by Wikibooks contributors

Developed on Wikibooks,
the open-content textbooks collection

© Copyright 2003–2006, Wikibooks contributors. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". Images are either licensed under the GFDL or released into the public domain. Creators of GFDL images are listed in image captions. Principal authors: ThomasStrohmann (C) · Karl Wick (C) · Wintermute (C) · Mariela Riva (C) · Mxn (C) · Sabbut (C) · Javier Carro (C) · Fenoxielo (C) · Think Fast (C) · Celestianpower (C) · AnthonyBaldwin (C) · John D'Adamo (C) Cover: Zona costera de la Coveta Fuma en el término municipal de Campello, Alicante. By Kasiber and Celestianpower. The current version of this Wikibook may be found at:

Introduction.......................................................................................................03 Pronunciation....................................................................................................05

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 ¿Cómo te llamas?........................................................................................10 ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?.......................................................................18 Introducción a la gramática.......................................................................26 ¿Dónde vives?.............................................................................................33 ¿Qué te gusta hacer?..................................................................................41 ¿Qué comes?...............................................................................................51 ¿Qué hora es?.............................................................................................61 ¿Dónde vas a ir?.........................................................................................69 ¿Cuál es tu trabajo?....................................................................................83
THE BOOK.............................................................................. .........92


History & Document Notes...............................................................................92 Authors & Image Credits...................................................................................93 GNU Free Documentation License....................................................................94

live version • discussion • edit introduction • comment • report an error

Book definition
• Scope: This Wikibook aims to teach the Spanish language from scratch. It will cover all of the major grammar rules, moving slowly and offering exercises and plenty of examples. It's not all grammar though, as it offers vocabulary and phrases too, appealing to all learners. By the end, you should be able to read and write Spanish skilfully, though you'll need a human to help with listening and speaking. • Purpose: The purpose of this Wikibook is to teach you the Spanish language in an easy and accessible way. By the end, as mentioned, you should be a proficient reader and writer, though listening and speaking require a human tutor. • Audience: Anyone who wishes to learn Spanish, though adult and teenage learners are likely to enjoy it more. • Organisation: This Wikibook requires no prior knowledge of the subject, and all relevant terms are explained as they are encountered. The book runs chronologically from lesson 1 to lesson 2 to lesson 3 and so on until the end. • Narrative: Generally engaging and thorough, with plenty of examples and exercises to aid learning. Once concepts are introduced, they are repeated, building a base of vocabulary and grammar that will stay in your mind.

live version • discussion • edit introduction • comment • report an error 4 | Spanish . adjectives. Introduction You are about to embark on a course learning a second language.Chapter • Style: This book is written in British English. Today. that you learn a lot about English as well. there is a summary. Throughout education. Again. At the end. and can actually change the meaning of phrases. Your first language comes naturally to you and you don't think about things like subject-verb agreement. including the key grammar and vocabulary in the lesson. Do not become discouraged! You can do it. explaining what has been achieved. nouns. pronounce. however. do not become discouraged if you cannot understand. and covers important ideas of the Spanish Language. this is an introduction. While English is described as a very complicated language to learn. In addition. the Spanish Language is taught by moving slower and covering grammar and spelling rules. as you study Spanish. If this is the first time you are attempting to learn Spanish. each with a translation underneath. learning a second language requires a basic understanding of your own language. and each new concept or set of vocabulary is accompanied by examples. you use these concepts on a daily basis. methods of teaching Spanish have changed greatly. You may find. or usage of the various tenses. yet. or memorize some of the things discussed here. You'll see what is meant by this as you learn your first verbs ser and estar. Each lesson begins with a conversation. all languages share some simple components like verbs. the Spanish Language! The first lesson begins with simple greetings. At their core. Following the grammatical conventions of Spanish will be very important. verb conjugation. and the Spanish taught is generally "Spanish" Spanish. The formatting is consistent throughout. with Spanish in italics and all tables using the same formatting. and plurals. Exercises are linked throughout. though key regional differences are explained as we go along. the Spanish Language was taught simply by memory. This is not true for many other languages. Years ago. many of the distinguishing grammar structures have been simplified over the years.

with few exceptions. etc. be Bb larga. Ff efe f Like f in four. each letter in the Spanish alphabet represents a single sound. like a Spanish j (see below). Before the vowels e and i. In contrast. alta Between vowels. Gg ge x Before the vowels e and i. but it's clearly different from Argentinian y (see below). the tongue should Letter Wikibooks | 5 . many letters and letter combinations in English represent multiple sounds (such as the ou and gh in words like cough.Pronunciation 0 P RONUNCIATION live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error P ronouncing Spanish based on the written word is much simpler than pronouncing English based on written English. like g in get. but instead of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth.). the lips should not touch when β pronouncing the sound (somewhat similar to the v in value). Sounds similar to the d in day. Everywhere else. In Argentina it sounds almost like j in Ch ch che tʃ jump. Letter-sound correspondences in Spanish The table below presents letter-sound correspondences in the order of the traditional Spanish alphabet. simple rules tell us which is the correct one. k Everywhere else. Ee e e Like e in ten. though. Does not have an exact English equivalent. be b Like b in bad. like c in center (Americas) or Cc ce s/θ th in thin (Spain). Between vowels. it should touch the Dd de d teeth themselves. and even when there are several possible sounds.) Name of the IPA Pronunciation of the letter (English approximation) letter Aa a a Like a in father be. (Refer to the article Writing system of Spanish in Wikipedia for details on the Spanish alphabet and alphabetization. rough. This is because. through. like c in coffee Like ch in church. but between vowels g (where the second vowel is a. o or u). the tongue should be lowered so as to not touch the teeth (somewhat similar to the th in the).

Before g." Instead of ele l the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth. w and hu sounds ene n like n in anchor: un gato. or "clipped. 'Hard' r is also the sound of r at the start of a word or after l. For example. For example un paso sounds umpaso. it sounds like ñ. The English /kw/ sound is normally written cu in Spanish (cuanto).ki. and is written r ere. but it's somewhat like Arabic ghain). Properly. Like the k in ask. where the y is very short. un kilo. Like the ch in loch. This has two pronunciations. quórum). It is similar to the English "l" in line. As in English. Does not have an exact English equivalent. it should touch the tip of the teeth themselves. English equivalent. Also used in foreign words like hámster. un hueso. or an-yos. Before other vowels. although qu can be used for this sound in front of a or o (quásar. eme m Like m in more. Like q in quit. Hu. Like n in no.or hifollowed by another vowel at the start of the word stand hache for /w/ (English w) and /j/ (English y). j. n or s. but before e or i. but shorter. The 'soft' pronunciation sounds like American relaxed pronunciation of tt in "butter". where it is pronounced like a Spanish j (see below). un queso. repeat the onomatopoeia of chewing: "ñam. unless combined with c (see above). b.Chapter 0 not touch the soft palate (no similar sound in English. Before p. without the following r sound. The 'hard' pronunciation is a multiply vibrating sound. k . similar to Scottish rolled r (generally written rr). k sound (c. respectively). it approaches y in you. Only used in words of foreign origin ka k Spanish prefers c and qu (see above and below. Before y sound (y or ll). the u is silent (líquido is pronounced cu k /'li. ñam". un juego. f and v (and in some regions m) sounds as m in important. q). like gl in the Italian word gli. Very commonly simply pronounced as /j/ (English y). but it's somewhat similar to li in ʎ/j elle million. although in many dialects it sounds jota x/h like English h. pe p Like p in port. i i Like e in he.δo/). ñam. see below. Does not have an doble ele. neither of which exist in English. think of it as eñe ɲ "anyos". To practice. Silent. o o Like o in more. as in canyon. it is always followed by a u. erre r (always written r). when pronouncing "años". /nj/]] (ny) + vowel. un whisky. Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Ll ll Mm Nn Ññ Oo Pp Qq Rr 6 | Spanish . un cubo.

s ceda Spain) or /s/ (elsewhere). In the combinations gue and gui'. whether it is between vowels Wikibooks | 7 . Each vowel represents only one sound. and i griega. Does not have an exact English equivalent. Ss ese s Tt Uu te u t w u Vv uve. Many consonants sound very similar to their English counterparts. β. Technically. hay rather than hai). and in Chile is pronounced /ʒ/ (like English si in vision). In words of Amerindian origin. As the table indicates. Pronunciation varies from word to word: watt is w pronounced like bat.e. zeta. but shorter. should be pronounced exactly as i. β Ww Xx Used only in words of foreign origin (Spanish prefers u). In Argentina is pronounced similar to the English sh in she. which then evolved into the sound now written with j. although in Andalusia it is not itself pronounced. doble ve. one sound Pronouncing Spanish based on the written word is much simpler than pronouncing English based on written English. Like to the t in ten. doble u equis b. See c for details.Pronunciation Like s in six. in which case it is as above: w. before another vowel (especially after c). but changes the sound of the preceding vowel. but instead of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the teeth. (See regional variations). It can pronunciated as "v". ve baja uve doble. ve corta. each consonant also represents one sound. but it's not common. b. like w in twig. it should touch the teeth themselves. like oo in pool. México and its derivatives are pronounced like Méjico. in some i ye places it is identical to English y. Everywhere else. like sh in she. ks ʃ Yy Zz Like ks (English x) in extra. (Note that x used to represent the sound of sh. but kiwi is pronounced like quihui. In many places it's aspirated in final position. either /θ/ (most of θ. A few words have retained the old spelling. it is simply the preferred spelling of i + vowel at the beginning of a word or vowel + i at the end of a word (yeso rather than ieso. or English j in jump. but have modern pronounciation. However. ve. it is silent unless it has a diaresis (güe. With some exceptions (such as w and x). güi). One letter. the pronunciation of some consonants (such as b) does vary with the position of the consonant in the word. Most notably. Identical to Spanish b (see above). Always the same sound as a soft c i.

In Argentina and Uruguay ch and ll have a characteristic hard sound. If a word has no accent mark (implicit accent). the other person may have trouble understanding you. speakers pronounce z's and soft c's as th's. provided they speak the cultivated versions of their respective cities. the syllable with the accent mark is stressed and the other syllables are unstressed.Chapter 0 or not. one sound" rule. would be pronounced as "thinko". For example: esta. Word stress In Spanish there are two levels of stress when pronouncing a syllable: stressed and unstressed. and ll sounds like y. means "this (feminine)". celestial. people in different Spanish-speaking countries and areas speak with different accents. With one category of exceptions (-mente adverbs). it sounds like "thin king". z is lost but ll is kept. If you don't put the stress on the correct syllable. "think" is pronounced with stronger stress than "ing"." but ingles means "groins. vowels are reduced to schwa (like in English about. If fast colloquial speech is used. For example. Also. In Puerto Rico and Cuba they confuse r and l. in most parts of Spain. In spite of these differences. If a word has an accent mark (´. For example: estúpido → estúpidamente. Local pronunciation differences Just as in the English-speaking world. the stressed syllable is predictable by rule (see below). In Bolivia and Peru. gorilla). all Spanish words have one stressed syllable. which has an explicit accent in the letter a. 8 | Spanish . means "is. explicit accent). two Spanish speakers from different places will always understand each other. The University of Iowa has a very visual and detailed explanation of the Spanish pronunciation. Even in Spain most people pronounce ll and y the same way nowadays. cinco (in Americas pronounced like sinko)." Adverbs ending in -mente are stressed in two places: on the syllable where the accent falls in the adjectival root and on the men of -mente. If both syllables are pronounced with the same stress. and está. To illustrate: in the English word "thinking". so it doesn't really represent a breaking of the "one letter. The main difference is that in the Americas two sounds were lost in comparison to Spain: z sounds like s. This is entirely predictable." Inglés means "English. A Chilean is heard as saying mujier instead of mujer. which has an implicit accent in the letter e . comprehension may be impaired. etc. In Mexico. In many countries j is not hard but it's like an English h (as in hot).

as shown in the table above. güi → [gwi]). Examples: pingüino = penguin • agüéis (2nd person plural. The diaeresis ( ¨ ) In the clusters gue and gui. present subjunctive of the verb aguar). • Examples: • farol (fa-rol) (street lamp) • azul (a-zul) (blue) • español (es-pa-ñol) (Spanish) • salvador (sal-va-dor) (savior). Rules for pronouncing the implicit accent There are only two (or one) rules for pronouncing the implicit accent. • live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Wikibooks | 9 . the u is not pronounced. However. Don't reduce unstressed vowels to neutral schwa sounds. gui → [gi]). it is pronounced like an English w (güe → [gwe]. the next-to-last syllable is stressed. the diaeresis preserves the u (or [w]) sound in all the verb tenses of aguar. Here.Pronunciation The vowel of an unstressed syllable should be pronounced with its true value. The stressed syllable is in bold letters: • If a word has no accent mark and ends with a vowel or with n or s . if the u has a the diaeresis mark (¨). it serves simply to give the g a hard-g sound. like in the English word gut (gue → [ge]. This mark is rather rare. as occurs in English. the last syllable is stressed. • Examples: • cara (ca-ra) (face) • mano (ma-no) (hand) • amarillo (a-ma-ri-llo) (yellow) • hablan (ha-blan) (they speak) • martes (mar-tes) (Tuesday) • If a word has no accent mark and ends with a consonant other than n or s.

how are you today? Adiós. class! Hola. hasta mañana means "see you tomorrow". ¿Cómo se escribe Raúl? Raúl: Se escribe R-A-Ú-L. clase! Good morning. ¿Cómo te llamas? Sofía: Hola. you will learn more about them in lesson three. Raúl: ¡Hasta luego! Hello! Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¡Hola! • Hello! Inglés Hello Good morning! Good day! Good evening! Good night! See you later! Goodbye Español Hola (listen) ¡Buenos días! (listen) ¡Buenas tardes! (listen) ¡Buenas noches! (listen) ¡Hasta luego! (listen) Adiós (listen) Notes Hasta means "until". • Examples • • • ¡Buenos días. luego means "then".Chapter 1 1 ¿C ÓMO Dialogue TE LLAMAS ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: ¡Hola! Me llamo Raúl. ¿Qué tal hoy? Hello. see you soon! 10 | Spanish . ¡hasta luego! Bye. In the same vein. Me llamo Sofía. gracias. Raúl. ¿Qué tal? Sofía: Bien. • Note the upside-down exclamation and question marks. Sofía: ¡Qué fantástico! Adiós. Raúl. ¿Y tú? Raúl: Fenomenal.

"Se llaman" is used in both familiar and formal situations. Spanish Verb • ¿Cómo te llamas? Llamarse • To call oneself Español I am called Me llamo You (familiar. singular) is/are called Se llama We are called Nos llamamos You (familiar.¿Cómo te llamas? What's your name? To ask someone else's name in Spanish. which means literally to call oneself (Me llamo Robert is "My name is Robert"). singular) are called Te llamas He/She/You (formal. use Cómo. plural) are called Se llaman Inglés Notes • "Os llamáis" would only be used in Spain. then one of the phrases in the table below (¿Cómo te llamas? is "What's your name?"). plural) are called Os llamáis They/You (formal. ¿Cómo te llamas? What's your name? ¿Cómo se llama? What's his/her name? How are you? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Qué tal? • How are you? Inglés How are you? Great! Español ¿Qué tal? (listen) ¿Cómo estás? Fantástico Wikibooks | 11 . to say your name. Examples • • • • Me llamo Chris My name is Chris Se llaman Peter y Robert They're called Peter and Robert. In all other Spanish-speaking countries. you use the reflexive verb llamarse. In Spanish.

which is covered in future chapters. thanks. regardless of where it appears in the word. as are RR and R (though no words begin with RR).Chapter 1 Fantástica Muy bien Bien Mal Fatal ¿Y tú? Gracias (listen) Very well Well Bad Really bad And you? Thank you Note For some of the words above. See you later! The Spanish alphabet Here is the normal Spanish alphabet. Rosa. ¡Hasta luego! I'm good too. ¿Y tú. And you. Notes about K and W 12 | Spanish . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n ñ o p q r rr s t u v w x y z Notes about Ñ and RR N and Ñ are considered two different letters. Please read the notes and sections below. but in 1994. Notes about CH and LL CH and LL used to be considered as distinct letters of the alphabet. They are alphabetized as separate letters. The one ending in "o" is for males. How are you? Rosa: Muy bien. Roberto? Very well. It's all to do with agreement. respectively. ¿Qué tal? Hello. so Ñ always comes after N. the Real Academia Española (Spanish Royal Academy) declared that CH and LL were not letters but digraphs. Rose. However. and carro comes after carta. and the one ending in "a" is for females. Accordingly. gracias. Ex: muñeca comes after municipal. (Blue letters are a part of the normal English alphabet). Examples • • • Roberto: Hola. words aren't alphabetized by it. there are two options. Robert? Roberto: Bien también. words beginning with CH and LL are now alphabetized under C and L.

For instance. there is no distinction whatsoever between B and V. • z like the English th (in Latin America. like English k • c before i and e like English th in “think” (in Latin America is like English s) • ch like ch in “cheese” • d between vowels (even if it starts a word following a word ending in a vowel) or at the end of a word. proper pronunciation of Spanish consonants is a bit more complicated: Most of the consonants are pronounced as they are in American English with these exceptions: b like the English b at the start of a word and after m or n • c before a. What's your name? Wikibooks | 13 . like English d in dental • g before e or i like the Scottish pronunciation of ch in “loch”. kilo is commonly used to refer to a kilogram. such as karate and whiskey. My name is Robert. like English s) • How do you spell that? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿Qué tal? • How are you? Inglés How is it spelt? It is spelt B as in Barcelona Español ¿Cómo se escribe? Se escribe B de Barcelona Examples • Roberto: Buenos días. Although the above will help you understand. Me llamo Roberto. like a soft d except at the beginning of a word or after l.¿Cómo te llamas? K and W are part of the alphabet but are mostly seen in foreign derived words and names. o. u and other consonants. except that it is voiced • g before a or o like g in “get” • h is always silent (except in the digraph ch) • j like the h in hotel • ll is pronounced like English y in “yes” • ñ like nio in “onion” (or gn in French cognac) • q like the English k • r slightly trilled. n or s where it is trilled • rr should be trilled longer than a single r • v is pronounced like b. ¿Cómo te llamas? Good day.

• How to say how you are (Fenomenal. R (de Rioja).Chapter 1 Benjamín: Hola. When you're going to bed? What's your name? Translate the following phrases. Me llamo Sofía. • How to ask others about any of the above (¿Cómo te llamas?. 1. At 10:00am? 3. O (as in Orangutan). bien). Also. O (de Orangutan). Hello! What greeting would you use. ¿Cómo se escribe Roberto? Hello. E (de España). It's spelt R (as in Rioja). ¿Cómo se escribe?). • Summary In this lesson. adiós). O (de Orangutan). • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below). and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson 2. Goodbye.. How do you spell Robert? • Roberto: Se escribe R (de Rioja). T (as in Tiger). try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson page. I'm Benjamin. ¿Cómo estás?. 1. 14 | Spanish . • How to spell your name (Se escribe P-E-T-E-R). At 3:00pm? 4. ¡Adiós. How to introduce yourself (Me llamo Rosa). • Benjamín: Muchas gracias. R (as in Rioja). fatal. Me llamo Benjamín. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise • comment The answers can be found below. buenos días. Robert. E (as in Spain). T (de Tigre). Roberto! Many thanks. At 8:00pm? 2. O (as in Orangutan). B (de Barcelona).. • How to introduce others (Se llama Roberto). B (as in Barcelona). you have learned How to greet people (Hola.

His name is Raúl. 2. I'm Sofía. • • • • • • • • RR Q N S R Ñ A D Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello! I'm Raúl. My name is Santiago. Her name is Sally. ¿Cómo se llaman? 1. How are you? Sofía: Well. ¿Cómo os llamáis? 3. What's your name? Sofía: Hi Raúl. How are you? Rank the following words from one to five (one being the best. What are you called? 3. five being the worst).¿Cómo te llamas? 2. • • • • • Bien Fantástico Fatal Mal Muy bien How do you spell that? Put the following letters in Spanish alphabetical order. How do you spell Raúl? Raúl: It's spelt R-A-Ú-L. 4. Pronounce them as you do so. 4. Nos llamamos Peter y Carlos. And yourself? Wikibooks | 15 .

A 2. 4. N 4. Fatal How do you spell that? 1. ¿Cómo te llamas? 3. Me llamo Santiago (James in English). Muy bien 3. 4. Se llama Sally. RR 8. Ñ 5. We are Peter and Carl. Sofía: How fantastic! Goodbye! Raúl: See you later. How are you? 1. Se llama Raúl. Hello! 1. Bien 4. Buenas tardes mañanas días noches What's your name? 1. 2. My name is Sophie. Mala 5. D 3. Buenas 3. What are your names? 3. Fantástico 2. 2. R 7.Chapter 1 Raúl: Doing great. What are they called? 1. Q 6. Buenos 4. Buenas 2. S 16 | Spanish . thanks.

you take the multiple of ten below it. Veintiuno 22.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? 2 ¿C UÁNDO Dialogue ES TU CUMPLEAÑOS ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: ¡Hola. Sofía! Me llamo Raúl. Diecisiete 15. Mi cumpleaños es el viernes. Cincuenta 70. Veintiséis 29. Veintitrés 24. Cuarenta 60. masculine form often uses "un" instead. Seis 9. ¿Qué fecha es hoy? Sofía: Hola. Trece 14. Doce 13. Setenta 80. Sesenta 50. Treinta 40. Sofía. Cuatro 7. Veinticuatro 27. Veintisiete 25. Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! The numbers 1. Hoy es el diecisiete de octubre. Dieciocho 16. Ocho 6. Tres 4. Sofía: ¡Feliz cumpleaños! Raúl: Gracias. Diecinueve 20. Raúl: Muchas gracias. Veintidos 23. then y. Adiós. Veintiocho 26. Cien Notes To form the numbers from thirty to one hundred. Once 12. Quince 18. Raúl: Vale. Noventa 100. Veintinueve 30. When using "uno". if the noun that Wikibooks | 17 . "72" = setenta y dos). Raúl. Dos 3. Dieciséis 19. Catorce 17. Siete 5. Cinco 8. Veinte 21. ¿Cuántos años tienes? Sofía: Tengo veinte años. Veinticinco 28. Ochenta 90. then its units value ("54" = cincuenta y cuatro. Uno 2. Nueve 10. Diez 11.

(Short answer. For example. • Tengo noventa y seis primos. you use the irregular verb tener (which means "to have"). then one of the entries in the table below (¿Cuántos años tienes? means "How old are you?") To say someone's age in Spanish. There are 22 students in this class. note that gender is applied as gender is now known) One. • Tengo un hermano. singular) have He/She/You (formal. I have 96 cousins. / I have a sister • ¡Quiero un caramelo! I want a candy! • ¡Quiero uno! I want one! • How old are you? To ask someone else's age in Spanish. Tengo trece años means "I have 13 years" or "I am 13 years old". • ¿Cuántos hermanos tienes? How many brothers/sisters do you have? (when asking . • Hay veintidos alumnos en esta clase. then your age. plural) have Español Tengo Tienes Tiene Tenemos Tenéis Tienen 18 | Spanish . if gender is unknown) • Uno/una. then años (which means "years"). use Cuántos años. • Hay treinta y cinco aulas There are 35 classrooms.Chapter 2 the word "uno" is referencing to is in the sentence. Spanish Verb • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Tener • To have Inglés I have You (familiar. Examples Tengo diecisiete gatos I have 17 cats. / Tengo una hermana (note the use of "un" instead of "uno" for masculine form) I have a brother. the masculine form is used as neutral. plural) have They/You (formal. singular)/It has We have You (familar.

you would say Hoy es [day of the week]. [date] de [month of the year] (For example.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Note "Tenéis" would only be used in Spain. the 25th of May"). ¿Cuántos años tienes? How old are you? Tiene ochenta y siete años. In reply. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Los meses del año • The months of the year Inglés January February March April May June July August September October November December Español enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Los días de la semana • The days of the week Inglés Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday Español lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo Wikibooks | 19 . • Examples • • • • Tengo veinte años I am 20 years old. ¿Cuántos años tienen? How old are they? What's the date today? To ask for the date in Spanish. He is 87 years old. el veinticinco de mayo is "Today is Tuesday. Hoy es martes. In all other countries one would use "Tienen" in both familiar and formal situations. you use ¿Qué fecha es hoy? (meaning "What's the date today?").

the 2nd of January. Hoy es sábado. dos de enero. quince de agosto. 20 | Spanish . Today is Wednesday. • Examples • ¿Qué fecha es hoy? What's the date today? Hoy es miércoles. Today is Saturday. • • • When's your birthday? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Cumpleaños • The days of the week Inglés When's your birthday? My birthday is On the first of May On Wednesday Happy birthday! Español ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Mi cumpleaños es El primero de mayo El miércoles ¡Feliz cumpleaños! Examples • • • • Mi cumpleaños es el once de julio. My birthday is on Saturday. unless at the beginning of sentences. Mi cumpleaños es el ocho de diciembre. the Spanish say primero (Hoy es domingo. the 15th of August. • On the first of the month. veintinueve de septiembre. primero de enero).Chapter 2 Notes Neither days of the week nor months of the year are capitalised. My birthday is on the 11th of July. ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? When is your birthday? Mi cumpleaños es el sábado. My birthday is on the 8th of December. Today is Thursday. the 29th of September Hoy es jueves.

100 How old are you? Translate the following phrases. noventa. diciembre) • How to say your age (Tengo cuarenta años) • How to ask the age of others (¿Cuántos años tienes?) • How to say today's date (Hoy es jueves. 38 10. cien) • The days of the week (lunes. you have learned: The numbers from one to one hundred (uno. viernes) • The months of the year (enero. 27 3. 1. 1. Tengo cuarenta y siete años. 84 6. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson 3. 6.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? Summary In this lesson. 77 8. Tenemos 7. mi cumpleaños es el martes) • How to ask the birthday of others (¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?) • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below). Tiene 3. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise • comment The answers can be found below. 69 4. 5 2. 48 5. Tienen seis años y diez años. veintiocho. ¿Cuántos años tienen? 8. miércoles. el veintinueve de noviembre) • How to say your birthday (Mi cumpleaños es el primero de agosto. ¿Tiene trece años? Wikibooks | 21 . 1 7. ¿Cuántos años tienes? 4. Also. 2. 53 9. Tengo 5. The numbers Write the following numbers using Spanish words. abril. octubre. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson page.

When's your birthday? Say the birthday of: • • • Yourself Your parent(s) Two of your friends Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello. My birthday is on Friday. Are you (familiar. How old is she? 5. Bye Sophie! Sofía: See you soon! 22 | Spanish . The 3rd of May 3. Sofía: Happy birthday! Raúl: Thanks. They have 4. I have 8. The 9th of October 5. ¿What's the date today? Sofía: Hi. Raúl: OK. 1. I'm 65 years old.Chapter 2 1. The 2nd of April 4. He is 19 years old. singular) have 2. Raúl. weekends and weekdays. What's the date today? • • Describe the following dates in Spanish. You (familiar. The 1st of June List the days of the week in two columns. How old are you? Sofía: I'm 20 years old. Sofía! I'm Raúl. Years 6. 7. Raúl: Many thanks. The 25th of December 2. Today is the 17th of October. plural) 12? 3.

We have 7. jueves. Tienes 2. Treinta y ocho 6. Wikibooks | 23 . Sesenta y nueve 9. Cien How old are you? 1. I'm 47 years old. They are 6 and 10 years old. Tiene diecinueve años. 6. Veintisiete 8. I have 5. Tienen 4. He/She/It has 3. El primero de junio Weekends: sábado. Setenta y siete 5. How old are you? 4. How old are they? 8. 2. 1. Ochenta y 2. Tengo 8. Tengo sesenta y cinco años.¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? The numbers 4. viernes • • When's your birthday? You will have to check this one yourself. El tres de mayo 3. Cincuenta y tres cuatro 3. Uno 10. Is he/she 13 years old. El dos de abril 4. Cuarenta y ocho 1. domingo Weekdays: lunes. What's the date today? 1. ¿Tenéis doce años? 3. 7. miércoles. Años 6. martes. El nueve de octubre 5. El veinticinco de diciembre (navidad = Christmas) 2. ¿Cuántos años tiene? 5. Cinco 7.

z or ión: it's likely to be feminine. The plural indefinite article is "some" in Spanish. If it ends in o. ma or another consonant: it's likely to be masculine."cat". to make it plural. Definite articles Spanish Grammar • Introducción a la gramática The definite article El artículo definido masculine feminine singular plural singular plural el los la las el hombre los niños la mujer las niñas the the the the man boys woman girls Indefinite articles Spanish Grammar • Introducción a la gramática The indefinite article El artículo indefinido masculine feminine singular plural singular plural un unos una unas un hombre unos niños una mujer unas niñas a man some boys a woman some girl 24 | Spanish . add s (gato . both for singular things and plural ones. gatos ."papers").Chapter 3 3 I NTRODUCCIÓN Articles A LA GRAMÁTICA live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error As in many languages. add es (papel "paper". d. Happily. • If the noun ends in a vowel. like English. has two articles: the definite article ("the") and the indefinite article ("a" or "an"). the gender of Spanish nouns is usually pretty easy to work out. papeles . Some very simple rules-of-thumb: • • If it ends in a. Spanish gives each noun a gender: masculine or feminine. there are 4 forms. to make it plural. Spanish. However. depending on the number and gender of the noun."cats"). • If the noun ends in a consonant.

Person in English Singular Plural First I play We play Second You play You all play Third He/She/It plays They play The Present Tense Regular -ar Verbs Singular Plural First -o -amos Second -as -áis Third -a -an Regular -er Verbs Singular Plural -o -emos First -éis Second -es -en Third -e Regular -ir Verbs Singular Plural First -o -imos Second -es -ís Wikibooks | 25 . Spanish verbs conjugate depending on the person.Introducción a la gramática Regular Verbs We have already seen the present tense conjugations of two Spanish verbs. "-er" or "-ir". In Spanish. pronouns are often omitted because they can be inferred from the conjugation. llamarse and tener. both of these verbs are irregular verbs. the conjugation depends on what the last two letters of the infinitive are. most verbs follow an easy to understand conjugation scheme. they change depending on who is being talked about. As a result. Spanish verbs in the infinitive end with "-ar". Luckily. This occurs in English in the third person singular (highlighted below) but in Spanish this occurs for every person. Unlike English. However. remove the ending("-ir". The infinitive form is the form that is given in the dictionary. To conjugate them. "-er" or "-ar") and add the desired suffix. That is. An example of an English verb in the infinitive might be to run or to speak.

• When reading texts. A vowel that is not "O" denotes He/She/It 4. comes. cocinan • • • • • • Comer ("to eat"): como. bebes. "N" denotes They Questions and Exclamations In previous lessons. beben Vivir ("to live"): vivo. vivimos. coméis. "IS" denotes You All 6. bebéis. questions always start with that. you will need to know the person of the verb at a glance. bebe. cubre. lloras. the funny upsidedown exclamation mark "¡" precedes exclamations. comemos. you will have noticed that we use the funny upside-down question mark "¿". lloramos. cocina. vive. "O" denotes I 2.Chapter 3 Third -e -en Present Tense Examples hablar (to speak) Singular Plural hablo hablamos First habláis Second hablas hablan Third habla Llorar ("to cry"): lloro. bebemos. cubres. cocinas. In Spanish. cubrimos. llora. lloran Cocinar ("to cook"): cocino. In other Spanish dialects the third person plural form is used instead. vives. cocinamos. lloráis. cubren Notes • There are many more "-ar" verbs than "-er" or "-ir". viven Cubrir ("to cover"): cubro. and finish with the regular question mark. "S" denotes You 3. Questions in Spanish are mainly done by intonation (raising the voice at the 26 | Spanish . cocináis. Make sure you are most familiar with these endings. "MOS" denotes We 5. Notice the pattern: 1. comen Beber ("to drink"): bebo. come. It is the same for exclamations. vivís. cubrís. • The second person plural is highlighted because that tense is only used in the variety of Spanish used in Spain.

los. as indicated below. Spanish Vocabulary • Introducción a la gramática Questions Preguntas Español ¿Dónde? ¿Quién? ¿Qué? ¿Cómo? ¿Por qué? ¿Cuándo? Where? Who? What? How? Why? When? Inglés Examples • • • • • ¿Con quién? With whom? ¿Dónde está el banco? Where is the bank? ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? When's your birthday? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? What is the date today? ¡Hasta luego! See you later! Summary In this lesson. • How to question people and exclaim in Spanish (¿Cuántos años tienes?. How to conjugate regular verbs in the present tense (lloro. la. unas). bebéis. uno. you have learned: The Spanish articles (el. You can also use questions words. This is a very important topic for future lessons. and ¿Te llamas Richard? means "Is your name Richard?".Introducción a la gramática end of the question). Wikibooks | 27 . cubren). it's important that you know it well. comes. las. since questions are often identical to statements. vive. un. ¡Qué fantástico!) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found below) before moving on. unos. cocinamos. Te llamas Richard means "Your name is Richard".

A man 7.Chapter 3 Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. Los hombres 3. Los chicos 2. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. Las mesas 8. Unas niñas 2. El gato 4. Una mujer Translate the following from English into Spanish. La mujer 8. Hablan 28 | Spanish . Lloro 2. what person are they? 1. 1. La manzana 5. Unas uñas 6. The women 2. Some men 3. Articles • Translate the following from Spanish into English. Some boys 8. Un perro 7. 1. Tenemos 4. The girls 5. El niño 7. Unas niñas 3. Some girls 6. Unas cosas • • Regular verbs • The following are conjugated verb forms. Un niño 6. A girl Which of the following nouns are masculine? 1. Las niñas 5. Unos hombres 4. The boy 4. Also. Cocináis 3.

llevo 8. ¿Qué comes? 6. ¿Cómo te llamas? 4. The boy 7. Compro 6. Vivimos • Conjugate the following verbs for the person indicated. Temer. A boy 6. Comer. I 7. Cocinar. 1. they 2. Abrazas 7. ¿Cuántos años tienes? 2. Vivir. we 4. he Questions and Exclamations Translate the following questions from English into Spanish. Comer. you singular 6. Why do they cry? 3. Hablar. familiar)? Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Articles 1. she 3. How old are you (plural. Where do they live? 5. The girls 5.Introducción a la gramática 5. A woman 1. you plural 8. Tener. 1. or vice versa. Las mujeres 2. ¿Dónde vivís? 8. The woman 8. I 5. Amar. The men 3. Some men 4. Some girls 2. What's his name? 7. Unos hombres Wikibooks | 29 .

I 8. You plural 3. How old are you? 2. ¿Por qué lloran? 3. Where do you lot live? 8. Tengo 5. What do you eat? 6. Amamos 4. What's your name? 4. Come 3. Los chicos 2. ¿Cómo se llama? 7. Un perro Regular verbs 1. We 4. Hablas 6. El gato 3. Una niña 1. Cocinan 2. I 6.Chapter 3 3. Vive Questions and Exclamations 1. Las niñas 5. Unas niñas 6. Unos niños 8. They 5. You singular 7. ¿Cuántos años tenéis? 30 | Spanish . El niño 4. Un hombre 7. Coméis 8. We 1. Temo 7. I 2. ¿Dónde viven? 5.

you use ser (meaning "to be [a permanent characteristic]"). Vivo en un piso en Londres. you use Dónde then vivir (¿Dónde vives? means "Where do you live?"). Raúl. To ask where someone else lives. Raúl: Pues. To ask where someone is from. then the country or place. then en (meaning "in"). Sofía: Sí. To say you are currently living in a place or country. Sofía! Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Vocabulary London But Well Countries of the World El Reino Unido Inglaterra Escocia Gales Irlanda España Francia Alemania Italia Rusia Los Estados Unidos Canadá Nueva Zelanda Australia México Where do you live? To say you are from a country. Wikibooks | 31 . you use vivir (meaning "to live"). ¿Y tú? Raúl: Vale. pero no hay nada para hacer en el campo. then the country or place. Sofía: ¿En el campo o la ciudad? Raúl: El campo. Inglaterra. you use De dónde. then de (meaning "of" or "from"). ¡adiós.¿Dónde vives? 4 ¿D ÓNDE Dialogue VIVES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Londres Pero Pués Raúl: ¡Hola! ¿Dónde vives? Sofía: Hola. Las ciudades son ruidosas. Vivo en el sur de España.

ser is about as irregular as they come.Chapter 4 then ser (¿De dónde eres? means "Where are you from?"). Son de España. I live in the Southwest of Mexico. While vivir is totally regular (vivo. It is conjugated below. vive. Habitations Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vives? Casas • Houses Español A house Una casa A detached house Una casa individual A semi-detached house Una casa adosada 32 | Spanish Inglés . vives. The compass El noroeste El oeste El sudoeste Examples • • El norte X El sur El noreste El este El sudeste Vivo en el suroeste de México. vivís. but they live in Germany. I'm from the north of Australia. They are from Spain. vivimos. pero viven en Alemania. Soy del norte de Australia. viven). Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vives? Ser • To be Inglés I You He/She/It We You all They Examples • • Español Soy Eres Es Somos Sois Son Vivo en Inglaterra I live in England.

. I live in a flat. but the plural is unas habitaciones (without the accent). Examples • • • • • • Vivo en un piso. not before it. Adjectives As we already learnt.¿Dónde vives? A A A A terraced house flat bungalow room Un piso Un bungalow Una habitación Note It's una habitación.the form found in the dictionary). but the adjective. Examples • • • • Un hombre bueno A good man Unos hombres buenos Some good men Una mujer buena A good woman Unas mujeres buenas Some good women Wikibooks | 33 . This doesn't just affect the article. • • • • O for masculine singular nouns OS for masculine plural nouns A for feminine singular nouns AS for feminine plural nouns. I live in a semi-detatched house in Canada. it has to agree. He lives in a bungalow that has ten rooms. Also. Vive en un bungalow que tiene diez habitaciones. ends in an "O" or an "A". Spanish nouns each have a gender. then you remove that vowel and add. Vivo en una casa adosada en Canadá. If the adjective (in its natural form . adjectives go after the noun..

is that The bad thing about .. is that There are lots of things to do There isn't anything to do You can walk in woodlands There isn't any foliage Pretty Lively Quiet Boring Noisy Español La ciudad El campo Lo bueno sobre . es que Hay mucho para hacer No hay nada para hacer Se puede caminar en los bosques No queda ningún follaje Bonito Animado Tranquilo Aburrido Ruidoso Examples • • • • La ciudad es ruidosa.. Lo bueno sobre la ciudad es que hay mucho para hacer.... The bad thing about the city is that there isn't any folliage. Summary In this lesson. El campo es aburrido. by Eleassar777) Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vives? ¿La ciudad o el campo? • The city or the countryside? Inglés The city The countryside The good thing about . Lo malo sobre la ciudad es que no queda ningunas plantas. The city is noisy.. es que Lo malo sobre .. The countryside is boring.. The good thing about the city is that there are lots of the things to do.Chapter 4 City and Countryside ¿La ciudad? ¿O el campo? (Forest1. you have learned 34 | Spanish .

un piso). • The basics of adjectives ending in "O" or "A" (la mujer mala. Where are you from? 5. • How to describe your house (una casa. el niño bonito). el oeste). • How to say where you and others live and come from (Vivo en Inglaterra. You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). Somos de Gales). Viven en el suroeste de los Estados Unidos 10. Vivo en Inglaterra 2. ¿Vivís en Gales? 6.Soy de Canadá Translate the following sentences from English to Spanish 1. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. no hay mucho para hacer). Countries of the World • Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English. Son de España 3. ¿Dónde vive? 8. Do you lot live in Wales? 8. • How to talk about the city of the countryside (la ciudad. Francia. I live in England 3. Somos del norte de Irlanda 9. el campo. • How to ask where someone lives (¿Dónde vives?). los Estados Unidos). He's from the UK 9. • The points of the compass (el sur. They come from Canada 7. Vivimos en el sur de Francia 5. 1. el noroeste. Why do you live in Australia? 6. Italia. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. She lives in eastern Germany Wikibooks | 35 • . He comes from the north of Mexico 4. Es de Escocia 7. Also. We come from Spain 2.¿Dónde vives? • Various countries of the world (Australia. ¿Eres de Alemania? 4. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson five.

Vivir e.Where does he come from? Habitations Match the Spanish to the English. Casa adosada Adjectives Correct the following sentences. Habitaciones f. 4. La niña bonito 7. Habitación d. Bungalow b. 8. Un niño buenos 3. I live in a house in the countryside 3. Unos hombres malas 8. Do you live in the city or the countryside? 36 | Spanish . El hombre buena 6. 9. Casa individual c.Chapter 4 10. 3. Casa h. El campo es fantástica. 6. Room House Bungalow Apartment To live Terraced house Rooms Detatched house Flats a. se puede caminar en los bosques 4. 2. 5. The city is lively. Un mujer buena 5. Unas niñas malo 4. Viven en el campo de Inglaterra 6. 1. Los mujers malos City and countryside Translate the following from Spanish to English and visa versa. Piso i. Lo malo sobre la ciudad es que no queda ninguna follaje 8. Las hombres malas 2. La ciudad es ruidosa 2. 7. 1. 1. She is from the city 5. hay mucho para hacer 7. Pisos g.

We live in the South of France 5. I live in the South of Spain. Vive en el este de Alemania 10. We are from Northern Ireland 9. Es del norte de Méjico 4. I live in a flat in London. Cities are noisy. but there's nothing to do in the countryside.I am from Canada 1. They're from Spain 3. And you? Raúl: OK. Sofía: The the countryside or the city? Raúl: The country.¿Dónde vives? Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hello! Where do you live? Sofía: Hello. g 3. h Wikibooks | 37 . I live in England 2. ¿De dónde eres? 5. Raúl. Do you lot live in Wales? 6. Son de Canadá 7. bye Sophie! Sofía: See you! Countries of the World 1. England. ¿Vivís en Gales? 8. They live in Southwestern USA 10. Somos de España 2. Are you from Germany? 4. a 4.¿De dónde es? Habitations 1. Sofía: Yes. Es del Reino Unido 9. c 2. Vivo en Inglaterra 3. He/She/It is from Scotland 7. Where does he/she/it live? 8. ¿Por qué vives en Australia? 6. Raúl: Well.

The countryside is fantastic. ¿Vives en la ciudad o el campo? 38 | Spanish . El hombre bueno 6. They live in the English countryside 6. The city is noisy 2. you can walk in woodland 4. f Adjectives 1. Unas niñas malas 4. The bad thing about the city is that there isn't any foliage 8. d 6. Unos hombres malos 8. Los hombres malos 2. Vivo en una casa en el campo 3. Una mujer buena 5. La niña bonita 7. Es de la ciudad 5. La ciudad es animada. there's loads to do 7.Chapter 4 5. e 8. Un niño bueno 3. i 7. b 9. Las mujeres malas City and Countryside 1.

¡Adiós. ¿Juegas al ajedrez? Raúl: Sí. ¿Y tú? Raúl: No mucho. Raúl! Raúl: ¡Hasta mañana! Sports and Activities Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Deportes y Actividades • Sports and Activities Inglés A sport A game An activity To play To practice Football American Football Rugby Tennis Cricket Swimming Judo Chess To sing To read To swim To watch TV Español Un deporte Un juego Una actividad Jugar Practicar El fútbol El fútbol americano El rugby El tenis El críquet La natación El judo El ajedrez Cantar Leer Nadar Ver la tele Wikibooks | 39 . Me encanta jugar al fútbol. no puedo nadar. Sofía: Ah.¿Qué te gusta hacer? 5 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue TE GUSTA HACER ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Todo el tiempo All the time ¡Hasta mañana! See you tomorrow! Divertido Fun Raúl: ¡Hola. me encanta. es un juego muy divertido. Sofía: Sí. practico natación todo el tiempo. Sin embargo. Sofía! ¿Te gustan los deportes? Sofía: Buenos días.

puedes. "you. vemos. ¿Practicas judo? Do you do judo? Practicamos muchas actividades. puede. in the "I". if an activity is a game. otherwise you "practice" it (practicar). We do many activites ¿Por qué cantáis? Why do you sing a lot? ¿Cuándo lee? When does he or she read? Stem-changing Verbs Jugar the first type of irregular verb. podemos. the u or o changes to a ue. I go swimming. Basically. • The verbs are all regular. veis. ves. ve. ven) Examples • • • • • • Veo la tele mucho. I watch TV a lot Practico natación. then you "play" it (jugar). except: • Jugar (this is discussed in detail below) • Ver (veo. "he/she/it" and "they" forms. For example. Spanish Verb • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Jugar • To play Español I Juego You Juegas He/She/It Juega We Jugamos You all Jugáis They Juegan Other verbs that follow this pattern • Inglés poder ("to be able to"): puedo.Chapter 5 A lot Many Notes • Mucho In Spanish. known as a stem-changing verb. pueden 40 | Spanish . podéis. it's jugar el tenis ("to play tennis") but practicar la natacíon ("to go swimming"). The jugar example is written out below.

duermen • encontrar ("to find"): encuentro. I play tennis. encuentra. duermes. we just add a word in front of the verb: no (meaning "not") or Wikibooks | 41 . In Spanish.¿Qué te gusta hacer? • dormir ("to sleep"): duermo. a el gets contracted to al and de el gets contracted to del. ¿Jugáis al ajedrez? Do you play chess? ¿Qué deportes juegas? What sports do you play? ¿Cuándo juegan al fútbol? When do they play football? ¿Puedes cantar? Can you sing? ¿Dónde duermes? Where do you sleep? • • • • • Compound Sentences So far. dormís. making "I can do something". You use them just like you do in English. puede leer ("he can read"). "I play american football" (Juego al fútbol americano). encontráis. For example. everything we've written has been positive ("I do this. I do that"). dormimos. encuentras. it would be juego al rugby. "The city is noisy" (La ciudad es ruidosa). encontramos. encuentran Notes • The verb jugar always has a after it: jugar a. everything we've written has been simple sentences — "My name is Santiago" (Me llamo Santiago). • Poder (meaning "to be able to") is usually followed by another verb. Wouldn't it be fantastic if we could join them up? Below are some little words that will make our sentences longer. To make it negative. So. duerme. The following verb must be in the infinitive. and more meaningful. Also. Examples • Juego al tenis.

Chapter 5 nunca (meaning "never"). For example, No juego al rugby (I don't play rugby"); Nunca como manzanas ("I never eat apples"). It's as simple as that. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Conjunctions • Conjunciones Inglés And Or Because But Also So Note

Español Y O Porque Pero También Así

Porque ("because") and Por qué ("why") are similar and easy to mix up; make sure you don't! Examples
• • • • •

Me llamo Chris y mi cumpleaños es el veinte de agosto. My name is Chris and my birthday is on the 20th of August. Me llamo Raúl, pero él se llama Roberto. My name is Raúl, but his name is Robert. No practica judo. He doesn't do judo. Juego al fútbol americano y practico natación también. I play american football and I go swimming too. No vivo en una ciudad porque las ciudades son ruidosas. I don't live in the city because cities are noisy.

¿Qué opinas sobre los deportes?
To ask someone about their opinions in Spanish, use Qué opinas sobre ("What is your opinion about") then the thing you want their opinion on (¿Que opinas sobre los deportes? means "What do you think about sport?").

There is no verb for "to like" in Spanish. Instead, you use gusta (meaning "it pleases") and a personal pronoun; you say that "it pleases me" or "I am pleased by it". The personal pronouns are shown below. Spanish Verb • ¿Qué te gusta hacer? Gustar • To please

42 | Spanish

¿Qué te gusta hacer? Inglés Me You Him/Her/It Us All of you Them Notes

Español Me Te Le Nos Os Les

Like any other verb, you can put no in front of it, to say "I don't like" (No me gusta). • If you like an activity rather than a thing, just use the infinitive afterwards: "I like swimming" (Me gusta nadar). • Gusta means "it pleases", so only works for singular things. If the thing that you like is plural (the women for example), you add "n" (Me gustan las mujeres - "I like the women").

Love and Hate
Just saying you like or dislike something is a bit dull. Saying you love something is really easy. Instead of gusta, use encanta (Me encanta leer means "I love reading"). To say you hate something, use the regular verb Odiar (odio, odias, odia, odiamos, odiáis, odian). You can also use nada or mucho to add emphasis to gusta. For example, No me gusta nada ver la tele ("I don't like watching TV at all"); Me gusta mucho el ajedrez ("I like chess a lot"). Examples
• • • • • • • •

¿Que opinas sobre el ajedrez? What do you think of chess? Me gusta el críquet. I like cricket. No le gustan los deportes. He doesn't like sports. Nos gusta jugar al rugby y fútbol. We like playing rugby and football. Les gusta mucho nadar, pero no pueden cantar. They like swimming but they can't sing. ¿Te gusta practicar la natacíon? Do you like going swimming? ¿Por qué os gusta el tenis? Why do you like tennis? Odian el ajedrez. They hate chess. Wikibooks | 43

Chapter 5

Me encantan los deportes, así vivo en la ciudad. I love sports, so I live in the city.

In this lesson, you have learnt: How to say some sports and activities (el rugby; la natación; cantar). How to say you play and do these things (juego al rugby; practicamos natación). • About a few stem-changing verbs (encuentro, encuentras, encuentra, encontramos, encontráis, encuentran) • How to make longer and negative sentences (no; nunca; así; pero). • How to ask for opinions (¿Qué opinas sobre el fútbol?; ¿Te encanta leer?) • How to express opinions (Me gusta; Le gustan; Me encanta; Odiamos)
• •

You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section), and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson six.

live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. Also, try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson.

Sports and Activities
Match the English to the Spanish 1. Football 2. Cricket 3. Swimming 4. To sing 5. Rugby 6. Judo 7. To read 8. To watch TV 9. Tennis 10. Chess a. Rugby b. Ver la tele c. Fútbol d. Leer e. Judo f. Natación g. Ajedrez h. Cricket i. Cantar j. Tenis

44 | Spanish

.. Tengo ochenta y nueve años y tiene ochenta y nueve años también. They can't play chess.... What do you think of rugby? 2.. what's your name? 6... 1.......... 3.. Her name is Georgina too... Practico natacion. . así tengo cuarenta y ocho años.... ¿Cuándo jugáis al críquet? Translate the following sentences from English to Spanish. Jugo al rugby. 5..... 6... Vivimos en la ciudad porque el campo es aburrido. .. 5.. 2... • Compound sentences • Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English. ....... So.... Conjugate it below.. Can't you swim? 4.. Wikibooks | 45 . 5. Juega al rugby y tenis. 1.. 4... 1. ... . Podemos cantamos en España. ¿Por qué jueges el críquet. 7.. I don't like singing at all.. 5.... They live in Italy because they don't like sports.. but I can't swim... 1. Correct the following sentences... No practicamos natación.. No practico natación porque no puedo nadar.. 6. 4.¿Qué te gusta hacer? Stem-changing Verbs • Volver ("to return") conjugates just like poder. 3. . 3..... 2. I play tennis.. Me encanta el ajedrez. 3. Mi cumpleaños es el once de enero. 1. 2.... 7...... Jugáis el fútbol. 2.. 3. 4.... When do you sleep? • ¿Qué opinas sobre los deportes? Translate the following sentences from Spanish to English and visa versa.

Volvemos 5.Chapter 5 4. b 9.No me gusta llorar. 10. I go swimming all the time.I love playing football. She likes the countryside because it's quiet. bye Raúl Raúl: See you! Sports and Activities 1. Vuelves 3. Vuelvo 2. Volvéis 6. h 3. 8. Vuelve 4. 7. i 5. Sofía: Yes. Do you like swimming? 6. c 2. The boys are cute when they sing.g Stem-changing verbs 1. Vuelven 46 | Spanish . I can't swim. 5. Do you play chess? Raúl: Yes. Así. f 4. Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sophie! ¿Do you like sports? Sofía: Good afternoon. Me gustan mucho los deportes porque son animados. No me gusta vivir en Boston. ¿por qué no pueden cantar? 9. And yourself? Raúl: Not much. e 7. Sofía: Ah. d 8. no hay nada para hacer. However. I love it. a 6. j 10. it's a fun game.

Wikibooks | 47 . ¿Te gusta nadar? 6. Le gusta el campo porque es bonito. ¿Cuándo duermes? ¿Que opinas sobre los deportes? 1. I love chess 3. No pueden jugar al ajedrez. Juego al rugby. My birthday's on the 11th of January. 6. 4. 8. ¿No puedes nadar? 4. 2. so I'm 48 years old. I'm 87 and he's 87 too. there's nothing to do. 5. 7. Practico natación 2. 5. When do you all play cricket? 1. why can't you sing? 9. We live in the city because the countryside is boring.I don't like crying. Los niños son bonitos cuando cantan. I don't like living in Boston. 3. I like sports a lot because they're lively.¿Qué te gusta hacer? 1. 10. 4. He plays rugby and tennis. 3. No me gusta nada cantar. 2. 5. We don't go swimming. Se llama Georgina también. ¿cómo te llamas? 6. 7. I don't go swimming because I can't swim. Así. 7. Jugáis al fútbol. Juego al tenis pero no puedo nadar. 5. ¿Por qué juegas al críquet? Compound sentences 1. 4. Viven en Italia porque no les gustan los deportes. So. 3. ¿Que opinas sobre el rugby? 2. Podemos cantar en España.

by FoeNyx) Uva (f) 48 | Spanish . Me he agotado. Sofía: Y ¿tienes la comida que necesitas? Raúl: Sí. ¿tomas leche y pan tostada para tu desayuno? Sofía: Sí. ¿Qué compras? Sofía: Hola. Adiós. Compro una barra de pan y una botella de leche. by David Monniaux) Queso (m) Huevo (m) (Freerange eggs. by Bangin) Plátano (m) Naranja (f) Pera (f) (PearPhoto. by Rasbak) Pepino (m) Zanahoria (f) Patata (f) (Potatos cultivar Marabel. by Tilmann) Manzana (f) (Red Delicious. by Fir0002) Arroz (m) (Brown rice. by Chiefio) Tomate (m) (Tomato je. Raúl: Vale. Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Food and Drink Pan (m) (French bread. como zumo de naranja y una manzana. by Softeis) Lechuga (f) (Lettuce head batavia variety. ¿Qué desayunas? Raúl: Normalmente.Chapter 6 6 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue COMES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Me he agotado I've run out Necesitar To need Zumo de Juice of Raúl: Hola. by Fir0002) Pasta (f) (EMS-Rotelle-CU124553. Raúl. Así.

papa is used instead of patata. • Con means "with". • While agua is feminine. I like carrots a lot. use Qué te gusta then any of the verbs below (¿Qué te gusta comer? means "What do you like to eat?").Pilsak) Kühn) Vino (m) Café (m) (Turkishcoffee. • Wine comes in two varieties. las uvas — "the grapes") • In South America. Me encanta el té con leche. use Qué followed by a form of one of the verbs below (¿Qué comes? means "What do you eat?"). In Spanish. I like eggs. No me gusta nada la lechuga. sin means without (café con leche means "coffee with milk". wheras f indicated feminine (la lechuga — "the lettuce". el agua curiosa ("the strange water") and las aguas curiosas ("the strange waters"). To ask what someone likes to eat. I don't like lettuce at all. What do you eat? To ask what someone else eats. pero los pepinos son aburridos. I love tea with milk Me gustan mucho las zanahorias. los plátanos — "the bananas"). café sin leche means "coffee without milk"). they are vino tinto and vino blanco. "red" and "white".¿Qué comes? Agua (f) Leche (f) (Stilles Mineralwasser. • Examples • • • • Me gustan los huevos. but cucumbers are boring. For example. by Miya) Notes m indicates that the noun is masculine (el queso — "the cheese".J. it takes the masculine articles un and el. by Stefan by W. (Milk glass. by Bertilvidet) Té (m) (Meissen-teacup pinkrose01. Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? Eating and Drinking • Comer y Beber Español Comer Beber Inglés To eat To drink Wikibooks | 49 .

but "unos/unas" is some! Yes. ¿Bebes leche? Do you drink milk? A bottle of wine Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? Eating and Drinking • Comer y Beber Español Algo de Un vaso de Una copa de Una botella de Una barra de Un kilo de Un kilo y mediο de Un kilo y cuarto de Μedio kilo de Un cuarto de kilo de Notes • You will have noticed "some" on the list. Examples • • • • To To To To have (food/drink) (eat) breakfast (eat) lunch dine (eat dinner) ¿Qué te gusta almorzar? What do you like to eat for lunch? Como naranjas y plátanos. I like to eat grapes. Me gusta comer las uvas. almorzáis. • Also. it would be unas manzanas ("some apples") but that only works for plurals. almuerza. but I don't like pears. I eat oranges and bananas.Chapter 6 Tomar Desayunar Almorzar Cenar Note All of these verbs are regular except almorzar. pero no me gustan las peras. "Some bread" has to be translated as algo de pan. there are two ways of saying "a glass of". almuerzo. Copa is for glasses with Inglés Some A glass of A bottle of A loaf of A kilo of One and a half kilos of One and a quarter kilos of Half a kilo of A quarter of a kilo of 50 | Spanish . almuerzan. almorzamos. almuerzas. which is one of the UE Verbs we learnt about in the last chapter.

Without is for singular. the un can be replaced with any number (Dos vasos de leche means "two glasses of milk"). in all these phrases.¿Qué comes? a stem (mostly wine: una copa de vino). You will also see some other useful words and phrases for when shopping for food. Spanish Verbs • ¿Qué comes? I would like. • Costar is a O => UE verb (cuesto. with the n is for plural. compra. cuestan for plurals. if you want to say "How much does it cost. you only use the third person. but obviously. there are many ways of expressing what you would like to buy. voila. To buy The receipt To cost A shop Notes • Comprar is a totally regular verb (compro. as in English. you use ¿Cuánto cuesta(n)? (cuesta is for singular things. compráis. compramos.. costáis.. cuestas. cuesta. as seen Wikibooks | 51 . cuestan).. • With ahí está(n).. some of which are listed below. costamos. compran). • Obviously. • Me gustaría. Also. compras. Examples • • • • Tres botellas de vino tinto Three bottles of red wine Un medio kilo de arroz Half a kilo of rice Una barra de pan A loaf of bread Cinco kilos y media de patatas Five and a half kilos of potatoes In the Shop In Spanish. and vaso is used for without a stem. Español Quisiera Querría Me gustaría Ahí está(n) Comprar La cuenta Costar Una tienda Inglés I would like There you go.

Examples • • • • • Quisiera una manzana. please. then adds the "es" (feliz/felices — "happy"). I would like an apple. it changes to a c in plural. por favor. ¿Cuánto cuestan las uvas? How much do the grapes cost? ¿Cuánto cuesta un kilo de patatas? What does a kilo of potatoes cost? Adjectives "E" and Consonant Adjectives In Spanish. Querría comprar una barra de pan. I'd like to buy a bottle of red wine. Adjectives ending in a consonant add an "es" when in the plural. Notes When an adjective (or indeed a noun) ends in z. please.Chapter 6 below). clearly not all adjectives end in "o" or "a". • Examples • • • • El hombre amable The friendly man La mujer amable The friendly woman Los niños amables The friendly boys Las niñas amables The friendly girls • • • • El hombre difícil The difficult man La mujer difícil The difficult woman Los niños difíciles The difficult boys Las niñas difíciles The difficult girls 52 | Spanish . por favor. The good thing about these is that they stay the same. Me gustaría comprar una botella de vino tinto. I'd like to buy a loaf of bread. • • Adjectives ending in "e" add an "s" when in the plural. irrespective of gender.

For example. la casa rosa. so they still have to agree and go after the noun. el coche naranja. They are shown below. • The colours naranja and rosa end in "a" even if they are applied to a masculine. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué comes? Los colores • The colours Inglés Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Purple Brown Pink White Grey Black Notes • All of these will function as nouns. if you add an article in front of them. • The plural form of marrón is marrones (without the accent). el morado means "the purple one". you have learnt Wikibooks | 53 . "the pink house" Español Rojo Naranja Amarillo Verde Azul Morado Marrón Rosa Blanco Gris Negro Examples • • • • La manzana verde The green apple Los huevos blancos The white eggs El queso amarillo The yellow cheese Las naranjas naranjas The orange oranges Summary In this lesson.¿Qué comes? Colours Colours in Spanish are just adjectives. las zanahorias marrones means "the brown carrots". "the orange car".

. Las peras 5. How to say you eat and drink things (como.... 3.. coméis...... An egg f. Rice d. 6. 4.. Las zanahorias 7.... Queso 3. .. come... A cucumber g. Also.... The pears j... 54 | Spanish .. Vino blanco a. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on. White wine e.... • How to form adjectives that don't end in "O" or "A" (la tienda verde.Chapter 6 How to say some foods and drinks (la lechuga. querría. una copa de vino tinto) • What to say in a shop (quisiera... 5. The carrots c... Tea h.. Food and Drink Match the English to the Spanish. . los quesos azules) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). Water b......... comen).. Un huevo 8. 1... An apple What do you eat? • Conjugate the verb beber ("to drink") and cenar ("to dine") below: 1... • How to say some simple quantities (un kilo de patatas. Té 6.. .... comes. una manzana. Cheese i. Una manzana 4.... la cuenta)... Arroz 10.... la leche). comemos.. . try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. Un pepino 2.. ....... Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section... . Agua 9.......... 2....

.. . . . • Ahí está tres tomates verde... fill in your part................................... 3... . • Me gusta hombres amable.. . 5.......... . 2... • ¿Querrías comprar una manzana? • Does she like pasta with tomatoes and carrots? Wikibooks | 55 .. • Los mujeres son difíciles.. c...... 2..... ..¿Qué comes? 1.... e. 1.pan Una barra de.. . 6. b....... Muy bien... ...... 3... .... .. 5... d.vino tinto Algo de....... . . Un kilo y media de........patatas Un vaso de....... [ vegano = vegan ] • I don't drink milk because it's white... • No les gustan comer patatas con queso.... gracias....... A bottle of wine Match up the following to make sentences that make sense. • Odie pepinos... ¿Qué quisieras? ........... a........... Vale. In the following dialogue...... 4.. • I hate eating tomatoes: they're boring....... Ahí están... Cuestan tres euros.............. ¡Adiós! Adjectives • • Correct the following sentences.. 4. Translate the following between Spanish and English... ......... Buenos días....pasta In the shop Pretend that you are a customer in a shop...... • No toma queso o leche porque es vegano.......leche Una copa de..

Chapter 6 Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Food and Drink 1. i) The pears 5. Cenamos 5. h) Cheese 3. Cenáis 6.d) Red wine What do you eat? 1. Bebéis 6. Bebemos 5. Bebo 2. c) Un kilo y media de patatas 2. Ceno 2. a) Una copa de vino tinto 4. d) Una barra de pan In the shop Buenos días. j) An apple 4. 56 | Spanish . e) Algo de pasta 3. Cenan A bottle of wine 1. e) An egg 8. g) Tea 6. a) Water 9. Cena 4. f) A cucumber 2. Beben 1. b) Un vaso de leche 5. Cenas 3. b) The carrots 7. Bebes 3. Bebe 4. c) Rice 10.

He doesn't have cheese or milk because he's vegan. gracias. Ahí están. Las mujeres son difíciles. Odia pepinos. Me gustan hombres amables. ¿Qué quisieras? Quisiera seis huevos. Gracias. Adiós. Odio comer las patatas: son aburridas. ¿Qué tal? Muy bien. so long as it's plural ] Vale.¿Qué comes? Buenos días. Would you like to buy an apple? ¿Le gusta pasta con tomates y zanahorias? Wikibooks | 57 . ¡Adiós! Adjectives • • • • • • • • • • Ahí están tres tomates verdes. [ can be anything. ¿Cuánto cuestan? Cuestan tres euros.comer patatas con queso. No bebo leche porque es blanca. No les gusta.

Chapter 7 7 ¿Q UÉ Dialogue HORA ES ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary Luego Then Salgo I leave Raúl: ¡Hola Sofía! ¿Qué hora es? Sofía: Son las ocho y cuarto. me ducho y tomo mi desayuno. I hear you cry? For this. To ask the time. this only works for times up to half-past the hour. Luego. ¡Adiós! Sofía: ¡Hasta luego! Telling the time Telling the time is easy in Spanish. salgo a las ocho. and very similar to English. Así. Raúl: Ah. You use this construction: Son las [hours] y [minutes] So. ¿cuándo almuerzas? Sofía: Suelo almorzar a la una. you just use the question ¿Qué hora es? (literally: "What hour is it?").m. Raúl: Gracias. However. you have to use menos (meaning "less") instead of y (Son las cuatro menos diez means "It's ten to four". de la mañana p. Raúl: Claro. de la tarde It's half-past [hour] Son las [hour] y media It's quarter-past [hour] Son las [hour] y cuarto It's quarter-to [hour] Son las [hour] menos cuarto 58 | Spanish Inglés . Other typical time-telling phrases are depicted in the table below. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? El tiempo • The time Español a. ¿Qué haces normalmente por la mañana? Sofía: Me levanto a las siete. How do you say "It's twenty to three". vale.m. Son las tres y veinte would mean "It's twenty past three". Usualmente.

. tomo mi desayuno. so son las. • Examples • • • • Son las ocho It's 8 o'clock Son las nueve y media It's half-past nine Son las seis menos cuarto It's quarter-to six Son las dos y veinte de la mañana It's 2:20 a.m. you now know how to tell the time in Spanish. To do this. • Examples • • A las ocho de la mañana. When? So. this means that these times-of-day are all feminine. To say "it's one o'clock". followed by one of the entries in the table (por la noche means "at night"): Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Los tiempos del día • The times of the day Inglés Morning Afternoon Night Español Mañana Tarde Evening Noche Notes Since it's always "por la". But what if you don't know a specific time? What about just "In the evening"? Just use por la. Por la tarde.. le gusta ver la tele. I eat breakfast. just say son las cinco ("It's 5 o'clock") or son las once ("It's 11 o'clock"). Wikibooks | 59 .¿Qué hora es? Notes If there aren't any minutes. Now let's use it to describe when something happens. At 8:00am. you use a las followed by the time as described above (a las tres means "at 3 o'clock"). • Remember: son means "they are". you have to say Es la una. only works for numbers greater than one.

meaning "I usually eat cheese with bread"). Sometimes. we drink red wine. suelen). Por la noche. Examples • • • • A veces. He likes watching TV. sueles.they love drinking milk. juego al ajedrez. practico judo. pero nunca vino blanco.Chapter 7 In the evening.) • Soler is a UE stem-changing verb (suelo. soléis. suele. pero usualmente.. tranquilamente. raro. Sometimes. Suelo vivir en pisos. • Also. • Time-related Adverbs It's all very well knowing how to say that you do things at a particular time. To turn an adjective into an adverb: take the feminine form of the adjective. but what about more habitual actions? What do you do usually? Normally? Sometimes? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? El tiempo • The time Inglés Usually Normally Often Sometimes Occasionally Rarely Soler Español Usualmente Normalmente A menudo A veces De vez en cuando Ocasionalmente Raramente To be in the habit of Notes • You should notice that all the words ending in "ly" in English end in mente in Spanish. and it is followed by the infinitive (Suelo comer queso con pan. I usually live in flats. ruidosamente. I play football. then add mente. vivir en una casa es muy difícil.. 60 | Spanish . but never white wine. but usually I do judo. les gusta mucho beber leche. are adverbs (you met tranquilo and ruidoso in lesson 4. • Thus. normal. ocasional and usual are all adjectives. De vez en cuando. solemos. living in a house is really difficult. bebemos vino tinto. At night. Normalmente a las cinco de la tarde. juego al futból. etc. I play chess. Normally at 5pm.

here is an example. along with a reflexive verb in the first lesson: llamarse ("to call oneself"). In Spanish. "To wash oneself" or "to get oneself up". it'd be useful to give you some examples: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Relfexive verbs • Verbos reflexivos Inglés Levantarse Ducharse Bañarse Peinarse Maquillarse Relajarse Español get (oneself) up shower (oneself) bathe (oneself) comb one's hair put one's make-up on relax (oneself) Wikibooks | 61 Inglés To To To To To To . We've already met these relfexive pronouns. using the verb lavarse ("to wash oneself"): Spanish Verb • ¿Qué hora es? Lavarse • To wash oneself Español I wash myself Me lavo You wash yourself Te lavas He/she/it washes himself/herself/itself Se lava We wash ourselves Nos lavamos You wash yourselves Os laváis They wash themselves Se lavan So. here are the reflexive pronouns: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Qué hora es? Reflexive pronouns • Pronombres reflexivos Inglés Español Myself Me Yourself Te Himself/Herself/Itself Se Ourselves Nos Yourselves Os Themselves Se So. we do this by using a reflexive pronoun before the verb.¿Qué hora es? Reflexive verbs Reflexive verbs are verbs where the subject and object are the same. now that know how to conjugate them. So.

pero usualmente. me gusta ducharme means "I like showering".it's very quiet. se ducha. we get up. • Me encanta bañarme por la noche . normalmente. • Examples Por la mañana. For example. se maquillan) • • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). a menudo) • How to use reflexive verbs (me baño. • ¿Cuándo te bañas? When do you bathe? • A las ocho de la mañana. Ocassionally. • A las nueve de la tarde.Chapter 7 Notes These are very similar to the indirect object pronouns used with gustar. • When in the infinitive. we like to have a shower. In the morning. nos levantamos. nos lavamos. I like to relax. bebo vino. es la una menos cuarto) • How to say the times of the day (por la manana. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment 62 | Spanish . de vez en cuando. We never have a bath in the morning. At 8am. you have learnt How to ask for the time (¿Qué hora es?) How to tell the time (Son las cuatro y media. Make sure you don't get them mixed up. a las tres y diez) • Various adverbs (ocasionalmente. but usually. he showers in the morning. os lavantáis. he likes to have a bath in the afternoon. the reflexive pronoun goes on the end of the verb as a suffix. nos gusta muy tranquilo. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson eight. te relajas. • Nunca nos bañamos por la mañana. Normally. me gusta mucho relajarme. At 9pm. • Summary In this lesson. me maquillo y me peino. se ducha por la mañana. I love having a bath in the evening . Normalmente. le gusta bañarse por la tarde. I put my make-up on and comb my hair. tarde. I drink wine. • Ocasionalmente.

(13)____ gusta mucho nadar. y tengo dieciséis años. (4)____ levanto a las seis (5)____ media. (6)____ peino. Sometimes I eat lettuce. almuerza a las dos. I usually play tennis at 3pm. 6:15 7. me gusta mucho comer arroz. 3. Después. I play football. 4:00 3.¿Qué hora es? The answers can be found in the next section. Telling the time Write the following times in full Spanish. 1:35 8. Luego. Usualmente. but I never eat tomatoes. pero usualmente. Normalmente. 9:10 5. 5. 1. Wikibooks | 63 . 7:45 gusta bañarme por la noche. no hay nada (16)____ hacer. 1:15am 10. Por la tarde. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. Normalmente. Occasionally. (7)____ maquillamos. 2. (14)____ relajo: me gusta leer. 2:25 4. 7. (3)____ la mañana. 10:30 6. ¿Juegas al ajedrez a menudo? 4. 8. practicamos (12)____ la natación. Nunca (8)____ duchamos por (9)___ mañana . cenamos a las siete. (1)____ llamo Milagros. (2)____ vivo en un piso grande en Madríd. You might not need to put anything in the gap.8:55pm Time-related adverbs Translate the following from English to Spanish and vice versa. Hola. Also. 1. Reflexive verbs Fill in the gaps in the following text. 3:00 2. Por la noche. Usualmente. en España. but I really like rugby. I rarely have lunch at 1pm. (15)____ ver la tele. y desayuno con Rosa (mi hermana). a (10)____ cuatro (11)____ la tarde. 6.

5. 8. 3. So. 3. De vez en cuando. Then. Reflexive verbs Hola. 6. Usually. 6. we have dinner at 7:00. Goodbye! Sofía: See you soon! Telling the time 1. Son las ocho menos cuarto. I have a shower. Son las diez y media. A veces.Chapter 7 Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sofía! What's the time? Sofía: It's 8:15. Usually. 5. he has lunch at 2:00. I really like eating rice. when you you have lunch? Sofía: I normally have lunch at 1:00. 2. 10. (3)____ la mañana. Raúl: Ok. como lechuga. Son las cuatro. Normally. (2)____ vivo en un piso grande en Madríd. Do you often play chess? 4.What do you normally do in the morning? Sofía: I get up at 7:00. 9. Suelo jugar al tenis a las tres de la tarde. Raúl: Ah. 7. y tengo dieciséis años. Son las tres. do my make-up and eat breakfast. Son las dos menos veinticinco. Almuerzo raramente a la una. (1)____ llamo Milagros. 2. en España. 7. Raúl: Thanks. Son las nueve y diez. Es la una y cuarto de la mañana. At night. Son las dos y veinticinco. 4. Son las seis y cuarto. Normalmente. 8. pero nunca como tomates. ok. I leave at 8:00. juego al futból.Son las nueve menos cinco de la noche. pero me gusta mucho el rugby. Time-related adverbs 1. (4)____ 64 | Spanish .

Nunca (8)____ duchamos por (9)___ mañana . Por la tarde. (14)____ relajo: me gusta leer. Nos 8. y desayuno con Rosa (mi hermana). Me 2. no hay nada (16)____ hacer.Nos 14. Nos 9. Usualmente. (13)____ gusta mucho nadar. Luego.De 12. Y 6. Después. (15)____ ver la tele. Por 4.Me 15. pero usualmente. practicamos (12)____ la natación. a (10)____ cuatro (11)____ la gusta bañarme por la noche. 3.¿Qué hora es? levanto a las seis (5)____ media.Las 11. Me 7.Para Wikibooks | 65 .16. La 10. 1. (7)____ maquillamos. Me 5. (6)____ peino.13.

Quiero pasar un mes. First. followed by a (meaning "to"). Vocabulary para for otro other take tomarme myself un a month mes libre off work Sofía: Así. voy a Irlanda pero tengo un billete para Italia. you must conjugate the (sadly irregular) verb ir (meaning "to go"). Raúl: Usualmente. ¡Hasta luego! The Simple Future tense Expressing what you're going to do in the future is simple in Spanish. So. ¿vas a comprar un otro billete? Raúl: No . Then you have the infinitive of the verb you are going to do.Italia es buena también. Sofía: ¿Cómo vas a ir? ¿En tren? Raúl: No. Sofía: Entiendo. and the same as in English. pero no puedo tomarme un mes libre. voy a comer means "I'm going to eat". Sofía: ¿Cuánto tiempo vas a pasar allí? Raúl: Dos semanas. Odio los trenes .son muy ruidosos.Chapter 8 8 ¿D ÓNDE Dialogue VAS A IR ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Raúl: Hola Sofía. It's as simple as that! Ir is conjugated thus: Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Ir • To go 66 | Spanish . Prefiero los aviónes también. voy a ir a Italia. Puedo tomar el sol y experimentar la cultura nativa. Sofía: Claro. La semana que viene. You use this construction: [Ir] a [infinitive] Let's look at this more closely.

meaning "I'm going to have a bath")... ¿Vas a jugar al futból con Paulo? Are you going to play football with Paulo? Va a ducharse por la tarde. At night. Here are a few key expressions for saying when something is goig to happen. In the future. van a jugar al ajedrez. We're going to go to France. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? In the future. Por la noche. they're going to play chess. • En el futuro. nos vamos a relajar. She's going to have a shower in the evening. It doesn't matter which you choose. Inglés Español Tomorrow Mañana Tomorrow morning Mañana por la mañana The day after tomorrow Pasado mañana La semana que viene Next week La semana próxima Next month El mes que viene Wikibooks | 67 . it'd be great to be able to say when we're going to do them... you have two options for where to put the reflexive pronoun. Examples • • • • • Voy a cenar a las ocho I'm going to have dinner at 8:00..¿Dónde vas a ir? Inglés I go You go He/She/It goes We go You all go They go Español Voy Vas Va Vamos Vais Van Notes • For reflexive verbs. We're going to relax. meaning "I'm going to have a bath") or as a suffix of the infinitive (voy a bañarme. Now that we know how to express future actions. Vamos a ir a Francia. You can either have it before ir (me voy a bañar..

where are how are you going to go? Look at the following phrase. these phrases mean "the week that comes" (la semana que viene) or "the year that comes" (el año que viene). Tomorrow afternoon. This also means that you have to conjugate it when you're talking in the past tense: "The year that came". voy a jugar al tenis. El año próximo. Holidays Grab your swimming trunks: you're off to the south coast of Spain! Journey So. meaning "to come". I would like to live in the countryside. but don't worry about that for quite some time yet. when. This is from the E=>IE stemchanging verb venir. In the same vein. • Mañana por la mañana means "tomorrow morning". En el futuro. vamos a ir a Francia. mañana por la tarde means "tomorrow afternoon" and mañana por la noche means "tomorrow night". • Examples • • • • • • Manaña por la tarde. El año próximo. explained below. me gustaría vivir en el campo. In the future. So.Chapter 8 El mes próximo El año que viene El año próximo En el futuro Next year In the future Notes Notice viene in some of the phrases. we're going to go to France. Next year. I'm going to play tennis. literally. voy a ir a España en avión. This is made up of various parts: 68 | Spanish . ¿Vas a tener ocho años el mes que viene? Are you going to be eight years-old next month? ¿Vamos a cenar a las siete y media la semana próxima? Are we going to have dinner at 7:30 next week? Las mujeres van a vivir en un piso en noviembre. The women are going to live in a flat in November.

but next month. • Then en avión. this means "in aeroplane".the location. voy a ir en barco.¿Dónde vas a ir? Firstly. It is a perfectly regular verb (paso. I go by train. meaning "to Spain" . ¿cuánto tiempo pasas en Canadá? Normally. by Antti Havukainen) Coche (m) Tren (m) Barco (m) ¿Vas a ir a Alemania en coche? Are you going to go to Germany by car? ¿Cómo vamos a ir a Galés? ¿En autocar? How are we going to go to Wales? By coach? Normalmente. I'm going to go by boat. as in time). • • You have all of the vocabulary here. we have the time expression. Examples • • • Vais a pasar un mes en Nueva Zelanda. Literally. voy en tren. They're going to go to the USA by plane. as en means "in". meaning by aeroplane. Autocar (m) Examples • • • • Avión (m) (Air Pullmantur 747. ir ("to go") in the simple future tense. pasas. • Then a España. To ask how long someone else is going to spend somewhere. pasan). You would then follow it by a timespan (pasamos dos semanas en Irlanda means "we spend two weeks in Ireland"). you use cuánto tiempo ("how much time") followed by pasar. Then. Normally. ¿Cuánto tiempo van a pasar en Inglaterra? means "How long are they going to spend in England?". pasamos. some of which are below. For how long? To say how long you're going to spend somewhere (or doing something). pasa. you use the verb pasar (meaning "to spend". except for the modes of transport. how much time do you spend in Canada? ¿Dónde voy a pasar el mes que viene? ¿Los Estados Unidos? Wikibooks | 69 . pero el mes que viene. You're all going to spend a month in New Zealand. Van a ir a los Estados Unidos en avión. Normalmente. pasáis.

you use the reflexive verb alojarse. I hear you cry.Chapter 8 Where am I going to spend the next month? America? Accommodation To say "to stay" in Spanish. dos habitaciones). se aloja. se alojan). te alojas. habitación loses the accent (una habitación. ¿Tienes cuartos libres? Do you have any free rooms? • ¿Cuánto cobra por noche? How much does it cost per night? • ¿Puedes recomendarme un hotel barato? Can you recommend a cheap hotel? • ¿Se puede fumar en el cuarto? Can you smoke in the room? Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Alojamiento • Accommodation • A A A A A A A Inglés single room double room family room hotel youth hostel villa camp site Español Una habitación individual Una habitación doble Una habitación familiar Un hotel Un albergue juvenil Un chalet Un cámping Notes • A "camp site" is un cámping (remember the accent). Reception desk at a hotel. os alojáis. However. "to go camping" is ir de cámping and "a tent" is una tienda.. as shown in the table below.. • When in plural. which is regular (me alojo. 70 | Spanish . Then. then the type of accommodation. you use en (meaning "in"). what if you're already in Spain? How do you ask for accomodation? Below are a few useful phrases for asking for accommodation. nos alojamos.

¿Dónde vas a ir? Examples El año que viene. you could jugar al futból ("play football") or beber vino ("drink wine"). se alojan en un chalet. but clearly there are more activities than just these. followed by the infinitive. vamos a ir de cámping en Francia. • La semana próxima. So you've arrived and unpacked. they stay in a villa. • ¿Tienes habitaciones dobles libres? Do you have any free double rooms? • ¿Cuánto cobra por noche en un habitación singular? ¿Se puede fumar allí? How much does a single room cost per night? Are you allowed to smoke there? • Puedes recomendarme un hotel barato que tiene habitaciones familares libres? Can you recommend a cheap hotel that has free family rooms? • Activities Right. I'm going to spend a day in a youth hostel. Net year. we're going to go camping in Francia. Normally. What now? How are you going to spend your time? Obviously. van a alojarse en un hotel. Next week. cuando van a España. you use para (meaning "for").. Irse de juerga Tomar el sol Nadar What about more general things? Why do you want to go there? What do you want to get out of the trip? To say "in order to". pero el año próximo. but next year. • Normalmente.. when they go to Spain. their going to stay in a hotel. voy a pasar un día en un albergue juvenil. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Dónde vas a ir? ¿Porqué vas allí? Why go there? Inglés Español Experimentar una cultura diferente To experience a different culture Probar la comida nativa To try the local food Aprender el idioma To learn the language Wikibooks | 71 .

I love swimming and sunbathing. • Probar is an O=>UE stem-changing verb (pruebo. so it uses the reflexive pronouns learnt last lesson. • ¿Por qué te gustaría ir a España? ¿Para aprender el idioma? Why would you like to go to Spain? To learn the language? • Van a ir a Grecia en noviembre. va. When in France. tomas. However. puedo rejarme . watch out for idioma and foto. • Aprender is regular (aprendo. van). vais. prueban). nadan). aprendéis. I can relax . toma. • Cuando vamos a Inglaterra.Chapter 8 Notes There are quite a few new verbs here. nadas. aprenden). Next month. voy a ir a Ibiza para irme de juerga. the e changes to ie in the "I". aprendemos. toman). • Irse is explained in more detail below. baila. • Sacar is regular (saco. nada. They're going to go to Greece in November.. vamos. se va. They like trying new foods and experiencing different cultures. Another useful adjective to use in these phrases is nuevo. nativo and diferente are adjectives. I'm going to go to Ibiza to go clubbing. Les gusta probar comidas nuevas y experimentar culturas diferentes. This time. bailáis. • Irse is quite complicated. nos vamos. meaning "new". • Tomar is regular (tomo. It's the same ir as described above (voy. prueba. • Obviously. but the se means that it's reflexive too. • Cuando en Francia. nadáis. experimentáis. since they have the opposite genders to what you would expect. bailas. • Experimentar is regular (experimento. os vais. experimenta. vas. experimentas. experimentan). "you". se van. probáis. experimentamos. tomáis. Luckily. te vas. nunca sacamos fotos buenas. pruebas. most of the genders are obvious. An example (querer.. sacan). we never take good photos. meaning "to want") is written in the table below. sacamos. • Examples El mes próximo. tomamos. Thus. "he/she/it" and "they" forms. sacas. it's conjugated: me voy. aprendes. Idioma is masculine and Foto is feminine. bailamos. bailan). most are regular. sacáis. nadamos. When we go to England. • Bailar is regular (bailo. • ¿Os gusta bailar y iros de juerga? Do you all like dancing and going clubbing? • Stem-changing Verbs The second type of irregular verb is another stem-changing encanta nadar y tomar el sol. • Nadar is regular (nado. • With the nouns mentioned here. aprende. saca. probamos. 72 | Spanish .

entendéis. preferéis. entienden. Do you all understand? • Cuando voy a Nueva Zelanda. • Inglés Notes • Querer can be followed by the infinitive (quiero empezar means "I want to start"). piensan. empiezan. pensamos. but Juan prefers going to Spain. empezáis. prefiere. • preferer ("to prefer"): prefiero. vamos a Rusia en noviembre. pensáis. ¿Entendéis? • The day after tomorrow. piensa. entiendes. Wikibooks | 73 . Usually. empezamos. vais a cenar en el hotel. tenemos. pero Juan prefiere ir a España: quiere aprender el idioma. you're going to dine in the hotel. empieza. he wants to learn the language. • empezar ("to start"): empiezo. Examples • Quiero almorzar a las dos menos cuarto. I want to have lunch at 1:45. quiero alojarme en un albergue juvenil. prefieres. preferemos. that is a stem changing verb too: tengo. empiezas. pero Santiago prefiere los chaletes. prefieren. meaning "to think that". piensas. we go to Russia en november. entendemos. • Usualmente. tiene. tenéis. tienen! • Pensar is normally followed by que. tienes. entiende. • Remember tener? Well.¿Dónde vas a ir? Spanish Verb • ¿Dónde vas a ir? Querer • To want Español I Quiero You Quieres He/She/It Quiere We Queremos You all Queréis They Quieren Other verbs that follow this pattern entender ("to understand"): entiendo. • pensar ("to think"): pienso. Pasado mañana.

¿Cuánto cobra por noche?) • How to say various holiday activities (me voy de juerga. bailan. Entiendo que se puede fumar en las habitaciones individuales. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. vamos a ir a Irlanda en autocar) • How to say for how long you're going to stay (voy a pasar un mes. you have learnt How to form the simple future tense in Spanish (voy a comer. 2. ¿no? I understand you can smoke in the single rooms. probar comidas nuevas) • How to form I=>IE stem-changing verbs (quiero. Juegan al fútbol. The Simple Future tense Put the following into the simple future tense.Chapter 8 When I go to New Zealand. van a ir) • How to say various future time phrases (pasado mañana. 1. Also. Como a las seis. 74 | Spanish . but Santiago prefers villas. I want to stay in a youth hostel. vais a almorzar. where and how you're going on holiday (el mes que viene. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. entendemos. un albergue junenil. voy a alojarme en una habitación familiar) • How to ask for accommodation (¿Tienes cuartos libres?. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on to lesson nine. mañana por la noche. right? ¿Piensas que las mujeres van a ser amables? Do you think the women are going to be nice? • • Summary In this lesson. pasa una semana) • How to say what sort of accomodation you'll be in (un cámping. en el futuro) • How to say when. cierran) • You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section).

7. Vivimos en un piso en Inglaterra. Pensar 1. Vamos a tomar (13)____ sol durante el día. Pasado mañana 2. Mañana por la mañana Holidays Fill in the gaps in the following text.. pero (5)____ gustaría (6)____ relajarme totalmente. Voy a alojarme en (7)____ chalet familiar con hombres amables que (8)____ en (9)____ Estados Unidos también. Normalmente. In the future. Finalmente. Se llama Miguel.. El chalet cobra (10)____ veinte euros (11)____ noche. La semana que viene 4.español es fantástica. You might not need to put anything in the gap. Tengo doce años.... (18)____ a cenar en un restaurante diferente cada noche. 5... 2. (19)____ voy a ir a México porque quiero aprender (20)____ idioma .. En el futuro 7.los huevos (17)____ fantásticos... Almuerza a las seis... y (14)____ la noche.. El año próximo 3. Cuando allí. 9. (16)____ encanta la comida allí .. El año (1)____ viene.. 1. El mes que viene 6. Voy a (4)____ dos semanas allí. Sois de Escocia. Stem-Changing Verbs Comnjugate the following verbs in the present tense.¿Dónde vas a ir? 3. paso solamente una semana. . Me peino a las tres. Wikibooks | 75 . ¿Duermes a la una? 8. vamos a bailar y (15)____ de juerga. Mañana por la noche 5..... voy (2)____ ir (3)____ México en tren. hay (12)____ para hacer. ...... 1.. Put the following in chonological order... También. 4.. 6.

. 4... 1. 2.. Comer 3..... 6.. Sofía: I understand............ Sofía: Of course. Next week.. Raúl: Usually I go to Ireland.. ....... they're very noisy. too.. 4... . I hate trains....Chapter 8 3........ The following are all verbs you have learnt... 5... Voy a comer a las seis. I prefer airplanes....... ... I can sunbathe and experience the native culture.. but I have a ticket for Italy...... Sofía: How much time are you going to spend there? Raúl: Two weeks... ... Cenar 7....... Italy is good too. 76 | Spanish . Vivir 6. Sofía: So. 3..... Almorzar 4. I'm going to go to Italy. but I can't take myself a month off work.... ... . See you later! The Simple Future tense 1.... Querer 5.. .. .... 5... are you going to buy another ticket? Raúl: No... and say if they're E=>IE or O/U=>UE... 2... 3.. ..................... Jugar 2. Van a jugar al fútbol.. I'd like to spend a month.. Sofía: How are you going to get there? By train? Raúl: No. 6. Tener 1... Say if they are stemchanging.. Poder Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi Sofía..... ... Entender 8... 2. or not...

4. pasar 5. Pensar 1. 1. los 9.por 13. que 2. En el futuro Holidays 1. un 7.son 16. 9. La semana que viene 5. me 6. El año próximo 7. In the future. Vamos a vivir en un piso en Inglaterra. Va a almorzar a las seis. a 4. Vais a ser de Escocia. Mañana por la noche 3.voy 17.¿Dónde vas a ir? 3. Va a llamarse Miguel.el Stem-Changing Verbs Comnjugate the following verbs in the present tense. El mes que viene 6. 7. 1. 5.para 11. Piensa Wikibooks | 77 . Voy a peinarme a las tres. Piensas 3. por 10. Pienso 2. ¿Vas a dormir a la una? 8. 6. Pasado mañana 4. viven 8.. a 3. Voy a tener doce añ 15. Mañana por la mañana 2..el 12.irnos 14.

I=>IE stemn changing verb 5. Tenemos 5. Regular verb 3. Tienen 3. O=>UE stem changing verb 78 | Spanish . and say if they're E=>IE or O/U=>UE. The following are all verbs you have learnt. I=>IE stem changing verb 8. Regular verb 7. Regular verb 6. Pensamos 5. Tienes 3. Tengo 2. Tenéis 6. O=>UE stem changing verb 4. Tener 1. Tiene 4. 1. U=>UE stem changing verb 2.Chapter 8 4. or not. Piensan 2. Say if they are stemchanging. Pensáis 6.

"I am dentist" (Soy dentista). me encanta aprender idiomas. Siempre hay clientes que quieren hablar en inglés. Es muy dfícil. Sofía: Sí. you use the phrase ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? (the name of this lesson). quiero aprender el inglés para mi trabajo. Raúl: Vale. soy profesor de inglés. You use no articles . to say someone's job. Sofía: Y tú. followed by the name of the job (some of which are given below). To ask what someone else does for a living. entiendo.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? 9 ¿C UÁL Dialogue ES TU TRABAJO ? live version • discussion • edit chapter • comment • report an error Vocabulary clientes customers Raúl: Hola. Sofía: ¡Qué bueno! ¿Hablas inglés nativamente? Raúl: No. some jobs: Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Trabajos • Jobs Inglés Electrician Plumber Builder Teacher Lawyer Doctor Dentist Engineer Chef Español Electricista Plomero (m) or Plomera (f) Constructor (m) or Constructora (f) Profesor (m) or Profesora (f) Abogado (m) or Abogada (f) Médico (m) or Médica (f) Dentista Ingeniero (m) or Ingeniera (f) Cocinero (m) or Cocinera (f) Wikibooks | 79 . ¿cuál es tu trabajo? Raúl: Ah. ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Sofía: Trabajo en una tienda. you use ser ("to be"). Sofía. So. Rául: Sí. ¡Adiós! Jobs and ocupations In Spanish. también. rather than "I am a dentist" like in English.

These are really important. I want to be a lawyer. For electricista and dentista. • Examples • • • • • Es dentista. there is no difference between the genders. Son profesores de español así qué hablan español muy bien.Chapter 9 Notes For some of the above jobs. Even men can be dentistas. haven't really got a home. pero cuesta mucho. we really need to go through a few important words that have been overlooked in previous lessons. or have generally not got much air-time. He's a dentist. ¿Vas a ser médico? Are you going to be a doctor? Quiero ser abogada. ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? ¿Eres electricista? What do you work as? Are you an electrician? A Few Important Words At this point. there are two options: one for males and one for females. and immediately raise your level of Spanish if you use them. but it costs a lot. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Palabritos • Little words Inglés Too Today Now In order to A lot That How Currently Always Español Demasiado Hoy Ahora Para Mucho Que Qué Actualmente Siempre 80 | Spanish . They're Spanish teachers so they speak Spanish really well.

tiene muchas habitaciones). ganan dinero. it has to agree with the noun. meaning "to earn money". It also means "too much" or "too many". you use the regular verb trabajar (trabajo.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Notes Demasiado means "too" as in "I am too nice" (Soy demasiado amable). quiere comer a las dos. ganamos dinero. quiere almorzar a la una menos cuarto. ¡Qué fantástico!. as in "It costs too much" (Cuesta demasiado) or "It has too many rooms" (Tiene demasiadas habitaciones). but today. • Don't confuse actualmente with "actually". he wants to eat at two. trabajan). I live in a terrace in New Zealand that has many rooms. trabajáis. • Para. trabajas. • ¿Qué vas a comer ahora? What are you going to eat now? • Normalmente. but also "many" ("I live in many different houses" . it has to agree with the noun it describes. so is conjugated gano dinero. Another important little phrase to mention here is ganar dinero. I always dine at 7pm. It means currently. • Examples ¿Por qué vas a Canadá? ¿Para aprender el idioma? Why are you going to Canada? In order to learn the language? • Vivo en una casa adosada en Neuva Zelanda que tiene muchas habitaciones. trabajamos. he wants to have lunch at quarter to one. Normally. pero hoy. it would be undoubtedly useful to be able to say where you work. Wikibooks | 81 . ganáis dinero. Cómo is the question word meaning "how". • Qué means "how" only in the sense of "How fantastic!". trabaja. Voy a ir a francia para relajarme means "I'm going to France in order to relax". • ¿Van a jugar al tenis? ¡Qué fatal! They're going to play tennis? How awful! • Siempre ceno a las siete de la tarde. • Mucho means "a lot" ("It has a lot of rooms" . or any other building or firm. It's en muchas casas diferentes). ganas dinero. Like demasiado. gana dinero. When it's used as a sort of adjective. A shop? An office? A factory? To do this. then our friend en (meaning "in"). in the sense "in order to" is always followed by the infinitive. then one of the options from this table. • Workplaces As well as what your job is.

which is formed by changing the verb itself. you can also use a company name (Trabajo en Tesco meaning "I work at Tesco"). in order to earn money. the future stem is simply hablar. we have been using the phrase ir a to refer to the future. I'm currently working in a factory. but they prefer working in restuarants. We work in a garage in Spain.Chapter 9 Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Workplaces • Lugares de trabajo Inglés An office A factory A shop A school A restaurant A studio A garage Español Una oficina Una fábrica Una tienda Un colegio Un restaurante Un taller Un taller mecánico Notes As part of this phrase. It is formed thus: [future stem][ending] Let's explain this: • The future stem is a form of the verb. or even a country or place name (¿Trabajas en Alemania? meaning "Do you work in Germany?"). Trabajo en una tienda que se llama Woolworths. • The endings are shown in the table below. You add them to the future 82 | Spanish . ¿Dónde trabajas? ¿En un colegio? ¿Eres profesor? Where do you work? In a school? Are you a teacher? Actualmente trabajo en una fábrica para ganar dinero. in most cases. Now. So. I work in a shop called Woolworths. for hablar (meaning "to talk"). and is translated at "will". pero prefieren trabajar en restaurantes. it's the same as the infinitive. there is a real future tense in Spanish. Luckily for us. They work in an office. Trabajan en una oficina. The Future Tense For the past two lessons. • Examples • • • • • Trabajamos en un taller mecánico en España.

podrás. they will live in a new house.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? stem as suffixes. querréis. podremos. querrá. querremos. tendré ochenta años. tendréis. Summary In this lesson. El mes que viene. you have learnt How to say what you and others do for a living (soy ingeniero. El año próximo. tendrás. this only applies to three: Tener ("to have"): tendré. tendremos. son abogados) • How to ask what someone does for a living (¿Cuál es tu trabajo?) • Wikibooks | 83 . tendrá. querrán Examples • • • • • Comeré una manzana. tendrán Poder ("to be able to"): podré. Pasado mañana. Next year. I will eat an apple. podrá. podrán Querer ("to want"): querré. vivirán en una casa nueva. I will be 80. Of the verbs you have learnt so far. podréis. ¿irás a las tiendas? The day after tomorrow. She will be a plumber. Next month. Spanish Vocabulary • ¿Cuál es tu trabajo? Suffixes • Sufijos Inglés I You He/She/It We You all They é ás á emos éis án Español Notes • Some verbs are have irregular future stems. querrás. will you go to the shops? Será fontanera. Assume a verb is regular unless you know otherwise.

Dentist g. Builder i. Hoy. Workplaces Complete the following sentences. 1. Lawyer c. but today. un taller) How to form the future tense (podrán. pero no ahora. Electricista Fontanera Constructor Abogado Profesora Médico Concinera Dentista Ingeniero a. 8. 5. demasiado. Also. almorzaremos) You should now do the exercise related to each section (found in the next section). Doctor f. mucho) How to say various workplaces (una fábrica. 84 | Spanish .Chapter 9 • • • How to say various little. De vez en cuando. we're going to play tennis. 1. 9. and translate the dialogue at the top before moving on. Engineer d. Teacher h. 2. You're a plumber? ¡How fantastic! 4. but important words (que. Jobs and occupations Match the English to the Spanish. I prefer men that play rugby. 7. 6. Exercises live version • discussion • edit exercises • add an exercise (answer) • comment The answers can be found in the next section. try translating the dialogue at the top of the lesson. I have too many apples. 3. Usually. Electrician e. 7. quiero jugar al fútbol. trabajo en una tienda para ganar dinero. querré. Muchos niños quieren ser constructores. Chef A Few Important Words Translate the following from English to Spanish and vice versa. we go swimming. 6. 3. Plumber b. 4. 5. 2.

2. Odio mi trabajo en _____. what do you do for a living? Raúl: Ah. Va a Irlanda para experimentar una cultura diferente. 3. Ruál: Yeah. d 2. porque es demasiado ruidoso. Soy ingeniera. b Wikibooks | 85 . Raúl: Ok. No hay mucho para hacer. I want to learn English for my job. 1. Sofía: Yeah. Trabajamos en _____ que se llama Harrods. What do you do for a living? Sofía: I work in a shop. Sofía: What about you. 4. so that the verb is in the future tense. No me gusta mi trabajo en _____. Es concinero: trabaja en _____. I understand. h 4. Sofía: Great! Do you speak English natively? Raúl: No. 5. ¿Jugáis al tenis? 7. There are always customers who want to speak English. too.¿Cuál es tu trabajo? 1. It's very difficult. Tienen cuarenta y ocho años. ¿Ganas veinte euros por hora? ¡Qué bueno! 4. Goodbye! Jobs and occupations 1. Sofía. Trabajamos en un restaurante en la ciudad. Exercise answers live version • discussion • edit answers • add an answer (exercise) • comment Dialogue Raúl: Hi. 3. Quiero dormir. Soy profesora: trabajo en _____. I love learning new languages. porque es muy aburrido. a 3. 6. Voy a Canadá 2. I'm an English teacher. 5. Siempre es animado y ¡me encanta hablar! The Future Tense Rewrite the following sentences. 8.

Una oficina 5. ¿Jugaréis al tenis? 7. 3. Usualmente. Una tienda The Future Tense 1. 2. Workplaces 1. I'm working in a shop to earn some money. e 7. 8. Occassionally. Tengo demasiadas manzanas. 6. Prefiero hombres que juegan al rugby. Today. 6. 3. Trabajaremos en un restaurante en la ciudad. Un taller mecánico. 86 | Spanish . 7. 5. Seré ingeniera. ¿Ganarás veinte euros por hora? ¡Qué bueno! 4. Many boys want to be builders. practicamos la natación. vamos a jugar al tenis. Querré dormir. but not now. g 6. Iré a Canadá 2. ¿Eres fontanero? ¡Qué fantástico! 4. pero hoy. 5. i 8. Un colegio 2. una fábrica 4. Tendrán cuarenta y ocho años. I want to play football. c A Few Important Words 1.Chapter 9 5. Irá a Irlanda para experimentar una cultura diferente. Un restaurante 3. f 9.

The SXW source of this PDF document is available at Wikibooks:Image:Spanish. The latest version may be found at http://en.sxw. A transparent copy of this document is available at Wikibooks:Spanish/Print version. During December 2006. it underwent a complete archive and rewrite by Celestianpower. The template from which the document was created is available at Wikibooks:Image:PDF template. It was the first language book on Wikibooks | 87 . PDF Information & History This PDF was created on 2007-07-15 based on the 2007-07-14 version of the Spanish Wikibook.wikibooks.sxw.History & Document Notes 10 H ISTORY & D OCUMENT N OTES Wikibook History This book was created on 2003-08-02 by ThomasStrohmann and was developed on the Wikibooks project by the contributors listed in the next section.

Chapter 11

Principal Authors
• • • • • • • • • • • •

ThomasStrohmann ( talk | email | contribs ) Karl Wick ( talk | email | contribs ) Wintermute ( talk | email | contribs ) Mariela Riva ( talk | email | contribs ) Mxn ( talk | email | contribs ) Sabbut ( talk | email | contribs ) Javier Carro ( talk | email | contribs ) Fenoxielo ( talk | email | contribs ) Think Fast ( talk | email | contribs ) Celestianpower ( talk | email | contribs ) John D'Adamo ( talk | email | contribs ) AnthonyBaldwin ( talk | email | contribs )

All Authors
Alnokta, AnthonyBaldwin, Aphedox, Austenld, Az1568, Baryonic Being, Batjew, Beeezy, Canjo, Celestianpower, Chyera, CommonsDelinker, Derbeth, Everlong, Fenoxielo, Gen Sherman, Hoogli, Javier Carro, Jguk, John D'Adamo, Karl Wick, Laverdad, ManuelGR, Mxn, Oaso,, Sabbut, Samuel, Supernaturalist, Tawagoto, Think Fast, ThomasStrohmann, West Brom 4ever, Xania, anonymous users

Image Credits
Images are either licensed under the GFDL or released into the public domain. Creators of GFDL images are listed in image captions.

88 | Spanish

GNU Free Documentation License

Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. Wikibooks | 89

Chapter 12 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as FrontCover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machinegenerated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

90 | Spanish

as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below. all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. such as "Acknowledgements". You may add other material on the covers in addition.GNU Free Documentation License A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. you must enclose the copies in covers that carry. and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. You may also lend copies. However. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. under the same conditions stated above. and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. 3.) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies. and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License. provided that this License. and you may publicly display copies. Copying with changes limited to the covers. clearly and legibly. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more Wikibooks | 91 . and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts. you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. 2. can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium. "Dedications". or "History". numbering more than 100. either commercially or noncommercially. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. COPYING IN QUANTITY If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. the copyright notices. but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. "Endorsements".

you must take reasonably prudent steps. free of added material. provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License. 4. if there were any. one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version. that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies. In addition. and from those of previous versions (which should. Preserve its Title. together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version. unless they release you from this requirement. to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. It is requested. as the publisher. You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. D. immediately after the copyright notices. if any) a title distinct from that of the Document. B. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity. be listed in the History section of the Document). to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. If you use the latter option. I. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. if it has fewer than five). Include. as authors. G. and publisher of the 92 | Spanish . Use in the Title Page (and on the covers. in the form shown in the Addendum below. List on the Title Page. Preserve the section Entitled "History". you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy. a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License. F. or state in or with each Opaque copy a computernetwork location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document. E. and add to it an item stating at least the title. you must do these things in the Modified Version: A. with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document. Include an unaltered copy of this License.Chapter 12 than 100. C. new authors. thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. H. but not required. year.

Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover. N. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. but you may replace the old one. Preserve the Title of the section. if any. you may not add another. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications". on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements". Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of. you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page. create one stating the title. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version. authors. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document. These may be placed in the "History" section. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. L. M. statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text. To do this. K. add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.GNU Free Documentation License Modified Version as given on the Title Page. given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document. year. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. unaltered in their text and in their titles. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Preserve the network location. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text. Wikibooks | 93 . then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself. provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. O. J. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document.

this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents. make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it. in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium. you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents. and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents. and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. and any sections Entitled "Dedications". and distribute it individually under this License. under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions. and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. In the combination. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works. likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements"." 6. provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document. and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. When the Document is included in an aggregate. unmodified. is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection. the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known. 7. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. forming one section Entitled "History". provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License. You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements. You may extract a single document from such a collection. or else a unique number. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the 94 | Spanish . in parentheses.Chapter 12 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License.

9. you may choose any version ever Wikibooks | 95 . Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. However. and any Warranty Disclaimers. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate. modify. or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. sublicense. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. or rights.gnu. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it. TERMINATION You may not copy. but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. or "History". parties who have received copies. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version. then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate. You may include a translation of this License. modify. revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. 8. so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title. sublicense or distribute the Document is void. See http://www. and all the license notices in the Document. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modification. Any other attempt to copy. 10.GNU Free Documentation License Document. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements". the original version will prevail. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. and will automatically terminate your rights under this or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. "Dedications".

Chapter 12 published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. External links • • GNU Free Documentation License (Wikipedia article on the license) Official GNU FDL webpage 96 | Spanish .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful