (using the average trend line) in these empirical correlations.0 inch triaxial samples.best sampling technique will lead to some reduction in undrained strength because of the changes in total stresses inevitably associated with sampling from the ground. 12. which resulted in consolidation (or over-consolidation) of the soil stratum. This procedure is generally used in practice despite the fact that not all points beneath the foundation undergo onedimensional compression. Soils subjected to stress-void ratio states corresponding to line a-b in Figure 12-10 are called normally consolidated soils. samples of at least 4 inches in diameter should be tested. The effective vertical stress at which the soil begins to undergo a substantial compressibility is called the preconsolidation pressure (σ′p). Soils in this state are compressible and may experience relatively large settlements when the effective stress is increased. a wide scatter is usually found among the results. 112 . and they should not be used for final design. For 1. and an average strength should be selected on the basis of a considerable number of tests.

trimming. In reality. while the largest ratio corresponds to micaceous silts and fissured stiff clays and shales. use vacuum breaker Avoid shocks. Best to store at in-situ temperature to minimize bacteria growth. the value of Cr depends upon whether loading or unloading is occurring. REMARKS Excessive reduction in σv because light drilling mud causes excessive deformations in extension.e. ET AL.20 (Terzaghi. etc. Avoid chemical reactions with sampling tube.e. etc. be particularly careful) Eventual removal of in-situ stress Eventual reduction (removal) of confining stress Sampling Technique Sample geometry: Diameter/Length Area ratio Clearance ratio Accessories. Minimize further straining (i. Resultant shear strain should usually be small Loss of negative u (soil-suction) caused by presence of coarser-grained materials. The recompression index of the soil is significantly smaller than the compression index.02 to 0. 1985) CONDITION Stress Relief ITEM Change in stresses because of drilling hole. 1967). i. coring tube. and Peck. since some hysteresis does occur when the soil is subjected to cycles of loading and unloading. etc. The slope of the e-log σ′v curve at vertical stresses less than σ′p is called the recompression index (Cr). Method of advancing sampler Method of extraction Transportation Storage Handling Procedures Extrusion. Overpressure causes excessive deformation in compression. etc.TABLE 12-1 SOURCES OF SAMPLE DISTURBANCE IN COHESIVE SOILS (AFTER JAMIOLKOWSKI. 113 .. changes in temperature.. inner foil. The ratio of Cr/Cc typically ranges from 0. Expansion of gas (bubbles and/or dissolved gas) These variables affect: Recovery ratio Adhesion along sample walls Thickness of remolded zone along interior wall Continuous pushing better than hammering To reduce suction effect at bottom of sample. piston. The low value is typical of highly structured and bonded soft clay or silt. Opportunity for water migration increases with storage time.

In the case of highly structured soft clays (Terzaghi. for loading and unloading. in the case of highly structured soft clays (seldom candidates for shallow foundations) or stiff clay shales. and Peck. The subsequent rebound slope can be significantly different than the initial Cr. it is sufficiently accurate to assume Cr is constant for unstructured clays. as a result of flocculation (edge to face structure of clays) and bonding that allows the soil to be stable at high void ratios until the stress exceeds σ′p.Generally. 1967) the initial value of Cr is steep. It may not be adequate to rely on a single value of Cr. Figure 12-10: Typical Plot of Void Ratio Versus Log Effective Vertical Stress from a Consolidation Test on Clay TABLE 12-2 CORRELATIONS FOR Cc 114 .

0115 wn Cc=0. Wisconsin. For a detailed discussion on field corrections see FHWA NHI 01-031. strength. no matter how carefully the samples are taken. 115 . peat Uniform silts Uniform sand. The effect of disturbance from the sampling procedure is illustrated in Figure 12-11..06 Cc=0. etc.) of the soil to some degree. The curve for the 3 inch tube sample trimmed to a 2 inch sample shows a well defined break that is very similar to the estimated field compression curve which is the most accurate.009 (LL-10) Cc=0.e. The curve for the remolded sample is the flattest curve without a well defined break between reloading and virgin compression (i. “fully disturbed”). The curve for a 2 inch tube sample shows the more typical break in the curve. Consolidation test results are used to estimate the magnitude and rate of settlement for pile foundations in cohesive soils. The sampling disturbance will usually cause the measured laboratory void ratio-effective stress “break” to occur at a lower apparent maximum past vertical pressure (σ′p) (preconsolidation). Figure 12-11 shows three consolidation curves for an insensitive clay from Fond du Lac.Correlation Cc=0. It is still necessary to “correct” the e-log σ′v curve of good quality samples since no sampling technique is perfect. permeability.03 Soil Clay of medium to low sensitivity (St<4)1 Organic soils.05 to 0. dense Source Terzaghi & Peck (1967) ASCE (1994) ASCE (1994) ASCE (1994) ASCE (1994) Correction of Laboratory One-Dimensional Consolidation Curves The process of sampling soils will cause some sampling disturbance.20 Cc=0. There are several techniques available to correct the consolidation curve.02 to 0. than would be measured for an undisturbed specimen. loose Uniform sand. This sampling disturbance will affect virtually all measured physical properties (compressibility.

Soils with a high fine content generally have a lower friction angle than soils of similar density with lower fine content. 116 . The gradation and fine content of cohesionless soils are useful in determining pile driveability. 1995) 12. To determine site specific soil sensitivity from laboratory data. or the gradation and fine content of cohesionless soils.Figure 12-11: Effect of Disturbance on One-Dimensional Consolidation Void RatioEffective Stress Curve (Olson. Cohesive soils may lose a significant portion of their shear strength when disturbed or remolded. remolded soil specimens having the same moisture content as undisturbed specimens should be tested. A high fine content may also affect soil permeability.10 LABORATORY TESTING FOR PILE DRIVEABILITY DETERMINATION In order to assess the pile driveability and potential soil setup effects for timber pile foundations the following soil properties should be evaluated: the remolded shear strength of cohesive soils. The best assessment of the remolded shear strength of cohesive soils may be made from field vane shear tests. Depending on soil density. as during the pile driving process. and pore pressure during shear which may result in lower effective stress. drainage. The sensitivity of a cohesive soil (St) is the ratio of the undrained shear strength of an undisturbed specimen to the undrained shear strength of a remolded specimen.

117 . Routine laboratory grain size analyses can quantify gradation and fine content.cohesionless soils with high fine content are also more likely to demonstrate soil setup.

118 .

Design Values for Wood Construction. PA. ASCE 20-96 (1996) “Standard Guidelins for Design and Installation of Pile Foundations.“ American Society for Testing and Materials. “ American Society of Civil Engineers. West Conshohocken.REFERENCES American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA). Reston. ASTM D 4318 “Test Method for Liquid Limit. Granbury. 119 .“ American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM D 4254 “Test Method for minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of Soils and Calculation of relative Density. PA. ASTM D 2899 “Standard Practice for Establishing Design Stresses for Round Timber Piles. Timber Poles and Piles.” Technical Engineering and Design Guides as Adapted from the US Corps of Engineers. Granbury.” American Wood-Preservers’ Association. AWPA C 3 “Pile – Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes. AWPA C 14 “Wood for Highway Construction – Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes. TX.“ American Society for Testing and Materials. PA. ASTM D 25 “Standard Specification for Round Timber Piles. AWPA C 18 “Standard for Pressure Treated Material in Marine Construction.“. PA. ASTM D 2555 “Standard Test Method for Establishing Clear Wood Strength Values.“ American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM D 422 “Standard Test Method for Particle Size Analysis of Soils.“ American Society for Testing and Materials. West Conshohocken. West Conshohocken. Plastic Limit. TX. PA. PA. PA. C.” American WoodPreservers’ Association. West Conshohocken. PA. “Settlement Analysis. West Conshohocken. TX. PA. Granbury. West Conshohocken. West Conshohocken. ASTM D 3441 “Standard Test Method for Mechanical Cone Penetration Tests in Soil. and Plasticity Index for Soils. ASTM D 1143 “Standard Test Method for Piles under Axial Compression Load. VA ASCE (1994).” American Wood-Preservers’ Association. No. National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction and Supplement. 9. West Conshohocken.” American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM D 2216 “Standard Test Method Test Method for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass.“ American Society for Testing and Materials. American Society for Testing and Materials. Washington D. West Conshohocken.“ American Society for Testing and Materials.

.H. SM3. (1972) “High Capacity Piles. B. First Edition. Fairfax. New Orleans.. Granbury. CAN/CSA 0. Fang... Collin. Foundation Engineering Handbook.J.. A. Bowles.” Principal Investigator: George Munfakh. SM2. B. ASCE. Second Edition.S. R. and Munfakh. Graham. Department of Transportation. Journal for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Broms. 120 . Arman.” American Society of Civil Engineers. Broms. 90. FHWA-NHI-01-023. Fellenius. New York. Hung. Module 1 – Subsurface Investigations.B. U. (1990) “Guidelines for the Interpretation of Static Load Test.AWPA M 3 “Standard Quality Control Procedures for Wood Preserving Plants. 90. U.” 17th Annual Deep Foundation Institute Conference. Chicago. VA. B.. and Brouillette..” Deep Foundation Institute Short Course text. Sols-Sols No..” AWPI. R. TX..80. 18-19. Module 7 – Shallow Foundations. Vol. (1964b) “Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesionless Soils. J.B. Castelli. Can3-056-M Round Wood Piles CAN/CSA-080 Series M Wood Preservation. page 21-32. J. (1997)..S. McGraw-Hill Book Company.T. Editor. (1964a) “Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesive Soils. Federal Highway Administration. (1966) “Methods of Calculating the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Piles. Fellenius. B.3 Preservative Treatment of Piles by Pressure Process. Canadian Standards Association (CSA). 21-32.” American Wood-Preservers’ Association. M. N.S. J. A.C. Davisson. Vol. Arman. Second Edition. H. American Wood Preserves Institute “Construction Guidelines for Timber Piling Projects.A Summary”. G. Illinois Section.H. (2001). Federal Highway Administration.E.” Principal Investigator: George Munfakh.. Louisiana. (1991) Chapter 13 – Pile Foundations.” American Society of Civil Engineers. J. National Highway Institute Course 13231 – Publication No. FHWA-HI-97-021.G. “Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering.” Proceedings Soil Mechanics Lecture Series on Innovations in Foundation Construction.. Journal for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. (1977) Foundation Analysis and Design. Samtani.B. National Highway Institute Course 13231 – Publication No. Broms. B.. “Geotechnical and Foundation Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. (1992) “Treated Round Wood Piling Specifications. page 27-63. van Nostrand Reinhold Publisher.S. Department of Transportation.

. G.. R. M. Department of Transportation. (1986) “The performance of Pile Driving Systems Inspection Manual. John Wiley & Sons.” Proceedings 11th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. (1980) Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. Goble. F. Meyerhof. 4. (1979) “Poiny Bearing Capacity of Piles in Cohesionless Soils. Department of Transportation.L.” U. U.D. and Thornburn.. C. (1992) “Static Testing of Deep Foundations. CA. E. W...E. and Hussein. New York. Schnore. Federal Highway Administration – Publication No. Likins. Vol.G. Robertson... Terzaghi. Nottingham.G.B. (1995) “CE 360 – Foundation Design. and Campanella.. Vol. (1976) “Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Pile Foundations.. H. A. Department of Transportation. G. Federal Highway Administration – Publication No. Vol 1.C. Inc. John Wiley & Sons.E.H. T. (1997).K. Thendean. J.” American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. G.H.G. Olson.” Ph. John Wiley & Sons. San Franscisco.A. Second Edition. New York. Performance. (1978) “Guidelines for Cone Penetration Test. Department of Transportation. R.G.. L. Hanson.. 20. FHWA-IP-84-11. G. Ladd. 20.R.S.T. and Rausche. Federal Highway Administration. Nov 1983. Rausche.C. NY. R.” U.. Goble. Germaine. P.E..S. F. Inc. University of Florida. Robertson. G.” U. Peck. No.C.. and Peck.Hannigan.F. (1983) “Interpretation of Cone Penetration Tests. J. U. 121 . Carlo. Publication No. and Lancellotta.. K. and Design”. Part 2:Clays. Z. P... Reese. and Campanella. (1983) “Interpretation of Cone Penetration Tests. R. FHWA-HI-97-013. G.G. Schmertmann. “Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations.S.” MissouriRolla 5th Annual Short Course on Fundamentals of Deep Foundation Design. (1975) “Use of Quasi-Static Friction Cone Penetrometer to Predict Load Capacity of Displacement Piles. FHWA-TS-78-209. No. Department of Transportation.” Civil Engineering Course Notes from the University of Texas at Austin.S.S..” Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Federal Highway Administration – Publication No.. L. and Baily. 4.G.. New York.E. (1967) Soil Engineering Practice.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Likins. Nov 1983..H. P.K. Poulos. Kyfor. R. (1984) Handbook on Design of Piles and Drilled Shafts Under lateral Load.J. R. Jamiolkowski. (1974) Foundation Engineering. Federal Highway Administration – Publication No. Nordlund.. T. and Davis. FHWA-SA-91-042. FHWA-RD-86/160. P.. Part 1:Sands.B. R. Dissertation to the Department of Civil Engineering. (1985) “New Developments in Field and Laboratory Testing of Soils.G. M..

Tomlinson, M.J., (1980) Foundation Design and Construction, Fourth Edition, Pitman Advanced Publishing Program.

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APPENDIX A EXAMPLE PROBLEMS
PROBLEM 1 For the soil conditions shown below design a 75 kip Southern Pine timber pile. Use the Meyerhof method to estimate pile length. Use the Nordlund method for final design. A static pile load test will be conducted prior to driving production piles.

A1

MEYERHOF METHOD Step 1 Correct SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Figure 5-1. Correction provided in definition of problem Step 2 Compute the average corrected SPT N’ value, (N ') for each layer. Note: For this example an estimated pile length of 50 feet will be used. Layer 1 – Loose Sand – Depth = 0 to 15 feet 3+5+3 N '= =4 3 Layer 2 – Medium Dense Coarse Sand – Depth = 15 to 35 feet 12 + 17 + 15 + 18 N '= = 16 4 Layer 3 – Dense Coarse Sand – Depth = 35 to 50 feet 28 + 29 + 32 N '= = 30 3 Step 3

Compute the unit shaft resistance for timber piles. 2N ' fs = ≤ 2 ksf Eq. 5-1 50 2(4 ) Layer 1 fs = = 0.16 ksf 50 2(16 ) Layer 2 fs = = 0.64 ksf 50 2(30 ) Layer 3 fs = = 1.20 ksf 50 Compute ultimate shaft resistance, Rs ,(ksf). As stated above try 50 foot piles. From Table 3-3 for an 75 kip pile the required tip diameter is 9 inches. From Table 3-5 for a 9 inch tip diameter and 50 foot pile the minimum butt is 11.8 inches.
Rs = Σfs As

Step 4

  π  11.8" +10.9"   π  10.9" +9.8"    Rs = (0.16ksf )(15ft )  + (0.64ksf )(20ft )   12 " ft   12 " ft  2 2        π  9.8" +9"  + (1.20 )(15ft )   12 " ft   2    Rs = 7 kips + 35 kips + 44 kips = 86 kips

A2

Correct the SPT field N values for overburden pressure using Fig.75ft ) Step 6 Step 7 Compute the ultimate toe resistance.8(30 )(10ft ) qt = = 320 ksf (0.Step 5 Compute the average corrected SPT for bearing stratum (N ' B ) near the pile tip.0 will be used. C. A3 . Therefore. 5-3 qt = b 0. B. Construct an effective overburden pressure diagram (Po) vs.K. Qa = Qu Factor of Safety Step 9 = 227 kips = 114 kips φ 75 kips required 2 2 Estimated length is O. 0. cohesionless stratum near the toe . This example assumes no laboratory or in-situ data is available. therefore use 50 foot length for final design. the values of N’ averaged should be in an approximate zone of 10*9”=90” above the tip and 3*9”= 28” below the tip.8N 'B DB Eq. Rt  9" 1ft  Rt = q t At = 320ksf (π )r = 320ksf (π ) *  = 141 kips  2 12"  2 2 Step 8 Compute the Ultimate Pile Capacity Qu = R s + R t Qu = 86 kips + 141 kips = 227 kips Compute the allowable design load Qa. This is shown with the soil profile in the problem statement. The limiting value of unit toe resistance is reached when the embedment depth into the bearing stratum reaches 10 diameters and the average value includes the zone within 3 diameters below the tip. This example assumes a uniform. 5-1. Since a pile load test will be performed a factor of Safety of 2. Determine φ for each layer of soil from laboratory tests or in-situ data. For this case use N’ values from depth 45’ to 55’. 29 + 32 + 30 N 'B = ≈ 30 3 Compute the unit toe resistance. Correction provided in definition of problem. Qa = NORDLUND METHOD Step 1 Qu A. depth.

Compute the volume of soil displaced per unit length of pile (V).59 ft lf  2 12"  B. Kδ. ω:  11.9o δ2 = 17.D.6o δ3 = 19.  10. for each φ angle. A. To determine V use average pile diameter: Butt = 11.55φ 2 2 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Step 3 δ1 = 14.59 ft3/ft δ/φ = 0. for each foot of length.3o Determine the coefficient of lateral earth pressure.13° A4 . average = 10.4 inches Thus.8" −9"  1ft     2   12"  = 0. tip = 9 inches. For V=0. δ/φ. In the absence of laboratory or in-situ test data use Table 5-1.0ft ) = 0.4" 1ft  3 V =π r l =π  (1. From Figure 5-3 determine the ratio of the pile soil friction angle to the soil friction angle.55 ∴ δ = 0. Calculate pile taper angle.0023 tan ω = 50ft ω = 0.8 inches. From Table 5-1: Layer 1: N ' = 4 Layer 2: N ' = 16 Layer 3: N ' = 30 Step 2 φ ≈ 27o φ ≈ 32o φ ≈ 35o Determine the friction angle between the pile and soil (δ) based on the displaced soil volume (V) and the soil friction angle (φ).

25 Use Figure 5-5 for φ = 30o Layer 3 Kδ ≈ 1. Layer 1 Kδ ≈ 0.82 CF=0. Layer 1 Layer 2 midpoint depth = (15'−0' )/2 = 7. Figures 5-5 and 5-6 are used in a similar manner for Layers 2 and 3.Not all of the φ angles chosen in Step 1 match those used to develop the charts in Figures 5-4. 5-5.55 CF=0. pd.55 δ/φ=0.5' (110pcf − 62.59 ft3/ft does not correspond to the curves shown.0' p d2 = 669 psf + 7.4pcf ) p d3 = 1552 psf + 920 psf = 2472 psf A5 .85 Use Figure 5-6 for φ = 35o Step 4 Determine the correction factor.4pcf ) Layer 3 p d2 = 669 psf + 357 psf + 526 psf = 1552 psf midpoint depth = 35'+[(50'-35' )/2] = 42. and the displaced volume of 0.85 Use Figure 5-4 for φ = 25o Layer 2 Kδ ≈ 1. CF. Figure 5-4 for Layer 1 is shown below.4pcf ) + 10' (115pcf − 62.5' (115pcf − 62. Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 φ=27o φ=32o φ=35o δ/φ=0.62.55 δ/φ=0.72 Step 5 Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each layer.77 CF=0.5' p d1 = 5' (110pcf ) + 2.4pcf ) = 669psf midpoint depth = 15'+[(35'−15' )/2] = 25. Estimate Kδ from visual examination of the charts based on φ angles closest to the estimated φ angles from Step 1.5' (110pcf . to be applied to Kδ if δ ≠ φ using Figure 5-8. and 5-6.5' p d3 = 1552 psf + 17.

72 )(2474psf )sin (19.25 )(0.13°) = 5387 lbs Layer 2: Cd = (Ave. pile diameter for 0'−15' )(π ) = (11.3° + 0.82 )(669psf )sin (14. D Embedded pile length 50' = = = 67. ft ∆d = Embedded length in layer. from the friction angle of the soil near the pile. The sum of the shaft resistance from each layer obtained is the ultimate shaft resistance.46' ∆d = 15' Rs 3 = [(1. To find the αt coefficient the ratio of D/b must be determined.Step 6 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil.71' )(20' )] cos(0.97' ∆d = 15' Rs1 = [(0.13°)(2. These values are found in Figure 5-9 (a) and 5-9(b) using a φ=35o at the pile toe.97' )(15' )] cos(0. Add the overburden pressure for the distance from the midpoint of Layer 3 to the toe of the pile to that found in Step 5 above. R s = ∑d =0 K δ C F pd sin (δ + ω )C d ∆d cos ω d =D where Cd = Pile perimeter. p t = 2474psf + 7. N’q. ft All other terms previously defined in Steps 2 through 5 Layer 1: Cd = (Ave.5' (115pcf − 62.4pcf ) = 2867psf A6 .0 Step 8 Compute the effective overburden pressure at the pile toe.13°) = 40451lbs ∑R Step 7 s = Rs1 + Rs 2 + Rs 3 = 5387 lbs + 24656 lbs + 40451 lbs = 70494 lbs Determine the αt coefficient and the bearing capacity factor.77 )(1552psf )sin (17.13°)(2.75' αt = N’q = 0. pt.4" )(1ft 12' )(π ) = 2. pile diameter for 35'−50' )(π ) = (9.9° + 0.71' ∆d = 20' Rs 2 = [(1.85 )(0.46' )(15' )] cos(0. pile diameter for 15'−35' )(π ) = (10.35" )(1ft 12 ")(π ) = 2.85 )(0.6° + 0.13°) = 24656 lbs Layer 3: Cd = (Ave.35" )(1ft 12" )(π ) = 2.0 b Pile diameter 0.67 65.13°)(2.

Calculate the revised pile taper angle. O.67 )(65 )(π )  (2867psf )  2 12"  Rt = 55161 lbs 2 Confirm the Rt calculated is less than the limiting value found for φ=35o from the chart in Figure 5-10. Rt. Limiting unit toe resistance. the volume of soil displaced per length of pile. Qu Step 11 Step 10 = Rs + Rt = 70494 lbs + 46388 lbs ≈ 117. Since a pile load test will be performed a factor of Safety of 2.000 lbs Compute the allowable design load Qa.K.0023 tan ω = 60ft ω = 0.Confirm the pt found is less than the limiting value of 3000 psf.13° Since the revised pile has the same tip diameter and pile taper as the original pile. ∴ Rt = 46388 lbs Compute the ultimate pile capacity. Qa = Qu Factor of Safety Qa = Qu 2 = 117 kips 2 = 58 kips π 75 kips required Since the pile has substantially less capacity than required. = 105 kips/ft2 2  9" 1ft   1000lbs   = 46388lbs Rt = qL At = (105ksf )(π )      2 12"   1kip  Use the lessor of the two calculated values. will not change. A7 . qL. Steps 1 through 4 of the original calculations do not change. ω:  12.0 will be used.4" −9"  1ft     2   12"  = 0.4” butt diameter and 9” tip diameter. p t = 2867psf ≤ 3000psf Step 9 Compute the ultimate toe resistance. recalculate the allowable design load Qa with an increased pile length of 60 feet. Therefore. Referencing Table 3-5 for 9 inch tip and 60 foot pile use 12. R t = α t N 'q At pt  9 1ft  Rt = (0. V.

98" )(1ft 12" )(π ) = 3. pd. These values are the same as originally found by Figures 5-9 (a) and 5-9(b): αt = N’q = 0.5' p d3 = 1552 psf + 22.13°)(2.13°) = 26112 lbs Layer 3: Cd = (Ave.54' ∆d = 25' Rs 3 = [(1.87' )(20' )] cos(0.13°) = 5695 lbs Layer 2: Cd = (Ave.70" )(1ft 12" )(π ) = 2. pile diameter for 0'−15' )(π ) = (11.Step 5A Compute the average effective overburden pressure at the mid-point of each layer.14' )(15' )] cos(0. ft All other terms previously defined in Steps 2 through 5 Layer 1: Cd = (Ave.4pcf ) p d3 = 1552 psf + 1184 psf = 2736 psf Step6A Compute the shaft resistance in each layer of soil.98" )(1ft 12" )(π ) = 2.87' ∆d = 20' Rs 2 = [(1.3° + 0.67 65.13°)(2.13°) = 76982 lbs ∑R Step7A s = Rs1 + Rs 2 + Rs 3 = 5695 lbs + 26112 lbs + 76982 lbs = 108789 lbs Determine the αt coefficient and the bearing capacity factor. N’q. pile diameter for 15'−35' )(π ) = (10. from the friction angle of the soil near the pile.54' )(25' )] cos(0. Layers 1 and 2 calculations do not change for this step.77 )(1552psf )sin (17.14' ∆d = 15' Rs1 = [(0.5' (115pcf − 62.25 )(0. The sum of the shaft resistance from each layer obtained is the ultimate shaft resistance. Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 p d1 = 669psf (No change from original) p d1 = 1552psf (No change from original) midpoint depth = 35'+[(60'-35' )/2] = 47.6° + 0.13°)(3. ft ∆d = Embedded length in layer. pile diameter for 35'−60' )(π ) = (9. R s = ∑d =0 K δ C F pd sin (δ + ω )C d ∆d cos ω d =D where Cd = Pile perimeter.82 )(669psf )sin (14.9° + 0.72 )(2736psf )sin (19.85 )(0.85 )(0.0 A8 .

5' (115pcf − 62.Step 8A Compute the effective overburden pressure at the revised pile toe. Qa = Qu Factor of Safety Qa = Qu 2 = 155 kips 2 = 78 kips φ 75 kips required ∴O. = 105 kips/ft2 2  9" 1ft   1000lbs   = 46388lbs Rt = qL At = (105ksf )(π )      2 12"   1kip  Use the lessor of the two calculated values. Since a pile load test will be performed a factor of Safety of 2.K. qL. p t = 2736psf + 12. Use the limiting value of 3000psf in Step 9A. A9 . Add the overburden pressure for the distance from the midpoint of Layer 3 to the toe of the pile to that found in Step 5A above.0 will be used. Rt.67 )(65 )(π )  (3000psf )  2 12"  Rt = 57719 lbs 2 Confirm the Rt calculated is less than the limiting value found for φ=35o from the chart in Figure 5-10. Limiting unit toe resistance.4pcf ) = 3393psf The pt found is greater than the limiting value of 3000 psf. ∴ Rt = 46388lbs Step 10A Compute the ultimate pile capacity. pt. 155 kips) Compute the allowable design load Qa. Step 9A Compute the ultimate toe resistance. R t = α t N 'q At pt  9 1ft  Rt = (0. Qu = Rs + Rt = 108789 lbs + 46388 lbs ≈ 155177 lbs (approx.

A10 .

PILE SELECTION Assume pile length of 60 feet. A static pile load test will be conducted prior to driving production piles.PROBLEM 2 Design a 60 kip Douglas Fir timber pile for the soil conditions shown below using the α method. from Figure 5-12.7 inches. Layer 1 Depth 0’ to 30’ D1 = 30 ft Soft clay Use Figure 5-12c A11 . Use 13” butt diameter for calculations. From Table 3-3 for a 60 kip pile the required minimum tip diameter is 8 inches. From Table 3-7 the minimum butt diameter for Douglas Fir with a specified tip diameter of 8 inches is 12. α. α METHOD Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine the adhesion factor.

5" +8"  1ft  Rs 2 = (1134psf )(30ft )(π )   = 82.0 b1 = Layer 2 Depth 30’ to 60’ Stiff clay Use Figure 5-12b D2 = 30 ft 10. Rs. qt qt = 9 c u = 9 (1620psf ) = 14.96’=31 cu = 450 psf α = 1.140lbs  2  Compute the ultimate pile capacity 2 Step 6 Qu = R s + R t A12 .5"  1ft  Rs1 = (450psf )(30ft )(π )   = 41. from the sum of the shaft resistances for each layer.7 Step 2 Compute the unit shaft resistance for each layer Layer 1 fs = α c u = (1.96 ft 2  12"  D/b=30’/0.3912lbs Step 4 Compute the unit toe resistance.0 )(450psf ) = 450psf Layer 2 fs = α c u = (0.580psf Step 5 Compute the ultimate toe resistance.67"  Rt = qt At = (14580psf )(π )  = 5.00  1ft  b2 =   = 0.76 ft 2  12"  D/b=30’/0.7 )(1620psf ) = 1134psf Step 3 Compute the shaft resistance in each soil layer and the ultimate shaft resistance.7" +10.528lbs 2   12"   10.35  1ft    = 0. Rt  0. R s = Σfs As = Σ[fs (LπDave )]  13" +10.384lbs 2   12"  Rs = Rs1 + Rs 2 = 41528lbs + 82384lbs = 12.12.76’=39 cu = 1620 psf α = 0.35" +8.

2 2 A13 . Use a factor of Safety of 2.912lbs + 5.K.000lbs Step 7 (129kips ) Compute the allowable design load. Qa = Qu 129kips = = 64kips φ 60kips O. Qa.140lbs ≈ 129.0 based on performing a pile load test.Qu = 123.

A14 .

62.62.4pcf ) = 2880psf B. A.4pcf ) = 1670psf z = 50’ po =1670psf + (23' )(115pcf .PROBLEM 3 Use the effective stress method to calculate the ultimate capacity and allowable capacity of a 12” butt diameter and 7” tip diameter Southern Yellow Pine timber pile driven into the soil profile described below. Construct the effective overburden versus depth diagram. EFFECTIVE STRESS METHOD (FHWA-HI-97-013) Step 1 Delineate the soil profile into layers and determine φ’ angle for each layer. No pile load test will be performed before driving production piles. z = 2’ po = (2' )(115pcf ) = 230psf z = 27’ po =230psf + (25' )(120pcf . Divide the soil profile throughout the pile penetration depth into A15 .

From Table 5-2 From Figure 5-13 Use for calculations Layer 1 ave. β≈0.5' )(115pcf − 62.45 β≈0.5 )(120pcf − 62.5' 2 po1 = (2' )(115pcf ) + (11. from the sum of the shaft resistances each layer. Rs.3" 1ft  Rs1 = (267psf )(27' ) (π ) = 20100 lbs 2 12"    9.30 Layer 2 ave.3 )(892psf ) = 267psf Layer 2 fs 2 = (0.4pcf ) + (11.5' Layer 1 midpoint at z 2 = 27" + 2 po2 = (2' )(115pcf ) + (25' )(120pcf − 62.4pcf ) = 2275psf C.4 )(2275psf ) = 910psf Step 4 Compute the shaft resistance in each layer and the ultimate shaft resistance.40 Step 3 For each soil layer compute the unit shaft resistance.layers and determine the effective overburden pressure at the midpoint of each layer. R s = fs As = fs (LπDave ) For a 50’ timber pile with a 12” butt diameter and a 7” tip diameter the pile diameter decreases 5”over 50’=1”/10’. fs.4pcf ) = 892psf 23' = 38. β≈0. Layer 1: Layer 2:  12" +9.28 β=0. f s = β po Layer 1 fs1 = (0. Layer 1 midpoint at z 1 = 27' = 13.3" +7" 1ft  Rs 2 = (910psf )(23' ) (π ) = 44658 lbs 2 12"   A16 .39 β=0. Step 2 Select the β coefficient for each soil layer using Table 5-2 and Figure 513.32 β≈0. Determine the φ’ angle for each layer. This information was provided in problem definition.

Ultimate Shaft Resistance: Rs = Σfs As = 20100lbs + 44658lbs = 64758 lbs Step 5 Compute the unit toe resistance. Qa = Qu Factor of Safety Qa = Qu 3 = 107 kips 3 ≈ 35 kips A17 .0. Rt. Qa. Since no load test will be performed prior to driving production piles use a factor of Safety of 3. R t = q t At = q t π r 2 ( ) 2  7" 1ft  R t = (158950psf )(π )  = 42480 lbs  2 12"  Step 7 Compute the ultimate pile capacity. q t = N t pt From Figure 5-14 for φ’= 35o. Nt = 55 pt = the overburden pressure at the toe of the pile (50’) = 2890 psf q t = (55 )(2890psf ) = 158950 psf Step 6 Compute the ultimate toe resistance. Qu. Qu = R s + R t Qu = 64758 lbs + 42480 lbs ≈ 107000 lbs (107 kips ) Step 8 Compute the allowable design load.

A18 .

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