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CHENG
SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY
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ADDISONWESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
Reading, Massachusetts Menlo Park, California London Amsterdam Don Mills, Ontario Sydney
DAVID K. CHENG
SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY
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ADDISONWESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
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Reading, Massachusetts Menlo Park, California m on don' Amsterdam Don Mills, Ontario' Sydney
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This book is in the API)ISON7WESLEY SERIES IN ELERRICAL ENGINEERING
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SPONSORING EDIT& T o m Robbins PRODUCTION EDITOR: Marilee Sorotskin TEXT DESIGNER: Mednda Grbsser ILLUSTRATOR: Dick Morton , COVER DESIGNER AND ILLUSTRATOR: Richard H a n y s ART COORDINATOR: Dick Morton i.: PRODUCTION MANAGER: Herbert Nolan
The text o f this book was composed in Times Roman by Syntax International.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Cheng, David K. avid~(euni dqteField and wave e ~ e c t r o ~ ~ e t i ~ s . Bibliography: p. I 1. Electromagnetism. 2. Fiqld th :ory (Physics) I I. Title. QC760. C48 < 530.1'41 8112749 ISBN 0201012391 AACR2 3 I
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Publishing Company, Inc. rights reserved. NO part of @is publication may be reproduqd, btored in a retrieval system, or tnnsm,ltted. in any, form or by any means. electmnic, mechanica~.photocopying, recordmg, or othenu~se, without the prior written permission df the publisher. Prmted m the Uolted States of Amenca. Published simultaneously in Canada. ,
ISBN 0201012391 ABCDEFGHIJAL89876543
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COPY%^^ O 1983 by AddisonW+ey
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11 12 13
Introduction The electromagnetic model SI units and universal constants Review questions
Introduction Vector addition and subtraction Products of vectors 23.1 Scalar or dot product 23.2 Vector or cross product 23.3 Product of three vectors Orthogonal coordinate systems 24.1 Cartesian coordinates 24.2 Cylindrical coordinates 24.3 Spherical coordinates Gradient of a scalar field Divergence of a vector field Divergence theorein Curl of a vector field Stokes's theorem 210 Two null identities 210.1 Identity I 210.1 Identity I1 21 1 Helmholtz's theorem Review questions . Problems
Introduction Fundamental postulates of electrostatics in free space J2 Coulonb's law 3 ?.: Electric fitla ciue LO a system of discrete charges 33.2 Electric field due to a contipuous distribution of charge 34 Gauss's law and applications 35 Electric potential I 35.1 Electric potential due to a charge distribution 36 Condugtors in static electric field 37 Dielectrics in static electric field 37.1 Equivalent charge distributions of polarized dielectrics 38 Electric flux density and dielectric constant 38.1 ~ielectric'strength 39 Boundary conditions for electrostatic fields 310 Capacitance and ~apacitors 3 10.1 Series aqd parallel connections of capacitors 31 1 Electrostatic enerpy and forces . 3 11.1 ~lectrost'atic energy in terms of field quantities 3 11.2 Electrostatic forces Review. questions , Problems 6 I
31 32

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Solution of Electrostati~ Problems
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41 42 43 44
Introduction i Poisson's and La~lace'sequations Uniqueness of eleptrgstatic solutions i Method of imageg' : : I 44.1 Point charge and conducting planes 44.2 Line charge and parallel .I conducting cylindpr . 44.3 Point charge aqd conducting sbhera,
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Boundaryvalue problems in Cartesian coordinates Boundaryvalue problems in cylindrical coordinates Boundaryvalue problems in spherical coordinates Review questions ~roblems
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Steady Electric Currents
51 52 53 54 55 56 57
Introduction Current density and Ohm's law Electromotive force and Kirchhoff's voltage law Equation of continuity and Kirchhoff's current law Power dissipation and Joulc's law Boundary conditions for current density, Resistance calculations Review questions Problems
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S a i Magnetic Fields ttc
61 62
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Introduction Fundamental postulates of magnetostatics in free space 63 Vector magnetic potential 64 BiotSavart's law and applications 65 The magnetic dipole 65.1 Scalar magnetic potential 66  Magnetization ;~ntl cquivalcnt currcnt dcnsiiics 67 Magnetic field intensity and relative permeability I 68 Magnetic circuits 69 Behavior of magnetic materials I 610 Boundary conditions for magnetostatic fields 1 61 1 Inductances and Inductors . 612 Magnetic energy . 612.1 Magnetic energy in terms of field quantities
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CONTENTS
xiii
82.1 Transverse electromagnetic waves 82.2 Polarization of plane waves Plane waves in conducting media 83.1 Lowloss dielectirc 83.2 Good conductor 83.3 Group velocity Flow of electromagnetic power and the Poynting vector 84.1 Instantaneous ana average power densities Normal incidence at a plane conducting boundary Oblique incidence at a plane conducting boundary 86.1 Perpendicular polarization 86.2 Parallel polarization Normal incidence at a plane dielectric boundary Normal incidence at multiple dielectric interfaces 88.1 Wave impedance of total field 88.2 Impedance transformation wishmultiple dielectrics Oblique incidence at a plane dielectric boundary 89.1 Total reflection 89.2 Perpendicular polarization 89.3 Parallel polarization Review questions Problems
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312 314 317 318
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Theay and Applications of Mnsmission Lines
Introduction Transverse electromagnetic wave along a parallelplate transmission line 92.1 Lossy parallelplate transmission lines General transmissionline equations 93.1 Wave characteristics on an infinite transmission line
93.2
Tr:lnsrnissionli11c uurumctcl.~
93.3 Attenuation constant from power relations Wave characteristics on finite transmission'lines 94.1 Transmission lines as circuit elements 94.2 Lines with resistive termination
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CONTENTS
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94.3 Lines with G b j t i a q terminafian, . 94.4 ~ransmissioalink circuits . : The Smith chart 95.1, Smithchart ca1culations for losiy lines Transmissionline im&d&ce matching 1  . 9 4 . 1 Impedance rnatc$ng by quarter: , wave transformer 96.2 Singlestub matching 96.3 Doublestub matching Review questions 1 . , Problems ,
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404 407 41 1
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420 422 423 426 43 1 435 437
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Waveguides and Cavity R8so"ators
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Introduction General wave behaviors along uniform ' guiding structures ,102.1 Transverse electromagnetic waves 102.2 Transverse magnetic waves 102.3 Transverse e1ecp;ic waves , Parallelplate waveg$de* t 103.1 TM waves petween yarahlel plates 103.2 TE waves between parallel plates 103.3 Attenuatioq in.~~rallelplate' waveguides . t Rectangular waveguides 104.1 TM waves in rectangular wqvebides 104.2 TE waves in recrangular waveguides 104.3 ~ t t e n u i i t i $ n ) r k t a n ~ u l a rwaveguides Dielectric waveguide6 : ! 105.1 TM wayes a dielectric slab 105.2 TE waves ;)ong ii dielectric slab ' > , Cavity resonators \ 106. ! TM,,,, moqes I I ,I 106.2 TE,,, modts 106.3 Quality factor &(cavity resonatbr Review questions Problems
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Radiation fields of elemental dipoles 112.1 The elemental electric dipole 112.2 The elemental magnetic dipole Antenna patiefh5 and at. tenna parameters Thi;. linear antennas 114.1 The haltwave aipde Antenna arrays 115.1 Twoelement arrays 115.2 General uniform linear arrays Receiving antennas 116.1 Internal impedance and directional pattern 116.2 Effective area Some other antenna types 117.1 Travelingwave antenna 117.2 YagiUda antenna 117.3 Broadband antennas Apeiture Radiators References Review questions ProbIems
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500 502
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Amendix A Symbols and Units
A1 A2
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Fundamental SI (rationalized MKSA) units Derived quantities Multiples and s~bmultiples units of
Appendix B Some Useful Material Constants
B1 B2
Constants of free space Physical constants.of electron and proton
I I t : Back Endpapers .I .. . I \ .. and Laplacian opetations Right: Cylindrical coordinates Spherical coordinates .. B5 Relative permeabilities . Gradient. divergence... Left: . . ! . cprl.B3 Relative permittivities (dielectric constants) .i BQ ~onductivities . .
This is an inductive approach. They are likely to cause consternation and resistance in students who are hit with all of them at the beginning of a book. The first group takes the traditional development: starting with the experimental laws. the general Maxwell's equations are soon simplified to apply t o static fields. as fundamental postulates. The axiomatic development usually begins with the set of four Maxwell's equations. which allaw the consideration of electrostatic fields and magnetostatic fields separately. the subsequent introduction of gradient. identifying each with the appropriate experimental law. Proponents of the traditional development argue that it is the way electromagnetic theory was unraveled historically (from special experimental laws to Maxwell's equations).I proccss for formu1. The second group takes the axiomatic development: starting with Maxwell's equations. In any case. either in differential or in integral form.hesivonessand elegance. A few books begin with a treatment of the special theory ofrelativity and develop all of electromagnetic theory from Coulomb's law of force. This is a deductive approach. and finally synthesizing them in the form of Maxwell's equations. At the initial stage students tend to be confused about the concepts of the electromagnetic model. generalizing them in steps. The topics tend to be fragmented and cannot take full advantage of the conciseness of vector calculus. Students are puzzled at. and they are not yet comfortable with the associated mathematical manipulations.lting :in clcctroni:~gncticmodel. Why then should the entire set of four Maxwell's equations ' be introduced a t the outset? . however. and curl operations. that the way a body of knowledge was unraveled is not necessarily the best way to teach the spbject to students.The many books on introductory electromagnetics can be roughly divided into two main groups. but this approach requires the discussion and understanding of the special theory of relativity first and is perhaps best suited for a course at an advanced level. As . and specializing the general equations to static and timevarying situations for analysis. and often form a mental block to. divergence. Alert students will wonder about the meaning of the field vectors and about the necessity and sufficiency of these general equations. These are equations of considerable complexity and are difficult to master. this approach lacks co. I feel. and that it is easier for the students to follow than the other methods.
the electric liclcl iulcuaily E) by spccil'~iug its clivcrg~. experiment?! measurements could not be of an infinite accuracy no matter how skillful and careful an experimentor was. This {ends to a more importa~if question concerning the invcrsesquare relation of thc second stipulnlion. The mathematical basis:for each step is Halmhohr's theorem. sizes. practical considerations. All other relations in electrostati~sfor free space.be of vanrs' ag sizes (ideal p o h t charges). existence of extraneous charged bodies.000001th or the 1.) restrict the usable distance of separation in the laboratory. f polarized dielectrics. Thus. which states that a vector field is determined to within an additive cbnst$bt if both its divergence and its curl are speciff?.in . This book builds tpe dcctromagnetic inode] using ap axiomatic approach in steps: first for static elecrric fields (Chapter 3). then. However. 'the electric andYmagliftic field intensities are coupled..devfrywhere. Of coyrsp' the validity o f the postulates lies in their ability to yield results that dpnfoqb pith experimentil evidince. Even if thc clwrgcd bodies wcrc of vanishing .' Cbnsider the tw6 stipulations of Coulomb's law: that the charged'bodies are very spa11 comparec/ with thcir distance of separation. for fhe magphstatic model .fields leading to ~ a x k e f l ' sequations (Chapter 7). for siatic magnetic fields (Chapter 6). Relations in material law. and there is dificplty in determinirig the?'true" distance between two bodies of finite dimensions.vi PREFAC' I It may be argued tfiat'Coulomb's law. ko+ then was it possible for Coulomb to know that the force.. and that the force between the qhafged bodies is isv'crscly proportional to t11c sclu. for the::'development of the electrostatic model in free space. and experimental inaccuracies cannot be entirely avoided. In addition. Similarly.rde and its cur! as postulates. We must therefore conclud'e. I \ .specifying its divergence and its curl as postulates all other formulas can be derived frpm these two postulates. and finally for timemrying . The curl E postula& for)hy electrostatic Godel rmst be modified to conform with Faraday's law. can be derivbmedia can be devclopedihydugh the concept of eguival&ntcharge distributions of r . (weakness o f force. = _ > L : * .wns exactly inversely pr'pportional to thc syuure (not the 2. he question a~ises charged bodies be in ardqr to be considered "very small" compared with their distance? I.fhe concept of equivalent current densities. the curl B postdate the magnetostatic model must also be modified in'prder: to be consistent with of continuity. Fgr given body sizes the relative accuracy in distance measurements is better when {he separation is largdr. it is 'pnly necessary to define n singb vector (namely.that Coulombis lawsis itself a postulate and that it is a law of nature discovered and assumed on the basis of his experiments of a limited accuracy (see Section 32). ihchding Coul~mb'slaw and Gauss's !hq two rather simple postulates. ' E.~rcof their regarding the first stipulation: How small must the distance.fr& space it is necessary to define only a single magnetic fluyidensity vector B by . practice the.charged bodies cannot . For timevarying fields. i h o u ~ h based on experimental evidence. We have. etc. is in fact also a~postulate. Relations in rnater!al medip ban be developed t$ough. 2' 8 as.995j999th power) of the distance of separation? This question cannot be answered from an experimental1viewQoint because it is not likely that during Coulomb'$ time experiments could fiave been accurate to the seventh place.
some material. oi dent hei?. Section 65 on magnctic circuits. and Subscctions 613. Syracuse. such as Example 22 in Section 22. The book in its manuscript form was classtested several times in my classes on electromr\gnetics at Syracuse University.2 on electrostatic forces. in fields (Chapter ns (Chapter 7).PREFACE vii bnental evidence.. and more easily accepted by students. Review questions appear at the end of each chapter to material in the chapter. All other v and Gauss's )us in material lihbutions of isary to define its wo t .!cnts1 comprchcnsion of arc the interrelationships btween the difTerent quantities in the formulas.dex. and that je square of their v small must the : with their disd izes (ideal point !ween two bodies . include theory and applications of transmission lines.npestion ! .dity to rgenwd s are coupled. may be omittcd. Bailin Ma for their help in providing solutions to some of the problems. I do not believe in simpleminded drilltype problems that accomplish little more than sn exercise on a calculator.anding of the esse~tial Thc problcms in c. Chapters 1 through 7 contain the material on fields.*'\ placu. the.1 and 613. ' . plus the first four sections of Chapter 8 would provide a good foundation on fields and an introduction to waves in unbounded media. test the students' retention 2nd ur. Schools on a quarter system could adjust the material to be covered in accordance with the total number of hours assigned to the subject of electromagnetics. The subjects covered. not . and for smooth and logical flow of ideas. Subsection 311. the electric ates. bb's law: that the hration.2 on magnetic forces and torqucs..1 on scalar magnetic potential. I strive for lucidity and unity. The remaining material could serve as a useful reference book on applications or as a textbook for a followup elective course. and antennas and radiating systems. I would like to thank all of the students in those classes who gave me feedback on the covered material. systematic.c model must lity. Subsection 65. then. I hope that the contents of this book strcngthened by the novel approach. Changhong Liang and Mr. will pr'oiide students with a secure and sufficient background for understanding and analyzing basic electromagneiic phenomena as well as prepare them for more advanced subjects in electromagnetic theory. waveguides and resonators. besides the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields. There is enough material in this book for a twosemester sequence of courses. I believe that this gradual development of the electromagnetic model based on Helmholtz's theorem is novel. The fundamental concepts and the governing theory of electromagnetism do not change with the introduction of new eiectromaznetic devices.istancc measurc11 considerations :strict the usable racies cannot be ling the inversevere of vanishing m c y no matter ble for Coulomb syuure (not the ' T. If one is pressed for time. Special thanks are due Mr. ~ ~ e that ly 2 > and that it is :nts of a'lirnited ie ~ t approach c ' .tulates.. four Maxwell's equations that constitute the electromagnetic model. New York January 1983 . In the presentation of the material. In schools where there is only a onesemester course on electromagnetics. We have. Many workedout examples (a total of 135 in the book) are included to emphasize fundamental concepts and to illustra~emethods for solving typical problems. and Chapters 8 through 11 on waves and applications. Chapters 1 through 7. : states that a h divergence and le electrostatic rly. I would also like to thank all the reviewers of the manuscript who offered encouragement and valuable suggestions. and to extend their abilitywf appljling the formulas to solve practical problems. conform with . Ample reasons and incentives for learning the fundamental principles of electromagnetics are given in Section 11.~ch chap~cr tlcsigncd rcinforcc >.
and s? on. A timevarying electric field is accompanied by a magnetic field. electromechanical energy conversion. sophisticated discipline. From elementary physics we know there are two kinds of' charges: posithe ahd negative. timedependent electromagnetic fields produce waves that radiate from the sotlfce. Two sitbations:illustrate the inadequacy of circuittheory concepts and the need of electroma~neticfieldconcepts. thc sotlrcc at thc basc Cccds the antelm1 wlth H P mcssagccarrying currcot d an appropriate carrier frequency. cathoderay oscillosco~s. 3 e have a quasistatic situation. Both positive and negative charges are sources of an electric field M b ~ i n ~ c h a r g e s produce a current. which simplifies an electromagnetic problem *circuit problem. In this book.\ 11 INTRODUCTION ! . microwave devices.e. Circuit concepts represent a restricted version. more definitive meanings+willbc attached to these terms later. It appHls to a different class of electrical engineering p r ~ b l e b s rtnd it is certainly important in its own right. Stated in a simple fashion. In other words. Here we tentatively speak of electric field and magnetic ficld in a general way. O tnuwmit. we study the principles a d applications of the laws of electromagnetism that govern electromagnetic dhenomepa. we hasten to add that circuit theory is itself a highly deveroped. of electromagni?tic caflcepts. The concept of fields and waves is essential in the explanation of action at a distance. ElEctromagnetic theory is indispensable in the understanding of the principle of atdm smashers. Under certain conditibns. Eleciromagnetks is of fundamental importance to physicists and electr~cal engineers. Field mii Wave Electromugnetics. a special case. radar. which may or may not b. television reception. and vice versa. optical fiber communication. electromugnetics is the study of the effects of electric charges q at rest and i motion. satellite communication. which gives rise to a magnetlc field. timevarying electric and magn4iic fields are coupled. when the source frequency IS very low so that th&dimensions of a conducting ntfwork are much smaller than the wavelenglh. remote sensing. instrumentlanding systems. As we shall see in chap& 7. r$suiting i i rin electromagnetlc field. of time.s function. From a circuittheory * . . Figure !I depicts a monopole antenna of the type we sce on a wdkie4alkic. A j e l d is a spatial distribution of a q u a d y . However. radio astronomy.
Circuit theory is obviously inadequate here for the determination (or even the explanation of the existence) of the field at P. the governing equations are. In Fig.2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL / 1 A monopole antenna. The system variables in AC circuits are timedependent. Fig. represents a problem of practical importance as its solution is relevant in evqluating the shielding effectiveness of the conducting wall. point ofview. most electromagnetic variables arefunctions of time as well as of space coordinates. a nonmiform current will flow :dong thc ol7cnended alltellna. We shall see in Chapter I1 that when the length of the antenna is an appreciable part of the carrier wavelengtht. the source feeds into an open circuit because b b e r tip of the antenna is not connected to anything physically. This viewpoint. ~ ~ a c i l s ~ ~VcOe IsP . Many are vectors with both a magnitude and a direction. On the other hand. that arc not necessarily directly behind the aperture. partial differential equations. hence no current would flow and nothing would happen. Even in static cases. It ' The product of the w&elength and the frequency of an AC source is the vdocity of wave propagation. Electromagnetic concepts must be used. Electromagnetic fields will exist on the right side of the wall at points. 12 An electromagnetic problem. such as P in the figure. 12 we show a situation where an electromagnetic wave is incident from the left on a large conducting wall containing a small hole (aperture).lryiogelectrornil~netic field in space.~ C S and currents are the main :111d I system variables. i . cannot explain why communication can be established between walkietalkies at a distance. circuit theory deals with lumpedparameter systemscircuits consisting hf components characterized by lumped parameters such ar rcsisl:~~~ccs. the system variables are constants and the governing equations are algebraic equations. This current radiates a tin~cv. The situation in Fig. however. which can induce current in another antenna at a distance. For DC circuits. 12. they are scalar quantities and are independent of space coordinates. in general. Generally speaking. of course. and their representation and manipulation require a knowledge of venor algebra and vector calculus. The governing equations are ordinary differential equations. i~~ductancbs.
mi the a ~ h is s ver~fed t h r abdity to prcd~ct by consequences thatb chec k with expermental observations.. Three esskntia) steps are ~nvolved bdildin$ a theory on an idealized model.111d[ I I ~ O I U I ~ L .~y 'lllc idcalitcd modcl we adopt lor slu&~ng:I \cicnLllic suI>jcct must rcl. the rules of operatiods are those of algebra. portance as ucting wall.Usink the inductwe approach. electronlagnetic theory can be built on a suitably chosen electrornagnctic madel. some fundamental relatqns ore postulated.I .in First. and oapacltances. . lo this section we shall take thc first step of defining the basic '. ~ q ~ ~rd p o o ~ e of very clilborate neworhs the d s can be determined. ? ' $ NETlC MODEL . posttnlntes~a few ti~~~dn~~rental:relntions ~dc:~locd pohtulalccl rclatid. qn. most atemarly . It r '7 There are two adproaches in the deve!c?pn$m 31 i~ scientific subject: the inductive approach and theltieductive approach. one follows the historical develophent of the subject. Many relations and formulas can be derived lrom this basiwlly fatho<simplc n ~ o d c l . deduct~veapproach. . t h e importa'nce of acquiring a fac~lity the use of these mathematical toolr'in the study of electromagnetics cannot be overemphasized.from which one might obtain many mathematical relat~ons.ortlcrly w. on the for a n rnodel The other hand. . ~f these relations disagree with observed results. hand.3 f is essential that I ar<eqiiipped to h$jdldvector quantities and variables that i r e & bath time. .~tc LO realworld situahohs and be able to explain physlca~ phenomena. w l i i d l udent from tomagnctic ire. I t 15 :I process of rc. the rules of operatiod:(the mathematics) of these quantities are specified.'ible O~ICIL .tation and 1 s .The validity and valueof tli'e model have been amply demonstrated. inductances. y 13 I " . Second. In t h ~ s book we prefer to is use thc dcductivc nr :rxlonmllc apprcxtch b c p ~ ~ ist c morc clcgant and enables the clcvclolmcl~l oI'lI1~ \11I. ordmary differential equations. .l\onlng experiments and i ~fcrring es from particular p enomena to generdl p r ~ d c i ~ ~The.. qnd Laplace transfordation. A famiJiar example is the arcult theory built on a circuit model bf ideal sources and pure resistbnces. some basic duantities germane ta the iubject of study are defined. . would we be engaged in merltal exercises for no purposc.Techniques for solving partial differentip1 equations are heededin Pealing with certain types of electromagnetic problems. In this case thebasic quantities are voltages (V).rlcd IXJGC. Btd the hnderlying assumptions o!tfi~model may be wrong or the lmplled approximatiohs d a y not be justified. ' b . The vd~dity l ' h ~llodcl o . . . and the fundamental postulates are Kirchhoff's voltage apd current laws.jpclo I ' u l c c l ~ o i n i i ~ ~ ~ c l ~ c \ In an. otherw~se.. These postulates or laws are invariablj based on numerous exp&mental observatiops acquired under controlled cond~tlons and synthesized by brgliant hinds.ahd &acedependent. The hnhamentals of vector algebra and vect6r calculus wil1:be dkveloFed in chapte{ 1.A. Thud. n thcoret~cal modcl could be bu~lt. . the qbdel is of no use. ~ h e k in techniques will b&diicyssed in Chaptir 4.0111) \~llicI~ lurlic111~11 . inductances (L). systems :ts such as : the main ~d the govcircuits are oordinates.ils J I G asiw\s. For example. and'mpct~itadkes (C). I ~ I bc I. : r ' . 3 THE ELECTROMA~$NETIC' MODEL 4 the antenna wd 110tlling 11ioncan be P n b bc t appr.but. 1 . that are inadequate e field at P. currehts (I). In a like manner. k': : : . resistances (R).IW ~ derived. The mathematlcs may be correct. in luations. 1'1. starthg w ~ t h observat~ons some s~mple the of from thcm luws and thcorcms. <.
change the field. hence. e. two 1C charges 1 m apart will exert a force of approximately 1 million tons on each other. French physicist Charles A.+ . I'imlu~iic~ilal pu. I'hc source of an electronlagnctic lield is invariably electric charges at rest or in motion. Electric charges can move from one place to another and can be redistributed under the influence of an electromagnetic field.1. like thc principlc of conservation OJ of momentum. w and thc techniques for solving partial clilTcrenti. Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and it exists only in positive or negative integral nit~ltiplcsof rllc cliatgc on an clcctroll. The quantities in our eleclxoi~~ngnctic niodcl ciln bc divided roughly rftd two catcgorics: source 'r"rL"lle1d qu:uilltics.' quantities of electromagnetics. Any formulation or solution of an electromagnetiqproblem that violates the principle of conservation of electric charge . c o ~ l o m b It~ is named after the .d l ~ c ~ i c will slcp. (11) where C is the abbreviation of the unit of charge. and electromagnetic fields.must be incorrect. It states that electric charge is conserved. of an electron. In 1962 Murray GellMann hypothesized qtiarkJ as the basic building blocks of matter. The fundamentals of vector algebra and vector calculus will be discussed in Chapter 2 (Vector Analysis). We use the symbol q (sometimes Q) to denote electric charge. who formulated Coulomb's law in 1785.1 C. In fact.  e = . but. de Coulomb. encompasses ' vector algebra.60 x 1019) or 6. the rules of operation. but the algebraic'sum of the positive and negative charges of in a closed (isolated) system remains unchanged.25 billion electrons to make up . to date.. an electromagnetic field may cause a redistribution of charges which will. rcspcctivoly. is a fundamental postulate or law of physics. that is. The system of units will be discussed in Section 13.) A coulomb is a very large unit for . Some other physical constants for the electron are listed in Appendix B2.4 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL I 1 .\tulntcs. vector calculus. which maintains that the sum of all the currents leaving a junction must equal the sum of all the currentscntering the junction.stunccs. static electric fields. The principle of conscrvutic~n electric churlye. he principle of conser~ution electric charge must be sutisjied at all times und under uny circum.~l q ~ ~ ~ t i o i i shc inrroc111cc. and partial differential equations. it can neither be created nor be destroyed. The second step.60 x 10l9 (C). 'l'lic //rid ll~c be presented in three sbbst+s in Clinpws 3. the separation between the cause and the effect is not always so distinct. (Coulomb's law will be discussed in Chapter 3. It is represented mathematically by the equation of continuity. and 7 as w e dcal with. ' . is an assertion . in turn. their existence has not been verified expericnentally. Quarks were predicted to carry a fraction of the charge. We recall that the Kirchhoff's current law in circuit theory. which we will discuss in Section 54. it takes 1/(1.\till thcsc equalions wise later in thc bod. c. However. steady magnetic fields. (1.electric charge.
Iced when ulates. situations. the charge is a ve integral (1 1) XI af' the IW r) in .tn such cases. 4 [. an amount oT chargc Aq may be ident~fied wlth an element ofsurface As or an element ofline h/. 1. Current is the rate of change of charge dith rcspcct to time. will spectively.d5. imoothedout function of space coordinates. p.l 8 m3.. that IS.current density) J. . i h gereral. charge densities vary from point to point. How small should Ao be? It should be small enough to represent an acctlrate variation of p. defined with sudh small Aa is expecied to yield accurate macroscopic results for nearly all p c t i c a l pr<oscs. Iti cur.1 C. point functions of space coordinates.a line charge density. * . (C/m3). for instafic6). F h i ~ measures the amouflt of current flowing through a unit area h normal to the direc!ion df current flow. .I in Chapter 5.corion 54. but large enough ta contain a very largk nudiber of discrete chnr$es.ilion hat clcaric tric charges i_nfiuenceof tive bharges t i 0 1 1 of c4ccrcprcscntcd Except for certain bpec:al..: a A ~nscrv. I ' In somc physical situations.r. electromagneti~s~yk define a vector poipt function uol~mw .t does not exist at a an atomic scale are unimportant of charges.relntion between I and . an elemental cube lbrth I sides as small as 1 micron (lo' m or 1 pn1) has a volume of 10. The unit of current is coulomb per second (CIS). A curretlt must flow through a finite area (a coni ducting wire of a fitite ctoss section. hence it is not a point functlon. p. (The same is defira'i as follows: 'C I . p.tompasses AamentBls Analysis).cnr density (or simply. Q ~ i I r h swere i not bcen veri where I itselfmay dk timedependent. The boldfaced J is a vector whose magnitude ~) is the current per uhit arei ( ~ / r n and whose direction is the direction of current flow.tic field I ': F f c field may henye. he principle Kirchhoff's ems leaving an n t i o n . hence p. which isihqsanie hs ampere (A). which wrll st111 contain about 10' (100 billion) atoms. are.4ppendix 2 'Aq p = lim ..into two . A V O AV where Aq is the ambunt of charge in a very smbll volume Av. nillion tons 1. We shall elnhordteon tbe. and p. In conA results. For very good 4 . it will be more appropriate to define a surface charge density. For exalnple."' I ' i . or. ps.! !' current law is th. gc u n ~ I'ur t up ..
.. These relations are called the constitutive relations of a medium and will be examined later. and ~ ~ w g ~ ~ ~ ( ii~~(<wsit. highfrequency alternating currents are confined in the surface layer. I I ~ ~ . magnetic flux density B is the only vector needed in discussing magnetostatics (effects of steady electric currents) in free space. (Electric displacement) Magnetic flux density Magnetic Magnetic field intensity Electric flux density U H or stationary cases). which is the current per unit width on the conductor surface normal to the direction of current flow and has the unit of ampere per meter (A/m). as we shall see in Chapter 3. : I o~~ C quantities will bc cspl:~il~cd wllcn tllcy arc introrlilccd hlcr in tllc book. are functions of space coordinates. Electric field intensity E is the only vector needed in discussing electrostatics (effects of stationary electric charges) in free space. conductors. Y / ) / ( I c ~ D. When there is np time variation (as in static. electric and magnetic field quantities arc coupled. /iL4/ il~(ol~si~jl ~ ~ l r i i hwsi/y . Material (or medium) properties determine the relations between E and D and between B and H. and is defined as the eledtric force on a unit test charge. All four quantities are point functions.(or dwfriy ( / ~ .I . however. together with their units. that is. In such cases there is a need to define a surface current density J. The definition and significance of B and H will be discussed in Chapter 6. we want only to establish the following. The magnetic field intensity vector H is useful in the study of magnetic field in material media. steady. " . There ark: fo r fundamental vector field quantities in e l e c t r o m g n c t i ~electric ~. instead of flowing throughout the interior of the conductor. the electric field cpantities' E and D and the magnetic field quantities B and H form two separate vector pairs. they are defined at every point in space and. are tabulated in Table 1. Similarly. Electric displacement vector D is useful in the study of electric field in material media. 4 L I . d //~~ ~ ~I W ~ I B. . In Table 1. and is related to the magnetic force acting on a charge moving with a given ieloctty. .< 4 I I..1. Table 11 Electromagnetic Field Quantities Symbols and Units for Field Quantities Field Quantity Electric field intensity Symbol Unit v/m C/m2 T A/m E D Electric .v *IIIc~ l c l ' t ~ ~ IiI~ ~iphysiul S ~ ~ .6 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL I 1 . * I I I01'I C I h c c~ield 11. /\t this I'ully time.1 V/m is volt per meter. and vice versa. and T stands for tesla or voltsecond per square meter. I I ~ ~ II I /I )P/ / I~I Y (lwsi! Y I(. in general. timevarying E and D will give rise to B and H. The four fundamental electromagnetic field quantities. In timedependent cases.
the unit for electric field intensity (V/m) is kg:&m/A.listed in Table 11. and permeability of free space. Thus..j are coordinates. and A. Fields. H. steady. p. All other units used In electromagnetlcs. .n. and 0 and medium and Quantily Unil Abbrcvintion Length Tim'e I Deter kilogrtlm ampere 1 m s A ~urreni 1 1 . including t h d e appearing in Table 11. in addit~on to the field quantitie9. Fundamental postulhes will relate E.el~ctiomagnetism to understand the inter. it id sufficient to remember that 1 Table 12 Fundamental St Units l E ail$ " will Ins.J I. inhere is a need h on the con2f ampere per etics: electric Pus density anre uf these book. .~rafto. is action between charges land currents a t a. E.de d'U11itbs) is an M K S A S ~ J ~ ~budt from the four I ) I fundamental units listed in Table 12. and: waves (time. A tesla itatic.. At this E IS tne only ~ x g e sin f~ L. the unlt for magnetlc flux and density. to many dlcimal places. They relate to the properties of the free space (vacuum). mds. tl. s. B. In mechanics all quant~ties be can expressed in terms bf three basic units (for length. and the source quantities. a mass of two kilograms. c.and s&ehependent fields) are basic conceptual quantities ofthis rrlodel. . coulomb (C)1s amperesecond (A. .. :. u&t system should be based on some fundamental units of convenient (practical) sizes. tesla (T). L 13 h SI U?!:T. In eiectromagnetics Thc S!vcnl work . mass and time). Many experiments have been performed for precise measurement of the velocity of light. and a timeperiod of teh seconds.. leid to the explanation and prediction of electromagnetip 13 SI UNITS AND* UN~VERSAL CONSTANT$ ' 'I ic. the unit for charge. kg. SI (Irrtc~r~rrc~rror~lrl (4 L ~ r ~ l r \ or Le Sy~1L. To be useful.s2. More complete'tables of the units for varlous quantities are given in Appendix A.is kg/A. . are derived unlts expressible In terms of m. In our electromagnetic model there are three universal constants.E AND UNIVERSAL CONSTANTS ' L 7 I X face layer.ss. distance based on the electromagnetic model.c.s). ) displacement e shall see in in discussing elated to the ugnetic field The principal bbjective of studying. For example. D. They arc! as follows: velocity of electromagnetic wave (including light) in free space. and dkrived:reiations will. p~rmittivityof frce space.nrelder.I fowl1 basic unit (for cusrcnl) is ~~cctlcd. ' E Unit A me&.. we mdy talk about a length of th ee meters.~ii)ikij pi~lysicai quantity mu t be expressed as a number followed by a unit. I 1 tlv 1 llnits. For our purpose.
pertain to electric and magnetic phenomena respectively: E. the value of the permittivity of free space is then derived from the following rclntionships: where F/m is the abbreviation for farad per meter. ' This system of units is said to be rationalized because the factor 471does not appear in the Maxwell's equations (the fundamental postulates of electromagnetism).. is the proportionality constant between the electric flux density D and the electric field intensity E in free space. the permeability of free space is chosen to be po = 4n x lo' (Him). would be lo' (H/m). and the factor 4n would appear in the Maxwell's equations. and pOare determined by the choice of the unit system. such. universally adopted for electromagnetics work. however. p. (16) and (19).that p. we can dcvclop thc various subjccts in clectromagnctics. is the proportionality constant between the magnetic field intensity H 2nd the magnetic flux density B in frce spacc. In the S I system (rationalizedt MKSAsys~m). This factor. (19) REV  ' I I where H/m stands for henry per meter. But. E. Now that we have defined the basic quantities and the universal constants of the electromagnetic model. 8 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC MODEL I 1 i \ The other two constants. The three universal constants and their values are summarized in Table 13. will appear in many derlved relations. and they which is almost are not independent. In the unrationalized MKSA system. With the values of c and po fixed in Eqs. . and p.. such tliat The values of E.
the hhree ukversal constants in tHe electromagnetic model. R.16 What are.': ' Universal &dnstantst ' li ! . that cannot be adeqlftltely explained by circuit thedry. 9) '(1 in &s.c phenimena ux density D a ' 1. i 8 F L 3 x lo8 471 x lo'  Po .l1 What is electromagnetics? r . i '  em. (1 6) he following R. otnkr than those depicted in Figs.15 What are the four fundamental field quanthies in the electromagnetic model? What are their units? I R.~be mustbe~eqequipped witH the appropriate mathematical tools. 11 and 12.  1 d ' > 1. af the the ax well's ppmr in many ICIOI I n wwld (? .. q . and what are their relations? I R.l4 What are the four fu?drlmental SI units in efectromagnetics? (110) / R. dynibof II Unit m/s H/m (17) F i Velocity of light in free space Permeability of free bbace Permittivity &ree space .... A i: t. jS . . $ 0 a . . and they ich is almost h e space is 1 REVIEW QUESTIONS R.. In the followihg chapter. . REVIEW QUESTIONS " 9 . before we dqthat. able 13 y?iversal Constints in SI Units k . 1 Value 1.l7 What are the source quantities in the electromagnetic model? 1 Instants and Stall.12 Describqtwo phenomena or situations. :y H and the B (18) ' ! Y 3. we discuss the basic rtdes of operation for vector algebra and vector calculus.w I [ . .. R.13 What are the three essential steps in building an idealized model for the study of a scientific subject? . ..
line. 3. For example.on the other hand. for instance. and multiplication of vectors. Vector algebraaddition. differentiate. Throughout the reit of this book. Conversion of a given vector from one coordinate system to another will change these numbers. . Three main topics will be dealt with in this chapter on vector analysis: 22 ' VE( AND SUE . requires both a magnitude and a direction. a scalar is completely specified by its magnitude (positive or negative. Ai 1. and spherical coordinates. The specification of a vector at a given location and time.1 pC at a certain location at t = 0. do not require the specification of a coordinate system. and volume integrals. Both scalars and vectors can be functib'iisf time and position. some of the quantities in clectromngnetics (such as charge. therefore. physical laws and theorems relating various scalar and vector quantities certainly must hold irrespective of the coordinate system. divergence. cncrgy) arc scn1:~rs: and sotnc oll~crs (such . "del" operator. Orthogonal coordinate systemsCartesian. 1 i i . 2. we will decompbse. whereas polar coordinates (twodimensional) will beemore appropriate if the loop is circular in shape. and otherwisc manipulate vectors. The general expressions of the laws of electromagnetism. gradient. Vector calculusdifferentiation and integration of vectors. cylindrical. combine. A particular coordinate systctn is choscn only whcn a probl'em of a given geometry is to be analyzed. At a given time and position. subtraction. currcnt.is clcclric and magnetic licld intensities) are vectors. How do'ive specify the direction of a vector? In a threedimensional space three numbers are needed. and curl operations. it is more convenient to use rectangular coordinates if the joop is rectangular. surface. Thus. and these numbers depend on the choice of a coordinate system. integrate. It is imperutive that one acquire a facility in vector i ' . However. a charge of .2 / Vector Analysis 21 INTRODUCTION As we noted in Chapter 1. The basic electromagnetic relation governing the solution of such a problem is the same for both geometries. together with its unit). we can specify. if we are to determine the magnetic field at the center of a currentcarrying wire loop.
in fan.q~rl ~ ~ l ~ l ~ ~ ~ r ~ .t@ boundaries c$ a ckcular kylinder and a sphere cannot be describdh by kondtant . . Ire.$yhn geometry. A vector A can be written as $ . ' '1 and a. In solving prd~tica~~problems. physics. . In a threedimensional space a vector relation is. . three scalar rel+t. g h ! such as charge. ): cdoqkiates arei ib$ouslg awkward to pie f@ brodems involving . In this chapter wc introducc thc techniques for evalu:lting dllkrent types of integrals involvinl: Vectors. and it is . a s shown in Fig 21.we discuss the three most commonly~bs'eddhhogbnai (perpendicular).tan express ~ h c basic laws of electro~ magnetism in a cohcisefway that is invariant with the choice of a coordinate system. algebra and Vectof cdculus. . y. lifudc (positive : q r g e of I ..ar'fotipulas in a coordinate system appropriate for the. %$ familiar rectangll!ar (x. sud and :rations. .idns The use of vectoianalisis techniques in electromagnetics leads to concise and'eidgaht '~orrnulations. is a dimendionless unit vectort with a unity magnitude having the direction of A. the .with its arrnwhcnd pointing irlllhe c\irection ofa . circular cylinddr or a sphere.. In some books the unit vector ~ r i direction of A is arml lid) denoted by b. Thus.in algebra and calculus in the study of . magnetlc field c 'ind position.coordinate systems and the representation and oneratioh of'vcctors in these systems.A hefieiency in vector analysis in the study Of . The basic the same for 22 VECTOR A D D ~ T I O ~ AND SUBTRACTlClN 4 We know that a vector has a magnitude and a direction. !i " . y. lily in vector I ' The vectmAxan be represented graphically by a directed straighthe segment of a length IAl = .. t lor quanlitles expressions of itlon of a coproblem of a the magnetic nt to use recdinates (twope. cation li 30 wc :numbers are n. Familaritv with these coordinate systems is essential in the solution of electrorhagnetic problems. 11f. where A is the magnitude (and has the unit and dimension) of A. I 1 wo vcctors are equal if Lhcy have the same hci&iitudc and the same direction. electromagnet& 1 similar to a deficiency . By defining certiin differential operators.though they may be displaced in space. kind define and discuss the various klnds of differential operators.plwa$ deal with regions or objects of a given we shape. even . u or i. Sin$ it is difficult to write boldfaced letters by hand. a (A  : : ' .. and ift is qbvious that these deficienilies cannot yield fruitful results.. peca4se . ffi this dhapter.necessary to express gqngt.. Conversion I n .~2lculhspertains to the differentiation and integration of vectors. integrate. and z. it is a common practice to use an arrow or a bar over a letter or A) or . For ek$m$. wc . Vector .slues of x.
dctcrmine :I pl:~ne. 22(c).llcloFclm rorllld IJY A lllld 1) dr. (a) TWO vectors.vectors A B. Fig. (26) is illustrated in Fig.lmc p l .Their slim i s i l s . A . B A. as sllot\r\. t l l t > r ycrtl>l In the s." .liled gr:~plliclllyill ibvo w. 22(. Their sum c is the vector drawn from the tail of A to the head of B. and C form a triangle. A (c) Headiarai] rule.B = (a.. 1WO 23 PRODU + c hlulll 1. l ~ C = A 15 all1 b~ ubt. . B.lgonal v e d & ~ t l l e Flr. k B cos . I It ' uct of of twc . z Y" The operation represented by Eq. A (b) Parallelogram rule. which are nbt in the same direction nor in opposite direcsuch 3s given in Fie. and vectors A.)B.lys.ll Fig :2(b). BYthe parallelogram rule: Tile resultant C is the di. 23. in 2. 22 Vector addition. C = A + B. BY the headtotail rule: The head of A connects to the tail of B.lWll kolll lllc S:lll]c poill(. as shown in Fig.1).
il . A . the syhbol 4 signifies "equal by definition" and O. denoted byA .(b] Subtract~on .This distinrever vectors rposite direcher vector C he parallelo22(b). ' . B. c1r '.' C is :iiTform :~ulivclaws.? 5' 23 PRODUCTS . .'the prodof uct of two vectors" because there are two distihct and very diflerent types of pro. (29). 24 1llusktfing the dbt product of A and k. . The$ arc (1) scalar or ddt probucts.~ X ! ~ O ~ . whxh equals the product bf theimagnitudes 0f.. F. i i The scalar or dot produci of two vectors A and B. A :B. . 1s the 3mallrr angle .1 Scalar or ~ o ~t o d u c t r ! .ducts of two vectors. '. (24) (25) 1. I 1 1 1 t 23. Q F . : A ~ u l t i ~ l i c a t i o n k vector A by a positive scalar i. (3) is equal to the product of t Fig. depending on whether the angle between them is smhller or larger than 7t/2 radians (90'). i . r I I . 11 I kA = a.(kA). ! . . These will bc defined in the foilowtng subsections. but 3' i In Eq. between A and B dhd i j less than rr radians (j80c). (2) can be either a positive or a negatiYe quihtity. (29) k as B. . Thus. P 1 I (a) Two vectdrs. 23 x Vector subtrd~Tion. . as indicated in Fig 24. changes the magnitude of A b i of k litncs wilho~lt chllnging its dircclion (k cJn be either grcatcr or less than 1).Fig. is a scalar. (28) 1 f 1 i ! I It is not safficiek to say "the rn~lti~licatiotlone vector by another" or . qf vectors. The dot product of two vedors (1) is less than or' equhl to the product of their magnitudes. and (2) vector or cross products.A and B and the cosine of the angle between them. I owing way:  (26) i.
C is meaningless.  Example 21 Prove the law of cosines for a triangle. l a * I 23. (B + C) = A B + A . ' . we have.( A + B ) AA+BB+2AB = A' + B + 2AB cos U. (210) and (213). (213) The commutative law is obvious from the definition of the dot product in Eq. Hen the c We prove this by considering the sides as vectors. C = ( A + B ) .2 * Vec I Co~lmutative law: A B = U A . \ the magnitude of one vector and the projection of the other vector~upon first one. Referring to Fig.. . Solutioti: The law of cosines is a scalar relationship that expresses the length of a side of a triangle in terms of the lengths of the two other sides and the angle between them.. Taking the dot product of C with itself. 25. . .2AB cos a .. Fig. The associative law does not apply to the dot product. .. r. we find the law of cosines states that C= a+ . the and (4)is zero when the vectors are perpendicular to each other.. 25 Illustrating Example 21. The dot prcduct is commutative and distrilx~tivc. B2 . since no more than two vectors can be so multiplied and an expression such as A B . 129).C . C2 = C .. Can corn \ . that is C=A+B.14 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 2 . from Eqs. (212) Distributive law: A . and the proof of Eq. It is evident that Not (1 8C and Equation (211) enables us to find the magnitude of r vector when the ~~pkessioil of ?he vector is given in any coordinate system: . 1 . (213) is left as an exercise.
Ax(BxC)#(AxB)xC. ~ $ u c tf two ve+tdrs and B. . w e can see that the cross product obeys the distributive law..s . I.. . . that is. i n ' I . i / s  db > $  +pr I '  i \ The vector or In Eq. Using the dcfitlitionrin Eq. . .* r the first one! :nt that . hand rule. 1 (215) Hence the cross prbduct is nor commutative.irection follows that of t h e 9 2 3 3 s of the right hand when tge fingers rotate frontA to B through the angle.re . . A BCos a. by the vectors A and 8. b @dB cos (180"+. hence. Since B sin .8 (the right.a) 4 cos a. 1 .8 is the height of the parallelogram formed . . 26. the smdlldr Mgle between A and B and is equal t i (180" a). (214) ! i 9 This is illustrated ifi Fig.) A p. O whr. Therefore. = .B which is always positive. ~ ' ' and the law of coslher f o l l o ~ directly. debition. . (210) i . is a vectdr plafle containing A and Il: its m?mitude is AB sin. Can you show this in: general without resolving the vectors'into rectangulal components? The vector prdduct is obviously noa associative... 16 numerically equal tdthe Brea of the parallelogram.we recognize that the magnitude of A x B.[ :b q Note that 8 is. les not apply d and an ex I 4 ~ . (214) and following the righthand rule. (29). IAB sin .. we find that i I BxA='AxB..smclkr !bglfix betwre:i A m d . I). .la ~ t c.: ? i s 1 t 1 C2 = . denoted by A x B. . .
llic a c & s iriplt / ~ ~ * o d ~ . i  ! Fig. ( C x B) = C . 1 ' 1 1 ~scal:ir triple product is mucli the si~nplcr the two t of and has the following property: A . . (218) has a magnitude equal to'the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the three vectors A. ( B x C) = . (Note "RACCAR" on the right side'of the cq~~iition!) I t . and C. .(B x A). ( C x A ) = C . The vector triple product A x (B x C) can be expanded as the difference of two simple vectors as follows: Equation (220) is known as the "hackcab'' rule and is a useful vector identity. Product of Three Vect. B. Of course.A . ( B x C ) = B . (218) Note the cyclic permutation of the order of the three vectors A. (219) As can be seen from Fig. 27 Illustrating scalar triple product A (B x C). \ A . hence the volume is ]ABC sin 8. height equal to \A cos O. r r c and t l ~ c tvc~or*r r p k yrotluci. cos 8 [ .. 27.\houlil rile parentheses be omitted. . The order in which the two vector products are performed is thcrcforc vital and in no case .16 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 2 The vector representing the triple product on the left side of the expression above is perpendicular to A and lies in the plane formed by B and C. . The parallelepiped has a base with an area equal to IB.l.2~ I There are two k y d s of eio i:m of l h ~ scows: nmcly. whereas that on the right side is perpendicular to C and lies in the plane formed by A and B. x C = [BCsin 81 and a I . and C. ( A x B). B. each of the three expressions in Eq.
a.a. Only those interested in a general proof need to study this example. . . The magnitude of (B x C) is BC sin (0. and A l l . we scalarmultiply both sides of the above e q u h n by All and obtain The backcab ruk can be verified in a straightforward manner by expanding the vectors in the Cartesian coordinate system (Problem P.).... Hence..0. . and >in 0 . since the former may contain a vector that is normal to D (parallel to All). ' 23 / PRODUCTS OF VECTORS 17 :ssion above is at on the right order in which use should the Example 22t Prove the backcab rule of vector triple product. does not guarantee E = D . (Note The expression above does not alone guarantee that the quantity inside the brackets to be D .  tripir product pler of the two i C . )) ha.4.4. ... . and A. ~ ~ ~ .) (C sin 02)(AIIB 0. Since only All is effective her. the cross pioduct of A.. .&. Of course. Let D = A x (B x C). .< ' . . . .1 X (B X C).. we can write B(A. . . . that is. 1 . Because the vector representing (B x C) is also perpendicular to the plane. .. . ) and a !I'crence of two Fig. . we note that D lies in the same plane and is normal to A. .. .". In general. . respectively. . .. . . . B) = D + k . .nagni :tors A.. ' .28).. Solution: In order to prove Eq..'.) cos  = [B(AII C) . are. = E . C. 6''.I I .. 28 Illustrating the backcab rule of vector triple product. it is convenient to expand A into two components where .)(AllCcos 0. (220). Referring to Fig.) = (U sin O. = AllBCsin (8. . .ve D =... .A*. which shows the plane containing B. parallel and perpendicular to the plane containing B and C.7. and (B x C' vanishes..b. D . . . . . . To determine k. ...~ cj .. 28. .. T3. 1..) and that of All x (B x C) is AllBCsin (8.0...C(AII B)] . identity... .c(A~.0.. . . ~YI: h.. '.. D = D a. where k js a scalar quantity. a.
y.24 Division by a vector is not $ejnt!d. where the u's need not all be lengths. l' . wc are to determine the electric field if at a certain point in space. I:or cxampl~.. . 1 I . orthogonal..IIC)C(AIIiB). a. I I (221a) (221 b) >j a.~ppropsi:~~c lllc to derived from thcsc laws he cspscwil in . x a. qx: (b) k .. We have. % ' 4 f . and All B = A B..) When these three surfaces are mutually perpendicular to one another. u. a r d expr?ssions sluch as k/A and B/A are meaningless. Assume that the three families of surfaces are described by u. they may b~ curvkd surhccs. 2 . = a.:... ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS .". '. the base vectors are arranged in such a way that the following relations ace satisfied: a. u. ' I 11 perfo . ' I . T  wh the the i ? . ... . ' 1 'i 1 I I. = constant. < Since All..18 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 ...~lc geomctry of thc given problems. = a. = coqstant.* I ' r . They are callqI the buse vectors. correspond to x. 1 and Any vector A can be written as the sum of it$ cornpanents in the three orthogonal directions..*.. Nonorthogonal coordinate systems are not used because they complicate problems.. and u. = a. and z respectively. . $(. as the spbificaiion ofone automatically I implies the other two. (In the familiar Cartesian pr rectangular coordinate system.= constant (i = 1.I cocrrdi~~. = constant. Some surfaces represented byau. We have indicated before that although the laws of'electromagnetism are invariant with coordinate system.. aK3:x a.. and u.*. which proves the backcab rule jnapmuch as All C = A .. In a threedimTnsiona1 space a point can be located as the intersection of three surfaceq. u. we have an orthogonal coorriinate system. curvilinear coordinate system. so k = 0 and D=B(A. or 3) in a coordinate system may not be plancs. and a. bc the unit vectors in the three coordinate directions. as follows: " \!I 1 .. Let a. (221c) These three equations are not alliqde&4dent.2.. In a general righthanded. solution of practical problert~srequires that the relations syshm . a. we gt least need to describe the posilion of the source and the locatlon of this point in p coordinate system. qt cqube.D = 0..
A. In each case we need to express the . 1 I co~npl~cllw b A x B = (%. ... u. and'volume integrals. (2.Au2Bul)  mate system be the unit ecrors. surface.j .... u3): A = a A + s A + aU3A. .B.+ ~ ..$ + A . the dot m d cross products of two vectors in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. (b) A x B. k ! c) The expression for C (A x B) can be written down immediately by combining the results in Eqs... u. he relations ricite to the clcctric iicld f the source ma1 space a at the three the?. A. L ( ~ u L ~ ~ . B. (228) can be used to prove Eqs. and A.1 1 \ I Example 23 Given three vectors A. + a. they may be functions of u.24 / ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS 19 where the magnitudes of the three components.(A...A. obtain the expressions of (a) A . respcctivcly.. A . and u3.. . ~ . They are important and should be remembered. Solution: Firs? we writeA..B.. .A l l .three ~wtr / I. . ."3). + L = AuIBul + Au2Bu2 Au3Bu3.A.) ... From Eq. (225) S/A are I ...B. In a :vectors are 1 f i  (221a) (221b) (221c) Equations (226) and (227) express.1) (a.nd : I a A = /A/ = (A. + a....LY~~ 2 l . 1 * . ~ u4. ~ ~ I. 1..%1/1. .. (218) and (219) by observing that a permutation of the order of the vectors on the left side leads simply to a rearrangement of the rows in the determinant on the right side. (222) and (223). may change with the location of A. (224) the magnitude of A is =A. B and C in the orthogonal coordinates (a.. that is.. ~+ A..re invariant . A = a. + (226) in view of Eqs..Au2 %.24) i In vector calculus (and in electromagnetics work).. 4. B.~)'".B. (226) and (227).. and C.~. we are often required to perform line..~~ ~ l .. x sx %I( A112u143 . U2.. Eq.Aulf %. and (c) C (A x B) in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system (~1.
. 4).. ' This e is the symbol of the vector d. dl. respect~vely (dll dt2d!. ! I I ( . : ( 2 20) where hi is called a metric coefic(en( a i d may itrclf L a fynction of u.(dd.)._I .= It. and it is convenient to consider the Pifferential area a vector with a direction normal to the surface. :. into a change in length dt. ~ c i l l :III ~ Iio~l. or 3). 9 . flowing through ds must be the c k p o n e n t of J normal to the area multiplied by the area. (235) In general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. However. ' ds1 = a. 'p the 1..... .I ..) ' I . u.. and a. if current de. ) in the a + ( = . 1 1 1 . ( ~ r . I . and is in directions a. ds. du!)' + (h2 h. we can write simply I . 2. the 4iff(rentiil area ds. qr a Thi 24. in the twodimensional polar coordinat& (u..1 Car Later we will have occasion to express the current or flux flowing through a differential area. a.= a. (i = 1. (Ill. is .I ~ : I I .sity J ia ndt pcrpcndiculnr to a diLrcntinl area of a .. ) . some of the coordinatesy say u..&.a differe'ntial ~ h a n g e one of the coin ordinates..oo.I . A spec syst r For instance..~ ! i r ~ A cdirc~tc. J a. the current. I 1 II ds... In such cases the crdsssectional area perwndicular to the current or flux flow must be used..ldillhc~~ii:~iI ~ I ~ ~I . =J JS :I . and u. du.a difrcrential d change d4 (=du2) in 4 (= 7 l Z ) cor&onds to a differential lengthct~ange l = r rl$ (h2 = r = u .pollmt l c t ~ ~ cIlanses:t sum tll (I/'.. ICI arbitrary direction can be wrilkn i\s tbevec~or uflllc c.: ~ ~ . J 4 $ . normal to the unit vector a. (232) he differential volume dv formed by differential coordinate changes du. dt. d& dt2 . = [ ( h . Usingthe notation in Eq. ) ' ] ' ~ ~ . ihat is.20 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 2 I 1 % I I I I r differential lengthchange coriesponding to . ..$ . (234). may not be a length: and a conversion factor is needed to convert a differential change du. dCI + aU2 + a. h)= (r. J u . For example. S1 Ill1 dt = a.)' + h. .nagnitude ds.
. respectively.. . These will be discussed separately in the following subsections. 2. It is a righthanded system with base vectors a.). I Many orthogonal coordinate systcrns exist. as shown in Fig. z .(hlh2du..h.) and (237) (2. and a... a differential ge d l 2 = rd$ change in an gth changes:' ds... = a. du. . . :$ Lf r . = a. y = y. = au.Z c t 4t or F I 1 . y. = a. . satisfying the following relations: \ . x a. a. x a= = a... 24. x a. the differential area normal to unit vectors a. .(h.1 Cartesian Coordinates ig through a 3 the current area a yector A point P(xl.  (236) Similarly. Spherical coordinates. y. and z = z . Cartesian (or rectangular) coordinate^. . but we shall only be concerned with the three that are most common and most useful: I. The position vector to the point P ( x . 3.) is n35) ormal to the A v e w in Cartesian coordinates can be written as  The term "Cartesian coordinates" is preferred because the term "rectangular coordinates" is custornarlly associated with twodirnensio'na~geomztry. du. Cylindrical coordinates. and u. ) in Cartesian coordinates is the intersection of three planes specified by x = x. are. u.. du. 29....ea of a magJ normal to write simply a.30) I ds. and a.. 24 1 ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS 21 ' me of the comay not be a nge dui into a . . a. a.^ 2.
I Fig. = h 2 = h. (238). dx dz ds. (2271. (236). from E& (226). = 1. . all three etric coefficients are unity. (245a) (245b) (245c) (246) t . that is.I 22 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 2 6 . . The dot product of two vectors A and B is. $37). and the cross product of A and B i$ from Eq. . .(242) + A&. . A t B = AxBx + AyBy . y. and differential volume ark Iroy E q s . The expr&ons for the differe tial length. 29 Cartesian coordinates. = a. (231). differential area. dx d y . = a. and z are lengihs themselves. and (233) respcctivcly. f Since x. ill ds.
y + aY(3x. then (b) along path @.. 210 that the slope of the line P I P 2 is f. t* P Fig. we have. it can bs . I. Evaluate the scalar line integral from P.) Assume F = a2. from Eq. the integral is the work done by the force in moving from P1 to P 2 along a specified path.: I E. the electric field intensity. Example 24 A scalar line integral of a vector field of the type jp: F .y2).1.  . (If F is a force. then the'integral represents an electromotive force. ld (233)  Solution: First we must write the dot product F d t in Cartesian coordinates. 3) in Fig. . PIP2. Along direct path aThe equation of the path PIP2is + This is easily obtained by noting from Fig.. It is important to remember that dt' in Cartesian coordinates is always given by Eq. Since this is a twodimensional problem. P.Since line inte intersects the xaxis at x = I. (244) irrespective of the path or the direction of integration. s are unity. Hence y = ($)x is the equation of the dashed line passing through the origin and parallel to PIP.AP. its equztion is that of the dashed line shifted one unit in the positive xdirection. if F is replaced by E. rentid area. 210 ' Paths of integration (Example 24). The direction of integration is taken care of by using the proper limits on the integral.6) to P2(3. (244). 210 (a) along the direct path @.(5.dt' is of considerable importance in both physics and electromagnetics.
dx = 0.This path has two straightline segments: +3 derived from From P .y2) d y ] Path @ Path t In the integration with respect to y. d y = 0 . the relatioq 3x = 2 y E q . . is tangential to the cylindrical !vrf&e... I 24. from E ~ S(247) and (248).2 Cylindrical Coordinates '. ' In cylindrical coordinates a point ~ ( r . i. From A t o P 2 : y = 3 . The following righthand relations apply: .4. and a pl ne frallel to the xyplane at z = 2 . I.obtained by replacing x yith (x . .) is the intersection of a circular cylin. angle 4 is measured from the x .I). . drical surface r = r . with the xzplane. . . In such a case. we say that the vector field F is not conservative. As indicated in 't Fig. to A : x = 5 . We have.i u k and the base vcctor a. 211. (248) was usede< b) Along path @ .dP = Spy [ x y dx + (3x . SpyF . a halfplane cpntaining the zaxis hnd making an angle 4 = 4. Hence. d t = 3x d x . Path We see here that the value of the line integral hepen+ on the path of integration.
from Eq. indicated in v e r p a . However. The expressions for the dot and cross products of two vectors in cylindrical coordinates follow from Eqs. is 1Pk 9 . = r to convert 5 d$ to d 4 . I x 9 = 91 '4 plane Fig. = h3 = 1. (226) and (227) directly. A vector in cylindrical coordinates is written as integration. are themselves lengths. (231): (251) The expressions for differential areas and differential volume are rcular cylinngle 4 = 4 .). hence h . ri Cylindrical wordinales are important for problsms wilh long line charges or curmnt. 211 Cylindrical coordmates. r and r (u.d'" '^' ' I. and in places where cylindrical or circular boundaries exist. The twodimensional polar coordinates arc a special cusc at z = 0. and u. ja) (249 b) (249~) ( ' and . q is an angle requiring a metric coefficient h. The general expression for a differential length in cylindrical coordinates is then. Two of the three coordinates..
a. we see that I ' a4.. I ji . a. and A.A. . and dq in t& three orthogonal coordinate dir2tions is shown in Fig. which shows the relative position's of the base vectors q. d 4 . 213. 213 1. in Cartesian coordinates.. that iq.A. : . A.( 1 26 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 ' A typical differential volume element at a point (r. II 0 i I . and vice versa. and determine A. we equate the dot products of both expressions of A with a. A.. Thus.a. the Icomponent ofA. Referring to Fig... * i I. A vector given in cylindrical Fodrdinates can be lranlformed into one in Cartesian coordinates. 41 = A. I' I .A. and a*. 5 Ara. 3 resulting from differential changes dr. 212. 4. ' I + 4  . Spppose we want to expresi A = a J r a d r n+ a.. a. The term containing A. :. is not changed by the transformation from cylindrical to Cartesian coor inates. and a+. w~ want to write A as a.A... Relations between %. we note that A.=L"s(:+4)=:sis*... + a. First ofall. ax + Ada. i i Ax =. a. To find A. i a.Ad sin 4 . ar.A.p. !! !' Fig. 1 Hence.. cos 4 . = 0. disappei)rs here because a. .
It follows that 1 differential is shown in It is convenient to write the relations between the components oia vector in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates in a matrix form: Fig.. = cos . a. may themselw be and functions of r. A.a. y. Moreover. The following conversion formulas are obvious from Fig. they too should be converted into functions of x. 213. From cylindrical to Cartesian coordinates: y = r sin $J z = 2. The inverse rilations (from Cartesian to cylindrical coordinates) are . . In that case. + A..13.: A.a. 0. = cos 4. . From Fig. (260) should be converted into Cartesian coordinates. we see that Our problem is now solved except that the cos 4 and sin 4 in Eq. (: $) f 4 and a . we find a... . we take the dot products of both expressions of A with a. z. = A a.. 213. A. a. and A. 2. and z in the final answer.24 1 ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS f 27 Similarly. = Arar a. to find A.
i along the quartercircle showp in Fig. from Eqs.ia$r + azs in Cartesian coordinates. 2. I Jq' i Y . . % ./3 cos 4) . 0 or A = a.14.. Solution: Using . 3x2 .. :t Example 25 2Express tbe yect& r ' r . 4 = a. i: 1 . cos Q . which is the desired answer.2r cos 4) + n.(3 cos2 q5 + Zr sin@) + a. J 1 : I i . . i 1 ..(3 sin d. I . I " . 1 . I rig. 2 1 28 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 1 : . t  . Therefore. and sin 4 = . f t14 Path for line integ~pl (Exgmple 26).5: 1 But. (261) and (262).
hence Eq. (263) gives cos 4 0 . dC= x y d x . y I 3).: I Solution: We shall solve this problem in two ways: first in Cartesian coordinates. (251) sinlplifies to i t dC = a93 d4 and : . a) In ~ a r t e & z n coordinates. Here we first transform F into cylindrical coordinates. ~ ~ x ~ = ~ d x 2 ~ ~ ~ t 1 = ~ . Eq. then in cylindrical coordinates. 0 + 2x cos 4 ) . From the given F and the expression for dC in Eq. The equation or the quartercircle ie x2 ~ ~ d = +g 3 t i k I L + y2 = 9(0 Ix . There is no change in r or z along the path (dr = 0 and dz = 0 ) . L i I sin 4 cos 4 0 which leads to F = a. we have F .x2)3/2 1 0 [y~w+gsin'q 3 1: n I b) In cylindrical coorrlinates. ( 2 5).(xy cos 4 .a.2x dy. Il.lvc wc sin 4 cos (b (4 i > i I sin 4 cos 4 0 With the given F. Therefore. For ikpresent problem the path of integration is along a quartercircle of a radius 3. Inverting Eq.2x sin 4 ) .24 / ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS 29 a kC f. I I' (244).(xy sin 4 T t 1 .
(235). I . F is given in Cartesian coordinates and the path is circular. OVl 1 t : the In this particular example. There is no compelling reasoli to solve tho problen~in onc or the other tlle or i rc coordinates We havc s l i o w ~ ~ co~lversin~l v c c h ~ s~ n dthe r o c c d ~ ~o(sollll\on i n both coordinates. as shown in Fig. (234) wc noted that the direction of L is normal to the surface.30 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 . ds is to be integrated over a closed surface (denoted by the circle on the integral sign). Fig. No ambiguity would arise in Eq. the direction of ds is always to be taken qs that of the oir~~vard normal. Our problem is to carry out the surface integral . since the choice of a. This statement is actuplly~imprecise because a normal to a surface can point in either of two directions. simply determines the reference direction of currebt flow. r over the surface of a closed cylinder about the zaxis specified by z = & 3 and r = 2.. S o l i o ~ : In connection with Eq. 215. 215 jA cylindrical Surface (Exapple 2 7 ) . . where F . In the present case.
a right circular cone with its apex at the origin. ' We evaluate. = a. I~LC k I> 11or1n. lop face F a. Along over the entire specified surface..a.) in spherical coordinates is specified as the intersection of the following three surfaces: aspherical surface centered at the origin with a radius R = R. = 12nk..?: = 3k2 ds = r dr d 4 . The cylinder in Fig.3. the bottom face.. ci the path is o r the othcr c 01 mlution F a.il which is exactly thc samc as the integral over the top face.24 1 ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS 31 :ration. So. = a. r = 2. b) Bottom fnce. since the the present he circle on .a z 17 11.. 215 has three surfaces: the top face.~. 252). . 5. 24.~ = I. = k2z = 3k2 ds = r dr d+ (from Eq. surface can 51. its axis coinciding with the zaxis . and . $F ds = 12xk2 + 12nk2 + 12nk. a. all = .rrrd c) Side wall. z = 3. ds = C" So2 3k2r dr dq5 = 12nk2.~l.3 Spherical Coordinates A point P(R. a) Top fa e. ds = r d 4 dz = 2 d 4 dz (from Eq. 2 = . This integral gives the net outwardpw of the vector F through the enclosed surface. side wall F . 12n/<~. ds = f:3 So2" d 4 dz k.. dl.l. the sidc wall. 4. . Therefore. a. 252a)...he out\c.the three integrals on the right side separately.l i t . ~ = F.
) is a kngfh. Far a righthanded system we have ' Thc ent Spherical coordinates are importanr 'for problems :involving point sources and regions with spherical boundaries. with the xzplane. the fatter being perpendicular to the zaxis.~clo.). These are illustrated in Fig. we see that m e t r i ~ coekcients h. whereas the base vector a. ant . (226) ~nd.'l. Referring to Fig. A vector in spherical coordinates iswritten as ' . 216. 217. the latter could be considered as the origin of a spherical coordinilte coi~J(l m. 1  and having a halfangle d = d l .and q halfplane containing the zaxis and making an angle 4 = 4. and. in cylindrical coordinates. ?he other two coordinates. ~ F O +a A mi (265) or ( The expressions for the dot and crgss products of two vectors in spberi~al coordinates can be obtained from Eqs. as a rcsult. are angles. 216 Spherical coordinates. = a. The base vector a. The pose vector aR at P is radialfrom the origin and is qzrite different /ram a.VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 Fig.ili5 i* hc system. When an observer isvery far from the source region of a finite extent. only R(u. w t q e a typical differential volume element is shown.AR ta. suitiihlc simplifying . plane and is t4pge&l to the spherical surface. is the same as that in cylindrical coordinates. = Rand h3 = R sin B are required . lies in the q5 F 4. B and 4 (u2 and u.A.(227).~ppn)xim:ttions the rcason that spllcrical ioordinatesnrc i~rcd solving a n t c n ~ problems in thc far in ~a field. In spherical coordinates.
metric coefficient$ and expressions for the differentlal volume are tabulated in Table 21.e urr 'df = a. A . d R >her. 217.R sin 0 (266) The expressions for differential areas and d i k e n t i a l volume resulting from diflerentlal changes @. .VecfhgiWn in spherical coordinates can be transformed into one in Cartesian Or c~llndrlcal coordinates. and dm in the three coordinate directions are and 265) n FO: convenience the base vectors. 217 A differential volume element in spherical coordinates. 264a) 2 64b) 2 64c) :s and region dilute This is he fhr + a. e ume lired Y = R sin 0 sin 4 (269a) (269b) (269c) . k n g an 'I. do.R dO + a. and vice versa From Fig. hate3. it is easily seen that nates es.Fig. tc.
. 0 = 120°... . b.Yctors. P Coordinatesystem Relations .I . . 1 .4. cylindrical coordinatcs. . Differential Volume dc ' d4' d.. 4).! * 8. and * a) I n Carresian coordinates. !' : Recgl. 120°. ( x . '4 . Specify its location (a) in Cartesiali coordinates. d a~ ' b ! dl c. 3 I 1 1. . Pz * a: a. j I t coonl P. 1 I  \ . 4 = 330". R 2 sin 0 dR dU dd n . . I1 Cartesian Coordinates a . 72J?. We use Eqs. 1 r ' 1 R M 1 dx d y & 1 i r. . and (b) in. Metric Coefficients h. Hence. Table 21 Three Basic Orthogonal Coordinate Systems < I I / b) Cylindrical Coordinates (r34 7 a. ! . 330"). measurements in Cartesian coordinates can be transformed into those in spherical coordinates: Esam ordin: Solutl! This i a poir all po functic definir in gcn produ Example 28 The position of a point P in spherical coordinates is (8. 1 t 34 VECTOR ANALYSISIF .4 ax a~ 4 Spherical Coordinates (R.. . and the position vector (the vector going from the origin to the point) is . Solution: The spherical coordinates df the given poipt are R . 1 2 . Y. c): ' r i x = 8 s i n 1 2 0 ° c p ~ 3 3 0 " = 6 . the location of the point is t ( 6 . vector 069. . h1 a. 8 . (269a.i  .2 8 ' ' z = 8 cos 120' F . C cn~rd Conversely. P < \ 1 . . dr R sin 0 . y = 8 sin 12 " &'330°= . .
anc. in general.the coordinate values of the point. The cylindrical coordinates of point P can be obtained by applying Eqs.A4 may bz functions of coordinate variables. a.330". 11. a.. c): 1a. but these values that determine the direction of A will. and .: I ~ / I . respectively. A.. = sill J(x2 + y2)(x2+ y2 + z2) .. a. from Fig. but they can be calculated directly from the given spherical coordinates by the following relations. at a given point. (269a. I 24 / ORTHOGONAL Cf30RDINATE SYSTEMS 35 ' a b) In cylindrical coordinates. & I : .. Second. c) to the results in part (a). . we have 120'. = cos 0 cos ( x I += . a.. a. its position vector in cylindrical coordinates is Ii R R sin 0 I 0 dR dO d 4 It is interesting to note here that the "position vector" of a point in cylindrical coordinates. ... X  0 1 > v pfy2f=:! XZ (272) (273) (2. and a. 4). of a point. into *Iiosc fl Convert the vector A = a. be entirely different from. Cartesian co a S o / f ~ ~ h 111 111is ) ~ ~ : J~I~OI)IC~II ~to I Ir i t c A wc W I w ~ Il i c lI a.. and A. Taking dot product of A with a. yield. b. + a. cector (the :I. Y. and i Recalling that a. A. First of all. which can be verified by comparing Figs. (262a. +=(b z = Rcos0.16: r = R sin 8 3n (271a) (2/lb) (241~) a.. a.74) a. i.I..& + agAg into rorm oSA .. Can you write down thc position vector of the point P in spherical coordinates? Example 29 ordinates. w e find. 1 We have ~(4@. A. = sin 8 cos 4 = .11 and 2.. Js?+j+ . we assume that the expression of the given vector A holds for nll points of interest and that all three given components A. I ~ . This is very diflerent from the preceding problem of converting the coordinate. .. a. the comDonent of unit vectors a. does not specify the position of thc point exactly. i16 and Eqs.. 2. will have definite numerical values.. a... b.. t . and a+ in the direction of a.A. unlike that in Cartesian coordinates.
and 4.I). are themselves functions of R. (276). the limits of integ~ation R must be converted to meters.. y.A. dg Two things are of importance here. its conversion into apotber coordinate system usually results in a more complicated expression. . l CL. First.3 1{4 c w 2 . v 36 Thus.I . i I sip 4 Similarly. 0.cloud of electrons copfined in a region between ' two spheres of radii 2 and 5 ctqhag. (270% b. We Example 210 Assuming that q. ~ ~ S G o(275). not from 0 to 271 radians. . x 108 i = .q charge density of 4 at a are tior poi! rep: OUS find the total charge contained in the region.. VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 I ) ! I A. and z by the use of Eqs. Second. sip 0 =  Jx2 + Y 2 + z2 A R ~  J x Z + y2 + z2 A'm . the for full range of integration for 0 ii from 0 to n radians. = ' A R sin 8 cos 4 + A. they t ~ need to be converted o ns into functions of x. ~ R d). Using lhc crprcssioo b du ia Eq. and (277) disclose the fact that when a vector has a simple form in one coordinate system. A little reflection will convince up that a halfcircle (not a fullcircle) rotatcd about thc zaxis .. Solution: We have I . AZ = A. . and A.' 2 sin B . A. The given conditions of the pmbled obviously point to the use of spherical coordinates. (26S). cos 8 . c). (277) If A.' . wc $crfoqn a triplc it~tcgration. r Q= So2$ o! I S n 3 ' S 0 0O 5 pR2 0. since p is giver in units of coulombs per cubic meter. i . cos 8 cos ) . I ) r""' pos \.  dep line con cha tllc .A. 4 ..
we expect to encounter scalar and vector fields that are functions of four variables: ( r ..). the temperature distribution in a building.I : I S I I I I I C:IS~ I I Cr:~lcO I C I ~ ~ IIIIIIEIC ' tlilBrc111i l l tlillircnt ilirsc~I : ~ I~C (ions.u.05 4 sin 8 dR dB d+ 25 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD In electromagnetics wc have to dcal with quantities that dcpcnd on both time and position.be constant along certain lines or surfaces. We now address the method for describing the space rate of change of a scalar ficld at a given time. In general. u. the altitude of a mountainous terrain. thc fields may change as any one of the four variables changes.). respectively. in general. 2 . Let us consider a scalar function of space coordinates V ( L L . P. 1 1 . The magnitude of V. . say. We should note that constantV surfaces need not coincide with any of the surfaces that define a particular coordinate system. Partial derivatives with respect to the three spacecoordinate variables i~rc involvecl i ~ i ~ ~l I. + 1 coordi n. 11. where dV indicates a small change in V . which may represent. Figure 218 shows two surfaces on which the magnitude of V is constant and has the values Vl and Vl dV.25 1 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD 37 ' through 2n radians (4 from 0 to 2n) generates a sphere. the . n mbs per :ond.o2zcosz 0. depends on the position of the point in space. . a vector is needcd to delinc the space rate of change of a scalar field at a gibes point and at a given time. but it may . P . or the electric potential in a region. We have Q = 3 x 1 So2"S: So. Since three coordinate variables are involved in a threedimensional space. Point PI is on surface V. i l l . little hc :axis .
are the components of the vector differential displacement d t in a chosen coordinate system.~ direction of d€. r dn Eq. differentia1 changes in coordinates: is the total di rential of V as a rcsuit of a 218).if dV is negative (a decrease in V from P I to P. the  (280) Equation (280) states that the space rate of increase of' y in the a. The directional derivative along d€ is dV .38 VECTOR ANALYSIS 1 3 L / I ... We write gradV A a. and d t .Thus. Weavold this formality in f y o r of s~mpl~ctty. df. defi . the space rate of change.. is obviously greatest along dn because dn is the shortest distance between the two s u r f a ~ c sSince the magnitude of dV/dL depends on the .). and P. df. ( 2 80) (281) where ti€ = a. and the ratio A V / N would become the ~ der~vative dV/dC as hc fpproaches zero. dV/d& is a dipqional derivative. is the corresponding point on surface Vl dV along the normal vector dn. ( change in position (from P . dV/d/.. a. dVin Eq. We can also writc Eq. changes A V ' ~A!O would be used. V V will 6e negative in the a. For the same change dV in V . direction is equal to the projection (the compor)ent) of the gradient of V iq that direction. Ih terms of general orthogonal curvilinear coordi' i In a more formal treatment. = ( V V ). direction. a ' . Now. We have assumed that dV is positive (an increase in V ) . . to P. ! liV' dn + \ ' I (278) For brevity it is customary t~ employ tllc opcralor tlcl.J in . rcprcscntcd by tllcsymbol V and write V V in place of grad 1'.d V d n .d 1 a. We define the vector that represents both the ?nagnitude and the dtrection of the maximum sppcc rate of increase of a scalar as the gradient of that scalar. a. along another vector dP P dn. .dV = cos c? (te cln d/ dn ' . it B n expressed in terms of the fFe Loc where d l l . is a point close to P.
. . .<. ( hdu1) + %. >. . (283) It is instructive to write. ' . when the scalar is given as a function of space coordinates. + a. +a u2 U3 av at2 ad3 av I I Equation (286) is a useful formula for computing the gradient of a scalar....) Comparing Eq. (281). . we obtain VV=au.p $ . (288).+a av at. av ae2 (a. . as follows: = = a U ... . However. u.(h2 du2) + a U .. ( u .. 231). de2 + a. in general orthogonal coordinates. di.. In Cartesian coordinates.  '  . dP = a. ... d f 2 + a. u.) = (x. . ... y...... .. .. (282) as the dot product of two vectors. v .dV in E q . f . + . (2Sh).. .. .. dP is (from Eq. the shortest s on the rprcscnts fa sculur nates (u. the . .. d l .. . it is convenient to consider V in Curreslun coordinutrs as a vector difkercntial opcrator. . . u. = h .. + a. i . 25 1 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD 39 tnd P3 is in I/.).IS to I r coordioccoine the . . Looking nt Eq.~&. z ) and h . .. .. (284) with Eq. i > ... = 1 . ( + a.3.:&:y$%. u.i. & $ F.. d t .wi? . a . + a.. .: . . hdu3). . we have I 4 1 C311 is equal SO W I ~ In view of Eq. ..'.. ... this definition would yield a correct answer for the gradient of a scalar. = h .". P j.onc is tc~np(ctl dclinc V . True. dd.. but one must refrain from doing so.
n tY PC d~vi "PPr n d i i t f . a Solution: We use Eq. which we will cansiber ]vier in this chapter).. ' of sci by linc nit the nor fie1 wit the a nt and . .ay cos y) vOe%. whi van that ink: In view of Eq. DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR F I C L ~ i 1 i i... 0) if . ~ '=Y a) V = Voe" sip . F fact. differ can t In the preceding section we con6idqed the spatial derivatives of a scalar field. I (\I' I m'o i *J?t where . . (217)... This is riot surprising sincena careful examination of the given V reveals that VoR cos 13 is. "'x. 1 I' .r. (286) to evaluate E = VV in Cartesian coordinates for part (a) and in spherical coordinate6 for part (b). surf. I I 40 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 h . which led to the definition of the gradi~nr now turn our attention to the spatial derivWe atives of a vector field. . I . Determine E at the point (1. where an extension of V as an operator ip g~neral orthogonal coordinates would be incorrect.The the . .4 b) V = VoR cos 9. .. the rpsult :above converts very'simply to E = . = ( a x sin '=Y 7 ..' I t I 1 . This will lead to the definitions of The divergence and the curl . I. equal to V. same symbol V has been used cqnventionally to signify same differential operations of a vector (divqgmcc and curl.VV.azVo in Cartesian coordinates. 216 . t h a t ' i ~=~. 1n Cartesian coordinates.. Example 211 he electrostatic fiild intensity E i s derivable as the negative gradient of a scalar electric potential V.
. where ncorrect. ~ x i i a ~ t e s prrsence of a sourct of fluid inside the volume. 2. We wish to find div A at the point ( s o .L. as the net outwurdfiux o f A per unit volume as the volume ~ b o u the point tends to zero: t $ s A ds div A lim AVo AV ' a..O) if fi" 'f. These are directed .i&$?. In the study ofvector fields it is convenient to represent field variations graphically by directed field lines. .. * A ' . * @ 3~.'.. 2. (290). . . the number of flux lines that pass through a unit surfxe normal to a vector is a measure of the magnitude of the vector. .A. a murce or a=. y&.Y. Since the A = a.+a..wyL t o w 2 .A. . that IS. 26 / DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD 41 perations r). which 1x1dcriv1 the curl . abbreviated div A . .jr:p'. . + Id. .c"zi. . $5  p f& V .. > hrj k of a vector.. ..l the .aid ci net negative divergence indicates the presence of a sink. .. Equation ( 2 90) is thc gcncral dcfin~l~on d ~ v of A which is a scalar quuntity whose magnitude may vary from point to polnt as A itself varies.yo.& dikrentii~l volumc has six fxcs. of course. .$. Ay.%. will. 219. respectively.\n integral in the expression givenby Eq. . v b genre .. u.. the expression for div A.!... (2go)... This definition holds for any coordinate system. . Qra& r W e dejine the divergence of a vector field A at a point.. .). . . f ! .$. a net pos~tlvr.$5g#$g~&~&~~~g. +. The magnitude of the field at a point is depicted by the density of the lines in the vicinity of the point. .$''. depend on the choice of the coordinate system.. . .. and Az centered about a point P(xo. but a twodimensional surface integral divided by a threedimensional volume will lead to spatial derivatives as the volu~ne approaches zero. . In other words. . yo. .!:~ > i..?. ' ' . .. Both are very important in the study of electromagnetism.A. a. ..:'::. We shall now derive the expression for div A in Cartesian coordinates. i.{. is an integral over the entire surface S that bounds the volume.. representing thk net outward flux.... *::. 0 I The numerator in Eq.:... . For a volume with an enclosed surface there 4 1 be an excess of outward or inward flow throu h 2. We discuss the meaning of divergence in this section and that of curl in Section 28.gt . 1. The flux of a vector field is analogov? to the flow of an incrinpressible fluid such as water. We have been exposed to this type of surface intcgral in Examplc 2 7.! . L.'. .) in the field of a vector A. . lines or curves that indicate at each point the direction of the vector field. . At the beginning of this section we intimated that the divergence of a vector is a type of spatial derivative. ..*:.. In Cartesian coordinates..7 . gradient {I. @ . The net outward flow ' of the fluid per unit volullle is therefore a measure of the strength of the enclosed source./ ' .' .<. . . ..VO in )I1 of the xdinates. which are called Jlux lines or streamlines.' *"2.'. thc siirfucc intcgrnl in the nulncrator of Eq. . the surficp only when tne volume contalns. like that for A. as shown in Fig. The rc:tdcr niny pcrll:qx wondcr bout thc prcbcncc of .. Consider a differential volume of sides Ax. (290) can be decomposcd into six parts.
yo..42 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 I . in I contributions.. but all terms of the H.a. (i91) and Eq. on the back face. in Eq.. as follows: Ax d/l. . Z0) .. 2 'ax (. I > '. fap As front = Afro. z.. 1. % + higherorder term4. Similarly. I where the higherorder terms (f4.O. ' . YO. = Ax(xU. z ~ i yo.).O. Here a Ax has been factored out fromatheH. AX/^)^. . ds A ' face = Af. (295). . in Eqs. we have ~ k(294) and adding the . 1 .. . i 91 whe Eqs. Exarr I . (293) in Eq. ) . On h e front f a x .q. a. (293) The The evalt to ar 1 4~ ( ~ 0YO...T.: .+. (296) still contain of A.T. ZO]) can be expanded as a Taylor series about its value at (x. 2 ~ 1 9 A differential volump in Cattesp coordi~:. Hcr face Fig..) contain the factors AX}^)^.) + H.(Ay Az) The quantity Ax([xo + (Ax/Z). yo. .T..T. etc. (293) and (295). face faoe .O.95) 'substituting Eq.(sq. ZO) Ax .'. I YO.
.. (296). Now the results from. in coordinate systems other t h a q a r t e s i a n coordinates... defined in Eq. With the vector diRerentia1 operator del. not an operator. (2100) alternatively as V A. and (298) are combined in Lq. d where the higkeiorder'teims co'ntaiiibthehctors A.A. where the coordinate changes are +hy/2and Ay/2. etc.ctc.e?\h. Eqs.. The value of div A. u 2 . (291) to obtam ( 2 92) .ibout its + higherordcr terms in Ax. that is. 1290) will lead to but all Example 212 Find the divergence of the position vector to an arbitrary point. (299) in Eq. V. we can write Eq. (2 j). In general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates (u. Since Aa = A x Ay A:. (2100) because it applies to any point at which A and its partial derivatives are defined.) in Eq. We have dropped the notation (x. u3). etc. in general.Y.26 1 DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD 43 Following. ( 2 93) The higherorder terms vanish as the dillerential volume Ax Ay A: approaches zero. depends on the position of the point at which it is evaluated. (2Y7). substitution of Eq. the notation V . (290) yields the expression of div A in Cartesian coordinates fl ( 2 93) ~ / 2 ) ' . . we have . we find Here the higherorder terms containthe factors Ay. A has been customarily used to denote div A in all coordinate systems. J) We must keep in mind that V is just a symbol. (Ay)'. For the top and bottom faces. respectively. (Az)'.. and b s = Ax Az. yo. (295) jdi. A. Eq. (289) Ibr Currrsiao coordinates. z. However.the same procedure for the right and left faces.
111 hc ohti~illcd fro111tirl. 1. y. (2 . More will be said about this t e btfield later m tbe boqk.102) hy using Tablc 3. This property indicates that the mqgngtic flux lines close upqn themselves and that there are no magnetic sources or sinks. (2loo).. VA=zz(R2~R)+( A . we also 3btajn V (OF)= 3. A divergenceless fielq is called a solenoidal field.1 .. . Rsm8 8 (2105) Substituting Eq. but whose divergence is zero. Example 213 The magnet$ fluxl density B outpide a. f Using Eq. 1 ' . B=a.z. The problem states that . we have .dA. . as expected. .1 as follows: 1 r I d 1 8 . (2104) in Eq. . z) is QP=a. # Its divergence in spherical conttlinatcs (I<. I 1' .. (2105).+a.12102) r c d t k s lo z). . Find V B..k ! I In cylindrical c o o r d i n + s (r. ' t Solution: Let the long wire be coincident with the zaxif in a cylindrical coordinate system.x. (2103) 3 I b . 1i We have here a vector thqt is pgt a constant. 0.Solution: We will find the sqlution in Cartesian i s well as$n spherical coordinates. . 9.y+a. s 9 3 I. +P4 ..very long currentcarrying wire is circumferential and is ipversely proportional to t e distance to the axis of the i wire. yin 0) R sin 0 88 . YP t . a) Cartesian coordinates. $)r'. Thq expiession for thd position vector to an arbitrary point (x. &.
perpendicular to the surface ds and directed away from the volume. will he p. For a very small differential volume element Auj bounded by a surface s. of which Auj is typical. . We may cxpect inluitivcly that the uolwnr inteprul o . This is depicted in Fig. 220 Subdiv~di volurne for proof of divergence theclrzrr. is. . (2109) is. I ./he i h r r f gence of a oecror field equals the total outward flux of the vector through the surjncr that that botolds the volun~c..ovsd ill ihc li)llowillg iii~li~g~. A: that there 7idal field. (2108). say N . small differential volumes.' It applies lo any volume V that is bounded by surface S. t \\ Fig. the volume integral of P . wl~ich is ca11cd the ~ ~ I I ~ .. )ordinates. the definition of V A in Eq: (290) gives directly In case of an arbitrary volume V . 'I liis i d c ~ ~ l ~ l y . O C ~ I C L . The direction of ds is always that of the outward normal. we can subdivide it into many.iipll. = 1 AvJ0 j= 1 [ A d . . $. . Let us now combine the contributions ofall these differential volumes to both sides of Eq. : : .27 1 DIVERGENCE THEOREM 45 . It is also known as Gauss's theorem. A . 1 i' arbitrary (2 . (2109) j= 1 The left side of Eq. by definition. AuJ0 [ (V A). 220. .103) d 2. : 27 DIVERGENCE THEOREM In the preceding section we defined the divergence of a vector field as the net outward flux per unit volume.. theorem. We have 1 ..
I. 214): . cis = a. .' L U . although a s~ngle integral sign is used on both sides of Eq. 5 5 r . . . . (2107). \ . It converts a volimc intcgral of thc diwrgcncc of a vector to a cluscd surface integral of the vector. (2109) yields the divergence theorem in Eq. respectivciy. :. / ' . The cube is situated in the first octant of the Cartesian coordinate system with one corqer at'the origin.. . The surface integrals on the right side of Eq. however. ( back face Cdlll< n . . Example 214 Given A = a. the outward normals of the adjacent elemehts point in opposite directions. p . We note +at. . 221 A j l i ~ i cube A'uhit t (Example 214):.ttl inlport:~~lt idc11t1(y 111 vector analysis. apd rice versa.   as be face r r . : .  . (2109) are summed over all the faces of all the differential volume elements. i ! ! \ 5 4 . I 1..'. Exar 2. ? 46 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 ' 1 !. 4 y @. 5 5 5 . : i lie suustnuuon of Eqs. Back face: x = 0. Hence. . ). (2107) fot simpticity.. Tllc:divcrpmx thuo~. 1. ' . cancel each other. . (2109) is due ~ i d y that of to the external surface S bounding the volume V. . The contribdtibns from the internal surfaces of adjacent elements will.*' + a p y a . The validity of the limiting processes leading to the proof of the divergence theorem requires that the vector field A. surface integrals represent. Fig. !' ! \. exist and he continuous both in I/ and on S. as well as its first derivatives. 2. i 1 I + Henc Solution: Refer to Fig.: . ! . the volume and integrations. 221. the net contribution of the right side of Eq. . I. trlple and do!~bla. . that k.cnlis . verify the*divgrgencetheorem over a cube one unit on each side. fort t . . Wg fir<t:valuate the &face jntegral over the six faces . y I ' '. i ' Ads=O. . We use it b e q t e ~ t l y establishmg in other theorems and relations in electromagnetics. ). bequ+ at a common internal surface. (2110) and (2111) in Eq. .
> R. 3. Hence.ds = dx dy a. 'Y face 5. I the faces 41 surfaces 111 internal iirections. v . L. determine whether the divergence theorem holds for the shell region enclosed by spherical surfacs at R = R .\'/s= face IL1"Pnd I + o + o + ~ + ~ + o = ? . ds = O. ds = a. y A . p.$ as before. as shown in Fig. J v V s . . Bottom face: z = 0. we have (F.!. dx d z . ds = a. h face A ds = JolJo'd x dy = 4. Right face: y = 1.5 [. 222.7 .) centered at the origin. 27 1 DIVERGENCE THEOREM 47 . and R = R.d s face = 0.. Now the divergence of A is ~mn over six faces. Left face: y = 0..A dv = So1So1So1(3x + y) d x d y dz = 2.A .i Lf. 222 A sph&ical shell region (Example 215).iR. c it.(R. A ds = nght SO'So' d x d z x = $. ! $7'6 !B$ ' 4. J 6.1. ds = aZ dx d y . livergence iivergence s t and be dentity in o a closed ~>II\IIIII~ ! a mglr F & k J. Top face: z = I. to that of (2111) r' $ i.. . Fig. dx d z . Example 215 Given F = a. o Adding the above six values.
ir This example shows that the divergence t h e o r holds even when the volume has holesthat is. : I I I . I$ $ c 1. {. The volume of the shall region betweed the two spherical surfaces with . = dB d&. and no intcgraand : tion is necessary.he flow source. nve ~ t lmi: . I i A . even when the vplume is enclosed!by a rriultiply connected surface. . Actually.simply the constant multiplied by the area of the surface (47rR: for the auter sl~rfa$e 4 7 r ~ for the inner surface). This source may be called a ..p<~h. its voluqe integral equa1s:the product of the constant and the volume. 1 as before. : . :s A. !. called vortex source. surface F ds = Joan a R ~sin 0 : 1(kR. pt R = R . There is another kind of source. The meaning of circulation depends on what kind of field (be vector A represents. the dirt cL'1: I In Section 26 we stated that a net outward flux &f a vector A through a surface bounding a volume indicates the p&ence of a souqce. 9 I kalr SOU a rr Since V . field around a closed path is defined as the scalar line integrql of the vector over &e. radii R . F is a constant. which causes a cipdation of a vector field around it. If A is a force acting on an object.# in both cases. aro will boc of L'\ To find the volume integral we first determinev . ~ : ) / 3Tkrefore. we have. dm = 47ckR:. !.7 t In the 28 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 1 . $s I. Adding thc two results. . and R = R 2 . dt? whe AS" Equation (21 12) is' a mathematical :qefinition. At outer surface: R = R. since the integrand is independent of 0 or..)R: sin B .1 i t $ i ' 48 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 1 7 I I I ' i I* 1 Solution: Here the specified region has two surfaces. arc. the integral of a constant over a spherical surface is. pow source and div A is a measure of ihe strength of . its circulation will be thg wor done by the force jn moving the object once " F . The net circulation (or simply circulation) of a veqor. and R 2 is 47r(~3. F for an F that has only an F R component: . have We Circulation of A arbund contour i . + . vx (1.
lsosco i llic strength of2 vbrtea source. awund the contour.as the area approaches zero.s an I::::t:ic field intensity. its value obviously depends on the orientation of the contour C relative to the vector 4 . (V x A) = lin1 . (2113) states that . A circulation of A may exist even when div A = 0 (when there is no flow source). (21 12) is a line integral of a dot product. which can be determined from the circulation per unit area n q a l to a.uund the closcd path. = a. ' In books published in Europe the curl of A is often called the rotation of A and written as rot A . and the direction a.uirnlu?l. the thumb points to the a. Because the normal to an area can point in two opposite directions..Lii~e. Eq. and dP in defining curl. 223. .. denoted b~ Curl A or V x A. follow the righthand rule. is a vector whose nlugnitide is the maxin~am circ~dation f l per unit urea net o as the area rends ro zero and whose direction is the normal direcrion of the area w ! m rhe area is oriented to make the net circulation rna. book.he curl of u vector field A. we must make C very snlall and orient it in such a way that the circulation is a maximum. (V x A). This is illustrated in Fig. we adhere to the righthand rule that when the fingers of the right hand follow the direction of dP. . if A represen . The familiar phenomenon of walcr whirling down a sink drain is a n suarnplc of a vortex sink causing a circulation of fluid velocity.~tion ng on an ject once whcrc [IN tlircction o r Ihc liw in(cgr:i~ionaround t l ~ ccontour C . In order to define point function. rci~l.. as we shall sce later in the. Curl A is a vector polnt funct~onand 1 s conventionally written as V x A (del cross A) although V 1s not to be consdercd :1 vector operator except in Cartesian coordinates. then the circulation wil! be an electromotive force . (V x A). 223 Relation between a. The component of V x A in any other direction a. We definet e volume d surface. bounding m a As.. which is . 3 a surface called a s another In words. is a. direction.28 1 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 49 . \ \ Fig. Sincc circulation as dclincd in Eq.
A. 2 24wllerc :I dillcsc~il: ~ l I. 50 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 ~. s and 4. :. .i~ll~l 1 0 tllr coordinatca.3.~vingsiclcs A!. 1 J. 1 $ 4 1 \ 1 I I I . I' . 4 Ay Az0 Ay Az In Cartesian coordinates A = a. Fig. Y ~jaf. can be expanded as a ahl lor series: I "' 3 . Ilcfcr to i:ig. We now use Eq. .i . = Ay LIZ the contour C m ~ s i s t ofthelour sides l.IIIOIII :I ( ) / J ~ C .2.A.. The contributions of the four x. Thus. I I 1)c)i11t I ~ ( . .. and .3.. 224 Detemlning (V x A). i 1 * 1 1. [ ~ n d is ~ ~ : I \ V I.. (2115) 1 . yo I + T .+ a. 21'3.A.). (2114) to find the three components of V x A in Cartesian i :I~C:I p:~l.CCI:III~III:I~ A: I ~ . = aT and As. sides to the line integral are + a. We have 3 .=. y:pIanc a11d h.
a.. ~ r l c s ~c. The entlre expression 1'0s tllc curl ol' .Az change .as the integration of A dP is carried out on opposite sides of a curvilinear rectangle.?.I j. (243).. we have (2. it may be shown . we obtain the rcomponent of V x A : dA.~tes(II.+  a=(?  $1. The expression for V x A in general orthogonal curvilinear coordin. (2120) still contain powers of Ay. (2123) " dy dz A close examinat~onof Eq. cs I.n2. (2123) a morc complicalcd. y. I Comparcd to lllc cxprcssion for V . Fortunatciy Eq. and : and enable us to write down the y. (2123) can bc remembered rather easily by arranging it in a determinantal form in the manner of the cross product exhibited in Eq.oor~lin.O.hat LMc.. whereas V . 4.T.28 1 CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD 51 .O. while that on side 3 is going downward (a . Similarly.  (2118) (2119) . (2123) . A 2&4 L dt = ( ? az + H. ( V X A ) =. that for V x A ~n Eq.0. in Eq. (2116) (2117) 0 The derivation of V x A in other coordinate systems follows the same procedure. Note that dP is the same for sides 1 and 3. (2121) :artesian Icl to the .~(c~ a~l 1 s VxA=a.)~ I . (2IOO). A ~n Eq. A is a scalar.Yo.and . (2120) and (2121) in Eq. However it is more involved because in curvilinear coordinates not only A but also ' AdP changes m magnitude. but that the integration on side Iis gcing upward (a Az change in z). in z). Ay Az. r) (2" 5 ) l l ~ rI L ) L I ~ ~ Subsriru~'ngEqs. (2117) and (2119). Combining Eqs.components of V x A.T. as it is expected lo be.\ in C . (2115) and notlng that the hlgherorder terms tend to zero as Ay + 0. (2122) wili reveal a cycl~c order in 1. 7 dA* dAy 2 + ayt$ $I.120) l k 3 The H. l r l ) is given l x h v . 2%) h I . bcciiuse 111s a vector w ~ t h lhrce con~ponents. dA .z!.
:):.) = (r. = R s i q . = I h. where f ( R ) is a n y fuqcion of the radial distance R. (2125) td4t an operalor k r m cannot be found hcre for the symbol V in order to consider 8. 1 > . \. 11... u..x A a cross pl.. from Eq. 4.. a. *'. I and.whcrc k:is n canstanlt. ru. ' Example 216 Show fhat V x A 1 0 if I a) A = a. for the given A. for the given A. (2125) by . and 17.Bdates can be eqily obtained from Eq. = 1. = R. R 2 sm 9 dR I t VXA= i A. .4): h .) = (R.oduc(.135). a) In cylindrical coordinates th..(k/r)in cylindricalcpordjnntc~. ) . using the appropriate u. = 1.. . and h.. I . f ( R ) in sphepcal cpordinates.52 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 1 . . r. u. The expressions of V x A in cylindrical and spherical k8or. and h. Wc havc. or b) A = a .b . 0.. q d y and their metric coefRcien!s h. Solut iorz . b) In spherical coordinates the following apply. : It is apparent from Eq. = 1. h. following apply: (u. Hence. ( 2 ... i I 1 /ir which yields.. u..
(As.. Figure 225 shows such a scheme with Asj as a typical differential element. (2! 13) with a. dP.128) . will be useful for later reference. we have lim \s.\vcrsctl oplxwiilc tlircctio~isby two contours.. / Js (V x A ) .125) by L>f 3.i:~ccnl clclnc~~lsI~. (2i28). J. 1 Fig. the definition of V x A in Eq. For an arbitrary surface S.lc' . The left side of Eq. ~ . we have taken the dot product of both sides of Eq.i 3 I Now we sum up the line integrals around the contours of all the differential elements rcprcscntcd by thc rig111sitlc of Eq. ( A ~ . .Y . A curlfree vector Iield is called an irrotutiotxd or a conservative field. (2129) and (2130). 29 STOKES'S THEOREM For a very small differential area As. 225 Subdivided area for proof of Stokes's theorem. Combining Eqs.~ S . we obtain the Stokes's theorem: . respectively.. (2126) and (2127) for cylindrical and spherical coordinates. In 0ht:iiung Eq. we can subdivide it into many. ( 2 .29 / STOKES'S THEOREF. ~ t i ( tl\c C and only tht: contribu~ion I'rom he external contour C bounding the entire area S remains after the summation. 53 ' c for thc Vx A . ds = $=A . . We will see in the next chapter that an electrostatic field is irrotational (or conservative).128). Adding the contributions of all the differential areas to the flux.Sincc the common part of thc contours ol'two i~tl. (2128) is the flux of the vector V x A through the area Asj. The expressions for V x A given in Eqs. (2. small differential areas. say :\I. (21 13) leads to f (V x A). Asj or Asj. bounded by a contour C. . ) (=V X A ) ..o ? N ( V X : ~ ) .j = ( A ( I t . . thc ncl is in c o t ~ l ~ i l ) t or:\ll ~ ~ ~ I ) I I I I I > I I I I 1)iII'LS i l l I I K i~thxiorto ~ I I C lokt1 line in~cgriiiis x r o .
We remind ourselves here that the directions of dP and ds (a. 2'25 is c h . If the surface integral of V x A is carried over a tlosed surface. :.54 VECTOR ANALYSIS !2 . ~ i l dclibei:llcly to ~111phasize the fact that 3 nontrivial application of Stvk~s's Lhcoccn~s l ~ n y s implies ail open surface with a rim. (2 sur C1 . as well as its first derivatives. Stokes's theorem converts a surface integral of the curl of a vector t~ hiline integrai af tlre vector. verify SSLkes's theorem over a quartercircular disk with a radius 3 < i n the first quadrant. Prom Eq.ry . . : I I S i : Let us first find the (urfaje integral of V:x F. As with the divergence t h e o r i d the validity of the limiting processes leading to the Stokes's theorem requirei thqi the vector field A..) follow the righthand rule. x d we will use it frequently in sther theorems and relatrons in i *' r.2x. The pcmctry in Fig. ! . ? which statcs that the surfice i r y r d u i the curl oj:o aw#urjield over wr upen surjuce is equal to the clpsed line integl. (2131) tells us that gip x A)&=o (2132) for any closcd surhce S. (2130). Stoke+ thdorern is an imdortadt identity in vector analysis. exist and be continuous both on S and along C. ' I 4 . and Eq.a. aagnetics.al q{!the vector don$ the contour bounding the surface. !' Therefore. and vice versa. 214 (Example 26). there will be no surfacebounding external contour. as was shown in Fig. Example 217 Given F = a. Like the divergence theorem. The simplest open surface would be3wodimensional plane or disk with its circumference as the contour.
there is no need to use a particular example to prove it. L surface x .133) c. 1 I..~n coordin:~tesby usmg 5 .(11. a n d F : de. Jons in I ill bt no 4 C '. il.) TWO NULL IDENTITIES . and. and get the same result. especially when we introduce potential functions. wc UJ\C 111~' l I 11) s'urface integral of V x (VV) over any surface. Of course.) Equation (2. (21 34) .@ curl of the gradient of m y scalar Jield is identically zero. Wc citn interchange the order of integration as .1 Identity I In words.' :lntl 1x1 . ) From 0 i o A': y = 0. I~ I I I I ~ Ll~ci ~ r c l u k dC)I)CI':L~~OIIS. the result is equal to the line integral of V V around the closed path bounding t h i surface. But it would be quite wrong if the 0 to 3 range were used as the range of integration for both x and y. From R to 0 : x = 0. ~ ' y= '2% dy = 0.210 1 TWO NULL IDENTITIES 55 ! I w/wc surfice.[v x (VV)] '1s = .F. SCIICIYII. as asserted by Stokes's theorem: Ss. Hence. We worked out the example above for practice on surface and line integrals. 210 Two identities involving repeated del operations are of considerable importence in the study of electromagnetism. Stokes's theorem has been established in Eq. dP = F . and Stokes's theorem is verified. (2131) as a genzral identity. We shall discuss them separately below..! 39) I'oI' \.Like i It is itnporlun{ lo usc thc: propcr h i t s for thc two variables of inlcgration. I 210. (Do you know why?) For the line integral around AB0'4 we hdve already evaluated the part around the arc from A to B in Exarilple 26.ln he p r a \ d sc:liiily in Car~csi. from Example 26. d i n g to ivatives. (We note here that both the vcclor ficltl i ~ n t lils lirst spalii~l ilcrivalivcs nyc linitc ancl co'ntinuous on the surface ah wcll xi on LIIC contour 01'in~crest.F . (a. d x ) = r y dx = 0. (The existence of V and itsfitst derivatives evcrywhcre is implied here.
226. I f a . 1 However. We can prove it in general without regard to a coordinate syst& by taking thq'volurne integral of V .! . The closed surface S can be spli) into two open surfaces.We then apply Stokes's theorem to surface S.. The integrand itself must therefore vanish. 9. Since 4 coordinate system is qot specified in the derivatiox the identity is a gencral Qne a i d is invariant jwith the choiccs of coordinatc i t. Then. Js. a~ .. q stems. bounded by C. for example. ? . which we will take up in the next chapter. \ A) an1b + Js (V r A) .. Applying the divcrgqncc thcorcm.:tor jeld is ' curlfree. wu. and write the . . a. 1. I 210.. from Eq. (2138) as nbc 1 SL 1 I fS (V x A) ds = . cis 2 . . (2134) and(2135) states'that the surface integral of V x ( V V ) over any surface is zero. if:V x E = 0. .. I I * The combination of Eqs. (V x A) on the left slde. (281). the arbitrary volume v e n c ~ o s e d b surface S in Fig. we can define a scalar field V such that I + I . F 4 converse statement r : Identity I can be mad$ as fqllows. . and surfacc boundcd by C. I right side of Eq. ulways he expressed as the gradient of a scalur field. too. the divergence o j the curl u f g n y vector ~ i e lis identically zero. Let a vector field be E. The negative sign here is unimportant'as far as Identity I is concerned. (It is included in Eq. (2133).(v.) We know from Section 28 that a curlfree vector field is a conservative field: hence an irrotational ( a conservative) vector jiell( ccu. (2136) because this relation conforms with a' basic relation between electric field intensity E and electric scalar potential V in electrostatics.havc ur or ar P C 211 HE CII Let us choose. and S. connected by a common boundary which has bean dkywn twice as CIthrrd G. i Equation (2137). (289) for P and performing $he indicated operatipns. which leads to the identity in Eq. then it can be expressed as the grudient of a scalar J'ieid. can be ~ r b v e d easily in Cartesian coordinates by using Eq.. + 1 ...2 Identity ll i ' in fio !I L I In words. At this stage it is immaterial what E and V re'$aent.I I 56 1 VECTOR ANALYSIS / 2 I ' a I '.
er.cssi ~ ~ h s .  HELMHOLTZ'S THEOREM (2138) lg. 276. . We may classify vector fields in accordance with their being solenoidal and/or irrotational. net outw:~rcl ficltls will1 llux of a solcnoidul licld L I I I U L I ~ I I :IIIY closed surl'acc is zcro..~~c(l Ilow s o ~ ~ ~ .lrc nol :~ssoci.. :. and C2 follow the &&hand rule.ccl rcgian. as indicated by the identity in Eq.F=O chargeli. . (2136) ' . \ (2 137) 2y using I general tv x A) 211 The nor.nciuded I clxtric take up ic l a m I .137). 2 . to surfaces S. 226 An arbitrctty volume I/ enclosed by surrace S.F=O and ill :I Stokes's vritn VxF=O. *2. Since the contours. ~t UL~L'IOI*j i ~ l t l . the integrand itself must be zero. are. Solenoidal and irrotational if 1 .140) In Seclion 26 we mcntionccl th:~t . ..1 o/'trirotl~ci.i divcrgcncclcss licld is also called a solenoidal c Tllc ficld.(V x A) on the left side of Eq. A vector field F is 1. and their relatioiia . A converse statement of Identity I1 is as follows: I f a vecror field is rlil.. magnetic flux density B is solenoidal and can be expressed as the curl of another vector field called magnetic vector potential A. (2139) traverse the same path in opposite directions. and S. the two line integrals on the right side of Eq. S ~ l c n ~ i ~ l a l . Iistr~rrpl~~: clccwic l i d t l I sutic \ (2139) V. and the volun~e integral of V . V. red by a In previous sections we mentioned that a divergenceless field is solenoidal. C. (2. (2138) vanishes.'.I vcctor held be B. This converse statement asserts that if V B = 0. . As we will see in Chapter 6. . lJ0.~rilc~li. 211 / HELMHOLTZ'S THEOREM 57 (2135) 11ofV x ~ch leads : derivaordinate r jkki :tar field Fig. cir1. 11 . . rlr('rr ir cqtrlr Iw c s p ~ ~ s s c11s l(Irl.! .. 2nd the l l ~ ~ x ciosc lincs upon themselves. with the path directions of C.ss. Because this is true for any arbitrary volume. . in fact. . Solenoidal but not irrotational if Example: A steady magnetic field in a currentcarrying conductor.01. :. and C. one and the same common boundary between S . Their sun1 is therefore zero.als a and a. .Lct . We are reminded of the circling magnetic flux lines of a solenoid or an inductor. and a curlfree field is irrotational. 'and VxFfO.:V x A .  . ( 2 . and S are q:tward normals. we can define a vector field A such that Ii .
as well as the normal componeht of the vector over the bbundirlg surface.: .that the curl of a vector is a measure of the strength of t h e g ~ g t e x Source. are given. I (2. L V X V # ~ . G. finite and continuous. . ( ~ w ~ t o r Jrrrlctior~)is ~I~t~~rlrirrc~d poirlt to \\Ythin (211 udditiw co~~slailt both its diwyerzce am/ its curl ure specijed everywlzerk.15. Hclrl~holr:'. 4. X' ' rr. Helmholtz's thcorem can be proved as a rnathcmaticali~hcorcm a gencral wayt iq For our purposes. ~ rnw!i~In. the vector fmction F Press (1966).. . Section 1.i finre. VF#O E x a m p l e An electric field in . 4 and G i r e sFc&d. I . r inagletlc field. we can decompose a'gineral vector &ld Fintoran irrotational part F.F=VyF.~Tlrc~o. and can bc considcrcd as rhc sum ol'u solcl~oitI:~l : ~ n r 311 irro(. The most general vcctor licld thcn has holha nonzero divcrgcncc :)lid :I wnzcro curl. with and where g and G are assumed to be known! We have V. .~ ~ ~ . Afarhemoricaf Jferlt@s for Phydcisrs. Xnlen.wn:rl vector ~ i c / t l ' . If the vector field is confined within a region bounded by a surface.: .tl licld l licld.58 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 . the : Exa 6 .: 3:. Example: A static electric field in a charged region. I/' In an unbounded region we assume that both the divergence and the curl of the vector field vanish at infinity.t solenoidal if V'x F = O and VFfO. ymg . Neither solenoidal nor irrotationnl ii . then it is determined if its divergence and curl throughourthe region.* I 1.. .. it!! .2 . A ' .. Thus. .+idemic . .=G. Here we assume that the vector'functfon is singlevalued and that its derivatives are . See. CxF='ixF.145) and Hrlnlhdtz's theorem asserts that when I . we expect that the vector field will be determined. When the strenphs of both the flow source and the vortex source a'% 'specified. Irrotational but no. I 3. we remind pupelves (see Section 28) that the divergence of a vector is a measure of the strenith of. ior instance.~iiol~.=g . . I\ .r t .144) (2. . and a solenoidal part F. F = Fi+ F.the flow source and.
which will lead to constants of integration.  0 . Thus. F = . that is.. identity (?137) 2nd Eq. b) Since F is irrotationnl. and V x are differential operators.22) . in view of identity (2. z]. : 59 h $3 ?j is i? t!t 1 : is determined.211 1 HELMOHLTZ'S THEOREM . conditions. c2 = 3. M Oe~ennine constanls c. F=VV+VxA. . (potential) function 4 such the? Helmholtz's theorem states that a general vector function F can be written as the sum of the gradient of a scalar function and the curl of a vector function. it cnu be e\presscd as the negitlve gradlent of a sc. and c3 il. such that P i. Solution a) For F to be irrotational.. The determination of these additive constants requires the knowledge of some boundary ..V V .( 'I\. ( < . 1 is irrolaiional. the : Determine the scalar potential function V whose negative gradient equals F. Eachwqlponent of V x F must vanish.a= ax oy az = ax3y + ay(3x . The fact that Fi is irrotational enables us to define a scalar (potential) function V. it will be developed in stages in later chapters. p116) Sirnihdy. (2. Since V. I . i. F must be obtained by integrating g and G in some manner. = 0.ll. 111:~ is.l43a) allow the definition of a vecLc. :I (1.14s) In following chapters we will rely on Helmholtz's theorem as a basic eiemznt in the axioinatic development of electromagnetisnl.v ' av av . 1. 2 \* . F. Example 218 Given a vector function I: 3 ) $I.TI I . V x F = 0.M ) .lr I'u~iclionI.V V = ax ay . c . and e. The proccdurc for obtaining F from given g and G is not obvious at this time. (2. = .. = 2. Hence. t . . c 2 .a1(2y + z ) . 2:) . : i.
B) x C c ) A x B x C c) Ailan b) A@ C) d l A/B . f p n ihrce sidcs of :I tri. B.22 R.21 Threc vectors A.3sy + .Y.23 R. we have I = . I  a ) ( A .md C. . . Which of the following produkts of vectors do not mqke sense? Explain. and fb)A 1B.2J Under what conditions can the dot product of two vectors be negative? Write down the results of A B aridlA x B if (a)A I(I$.53). (2152). T av' = a. + + . ' 2 z).l{hion.~n$e. (21.> L . drqan ib i~eodtotail f.* f ) (A x p 1 .  REVIEW QUESTIONS R. The constant is to be determined by a boundary condition or the condition at infinity. . (221 5 2 ) and Examination of Eqs. C .(.C ? . (2149) partially with respect to x.149) Integrating Eq.f'. What 1s A f B C'?A B .~ t ' 3y (2. (2.60 VECTOR ANALYS 1 : Three equations are obtained: 1' r. and (2154 enables us to write the scalar potential function as Any constant added to Eq.155) would still mkke lran answer. .I I R.
. . f ) ar az .> '.. B)C equal to A(B C)? Does t i . . 11.. write the espressions or the vectors 1 7 : . 11~21 1 WhzL arc i i x l L .226 What is lhc dilkrcncc bclwccn a11 ilmtation:il field nud a solcnoid. .:. Does A x B = A x C imply B = C? Explain. .210 Exprchs tllc space ralc ofchiunyc of a scalar in u yivcn direction in tcrms of its gradicnt.217 What does the del operator V stand for in Cartesian coordinates? R.. ' : .2IC Given a idctor F in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates determin..218 What is Ihc physical dcfinition of thc divcrgcncc of a vcctor ficld? R. .). R.1. 2) in Cartesian coordinates. R.I. a. R. R.< e) a. how d o you find (a) the component of A in the direction of B and (b) the component of B in the direction of A? R. REVIEW QUESTIONS 61 ..' :. . Truc o r Salsc'? Esplain..< i ... B = A C imply B = C? Explain.26 R. 4. . * . 2. .I. . u. ( l .. +. . .. 0.215 What is thc physicid dcfinition orthe gradicnt of a s c ~ l a field? r 11. R.. . ' s \lrco~>cln wcw~la.' .. . R. .:. B and A x B in Cartesian coordinates? R. . :Iy d) a . !$ R. R. True or false? Explain. :hr c) :I. in R228 Explain how a general vector functiomcan be expressed in terms of a scalar potential function and a vector potential function. . .222 What is the physical definition of the curl of a vector field? R. 1)) :Ir . !.212 Given two points P l ( l .>::. R. .28 Given two vectors A and B. i cc d ~ i c i ~ .219 A vector field with only radial flux lines cannot be solenoidal.223 A vcctor ficld with only curvcd flux lincs cannot bc irrotational.1.220 A vector field with only curved flux lines can have a nonzero divergence. .> .221 State the divergence theorem in words. True or false'? Explain. . True or false'! Explain.27 Is ( A . h ' explain how to # R.213 What are the expressions for A . . 3) and P 2 ( . . . R.225 StakS&o_kes's theorem in words.29 What makes a coordinate system (a) orthogonal? (b) curvilinear? and (c) righthanded? ( u .214 What are the values of the following dot products of base vectors? :I) ilp . (a) F an2 (b) a?. u.:.224 A vector field with only straight flux lines can be solenoidal. .>$J.111d /TI. . R.25 R.:>J$.il field? 1$2~27Slillc I l r ) h . .
27 Prove the law of sines for a triangle. (220) in Cartesian coordinates.) P. ' : . and a. is .3 B =.a. as expressed in Eq. 1.0 the scalar ) by product a . ( j j 60"..2 .= + iz. P. takin. 217 0 Graph for 1 Pfbblem P. then B = C.29 An unknown vector can be dcter&ed if both its s&l& product and its vector product w ~ t h known vector are given. Obtaln a formula for the expans~onof the cosine of thp difference of two angles. a. where p = A X and P = A x X > . A = a. wltb a refdrence uam. Fig. a. denote t1. rhombus (A is an equilateral parallelogram.24 Show that.2. : 1 i . whlch is. I = a. where A is pot a null vector. . 1.' 1 . 227. P. cos(r . i '.'af the point P.j . . A P.G is a known vector. ( B x C ) a n d ( A x B ) .25.. ' '. B. respectlvely.210 Find the component of the vectqnA directed toward the point ~ .(6.(4. and P.26 P.is it A b) Find the area of the triangle.(O.25 Lnlt vectors a.) 1 P.. ri$it 3) Dctcrn~iiic \vl~c[l~cr PI lJ21'.C f) A. as shown ip Fig. + C find + e ) the component of A in the direction of C g) A . 2). 5).28 Verify the backcab rule of the vepor triple product of hree vectors.1 Given three vectors A.a.22 a The three corners of a triangle are at P. Assuming . 2. P. 1).:directlons of twodim~gsionalvectors A and B that 6 make angles u and . . C 11) (A x B) y C and A x (B x C) [V~:III~I~. ! P. if A B = A C nr~d x B = A x C. 2. .4 a. 3). determine the unknown vector 3 S if both p and P are glven. P. I : Prove that an angle inpcgbed in a ~emicircle a rigit in&. P.(O.23 Show that the two diagonals of a rhombus i r e perpendicqlar to e ~ h g _ t h e r ..1 62 VECTOR ANALYSIS I 2 i 3 i L PROBLEMS P. and C as follows. 3).
214.(fA)= f V .3 sin 8) ds over the surface of a sphere of a radius 5 centered at the origin P. P.1) 2. . 2. b) along the straight line joining the two points.1) to P. prove  V. . .(cos2$)/KJ cxisls in the region bctwcen two spherical shells defined by R = 1 and K = 2.a. . 3).214 Givcn a vcctor function E = a x y 3 a. P. converting both E and the positions ol'l'.217 Evaluate (a.(l.1) 10 P2(8. Is this E a conservative field? E .A + A . What is the location of the point a ) in Cartesian coordinates? b ) in spherical coordinates? P..5). z = 0.2 + a=.4.213 Express the base :. Evaluate a) $ D ds b) J ' V . P.x.D d v . a.PROBLEMS 63 P. 1. 1 P. .2.clP from P. and a.12 A field is expressed In spherical coordinatcs by E = a. and P.. a) along the parabola s = 2y2.3. verify the divergence theorem for the circular cylindrical region enclosed by r = 5.218 For a scalar function f and a vector function A. evaluate the scalar line mtegral PL(2. .221 vector field I) = a.216 Given a scalar function . evaluate J' E di from P3(3. .211 The position of a point in cylindrical coordinates is specified by (4. b) Find the angle which E makes with the vector B = a.2n/3.i) by a) the ~nagnitudcand the dircction of the maximum rate of increase of V at the point P(1.3.219 For vector function A = a. V f in Cartesian coordinates. of a spherical coordinate system In Carresian coordinates.r2 + a. and z = 4.2 .3). 3. b) the rate of increase of Vat P in the direction of the origin. P. P. into cylindrical coordinatcs. a) Find [El and Ex at the point P(.215 For the E of Problem P.ctors a.2z.(25/R2).
prove V o ( A x H) = H . I . P. 6 ) Evaluate (V . verify Stokes's theorem over the hemispherical surface and its clrcular contour that are shown in Fig. 1 I . prove vx[fG)rfvxG+(vf).(V x A ) s O I I ' . x Grauh for.( V x A).224.227 Verify the null identities a) V x ( V V ) r O b) V. .  0 1 / 2 I + x Fig. A) ds over the triangular area.( V x A) . $in (4/2).224 Assume the vector functiop A = a . Problem p.22.E .P. P.ap3y2.226 For a scalar function f and a vector function G. 3 ~ ' ~ '. 228 P. .expmsed as the gradient of a scalar? Explain.223 For two differentiable vector functions A and H. C) Can A be. 228. ' P. i j by expansion in general orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. 229. a) Find 8 A d t around the triangular contour shown in Fig.222 A radial vector field is represented by F = aR/(R)i What do we know about the function f(R)ifVF=0? i P.225 Gwen the rector function A = a.xG in Cartesian coordinates. for Problem Graph P.
~nfitics 1I1c cIcct~ol~~. on q. Couof lonib found t h a t unlike chargcs attract and likc ch.. thc d i r c c t i o ~ ~ the force being along the line connecting the charges. . that are very small compared with the distance of separation. and q 2 .3 / Static Electric Fields 31 INI HU~UCTION I n Section 12 wc mcntioncct th. and if q . wc will then go on to thc subjcct of mayxtic fields and timevarying electromagnetic fields.ins with the experimental Coulomb's law (formulated in 1785) for the force between two point charges. I n addition. q ..? is negative (attractive). I K I I ~ C W G cIc:11 will1 :I 1t1~1tivcIy I I I ~ I sit~1:1tio11.~rgcs rcpcl cach other. D.uid field ql~. is positive (repulsive). This approach has been accepted as "logical. rclntions. electric scalar potential..ing clcutrnstatic boi~ncluryvaluc problems.rrol. Using vectornotation. The development of electrostatics in elementary physics usually be. product of the charges and invcrscly proportion:~l to thc q u a r t : of the dist:incc.. :~ndclcctric fields do ! k t cliangc with time. is n unit vcctor in the direction is from (11 to (I.1) 1 R12 where F12 the vector force esertcdby (1. and then lead to Gauss's law and other relations. V. Electrostatics can proceed from Coulomb's law to define electric field intensity E. R l 2 . and r12 arc of the same sign (both positive or both l ncgalivc).tt three essential steps x c involvcd in cc.rc\rtio~l.:. and electric flux density. a. and q2 are of opposite signs. This law states that the force between two charged bodies. I . Wc have cic(inci1 the S O I I S C ~." . They are the definition of basic quantities. Nok t h i ~ il'q. the development of rules of operation.. C SI ~ Al'icr wc have studied the behavior of static clectric fields and mastered the techniques for sol. .~liIy constant cicpcnding on the medium and the systcnl ol' units. Coulomb's law can be written mathematically as Fl2 = T' q1Cl2 ( 3 .nstructing a deductive theory for the study of a scientific subject. and the postulation of fundamental .. is proportional to the . and It is :I l. In electrostatics. Thcre are I I O I I I : I ~ I I C I ~liclcls. We are now ready to introduce the fundamental postulates for the study of sourcefield relationships in electrostatics. F. electric charpcs (the sourccs) are at rcst.~g~?t:tic' for ~noticlin Chapter 1 and dcvclopcd the fundamenlals of vcctor algebra and vector calculus in Chapter 2.
and do not present them as separatc postulates. and cxperlmcntal ~ I ~ ~ \ C C U S . we introduce the subject by postulating bothUibed&?rgence and thje curl of t h t electric field inten2b sity in free space. existence of extraneous charged bodies.) restrict the usable <istnpce of scparatrnn in the ~CS ly '1'111s L laboratory. \ Ccanno[ hc c n ~ ~ r c :~vo~tlctl. We deiive Gauss's law and Coulomb's law from the divergepce afid curl relatiobs.~tl$ O a more important question concenung the inversesquare relation of the second stipulation. I \ ' 0in C c ELECTROSTATICS IN FREE SPACE 1. 26. 1971.$. ~)ect'iostatics free space is the in ' . Rev. thi s ' The exponent on the distance in ~ o u l o ~ b ' s ' l ahas been verifjdd by an lnd~rectexperment to be 2 to w w t h m one part In 10" (See E.66 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 . and H : A ~ I H ~ I ~ . etc. is in fact also a postulate. no matter how skillfpl and careful an expenmentor is. free space. Un CO ". ' <. a ! I 32 FUNDAMENTALPOSTULATES I QF :. Lerter~. the relative accuracy jn distance measurements is better when the separatlon is larger. 1 ' ' Instead of following the hisjoripal development .of electrostatics. 1 2 . . ! J # perhaps because it begins with an pxperimental laGabsered in a laboratory and . p. How then was it possible for Coulomb to know that the force was e x n c t l ~ inversely proportional to the square (not the 2. However.) Faller. and there 'is dificuity in determining the "true" distancz between two bodies ol finite dimensions. Thc conccptl o f sc$nr potcnlii~lfi)llr)wfinat~~rally A V C L ~ O I . (31) is a law of nature discovered and assumed by coulomb oq the basis of his experiments of limited accuracy. . however.How small must! the charged bodies be in order to be considered "very small" dompared to the distahce? In practice the charged bodies cannot be of vanishing sizes (idcal point charges).~.999999th power) of the distance of separation? This quesfhon cannot be answered from an experimental v~ewpointbecause it is not likely that durlng Coulo~rrb's time cxperiments could have been accurate to the seventh place. J. ph)~. irr We start the study of electroma&et$fn with the co&ideration of electric fields due to stationary (static) electric charges it7. exp'erimental measurements cannot be of infin~te accuracy. Wilhqfls. fro111 identity. that Coulomb's law. not with some abstract postulates. From Helmholfz's theorem in ~ e c t i b n 1 we kcow that a vector field 1s determined ~f its divergenqe and curl are specified. Ic. though based on experimental evidence. For given body sizes.+ We must theiefore conclude that Coulomb's law is itself a postulate and that [he exact relation stipulated by Eq. R. We maintain. Even if the charged bodies are of vanishing sizes. practical cdnsiderations (weakness of force. Field behaviors 'in material media will be studied and expressions for electrostatic energy and forces will be developed. 721. Consider the two'stipulations of Coulomb's law: that the chargcd bodies be very small ~ompared wit9 the distance of separation and that the force is inversely propottianal to the squari: of the distance.000001th or the 1. vol. The question arises regarding the first stipulatjonl.
In Eq. An inversc rc~atibnof Eq. cannot be zero in practice. E.llic :~ppm:dl.ind cll. However. the electric field intensity. ~ t st. Electricfield intensity is defined as the force per unit charge that a very small stationary test charge experiences when it is placed in a region where an electric field exists. (341.' Equation (35) asserts that stoiic elecrricjrlds are irrotntB~niTtwl~erc.~s (34) implics ~ l i . q0 q The electricfield iatensity F i. F E = lim (V/m). We need only consider one of the four fundamental vector field quantities of the electromagnetic model discussed in Section 12.r. is y :~xio~~l. F.. p is the volume charge density (C/m3). only the permittivity of free space 60. simplest special case OFelectromagnctics. (111) .~ticelectric ficlcl ir n& roIcnoid:~l Eq. of course. and they can be used to derive all other relations.~lga'1 ill c o ~ ~ b i n (C).32 I FUNC\MENTAL POSTULATES OF ELECTROSTATICS IN FREE SPACE ory and . The test charge q. That is.imental b's law: ion and juestion :n' order charged a l t y in ~rgiven scpara. Thasc iwo postulales arc concise.If F is n~c. and indepenhent of any coordinate systcm. 1971. as a matter of bct. : 1 unless p = 0. namely.. .~sitrod ~icwtons N ) . (32) gives the force. which is the same as volts per meter (V/m). laws. They are r' .mg~on. on a stationary charge q in an electric field E: I  C The two l ~ ~ d : l i n ~ ~ ipostulates of clcctros~atics in lice sp:tcc spccify ttic titl divergence and curl of E. Furthermore. it cannot be less tlian the charge on an electron. o be 2 to 26. of the three universal constants mentioned in Section 13 enters into our formulation. the finiteness of the test charge ivould not maks the measured E differ appreciably from its calculated value if the test charge is small enough not to disturb the charge distribution of the source. z 1 x  36n (F/m).~ilco 1s i n ~iewlons in ( bs C per coulomb (NIC). The permittivity of free space r . a universal constant.Ids due c is . and I ~ I T I W I B r l w l ~ u s t i l l i c Is S u d ~ lhe I m t ~ i of ills dtduc~ivc.il to and in the dircction of tllc force \ F. See Eq. simple. and so is the permittivity of free space.
tbeyhold at every point in space. 1 1 " Jv PE d r =2 Jv €0 . dv. integrating V x E over an open surfack and invokingiStokes's theorem as espressed . ~ h i s i s s i m anothef way of saying that E is irrota~l~ . which statcs thaiithe ~ptulourwardjlux of' the electricfield intensity over an): closed surface in fiee spice is equal to the total charge enclosed in the surfilce divided h y E.. wc scc. along with illustrative examples.4. r . I 8 " . closed path vanishes.. .sily line arotuzd an!. (3 4). which asserts that the .ii7face S.. y u l ~ r inlegrul oJ'.  ?a. In practical applications we are usually interested in the total field ofan aggregate or a distribution of charges. hence C is itself arb~trary. (2131). %.rhe stutic clcclric Jicld rtttcrl. tional or conscrvative. This is more conveniently 'obtained by a. (35) by . . Wc will discuss it furthcr in Scctiol! 3 . (3 6) becomes where Q is the total charge contained'in volume V bounded bi... 31. Equation (37) is a form of Gauss's luw.? integral form of Ey.*anarbitrary volume V. (38). since both divergence and curl operations involve spatial derivatives. . the surface does not even cntcr into As Eq. 1 : The line integral is performed over a closed contour Cbounding an arbitrary surface. that is. in Eq. a yatte? of fact.th:lt if the scalar linc intcgrnl I 33 COU P ch. (341 over. Taking the volume integral of both sides of Eq. ! I we have c 2 f j:. Refcrrinito F&. An integral form can also be 06tained for the hurl relation in Eq. Gauss's law is one i f the most important relations in cicctrostatics. We have ): I . (2104). Fig . They are referred to as thq diffeiential form of fhe pqstulates of electrostatics.68 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 7 I I ' Ii C* Equations (34) and (35) arq polnt relations. Eq. In view of the divergence theorerq in Eq..
~ i i s .k: :? 8 33 / COULOMB'S LAW 69 .dP= : J Along C. y. ( 3 4 ) .the i r r o ~ : ~ t i &F llic!. hence Eqs. E. ~ractical ribution 4.Apply~ngEg. lume V. we draw a hypothetical spherical surface of a radius R centered at q.. ji . we l ~ v c . Since a polnt charge has no preferred directions. (37) to l  I?g. its electric field must be everywhere radial 2nd bas the si1111cintansity : ~ t:ill poiots on 1111: ~ l ~ l i ~ l l .ry point ostatics. is zero. EdP .C.dP=SP:' Along C. (311) represents the work done by the electric field in moving a unit charge from point P . G  .i. JPp. of E over the arbitrary closed contour C. . at rest in a boundless free space. to point I'. I~ I ~01 i\s \"I. E q ~ ~ a t i o n 1. t. . In order to find the electr~c ficld intanslty due to (1.i 5. scc ll tile integral in Eq.l I. The two fundamental postulates of electrostatics in free space are repeated belarv ~ \VIIICII wc build IIIC s ~ r ~ i ~ ~ il ~ i c ~ ~ r o s ~ : . i cl~ because they form thc h~tnd:~tionI P O I I 33 COULOMB'S LAW We consider the simplest possible electrostat~c problem of a s~ngle polnt charge.2(:r).1 says that the sc:ilar . 3 . I$ 6 . 3.I I I . or SpT Along C. iS~Ui Il ~ I C C . then ' . E. (34).~l I X I I C ~ C Itlllhe I X I ~ I I : i l ~ C ~ C iI ~ & l 1 y~ I I CCIICI l > ~ i l ~ l s .ind ( 3 9 ) imply a st:itcmcnt of conservation of work or energy in an electrostatic iield. ~ (31 or ~ .linq it~lc~ra!.' E. sI1:111 i l l S C C ~ i o.& (310) Along C.
(b) Point charge not at thc origin. $1. All dimensions are in meters.2. and thb distapce R to reflect the locat~ons of the charge and of the point at which E is to be dbtermieed. L Equation (312) tells us that ille electric jirld intensity o j u point charge is is the ourward radial direction and bqs a magairude propoytional ro the charge and incersely proportional to the square of the distance born the charge.0. 5i11iablc changes should be made to the unit vector a. ) t where a. Since we have Example 31 Determine the electric fieid intensity a1 P(0.5) in air. is the unit vector drawn'fiorn q to P. .3) due to a point charge of + 5 (nC) at Q(0.. from Eq. Therefore. 2. . Then. Let thc position vector of q be R' and that of a field poiht P be R. It i s readily verified:tllat V x E = 0 for the E given in Eq. (312).70 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 (a) Point charge at the origin. I l the chitrgc q I \ not locutcd at the orlgln of u choseq cuord~naio \ystcnl. This is a very important basic formula in electrostatics. as shown in Fig. I 1 .2.2. 32(b). (31 2).
which is a consequence of the fundamental postulate Eq.l1')jIR  R'/. 11:ts :I 111:1g1i~tdc 214.1 in conjunction with Eq..0. When a point charge y.. In SI units the proportionality constant k equals 1/(4nc.pO= 4n x lo' (H/m) in SI units. CII' :lu. = (I1 . (11 1) we know that c0 = l / ( ~ ~ p ~ ) . The factor 1/(4ne. Note that the exponent on R is exactly 2.l . is placed in the ficld of another point chargc (1. (315). we obtain 'I'hc qwtlticy w i ~ l l il~ ~ c~ ~ : ~ ~ . is experienccd by 4.). (34).455 Substituting in Eq. I I I ~I(:. vector for the point charge Q is R' = The difference is which has a magnitude . so . then l / ( b c . (33) and (312). ) = 9 x 109 (m!F)..4)' + (0.1)' + (0. a force F. at y2. 'lt the origin.B~t exactly. Combining Eqs.2 + ayO. Ifwe use the approximate value c= 3 x 10"nl/s). (31). of q .5 jR  2'1= [(u.2)3]112= 0.) appears very frequently in electrostatics.. c ~ iis lthc'c s c s vcctor l~ ~ ~ [Init . and the force is in newtons (N).33 I COULOMB'S LAW 71 Solution: The position vector for the field point P The position. .a. we have Equation(317) is a mathcmatical form of Coulomb's luw alrcady statcd in Scction 3.2. due to electric field intensity E.5 (V/III). = a. Note: The permittivity of air is essentially the same as that of the free space. From Eq.
Electrons from a heated cathode are given an initial velocity vo = a . Ignoring gravitational effects.~1~tegrating hoth. find the vertical deflection of the electrons on the fluorescent screen at r = L.sidcy. I Fig. i Solutiot~: Since there is no force in the . ' At the exit from the deflection plafes. t = w/vo.I 72 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS / 3 L $ 1 "+ Deflection Screen \I : f P . Note that the electrons have a parabolic trajectpry between the aeflection plates.. wc obtain where the constant of integration isset to zero beCause v. = 0 at t = 0. .direction in the z > 0 region.e. The field . 33. ~ . thc horizontal velocity v0 is maintained. we have The constant of integration is again zero because y = 0 at t = 0.Integrating again.Edexerts a force on the electrons each carryng a charge . From Newton's second law of motion in the vertical direction. causing a deflection in the y direction..by a positively charged anode (not shown).a.Ed is maintained over a width w. The electrons enter at r = 0 into a region of deflection plates where a uniform electric field Ed = . 33 Electrostatic deflection system of a cathoderay O \ C I ~ ~ (~ ~I \ ~~ K l ?~ 2~p ~ ~ l I ~l) Example 32 The electrostatjc de1:cclion system of a cathodemy oscillograph is depicted in Fig. we have where rn is the mass of an electron.
d..] E field at a point is the vector sum of the fields caused by all the individual char: CS. + q and . .. Since electric field intensity is a linear func . During that time there is an additional vertical deflection Hence the deflection at the screen is 33. the principle of superposition applies. 34. Electric field of a . (3 15) wc can wriic l l ~ c clcctric ilitcnsity at a field point whose posir on vcctor is It as Although Eq. because of the need to add vectors of different magnitudes and directions. located at different positions. Let us consider the simple case of an electric dipole that consists of a pair of equal and opposite charges. and the tot. Then the E field at the point P is the sum of the contributions due to +q Fig.1 Electric Field due to a System of Discrete Charges Supposc a n clac1rost:liic liald is cra:ilcd by a group 01' i i dlscrete p o ~ o tchiirgel 'I.33 I COULOMB'S LAW 73 ' and ' When the electrons reach the screen they have traveled a further horizontal distance of (L . (318) is a succinct expression.w ) which takes (L . as showc in Fig. Let the center of the dipole coincide with the origin of a spherical coordicate System.on of (proportional to) a. q2. . it is somewhat inconvenient to use. 34 dipole. q.q/~'.q .w)/v. From Eq. separated by a small distance. . seconds. .
(320) and (321) in Eq.74 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 . * . We write where the binomial expansion has been used and dl terms containing thc second and higher powers of (d/R) have beeri neglected. * j L 8 1 . . t + : % The first term on the right side of ~4. (319) leads 10 I The derivation and intcrprolati. p: . Similarly. I n Scction 3 . The electric dipole is an irqporkant entity in tGe study of the electric field in dielectric media.b$ of Ey. !I 8 I) ' . for the second term on the right side of Eq.  p = yd . i : ..I scalt~rclcctric potcl~li:~l.) ovd.y. We define the product of the charge q an4 the vector d (going from . 1322) rcqrirc thc manipulation of vcctor quantities. will1 w h i c l ~ [ l ~ c clcclric licld intensity caused by a diswibution of'cbargcs can be found more easily.:(319) can be Simplified if d << R. (319). Wc can apprcciatcLhat tictcrrninihg thc clcctric Geld causcd by three or more discrete charges will 'bg even morc t&liouq. where the approximate sign ( . Thus.5 wc will introduce thc conccpt or . 'the equal sign 'has been left out for simpliaty. (323) Equation (322) can then be rewritten as >. and .q and + q ) as the electric dipoff mement. we have' Substitution of Eqs.
~ I : I II . Fig.~K ( : I . (324) becomes 2 write E= 4m0R ( a . h. This is reasonable because as R increases.licfcr to 1 .I I ~ ( ~ . and Eq. cos 8 .2 Electric Field due to n Continuous Dlstrlbution of Charge The electric field caused by a continuous distribution of charge can be obtained by integrating i5kpcrposing) thc contribution of a n element of c h a r p over the charge clislrihulio~l.33 1 COULOMB'S LAW 75 ' If the dipole lies along the zaxis as in Fig. sin 6) (V/rn). coordinates.5. (327) Equation (3127) gives the electric field intensity of a n electric dipole in sphcri~n! . We see that E of a dipole is inversely propoirional to the cube of the distance R. whurc . (325) (376) ' R . 2 cos 8 + a. . then (see Eq. the fields due to the closely spaced q and . i ~ . thus decreasing more rapidly than that of a single point charge. . 35 Electric field due to a continuous charge distribution. 277) (319)   p = aZp= p(a. 4n. sin 8) .irp: tlisfrih~itioi~ s l ~ o w i T . the contribution of the charge p 10' in a differential volume element du' to the electric field intensity at the field point P is dE = a. I . + 7 33. p = R p cos 0 .~ I C is ~ V O I U I I I ~ ~ * C .a. 3 5.I I I / I I I I ) 11 :I I I I I I L I i011 0 1 ~ I I CC O O I ~ ~ I I I : I I ~ L C. 34.q tend to cancel each other more completely.iIilli~c1111:11 clement ul' charge behaves like a point charge. I voluinc cL.. S I ~ C:I: .R2 We have p dv' .
r ~~/ ~~ l i / y s / I ) ~ I I~ ~ ~ is / $ $ ~ / of conjusion. . 4' Let us assume that tlje. straight. Since the p+blern has a cylindrical symmetry (that is. (We are perfectly frce to dd this because t\le field obviously docs not depend . on how wc clcsign. where p. .. the electric field is in!dep&dent of the azlmutli angle 4). we have 1 . all'three quantities in the integrand (aR. (C/m) is the line charge 'density.~ . ' 7 > I i I I .line charge li& alopg the zfaxis as shown in Fig.. s . and R) change with the location of the differential volume dv'.. I Example 33 Determine the electric field inten& i line charge of a uniform density p h air. = R/R.. If the charge is distributed on a. /~v / ~ / /~! . For the problem at hand p. c which is at a distance r from the I'ine. i t ~ /wid ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ r i ~ ~ ~. 11 ?.v jbr sotircc / ~ r . (329) or Eq.cS ~r W r 111m~ ~(1 ~r rl r . (330) is difficult to carry out because. * ! ! I or. . is co&&nt and 5 line element dLr = dz' is chosen to be at an arbitrary distance z' from the. Thus..I 76 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I I i. I~* .h the source td'thejeld point.^^. . not the other way :.surface with a ~ u r f a c e charge density p.) The problem agks us to find the e ~ & ~ igeld intensity at a point l'. since a.i ii I* !' :* . 8 For a line charge.. it woiild bc most convenient to work with cylijdriyd coordinates. the vectdr triple ibtegral in Eq. . then the integration is to be carried out over the surface (not necessarily flat). o f I a n infinitely long.~tcthc linc.i i :1 A il 1: I . in general. and L' the line (not necessarily straight) along which the charge is distributed. It is mqit important to remember that R is the d~stance vector directed fr. 36. . h e re writ. Solution: ~ ~ .p. ~~I I / .>'irrr u r w p / ( * d cvrricir~ri/i. (C/m2). (332) as .nf r r r i : i ~p r i t n ! d r~r~orrlitrrc~c~. . 3 (330) ( I Except for some especially sikp14 ases.Grigin.
r dz' 4m0(r2 + 2'2)3/2 dE.. .a.:. and we only need to integrate the dBr in Eq. t). directicns. Fig. Hence the a= components will cancel in the integration process. d t ' = p .. .zf dz' 4neO(r2+ z'2)3/2' In Eq. We have R = a. Thus. = p. It is easy to see that for every p. d:' at .'. [Cim2). dz' at + z' there is a charge element p.:'. (335) we have decomposed d E into its components in the a. 36 An infinitely long straightline charge. d l is where dEr = and p. which ' will produce a dE with components dEr and dE. ( 335a): . The electric field. due to the difirential line charge element p . and a. around. dE.33 1 COULOMB'S LAW 77 i 29) or s in the iL.
wiih L I S t ~ o1mi11 ( 3 131 1'01.L G L ~ I C point charge..tlrc~IG/icItl o r w t r ~ ~ c~/o.line charge at a point close to the line charge. TLessence of applying Gauss's law lies first in the recognition of symmetry conditions. &nd Gauss's law would be a much more efficient way for fin'ding the electrik field intensity than Eqs. 34 GAUSS'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS ! Gauss's law follows directly from the divergence p&tulate of elect~ostatics.n such c x c s tllc surfr~cc I intcgral on thc irllcrlsil!~is c w l s ~ r r oocr (111 cv~c~lo. (329) through (333). I I ~~ . (337) would bc very easy to cval. On t h ~ s I i 1 .).u. c I p o s ~ c s s ~ s consccl~~cnlly. We Fig. 252a).: i:. 1t. ~ l i c L I I . and second in thqsdtable choice of a surface over which the normal component of E resulting fro? a given charge distribution is a constant.c.I. we construct q'cylindrical Gaussian surface of a radius r and an arbitrary lenith L with the line charge as its axis. (336) gives the approximate Eq. by the application of the divergence theorem. as shown in surface. Gauss's law is particularly usefui in determining he Efield of charge distributions with some symmetry conditions. 1 Gtruss's Irr\\. and ds = a. This hasic principle su o l<q. is cdnstant. since a surfice about a sephrateb pair of equal and opposite charges over which the norqal coinponent of Erzmains constant was not known. / I ~ I I Y I C ~C I I ~ I O S C Y I ill tire S L I I $ I C ~ ~lil:idedby E ~ We note to .E. 1 i . . (37) and is repeated here on account of its impoytance:' I .On the ather hapd.. Equation (336) is an i m p o r t a ~ ~ l i. 37. and usually is not.srr~. ..~te.a~~ssi:~lr a +tirliic. With the obvious cylindrical symmetry.\. <. Solution: This problem was solved in Example 33 by using Eq. such that the noynal c&lporreitt *f tlze electric . ~ I spl~c~. Gauss's law would not be of much help. that the surface S can be any hj~pothetical(nzathrr~atical) close&rJace chosen for come?lierlce: it does not have to be. Since the line charge is infinitely long.sc~l ~i~ left side of Eq. E field of a long straight./lrr.luc. no physical line charge is infinitely long. poi111 I . E. the resultant E field must be radial and perpendicular to the line charge (E = a. t P Example 34 Use Gauss's law tobetermine the electric field intensity ofan infinitely long. Gauss's law cc)uld nbt help in the Ycrivqtion of Eq.r d 4 dz (from Eq. a physical surface.. (322) or (327) for an electric dipole.78 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 .scd (!I' js~rr:/ircv in p e e sptrce is o q 1 ~ 1 1 the ruttrl C . propcr C. I : L ~ : C ! O ~ ' ~ ~ [ ~ I I ( : I ~C C I I I I : I ~ : I I < . aqd a component of E along the line cannot exist. Eq. line charge of a uniform density in air.csult for an inhiite linc chargc. (34). (332).field .icalY I I I I I I C I ~ Y . osscrrs rlrtrr rlrc rortrl ool\\~rr~tl.I I. straight. Of course. whcn synimetiy conditions do not exist. Such n surface is referred to as a Ga~~ssiar? r f k c .has been derived in Section 32 as Eq. ncvcrtl~cless.
.<L. Example 35 Determine the electric field intensity of an infinite planar charge with I . . of course. has no zcomponent there..ts of a general expression of 1/R2. S ~ I I I ~ I :I'orI Ilic I I I I I ~ O I I I I ~ I ~ G' . (337) gives us immediately This result is. Gauss's law can be used to much advantage here.. We note that the length. (336).:I2r t l r r l $ but li. . but it is obtained here in a much simpler way. of the cylindrical Guassian surface does not appear in the final expression. S n l ~ l f i o ~ l I:t i s clc:t~. hence we could have chosen a cylinder of a unit length. Equalion (331) could bc used to find E. pp. 37 Applying Gauss's law to an infinitely long line charge (Example 34). Fig. . have There is no contribution from the top or the bottomface of the cylinder because on Ihc top f x c 11s . the same as that given in Eq. a uniform surface charge density /I. ~C C~ ~ : I C ~ + C Li I ~ ~i I I CC ~ I ~ I I C I Cis ~Q . L.34 1 GAUSS'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS 79 Infinitely long uniform ling charge. tllitl 1 1 1 ~ ' E licld ci1115ctI a clurgctl sltccl ol'an inlinite extent is hy ~lurmal o llic shccl. II Y I I Substitution into Eq. making E ils = 0. but this would inv~lve L a double integration between infinite 1irn. l l ~~O I J I I ~ I I I I ..
w r I 5 : surface charge. ds) = E. 38 :Applying Gauss's law to anhfinite planar charge (Example 35). On the bottom face. .s. If the charged sheet coincides with the xyplane.ds. p . . Since there is no contribution from the side faces. E ds = (a. ds = (a.d. .E. we have 6 from which we obtain E ds'= 2Ez ds = 2 2 . heref fore^ I and ' . the charged sheet mqy j o t coincide with the vplane (in which case we do not speak in terms of a b o v e ' d d below thk plane).). but the E field always points away from the sheet if ps is positive. s .A. ~ .  E .(a.  (a.c n rectangular box with top and bottoln ticcs of an arbitrary area A equidistant from the planar charge. The total charge enclosed in the b o i i's Q = p. Of course. . 8 ' Fig. as shown in Fig 35. We choose 3s the Gaussian ourSac.3 80 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS / 3 I 1 ' :f 1 : ' ' I .E. then on the top face. The sides of the box are perpendicular to the charged sheet.) .ds) = 6.
d s .with R < h is constructed with111 rhc electron cloud.\ 34 1 GAUSS'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS 81 . Determine the E field caused by a spherical cloud of electrons with a volume charge density p = p. A hypothetical spherical Gaussian surface S.. and b are positive) and p=OforR>b. . 6.rls = a. We must find the E field in two regions. E is radial and has a constant magnitude. The total charge enclosed within the Gaussian surface is e = J. . E = a. Example 36 Solution: First we recognize that the given source condition has spherical symmetry.E  ds = ER Js dr = ER4nR2. . 39. for 0 P R P b (both p.. The proper Gaussian surfaces must therefore be concentric spherical surhces. Refer to Fig.p I (Example36). On this surface. The total outward E flux is .E.
We obtain i h e same expression lor jL0E ds as in case (a). it is necessary (1) to choose a differential volume dement arbitr&ily located in the electron cloud. b) R 2 b I . (37) yields I . If we can determine V more easily. 5 a t . which is a straightsystem. (312). (338) $ill be explained pr&eerltly. The total chargc e~closed is .law if symmetry conditions exist for the given charge distributicn. 39.zs the gradient of'a sc. in general.I ' .38) . P For this case we construpt a fpherical Gaussiaq &face So with R > h outside the electron clouil. . This induccs us to define a scalar electric potentiql. such that . .< . (329). .to handle thad vect r uantities. a ' In connection with the null identhy in Eq. t h 35 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL: I . (2) to express its vector distance R:to a field poi4t in a chosen coordinate. The variation of ER versus R is plotted in Fig. i f We see that within the uniformelectron cloudthe J3 field is directed toward the center and has a magnitude pfdportiona~to the distance from the center. This ir a hopelevly involved process.. and (3) t6 perform a triple integration as indicated'in Eq. because scalar quantities are aasidr .syitem. i: . The moral is: T!) to apply Gdhssls. jar field. The reason lor the inclusion of forward process in an orthogonal~coordinate a negative sign in Eq. then E cap b&fbund by'a gradient operation. which follows the inverse qquare law and could have been obtained directly from Eq. . (2134 we poted that a curlfree vector field could always be expressed .. 1 !' (3. h \. for a spherically symmetrical charged rcglon even is though p is a function of R.Substitution into Eq. Note that the formal solution s of this problem requires only a fe% lines. If ~ a u s s law is not used. We observe that aurside the charged claud the E field is exactly the same as though the total chafige is concentrated on a single point charge at the center. T h ~ s true. c.
$. . We must find the E field in two regions. On this surface. 6. = ds = E. :d sheet E = a. E is radial and has a constant magnitude. I =  4n.E . for 0 5 R i b (both po and b are positive) and p=OforR>b. Refer to Fig. The total charge enclosed within the Gaussian surface is e = j p du ' . 34 / GAUSS'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS 81 . Determine the E field caused by a spherical cloud of electrons with a volume charge density p = p. Example 36 ' Solution: First we recognize that the given source condition has spherical symmetry. d s .. 3 l. The proper Gaussian surfaces must therefore be concentric spherical surfaces. )In faces 'ig. 30 lilcclric licld Inlcnslty of' a sphcrical electron cloud (Example 36). A hypothetical spherical Gaussian surface Siwith R < h is constructed within i h s electron cloud. 38..i&. Js ds = ER4nR2. The total outward E flux is . 39. rls = a.
aard the I. Thus. (340) can be obtained by substituting Eq. Therefore. achieving a net gain in work or energy. c at the ion cvcn 'Many paths may be followed in going from P . Spy E . along a path for which W is smaller and then to come back to PI along another path. (281). to point P . d o ~ iilc work dcpund on the p t h i:lkcot! h liitlc il~ou$it i i i . f 11) . field. = .. . in view of Eq.?rn L!LYl. work must be done against ' the. Two such paths are drawn in ~ i g310. (al d l ) :e vector 2es us to r (3!I\ t l c l w ~trn~ghtluslon of Fig. ipclessly )nditions Mathematically. one would be able to go from P1 to P. in an electric. in an electric field. l f it did. wc have \olutloll eccssary In cloud. Analogous to the concept of potential energy in mechanics. Electric potential does have physical significance.. in moving a unit charge from point P . i i lead Gs'to conclude fhat CV/q in Eq. This would be contrary to the principle of conservation of energy. In Section 32 we defined rhe electric field intensity as the force acting on a unit test charge. is not specified in Eq. . and point P I . to P .35 1 ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 83 .jield and is equal to 1 outside case (a). (339). (339) should not depend on the path. to P . and P . the question . (338) in Eq. the electric potenrial. We have nlrcndy alluded to the pathindependence nature of the scalar line integral of the irrotationni (conservative) E field when we discussed E q (38). (339). and it is related to the work done in carrying a charge from one point to another. h naturally arises. for.dP SP'' ( V V ) . 's)stem. Denoting the electric potential energy per unit charge by V. Eq. E q (339) represents the difference in electric potential energy of a unit charge between point P. 310 Two paths Icading from P . Since the ~ a t between P .
(343: . (340) is a ptentid difference (elcrrrorroric i. as in Fig.'dx know from &&tiqp 2 5 when we dclincd the gradient of a scalar field that the dirkction of V V isiiormyl to the surfaces of constant V .tlic ~ c ~ ~ o . whiic thc potential incrcnscs in the opposilc direction. it shoulri bcspcci/icully statctl. or :I rclixc~~cc : zc1.strennili+s~to indicate the direction of the or E field.j . can be obtained rGdily from Eq. a reference zero phase (usmlly :I( r . Fig.I 8 . and PI at bistalfes R. 31 1 of Rclutivc direction\ and increasing V. I !: ? . . !4 . 1 . Hence. I I ~ (lie I V I ~ ~ L . phasor ar thc absolutc altitude of a geographical location: a refercpceqropotential point. I . . respectively.' I ! : !' 1 35. . they are everywhere perp&diculitr to qiiipotu@iul lines and ~qsiporoliid . the inclusion of the negative sign is necessary in ordoe to copform with tile conve&on that in going oyoiirst the E field the electric potenlial V ina. of a voltage Vo is connected between two parallel qondu~ting positive and negative charges.cu$ulate. For instance. ~i11Ii11ity. respectively. r I' .eo. d ..1 Electric Potential due to a Charge Distribution I.o1111~ l4Lc11. if we use directed flili'(iljir~e. and R .~lli!h!c ( I I S I I : I.oltoge) between points P .111 most ( 1 ~ 1 t i l l ) G I S ~ S .: 011 the top and bottom plates. . 'a ! .SUI~~JC~'S. First. The E field is directed from pdsitive to negative chitrges.11 . I. It makes no moresense l.(338). Sccqn?.II I ~ Y IwuI) I U \ I S ~ ( S lirst hb sl)chyiliccl. The potential the difference between gny two p o i q t s ' ~ . . which gives I (342) ' I This is a scalar quantity and on. We want to make two mqre about Eq. . and P I .s .84 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELpS /:J' : ! 1 .I! l W II zeropotential poinl is 1101 .I I C ~ not ~ l ~ i s ~ ~ i . 31 1. . i.\I inlini!y. .~only distance R. 4 Direction of iwrcming V ' u .o talk about the absolute potential of a point than about the absolpte phasc of a. What we have defined in Eq. 0). besid~sq. .t : i I . . when a DC battery plates.ser. ! I I' The electric potential of a at 2 distance R fr* a point charge q referred to that at infinity.p i l. i. .
the concentric circles . Fro111IIIC poi111d v i c i of l<q. and P.. However. i l l i d ~ I I C I I liu111 l b i 10 /Ii.. .R: is.~ppc:~r little siirprisi~~g first../\ R~ / \$' 9 \ 1 I \ \ \ '\ '/ '\ '\ $ /' $ / I / / .V. let us again consider an electric dipole consisting of c h a ~ e s q and . bccause E is perpendicular to dP = a. is (spheres) passing through P. . The potential at P can be written down directly : '  If d << R. from q is :I a1 lJ2 'll~is rcsult m ~ . we have .. as shown in Fig. . .1 .q with a small separation d.\ / ' f I I / 1 /' I I\ / . easier to determine E by taking the negative gradient of V than from the vector sum in Eq.35 / ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 85 . the sum of the potentials due to the individual charges:  Since this is a scalar sum. qn located at R'I. . The distances from the charges to a field point P are designated R + and R. R. are equipotential lines (surfaces)and Vp2. . ' / I I I I '%. . dq5 along the circular path (E clC = 0). tllc S : I I :IS I<. 3. .. t As an example. by superposition.12. q. ~ t l ~ ~ os p 01' i ~ l l c p y ~ ~I'I'OII~ l l ' . 312 Path of integration about a point charge. (318) directly. ~ n d 1 1 ~ no1 lie on tile y y same radial line through q. .. .R. Fig.. . it is. in general. ( 3 40) wc G I I I c l ~ ~ ~ 111cc . N U W O ~ L ~ I C ~ I I I C~ U I I I 1 ' : 10 io~ is P . The electric potential due to a system of n discrete point charges q. si~lcc . as illustrated in Fig. 111 I * .. 313.
I : .) The E field can be obtaineq fro'rn . ) a ( 3 491 Equation (349) is the shme as eq. Example 37 Make a twqd@en. I and 1 R_z(R+jms:O) d ' 1 Z R . Pi= c . & a . ..VV. dipole. i . . qd cos 8 4ncOR2 1 I where p = qd.~327). 47T601<3  ( a . Since q. (348) for an electric dipole afe fixe'd quantities. . In spherical coordinates we have : L = .Fig. 313 :An elq~trid dipole. a constant V requires a constant ratio (cos 0/R2). I .' ( I .: I. 1. Hence the equation' for an equipotential surface is 1 I . T Solution: The equation of an eqiipotential surfade of q charge distribution is obtained by setting the expressiop for V to equal a constant. ' t . a . but has Feen bbtained by a simpler proI : cedure without manipulating psit ti on vectors.P 1 ! I I V 5 1 1 71 S1 1 .' : . (The "approxima!e" sign () has bee0 dropped for simplicity. cos ~ o + a. ~cos 0 ~ (1 ). (350) ' 9 .ional sketch of the q~uipotentiallines and the : . Y!=. d. ' . in Eq. L~ sin 4 . and E. electric field lines for an electrii. . 3 .
35 / ELECTRIC POTENTIAL F 87 . V is positive. we draw the solid equipotential lines in Fig. We set . 8 3 The electric field lines or streamliiks represent the direction of the E field in space. R is maximum at 8 = 0 and zero at 8 = 90". ( 3. I ' where c. 314 Equipotential andrlectric field lines of an electric dipole (Example 37). . A mirror image is obtained in the range 4 n/2 I S n where V is negative. In the range 0 i 8 I n/2..37) /? ( 3 38) I \ f2 ( 3 19) ~Icr pro and the P\ m is ob0 111 constant (350) fig. is a constant. By plotting R versus 8 for various values of c. 314.
s I . !.. u 1 I The electric potential due to a . fqr q ldlume charge &itrib tion. i1 1.&. In spheri 1 &?ordinates. a . Example 38 Obtain a foqulti*For the electljo~field4intensityon the axis of a circular disk of radius b that clrrieb a uniform surface charge density p. arld I 'dR Rd8 = 2 cos 8 sin 0 or 2 (/(sin a) = p sin 0 = I  " i : 4: 6 1.154) Integrating Eq. I . We have. I * 88 STATIC ELECTRl 1 b J i 1 . we obtajp :. having m a x p at 8 = n/2. is a constant. 5. : . R. c p h u o u s qistributiqn of charge confined in a eiven'region is obtained by intdgrafirlg the contribpdon of an element of charge over . 1 .. . (354). ' For an electric dipole. Eq. + a$. .. ': i ij.d8 . .:I I t !. They are rotqtion@llysfmmetrical abdut thq zaxis (independent of 0) and are everywhere normal to !fie equipoteptial l$?s. $ ' . (352) (353) . ).i !I .he charged region.4351) becomes (see Eq. R h cE sinZ8. I 8 I 1 '" For a surface charge distributi~g. there is na E4 :component.. iE8 IE. !.i 1 8 :. L pih8 d+ = k ( g R f 4 *Ee ~ which can be written I . (355) where c.R sin B d4 . .. are dashed in Fig.. 266). 314. . dR + aeR dB + aJ? dR r 2 : . d where k is a constant. Eq. The electriq field lines.
r' I The electric potential at the point P(0.1211. (355) dasid nt c r E = . Do you know why? For very large z. we have I # (353) and ds' = r' dr' d#' R= Jmi. Solution: Although the disk has circular symmetry.' . g l 5 A uniformly charged disk (Example 38). have (3 57) t n (3""' xis of a Fig. We use Eq. 0. hence Gauss's law is not useful for the solution of this problem. (359) Therefore.a. (360a) and (360b) into a binomial series and neglect the second and all higher powers of the We ratio (b2/z2). (352) I t 35 / ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 3 I 89 . it is convenient to expand the second term in Eqs. 315. 266).V V = . (357). we cannot visualize a surface around it over which the normal component of E has a constant magnitude. Working with cylindrical coordinates indidated in Fig.z) referring to the point at infinity is dr' d4' 1 (3 54) n = P [ ( z 2 260 + b2)'I2 . az av led in a ge over (356) The determination of E field at an offaxis point would be a much more dificult problem. .
for a line charge of finite length. However. where Q is the total chargp on ihe disk. we cannot cqnstruct a Gaussian surface over which E ds is constant. 316. R:= (Z z) '. . dlt = drf at il. thpE field approximatelj follows the inverse square law as if the total charge were coqcentrated at a point..  Example 39 Obtain a fo. Hence. Substituting this into Eqs. when the point of observation is very far away from the charged disk. . 36 ( .to the p o i ~ P(0. .' . 6" . I Here it is extremely important distinguish the podition bf the field point (unprimed coordinates) from the position ~f tpe source point (prime4 coordinates). Z>T. We integrate 4 $t . the E fieldtpn be determined readily by applying Gauss's law. as showq in Fig. . the axis of the line charge is .rnuln b r the electric field iltensity along the axis of a uniform line charge of length 4. ELECT . . ri . I. L .~ K E ~ Z ~ . The uniform Iioedmrgfi'densit is p. . qpuss's law is therefore not pseful here. (358)' by taking an element t distance R from the charge elebent .1 ' ' I . (3Pa) &d I I 4 ' E=a.The Instead. . . . we use Eq..  L Solution: For an infinitely lopg line charge. Bs iq the solution to J3xamplp 34.
we classify materials according to their electrical properties into three types: conh c t o r s . setniconductors. . The potential V . . small amounts of external energy may be sufficient to excite the electrons in the filled upper bapd to jump into the next band. However. Wc now cxaminc: thc licld bchavior in matcnal mcdia.zf  ="In[: 4nc0 z . hc l111e ~nmed regrate . .occur because of the existence of a large energy g?p to the next higher band.pc ~ 1 2 dz' 47E0 SLIZ I . Most metals belong to this group. it is always easier to determine E directly.over the source region . I n gcncral. 111 kcrms of khc band theory of solids. discrete energy states. / ' r ea . each band consisting of many closely spaced. Such materials are semiconductors.. V = . and insulators (or dielectrics). we emphasize conditions exist such that a Gaussian surfrrce cun be constructed over that. we find that there are allowed energy bands for electrons. ELECTRIC FIELD So far we have discussed only the electric field of stationary charge distrlbut~ons in frcc spacc or air. Insulators or dielectrics are materials with a completely filled upper band. For this problem. In terms of the crude atomic model of an atom consisting of a positively charged nucleus with orbiting electrons. ' . The electrons in the atoms of insulators or dielectrics. The. 1s very squarr c1s of li The preceding two exampies iiiustrate the procedure for determining E by first finding V when Gauss's law cannot be conveniently applied. thc clcctrons in thc outermost shclls of Lhc atoms of~conductors vcry loosely held arc and migrate easily from one atom to another. n . causing conduction. if desired.1 t 36 CONDUCTORS IN STATIC \L!Y~. Conductors have an upper energy band partially filled with electrons or an upper pair of overlapping bands that are partially filled so that the electrons in these bands can move from one to another with only a small change in energy. however.36 / CONDUCTORS IN STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD I? 91 .(L/2) z + (L/2) 1. The electrical properties of semiconductors fall between those of conductors and insulators in that they possess a relatively small number of freely movable charges. I J'. they cannot be liberated in normal circumstances. so conduction could not normally. may be obtained from E by integration. if~ymmetry which E ds is constant. If the energy gap of the forbidden region is relatively small. 2. Between these energy bands there may be forbidden regions or gaps where no eiectrons of t b w l f d ' s atom can reside. are held firmly to their orbits.  L 2 ( 362) The E field at P is the negative gradient of V with respect to the unprimed field coordinates. . :361a) 361b) . even by the applicatlorl of an external elect~ic field.
' The charge distribution ob thesurface pf i. L. hnder sraric c o ~ d i t i o 'the E3eld on a conductor ~ surfice is everywhere normal t q th4sbrfaee. Sides ab and cd are parallel to ihe int&fq$d Applying ' that E in a conductor is'tero.. the norm 1 cfiflponent of E ailthe fprfacc of the conductor. '. i.<' . ' e bpiain immecjjavly 1 ' II . I Hence.s. For a good c ~ p d u c tr s ~ c as copper.' . this tim is in the order of 10. f l ~ cwhole col~d\rclorllasYthc w n c clcctro\tat~c potential. the lot@putward electric flu* thropgh ony closed surface constructed inside the conduc or &st vanish.. This movement will continua'until all the charges reach the conductor surface and redistribute themselves ip suck a way that both thacharge and tfie field inside vanish. . Therefork.. An electric field will be let up in the conductor.* J+ $1 dl' = Et Av:= 0 : 14 r' Y :& . definition of conductivity. 0ik J ?' ? E  or .i ' > . t 13 !! ! . rh$ surface of a conducror is (In equrpofentiul surface u n $ r ydtic contlition... . I (4 .pqttct of fact. (? i (3 66) which says that the tengential ~ot$nent of the $ fikld oLIh ocnddq~toor a surfoce is zero. In order to find E. (This ppinh will be elaborated in Section 54.l 9 (s). conductPr depends on the shape of the surface. which hasew7ih'# = cd .'In this sectiop we exgmi e the electric field and charge distribution both insiqe t\iq bulk and on t4c surfi~cc a conductor.) Figure 317 shows an int fa* between a c~ncl$ctor$nd bee space.: . since E = O cvcrywlicrc inside o conclucior. qf Assumc for the prcscnl tkul yoiilc positive (oi qg+v@ichargc~are introduced ' in the interior of a conductofi.92 STATIC ELECTRIC FlE+PS 3 I ? . .= Aw and = Ah. . = O . we !?. Obviously the chqges ~ ~ o unot be in b state of eqdfjbrium if there were ld a tangential component of the electtic field intepsity that pro@ces k tangential force and moves the charges.pdistributc on a conductor surface and reach the eguilibri m State. > The macroscopic electri 1 ptoperty of a mattrial r(lcdium is characterized by a which we Mil define in Chapter 5. The constitutive parameter calle~cdnhctitlity. holueger$is not importbt id this . 1. A finite limc is rc irql for thc chqrgcjs to f. the field exerting a force on the charges and making them nji. In othet:wor$. Consider the contour ubcdu. 'b L ' .I i I (tJnCfer Static Copditions) '1 p=o 1 (3 64) When there is no charge in the inteiior of a conquctgr (p must be zero because.chapter because we are not dealing with current flow and are now interested anly in the behavior of static electric fields in material media.ve away from one another. !:a E . This time qepenqp on the conductivity of the material. : t .!A~ n. . b a very brief transient.I !. according to Gauss's law.! : l i . * .
Summarizing the buundury condifions at the conductor surhcc. h 1 . . r. the external field will cause loosely held electrons inside the conductor to move in a direction opposite to that of the field and cause net positive charges to move in the direction of the f i e l q h e s e induced free charges bill distribute on the conductor surface and create an induc2d field in such a way that they cancel the external field both inside the conductor and tangent to its surface.* 1 ) . \ construct a Gaussian surface in the form of a thin pillbox with the top face in free space and the bottom face in the conductor where E = 0. A : by a d 5.17 A conduct&free I space interface. we . (37).. . Example 310 A positive point charge Q is at the center of a spherical conducting shell of an inner radius Ri and an outer radius R. . we obtain P E. .. we have :e were 1 force 1 lducror ~. .tc. When the surface charge distribution reaches an equilibrium.luc. all four relations.r E=O ObldtlC lductor of the 19 (4. (364) through (367). der the des ub noting I n When an uncharged conductor is placed in a static electric field. Determine E and V as functions of the radial distance R. surface ! a l p of' Hence. 3. will hold: a'nd the conductor is agdin an equipotential body. 93 . (366) is zero. Using Eq. the nother. I I II I Ps i I 1 . . €0 :cause. . ' I I I Fig. Eqs. ~ce and vanish. the normal component of the E field at a conductorfree space boirilbry is equul to the surfuce churoe density on the conductor divided by the permirtioitp of j x e spucc. The we are c f static :Id ayd oduced or. (364) ( 3p. tor.. = 2.36 1 CONDUCTORS IN STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD 1 6 .
I 94 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS ( 3 : .. There are three p t i n a regions: (I) R > (b) R. in all fhree rbgiohd. . 314 J E I W ~ ~ intensity and field potential vdiatio$ of a point charge +Q at the knier flf a conducting 3 . 18(a). Obviously. i Fig.. i . I 1 1: . E = a. 1: t: 1: 1.. li ! Solution: The geometry qf the is shown id' ~ gj3. (Gaussian surface S. and (c) R < R.E. Since there is spherical symmetry.jo u s i Gauss's law io determine E and then find V by integration.): * ii! ' ! I  6 I I! i! i 37' RL Idc ELEC~RIC $ $ * i = E R .' *.: jEO: or t B. ext ma1 eve effe . r I a. 1: L . 4 n R 2 = . Suitable spherical Gaupiqn qurfaces will be cons{ructed in these regions. S R 5 R. it is sirnplest. 1' i 1  3 a) j3 R > R. shell ( ~ x a m ~ l e 0).
(368) Ideal dielectrics do not contain free charges. (This also means an amount of positive. The potential referring to the'point at infinity is . 318(b) and 318(c).): Application of Gauss's law yields the same formula for ER3 as ERl in Eq. R where the integration constant C is determined by requiring V. we cannot conclude that they have no effect on the electric field in which they are placed.) The cullducting shell is an equipotential body. However. 37 D I E L E C T R I C ~ N STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD r. at R = R. 5 R _< Ro (Gaussian surface S. The variations of E i and V versus R in all three regions are plotted in Figs. and . . there are no induced free charges that move to the surface and make the interior charge density and electric field vanish. (368) for the first region: ER3 = Q ~ '' 4xe. eqcl?! LO tQ is induced on the outer shell surface at R = R. an amount of negative charge equal to .~ (372) The potential in this region is &= J s ER3 dR + C = . (371). to equal V2 in Eq.egions. I i 1 b) R . When a dielectric body is placed in an external electric field.): Because of Eq.+ c . charge.Q must be induced on the inner shell'surface at R = R i . Hence. (365). 4m. (370) Since p = 0 in the conducting shell and since the total charge enclosed in surface S2 must be zero. we L o w ER2 = 0. We have and here is sn lind to. The E field is ths kame as that o f a point charge Q without the presence of the shell.I 1 37 1 DIELECTRICS IN STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD 95 ' I 1 .. since dielectrics contain bound charges. ' / c) R < Ri (Gaussian surface S. . as with conductors..
*I . . . 319. I Int PO] anc is Her dielectric material. on thelindividual that shown in Fig. whe: of tt .i F (6. 96 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS / 3 ' !' I . more dissimilar which do not have permanent cules arc of lhe order o f dipoles in a polar Rec.
and V' on the right side is the volume of the polarized dielectric. The vector P. dv' . dV=dv' . . In Cartesian coordinates. 4m0RZ a (375) Integrating over the volume V' of the dielectric. (376) can be written as t w o or decules. A + A . V' P (38 I ) The first volume integral on the right side of Eq. we can rewrite Eq. (374) ' We note here that V on the left sjde of Eq. (376)+L  1uclcus lectrlcs 3 f c p 30511.x')' + ( y . v'f.lament Recalling the vector identity (Problem 218). . (382) with Eqs. RZ = ( X . ( f A ) = f v ' . where R is the distance from the elemental volume do' to a fixed field polnt. (357) and (356). The dipole moment dp of an elemental volume dv' is dp = P du'.zl)'. which produces an electrostatic potential (see Eq. : . V 1 . a smoothed point function. is the volume density of electric dipole moment. S where n is the number of atoms per unit volume and the numerator represents the vector sum of the induced dipole moments contained in a very small volume Av.y')2 + .  ~ d v ' ] . Comparissn of the two integrals on the right side of Eq. V1(:)dur sV. 348) P a. we obtain the potential due to the polarized dielectric. 1 S1T and it is readily verlfred that the gradient of 1/R with respect to the primed coordiacres is (378) ! crc.1 V = 4xc. livldual l o w in [J. dlpoles !la1 the ~de the t ' l C I I Ill Hence.llc. Eq. is the outward normal to the surface element ds' ofthe dielectric. (381) can be converted into a closed surface integral by the divergence theorem. . (376) represents the electric potenriol at a field polnt. (380) and letting A = P and f = l/R. r molehv~dual . (Z ( 3 77) . (379) as . We have n I l'LJcll where a.37 1 DIELECTRICS IN STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD 97 .
9s.q move an equal with the aid of charge distributions. r (3 85) t the vcrl .)83) and (384) involve only . correctly gives a positive surface negative surface charge on the The prune ~ g oh a. : 1...J .. # FIELD^ I I 3 11. (383). : 3 4 . md V h n heen drop@ b smplic~ty.   I"   i p. end U I I rquiuq~e~~t~polurizatioi~ charge density p p for field voluflle i calculations. This relation in Fig.. is by dehnitioR P.* f . t : . a polarized dieleetrio cnn. 1 . . . = P an(As) JI (387) and ..:. 9.ce dargc (lensity p. . w ' . We have 't ?. . $ $' 1 .. 319 oriented dipoles exist on an imaginary elemental external electric field positive charge +q move a charges . Consider Tl~e application of an the bound charges: t h field and negative ~ thd field. I . The net total whe 38 ELEC* DIELECTRIC Bea the 1 diffe ' mils 4f2 F nq(d anKAs). nbnnal.. i  . . reveals that the eleqplc pbtential (and thkrefoi the electric field intensity also) due to a polarized dielectriq can be calculated fiom the contributions of surface and volume charge distributions haying. In other words.:. "*. 319 and a 1% ' t f1 i r .. . . (3 86) I ' ' tt the polarization vector But the dipole moment per 4 it volume. a vector identity.* " : respectively.J i  $4 +. a The sketch in Fig. . f 9Q . n r rjnd'e' 1. source coordinates and no confuqiqn ~)J'@u[t:! 'i r . I ' i c *. I :. . . !I a... respectivsld densities .$.charge densities or ((pundcharge densities.:. the ends of similarly fpolarization. wit and (384)' wl1 whi to These are referred to as polariz(ltion. . . as given in Eq. 5 '. ..1 > i ..1 98 " I STATIC ELECTRIC . :.he rcplncrd hy oy rqsi~olent polorizntior~a. ..:.
1 . However. L 0 Q = $sP.c:~\~sc~xil. Combining Eqs. (34) must be modified to include the effect of p. In particular.8 ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT ton$.ctl :I tliclcc~ric~ i v c s rise t i ) :I vol~~nlc . ! chdrged.a. since we started with an electrically neutral dielectric body.~d~=~. This can be readily verified by noting that Total charge = ' $ p. or e1ectr.. The net charge remaining ' within the volume V is the negative of this integral. 5' v. . D. ' Wc now define a new fundamental field quantity. that is. the net total charge flowing out of V as a result of polarization is obtained by integrating Eq.ll.. x thc total charge of the body after polarization must remain zero. (387). . when the divergence of P does not vanish. (3841.. the divergence postulated in Eq. wc espcct ihc electric lield inicrlsity duc t o a given sourcc distribution in a ciiclcctric to be different from that in free space. (384). (391) and (392).~ri/.. we have vector (387) p....32 = d P p. ds . Hence. (390) €0 + . the bulk of the polarized dielectric appears . . such that r~Ii\ti\ 9 and a The use of the vector D efiiiblcs us to write il divergence rc1:rtion hctwccn the electric field and the distribution of j i v e charges in any medium without the necessity of dealing explicitly with the polarization vector P or the polarization charge density p. du (389) (3rx =$s~. the electricJlux density.38 / ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT 99 tensity surface (383)+ For a surface S bounding a volume V. we obtain the new equation olve only .vhere 11 :ma1 to ld Ih.).I1 1111 where the divergence theorem has again been applied. llilldl. . I a.ly on\~der II :\I) ll. ~ r ~ c ch tlcnsily I).. (386) I Using Eq. (1s + Jv p. (384)' 11ca 111 or surjace field which leads to the expression for the volume charge density in Eq.~cb: 2gallve et total ..i~ displacement.dsJvv.
.he total outward ql the e/ecfric d i s p l a c o n e ~ ~ simply. (393) is obtaiqed by taking the volume integral of both sides. . another f o p of G&SS'S law. ' . :. f L i is anisotropic. char& ~ ~ u a k i &3. . # = EOXA :i . is I is a dimensionless constant know as t& relotiye or the dielectric constunt of the medium. We have : ' 1 1 . Gauss's law is rqos{ju eful in dete&jninajthe elect& field due to :' charge distributions under symmetry c nditions. ~ i c ~ uouer ally closed (or. * ' i . . . !4 : I .I $ 1s! and (35) are the f two fundamental governing diffqreqfial equation9 ' f ~ &ctrosta.i where P is the voiume depsity C file. habcei. When the dielectric p r o p e r f p the medium $re linear and isotropic. tlfe totol of~t~varif e e . .+sured in meter (F/m). So CO I sol >fin.!:i I !' . The dielectric constants gf s f ! t t h e r ma.ics in any medium. > . The coefiicient c the absoluIe &@it jvity (often called simply permittiuit~)of the medium and 1s p. / i'.the 5t 6 b( the . does not! appaar e$licitly in these two af equations. . ! .tb ennittivity h us$lly taken as that of free space. Asb. and the proportionality constant is independent of the direction of the field. the polariztion is directly proporticjpa] to the electric geld iqensity. e1 s) suguce is equul to the total pee charg4 +enclosedin the~surjaqe. {' f I r. 111 I . Appendix B. states! that . We write pk v1 . : .!..WQ59. (396) dielectric medium of space where x i is a dimensionless is linear if X. $ The corresponding integral fyrrq ok Eq. Air has a dielectric constant of l. I ' Equation (3951.r&i a r included in a table in :' . gsdil .s been indicated in Section 34. Note that thel~ermittivity fred space. ' A tensor would be required to represent 1the d&tric swceptibility~ the 't 'f i . ro.
Determine E. V. but the procedure of solution is similar. Potential R V is found from the negative line integral of E...38 / ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY AND DIkLECTRIC CONSTANT 101 . Ilr. . (368) and (369). Q and (398) )rlstallf P. D. can fur~clion ofspnm coordinnlcs. 320(a). and P vectors have only radial components. whcre the Gaussian surfaces are not shown in order to avoid cluttering up the figure. . (397) and (399). and P as functions of the radial distance R. (3 96) I ~ ~ I U J I I f spacc 1 (397) 4nc.llod d u i p IIC.. )rap The situation in this region is exactly the same as that in Example 310. :irc 111c ledium. . Refer to Fig. homogeneous. the medium is said to be homogeneous. (b) Ri I 5 and (cJ X <... Because of the spherical symmetry. we apply Gauss's law to .1 ) E . A linear. Solution: The geometry of this problem is the same as that of Example 310. 5nJ E and D inthiee regions: (a) R > R.R From Eqs. we obtain v1 = . a) R t' . The conducting shell has now been replaced by a dielectric shell. cse two ' Nolo 1h. The relative permittivity of a simple medium is a constant. and isotropic medium is called~a simple medium.cOE= E ~ ( E . We have. and polarization P is determined by the relation P = D . = 0 . from Eqs. is indcpcndcnt ofposition. ( 399) The E. I ( 394) (395) flu of close~f t11c.. The applicaiion of Gauss's law in this region gives us directly sin* ILL of fsw ~ble 1. The dielectric constant of the shell is c.D. > R.il r .A.. ha volume Example 311 A positive point charge Q is at the center of a spherical dielectric shell of an inner radius Ri and an outer radius R.
Dielectric shell (4 : : .t . 520 'Vicld yuri:itions of a point charge +& at the center of a dielectrjc shell (Example 31 1. 7 . I .. Fig. .) a .
The plot for V in Fig.m. the application of Gauss's law yields . From Eqs. and . 318(b) and 318(c) of Example 3! 1.. in the three regions. To hnd v.I j aK. V.. on the outer shell surface. negative polarization surface charges exist on the inner surface. However.E. 320(b) and 320(d) with.) is PR and is shown in Fig..and PR in both regions: ...roE. 3?O(b).. Figs. and V. DR. It is instructive to compare Figs. 320(d) is a composite graph for V. = Q .. respectively.38 I ELECTRIC FLUX DENSITY AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT 1 J3 c) R < Ri Since the medium in this region is the same as that in the region R > R.(K'l'R2) = 0. (' (3lW) Equations (3107).. positive polarization surface charges. (383) and (384) we find on the inner shell surface. We note that DR is a continuous curve exhibiting no sudden changes in going from one medium to another and that P R exists only in the dielectric region. on the outer . (3108).i . The difference ( D R . and DR versus R are plotted in Fig.and (3109) indicate that there is no net polarization volunle charge inside the dielectric shell.: The variations of e.. have a .he 'same expressions for E. 3PO(c). we must add to V2 at R = Rithe negative line integral of E.
separation between the conductors is assumed to be. given f 9 The dielectric strength of a mqtendmust not be c&nfustid with its dielectric constant.yeqIarge cornpafed to ' sothat the charges on the spherical conductors may berco@iered as u a i f ~ ~ ~ l y ~ i s t r i b u t e d . ' :. 20x10~ 25 )( lo6 30 x 106 200 x' 10" surface. We have explained that an g\ecf$c field causes small Pisplacements of the bound charges in a dielectric material. If the electric field is very strong. Thi mqiqhA electric figld hten$Ity that a dielectric material can withstand without breakdqwn is the dielecttic st ength of the material. and sparking (corona discharge) follows. and b2 (b. 3 k Y / i ~ j ~ nWIJCII ~ I CI C C ~ I ICI. \ . i ~ r t thc i a atmospheric prcwirc 1s.. The material will 1 become conducting. it will pull electrons ~oppletelyout of the m lecules. at the center. This is 'the principle upon which a lightning arrester works.The fact that the electric . thus reducing tbe.._I . I . Charbe tendglto concentrate at sharp ~ o i n t s In view of Eq. Ir . Tbis phenomenon is called a dielectric breakdown.).IICIC& I J I L C I I ~ A L Y cx~ccclsLll~s . 3 x 10" . charge Q A total i* . These surface charges produce an electric fisld intensity that is directed radially inward. The ~$stange of.. which are connected by a coducdng wire. causing permanent dislocations in the molecular strtidure. . Material li Air (atma~pher/c jyessure) Mineral oil I Polystyrene . _  t 38.!i i < 1 3 I \ 1 t 1t 1 104 STATIC ELECTRIC ~ 1 @ \ 0 ~ 1 ' 3 II . 7 39 6 ELECTF P I J * II ( ii . > b.E field in region 2 due to the point charge + Q .+4ass'ivivg~isnization taked'place. field intensity tends to be of a charged conductor point near the ~ s u with a larger curvature is in the follo$ng 4 1 1 I I : Example 312 Consider twp sph:erical conductsjrs~ wjfh rqdii b. air breaks down. the electric field intensity in t l ~ c immediate vicinitxd shgrp points is higher than that at points on a surface with i j small curvature. Table 31 qcw!Strengths of ~ o ~ c ! ~ & nMaterials i 14 f l ~on + t. ! ! I . L S value. and larle cbirents may res$lt. 3' I1 . A convcnicnt number t o ~ c ~ k i n h c\ r that tlsc iliu cctric strcnpth of .1 Dielectric Strength . Rubber 2 ) ~ i c l k c t r i c t r c n ~(tV /~I ~ ) ~ l .. I 3 >. teiulting in pola&ation. Free char'ges w 1 appear. Disgbay$e through the s h a ~ p oinL of a lightning arrester prevents damaging discharg~ethmugh nearby ~ b i e c t . (367). The approximate dielectric streng hs f some common8'$ubst~ce~are in Table 31. l$ix lo6 i 1 Glass Mica 7 L i .
321 Two connected conducting spheres (Example 312). The :ble 31. 321.39 1 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS Fig. Solution a) Refer to Fig. is deposited on the spheres. d ! is vfry i'nlancnt :rial will cailcd a Hence the charges on the spheres are directly proportional to their radii. being higher at the surface of the smaller sphere which has a larger curvature. and (b) the electric field intensities at the sphere surfaces. han that which a arrester : e l e p inductor b2 b1 Q and 2. Since the spherical conductors are at the same potential.bl b2 Q. :onstant. But. 39 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS bz > bl). ir at the :cds this ona dis. .: + Q r :b ~ . since we find Inatcrial id. b l + b2 b) The electric field intensities at the surfaces of the two conducting spheres are QI= + The electric field intensities are therefore inversely proportional to the radii. . Find (a) the charges on the two spheres. we may wish to determine how the E and D vectors . ween the :s on the :harge Q Electromagnetic problems often involve . (367).hedia with different physical properties and require the knowledge of the relations of the field quantities at an interface between two media. we have directed rg. For instance.
Tpproach zero.Aw+~~. (395) to the ~ i law .' If we let s~des =ilo Ah . (366) and (367). as was ia Fig. I fi L I r. and the height of the pillbox Ah is vanish nglj( small. (366) if one of the media is a conductor When o media 1 and 2 are dieleftr&'$ith'.wh . i Therefore i I. ~ ~ ~ lGayfs's n k Eq. we have ' .their pontribufions to the line integral of E around the path can beiqglected.. I $1 See C.Aw~E~. We hbve '6 " . . ill!( / L . 322. respectively. 60..com~pnemsof the fields at a boundary. vol. iI t! wh~ we 1 or I( cc elec t (31 10) t i i I which states that the tanyenrid cQppotaent of un E je4d i c~ntinuous s acrosr an interface.(Aw)=E~. both being parallel to t& inte'face and equal tb AW. " 1 axwe$ theory: ~ r o c e e & of (he IEEE. 0 t I 1 Fig. 322. Let us construct a smqll path abc% with sidesab and c m media 1 and 2 respectlvely.xa elec :i . On the presentation of A U ~ U S ~ 1972.. \ In order to find a relation betdecn the norrnal. *f i I . These copditi~ns have been given ln Eqs. or l ady know the bouqdary conditions that must interface. (3110) simplifies t &.w=O. pp 936945. T Tal. . '1 Soil1 on: intc necc . whlch is on assumed to be valid for regions containing discoqtihuouq~medja.I.whe lnte 4 ' .. 322 'An inttrface between two m e d i ~ . and r. the becc $ ebcde E..is applied to this bc path. . €2 1.. ~ ~ u i t i (38).=.~~=~~. Eq. . 4.permittivities r. w e now consider an interface bl)tween&general media shown in Fig. ~ . I ) I (31 1 1 ) ii Ii 1 . we construct a small illldx with its top ?ace ip medium 1 and bottom face in medium 2. Thdfaces ave an area AS. if1 1 .
only the normal field components need be considered. (3111) :Ids a bottom .n given :I m@$ respech1c i to this the line \\ a where the reference unit nornml is omvard from rnediurn 2. ( D l . ~ I 936945. El. = 3. = 0 and Eq. (3ll3b) becomes Dln = 6lEln = P s ' (31 14) which simplifies to Eq. No free charges exist.an2 D.. infurr.2) is introduced perpendicularly in a uniform electric field E... Unit vectors a. = 0. 1or t (3113a) 1 . . we find the boundary conditions that must be satisfied for static electric fields are as follows: Tangential components. The sitnation is depicted in Fig. Di.) AS ' + I (3112) where we have used the relation a. and a. (3112) we obtain = pS As. When two dielectrics are in contact with no free charges at the interface. in free space. If medium 2 is a conductor. . (367) when medium i is free space.39 / BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR FLECTROSTATIC FIELDS 4 i 137 pillbox... a. = a. respectively. Since the interfaces are perpendicular to the electric field.anl) AS = a n 2 . Normal components.D.) = p s .. $Dado = (Dl . we have i . 323.. = a. (Dl .Determine Ei.. . Eq. (3113b) lat must . = E. . (31 13) states that the norntal component of D field is discontinuous across an interface where a surface charge existsthe amount of discontinuity being equal ro the surface charge density. we have . When we have tin Recapitulating.E. Solution: We assume that the introduction of the lucite sheet does not disturb the original uniform electric field E. From Eq. D. .A lucite sheet ( E . and Pi inside the lucite. p. are.D..and (j) the to I / Example 373. outward unit normals to media 1 and 2.
14) : or .k875r0~. i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ = a . :t .d\ . It1 t .I 1 . 1 4 : 1 t . . . = a. 1 $ at the left ikt&rfagc gives Di = a. (3114) on the right interface will yield the prigifid 4 and D. 11 1 ~ .e cOE.I I :.t.~ . ( ( . . 4 +2 The polarization vector is zbro oqtside the lucitd sheet(Po = 0). i 1 ?' . . . : . r ! . I ! (q/rn2)* 2 Clearly. * * . 1 i t Boundary condition E ~(31. i 4 . $3. D. . i ' . a similar applicati~ndffhe boundqry @ondipon Eq. : . ( 108 STATIC ELECTRIC F Lw. in ihdfree /paceon the right of the lucite sbcct. .D..:./ 3 I lr r i . < . ? * 1% I . Dacs thc solution ofi(hi$ firohlcrn clli~n if tb d p i n a l clcctric field i v n o t uniform. Inside the sheet.i . . 1: . = q. 324 ~dund+ conditions at the interfwe b t e w two dielectric media (E~a$~lc. * . Fi=Di=Di=fl . :I.?/!cl). ' . that is. Fig. f r .E y)') .b. ii "[. = axcoEo: There is no change in electric )?@ density rcrpss thp i n t & & The electric field intensity inside the ludte shbet iv '. ( l $j)LO~O =p a. . . $ i .D. II 81 It r . i 1. if E..t * \.
(31 17) by 5q. E .V Y by a factor o f t .!. (31 18) gives  tan a . is larger or smaller than s. we have . 324. in medium 2. and will follow directly. The magnitude of E.. .El b l . increasing the total charge by some factor k would merely increase the surface charge density p. The ratio Q/V therefore . But. is 7~ hc ight J'. and consequently the total charge Q will also increase by a factor of k. $ . have been found. it follows that p. witlroutaffecting the charge distribution because the conductor remains an equipotential body in a static situation. (31101 and (3./c.. 324. E = anp. everywhere by the same factor. 109 Example 314. are separated by a chargefred boundary as shown in Fig. and E.I . The electric field intensity in mediuni 1 at the point F. . This may also bd seen from the fact that increasing V by a factor of k increases E = . with the normal.I 310 / I C~PACITANCEAND CAPACITORS . from Eq.. k ~ & t i o n s needed to solve'for two unkpowns E2. sin a. do dielectric media with Permittivities c.? From Section 36 we understand that a conductor in a static electric field 1s an equipotential body and that charges deposited on a conductor will distribute themselves on its surface in such a way that the ilectric field inside vanishes. (367). 1 Solution: ~ w o ..115). and E.. luclte d is not By examinink Fig. Suppose the potential due to a charge Q is V.. and c. After are E2. = El sin ai (3117) and I n (3118) c2E2COS at = €. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric field intensity at point P . has n magnitude E l and makks an angle cr. h i Division of Eq. can you tell whether r . (357) that the potential of an isolated conductor'is directly proportional to the total charge on it. E. Obviously." ' I.. Using Eqs. We may conclude from Eq. cos .
Equation (3121) applies here if V is taken to mean the potential ditrerence between the two conductors. in terms of Q. Notc tha! the field which arc cq~iipotcntiillsti~f. At this stage.. and dotermining Q in terms of V. . resulting in a charge + Q on one conductor and .. That is. The conductors may be of arbitrary shapes as in Fig. Its SI unit is coulomb per volt. Fig. It depends on the geometry of the conductor6 and on the permittivity of the medium between them. (3122) by either ( I ) assuming n V. . lines are perpendicular to the conductor S L I ~ ~ ~ I C C S . We write where the constant of proportionality C is called the capacitance of the isolated conducting body.. 3125 A twoconductor . it does not depend on either the charge Q or the potential difference V . 325. . or farad (F).lces. Capacitance C can be determined from Eq. The capacitance of a capacitor is a physical property of the twoconductor system. V. a charge transfer occuqs..110 STATIC 'ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 remains unchanged. When a DC voltage source is connected'between the conductors. capacitor. Several eiectric field lines originating from positive charges and terminating on negative charges are shown in Fig. since we have not yet .Q on the other. A capacitor has a capacitance even when no voltage is applied to it and no free charges exist on its conductors. . The capacitance is the electric charge that must be added to the body per unit increase in its electric potential. Of considerable importance in practice is the capacitor which consists of two conductors separated by free space or a dielectric medium. 325. or (2) assuming a Q and determining V .
Find V I 2by evaluating isolated d to the volt. Determine the capacitance. we find C by the second method. Following the procedure outlined above. Find E from Q by Eq. 4..' 3 i i (3121) ' . Find C by taking the ratio Q/V. The space between the plates is filled with a dielectrlc of a constant permittivity E .Q to the other carrying 5. we put charges + Q and . (3114)' Gauss's law. he procedure is as follows: 1. Now P Fig. Choose an apprdpriate coordinate system for the given geometry. or other relations. 326.p . . 326 Cross sectlon of a parallelplate capacitor (Example 315).r 1 I.. . + Q. 5 3. where " ~tcnrial :d to It d from . (31 14). r ( 3 . or of two may be 3etween nductor ch wgcs he field urfaccs. . or (2) not yet From Eq. It is obvlous that the appropriate coordinate system to use is the Cartesian coordinate system. The charges are assumed to be uniformly distributed over the conducting plates with surface densities + p s and .Q on the upper and lower conducting plates respectively. we have which is constant within the dielectric if the fringing of the electric field at the edges of the plates is negiectcd. Example 315 A parallelplate capacitor consists of two parallel conducting plates of area S separated by a uniform distance d. 2. studied the methods lor solving boundaryvalue problems (which will be taken up in Chapter 4).1 ~ lductor y of the Solution: A cross section of the capacitor is shown in Fig. )elween ! I I from the condbctor carrying . Assume chargks 4 Q and Q on the conductors. .
(367).. as before. Example 316 A cylindrical capacitor consists of an inner conductor of radius a and an outer conductor whose inner radius is b. where. . . I which is independent of Q or V. for a parallelplate capacitor. and the length of the capacitor is L Determine the capacitance of this capacitor.Q on the surface of the inner conductor and the inner surface of the outer conductor. 327. Solutioti: W e use cylindrical coordinates for this problem. 327.) Referring to Fig. respectively. The electric field intensity between the plates is uniform and equals . in view of Eq. and . . respectively. the E field is not constant in the dielectric and Eq.p . = e b . + Fig. (31 14) gives only the normal comporlent of the E field at a conductor surface. For this problem wecould have started by assuming a potential difference V12 between the upper and lower plates. = c. 1'.. (31 14) cannot be used to find E in the u < r < b region. . I The surface charge densities at the upper and lower conducting plates are + p . we have . The space between the conductors is filled with a dielectric of permittivity c. 2 p. First we assume charges Q and . The E field in the dielectric can be obtained by applying Gauss's law to a cylindrical Gaussian surface within the dielectric a c r < b. (Note that Eq. d Therefore. Q = psS = (cS/(i)Vl2 and C = Q/V12= sS/d. . A cylindrical capacitor (Example 3.Therefore.16). Since the conductor surfaces are not planes here.
Thus we wouid not know how lo cxprcss li and Q in lcrms of Vuhuntil wc l c m c d how to solve such a boundaryvalue problem.. Determine the capacitance.17). for a cylin+ical capacitor. Example 317 A sphcriwl capacitor consists of an inncr conducting spllcrc nl radius R iand an outer conductor with a spherical inner wall of radius R. and We could not soive this problem from an assumed Vuhbecause the electric field is not uniform between the inner and outer conductors. (Note . :hargcs c outer ~ p i j i n g' . respectively.310 1 CA~ACITANCEAND CAPACITORS i 113 Again we neglect the fringing effect of the field hear the edges of the conductors.. The space inbetween is filled with a dielectric of permittivity s. ' . in the ferring Solution: Assume ciiarges + Q and .).Q. we have 'Fig. The potential difference Between the inner and outer conductors is Therefore. on the inner and outer conductors of the spherical capacitor in Fig. 328. tp.urfacc. Applying Gauss's law to a spherical Gaussian surface with radius R ( R i < R < R. 328 A spherical capacitor (Example 3.
' the external terminals are from the first and last capacitors only. The two basic ways are series and parallel connections. Charges will be induced on the internally connected conductors such that +Q and Q will appear on each capacitor independently of its capacitance.>.. charge cumulauons on the conductors connected to the external terminals are + Q and . 329 4  capacitors. . Series connection of Therefore. When a potential difference V is applied to the terminals. are conventionaily represented in circuits by pairs of parallel  . connection shown in Fig. (LIC. the charge cumulated on a capacitor depends on its capacitance.1 Series and Parallel Connections of Capacitors Capacitors are often combined in various ways in electrkhcuits. or headtotail. ' Capacitors. The potential differences across Ihc individual capacitors arc Q / C . . . 310.Q. In the series..anti where C is the equivalent capacitance of the seriesconnected capacitors. 329. bars. whatever their actual shape. When a potential difTerence or electrostatic voltage V is applied. for a spherical capacitor. We have . The total charge is the sum of all the charges. the external terminals are connected to the conductors of all the capacitors as in Fig. In the parallel connection of capacitors. 330. Q/Cz.. . 114 i STATlC ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 tiC?+2y fq = + Fig.
= 4 / I F are connected as in F i g 331. 331 A cornblnatlon of capacitors (Exxmple 3. connection Therefore the equivalent capacitance of the parallelconnected capiicitors is /  \LO >IC C. Determine the following: (a) the total equivalent capacitance between terminals ub: (b) the charge on each capacitor.128) nected to krence V cis l r r s of pdrallel 100 ( V ) Fig. Can you explain this? \\it Iiavc Example 318 Four capacitors C . A DC voltage of 100 V is applied to the external terminals ab. +C. nuldt~ons rirgc\ w 1 11 Q will ~ITtrences + C2 + .. . 330 Parallel of capacitors.127) 1Y  + b d  I Fig.. ( 3 .I 310 / CAPACITANCE AND CA'PACITORS I F on of (3.. . and (c) the potentla1 difirence across each capacitor. = 3 pF.= C . C. We note that the formula for the equivalent capacitance of seriesconnected capacitors is similar to that for the equivalent resistance of parallelconnected resistors and that the formula for the equivalent capacitance of parallelconnected capisitors is similar to that for the equivalent resistance of seriesconnected resistors. lnnef 'n mrs "..18). C2 = 2 pF.. and C.y.. = 1 pF. .
100 (V). we find \  d V4 = . we obtain c) Dividing the charges by' the capacitances. c. C. Kirchhoff's voltage law. Using the given values of C.\ ' 116 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 Solution 31 1 a) The equivalent capacitance C. of C . and Q. and C 2 : Q I = Qz. Vl + V2 = V3: Kirchhoff's voltage law. and that V3 + V4 = .. + V2 = V. Four equations are needed for their determination.. and C4 and solving the equations.. Q.  Series connection at d : Q2 + Q 3 = Q4.. Series connection of C . The total equivalent capacitance C is then .. and C .= 47.+ .. b) Since the capacitances are given.. We have four unknowns: Q. the voltages can be found as soon as the charges have been determined. in series is AND F The combination of C 1 2in parallel with C3 gives C l Z 3= C 1 2+ C 3 = 9 (PF). C. + V4 = 100: c.. Q4 c 4 These results can be checked by verifying That V.. c 4 Q4 .8 (V). Q. Qi'Q3 = .= 100. V3 Qi I. c c z 3 Q3 .+ .
respectiyely.. We can rewrite W. W. it is different frbm the V. ifi the following form: .1 i 311 1 ELECTRdSTATlC ENEI'GY AND FORCES 117 4 I I In Section 35 t 11 L +. is caused by charges Qz and Q. and Q..infinity to a point that is R . V2 and V. are the potentials. . in free space to a distance R12.ihdicated that electrlc potential at a polnt in an eiectrlc field 1s . Combining Eqs. .. hq. + Q3 4 7 r ~ ~ R ~ ~ T ~ E ~ R ~ ~ . in Eq. the amount of work required is ~ h charges c Four equa r This work is stored in the assembly of the two charges as potential energy. we can write Now suppose adother charge Q.. I the work req$& rb bring a unit positive charge from mfinlty (at reference reropotential) to that bolnt. (313n in the twocharge case. so that kinetlc energy and radiation effects may be neglected) from lnfinlty againrt the field of a charge Q. (3.. = f(Qlv1 (" + QZV2 + Q3V3).. (3130) is the potential energy.. The sum of AW in stored in the asserhbiy of the three charges Q.. Extending thii procedure of bringmg in ddditional charges. (3135). Similarly. \\ r: obtain (3133) and W.. (slowly. That is. we arrive at the followins general expression for the potential energy of a group of N discrete point . in Eq.135) . V. tHe potential at the position of Q.130) and (3131). In order to bring a charge Q.. at Q2 and Q. in the threecharge assembly. (3. III Eq. from Q. an additional work is required that equals . is brought from. from Q1 and R. Q.
0130) will be negative if Q. ~ pinl<. ~ c t a .136) represents only the lnteractlon energy (mutual energy) and does not ~ncludethe work requlred to assemble the ~ndividuaipolnt charges themselves (selfenergy). 332 Assembling a uniform sphere of charge (Example 319). W2 in Eq.charges at rest. &. (3137) j I 1 Two remarks are in order here. work is done by the field (not against the field) established by Q . In that case. are of oppos~te signs. following expression: V. = 3 Q VR =. in Eq. the potential v lI C is 47i~~R where QR is the total charge contained in a sphere of radius R: Q . is to denote that the energy is 1 I I I 1 where V..) We have CC.lI i:~yersof thicl\i>ess / R . it is simplest to assume that the sphere of c h a k e is assembled by bringing i ~ p si~cccssionof sphsric. Solution: Because of symmetry. the electric potential at Q . from Infinity.!L. l!~ili)lln o l ~ l l C ~I . in moving Q. I\[ :I r:ldila H s h o r n in Fig.=(I*hl . First. We can be negative. 332. . I ~ ~ dcnrity he p. (3. For instance. Example 319 Find the energy required to assemble a uniform sphere of charge of radius b and volume charge density p. (The purpose of the subscript a on of an electric nature. Fig. Second. and Q. is caused by all the other charges and has the .
. The sphere of charge in Fig. = a R E R .V. ~lcrf Q we have =p 7 b3. 3 4n~ IIIJ rgcs u~cm f charge of . by p dv and the summation by an integration and obtain In Eq.19 b y using Eq. it can be taken out of the integral sign. For a spherically symmetrical problem. in Eq. Example 320 Solvc the problcm in Example 3. V is the potential at the point where the volume charge density is 17. I ' e energy is The differential ch. Without going through a separate proof. .rg& in a spherical layer of'thlckness dR is and the work or energy in bringing up d Q ii (3.136) nd Ips the Hence the total work or energy rcquired to assbmble a uniform sphere of charge of radius b and chkrge dpnsity p is l' (3. (3140). 332 could be a clodd of electrons. n Soheion: In ~ x a m b l e 19 we solved the problem of assembling a sphere of charge 3by bringing up a succession of spherical layers of a dilkrential thicknesb. in L q (3. wz replace Q.f charge is K . we must find the negative of the line integral of E in two regions: (1) E. where V is the potehtial at a point R from the center.136) for discrete charges must be modified. (3 . )A 1s done m ~nfinity.140). To find V at R. and V' is the volume of the region where p exists. Now we assume thatJte_ sphere of charge is already in place. Let the e potential Equation (3139) shows that the energy is directly proportional to the square of the total charge and inversely proportional to the radius. For a continuchs charge distribution ofdensity p the formula for l. Since p is a constant. from R = % to .137) In terms of the total tharge 11. for instance.
are not included in Eq.138). the expression of electrostatic energy of a charge distribution contains the source charge density p and the potential function V. We have and Consequently. there are. from R = b to R = 0.~l charge. and (2) E. W. T o this end. no point charges inasmuch as the smallest charge unit. Of course. A. As a all matter of fact. (3136). 13. 311. Eq. the selfenergy of a (mathematical) point charge of a given Q is infinite (see Eq.140) includes the work (selfenergy) required to assemble in the distr~butionof macroscopic charges. = isv. we get which 1s the same as the result in Eq. using the vector identity (from Problem P. (3. is itselfa distrrbution of charge. we have used Eq. Now. (3140). 13. we obtain Substituting Eq.140) in E m m p i e 3 20 to find the wifenergy of a un~formsphcr~c. We frequently find it more convenient to have an expression of We in terms of field quantities E and/or D. strictly.120 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 R = b. (3.142) in Eq.( V . The selfenergies of pomt charges Q. the electron. because it e the energy of interaction of every infinitesimal charge element w ~ t h other infinitesimal charge elements. without knowing p explicitly.218) .1 Electrostatic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities I I .141). In Eq. (3140): 1 I . Note that y. we substitute V D for p in Eq. D ) V d u . . 3139). = aRER. the radius h approaches zero. (3.
we can write Eq.a. (3 . DEd". v v d u " f$s. respect~vely.ds+~ sv . = D . electrlc potential V and the magnitude of electric displacement D fall off at least as fast as. We can.isscmble :raction of lents. E (J/m3) (3.) ul'. :q.142) 1 / W = . (3143) as w . therefore.. 1/R and l/RZ.istribution We can always define an elecirostoiic energy density we mathematically. where the divergence theorem has been used to change the first volume integral Into a closed surface integral and E has been substituted for .14Sn) m f ' ~ D. Eq. ~ .144) ' F o r point charges V cc 1/R and D cr 1/R2.As we let R + m. for dipoles' V cc 1/R2 and D cc l/R3  .w e dc. = + J V . As a rcncrgy of and ncrgy uf a :Ifenergies strictly. (3145) decreases at least '1s fast as 1/R and will v a u h ds K + x We are then left with only the second integral bn the right s ~ d a Eq.V V In the second volume integral. we miiy choose it to be avery large sphere with radius+k.146'1) Using the relation D = EE for a linear medium.VD.145) . (314. Since V' can be any volume that includes all the charges. no . v . write or Sv. J DEdi r (J) 1 ( 3 .( v ~ ) du+ J v . (3146a) can be wntten in two other forms: I . Hence the surface integral in Eq. (3140): ( 3 43) (3. (3145) of (3. such that its volume integral equals the total electrostatic energy: i= q jn contams ind it inore t .+The k e a of the boundmg surfate S' mcreaqes as R'.
all we know is that the volume integrals in Eqs. the upper and lower plates are charged positive and negative. aS/d.\ 122 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD? / 3  Fig. b. . c) hold true for any twoconductor capacitor (see Problem P. b. The quantity in the parentheses of the last expression. wc havc . (3146a. The perhittivity of the dielectric is E . and has a magnitude tl Using Eq. . (3146b). a parallelplate capacitor of area S and separation d is charged to a voltage V. Example 321 In Fig. respectively. So. Eq. the electric field in the dielectric is uniform (over the plate) and constant (across the dielectric). 3123). c) give the correct total electrostatic energy. Find the stored electrostatic energy. this definition of energy density is artificial because a physical justification has not been found to localize energy with an electric field. If thpf~inging the field at of the edges is neglected.335). 333. is the capacitance of the parallelplate capacitor (see Eq. (3149a) can be put in two other forms: and It so happensthat Eqs. Since Q = CV. Soli~tion: With the DC source (batteries) connected as shown. (3149a. 333 A charged'parallelplate capacitor (Example 321). However.
bodies separated from one another with no connection to the outside world.2 Electrostatic ~ o i c i s stlfication .isolated system of bodies with fixed charges. (V We)* dl'. The mechanical work done by the system would be .I I 311 1 ELECTRil. = (3152) Since dP is arbitrary. con~parisonof Eqs.'TATIC ENERGY AND FORCES 123 31 1. Since we have an isolated system with no external supply of energy. using Coulomb's law to determine the force on one of the bodies that is caused by the charges on other bodies would be bery tedlous. raration d d electromd I ~ e r Coulomb's law governs the force between two point charges. (2LI I ) is Section 25 that the difkrential'change o i a scalar resulting from a position change dP is the dot product of the gradient of the scalar and l i t . The charges on the bodies are constant. f This method is based on the principle o virtudl displacement. (3151) and (3152) lends to ce of the 3149a) t 1149b) 0 1149~) pacitor Equation (3153) is & very simple formula for the calculation of FQfrom the electrostatic energy of the system. the component forces are 1 ( F ~ )= x 2 we (3. Imagine that the electric forces Hkve displaced one of the bodies by a differential distance d t (a virtual displacement). as well Bs dielectric. In a more complex system of charged qodies. we write d W. Noling from Eq. We will now discuss a method for calculating the force on an object iii a charged system from the electrostatic energy of the system. and (2) that of a system of conducting bodies with fixed . System of Bodies with Fixed Charges We consider an isolated system of charged conducting. We will consider two cases: (1) that of an. In Cartesian coordinates. that the S energy. dt he p' 7 ) * where F. is the total hectric force acting on the body under the condition of constant charges. This would be so even in [he simple case of fihding the force between the plates of a charged parallel~plktecapacitor.154a) 3s . this mechanical work mhst be done at the expense of the stored electrostatic energy: that is. e 6.
(3160) gives F V .. (which may be posiiiveor negative) is added to the kth conductor that is maintained at potential I/. the mechanical work done by the system for a virtual angular displacement d4 would be (3155) dW = (T. (31571. dt. 124 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS 1 3 If the body under consideration is constrained to rotate about an axis.the zcomponent of the torque acting on the body under the condition is of constant charges. The foregoing procedure will lead to ! .. The charge transfers also change the electrostatic energy of the system by an amount dWe.d? = dWe i = (V We) dB  or . in view of Eq.): d 4 .Eq.. (3I%). (3158) where Fv is the electric force on the conducting body under the condition of constant potentials. i i I System of Conducting Bodies ivith Fixed Potentials Now consider a system where conducting bodies are held at fixed potentials through connections to such external sources as batteries. dQ. A di'splacement de by a conducting body would result in a changc in total elcctrostatic energy and require the sources to transfer charges to the conductors in order to keep them at their fixed potentials. where (TQ). Uncharged dielectric bodies lnny also be present. the work done or energy supplicd by the sources is V. The total encrgy supplicd by the yoimxs to thc system is The mechanical work done by the system as a consequence of the virtual displacement is d W = F V . is ' Conservation of energy demands that Substitution of Eqs. If a charge d Q . (3136). and (3159) in. say the zaxis.which.
(3163) and (F.(3161) and (3153) rekalr that the only difference between the formulas for the electric forces in the two cases is in the sign. The fringing of field around the edges of the plates will be neglected. ~ . (3156) also only by a sign change. Since the charged capacitor has fixed dimensions. (3149b). in Eq. (3lM)? Recalling the relation \  we find The force is the same in both cases.= i Q V = 2 XI.5 QE. say the splacement (3155) Comparison of E ~ S . \ .s: With fixed charges 2 Q on the plates. by.p them a t .%cd or emorgy cc the :. a given Q will r'esult in a fixed V.QE.. (3149a) for bxY. (3154a).). ( 60) How different are (FQ).We have. Fixed porenrials: With fixed potentials it is more convenient to use the expression in Eq. It is an attractive force. we obtain : (Fy). in v i t e of the apparent sign difference in the formulas as expressed by Eqs. and vice versa. in Eq. Thc~plate\ have an . From Eq. (3153) and (3161). Example 322 Determine the force on the conducting plates of a char. LQE (3157) ' where Q and Ex are constants. m a S iind arc separated i n air by a d i ~ t r ~ i . the Icomponent of the electric torque will e b . Capacitance C for the parallelplate air capacitor is eOS/x.. It is clear that. = 1 2 A 2e0s1 o2 (3163) (3158) ~fconstant he system (3159) where the negative signs indicate that the force is opposite to the direction of increasing x. condition (3156) which differs fronl Bq. = Q/(coS) = V/. Solutiot~: We solve the problem in two ways: (a) by assuming fixed charpcs: and then (b) by assummg fixed potentials. (3161).x LX "(' ) = .Y exists in the air between the plates regardless of their separation (unchanged by a virtual displacement). Using Eq. Therefore there 1s I (3161) .ed parnilelpliltc capacitor.= di$place . 1 ~ 1 1 1 hhcrc :h cxtcrnal placement :nergy and . Fixed ci1orge.311 / ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY AND FORCES 125 1 uis. an electric 6c!d intsnsity E. A little reflection on the physical problem will convince us that this must be true. if the conducting body 'is' constrained to rotate about the zaxis. from Eq.
.~r& c.lcil~r. The preceding discussion holds true for a general charged twoconductor capacitor with capacitance C. A change in the conceptual constraint (fixed Q or fixed V ) cannot change the unique force between the plates. Could a cylindrical pillbox with circular top and bottom faces be chosen as a Gaussian surface? Explain.. in the direction of a virtual displacement d t for fixed charges is 1 I t I i Q2 dC For fixed potentials. w. Under what conditions will the electric field intensity be both solenoidal m d irrotntional? RJ3 Write the integral form of the fundanlental postuiates of electrostatics in free space. 38. \. 1312).lp. b) an electric dipole? . which assumed different constraints imposed on the same cb.126 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 i ! a unique force between the plates regardless of whether Q or V is given. Fig..38 Describe the ways in which the electric Reid intensity of an infinitely long. R. R 3 . charge of uniform density varies with distance? R.37 State Gauss's law. V 2 iC QZ JC (3167) It is clear that the forces calculated from the two proccdurcs. a) why was it necessary to stip~llate that q is in a boundless free space? b) why did we not construct a cubic or a cylindric~~l surface .round y! R.35 R. Eq.39 R. The electrostatic force F. straight line Is Gauss's law useful in finding the E field o l a finite linichrrges! Explain. Under what conditions is Gauss's law especially useful in determining the electric field intensity of a charge distribution? .310 See Example 35.3I RJ2 Write the dillcrential form of the fundamental postulatcs of clcctrostatics in free sp.lcc. and state their meaning in words. . and the force certainly does not depend on virtual displacements. R.36 In what ways does the electric field intensity vary with distance for a) a point charge? State Coulomb's law.ire equal. REVIEW QUESTIONS R. R34 When the formula for the electric field intensity ofa point charge.ls derived.1 1 Make a twodimensional sketch of the electric field lines and the equipotential lines of a point charge.
321 Define electrrc displucei~ei~t wcior. R.326 What are the kenera1 boundary conditions for electrostatic fields at an interface between two different dielectric media? R. does it follow that the electric potentiai is also zero at that point? Explain.323 What is the differcncc bctwecn thc permittivity and the dielectric coilmnt of a mechum'! R324 Does the electric flux density due to a given Charge distribution depend on the properties of the medium? Does the electric field intensity? R.331 Assume that the permittivity of the dielectric in a parallelplate capacitor is not constant. What is its SI unit? R. R. and V . (3123) hold if the average value of permittivity is used for E in the formula? Explain. or capaci1 displace(3166).319 What are polarizat~oncharge dcnsities? What are the SI units Tor P . a.sight line I r' R.318 Define polariztltion vector. What is its unit? \. Will Eq. o:~tional? spacc. by I dill'crent R. lO7) !<. R.. 2 is required.314 If the electric potential at a point is zero. REVIEW QUESTIONS 127 i 1. What is ~ t SI unit? s R. does it follow that the electrical field intensity R313 If the electric held intensity at a point is zero. ( ':ill V'( l/lt) 111 Iiq.' . P ? R./1(jt! LxpIai~i.p3ce. Explain why the absoldte sign around is also zero at that poiht? Explain. (3 7 9 ) lx i~c~)laccd V( i. R. what is the electric field intensity at the center of the shell? Describe the charge distributions on both the outer and the inncr s u r f x u of the shell.316 An uncharged spherical conducting shell af a finite thickness is placed in an external electric field E.320 What do we rflean by simple inerlium? f. 17.327 What are the boundary conditions for electrostatic fields at an interface between a conductor and a dielectric with permittivity c ? R.322 Define electric susceprihility.I I . (359). lines of a .325 What is the difference between the riielectric constunt and the dielectric strengrh of a dielectric material? R. . and IS deri\ ed.. and the :onceptual : plates.330 Define cupacitance and cupucitor. ii'cc R. . R.332 Given three lbpF capacitors. explain how they should be connected in order to obtain a total capacitance of .328 What is the boundary condition for electrostatic potential at an interface between two different dielectric media'! 11329 Does a force exist between a point charge and a dielectric body? Explain. K.312 At what valuk of 6 is the E field of a zdirdcted electric dipole pointed in the negative zdirection? R313 Refer to Eq..
R337 What is the relation between the force and the stored energy in a system of stationary charged objects under the condition of constant charges? under the condition of fixed potentials? . p.80 (Nfig) and a negligible mass for th'e threads. (kg) are suspended at P35 Two very small conductiig spheres. P34 Two point charges.28 x lo'' (m). b) Find the relation between wand L such that d .335 Provide a mathematical expression for electrostatic energy in terms of E and/or D. a) Assuming no breakdown in insulation. and p. and Q. O).336 Discuss the m ~ a n i n g and use of the principle of virtual displacement.'2O. = d0. and Q. P.' PROBLEMS P. each of a mass 1. 33. what is the maximum voltage that can be measured if the distance of separation between the plates is l ~ ? b) What is the restriction on L if the diameter of the screen is D? c) What can be done with a fixed geometry to double the CRO's maximum measurable voltage? P33 Calculate the electric force between the electron and nucleus of a hydrogen atom. .1. 1'32 Tllc ca[liotlcv:ly oscillogl.0. a) Find the relation between the angle of arrival. h a .. Assuming p. . The electric force of repulsion separates the spheres. determine the electric field intensity at the center of the triangle.0) and (2.~ph(CNO) sliown in Fig. . such that the total force on a test charge at the point P(. A charge Q is placed on each sphere.2... assuming they are separated by a distance 5. = 2p.0 x a common point by very 'thin nonconducting threads of a length 0. = 2pt3. and an equilibrium is reached when the suspending thread makes an angle of 10'. find Q. are located at (1.128 STATIC ELECTRlC FIELDS I3 R333 What is the expression for the electrostatic energy of an assembly of four discrete point ' charges? R334 What is the expression for the electrostatic energy of a continuous distribution of charge in a volume? on a surface? along a line? R.. a.. Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric field intensity at the center of the semicircle. respectively. Q. Find the relation between Q.... b) no ycomponent.. 1 . 3 3 is used to nicasurc tlic \:OII. in free space forms a semicircle of radius b. of the electron beam at the screen and the deflecting electric field intensity Ed.IFL' applied to the paralid deflection plates. each of length Lform an equilateral triangle..37 Three uniform line chargesp. O ) will have a) no xcomponent. R. P36 A line charge of uniform dcnsity p.2 (m).31 Refer to Fig.. Assuming a gravitational force of 9.
and P 2 .1) .d i s t r i b u t i o n within the electron cloud of radius b.y + a. (Such an arrangement of three charges is called a linear electrostatic qimdrupolr. b) at a point inside the tube. b) a cylindricii vdlume bf radius 50 (mm) and height 100 (mm) centered at the origin. in the field E = a. Find the P. Assuming a uniform c h ~ ~ e . ( > b) and outer radibs R. 0) will at a point outside the tubs.316 A simple clasdcsl model of an aton1 consists of a nucleus of a posit~vecharge k ~ surrounded by a spherical electron cloud of the same total negative charge. find r.. as P. I ? 1 .39 A spherlcai didtributlon of charge p = p . . a) Determine V iil thr plane bisecting the line charge.= a and r = b ( b > a). c) Check the answer in part (b) with VV. Determine E everywhet'e. P. carry surface bctwccn o and b in order that E van~>hc\ r > b'! for  : 5~:ucn and P.. )f 5tstiunary i potentials? I. 1. d charge densities p.long coax~alcylindrical surfdces. will cause the nucleus to be displaced a distance r. find the t a l e c t r i c charge contamed insidc ' a) a cubicai v h n c 100 (mm) on a side centerdd at the ongin.I ~ter the of P. 1 P.) I* measurable 1 atom.313 A finite line chsrge of length L carries a uniform line charge density p .. ..(8.4ssuming that h e electric field density is E 4 a.315 A charge Q is distributed uniformly over the wall of a circular tube of radius b and height h . P.38 .314 A charge Q is distributed uniformly over an L x L square plate. *ti r D r tn ~ le quliaL .310 TWOinfinilely. 2.1) to P.PROBLEMS 129 hscrete point on of charge and/or D P. ( N is the atomic number and e is the electronic charge.) An external electric field E. thus polarizing the atom. directly by applying Coulomb's law. then r ~ )pended at pi. 0. from the center of the electron cloud.317 Determine the work done in carrying a Z(pC) charge from P.(2. (b). ). Determine I/ and E at a point on the axis perbendicular to the plate. P.lty of a xiirccted d ~ p o l rhave no zcomponent? ~heppge 1 1 L 1 a) Determine V dd E at a distant point P ( R . b) Find the equations for equiporential surfaces and streamlines C) Sketch a famil? of equipotential lines and streamlines. respectively. b) along the straight line joining P.(R2ib')] exlsts in the regron 0 5 R 5 b Thls charge distrlbutldn is concentrically surrounddd by a conductmg shell wlth Inner radlus R. ..3I I At what va!uus ot' 0 docs the electric field inten.x a) along the parabola s = ~ J J ~ . and through its center.. / [ l . ~ n p.100x (V/m).iced on !r redchcd 1 ' ... 1. Determine V and E on its axis 4) 1. b) Determine E from p.
+ . in region 3 is parallel to the xaxis? . in region 1 is a.a. 2nd E . ? ... 5 ) in region 1 is a.3 24). 334 Dielectric lens (Problem P. P319 Determine the electric field intensity at the center of a small spherical cavity cut out of a large block of dielectric in which a polarization P exists.. at any point ip region 2? Explaln. b) Show that the total bound charge is zero.130 STATIC ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 P.323 What are the boundary conditions that must be satisfied by the electric potential at an interface between two perfect dielectrics with dielectric constants E.3. P.. assuming that conducting plates are 50 (mm) apart and the medium between them is air.2y . .322 Dctcrtninc t i ~ cbound:~rycondirions for thc tangential and the normal components of P at an interface between two perfcct diclcctric tncdia with dielcctric constants E . If we know that E. what is the maximum voltage that can be applied to the platCs without a breakdown? E .a. b) Find the breakdown voltage if the entire space between the conducting plates is filled with plexiglass.. ~ = P321 Assume that the z = 0 plane separates two lossless dielectric regions with E .318 The polarization in a dielectric cube of side L centered at the origin is given by P = P.'mm). what must be the dielectric constant of the lens in order that E.(a.324 Dielectric lenses can be used to collimate electromagnetic fields. 45". If E. what do we also know about E.x + a.. at one plate (y = 0) to E . . and D. in region 2? Can we determine E.z).320 Solve the folloiving problems: a) Find the breakdown voltage of a parallelplate capacitor. . 334. P. which has a dielectric constant 3 and a dielectric strength 20 (kV. c) If a 10(mm) thick plexiglass is inserted between the plate. the left surface of the lens is that of a circular cylinder. and the right surface is a plane._  _ Fig.y + a. find the capacitance. and D. ? P. at point P(r.5 . and E. P. at the other plate (y = d). Neglecting fringing effect.u a. P325 The space between a parallelplate capacitor of area S is filled with a dielectric whose permittivity varies linearly frome.3. In Fig. = 2 and 3. a) Determine the surface and volume boundcharge densities.(5 + z).
where r is measured in mm. = 2 + (4/r). the left P. fill the space between the of conducting surfaccs as shown in Fig. Find this minimum E(ul. P. The space between the conductors is filled with two coaxial layers of dielectrics.) a r d another dielectric of relative permittivity 26. E(a). to b(R.. for ri < r < b and E. 33 5 A cylindrical capacitor with two dielectrlic media (Problem P. Detcrrhine the capacitance under the conditions of part (b). With the irrner radius. b.327 Determine the capacitance of m isolated cbnducting sphere of radius h that is coated . at thcsurface of the inner conducror. .. and the inner conductor is maintained at a potential Vn.329 Assume that the outer conductor of the cylindrical capacitor in Example 316 is grounded. with a dielectric layer ~f uniform thickness d The dielectric has an electric susceptibility %. The dielectric constant4 of the dielectrics are E..331 A cylindrical capacitor of length L consists of coaxial conducting surfaces of radii i i and r. 335. Determine the capacitance of the capacitor.by P = P.f 1 Er* d %ti31 an ar 4. n h) Dctcrminc thc c:~paci tancc. P332 A capacitor consists of two coaxial me@llic cylindrical surfaces of a length 30 (mm) and radii 5 (mm) and 7 (mm). Two diebctricmcdii~ dillcrcnl diclvctric copstants r. = 2 and . The dielectric material between the surfaces has a relative permittivity E. st point . respectively. add Ro. a) Determine its ~ a ~ a c i t a n c e . < b < R. n vduge P. .326 Consider the earth as a conducting sphere of radius 6..331). a) Determine E and D everywhere in terms of A applied voltage I/. of the outer conductor fixed.>ncnt. and r. .lit(\ with 11:11j. Detcrmihe its capacitance.I PROBLEMS 131 ..~ for b < r < ro. The space between them is filled with a dielectric of relative pkrmittivity c from R. from b to R.. P. a) b) c) d) Find the electiic field intensity. Determine its capacitance per uriit length. b) Detcrminc thimhximum charge that can exist on it without cawing a breakdown of the air surroundirlg it. in order n xric whose Keglecting I   A Fig.w about r . find a so that E ( n ) is minimized. out of a nducting . P328 A capacitor cbnrists of two concentric spnerical shells of radii R..37 (Mm).330 The radius of the core and the inner radius of the outer conductor of a very long coaxial transmission line are ri and r.
[ I i . A battery of I. P.333 Calculate the amount of electrostatic energy of a uniform sphere of c h a m with radius b and volume charge density p stored in the following regions: t a) inside the sphere. . (3149) for stored electrostatic energy hold true for any twoconductor capacitor. a) Find D.336). P. E. ' ... b) after the switch is first opened. The capacitor is charged to a voltage Yo by a battery. \ Switch . P. .: Fig.335 Prove that Eqs. P. and separation d has a solid d~electric slab of permittivity r in the space between the plates. in each region. L Fig. and separation d is partially filled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant t. length L.132 STATIC'ELECTRIC FIELDS I 3 P. volts is connected between the piates.337 Using the principle of virtual displacement. 1 P. b) Find distance r such that the electrostatic cnergy storcd in each region i r the same. determine the force acting on the slab a) with the switch closed.. Check your rekits with those in Example 319. . Assuming that the dielectric slab is withdrawn to the position shown. derivc m expression for the force between two point charges + Q and Q separated by a distance x in free space. x . as indicated in Fig.338). and p.334 Find the electrostatic energy stored in the region of space R z 6 around an electric dipole oT moment p.336 A parallelplate capacitor of width s. 336 A parallelplate capacitor (Problem P. 337.?m shown in Fig: 336. 337 A partially filled parallelplate capacitor (Problem P.length L.338 A parallelplate capacitor of width IV. b) outside thesphere.
and the formulas in Chapter 3 cannot be applied directly for finding. the method of images may be used to great advantage. In Section 38. These equations . the potentials of all conducting bodies may be known. and/or electric charge distribution.d can present themselves in several different ways according to w h a t is initially kiwwn. < with rad~us I an electric )conductor filled w ~ t h a 011s IS con 41 INTRODUCTION  . if the charges at certaln discrete points in spaco and the potentials of some conducting boclics arc givcn. . Differential equations must be solved subject to the appropriate boundary conditions. For instance. (393) and (35) are the two fundamental gpverning dificrcntirll cquations for clectrostatics in any medium. (35): . we pointed out that Eqs.& 45 through 47.ce between d diclectric ~ItagcV. and we wish to find the potential and field intensity in the surrounding space as well as the distribution of surface charges on the conducting boundaries. electric field intensity. both the electric potentilll and the electric field inlensity can be found by the formulas developed in Cha ter 3. In many practical problems. If the charge distribution is given. are repeated below for convenience. Eq. * . This method will be discussed in Section 44. (393): Eq.the potential and field intensity. the exact qharge distribution is not everywhere. 42 POISSON'S AND LAPLACE'S E Q U A T I O ~ ~ . by h position i Electrostatic problems are those which deal with the effects of electric charges at rcst. These problem. it is rathcr difficult LO find the distribution of surface charges on the conducting bodies and/or the electric field intensity in space. however.wil1 be discussed in Sect. The techniques far solving partial aiiferctjai equations in the various coordinate systems. In another type: of problem. When the cobducting bodies have bohdaries of a simple geometry. T h c solutioli usually calls for ~ h determination of electric c potential.1 " i I .
it states that the Laplacian (the divergence of the gradient) of V equals . for a medium that is also homogeneous. V2. the Luplnciun operutor. we can easily verify the following expressions for V2V in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. (43) in Eq. we have introduced a new operator. (44) Substitution of Eq. Poisson's equation is a secondorder partial difkrential equation that holds at every point in space where the secondorder derivatives exist. and Eq. Since both divergence and gradient operations involve firstorder spatial derivatives. which stands for "the divergence of the gradient of. Equation (46) is known as Poisson's equution. In a linear and isotropic medium. . (338)." or V V. (41) becomes V.r u simple tnediutn. (286) and (2102). (44) yields where E can be a function of position.p/e ji. and Eq.. D = rE. Cylindrical coordinates: . For a simple medium$ that is. . E is a constant and can then be taken out of the divergence . In Eq.134 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS 1 4 "' ' ' '"? The irrotational nature of E indicated by Eq.cE=p. We have  . operation. by using Eqs. (46) becomes Similarly. (42) enables us to define a scalar electric potential V. where e is the permittivity of the medium (which is a constant) and p is the volume charge density (which may be a function of space coordinates). In Cartesian coordinstcs. as in Eq. (4G).
.. sbch as capacitors. 41. (46) reduces to Y (46) /  which is known as Laplace's eqr~atiotr. . (48) . 367). E can be determined from . 't Fig..dl known as adient) of urn (which t l of space tor. as shown in Fig. . (41 o). 1 135 (43) * < d'V (49) (43) (45) 1 mcdiLm livergence The solut~on Poidon's equation in three dimensions subject to prescribed boundof ary conditions is.!'. Assuming negligible fZlnging effect at the edges.It is the governing equation for problems involving a set of conductors. p = 0 and Eq.ih beneral. determine (a) the potential at any point between the plates. maintained at different potentials. not an easy task. I Example 41 The . \. :la1 Jerivaat holds at an coordi a) Laplace's equation is the governing equatidn for the potential between the plates since p = 0 therq.VV. 1  since y is the only space variable.' I ' r 4 % ' ~ 4 .. Lapiace's equation occupies a very important position in electrom~netics. Once V is found from Eq. .two plates of a parallelblate capacitor are separated by a distance d and mainiained at potentials 0 and V. Ignoring the fringing effect of the electric field is tantamount to assuming that tHi field distribution between the plates is the same as though the plates were infidtely large and that there is no variation of V in the x and z directions. and (b) the surface charge densities at the plates. Equation (47) then simplifies to !I '.2 '1 PO IS SON*^ AND LAPLACE'S EQUATIONS . / n Ilowh (47) k where d2/dy' is used instead of d. = € E n (Eq. At points ifi a kimple medium where there is no free charge. and the charge distribution on the conductor sdrfaces can be determined from p. 41 A parallelplate capacitor (Example 41).
ubr''!C PROBLEMS / 4 i t Integration of Eq. I f . Electric field lines in an electrostatic field begin from positive charges and end in negative charges. we must first find E at the conducting plates at y = 0 and y = d. = V. (412) . is yet to be determined. Hcnce thc potmllid at m y point I bctwern 111~. From Eqs. > :I.= C1. The potential increases linearly from y = 0 to y = d. (412) yields immediately C . plates is. . = 0. we obtain v = Cly C. (413a) and (413b) in Eq.136 SOLUTlON OF ELECT . + I 1 Two boundary conditions are required for the determination of the two constants of integration: I Substitution of Eqs. The surface charge densities a t i h e conducting plates are obtained by using Eq. b) In order to find the surface charge densities. . (367)' I(... 11. Integrating again./d and C. '7  At the upper plate. we have .1' * E At the lower plate. from Eq. (43) and (414). . dy where the constant of integration C. \ which is a constant and is independent ofy. . Note that the direction of E is opposite to the direction of increasing V. (411) with respect to y gives dV . (412). .
(417) must vanish. from (@PI) a/@ In this region. . Dropping i l Z O and (44 3b) .t Ekample 42 D e t e h i n e the E field both i n ~ i d e outside a spherical cloud of hnd R electrons with a unibrm volume charge density p = .'tue are only dealing with functions of R in spherical coordinates.a .p h o ) holds.p0. p y PO. (418) b) Outside the cloud. Laplace's equaiion holds in this region.13a) Solution: We re$ that this problem was dblveh in Chapter 3 (Example 36) by applying Gauss's aw.0 360 01Rsb. (412) mstants (4. and . I 1 g again. R2b. Since there are no variations in 0 and 4 directio?s. in Eq. = IS. we have which reduces to Integration of E4. 3 a) Inside the cloud. We obtain P E i = . (4191.ly C. = 0 or n \ Integrating Eq. the integration constant C. We have V2 Y..p . Poisson's equation ( V 2 y terms from kq. We now use the sam problem to illustrate the solut~on of onedimensional Poisson's and Laplace's equ tions..R . J t O S R I b . (49). (416) gives ~duct~ng The electric field intensity inside the electron cloud is (415) opposite nductmg Since Ei cannot be infinite at R = 0. . for 0 i 5 b and p = 0 for R > b by solving~Poisson'sand Laplace's equations for V. we obtain end . 1.
is a new integration constant and is not the same as C. C. at R = b.b . Further insight to this problem can be gained by examining the potential as a function of R. can be found by equating Eo and E. remembering that C . (422) in Eq. by equating l/i and Voat R = b: p0b2 .3c0 660 . Substituting Eq. we determine C. in Eq.138 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS 1 4 i The integration constant C . we obtain However. (423) Since the total chargc coniaincd in the clcctron cloud is Equation (423) can be written as . Integrating Eq..R2 ' R R ~ . b'+C . (417). = 0. (420) and integrating. we have It is important to Aote that C. i i 1 t b2 kO from which we find pOb3 C2 = 3e0 P (422) and Eo = a 4 3 ELECT R. c 2 Po .is zero at infinity (R + a .pob2 1 . which is the familiar expression for the electric field intensity at a point R from a point charge Q. where there is no discontinuity in medium characteristics. (426) must vanish since V. electro)As static potential is continuous at a boundary.' O b 3 3c.
: p = . The implication of the uniqueness theorem is that a solution of an electrostatic problem with its bou~ldsryconditions is tile o ~ l i !poisihle . .. (3i42). . 3 . . S n at specified potentials.* C ' 5 . Befoie these methods are discussed. . 11 43 UNIQUENESS OF irh ELECTROSTATIC SOLUTIONS 111 L I I C Lwu rcla~ivcl~. This statement is cnlied the is u~liqtienesstheorem.1 4 43 1 UNIQUENESS Q+ ELECTROSTATIC SOLUTIONS 139 . wc ob1. The import:lnce of this theorem will be appreciated when we discussthe method of ima. . o d Z .1' Ids[ ' lned t i x solutions by direct integration. s To prove the uniqueness theorem.23) n (424) t R from itial as a (425) same as (426) r' :T/T elec~ anu . (428) is the same as V in Eq.. S. 2% We see that (422) C: in &q. c~oiiilirioi~s ii wiipzrr .~ e in Section 41. and V. 42. Inside the closed surhce So there are a number of charged conducting bodies with surfaces S.or . with p P I = po.. it is important to know that n solutioti o j Poissoft's eq~ution which Laplace's equation is s special cxci r h r (of rurisjies rile giaen hoiiniiaq. c. as depicted in the twodimensional Fig. s ~ / ~ i t i o t i irrespective of the method by which the solution is obtained. A solotion obt:lined even by intelligent guessing is the only correct sollrtion. from Eq. 'and. In more complicated situations other methods of solution must be used.. . contrnry to the uniqueness theorem. suppose a volume r i s bo~indedoutside by a surface So.solsiioti. r i' (427) . Now :lssumr th:ll. there are two solutions.. V. siniplc cxa~nplcs~n t l ~ e section. to Poisson's equation in 5 : ( 4 . (425). which may be a surface at infinity.
. is more involved and will be omitted here. (. . (434) can be evaluated by considering Soas the surface of a very large sphere with radius R. has the same value at all points in z as it has on the bounding surfaces. thc uniqucncss thcorcrn applies even if an inhomogeneous dielectric (one whose permittivity varies with position) is present. will be zero.. \ Also assume that both Vl and V. of the conducting bodics are specified.) fall off as 1/R3. Since the integrand IVV./'A) = . (431). Over the conducting boundaries. and A = + ... the surface integral on the left side of Eq.... . and So. . both V . (434) decreases as 1/R and approaches zero at infinity. satisfy the same boundary conditions on S . and S. The surfacc area So. VV. fall off as 1/R. /) VV. making the integrand (5 VV. In fact. The proof.. where V. A and letting f = V. (435) . Surface S consists of So as well as = 0. . satisfies Laplace's equation in s O n conducting boundaries the potentials are specified and I/. (435)can be satisfied only if IVI/.. It is easy to see that the uniqueness theorem holds if the surface charge distributions ( p .. (4L29a) and (429b). S . S. S. consequently. V . . Jr jVv. So must also the volume integral on the right side.I is identically zero. and there is only one possible solution. Therefore V. . Hence the surface integral on the left side of Eq. . . we see that V.140 SOLUTION OF ELECTGO7FTIC PROBLEMS I 4 . however. In such a case.. S. however. Let us try to define a new difference potential From Eqs. It follows that I/. Vj'. I \ (432) VV.I2 is nonnegative everywhere. We have v. rather than thc potentials./'V . S.. = 0. = 0 throughout the volume z. falls off as 1/R2. = 0. = E E . where a.12 do = 0 .. S. So. denotes the unit normal outward from r. A vanishing gradient everywhere means that T/. . and V. . Eq. Over the large surface S. Integration of Eq. As R increases. = E JV/Jn). makes the left side of Eq. (4 34) vanish and leads to thc same conclusion. . = V2. (and therefore also I. which in turn. because of Eq..which encloses the whole system. increases as R2. (4 33) ovcs n vnlumc r yiclds . . we have where. Recalling the vector identity (Problem 218). the first term on the right side vanishes.
43(a). = V. At points very far from Q(x proaches zero.I\* $. 3. or z & a).. sequently. Consider the case of a positive point char&. At all points on the grounded conducting plane. 43 (Image charge) I (b) Image charge and field lines. . potential apthe e satisfied hat V . (434) radius R.rnd grounded plilne condt~ctor. Q.L ' F 44 . ' Ilc formal proccdurc for doing 50 would b~ L O sdvc Ldplacc's c q ~ ~ u t l o n C:rrtca~. v+~ ?0C E' ~ R cc. > 0 except at the point charge. There is a cladi(o[%l~ctro~tatic problems with boundary conditions that appear to be difficult to satis? if the governing Laplace's quation is to be solved directly..s.+ j y CQ. The solution V ( s . potential at every point above the conducting plane ( y > 0). \ of 0 . located at a distance d above a .  (a) Physical arrangement.J. Point charge . Grounded plane conductor eft SL. This method of replac{hg bounding surfaces by appropriate image charges in lieu of a formal solution of Laplace's equation is called the method of images.IS [cell as ge burface Eq. e V. The problem is to find thk.. b METHOD OF I M A ~ E S . z ) ahould satisfy the following conditions: 1. has (2:. that is where R is the distance to Q. (434) le integral i 2.s theorem x i e s with ~itted here.. .. . . At points very close to Q. the potentialapproaches that of the pomi charge alone. . rfa& area Eq. .m .! I1  i 44 t 1 METHOD OF IMAGES 141 i which must hold for i. the potential is zero: that is. as shown in Fig. . . . but the conditions oh the bounding surfaces in these can be set up by appropriate image (equiva1ent)kharges and the potential distributions can then be determined in a straightforward danner. large grounded (zeropotential) conduc~ingplane. Fig. I in coordmates .
and it is obvious that all four conditions listed after Eq.il fro111tlic houndary condilion I. The potential function is even with respect to the x and z coordinates. resulting in a surface charge density p.0. (437) satisfies the Laplace's equation in Eq.= [x2 + ( ~ + d + z 2 ] l i 2 . Hence the potential at points above the conducting plane would be # . 44. i 4. In the following subsections. Thcrcforc Eq. iQ and . From another point of view.Q at y = . and. y. then the potential at a point P(x. we demonstrate how the method of images greatly simplifies these problems. Mmcovcr. in view of the uniqueness theorem. the indic~tcd is dillicult to cvaluatc cvcn after p . 0. Electric field intensity E in the y > 0 region can be found easily from . y.1 Point Charge and Conducting Planes The problem in Fig. I*. that is. (436) arc satislicd.d ) 2 + z 2 ] l i Z ..142 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS / 4 c . The trouble here is that p . is the distance from ds to the point under consideration and S is the surface of the entire conducting plane. it is the only solution. Q. It does appear difficult to construct a solution for V that will satisfy all of these conditions. (436). ) ~ I It is easy to prove by direct substitution (Problem P. If we remove the conductor and replace it by an image point charge . .d. ha> bccn tictcrmlncd at cvcry point on tlic conducting plane. z ) in the y > 0 region is where R+ = [ x 2 + ( y . must first be determined : surface intcp.(\. z ) in Eq. : where R . we' may reason that the presence of a positive charge Q at y = d would induce negative charges on the surface of the conducting plane. (437).. It is exactly the same as that between two point charges.45a) that V ( x .V V with Eq. . located at a distance d above a large plane conductor that is at zero potential. 43(a) is that of a positive point charge. ) =: 0. R. (437) is a solution of this problem. .
A few of the field lines are shown in Fig. would be quite difficult. but their effect on Q can be determined from that of the three image charges. Now an image charge . (with tile condticting plane removed). subject to the zeropotential boundary condition at the conducting halfplahes. reiQ d 11 pectivel~.Q in the second uadrant would make the potential of the vertical halfplane (but not that of the brimntal plane) zero. ie surface Termined e Integral tb3nlet. 8 that is. (437) )n+n?s 3rotr&.ind its imiigc . above nn infinite conducting plane can be found from p.g~ is I O C : L L C ~ . Negative surface charges will be induced on the halfplanes. 44(a). 1 +Q (a) Physical arrangemeht. . we have.': i . as shown in Fig. .Q cutmor bu used to ca cula~c the V or E in the y < 0 region. 44(c). But if a third image charge + Q is added in the third quadrant. I Solution: A formal solution of Poisson's equation. 43(b) The solution of this elec ostatic problem by the method of images is extremely simple. In this problem the point charges + Q and . t Irkl~~ce onductor .from two grounded perpendicular conducting halfplanes. .LL d~hliillcc~l 1 1 d i f i . As P matter of fact.' ! / ' 2 1 of these pos~tive mducting nts above.$. an image charge . of spaced a distance ?d apart.p . (c) Forces on charge Q. 2 . 44 Point chard and perpendicular conduct& planes. .Q in the fourth quadrant would make the potential of the horizontal halfplane (but not that of the vertical halfplane) zero. Can you bxplain that? It is readily seed that the electric field of a line charge p.  Fig. < vv with illd Q. for the net force on Q. the (437) q.. 44(b) satisfies the zeropotential boundary condition on both halfplanes and is electricallyeqyivaknt to the physical arrangement in Fig. Referring to Fig.. but it must be asized that the image charge is located ourside the region in which the field is to be determined.t a point : I . both V and E are zero in he y < 0 region. we see from symmetry that the imagecharge arrangement in Fig. 1 I I p• I // I 1 4Q +t? I Q (b) Equivalent imagecharge arrangement. 44(a). Similarly. ~ e t e r m i h e force on Q caused by the charges induced on the planes.3 A pusilric p o i ~ ~ l d1i11.
.tTRCJ$TATIC PROBLEMS 1 4 where F. the image line charge must lie somewhere along OP. which is at a distance di from the axis (Fig. say at point P. conducting. We need to determine the two unknowns. (Clm) located at a distance d from the axis of a parallel. 14. . F= The electric potential and electjic field intensity at points in the first yuodtat~tand the surface charge density induced on the two halfplanes can also be found from the system of four charges. Both the line charge and the conducting cylinder are assumed to be infinitely long. (b) Line charge and its Image. (2) Because of symmetry with respect to the line OP. We now consider the problem of a line charge p. Let us call this image line charge pi. Fig. Preparatory to the solution of this problem by the method of images.)~' 4~6~(2d~)~' Q2 I F. d2 ' Therefore.2d2). = 4rrc0[(2d.1144 SOLUTION OF El '.2 Line Charge and Parallel Conducting Cylinder 1 . 45b). pi and d. . 45 Cross section of line charge and its image in a parallel conducting circular cylinder. circular cylinder of radius a.)'Q2 (2d2)2]31' (a"2d1 + Q2 + a..I I / \ \ (a) Line charge and Parallel conducting cylinder. Figure 45(a) shows a cross section of this arrangement. = F2 = ax Q 4ns. .(~d. we note the following: (1) The imagcmust be a parallel line charge inside the cylinder in order to make the cylindrical surface at r = u an equipotentiai surface.
(438) leads to a iolutian that does sitisfy dl1 boundary conditions. r q . = L: OPM. (336). :d from :charge shows a n by thc c chargc mtcntial respect ?oint Pi. .. a point equidistant from p. L MOP. must be louted in such a way as to mate triangles OMP. Note that ttwo triangles already have one common angle.* 8 let u$ assume that "i (438) At t h i ~ stage. and we are not sure that it will hold tbue. l ) .. should be chosen70 make . : . OMP. and OPM s~mllar. c l r ~ f and nd from . proceed with this trial solution until we find that it $ils to satisfy the boundary conditions. . on the one hand. .. but it would not affect what follows. at a point . and p . Point P. cannot be at infinity becais: setting ro = in ~ q .=. Note that the refeihce point for zero potential. rt di a . 3 The electric poiedtial at a distance r from a line charge of density p. ( 4 . ihc point P.. on the cylindrical surface shown in Fig.. can be obtained by integrating the electric field intensity E given in Eq.. We will. (440).= Constant. Otherwise..i :: i I :.In particular. The potential at a point on or outside the cylindricnl I surface is obtained by addin: the contributions ofp. (4181 is just a trial solution (an intelligent guess). . if Eq.we have In Eq. . Fq. then by the uniqueness theored 14 is the only solurion. !r . and pi. Our next job will be to see whether we can determine d. Let ui leave r0 unspecified for the time being. as the reference point for zero potential so that the In ro terms cancel. Equipotential surfaces are specified by ri (441) r = If an equipotential surface is to coincide with the cylindrical surface (OX . for simplicity. r. (440) we have chosen. s constant term should be included in the right side of Eq.. 45(b). We have L . On the other hand. * * .3 9 )would make V infinite everywhere else.. i i 44 1 METHOD OF IMAGES 145 .. d Constant.
together with p. 46 Cross section of twowire transmission line and equivalent line charges (Example 44).. and. Point Pi is called the inverse point of P with respect to a circle of radius a. Fig. (440) and (4421. The image line charge p. By symmetry.p. Let subscripts 1 and 2 denote the wires surrounding the equivalent line charges p.. ! A% t i 1 t I r From Eq. but their ratio remains a constant that equals ald. and p. from Eqs. to the right of P is also an equipotential surface. 45(b) equipotential. respectively. 4 6. withadius a and its axis at a distance 0.. separated by a distance (D . The axes of the wires are separated by a distance D. we find that the parallel cylindrical surface surrounding the original line charge p.* ) I r . and p. 146 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS I 4 . from thc line charges and V and E at any point outside the surface can be dcter~nincd p. As the point M changes its location on the dashed circle. can thcn replace the cylindrical conducting surface. . We have..di. . Example 44 Determine the capacitance per unit length between two long. The potential difference between the two wires is that between any two points on their respective wires.2 4 ) = d . will make the dashed cylindrical surface in Fig. 1 . parallel. Solution: Refer to the cross section of the twowire transmission line shown in Fig. (442) we see that if the image line charge p. This observation enables us to calculate the capacitance per unit length of an openwire transmission line consisting of two parallel conductors of circular cross section. Thc cquipotcnti:ll surfxcs of the two wircs can bc considcrcd to hnvc been generated by a pair of line charges p. . both ri and r will change. circular conducting wires of radius a.
By reason of symmetry. ~ . similarly.Lin 2nco . we expect the image charge Q. (445) in kq. Eq. 0 1 The method o images can also be applied to solve the electrosrat~cproblem of a k point charge in the. treat both di and Q1 as unknowns. I . d = f (n Using Eq.?WC a Since In [x for x 1 + fiZq] x = cashI in have been 3 . (446) can be written alternativefy as 44.Q a>dbthe oribinal Q do not make the spherical surface R = a a zeropotential surface as required.Point g surface. It is obvious that Ql cannot bc equal to 0. 4 rc t  1 <r. = (443) i'  . . therefore.prerence of a spherical conductor.sitwitrcl iwidc IIIC S ~ I I C I C :111d 011 iiw lint joltling 0 .111i1 Q. V. ( W h d would the zeropotential surface be if Ql = Q?) We must. d = i (~. since . 47(a) where a positive poidt charge Q is located at a distanced from the center ofa grounded conducting spher6okradius a (a < d). llel. (4 44). Hence the capacitarib per unit length is 11 surface led circle. 41 than a.t ' and.a  1 . ' The other solution. 2 p . Referring to Flg.hewn 1. 1 ' . we now proceed to find the V and E at polnts external to the sphere. ie charges rounding right df I' le capacio parallel P J. y c havc + V r ~42).3 Point Charge dnd Cbnducting Sphere t . ~ / d . Let it be at a dialunce di l i m 0.?dl) = two points unding the 440) arld . to he a negative poi6t Ch:lrpu . is discarded because both D and d arc usually much larger .
1 . The V and E of all points external to the grounded sphere can now be calculated from the V and E caused by the two point charges Q and . At a typical point M . In Fig. . the p)(csli:~l c. is. the inverse point of Q with respect to a circle of radius a. the ratio rJr is the same as that in Eq.aQ/d. (441).dl points on the sphcric:ll s ~ i r f x c = i l zero.wed by Q and Qi is which requires ri = r Q Constant. Fig. (442). (443). Example 45 A point charge Q is at a distance d from the center of a grounded conducting sphere of radius a ( a < d). and (449) that and . . v = o\ ( a ) Point charge and grounded conducting sphere.. 47 Point charge and its image in a grounded sphere. we conclude from Eqs.' I. thus. (449) Noting that the requirement or. wliicll makes thc po(e1itii11:it ./I I \ / ' L t . The point Q. and (b) the total charge induced on the sphere. 47(b) the conducting sphere has been replaced by the image point R cliiirgc Pi. Determine (a) the charge distribution induced on the surface of the sphere. i .A " . . . (b) Point charge and its image.
we set R = o in Eq. (454) and evaluate Ps = € o E ~ ( a . (453).s. we have ER(R. 47(a). We solve the problem by the method of imagks and replace the grounded sphere by the image charge Q.J cos 0 u n h e d frolr 'he grounded 'ninduced I 1 a [ R . The electric potential at an arbitrary point P(R.nd) (356) .)9 6 (455) .2ad cos 8)3/2' ' e ( d 2.2Rd cod 8)3n  I< .(a3/d)cos 81 (354) d [ R 2 (a2/d)' . 0) is 4 ' 1 Q V(R.8) L  + d 2 .nage. by the law of cobines. . 48. PJ =  4na(s2 + d 2 . 0) = . (iQ and RQ = [ R 2 + d 2 2Rd cos 81'1'  (452a) Using Eq.  . as shown in Fig. which yields the following aftet simplificat!on: + 1. . agc point 'acc R = a Solution: hebhysicb problem is that shown id Fig. = uQ/d at a d i s h c c d = u2/d ldrom the center of the sphcre.4~60 . (452) in Eq.2R(a2/d)cos 8]312 :i a) In order t .diQ)' where.f i n d the'induced surface charge od the sphere.
I (457) . b) The total charge induced on the sphere is obtained by integrating p. Example 41 was such a problem where the electric potential was a function of only one coordinate. Can you explain this? If the conducting sphere is'electrically neutral and is not grounded. in general. However. respectively. each depending separately on one coordinate variable only.Q = Q i . The electrostatic problem of a point charge Q in the presence of an electrically neutral sphere can then be solved as a problem with three point charges: Q' at R = 0. ' I .  d .. curvilinear coordinate system. The procedure is called the method of separation of vuriubles.2 $ So2"J p g 2 sin 0 do d$ : % a . by Eqs. coincide with the coordinate surfaces of an orthogonal... an additional point charge at the center would be needed to make the net charge on the replaced sphere zero. if the problem consists of a system of conductors maintained at specified potentials and with no free charges. This type of problem requires the solution of Laplace's equation. . Laplace's equation applied to three dimensions is a partial differential equation. a function of all three coordinates. over the surface of the sphere. (450) and (451) in order to make the spherical surface R = u equipokntial. . where the potential is. 45 BOUNDARYVALUE PROBLEMS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES We have seen in the preceding section that the method of images is very useful in solving certain types of electrostatic problems involving free charges near conducting boundaries that are geometrically simple. \'. .. it cannot be solved by the method of images. Of course. and Q at R = d. In such cases the solution can be expressed as a product of three onedimensional functions. We note that the total induced charge is exactlj equalto the image charge Q i that replaced the sphere. We have Total induced charge = p ds = . . However. We will now develop a method for solving threedimensional problems where the boundaries. Q iat R = a2/d. the image of a point charge Q at a distance d from the center of the sphere would still be Q i at di given. over which the potential or its normal derivative is specified. $ :.
a& Z(Z) functions. respectively.. y. we have ? ingEi since the other typ tkrms are independent of x.I I VVIIILU. y. In order for Eq. charge QL ' . a funcits . (460) to be satis@dFr a11 values of x.y. and z qnly Substituting are Eq.I L l i cprodlrof I Note that each of@hthree terms on k? rid4 of Eq. axay ai2 (358) To apply the method of separationof variables. wnen alvlaea. ~nal. z. lectrically ' a t R = 0. lati ti on (461) requires that (462) . (459) in Eq. we have . .. of x. 3: i: I. 1 d2X(x) . if wiidtRersntiate Eq. we assume that the solution V ( s .through by the product X(x)Y(y)Z(z). (460) with hspect to x.I * X ( x ) d x l = k:. Laplace's equatibn for scalar electric potedlial V in Cartesian coordinates is ' aZv a2v azv + 7 + .= 0 . where X b ) . (498).. : For instance.. Y(Y). (460) is a function of only one : . it le solution : potential : to three d ral. r) can be expressed as d product in the following form: 1 I m e zero. i coordinate variabie And that only ordine7 ierjvztives are involved." (457) .yields i useful in onducting lslsts of a charged. eacd 0 the three terms must be a constant. . 1 1 .
respectively.. cosh kx = f(ek + e").3?$ +'*&\:. cos k x A . . and (465). Y ( y ) .e'"). k jk x(x) Exponential formst of X ( x ) +  A . sinh kx = f (d".and Z(z)from the secondorder ordinary differential equations. is arbitrary. (463) is easily verified by direct substitution. because of Eq. of the problem. thc following condition must be satisfied:  Our problem has now been reduced to finding the appropriate solutionsX(x). (464). The negative sign on the right side of Eq. k j is a negative real number. The separation constant k. The possible solutions of Eq.' + DieJk C2@ + D2eL C. Table 41 Possible Solutions of X"(x) + k f X ( x )= 0 kf 2.>: .. and k. will. making . is imaginary. (460). The specified boundary conditions will determine the choice of the proper form of the solution and of the constanrs A and B or C and D.. The solutions of Eqs.'lf k. That the listed solutions satisfy Eq. sinh k x + B2 cosh kx . It is convenient to rewrite Eq.. Eqs. just as the square sign on k. in different from k. sin kx + B . (463) are known from our study of ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.2 a positive real number.k. (463). They are listed in Table 41. (464) and (465) for Y ( y ) and Z(z)are entirely similar. (462) is arbitrary. where k is a constant of integration to be detehined fib the boundary conditions : 3 . but.elk The exponential forms of X ( x ) are related to the trigonometric and hyperbolic forms listed in the third column by the following formulas: e i h = cosh kx f sinh kx. (462) as and where the separation constants k. can be a real or an imaginary1 number. . .
Determine the potential distribution in the region enclosed by the electrodes. Theuwpf kt = jk. (471) .b) = 0. . which is X(x) = ~ . (466) 1s X(x). sin ky. I Z ( Z )= B. .(y) = A .pect~vely. . From Eq. Condition (467a) idpliea k. (470) I In the ydirectio& k. The constant A. = k.own from They . r I (464) n L : (465) ~ t . is imaginary and that ky is real. = 0 and. (467a) (467b) (467c) (467d) (467e) (468) t In the ydirectiog: V(cf4Y) =3 0. requires us to choose the exponehtialiy decreasing form for X ( s ) . e . semiinfinite. 49. 49).. vanlshes because Z is independent of z. from Table 41. Y 4 = v ( x .* . to the coordinates i Fig.I dihtancc h. we write down the boundary n conditions for the tentlal function V(x. (467c). .k 2 = k2.y. where k is a real nudber. together with the condition of Eq. I Y. This choice of k implies that k . V(O.Y ) = Vo . we have I I 2 ky = . Y). F 1 1 V ( S . z ) as follows. Example 46 Two grounded.are wlfied by choice of :solutions a With V independent of z : b! In the xdircctioi: 9 v ( x . (466). i ' 1 Solution: Referring...~ . (469) n. Condition (467d) indicates that the proper cholce for Y (y) from Table 41 is .0) = 0 V(x. parallelplane electrodes are sepamted O . A lh rd clectlodc pcrpcndiculqr to both is mamtalned at a uunLtant y potential Vo(see Fig.
only if . and (467d).y) = ( B ..y) alone cannot satisfy remaining boundary condition (467b) at x = 0 for all values of y from 0 to b. sin b (475) Question: Why are 0 and negative integral values of n not included in Eq. Vn(x.D. However. (468).. we have used conditions (467a).A. we obtain Vn(x. sin kb = 0 kb = nx I< =. (476) by sin y and integrate the products from y = 0 to y = 6: b mx nx c. ) ~ .sin = Cnek"sin k y . n x Vn(x. we form the infinite sum In order to evaluate the coefficients C. sin y dy. . (467a) through (467e). of the five boundary conditions listed in Eqs. Therefore. (477) is easily evaluated: V. has been written for the p r ~ d u c B. 2 . Eq. sin y dy = mn b if m is odd if m is even . D . . A . . which can be satisfied. y) in Eq. .. . .Combining the solutions given by Eqs. (474)? We can readily verify by direct substitution that K(x. . (472) becomes 1111 h 11 = 1 . we multiply both sides of Eq. for all values of x. (475) satisfies the Laplace's equation (458).sin y sin y dy = V. mn b . t Now.y. we require K(x. 6) = Cnekxsin kb = 0.~ ky .b S : (477) The integral on the right side of Eq. (467c). 3 . (459). and (471) in Eq.y) = Cnennx'b . + (472) where the arbitrary constant C.*%+ (4 74) . (470). In order to meet condition (467e). Using the technique of expanding an arbitrary function within a specified interval into a Fourier series. b b n= 1 mn 2 Ji J.
since thc amplit dc of tho sinc tcrms in the series dccrcares very rapldly as increases. in Fig. Equation (481) is a rather complicated expression to plot In two dimensions. In the sdirectioh: (478) Since Laplace's equatioa is a limar partial di8erential equatron. sk mYnd y~ ~ s2 ~ 0b [COs ({m)x y i n = J C. the supcrpos~tron soluirons IS also r of solution. I 'r Substituting Eqs. Eachintegral on the ltft side of Eq. 2 ) = tqu.y.IL 1 c c . Determine the potential distributioi within this region. 410. hut. y~ = r f3 74) 7 c. a suberposition of V. k 1 (476) (476) by Example 47 Con der the region enclosed on three sides by the grounded conducting planes show .(x. then. y) in Eq.~ J . The desired ~otential distribution is. only the fir t fe v terms are needed to obtain a good approxlmation.' I. (bk) (479) in Eq. 4) '. 1 With V independent of 2 : 1  P77) . . t condition (473) L f I. The end plate on the left has a constant potential Vo. y. All planes are as8unxd to be infinite in extent in the rdirection. f Solution: The boundary conditions for the potential function V ( x . Several equipotential lines a t skztched in Fig. we obtain and v If rn + n.m m sin .I ' .y h (475) q. 1475).cos b (479) ..(s. I (480) if n is w e n . z ) are as follows. . (47$). b . (474)? 5 ) satisfies rctnaming technique rier series.. V(s..7 fm=n b . (477) is (472) :h (467e). . 49. nn ~ J ~ ~ .
and B .. As a conscqucncc. The boundary conditions in the ydirection. (482d) (482e) Condition (482a) implies k. are the same as those specified by Eqs. sinh kx + B . cosh ka . but it would not be as convenient because it is not as easy to see the condition under which the sum of two exponehtial terms vanishes at x = a as it is to make a sinh term zero. because of the boundary condition in Eq. (482d) and Eq. 0) = 0 for all values of x between 0 and a. cosh kx. = jk given in the third column af Table 41. (471). sinh ka + B. b) = 0. In this case. because it does not satisfy the boundary condition (482c). X(x) given by Eq. cosh ka sinh ka B2 = A. However. sin ky.. . = 0 and. from Table 41. Y(0) must be zero. Eqs.) We have X(x) = A . (485) which is tlw same as Eq. This will be clear presently. (482e). which demands that X(a) = 0.that is.. it is convenient to use the general form for k. (486) A relation exists between the arbitrary constants A . * as in Eq. In the ydirection: r V(X. (46713) and (467e).(469) in Examplc 46. 0 = A . 410 Crosssectional figure for Example 47.156 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTP: IC PRQBLEMS 1 4 '' Fig. To make V(x. and we have Y(y) = A . (482c).0) = 0 V(x. (470) is obviously not a solution here.. Ey. (466) rcduccs to . (The exponential solution form given in the last column could be used as well.
. (Hb) II 0. * Ck sinh .. We hdbe I <. A 3 sinh k ( x . experience. (480). 2.A. sinh X(s . of the sinh functibn is Collecting Eqs. 1 I C. :s enclosed region in Fig. coefficieht C i can then be written down from Eq.8 5 ) tion here. we shouldf. sinh 1177 11  11n o sin .C sinh (nna/b). onvenient 41.y .87) directly.Z: tion of K(x. (488) .A. = nn sinh (nnulb)' . (476).*he values for thr. is replaced n by .(485) and (487). (4. . = (4 . i We have now urbd all $the boundary condiiions except Eq. . 3.be able to write the solution given in Eq. (482b). n .82e).(The ell. 4. we obtain the product solutlon 1. I> . whlch may be satisfied by a ~odrierdseriesexpansion of v ( 0 . as only a shift in the argument make it vanish tit x = a. y) = B o A . the steps leading b it. . TI ' t y ) = . It is bvident that Eq. .(().y. has been krllten fbr A.(x .are' I) == O for where C.A . y) in Eq. y) = Vo over the interkal from y = 0 to y = b. (487) satisfies the condition X(a) = 0. Ue). .(x. 4 1 V. (486) boundary The desired potentihl istribut~oa *. (489) 11 We note that Ecji is of the same form as Eq. but it ion under sin11 term 11 Y. except that C.a) sirl ky hn nn. . b b n = 1. 0 < v < h. (487) i i where A. = B. if 11 is cvcn. 4v0 if n is odd G7:../cosh ka.tr).a) sin . Bnd k has been set to equdl nn/b in order to satlsfy boundary condition (4.10 is a summav .Z.:. (4483).
functions of r and 4 only. Substituting solution (494) in Eq. . (498) This is of the same form as Eq. (492) requires the knowledge of Bessel functions. d2V/Sz' = 0 and Eq.'<. (463).) For Eq.158 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLGMS / 4 I . (48). . 46 BOUNDARYVALUE PROBLEMS IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES For problems. which we do not discuss in this textbook: In situations where the lengthwise dimension of the cylindrical geometry is large compared to its radius.with circular cylindrical boundaries we write the governing equations in the cylindrical coordinate system. In such cases. Laplace's equation for scalar electric potential V in cylindrical coordinates is. (493) and dividing by R(r)(D(+). ' 1 ' . from Eq. and its solution can be any one of those listed in Table 41. we assume a r product solution where R(r) and @(4)are. respectively. We have where k is a separation constant. the associated field quantities may be considered to be appro5imately independent of z. For circular cylindrical configurations. * s  . (Note that ordinary derivatives have replaced partial derivatives. Equation (497) can be rewritten as / dZ@& d42 + kz@(4)= 0. (495) to hold for all values of r and 4. ' . potential functions and therefore . and the second term is a function of 4 only. each term must be a constant and be the negative of the other.we have  In Eq. (492) becomes a twodimensional equation: Applying the method of separation of variables. (495) the first term on the left side is a function of r only. A general solution of Eq.
The solution of Eq. I & ) . (4.cos .99) (492) which we on of the ' luantities Vilz2 = 0 1 . if the range o f ) is unrestricted. The appropriate solution is . = 0. In fact. ! 1. . where idteger n has b k n written for k. (498) becomes 1. are d b i t q r y constants. (4102). lerefore wedge. the complete solution of a problem may be a summation of the rms in Eq.' @()) are periodtk id ) and the hyperbolic fhctiohs do not apply. We obtain from Eq. sin n p .103) The general solution Of Eq. (4107) 1 wlution (4 . Let k equal n. (4.. the other hand.:yr.r". dq5 (4. When the potentktl is not a function of ).I 46 1 B O U N ~ ~ ~ Y ~ A L U E PROBLEMS IN ljYLIND&:7AL COORDINATES i:' t . implying a 2nrange for 6 . direct substitution. If there is no circumferential (4. .. ' The term A& should d retained i f there is circumferential variation. where A. when the region of interest includes e cylindrical axis where ).r co. which can be rearranged as + (4. We now turn our httention to Eq. .' and wt? have 8(4)=B0. I '2 d2@(4.104) k=0. . . It is bseful to note that. vanished. sin nq5 Bi m s n).@ variation. (4. (496). if the region of interest includes the point at infinity. Bi i # 0. and B. k) = rn(A. This can bc vcrilicd S. 4 potential @()) = A. + B.independent Laplace's equation (493) for cikcular cylindrical regions with an unrestricted range for 4 : 'i (493) i o n P (4 i K(r.) 0. k b u s t be an integer.1 159 ! . since the potential must be zero as r .103) is 8(4)= A.P + B. A . thc terms cohiaining thc P factor cannot exist. e obtain a general solution of the . such as in problems rnvolwng a .97) The equation for ~ ( ralso becomes simpler whkn k = 0. (4100) is t R(r) = A.101).sin ng + in cos nd) i~ +r"(A. (496) :second Depending on the bobndary conditions.95) . fi i .the terms contnlnlng the r" factor cannot exist. ii = 0 and Eq. (496) j r (498) se listed . Taking the product of the solut~onsin (499) and (4101).
109b) Expressions C. where the arbitrary constants t. The outer conducjor has an inner radius b and is grounded.109a) (4.107).The product of Eqs. by symmetry. Example 48 Consider a very long coaxial cable.and C2 are determined from boundary conditions. (4. .Therefore. (4108a) and (4108b) in Eq. equipotential surfaces are coaxial cylindrical surfaces. the electric potential is n function of r only and is givcn by Eq. (4107) leads to two relations: .107) . The inner conductor has a radius a and is maintained at a potential Vo.. . (4104) and (4106) gives a solution that is independent of either zor 4 : (4. the potential distribution in the space's I r I is i  Obviously.. The boundary conditions are Substitution of Eqs. Determine the potential distribution i g ~ space between the e conductors. Solution: Figure 411 shows a cross section of the coaxial cable. Cllnb+C2=0. (4. We &ume no =dependenceand.V(r) = Cl In r + C. also no +dependence (k = 0). and C2 are readily determined: b Therefore. . . Cl I n a + C2 = Vo.
Solution: A cross section of the split circular tkbe is shown in Fig. The er half is kept at a potential V =. I . pnducting circular tube of rndiub b is split in~wo halves. 412 Cross section of split circular cylir~bcr and cqu~potcnt~:ll lines (Example 49). ~ ~ COORDINATES ~ ~ E161 I ~ ~ tJ .Example 49. of either (4 107) tl ilditions. 4) is an odd function of 4. ?'. +' Fig.lO8b) tions: (4. \ . radius rac'f' b ween . . the potential is independent of 2 and the two! dimensional Laplace'b equation (493) applies. Since rhe tube is assumed to b infjnltely long. . I I I 1 ! i 3 I I I o T 2n d I. 4113 . 412. P(r. inside a) Inside the tube. .Boundary condition for Lvo L .110) . @i and outside the tube separately.1O9a) (4. and the lower half at V = *Vo. V. rle \ / A ' '/ i: Fig. The boundary conditions are:  (4108a) (4. . I/ n f (4.b : 1 I I i  .Determine distribution both inside and outside the tube.o b ) l These conditions are plotted in Fig. . We shall determine. ' :!. thin. .46 t OUND&~YWUE PROBLEMS IN I 6 p * ' 1 .<is < .sume ti0 ic electric Example 49 An i%finirelylong.I I. 413. Obviously V(r.
and the appropriate form of solution is = 2 Bnr" sin n 4 .11 1) be satisfied at r = b. 413. I !' b) Outside the tube. (4. (4.to zero as r r m. the potential must decrease.Because this region includes r = 0 terms containing the r" factor cannot exist. (4. into a Fourier sine series. since V(r. (4115) in Eq. However. (480). As a matter of fact. .? sin n 4 . becausewe already have the result in Eq. 9 4) = = 1 n= 1 m K(rY 4 . 4)is an odd function of 4. (4. a single such term d ~ e not satisfy the boundary conditions specified s in Eq. This amounts to ex'panding the rectangular wave (period = 2x).? sin n 4 . i 1 The coefficients An can be found by the method illustrated in Example 46. We form a series solution W . Terms cbntaining the factor r" cannot exist.(r.113). shown in Fig.11 1). Moreover. 4) = A.  In this region. .113) I and require that Eq. the appropriate form of solution V. we can directly write if n is odd (4115) 1 h 47 IN St The potential distribution inside the tube is obtained by substituting Eq. 2 n= 1 A.
412. If the equation is to hold for all values of R and 0.I' (4113) inding the inc scries.a in directly Several equipotefitial lines both inside and outside the tube have been sketched 1 in Fig. (4112) P I' (41 17) Substituti)his Bolution in Eq. (4115) The general equation in spherical coordinates is a very involved discussion to cases where the electric potential is independenteof the llzirnuthal angle 4. each term . I In Eq. (41 18) are analogous to A. and the second term is a function of 0 onb.115) (4. r i . From Eq. ?it r!  1. (4115) we obtaih 'I6 ! . . Therefore.not exist. . .0) = T(R)O(B).. (4121) yields. ' . (4. we assume a product soiutlon tontaining I' V ( R .9) we have Zq.n Y' I a $. From Eq. 4 ' .. : '1'. (4123) the first term on the left side & a idfiction of R only. Even with this limitation we will need to introduce some new functions. (4. after rearrangement. the pdtcntial distribution outside the tube is 4' . in Eq. (4114).116) Applying the method of separation of variables. (4112) specified i t ' i i 1 The coefficients in Eq. (41 14) P ' Bd= 107 Iif n is odd (41 19) if n is even. I . rso~utio? .
for spherical boundaryvalue problems with no azimuthal variation.. ordinary differential equations (4124). Equation (4124) can be rewritten as which has a solution of the form r. ' . they are also called Legendre polynomiuls.R'"'I). from 0 to n.the solutions to Legendre's equation (4129) are called Legendre j~ncrions. There is another set of solutions to Legendre's equation. the completc solution may be a summation of the terms in Eq. (4131). 1 . be excluded if the polar axis is a reglon of interest. sin which is a form of Legendre's equation. but they have singularities at 0 = 0 and n and must. A. We must now solve the two secondorder.. and B. and (4125). For problems involving the full range of 0.(R)= AnRn+ B. we have. We illustrate the application of Actually Legendre polynomials are Legendre functions of the first kind. Since Legendre functions for integral values of n are polynomials in cos 0. (COS r t E 1 I t 0). called Legendre functions ofxhe second kind. Depending on the boundary conditions of the pivcin problem. (4128). With the value of k2 given in Eq.. . usually denoted by P(cos 8).(O) = P.. (4122).164 SOLUTION OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS 1 4 must be a constant and be the negative of the other.where k is a separation constant. 2. ! + n(n + I)@(@) 8 = 0. (413) where n = 0. (4125). We writc @. .. Combining solutions (4127) and (4130) in Eq. we have. (4130) Table 42 lists the expressibns for Legendre polynomialst for several values of n. from Eq. In Eq. (4127). are arbitrary constants. is a positive integer. and the fitbwjng relation between 11 and k can be verified by substitution: n(/t ii k 1 + I ) = I?. We write . therefore.
414. .lr:i (41 29) llon and redistributiqp of charges will take place in such a way that the surface of thc sphere is The electric field intensity within the sphere 1s will intersect the surface normally.3 cos 8) / (4 .1 nge of 0. fuitctions. 414 Conducting sphere in a uniform electric field (Example 410). obviously.lluc problem in the following example.: " t 2 (4125) xdinary . spherical ( 4 ~ 1 ) :soil. and the solhtion obtained in this section applies. . 0 ) and (b) the electric field idtensity E(R. and the the sphere will not be affected appreclably.120) Lcgcndre po~yno$ids in thc Solution of a sidple boundaryv. I . Solution: After the conduct~ng sphere is introdsccd into the clectrlc lield.f 4 P" (cos 0) 1 . (4. Fig. '\ t. . cation of of solutions ies at 0 = 0 . :' I 3 :: cos Q A(3 cos2 0 . ' B. The geometry of thistproblem is depicted in Fig. Determine (a) the potential distribution V ( R . :l sep. k s f n are (4. .130) ues of n.127) betyn (4128) Example 410 An Uncharged conducting sphere of radius b is placed in an initially . . '. . . uniform electric field $ = azEo. independent of the adnutbal angle 4. 0 ) after the introduction of the sphere.1) +(3 C O S ~e . The potentla1 is.
By using Eq.(cos 8). (4131).) . since the surface of the conducting.421 for V(b.O) = V. in view of Eq. 0 ) = 0. (4132b). we require 2 0 = . from Eq. all An except A . We have.134) Actually the first term on the right side of Eq.. and Eq.a) To determine the potential distribution V(R.  ' For t h ~ sproblem it is convenient to assume V = 0 in the equatorial plane (0 = 7~12). we note the following .2.E. n2. .(cose). = Eob3 and Bn=O.which leads to V ( b . boundary conditions : Equation (4132b) is a statement that the original Eo is not disturbed at points very far away from the sphere.R) cos f3 + n=2 1 BnR(ntl)P. and A . = B.R' .. (4134) becomes (413. Since the sphere is uncharged. B.E. 6)for R 2 b. we write the general solution as However.. R2b (4. = .E 0b cos 6 + from which we obtain ( ) 2 n=2 Bnb'n+l)P.. Bo = 0. (4134) corresponda to the potential of a charged sphere. (4133) and Table 42.R ' + (B. must vanish. (Sec Problem P. sphere is equipotential. .5) Now applying boundary condition (4132a) at R = b.
.a = ~ o [ l (4137b) The surfac. which are not amenable to neat analytical solutions. Introductory Engineering ~ k ~ t r o m a ~ n e t AddisonWaley Publishing ics. I > I ! R. Co. +2('~]cos0.42 wh~h ldds P. These methods are beyond the scope of this book. In such cases. Some equipotent~aland potential 1. Chapter 5. ' ri ) ( R . p i F R z ~ . Tlic aolillioii a/' Laplacc'a cquauon by the method of separation of variables requires that the bouhdaries coincide with cooidinate surfaces.8): 1 . 0) for . j * 04 . REVIEW QUESTIONS . p. (4136) . . b) The electric f i e l ~intensity E(R. 414.41. In practical problems we arc often faced with both more complicated bqpdarics. i 1 .j . B.. 1 See. We hive. . ' .: dV R'Fb can be easily determined from (4137a) E(R. .421 for t ~epeablfi cartdsian coordinates both p&ts of R. (4134) In this chapter wd'ha~e discussed the analytical solution of electrostatic problems by the method ~f imQes and by direct solution of Laplace's equation The method of images is useful when charges exist near conductlng bodies of a simplc and compatible geometry: a point charge near a conducting sphere or an infinite conductlng wiiriucling cylindcr or .oportional to cos 8. we must resort to approximate grkphical or numerical methods.~rom'~q.41 a) Write Poisson's lequation in vector notation . ~ ) = . charbe density on the sphere can be found by noting  which is p.+ . = n/2. i4 .I p:~r:iIlcl conductitlg plnnc. tli$aliy.+ aoE. D.. hut inl~omo~cncous ti~cdiunl. bemg zero at O field lines are gketched in Fig. j R.# VV(R.E . ... R k b and !a= .. These requirements restrict the u s e f ~ l n ~ s s ~ o f methods. (4135). (1971). 1 for a sinipte b) for a linciw and isotropic. 0 ) = aREi. 1 solution where I p f . for instance. Popovit. a n d it linc chafgc I G I ~ iL pat~ilcl plmc.
n/2 c 4 n/2 and V = .) in Cartesian coordinates be real? Can they all be imaginary? Explain. ' .418 What should we d o to modify the solution in Eq.414 What is the method of separation of variables? Under what conditions is it useful in solving Laplace's equation? R. 46? R. z I ..47 R. QWR? Explain. . . \ : R. R.412 Where is the zeropotential surface of the twowire transmission line in Fig.415 What are boundaryvarue problems? R.49 What is the image of a spherical cloud of electrons with respect to an infinite conducting plane? R.410 Why cannot the point at infinity be used as the point for the zero reference potentlal for an infinite line charge as it is for a point charge? What is the physical reason for this difference? R. If VU = 0. and k.411 What is the image of an infinitely long line charge of density p.' R.419 What should we d o to modify the solution in Eq. *.k. with respect to a parallel conducting circular cylinder? R. " .Q are deposited on the plates of an isolated parallel 1 P I ! ! I I ' i i ' ' a) Does the electrlc field intensity in the space between the plates depend on the permittlvlty of the medlum'? . why does it not follow that U is identically zero? ' A fixed voltage is connected across a parallelplate capacitor. (452) and then evaluate ps by ro aV(a. R. +Q and .48 Why is the electrostatic potential continuous at a boundary? State in words the uniqueness theorem of electrostat~cs.43 R. (4'110) for Examplc 48 i f the inncr conductor of the coaxial cable is grounded and the outer conductor is kept at a potential Vo? L 1 .Vo for x/2 < 4 < 3n/2? 1 i i  . can we set R = a in Eq. '.416 Can all three separation constants (kx. . ' 7 i i . R. i I I 1 1 i i. 1 . .. a) Does the electric field intensity in the space between the plates depend on the permittivity of the medium? b) Does the electric flux density depend on the permittivity of the medium? Explain.> t 3 . R. .. b) in Cartesian coordinates.413 In finding the surface charge induced on a grounded sphere by a point charge. I I i ! I 1 .417 Can the separation constant k in the solution of the twodimensional Laplace's equation (497) be imaginary? R.46 Assume that fixed charges plate capacitor.45 Write Laplaa's equation for a simple medium a) in vector notation. with V = Vo for . R. (41 16) for Example 49 if the conducting circular cylinder is split vertically in two halves.44 R.. b) Does the clectric flux density depend on the perm~ttivltyof the medium'? Explain.
42 Prove that the scalar potential V in Eq.. .47 A point charge' Q exists a a distance d above a large grounded conducting plane. and C.: .*: . . and C. b) the lmal_qharge indqced on the condxiillg $erz.b.. 415(a). 1 1 replace the conducting boundaries 11 that are maintained at Zero potential for ' a) a point charge located between two large. PA3 Prove that a 60tential function satisfying Laplace's equation in a given region possesses ' no maximum or minimum within the region. PROBLEMS 169 .y.. located midway between two large. .ib (hat . and u n i f o d hiekoess 0. Determine the potential distribution in the reg& a < r < b by solving Poisson's equation.". '? . b) What should t ~ expression for V ( x . respdctively. 'k(~. . as shown in Fig. 146). Arsumlng negligble fringing effect. where C. Determine a) the surface chatke density p. Eil. . !.'? 4 c) whatis ths e l ~ ~ t r o s t a t force of attraction between the charge Q and the conducting ic plane? PA6 Assume that spkce between the inner and outer conductors of a long coaxial cylindrical structure is filled with ad electron cloud having'a volume density of charge p = /I/r for a < r c b. a) Prove that V(x. (437) satisfies Laplace's equation ~fthe conduct~ng plane is maintained at tero uotential. r . t r ui parallelxrmittivlty "I a) the potential adti eleqtric field distribution inihe dielectric slab. intersecting conducting planes forming P 60degree angle.420 Can functibns = arbitrary constants.z) be i6the conducting plane has a nonzero potenk tial V. . .48 Determine the &ystems of image chi\. determine . grounded.A i . 1 . . P. cos 0. C) the surface chdfge densities on the upper +d lower plates.'): i) in Eq. A dielectric slab of dielectric at constant r. be db1utid.. + b) an infinite line charge p.44 Verify that > r V. are arbitrary constants. (356) satisfies Po~sson'sequation.m of ..* PROBLEMS { I.?+.45 Assume a point charge Q above an infinite cdnducting plane at J > = 0. are Explain. . P. where C. b) the potcntial aHd electric field distribution iH the air space between the dielectric slab and the upper plate. P. R. / ' P.. can we it useful in P. i . and the outer conductor is grounded. . = C . are solutions of Laplace's equation rge. "7 r 4 .8d is placed over the lower plate.I: e real? Can atPquaI I if the inner ntial Vo? I if the cod: c lr/2 and .+ . / R and conductmg otent~al for d~fference? o a paallel 16? V. The inner conductor is maintained at a potential V.y2 + yZ + i2)'I2.. parallel conducting planes as shown in Fig. = C2z/(..41 The upper and lower conductmg plates of a k g e parallelplate capacitor are seprrated by a distance d and mai ttiin~d potentials Vo and respct/vely. 415(b). I! ' [ P. where a and b are. ' 2 "' < . the radii of the inner and outer conductors.
. ': . 415 Diagrams for Problem P. % . .. <. ..p . . [ ii . ..  !I .. .l . . . ' ! . . .r .. . .i. I i P.  PAI 1 A straight conducting wire or radius tr is p....f. . both acting in medium 1.. .. .. . and sketch a typical pair.... and e 2 are separated by a plane boundary at x = 0.. ! a .... ..i: * . . 416.. x . . " . (Image charge) Medium 2 (62) I x=O (Image charge) Medium 1 ( e l ) Fig.)..*.. .. . ' : .. .. *>. . and o.> .ii~+"~:~:.. .410 Determine the capacitance per unit length of a twowire transmission line with parallel conducting cylinders of dillkrent radii u ..+ b and z = . Find the equations for the equipotential surfaces. . . *:. Assuming that the earth is perfectly conducting. . tj~?. . . ' .. parallel line charges with line densities pc.:.. . %OLU. ... . and .. . as shown in Fig. & . . ' ': ' 170 '. . P.  1: i I i i i P.'2.:.y. .5~ . . 3. . . induced on the inncr surface of the shell.~EE2~\~~~ij.~llclto and nt height 11 from thc surbce of the earth. ... : .. Fig. .+". a) Verify that the field in medium 1 can be obtained from Q and an image charge Q. + a..413 Two dielectric media with dielectric constants E .'. _ .. ..Y4! ... :. . . . I. P.I ' . .~ . tllcir axcs being scp. '< ._: I .? i' . . ... " . Two infinitely long.... .. . 416 Image charges in dielectric media (Problem P. 3 . .'..b f 2 2 respectively. " I .:. . .: .: : . Use the method of images to determine a) the potential distribution inside the shell.L'*. 1 . .48. determine the capacitance per unit length between the wire and the earth.wutcd by n distancc D (where D > a. i z .. . t: . b) the charge density p..N OF ELECTROSTATIC PROBLEMS 1 4 ..413).&. :. . are located at .. . A point charge Q exists in medium 1 at distance d from the boundary... . ... . ' .49  (b) Line charge between grounded intersecting planes. . ..'. ' . .412 A point charge Q is located inside and at distanced from the center of a grounded spherical conducting shell of radius b (where b > d). \ 8 . ~ "' ' . : .:. . :. .u. ' G ( 1 a (a) Point charge between grounded parallel planes.. .f..p.
ko P. Deterpine potential distribution Y(r. respcc4rc a t i v d y . l.417 Consider a metallic rektrihgular box with sidcs a and b and height c.421 Rework Example 410. P.l~iitdru~. (4132a).. c nrluctinp circular cylinder of radius b is split in four quartcrcylinders.Verify that the field in'medium 2 can be obtained $om Q and an image charge +Q.0) both inside and outside the dielectric sphere.Eo. and those in the first and third . thin. and left planes in F& 4110 are grounded ( V = 0) and an end plate on the right is rnaintained at a constant potential to? P..s~ s d I. Determine V(r. respectively and requird the continuity of the tangential component of the Efield and of the normal coapon&t of the Dfield. bottbm.Eq.420 A long dielectriccq4nder of tadius b and dielectric constaht 6.414 i n what way should we hodify the solution in E ~1491) for ~ x a r n ~47 rfthe boundary . 4) both inside and outside the dielectric cylinder.[< i c j l ( . PA18 An infinitely long. ~ n d foilrtli L ~ Ii tI<I r :\ l \ t < : \ S t grounded. and rlght planes in Fig. as shown in Fig. c) Determine Q.422 A dielectric sphere of radius b and dielectric constant 6. 410 are dV/an = O? PA15 In what way shollld i d m o d i f y the solution in Eq. Determine the potential distribution insidc the enclosurq. le conditions on the top. 417. 0) = Vo in. #J) and E(r. P. and P . . . Determine the potential distribution inside the box. 4.419 A long. P. (6) and clectric field in' 'tensity E(r. both acting in mediud 2. Dclcrn\iw t l ~ cpukalid ilbtvibutial both inr/de md outside the cylinder.. 7f1ir. . 417 Cross section of long circular cylinder split in f o i r quarters (problem PA18). bottom. grounded conductink cylinder of radius b is placed along the zaxis in an initially uniform electric field E. is placed in a n initially uniform electric field. Fig. In media 1 and 2 . asshmipg V(b. r parall~l stance D \ C' : bound:d from ge QI: I *. $) outside the cylinder. '.I( i ~ o ~ c ~ t ii.~imiiincd a1 constnht potentials v. (491) lor Example 47 if the top. is placed along the zaxis in an initially uniform electric field = a. The top surface is isolated and kept at a constant potentla1 Vo. and V. Eo = aZEo. [ ~ i n t Consider neighboring boints P. The side walls and thc bottom surface are grounded.10 as thc cross scction of an cnclosurc contlucli~~g pli~t~?i. Detmniqe V(R. respstively. Icl't mid right plntcs arc yroundcd. : . he quartercylinderi in the second . .E. B) and E(R.416 Consider the rcctangulab region shown in Fig. and the top and bottom I'hc formcd I~y'rour pixto i ~ l rin. and Q .in air. = a.) P. P.
!'l .. ' . . : . In Chapters 3 and 4 we dealt with electrostatic problems. .. . usually a diluted salt solution.d 2 ' . 51 INTRODUCTION F .. the current density can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar field.. . and the molecules of the electrolyte are decomposed into oppositely charged ions by a chemical process called electrolysis... . The timerate of change of electric displacement leads to a displacement current. .I ! .:!y+y. . . .... When a current flows across the interface between two media of different conductivities. * .. When a voltage or potential difference is applied to the electrodes.*a:.i.:: . . . : . field problems associated with electric charges at rest. . 1 /. ' .~. . .. . . .. .:> y. .*. a relationship called the equation of continuity from which Kirchhoff's current law follows. a.+ Conduction currents in conductors and semiconductors are caused by drift are the motion of conduction electrons and/or holes. [ .. . Positive ions move in the direction of the electric field. .. there is another type of current caused by bound charges. ..... ..I .3 .. . ~ I L...... . ..... We will proceed from the point form of Ohm's law that relates current density and electric field intensity and obtain the V = IR relationship in circuit theory. This will be discussed in Chapter 7. .Wc will discu\s thcsc boundary contlitions... . . . .> . :. certain boundary conditions must be satisfied.. . i i \ i ! 3 I i I 1 t i1 j i1 . . . and the direction of currcnr llow is ch:~ngcd. . Wc will :11w show that Sor a homogeneous conducting medium. .. . . We now consider the charges in motion that constitute current flow. <... . 5 .*:.. I: 1.<. .: z .!. an electric field is established within the solution.. . . . ' .. . Using the principle of conservation of charge.. 1. . . .r.. . d. : . I n this chnpter wc shi~ll spccinl attention to pay conduction currents that are governed by Ohm's law. . :'.> . . ' 1 ?.. .. . .. . .. I .. .! :. . . j I ! I ' t ..!.. . . .~.. . Highly conducting metallic electrodes are inserted in the solution. . There are several types of electric currents caused by the itloti011of p e e charges. '... '. The electrolyte in an electrolytic tank is essentially a liquid medium with a low conductivity.. . i... ..<.: .. . an analogous situation exists between steadycurrent and electrostatic fields that is the basis for mapping the potential distribution of an electrostatic problem in an electrolytic tank. . * . . :. r . 5 / Steady Electric Currents . Hence. .... .. we will show how to obtain a point relationship between current and charge densities. .k!. .. . . which satisfies Laplace's equation. ' : . We will also introduce the concept of electromotive force and derive the familiar Kirchhoff's voltage law. . . 7 . .A . and negative In a timevarying situation.'> '. e l e c t r o l ~ ~ i i ~ ~ r c i ~ t s result of migration of positive and negative ions. ') . .n~. . ..... and convection currents result from motion of clcctrons :rntl/or ions in a v:uxum.p..: .:.. ... . ..:. . .:"....L .'."' ' .w> c . . .. . . .
The deasurkd potential distribution iii the electrolyte is then the solution to Laplace's eqlYation b r difficulttosolve analytic problems having complex boundaries in a homogeneoys medium.when an external~electricfield i's applied on a conductor. an organized motion of the conduct.ion electrdns will result. Convection curtents.nt. If N is the h m b e r of charge carriers per unit volume. thc atoms of a conductor occupy regular positions in u crystalline structdre. The atoms consist of positively charged nuclei surrounded by electrons in a shelllike arrangement. The mechanism o conduction currents is diRerent from that of both electrolytic currents and convecttbn currehts..to 1 frca the tensity and he w x e p t rJymg the cld~mnship f conrinuity 3f different lirection of le will also jity can be ion. Even with the drift motioh of conduction electrons. . 11 4 i ' 1ENSIlY AND OHM'S LAW 173 associated constitute iou of free ed by drift ie r e t of xn . then in time At each 1 charge carrler moves a distance u At. >ndthe violent motions of dharged particles in a thunderstorm. The atoms. Hence. each of charge q (which is negative for electrons). . 51. in I ions move in a directid opposite td the field. because they collide with the atoms in the course of their qotion. 'on tier. Convectioq. The electrons in the outerrflost shells of a conductor atom do not completely fill the shells: they are valence or corlduction electrons. * e 52 1 CI . (51) Since current is the tlme rate of change o f ~ h a r i e we have . . As At (C). . curreyts ark the result of the motion of positively or negatively charged particles in a j a c u u m or rarefied gas. process mi\ negative 'he rimerate of 'hapter7. These latter electrons . An experimental model ban be set up in an electrolytic tank. a conductor remains electrically neutral. Fahiliar examples are electron beams in a cathoderay tube. The electrons in the inner shells are tightly bound to the nuclei and are not free to move away.may wander from one atom to another in a random manner. and there is no net drift motion of electrons. We will sdow gnalytically that the charge density in a conductor decreases exponentially with tide. are not governed by Iinl's law. on the ~Gerage. dissipating part of their kinetic energy as heat. .. Consider the sttady rhotion of one kind of charge carriers.. t e result of hydrodynamic motion involving a mass transport. The average drift velocity of the clcctrdns i s vcry low (on the order of 10' or lo* m/s) even foi"vcry good conductors. and the amount of charge passing through the surface As is AQ = N q u a. across an element of surface As with a velocity u. producing an electric current. k ' d 1 52 CURRENT DENSITY *ND OHM'S LAW with a low c clpydes p i $3 the noli of I: . and are only very loosely bound to the nuclei. both contrib'uting to a currentflow in the direction of tkb fiel. fields that problem. I4 ) 1 . In their normal state. Electric forces prevent excess electrons from accumulating at any point in a conductor.remain electrically neutral. . with electrodes dqpibpkr geometdcal shapes sirndating the boundaries in electrostatic problems. In a good conductor the charge density diminishes extremely rapidly toward zero as the state of equilibrium is approached. as shown in Fig.
. (54) The total current I flowing through an arbitrary surface S is then the flux of the J vector through S: Noting that the product N q is in fact charge per unit volume. J. (52) can be written as A1 = J . we may rewrite Eq. . J = Nqu (A/m2). (53) as which is the relation between the contiection current density and the velocity of the charge carrier.174 1 . in amperes per square meter. .. P Fig. we have written As = a. yolurne current density. As. holes. . In the case of conduction currents there may be more than one kind of charge carriers (electrons. (52). conduction currents are the result of the drift motion of charge carriers under the influence of an applied electric field. STEADY ELECTRIC CURRENTS I 5 . * (53) so that Eq. 51 Conduction current due to drift motion of charge carriers across a surface. and ions) drifting with different velocities.As as a vector quantity. The atoms remain neutral ( p = 0). It can be justified analytically that for most conducting materials . or simply current density. It is convenient to define a vector point function. i ' * 1 I : I . Equation (53) should be generalized to read As indicated in Section 51. \ I 3 In Eq.
AND OHM'S LAW 175 4 '* ' the average drift sequently. the conductlvlty of materials valies dver an extremely wlde range. has a conductivity 5. . 0I of uacd materials Howpver.. the most commonly used conductor. Ca per. m We recall Ohm's iua from circuit theory that the voltage V. hard rubber.or siemens per meter (S/m. (53) 4. J = oE where both H J and E are in the dirktion of current flow. (58) anti Eq. Is ropld materials the linear relation Eq..tioml to the electric field intensity. prefer to use conductivity. (5'7) i s ivcnicnt to 2111 ciolsiry. that is. note that. The reciprocal of conductlv~ty1 s called rrsi~tiuity. i~nd is the total current [lowing iron1 terminal 1 to I 2 tcrm~nal through a frnitc cross 4cctlon. a good insulator.'(59). \ i I k~ DENSITY I . ax 01 me J where the proportioba~itycoastant. the former is gknerally referred to as the point form of Ohids law.m ) .m~. The potential difference or voltage between Y A n7) : motlon of t 3ms remain ~gmaterials . there is really no in We compelling need to ube both conductlv~ty d resistivity.  11 d V12 = R I . it holds at all points in space.80 x lo7 (S/h). Let us'use the poiht form of Ohm's law to dirive the voltagecurrent relationship of a piece of homogWleous material of conductivity c. Within the conducting material. Equation ducting medium. across a resistance R. (58) holds are called ohmic meqba. 111 which a current I flows from point 1 to point 2. Equation (59) 1s not a point reiatlon. unlike the dielectric constant.' IS/m). and D can be a function of space coordinates. The unit for o is a m p e p per voltmeter ( A P .). Although there is little resemblance between Eq. o. is equal to RI. has a conductivity 0 o f only 1 . is the voltage bctwecn two lcrn~inalsI i11Id 2 . 52. we directly propo. Con(53) or Eq. as shown i Fig. (59) (55) nay rewrite (5 6) ocity of the d 'of charge lation (53) Here R is usually a of conducting materid of a giyen lengh: V . oHrn meter (i2. is a mhcroscopic constitut~veparameter of is a constitutive relation of the conthe medium called e nductiuity. hppcnciix H 4 11\tsthc conduct~vlt~cs some other frequently . n i h e other hand. length L and uniform crosssection S.
(513) applies... I=JJ. .' terminals land 2 ist or ' ' "' :'.t  . . From Eq.. .  R.. Example 51 Determine the DC resistance of 1 (km) of wire having a I(mm) radius (a) if the wire is made of. r< .Vl 2 IP  . = E d E=. . (58). . . a. 5.==G a.49 (n)... (512) we have the formula for the resistance of a straight piece of homogeneous material of a uniform cross section for steady current (DC).k+rs 7 .+ The total current is or I . and E more in dctail in Section 53.. . .. . $> . .* . (510) and (511) in Eq. < .. we could derive the point relationship in Eq. a) For copper wire.80 x lo7 x lo% ' We will discuss the significance of V. (59) as the experimental o h m s law and applied it to a homogeneous conductor of length C and uniform crosssection S. We could have started with Eq.' " ' 8 . v. .. and (b) if the wire is made of aluminum. = 5. (58). Using the formula in Eq. = ~ . .. we obtain (51 1) which is the same as Eq. I 1 . Using Eqs. .'. Eq... .S lo3 = 5. Solution: Since we are dealing with conductors of a uniform cross section. (510) .. . ' .80 x lo7 (S/m): G = lo3 (m).~"... .~~=Js t _a .copper. (513).~ ) lo% (m2). We have S = 7 ~ ( l O . . (59). .: J = ~.
lo7 . and R .I : b) For a l u k n u h i l r e . we have 2 rem~unce for steady J (513) d applied it Using the mm) radius 53 ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND KIRCHHOFF'S VOLTAGE LAW . Eq. the total resistance R is I (5. (517) becomes (517) Equation (518) t1119hs that a steady current cannot be maintained in the same direction in a closed circuit .15) / 12) b) When resistances R . that IS. are connectod in series (same current). .S + (9. ! $~dt'=0. since a charge carrier completing a closed circuit in conservative field neither gains nor .= b . a) When resistakeb R . ual 1 * II = 3. collide with atoms and dissipate e energy in the circuit4 This energy must cdme from a nonconservative field. In Section 32 we &inted out that static electric field is conservative and that the scalar line integral a static electric i?+oGty around any closed path 1s zero. arc connected in parallel (same voltage). mi: . or the reciprocal of ri%istance. is useful in combining resistances in parallel : 1 : . which. (514) * R e ' % I (5li) d ft From circuit theory %e know the following: '. For an ohmic material J = oE. in their paths. and R .54 x . A steady current in a circuit is the result of the motion of c ~ a r g carriers. I 1 The conductahcej{G.by an electrostaticjield. G = .
electric generators (conversion of mechanical energy to electric energy). ++02 +1+ 2. 53. + & + . 53 Electric fields inside an electric battery. from the negative to the positive electrode (from electrode 2 to electrodc 1 in Fig. These electrical energy sources. since no current flows in the opencircuited battery and the net force acting on the cli. when connected in an electric TllisJorcc mmifcsts itself as circuit. + +E'Electric battery  Fig. Denoted by V . Outside the source Inside the source ' Also called electromotance. Chemical action creates a cumulation of positive and negative charges at electrodes 1 and 2 respectively.~rgc carriers must vanish. We have . Consider an electric battery with electrodes 1 and 2. Thc line inlcgrnl of thc impressed ficld intensity E.electric energy). The SI unit for emf is volt. or other devices.178 STEADY ELECTRIC CURRENTS I 5 . These charges give rise to an electrostatic field intensity E both outside and inside the battery. Inside the battery. and an emf is not a force in newtons. produced by chemical action. (517). provide a driving force for the charge c~rriers. Inside the source The conservative electrostatic field intensity E satisfies Eq.. shown schematically in Fig. an equivalent irnpressed electric field irtterisity E. . thermocouples (conversion of thermal energy to electric energy). The source of the nonconservative field may be electric batteries (conversion of chemical energy to .. 53) inside the battery is customarily called the electromotive forcet (emf) of the battery. loses energy. . photovoltaic cells (conversion of light energy to elect'ric energy). E must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the nonconservative E. the electromotive force is a measure of the strength of the nonconservative source.
. (517) and (519). (58). Denoted riservative .p conncctcd bctwecn tcrm~nals1 '~nd2 . where E.. com~lclingthe circu~l. and uniform crosssection S. From Eq. (521) and @22) we have expressed the emf of the source as a line integral of the conservative & and interpreted it as a uqltage rise. otherwlu is elfcvt must be lncluded in Eq. This Implies that an ideal voltage source has a zero internal resistance.at IC field in:e equal in .. (525) becomes RI.. f Whcn a resisto? in tile form o Fig. J = I / S and the right side of Eq. we obtain a t d in char. We have. (526). ' We assume the battery to have a degligible 1ntern:l  . . (526) to 0) resistance.. " . = J : E ~ or O u t s ~ d e' the source )I (521) ir "= v.. illc!c~.= v.dP = I . the emf can be expressed as a potential difference between the positive and negative terml?als. 52 i. exists inside the battery only.= $(E + E. (5 24) around the closed circuit yields. (5119) and (520). (523). n d c p c n d c ~ l of the current flowing through it. (522) :rics (conw u o n of la1 energy ic energy).chemical me actlng 1 ldtensity [rode 1 in (emf) of . In spite of the nonconservative nature of E. which holds when there IS no source of nonconse~vative field. instead of Eq. (519) Equation (525) should be compared to E q (518). We havef =XI. we generalize Eq.. length /.~otive force and more than one resistor (including the interdal resistances 01 the sources) in the closed path. while has a nonzero value both inside and outside the source. I J LIP. An idcul witaye solrm in one whosc t c h i n a l Voltage is equal to ltr c n ~and is . ' " . (526) If there are more than x c soarc. as well as impressed Ei caused by chemical sctlon) must be used in the point form of Ohm's law.. If the resistor has a conductivity o.. in electric ts itself as n In Eqs. This was what we did in arriving at Eq.combining Eqs. The scalar line integkal of Eq. o l l l x battery.v. in view of Eqs. we have . (510).. ' r..) . lie lotul c l c a r ~ c field intcnbity (c1ectroat:rtic E caused by charge cumulation.
We have : i t I  Divergence theorem. and the currents in the different resistances need not be the same. It applies to any closed path in a network. : ' I i i . Electric charges may not be created or destroyed. 7 In moving the time derivative of p inside the volume integral.I~ r. Thus. Since Eq. we have. Eq. Equation (527) is an expression of Kirchhoff s voltuge l& It states that around a closed path in an electric circuit the algebraic sum of the emf's (volhige rises) is equal to the algebraic sum of the voltage drops across the resistances. (53 1) Thus. ap/& = 0. A net charge Q exists within this region.J. for a stationary volume.~letI1. Consider an arbitrary volume V bounded by surface S.~rgein 1I1e volume inus( ( / ~ ~ c ~ . 4 t : A 1 U in I . . ~ d v = S v z ap . We obtain. all charges either at rest or in motion must be accounted for at dl times. 4 .  . steady electric currents are divergenceless or solenoidal. may be invoked to convert the surface integral of J t the volume integral of V . it is necessary to use partial dinerentiation because p may be a function of time as well as of space coordinates. 1 \ I t I I < . . (529) must hold regardless of the choice of V. I i t h S! t i # 7 u 1  : I . o S V v . The current at leaving the region is the total outward flux of the current density vector through the surface S. If a net current I flows across Illc surfhce o i r l oS Illis region. For steady currents. L The priwiplc ofmnrrruotion of cbergr is one of the fundamental postulates of physics. . 54 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY AND KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW I .L ' I L . Equation (531) is a point relationship and holds also at points where p = 0 (no flow source). the integrands must be equal. . It means : I . the cll. iSa net currunt llows across the surhce illto the region. du (529) . I : I I. (2107). Equation (530) becomes V.I( ~ra equals the current. . the charge in the volume must i~~creusr a rate equal to thtcurrent. 1 1 " .11 . Kirchhoff's voltage law is the basis for loop analysis in circuit theory. charge density does not vary with time. (530) This point relationship derived from the principle of mnxrvation of charge is called the equation of continuity.J=O. The direction of tracing the path can be arbitrarily assigned. Conversely. T C( I .
. We arc now in a position to prove this statem&nt and to calculate the time it takes to reach a n equilibrium. < ' I urourid u J~seyttul rtly closed jned. It states that rile o/~ehr?iic sum o/ull the out ($a junction ill on electric circuit is zero. unlike tho& of electrosiatit field intensity that orig!hate and end on charges. Combining Ohm's I&.I (532) i ' which can be writted as (533) I 1 . V E'= p i t and Eq. < . :current 0 ug'P. In Section 36 ~e stilted that charges introduced in the interior of a coiiductor will move to the c o d uctor surface and redistribute themselves in such a way as to make p = 0 and E ='! inside h d e r equilibrium conditions. Over any integral form: enclosed surface. if any. . (334) is pace cotegrands (530) is c 6 d where po is the initial charge density at r = 0.80 x 10' (S/m). we have t 5 28) ilegral of In a simple medium. Eq. and s voltage .kssion of ~ i r c / & f l ' scurrrnr iuw.52 x 1019(s). add Eq. est or in bounded h s across rate that ic rcgion. kq..2 i .54 I EBUA~ON:?F CONTINUITY .0 . Equation (533) is a9exb. 1 ' . A/I d ! KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT LAW 181 .r equals 1.d s . A n ideal a n e n t genemior s one whose current is independent of its terminal voltage. : i r ~ a good conductor such as or coppera = 5.4 that the field lines df stryimlines of steady cdrrents close upon themselves. with the equation of continuity and assuming a constant n. r 2 so = 8. . . a very short time indeed. fphysics. (536) says that the charge density at a given location will decrease with time cxponentially. This implies that an ideal current source h n an Infinite internal resistance. The time constant T is cdled the re/avo: 3. r I . (531) leads to the f o l l o ~ i n g I $ J . .' KirchholT's for node analysis in circuit theory.85 x lo'' (F/m). (58). . . (5343 becomes (529) ry to use The solution of Eq. An initial charge density po will decay to l/e or 36.8% of its vdue in a time equal to :qui (531) n (531) It means . The transient time is so brief that for all practical This includes the currcnta of current generators at the junction. Both p and po can be functions of the space coordinates.
Since V =. with d t measured in the direction J.) Equation (539) is the corresponding point relationship. which is the unit for energy or work. have we (541) Equation (541) is. but can be hours or days. dv = ds d t . not joule. . The relaxation time for a good insulator is not infinite. the total electric power converted into heat is This is known as Joule's law.Lpower L where u is the drift velocity. Energy is thus transmitted from the electric field to the atoms in thermal vibration. by virtue of Eq. In a conductqr of a constant cross section. is Thus the point function E .I purposes p can be considered zero in the interior of a conductorsee Eq. the familiar expression for ohmic power representing the heat dissipated in resistance R per unit time. For a given volume V.responds O . The tot. of course. .I is a power dm. Microscopically these electrons collide with atoms on lattice sites. (364) in Section 36.~lpower delivered to all the charge carriers in a volume dv is which. (At).RI. The work An*done by it11 clectric field E in moving a charge q a distance A( is qE . Equation (540) can be written as P = S ~ E ~ / ~ J ~ ~ = V I . (57).siry rtndcr rtcztdycurrcnt conditions. where I is the current in the conductor. conduction electrons in a conductor undergo a drift motion macroscopically.. (Note that the SI unit for P is watt. which co~. 55 POWER DISSIPATION AND JOULE'S LAW In section 51 we indicated that under the influence of an electric field.
Determine the magnitude and direction of the current density at point P in medium 2. 56 BOUNDARY C O N D ~ T I ~ NFOR S * r: CURRENT DENSITY L ' . by an interface. .u diuergence1er. . we obtain the boundary conditions for the normal Bnd tangential components of J. By applying Eqs. as shown in Fig. sources are dovernjng Equations for $tea& Current Density ' k' . 2.  . a i 1 I A . When current . (542) a d (543) at the interface between two ohmic media with bonductivities o.A I . (531). (540)  is \~hich tionship.between two media with difierent conductivities. 322. Example 52 Two cbnducting media with contluctivities o.ted from' n electric ) 3 power (538) ricrs in a Differential Form lhtegral Form ' P The divergence equation a the same as Eq. Without actually bonstructing a pillbox at the interface as was done in Fig. 1 j364) in t can be . we have s (539) ions. or' . ham V * J = 0. and o are separated . . and the curl equation is obtalned by combining Ohm'sd lau ( J = oE) with V x E = 0. the cuhent density vector changis both in direction and in magnitude.obliqiaely posses an interface4. The governing equations for steady currcpt density J in the absence of nonconservative energy I. T h e steady current density in medium 1 at point PI has a magnitude J. I 8 . 54. ) I '. with the normal. A set of boundary cohditions can be der~ved J in a way similar to that used in fur Section 39 for obt~iningthe boundary conditions for D and E. ' . ed in the Equation (<2vstatei that the ratio o f rhr rangenrial componel~ts J at tbvo sides of of an interface is equal to the ratio of the conductivities.. and oi. and makes an angle a. I nduction topically .. I :I> .s oectarJe1~1 i continuous. Hence. I a f I (6 ~ /BOUNDARY &  CONDI~~ONS F P I ~ CURRENT DENSITY R 183 . we know from Section 39 that the normal rowq>onontof 'l.
sin a. By examining Fig. (547) by Eq. we have I J. (550) i 1 . ': G From Section 210 we know that a curlfree vector field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar potential field.)' + (J. can you tell whether medium 1 or medium 2 is the better conductor? For a homogeneous conducting medium. (546)yields (546) (5 47) 1 '  tan a . the differential form of Eq. The magnitude of J. approaches zero and J. . 1 i ./a. 34. 1 . .184 STEADY ELECTRIC CURRENTS I 5 f? . i .). 1 . I r7 1 t h . emerges almost perpendicular to the interface (normal to the surface of the good conductor). (5 44) and (549. is J2 = J G J Z = J(J. cos a. 1 . >> a. . = alJ2sin a. (548) If medium 1 is a much better conductor than medium 2 (a. (551) / . = J. i r s . Let us write J = Vt//. cosa.. or a. and a 2 4 sin sr. a. Division of Eq. =[ (: J l sin c x l r + (Jlcos all2 I. .. 2 0). t 1 . cosa.'. (543) simplifies to v x J=O.* " ! i I 1 I Fig. 54 Boundary conditions at interface between two conducting media (Example 52).  &'. ' Solution: Using Eqs.. .
. John Wilcy f and Sons. Deteriiiine (a) the current density between the plates.. (545). must simultaneously satisfy both Eq.ce 5 2). unlsss o. (3 .D2n I + = PA + E ~ E I . which is the same as Eq. (5 5 3 ) Dln . applied across a parallelplate capacitor of area S. Example 53 An emf Y is. Vol. E. Hence. if medium 2 is a much better conductor than medium 1 ( a .5 47) A problem in steadGburrent flow can therefor& be solved by determining (1 (Aim) ct to"appropriate boundary conditions and then by finding J from Eq. that is. E.* .. (543) ps = c l E l n= d l . (555) becomes abproximately  4 (549) the bettef Jq.1 14).is usual. (544) and Eq. = El. permittivities c l and c. I : Mapping o Fields. e tlic L : I I I ~ C I ~ ~ ~ : CI O I I I ~ O I I C I ~ L 01' tI1c clcct~ic I Iicld is C O I I ~ ~ I I L I O U S ... however. and conductivities o l and G .. As a matter fact. (553) and (554). n (550) ied as the (5si) See.. >> a . g2 lormal to where the reference &it normal is outward frqm medium 2. which is equivalent to Eq. 1950. ' .ind n2). (546) r. for instance. (b) the electric field intensities in both dielectrics.JZ. and (c) the surface Charge densities on the plates and at the interface. We 01 require (F8) Jlrl  . respectively. = qZE2.  El. (3113). a Again. Webet. pp. that is. .* Substitution of Eq. surface charbe must exist at the interface. From Eqs. 1 . from its negative in exactly the same way as a problem in electrostatics is solved.. Eq. Elecmrqagnefic Fields.J = 0 yields a Laplace's equation in (I.(451)~hto V . ~ ~ s (554) = b). 0).~crobsthe intcthce . E z E= P ~. (552). The space between the conductive plates is filled with two different lossy dielectrics of thicknesses dl and d. ilnd finite conductivi[ics n . / o ..' When a stcady cllrrent flows ilcross thc boundary hetwcen two dillcrent lossy ' dicleclrics (diclcctrics with per~nittivitics l and r . 187193. or ~ . we find c2k.jo. 4. As indicated in similarity between electrostatic and steadycurrent electrolytic tank to map the potential distribution of difficulttosolve boundaryvalue problems. ) and electrostatic dotential are simply related: (1 = GV. The normal component of the electric field.
. (563) I i'! <  The negative sign in Eq.I 1 I t . Y j Fig. . '' . 55. a) The continuity of the normal component of J assures that the current densities and. By Kirchhoff's voltage law we have and o l E l = ozE2. therefore. i "$. (558) (559) Equation (559) comes from J . :A 1 1 I ./ r. '6 " r (c/m2). (563) comes about because E2 and the outward normal at the lower plate are in opposite directions. c. I I . .'. .c 2 E 2 = ..I' . f *."*. . the currents in both media are the same. . 55 Parallelplate capacitor with two lossy dielectrics (Example 53)..[ I . ive obtain and f Ps2 = .. .E2019'62dl + ~ l d 2 .:. (558) and (559). 5  .. .a r Solution: Refer to Fig.* < I F I .*\'I. . = J . \ . Solving Eqs. .
an the line integral in the denominator is from the negatlve (lower potential) conductor tb the positive (higher potential) conductor (see Eq. that but p. which is reproduced here as Fig. we see that p. = 0 .&' (565) * A whcrc the surhcc i d ral in thc numerator is carried out over a aurhce enclosing the positive conductor. + p. They constitute an efdctromugnetostuticfield.. In terms of electric field quarltitieb. ~ ~ u a t i o d { i . The electrlc and magnetlc fields of an electromagnetostatic.~< s $s D ds . 521). / RESISTANCE CALCULATIONS I 187 \ ' J . We h d e . + p.E. t (5621 ' normal 4 0 1 I1 d v12 dielectric medium.p voltage . .I e obtain I. 56. fig.57.. c== V J. ds J.5 $ ) be used to find the ikface charge density at the interface can of the dielectria $e have a .fjeld are coupled through the constitutive relation J = aE of the conducting m e d i ~ h ... (558) (559) In Section 310 we diicussed the procedure for finding the capacitance between t i o conductors may be of arbitrary conductors separated by a dielectric medium. the basic formula for capacitance can be written as . thcn. as was shown in Fig. In Example 53 wb encounter a situation w i r e both static charges and a steady current exist. 56 Two cnndiictors in r bssy . both a static electric field and a steady magnetic field.. ! ' c I 7 From these resultl.. As we dball see in Chapter 6. # .$ E E .. 325. ~ h e s e shapes.E.. a steady current gives rise to a steady magnetic field.
4. (565). E 4. Solution a) The capacitance per unit length of a coaxial cable has been obtained from Eq. curre1 comp be cor const: h frinplr TI betwe~ 1. (567). . from Eq. C i 2. A1gtl.When the dielectric medium is lossy (having a small but nonzero a current will flow from the positive to the negative conductor and a currentdensity field will be established in the medium. Fi ge e'I (3126) in Example 316. an outer conductor of inner radius b. 3. J = cE.(568) The conductance per unit length is GI= l/R. circurr . Agtk . Fl P Hence the leakage resistance per unit length is.ensures that the streamlines for J and E will be the same in an isotropic medium. (565) and (566) shows the following interesting relationship: T' It 1 Equation (567) holds if r and u of the medium have the same space dependence or if the medium is homogeneous (independent of space coordinates). It is ir. contlu hold. Ohm's law. and (b) o f a parallelwire transmission line consisting of wires of radius a separated by a distance D in a medium with conductivity a. and a medium with collductivity 0.. ( ' iP Fl ? ) CI= * I n ) ' (Q/m). if the capacitance between two conductors is known. The resistance between the conductors is T where the line and surface integrals are taken over the same L and S as those in Eq. the resistance (or conductance) can be obtained directly from the €/a ratio without recomputation. In these cases. Comparison of Eqs.Ir a. !@! Example 54 Find the leakage resistance per unit length (a) between the inner and outer conductors o f a coaxial cable that has an inner conductor of radius a.
/I. Assume a potential diRerence V.. .m~logous. This is becatise current tlow can be tonlin?d strictly within a conductor (which ius a wr. : 1/1( .) 4. lcctrostatic and steadycurrent problems are not ex:<cily . '# c. lose in Eq. the gcncral method 1s to mlve Lapl'lcc's equation V2V = 0 for V in the chosen coordinate system. Find elects~cficld ultcnsity E w1t11111I ~ conductor... i. similarly. the ledcage resistance per unit length is.!.? In certain situations. not CR'. and then obtam E = VV. between conductor terminals. an outer T a parallelm e D inla It must be empHasized here that the resistance betweer1 the conductors for a length L of the coaxidl cable is R J t . Can you expfhin why and indicate how E can be determined under these circumstances? . Find total currefit n . l o r q ~ ri compared to that of'the surrounding medium). whereas electric flux usually cannot be contained within EL dielectric slab of finite dimensions.iter~'ll 1s homoC geneous. I where S is the crosssectional area over whir I flows.. (lf thc m. and the fluxfringing around conductor edges makes the computation of capacitance less accurate. 3. Therefore. b: n ) It is important to note that if the conducting material is inhomogeneous and if the conductivity is a function of space coordinates. Find resistance R by taking the ratio V. Eq. ' he streamttween the ' C.. d from Eq. The range of the dielectric constant of available materials is very limited (see Appendix B31. even wheh the gcotnctrical conljgurations are the same. the leakage resistance of a length L of the parallelwire transmission line is R'JL.*(447) in ~ x a m ~ 44 gives the le I capacitance per Lihit length. Do you know ~vhy. ' b) For the parallel~ire transmission link.s/' 1denG or if :ase. he ncc)can be : inner and a. Choose an apprdpriate coordmate system for the given geometry.. . Laplace's equation for V does not hold. having a cousratlt conductivity. . interesting 'I'hc cunductuncc per u n i t Icnytli is C. ' . I . without further ado. 2. not LR. . The procedure for computing the resistance of a piece of conducting material between specified eqbipotential surfaces (or terminals) is as follows: 1. = b nE cosh(5 66) l (& (F/m). . 5.
O' (57 1) d4' The general solution of Eq. I  Example 55 A conducting material of uniform thickness h and conductivity u has the shape of a quarter of a flat circular washer.. 57 A quarter of a flat circular washer (Example 55). as shown in Fig. . which. . 0 X Fig. Then the potential difference V is determined from the relation o .. . between the end faces. .# . . ti.' J.L . we first assume a potential difference V.r. We are to solve Lapluce'Sequ:lfion in V subject to the following boundary conditions: i Since potential V is a function of 4 only. . with inner radius a and outer radius b. . found. 4 . upon using the boundary conditions in Eqs. Following the foregoing procedure. which will be canceled in the process. . Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates simplifies to d2V .".. 57.W<! .. becomes . Determine the resistance between the end faces. The resistance R = Vo/I is independent of the assumed I. say V = 0. When the given geometry is such that J can be determined easily from a total .a r current I. J and E = J b are . where the integration is from the lowpotential terminal to the highpotential terminal. .: . (570a) and (570b). on the end face at y = 0. From I. and V = Vo on the end face at x = 0. (571) is V = c14 + C2." +. ** $ . . I f h Solution: Obviously the appropriate coordinate system to use for t h i ~ ' ~ r o b l e is m the cylindrical coordinate system. <b . we may start the solution by assuming an I.
<l (.512 .53 R. What is ~ t SI unit? s :comes (5. aubject P 15 Note that.52 Explain the dbera:ion of on electrolytic tank.dinates ( 5 7 13 REVIEW QUESTIONS I? R. (513) require that the material be homogeneous and straight and that it hav: a uniform cross section? R. E and Vo cannot be ddtermincd. i I: RFVlEW QUESTIONS 191 . (515) and (516b). R. .57 Prove Eqs. Define electroHtotiveJorce in words. The total current.54 What is the point f x m for Ohm's law? Define conductivity. it is not convenient to begin by assuming a total current I because it is not obvious how J varies with r for a given I without' J.What is the pHpica1 significance of the equation of continuity? . In what ways do electrolytic currents differ from conduction and convection currents? R.58 R59 R510 What are the charactiristics of an ideal voltage source? 11511 Can the currehts in different branches (resistors) of a closed loop in an electric network flow in opposite directions? Explain.\ . for this problem. terminal. lceled in ! . n I R. I b n be found by integrating J over the ds = a6h dr. y = 0. J ctivity a ~d outer :es. What is the dikrencc between impressed and electrostatic field intensities? ~t'a*~irchhoff's vdtage law in words. We have  4 = n/2 surface at which I I .5I Explam the dikerewe between c o ~ d u c t ~ o n convect~on and currents. (570b) .56 R. i' ' ~blemis assume it ' Therefore. .55 Why does the Rsisiance fornlula in Eq. .72) R. R.
R518 Does the relation V x J = 0 hold in a medium whose conductivity is not constant? I Explain.521 be only approrimatcly ~t correct? Give a specific example.~nccand the capacitace fortil~dby tivu con.and uniform crosssection S.516 In what ways should Eq.~ryv:dw problen~s? ' H. 58 A network problem (Problem PJ3).519 What arc the boundary condilions of the normal and tangential components of steady current at the interface of two media ~ 5 t different conductivities? h R.192 STEADY FLECTRIC CURRENTS I 5 R513 State Kirchhoff's current law in words. 0 is coated with a material of conduc a) What must be the thickness of the coating so that the resistance per unit length of the uncoated wire is reduced bv SO%? b) Assuming a total currenf I in the coated wire. verify the point form of Ohm's law represented by Eq. (58). Express the power dissipated in a volume a) in terms of E and a. PROBLEMS i i '\ P S I Starting with Ohm's law as expressed in E q (512) applied to a resistor of length t . Fig.52 A long. (534) be modified when a is a function of space coordinates? R.517 State Joule's law. find J and E in both the core and the coating material. b) in terms of J and a. ductors immersed in a lossy dielectric medium that has permittivity E and conductivity n? R522 Under \ ~ h isituations will the relati011between Rand C in R.521 WIi.520 What is the basis of using an electrolytic tank to map the potential distribution of elec[rcwttic hound. conductivity a. R514 What are the characteristics of an ideal current source? R515 Define relaxition time. i P.la. R. .tt is tllc rclation bclwcen the rcsis[. round wire of radius a and conductivity tivity 0. R.
Find the resistance between the curved sldes. b) the surface charge densities on the inner and outer conductors and at the interface between the two dielectrics. in the region c < r < h.2 E. barallelplate capacitor with lossy dielec length bf the trics. The radii of the inner and outer conductors are a a i d 11 ruspectively.1 (m) at time t = 0.7. P. = 30 (Q). and conductivity a . core and the P.). permittivity E . P510 Rekr to the flat quaricrcircular washer In Example 55 and Fig. Determine l a) the current density in each region.. 58 if J 4 5 I R l = 4 (a). The space between thc conductors is fillcd with two different lossy dielectric.56 Ilcfer to I'roblcm 1'55. 1 IS hd ideal current generator that supphes t constant? J tts ut' steady P. having. a) Draw the eq~ivhlent circuit of the twolayer. 57. a) Calculate the t h e it takes for the charge denshy in the sphere to diminish to 1 7 . c) the power dissiphted in the wire. assumlng the source a direct current of 0. 1 1 b) Calculate the change in the electrostatic energy stored in the sphere as the charge density diminishes from the nitial value to 1% of its value.511 Determine the resi~tance between concenttic spherical surfaces of radu R l and R2 ( R .mly in the sphere a totkl charge 1 (mC).(l + k/R) fills the space between them.5 (mm) radius results in a curred of 116 (A).59 An emf Y' is appliec across a cylindrical capacitor of length L.in Fig. . Find .r PROBLEMS 193 . R 2 = 20 (Q). R. and permittivity € 2 and conductivity a.53 Find the current h d the heat dissipated in each of the five resistors In the network shown " A . i I P. c) Determine the e1ect:osratic energy stored in the space outside the sphere. < R. . a) the conductivity of the wire. of its initial value.7 (A) out of terminal 1. depositing pnifo.55 Lightning strike&..57 A D C voltage af 6 ( V ) applied to the ends of 1 (km) ? f a conducting wire of 0. P. and if the source is ad idebl D C voltage generator of 0. b) Determine the Ijbwer dissipated in the capacitdr. R. in the region a < r < c. a = 10 (S/m)of radius 0. respectively. (Note: Laplace's equation for V does not apply here. R 5 = 10 (a).alossy dielectric sphere€ 1. . 1)) the current dcnslty in tlie sphere. Determine. What is the total resistdnce seen by the source'at terrhinal pair 12? P.54 Solve problem PS3.) . (V) with its positive polarity at terminal 1. Does this energy change with time? q 7 oy two cohit? a P of length C. assuming that a material of conductivity a = a. = 8 (Q). a) thc electric ficld htensiiy both inside and outsihc the sphere. presented by P. and identify the magnitude of each component. for all r. What happens to this energy'? . b) the electric field hteilsity in the wire.
P512 A homogeneous material of uniform conductivity block and defined in spherical coordinates by . + . 59 Steady current problem with a plane boundary (Problem P. P.194 . 59(b).512. as shown in Fig. and 010~8. P. . Find a) the potential distribution b) the current density everywhere within. . . A .. surfaces. find the resistance of the conductor to faraway points in the ground. 0 4. can be replaced by that of the conductor and ~ t image. both immersed in the poorli conducting s medium as shown in Fig. that have a very high conductivity are immersed in a poorly conducting medium (for example. The distance. Fig. Hint: Solve Laplace's equation in Cartesian coordinates subject to appropriate boundary conditions.. is applied to the side edges. d. t is'shaped like a truncated conical 1 /. I IU ... . and height b. Fig. conducting medium near medium replacing the a plane boundary.513 Redo problem P.. . P.515). as shown in Fig. Determine the resistance between the conducting spheres. and b. . P514 Two conducting spheres of radii b ..STEADY ELECTRIC CURRENTS 1 5 . i 1 .& > R.. plane boundary. *a *A. as shown in Fig.516). the sheet. 59(a). t. Assuming the earth conductivity to be S/m.e ... i I ! P516 A ground connection is made by burying a hemispherical conductor of radius 25 (mm) in the earth with its base up. 511. . Determine the resistance between the R = R . I A % i / ' I t ! Q o=o u d Boundary removed I . between the spheres is very large compared with the radii. and R = R . a .. (a) Conductor in a poorly (b) Image conductor in conducting. 510 Hemispherical conductor in ground (Problem P. Hint:Find the capacitance between the spheres by following the procedure in Section 310 and using Eq. width a. . . they are buried very deep in the ground) of conductivity a and permittivity e. 510. where R .IRSR. 5 R I R.517 Assume a rectangular conducting sheet of conductivity u.  potential difference V. (567).. asguming that the truncated conical block is composed of an inhomogeneous material with a nonuniform conductivity a(R)= aoRl/R.515 Justlfy the statement that the steadycurrent problem associated with a conductor buried in a poorly conducting medium near a plane boundary with air.
511 A conducting sheet (Problem P. I /' :ad y em with a lry 15). H ~ n tSolve Laplace's equation in cylindrical &ordinates and note that V approaches (Jor/a)cos$ as r + a.518 A uniform curreht density J = a. * 's equation in . A $.j v=0 sed of an iR5R1.517). . Assuming no var~ationin the : =direction: find the nevJ current density J' in the cdllducting material. conductor ig. %us 25 (mm) ~ctivityto be fd heirL+ b. ~mmerscd d) of conlared with spacitance 1.= an 1 ' . A hole of radius b is drilled in the material.Jo flows in a k r y large block of homogeneous material of conductivity a. P. zonducting r' . I I a. 59(4..7 Fig.
F. it is convenient to define a second vector field quantity. and (3) the magnitude of F. the electricJlx density D. The characteristics of F. (64) .... the magnetic Jux density B. can be described by defining a new vector field quantity.which has the following character? . experiments show that it experiences another force. In a material medium. that specifies both the fixed direction and the constant of proportionality.1) The electrical property of the medium determines the relation between D and E. If the medium is linear and isotropic. is a magnetic force.6 / Static M ngnetic Fields 61 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 3 we dealt with static electric fields caused by electric charges at rest. . is also proportional to the component of the velocity at right angles to this fixed direction. We have 6 2 MAGE f When the test charge is in motion in a magnetic field (to be defined presently).. which is a function of the position of q. The force F. We saw that electric field intensity E is the only fundamental vector fikld quantity required for the study of electrostatics in free space. to account for the effect of polarization.. we have the simple cortstit~itiuerclurion D = EE. :$ . (6. (2) the dircction of I. istics: (1) The magnitude 'of I is proportional to q .U=.. it cannot be expressed in terms of E or D. In SI units. at any point is at right angles to the velocity vector of the test charge as well as to a fixed direction at that point. ' When a small test charge q is placed in an electric field E. it experiences an electric force F. the magnetic force can be expressed as ?J . The following two equations'form the basis of the electrostntic model : V .
.
where u (m/sJ is thk vdocity vector, and B is mkasured in webers per square meter (Wb/m2) or t e d d 0,' The total eleetrohag$etie force on a charge q is, then, F = F e + F m ; t h a t i s ,;
(65)
1
I:
I
r s at rest. i quantity . it is con
o account .sis @he
(61)
\
.2)
)
and E. If )n D = EE. :riences an
which is called Lotdm's jhrce equation. Its kilidity has been unquestionably cstabiishcd by experinlcnts. We may tonbider Fe/q for a small q as the definition for electric field intensity (as we did in Eq. 32) and Fm/q = u x B as the defining relation for magneiic t u x density B. Alternative y, we may consider Lorentz's force equation as a [undadental postulate of our elktromagnetic model; it cannot be derived from ofher postulates, We begin the stlldy of static magnetlc fields in free space by two postulates specifying the divergedce and the curl of B. From the solenoidal character of B. a vector magnetic potential is defined, which is shown to obey a vector Poisson's equation. Neit we deiive the BiotSavart law, *hich can be used to determine the magnetic field of a curf'enicarrying circuit. The postulated curl relat~on leads d~rectly to Ampire's circuital law which is particularly useful when symmetry exists. The macroscopic bffet of magnetic materials in a magnetic field can be studled by defining a magnetihation vector. Here we introduce a fourth vector field quantity, the magnetic field intensity H. From the relation between B and H, we define the permeability of the nl$terial, following which .we discuss magnetic clrcults and the microscopic behaviorlof magnetic materials. We then examine the boundary conditions of B and H at the ~pterfaceof two different magnetic media; self and mutual inductances; and magfieti; energy, forces, and torques. ,
,k
I
62 FUNDAMENTAL POST~JLCTES OF MAGNETOSTATICS IN FRE$ SPACE
tly), experi:characterI' F, at any s to a fixed to the com4 a magnetic :F, can be 3sityFthat ;I ur. , the
,
To study magnetostatjcs (;;teady magnetic fields) in free space, we need only consider the magnetic flux dendity iector, B. The two fundamental postulates that specify the divergence and the curl of B in free space are
y u a l s la4 y u s s in CCS units. The earth rnagnetlc field about 4 gauss or 0.5 x lo' T. ( t ,weber is the same as a voltsecond.)
' One weber per square meter or one I&

IS
198
STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6
In Eq. (67), po is the permeability of free space
/
(see Eq. 19),'and J is the current density. Since the divergence of the curl of any vector field is zero (see Eq. 2 l37), we obtain from Eq. (67) which is consistent with Eq. (531) for steady currents. Comparison of Eq. (66) with the analogous equation for electrostatics in free space, V E = p/eO(Eq. 34), leads us to conclude that there is no magnetic analogue for electric charge density p. Taking the volume integral of Eq. (66) and applying divergence theorem, we have .
.
where the surface integral is carried out over the bounding surface of an arbitrary volume. Comparing Eq. (68) with Eq. (37). we again de$the existence of isolated magnetic charges. There are no magnetic Jow sources, and the magnetic J u x lines always close upon themeloes. Equation (65) is also referred to as an expression for the law of conservation of rnagnetic Jux, because it states that the total outward magnetic flux through any closed surface is zero. The traditional designation of north and south poles in a permanent bar magnet does not imply that an isolated positive magnetic charge exists at the north pole and a corresponding amount of isolated negative magnetic charge exists at the south pole. Consider the bar magnet with north and south poles in Fig. 6 l(a). If this magnet is cut into two segments, new south and north poles appear and we have two shorter magnets as in Fig. 6l(b). If each of the two shorter magnets is cut again into two segments, we have four magnets, each with a north pole and a south pole as in Fig. 61(E). This process could be continued until the magnets are of atomic dimensions; but each infinitesimally small magnet would still have a north pole and a south pole.
Successive division
flux lines follow er end outside the magnet, and then The designation of north and south ends of a bar magnet freely and south directions. in Eq. (67) can be obtained by integrating Stokes's theorem. We have
ics in free1 analogue ~PP~Y~Q
"
,
.
or
.
.
i ( V x B )  d ~ = ~ , , *J . d s f
!s
B  dP= poi,
(69)
(6 8)
arb~trary >f ~srficd
flux ..,ies
I
ession for I or .d
ar magnet 1 polc and outh pole. magnct is vo shorter I into two as in Fig. msnsions; outh pole.
whcrc thc path C for !he line ihtcgral ia thc contour boundlng the iurlicc S, m d I is the total current t S The sense of tracing C and the dl~ectionof current flow follow the Equation (69) is a form of Ampere', c ~ r c s ~ t n l lniv, which states that the ~irculation f the lnayrietic flex doisltj! in jrrc space nroiinii oiijl o I closed path is equal to po tunes the rotol current jawing through die u t j a c e bounded by the path. 4mpkre9Jcircuital law is very usefbl in determining the maqnrtlc flux density B caused by LI cuirent I when there is a closed path C around the current such that the magnitdtle cf R is constant over the path. Thc followihy is a'sunrmary of the two fundamental postulates of magnetostat~cs in free space: Free Space

n
Example 6 4 An infinitely long, straight conductor with a circular cross section . . of radius b carrles a 3teady current I. Determine the magnetic flux density both inside and outside the contiuctor. Solution: First we note tliat this is a problem with cylindrical symmetry and that Ampkre's circuital law can beused to advantage. If we align the conductor along the "axis, the magnetic fldx density B will be &directed and will be constant along any
t
circular path around the zaxis. Figure 62 shows a cross section of the conductor and the two circular paths of integration. C , and C,, inside and outside, respectively, the currentcarrying conductor. Note again that the directions of C , and C , and the direction of I follow the righthand rule. (When the fingers of the right hand follow the directions of C , and C,, the thumb of the right hand points to the direction of I.)
!
:
a) Inside the cortductor:
1 .
Bl=agBgl,
de=a,,,r,drl,
$c, B ,  d f = So2" B,,r1
dg = 2 n r l B g i .
The current through the area enclosed by C , is
Therefore, from Ampkre's circuital law,
f
Bl = .,B,l
liorlI = a, j& .
rl 5 b.
(610)
1t
!
C
b) Outside the conductor:
B2 = a,Bg2,
d t = a,r2 d 4
,
c
$B2dP=Znr,B,,. Path C 2 outside the conductor encloses the total current I. Henc?
Examination of Eqs. (610) and (61 1) reveals that the magnitude of B increases linearly with r , from 0 until r , = h, after which it decreases inversely with r,. Example 62 Determine the magnetic flux density inside a closely wound toroidal coil wilh an air core having N turt~s n d cilrryillg ;I c~trrcI11 Tllc 101.0itl I I ~ I S a lncilrl a I. radius b and the radius of each turn is u.
i
i
I
1

62 1 FUI:
AMENTAL
POSTULATES
OF'MAG~~ETOSTATICS SPACE IN FREE
:<
1
4 .
conductor :spectively, C 2 dnd the dnd follow a i o n of I.)
1
.
I
.
n
1
I
41
Fig. 63
Currentcarrying toroidal coil (Example 62).
I
1
i
Solution: Figure 63 drpicts the geometry of this problem. Cylindrical symmetry ensures that B has only a +component and is cbnstant along any circular path about the axis of the toroid; We constructa circular contour C with radius r as shown. For (b  a) < r < b a, kq. (69) leads diredtly to
+
(6 10)
I
i1
$ B  d~ = 2nr~,= ~ , N I ,
where we have assumed that the toroid has an air core with permeability p,. Therefore,

oNI, B = asB4 = a4 'I
2zr
(b
 o) < r < (b + a).
(612)
It is apparent that = 0 for r < (b  a) and r > (b + a), since the net total current enclosed by a contour constructed in these two regions is zero.
Example 63 Determine the magnetic flux density inside an infinitely long solenoid with an air core having n closely wound turns per unit length and carrying a current I.
r'.
(61 1)
3 Increases r 2 . I d toroidal as a mean
i
1i
1
1
I
Solution: This problem can be s'olved in two ways.
a) As n dire&application ofAmpere'scircuita1 law. It is clear that there is no magnetic field outside of the holenoid. To determine the Bfield inside we construct a rectangular contour C of length L that is pdttially inside and partially outside , the solenoid. By reason of symmetry, the Bfield inside must be parallel to the axis. Applying Ampkre's circuital law,,we have
202
STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS I 6
la
Fig. 64
Currentcarrying long solenoid (Example 63).
The direction of B goes from right to left, conforming to the righthand rule with respect to the direction of tjle current I in the solenoid, as indicated in Fig. 64. b) A s a speciul cux o toroid. Thc straight solenoid may be regarded .as a special f case of the toroidal coil in Example 62 with an infinite radius (b + cc). In such a case, the dimensions of the cross section of the core are very small compared with b, and the magnetic flux density inside the core isa~proximately constant. We have, from Eq. (612).
which is;the same as Eq. (613). The &directed B in Fig. 62 now goes from right to left, as was shown in Fig. 63.
63
VECTOR MAGNETIC POTENTIAL
The divergencefree postulate of B in Eq. (66), V B = 0, assures that B is solenoidal. As a consequence, B can be expressed as the curl of another vector field, say A, su'ch that (see Identity 11, Eq. (2137), in Section 210)

The vector field A so defined is called the vector magnetic potential. Its SI unit is weber per meter (Wb/m). Thus, if we can find A of a current distribution, B can be obtained from A by a differential (or curl) operation. This is quite similar to the introduction of the scalar electric potential V for the curlfree E in electrostatics (Section 3S), and the obtaining of E from the rclation 15 =  V V . Ilowcvcr, the definition of a vector requires the s p e c i b t i o n of both its curl and its divergence. Hence Eq. (614) alone is not sufficient to define A; we must still specify its divergence. How do we choose V A? Before we answer this question, let us take the curl of B in Eq. (614) and substitute it in Eq. (67). We have
I
,
I
63. I V&TOR
MAGNETIC POTENTIAL
203
Here we digress t6 inhoduce a formula for the curl curl of a vector:
.
(616b)
,"
f
v2~=v(v.li)VXVXA.
rule with Fig. 64. special 111such :mpared :onspt.
Equation (616a)' or (616b) can be regarded as the definition of V'A, the Laplacian of A. For Cartesian &ordinates, it can be rekdily verified by direct substitution (Problem P.610) that , 2 V24 = ax VIA, a , , ' v 2 ~ , az VIA=. (617) ;! . s Thus for Cartesian coordinates, the ~ a ~ l a c i a na vector field A 1 another vector of field whose componehts are the Laplaclan (the divergence of the gmdlent) of the corresponding components of A. This, howevbr, is not true for other coordinate systems. We now expand V x V x A in Eq. (615) according to Eq. (616a) iind obtun
+
+
(613) Wlth the purpose oidmpl~fying (618) ta the greatest extent possible, we choose: Eq.
V(V.A)  V% = p o J .
/ V.~=O,/
les from and Eq. (6 18) becomes
c~loidal.
A. such
This is a vector IJoissn's quutiotz. In Cartesian Coordinates, Eq. (620) is equivalent to three scalar Poisson's zquations:
unit is can be to the
Jsq
V'A ,. =  11, J,, , (621b) V2A, =  p o J , . (621~) Each of these three equations is mathematically the same as the Poisson's equation, Eq. (46), in electrostatics. In free space, the equation
.cr, ~..e rgence. rgel,. curl of
Equation (6Iba) can also be obtained heuristl~llly from the vector triple product formula in E q (220) by $onsidering the del operator, V, a vector: V X (V x ~j = V(V A)  (V.. V)A = V(V . A)  V2A.
: Equation (619) holds 10; static magnetic fields. Modification is necessary for timevarylnp electm
'
.
magnetic fields (see Eq. 746),
204
.,
STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6
has a particular solution (see Eq. 356),
s
,
Hence the solution for Eq. (621a) is
We can write similar solutions for A, and A:. Combining the three components, we have the solution for Eq. (620):
Equation (622) enables us to find the vector magnetic potential A from the volume current density J. The magnetic flux density B can then beobtained from V x A by differentiation, in a way similar to that of obtaining the static electric field E from
 vv.
Vector potential A relates to the magnetic flux @ through a given area S that is bounded by contour C in a simple way:
(623) The SI unit for magnetic flux is weber (Wb), which is equivalent to teslasquare Using Eq. (614) and Stokes's theorem, we have meter (T.m2).
@=
bBds.
(D = 1 7 ( V x A ) . d s = $ A .
dP
(Wb).
(624)
64 BIOTSAVART'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS
In many applications we are interested in determining the magnetic field due to a currentcarrying circuit. For a thin wire with crosssectional area S, dv' equals S dd', and the current flow is entirely along the wire. We have
J dv' = J S dP' = I d t ' ,
and Eq. (622) becomes
(625)
where a circle has been put on the integral sign because the current I must flow in
a closed path,' whicn is designated C'. The mdgnetic flux density is then
5
<4
4
v
.'
',
64
' L' 1 6101Si VART'S LAW AND APPLICATIONS
'
205
.',
i:
,
B=VxA=Vx
[kt%,%"I
(627)
I
ments, we
(622)
li. \.olume
" '
It is very important 10 note in Eq. (627) that the unpiinwf curl operation implies differentiations with respect to the space coordjnates of the field point, and that the integral operation is'hith :iespect to the brimed source eoordmates. The integrand in Eq. (627) can be dipanrted into two terms by using the follow~ngidentity (see Problem P.226): ' 'iX(fG)=fVxG+(Vf)xG. (638) Wc liavc, with f = ILH and G = df',
I3 =
"bb' m
j t'
is
/In:
$ [ LRV
('
x dP1
+
1629)
Now, slnce the unprlhed .ind primed coordinates are independent. V x d P f equals 0. and the first term on the rizht side oSEq. (029) vanishes. The d~stance IS me~buied R from dt" at (x', y', z') to the field point ilt (x,y. :). Thus we have
i
(623)
!d4 luare
R
= [(x
 .q2 ( y  yi)' +
+ ( z  _,)?I
1
2;
&
(624)

 ax("  x') + a,(y  y') + a,(?  3') [(x  7' + 0'  y')' + ( z  z')']~'~
R
R j
due to a als S dL',
(630) R where a, is the unit vector directed j m n the source point to the field point. Substituting Eq. (630) in Eq. (619), me get (6 3 1)
=
 a, 7,
1
(Yv)
(620)
: flow in
4R ce
Equation (6>N).is known as BiotSouart's law. It is a formula for determining B caused by a current I in a closed path C', and is obtained by taking the curl of A in Eq. (626). Sometimes it is convenient to write Eq. (631) in two steps.
' w e are now dealing with direct (nontimevarying).currehts that give rise to steady magnetlc fields. Circuits containing timevdrying sources may send timevarying currents along an open wire and deposit charges at its ends. Antennas are examples.
206
STA~C MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6
t,
(6 32)
with
which is the magnetic flux density due to a current element I dt". An alternative and sometimes more convenient form for Eq. (633a) is
=
/(,)I
(
tic'
x
N
3
)
mi
Comparison of Eq. (631) with Eq. (69) Iwill reveal that BiotSavart law is, in general. more difficult to apply than Ampere's circuital law. However. AmpCre's circuital law is not useful for determining from I in a circuit if a closed path cannot . be found over which B has a constant magnitude. Example 64 A direct current I flows in a straight wire of length 2L. Find the magnetic Hux density B at a point located at a distance r from the wire in the bisecting plane: (a) by determining the vector magnetic potential A first, and (b) by applying BiotSavart's law. Solution: Currents exist only in closed circuits. Hence the wire in the present problem must be a part of a currentcarrying loop with several straight sides. Since we do not know the rest of the circuit, Ampere's circuital law cannot be used to advantage. Refer to Fig. 65. The currentcarrying line segment is aligned with the ;axis. A typical element on the wire is dP' = a, dz'. The cylindrical coordinates of the field point P are (r, 0, 0).
Fig. 65 Currentcarrying straight wire (Example 64).
A which is the expression for B at a point located at a distance r from an infinitely long.aZr1) a. which is the same as Eq. I Example 65 Find the magnetic flux density at the center of a square loop. Thus./d$ = 0. : not do When r << L. (635). Eq. we have I L dr' A = ~ Z K J . b) B y applying BiotGauart's law. (633b) gives .+ P R = a. into Eq. tiv i\. . (6261. in 'FS CJ.r . straight wire carrying current I.~ /  a) By jinding B frod V x A. . :lbeCilllg ipplying ~oblem . we see that the distance vector from the source ekment dz' to the field point P is .! 64 I B I O T .~ V A ~ T 'LAW AND APPLICATIONS S 207 r (632) / . Substituting R i (633a) itive and (03ib) Cylindrical symmetry around the wire assures that BA. Fig. c IhL . 65.r dz'. (635) reduces to vantage. with side w carrying a direct current I. axis.a:=' dt" x R = a=dz' x (arr. ~ r o . . = Substitution in Eci.
& h e axis of a circular loop of radius b that carries a direct current I. The magnetic flux density at the center of the square loop is equal to fo#. a Solution: Assume the loop lies in the xyplane. Again it is important to remember that R is the vector from the source element dl" to the field point P. 66 Square loop carrying current I (Example 65).Y Fig.r times that caused by a single side of length w. Example 66 Find the magnetic flux. by setting L = r = w/2 in gq. 67 A circular loop carrying currcnt I (Example 66). A where the direction of B and that of the current in the loop follow the righthand rule. 66. We have. Solution: We apply BiotSavart's law to the circular loop shown in Fig.(635).density at a p o i n t . 67. . We have Y x Fig. as shown in Fig.
' nagnetic \cd by a (637) 65 THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE nd rule. I circular 7. 85 1 THE MAGNETIC DIPOLZ 209 Because of c$ihdr!cal symmetry. i ! . R. fford EQ. as shown in Fig. r Wc begin this scction with an cxamplc. that being the case. Solution: A small circular loop carrying (Example 67). . Example 67 Find the magnetic flux density at a distant point of a small circular loop of radius b that carries current I. 68.cbmponent of this cross product. We write.component is canceled by the contribution ohthe element located dianletrically opposite to dt". . we may make certain simplifyinapproximations. The s o u t b coordinates are primed.'i  < . We select the centgt of the loop to be the origin of spherical coordinates. so we need only consider the a.. : . We first find the vector magnetic potential A and then determine B by V x A .(6jl). it is easy to see that the a.ent de' It is appaIent from the statement of the problem that we are interested in determining B at a point whose distahce. . from the center of the loop satisfies the relation R >> b .
2bR cos +.sin 6 sin 4' R .. shown in Fig. (626)..2hR sin 0 sin 4' and 1 1 b2 2b . ' + g . at P. (640) I i For every I dP' there is another symmetrically located differential current element on the other side of the yaxis that will contribute an equal amount to A in the a. at de' is not the same as a. R f = R2 + + b2 .= . I + a. 41) yiclcls A = a. Another point of importance is that a. a. ( 6 . except for one importart point: R in Eq. b 2 / ~ can be neglected in comparison with 1. in accordance with the notation in Fig. but it must be replaced by R . (G42) in 13q.which is the same as the projection of OP" (OP" = R sin 6) on OP'. * 2nR Jni2 (1 b + . at point P In fact. sin 4' ! . Hence. direction.210 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS I 6 Equation (639) is the same as Eq. 68. and dl" = (a. but will cancel the contribution of I de' in the a. . Equation (639) can be written as d4' or 1 The law of cosines applied to the traingle OPP' gives R f = R~ + b2 . Because of symmetry. the magnetic field is obviously independent of the angle $ of the field point..(1 1 R b + . We pick P(R.sin 0 sin 4' R Substitution of Ey.(1 T . n/2) in the yzplanc. . 0. cos 4')b d @ . 68 is a. direction. where R cos is the projection of R on the radius OP'.sin 0 sin 4' Rl R R R >'I2 When R2 >> b2. (626) denotes the distance between the source element dt? at P' and the field point P .
T o exanline the similarity further.  Electric Dipole Mngnet~c Dipole (642) 0 . A is analogous to V. /f lb2 B =(a. (348). The analogous quantities are as follows: . . Equation (2127) can be used to find . .39) r 1) TL' . Comparison of E q (645) with the expression for the scalar electric potential of an electric dipole in Eq. 2 cos 0 + a. 68. O 4R3 (643) (640) lement on ! 1011 At this point we recognize the sin~ilarity between Eq. The magnetic flux density is B = V x A. reveals that. whlch is a vector whose ma. In a similar manner we can also rewrite Eq. ( 0 . (644) and the expression for the electric field intensity in the far field of an electrostatic dipole as given in Eq.C.+ I 65 / THE MAGNETIC DIPOLE 211 oint: R in d the field 1 Fig. sin O). we rearrange Eq. which is our answer. We call a small currentcarrying loop a magnetic dipole.onltude 1s the product of the current in m d the area of the loop and whose direction is the direction of the thumb as the fingars of the right hand follow the direction of the current.I . (644) as (643) . for the fwo cases. (349). (643) as the a.is the is defined as the rniy(t1eti~ dipole inotncric. angle 4 of it point P.
. (A/m2) in a volume V'. These lines have been sketched as dashed lines in Fig. whereas the magnetic flux lines close upon themselves.. (67) becomes The magnetic flux density B is tfxm curlfree and can bc exprcssed as thc gradient of a scalar field. (340). (646). r~ltrgrreticpolc~r~ti~il (esprcssed il~iqmperes). Eq.212 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 Except for the change of p to m.1 Scalar Magnetic Potential In a currentfree region J = 0. isolatcd magnetic charges have never been observed experimentally. (645) and (648)are obtalned when the loop has a rectangular shape. w ~ t h = IS. Let B = 1'0 VT/. (650). The traditional understanding is that the ends (the north and south poles) QT ' Although the magnetic dipole in Example 67 was taken to be a circular loop. However. 338). Analogous to Eq. they must be considered fictitious.. as given in Eq. Hence. P 2 and P I . it can be shown (Problem P. (650) is conventional (see the definition of the scalar electric potential V in Eq. we can write the scalar magnetic potential difference between two points. in free space as If there were magnetic charges with a volume density p. (650) where I/.+ 65. is called the scular. The magnetic field of a small bar magnet is the same as that of a magnetic dipole.14. and the permeability of free space p. (648) has the same form as Eq. One essential difference is that the electric field lines of an electric dipole start from the positive charge + q and terminate on the negative charge q. (349) does for the expression for E at a distant point of an electric dipole. the magnetic flux lines of a magnetic dipole lying in the xyplane will have the same form as that of the electric field lines of an electric dipole positioned along the zaxis.. the consideration of fictitious magnetic charges in a mathematical (not physical) model is expedient both to the discussion of some magnetostatic relations in terms of our knowledge of electrostatics and to the establishment of a bridge between the traditional magneticpole viewpoint of magnetism and the concept of microscopic circulating currents as sources of magnetism. from The magnetic flux density B could then be determined from Eq. negative The sign in Eq. we would be able to find V. This can bc vcrilied expcrimcntally by obscrving'thc contours of iron Jilings around a magnet. 3. m . Nevertheless. Eq. is simply a proportionality constant.613) that the same express~onsEqs.
A camplete understanditig of the magnetic effects of materials requires a knowledge of quantum mechanics. :se lines that the :rminate ~selves. that of . 4. We note that th.1 for findin. (6 54) i n Eq. respectively. The magnetic S dipole moment. (653) The scalar magnetic potential caused by this magnetic dipole can then be found by following the procedure used in subsection 35. of a spinriing I I L I C ~ C ~ Iis u~u. This determination is usually not a simple process. are\.66 1 MAGNET' ITION AND EQUIVALENT CURRENT DENSITIES 213 does for ~ a l f ux c . and . a ! . for the study of magnetic fields in magnetic materials. instead of the fictitious magneticcharge. the fictitious magnetic charges + q.i ~n d . rilust be determined from a givzn current distribution. since magnetic ch:~rgcs do not exist in practical problems. the curlfree nature of IZ indicatccl in Ey. positive and negative magnetic charges. In addition. i o do) dicnt of (6. Moreover.tend :on I .5 0 ) . Holvever.ial approach.0 the scalar electric potential that is caufed by an electric dipole. (We give a qualitative description of the behavior of different kinds of magnetic materials later in Section 69.the scalar magnetic potential is not a singlethe magnetic field is rlot ~ c i l s ~ u ~ i i i c e .f some e estabgetism Substitution of Eq.) In the absence of an external magnetic field. is defined. For a bar mhgnet'. 635) and b' in Zq. cach with a positively chargcd nuclcus and a numbcr of orbiting negatively charged electrons. The orbiting electrons cause circulating currents and form microscopic magnetic dipoles. We ascribe the macroscopic properties of a bar magnet to circulating atomic currents (Ampkrian currents) caused by orbiting and spinning electrons. II v. For these reasons..' . xust be xges in . (348). in Eq. hence tile magnetic potential difference evaluated by Eq. and. According to the elerhentary atomic mcdel of matter. (647) for an electric dipole: the likeness between the vector magnetic potential A (in Eq. resulting .tIly negligible compared to that of an orbiting or spinqing electron hecause of the much largcr nx~ssand lower anp1:ir velocity of the nucleds. all materials are composed of atoms. We obtain. (617) is nor as exact... m = q.' Problem &kngular h POL..eg.c ex~rcssionsof the scalar magnetic potential V. 66 MAGNETIZATION CURRENT DENSITIES AN^ EQOIVALENT . are assumed to be separated by a pistance d and to form an equivalent magnetic dipole of moment .q. the magnetic dipoles of the atoms of most materials (except permanept magnets) have random orientations. we will use the circularingcurrentandvectorpbten.lS.. (651) depends on the path of il~tegration. holds only ~t points with 110 currcnts. as in Eq. from which the scalar magnutic potential V..(649). ( 6 ~ 5 4 ) for a magnetic dipole are cxactly analogous to those for the scalar electric potential V in Eq. (648). valued function. (i~llcr (65 1) ume V'. ( 6 5 0 ) yiclds thc same R as given in Eq. (652) owever. $ of a magnet are the location of..d = a.andscalarpotential approach.P: . both the electrons and the nucleus of an atom rotate (spin) on their own axes with certain magnetic dipole moments. In a region whcrc currents csis:. I/.
define a inugi~etizution we vector. where V' is the volume of the magnetized material. P F x ds'. and expand the right side of Eg. from Eq. (659) . The magnetic dipole moment dm of an elemental volume dti' is'dm = XI da' that.214 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS I 6 in no net magnetic moment. 111 ortlcr 10 obtain a formula for determining the quantitativc change in the magnetic llux dcnsity caused by the presence of a magnctic matcrisl.60) where F is any vector with continuous first derivatives. we can write Eq. hc thc ~nagaeticd ~ p u l s moment of an atom.he volume integral of the curl of a vector into a surfacc integral. according to Eq. we kt in. ( 6 . (375). (6451. (657)hto two terms: The following vector identity (see Problem P. We now use the vector identity in Eq.14) enables us to change . jv. The application of an external magnetic field causes both an alignment of the magnetic moments of the spinning electrons and an induced magnetic mom'ent due to a change in thc orbital motion of clcctrons.5 6 ) a s Thus. If there are H atoms per unit volun~e. 6. (6. as M = lim AWO k= l  AV (A/m) 9 which is the volume density of magn'etic dipole moment. M. will produce a vector magnetic potential Using Eq. x F d d = $s. We have. (628) to write .
16 56) f. . (622)...66 1 MAGNETIZATION AND E ~ I V A L ~ N T CURRENT QENSITIES I 215 \es both induced srdcr to .' I A comparison ofthe expressions on the right side of Eq. Tbs equivalence of a volume density of magnetic dipole moment to a volume current density and a surface cuxent density can be appreciated qualitatively by rekrring to Fig: 69 where a cross scction of a magnetized material is shown. In Eqs. . the primes should be retained when there is n possibility of confusing tile coordinates cf the source and field points. the volume V'. expdssed in terms of volume current density J suggests that the effect of the magnetizatio$vectqr is equivalent to b&th a volume current density d (655) I and a surface current density J. The externally applied magnetic field. for simplicity. (661) with the form of A in Eq. . dipole . noment Is). The strength of this magnetizing volume P (660) Fig. determining A from Eq. will (Ajm).. and J.. if i t also exists. thereby magnetizing the material. since it is clear that both refer to the coordinates of the source point where the mapnctization vector M exisis However. The problem of finding the magnetic flux density E caused by a given iaiume density of magnetic dipvls moment i\.i is then reduced to finding the equiiaicnt tnaqnerizoiion current iie. 'ti:ation . 69 A cross section of a magnetized material. (6611.i) we hare omimd the primes on V and a. (662) and (66. = M x a. must be accounted for separately.&rirs J. density .. . It is assumed that an externally applied magnetic field has caused the atomic circulating currents to align with it.. (663) . The mathematical derivation of E q s (662) and (663) is straightforivord. by using E q s (661) m d (6631. and then obtaining B from the curl of A. where a: is the unit outward normal vector from ds' and St is thc surface bounding I.
. There is no surface current on the top and bottom faces. In order to find B at P(0.216 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 effect is measured by the magnetization vector M. C as shown in Fig. If M is uniform inside the material. However. there will be a surface current density J. (662). But as this additional derivation is really not necessary and tends to be tedious..M. Solution: In this problem concerning a cylindrical bar rnagqt. if M has space variations. . 610.t volume current density. and axial magnetization M. length L.esulting in a net volume current density J. Since the magnetization 1 I is a constant within the magnet. let the axis of the magnetized cylinder coincide with the zaxis of a cylindrical~oordinatcsystem. leaving no net currents in the interior. The cylinder h i s a radius h. (638) to Fig. O n the surface of the material.. = (aJ4) x a. s). = V' x M = 0. 0. It is possible to justify the quantitative relationships between M and the current densities by deriving the atomic currents on the surface a i d in the interior. Example 68 Determine the magnetic flux density on the axis of a uniformly magnetized circular cylinder of a magnetic material. = a. A uniformly magnetized circular cylinder (Example 68). the currents of the neighboring atomic dipoles that flow in opposite directions will cancel everywhere. (664) T h e lnagrlet is then like a cylindrical sheet with a lined clrrrerlt density of M (A/m). The cquivulent magnetization surface current density on the side wall is Jms= M x a. we will not attempt it here. 610 ..M dz' and use Eq. J. This is predicted by Eq. whose direction is correctly given by that of the cross product M x a. we consider a differential length dz' with a current a. the internal atomic currents do not completely cancel. since the space derivatives (and therefore the curl) of a constant M vanish. . and there is no equivalcl.
The use of the vector H enables us to write a curl equation relatlng the magnetic field and the distribthon of free'currents in any medium. we expcct that the resultant magnetic flux density in the presence of Y magnetic l etTect a i magmaterial ~ i i be different from its value in free space.0. we ohlain the ncw cqu:ition i~~ (668) where J (A/m2) is the volume density olfiee ci~rlrnt. H . +. such that n . We have i h 64) ( A m). The n~acroscopic netization can be studied by incorporating the equivalent volume current densit!.Equations (66) and 1668) are the two fundamental governing differential equations for magnetostatics in any . ((660) and 3667). i l o ~ bdzl 2 B =J~B'= a. in Eq. There is no need to deal explicitly with the ninpnetization vector M or the equivalent volume current density . the inagnetic field intensity. (662). I). j of the where. 2 [ ( z . 38) to We now define a new f~mdamentalfield quantity.I. o i the 3. Eq.?asnet. dB = a. ~ o m h i i i TEqs.z'JZ + b 2 F J0 L .. into the basic curl equation.atcrial. ! I \ d' Because the application af an txternal magnetic fieid ciloses both :In :~ligilmeorai the internal dipole moments and an induced magnetic moment in 3 magnetic material. J. by that obtain .. .z')' b2]3 / 2 + 67 MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSITY AND RELATIVE PERMEABILITY . p o ~ b dz' 2 2 [ ( z .. . (0. e space s space ~g In a mhips surface 3 tends formly dius b. (67).~5tir and ' .
Substitution of Eq. where C is the contour (closed path) bounding the surface S.\ s \ve iildic. Amptre's circuital law is most useful in determi'ning the magnetlc field caused by a current when cylindrical symmetry existsthat is.218 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 medium. (671) in Eq.r e n r jlor\. pO.does not appear explicitly in these two equations. or. Equation (670) is another form of Ampc'. according to Stokes's theorem. The permeability of free space. . The relative diiections of C and current flow I follow the righthand rule.!. when there is a closed path around the current over whichthe magnetic field is constant. / p ~ l t . the magnetization is directly proportional to the magnetic field intensity: where zmis a dimensionless quantity called magnetic susceptibility. / ! ~ ~ .re's circuital law: It states that the circulation of the ntugneticjeld intensity urounil any closed path is equal to the J r c c c l i l . The corresponding integral form of Eq.inc/ T / I I . When the magnetic properties of the medium are linear and isotropic. and 1is the total current passing through S. (668) is obtained by taking the scalar surface integral of both sides. / ~ K C 'h l l l 7 d d I. (667) yields (672b) where is another dimensionless quantity known as the relative permeability of the medium. O L I ~~/ ~ I CS I I I .ltcd in Section 63.
therefore p. lllc llur i n the air gap is also ncglected.. For a simple mcdium . Determine (a) the magnetic flux denhity. However.b .. Zccause of the different permeabilities.. isotropic. and up to 106 or more for special alloys): the permeability depends no[ only on lhc magnitude ol 11 but also on liic prcvious hibtory of the material. in the ferromagnetic core. we have i wh will lilliir lr:~k:~ga n c g l c ~ k ~ lil. .. and cobalt. ) . Eq. can be a function of and space coordinarcs. (670). nickel.. B f . as shown in Fig. of the medium and is measured in H/m.. the magnetic Hux density B in both the core and the air gdp will also be the same. anct homogeneous z.) L < I 67 / M A ~ N E T ~ C FIELD INTENSITY AND RELATIVE PERMEABILITY 219 Fig. We have .]... 611 Coil on ferromagnetic toroid w ~ t h air gap (Example 69). could be very large (505000. p. in the core. Examplc 69 Assunw illat iZl turns ol'wire arc wo~inciaround a roroid~llcare ol'. corf . and (c) the magnetic field intensity. 611..p. around the circular contour C. the magnetic field intensities in both parts will be different. H..3 circular cross section of radiUs u iu I< r. just pemiubilitj 1 (or. The core has a mean radius r. are consttlnts. H. A steady currdnt I. Fdr ferromagnetic materials such as iron. and a narrow air gap of length I. Solution a) Applying Ampkke's circuital law.. d p..md in ihc air g:lp: I f lhc fringing clkul ol. z. Section 68 contains some quali~ative discussions of the macroscopic behavior of magnetic materials. The parameter p = u.i ferromagnetic material with permeabiilty p.). which has a mean radius r.linear.Rows in the wire. m The permeability of nost materials is very close to that of free space ( p ..r S : I ~ C l 11~1s lloa iii 170111 ilia Scrron~ayctic is . in the air gap. (b) the magnetic field intensity. is the absoliite perazeu8ilit)~ sometimes.
0. If the radius of the cross section of the core is much to ' Also called magnetomotance./H. (676) and (678) we get c) Similarly. mmf is frequently measured in ampereturns (A t).220 * STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 In the ferromagnetic core.. .* mmf.denotes a magnetomotive force that causes a magnetic flux. as magnetomotiw force. because of Eq. we obtain and B . ' b) From Eqs. (677) and (678).in the ferromagnetic core and thc air gap in series. ' IUOPNI~ + pi. essentially. Assume 1'. the magnetic field intensity in the air gap is much stronger than that in the ferromagnetic core. wc havc Since H. is stipulated in this problem? 68 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS The problem in Example 69 is. (676). and (677) in Eq. from Eqs. Po Substituting Eqs. An mmf is not a force measured in newtons. and. (674). Why do you think the condition a cc r. We define the line integral of magnetic field intensity around a closed path. = N1. in the. Its SI unit is ampere (A): but. = p/p0. (675). po(2ni. one of a magnetic circuit in which the current applied to the winding causes a magnetic flux to flow. flow in a magnetic circuit. (674).air gap.
E B S .: . s much (a) Magnctic circuit. have the rime form :is the formula. of the fcrromiignctic corc. in which an idealvoltage source of emf Y is connected in series with two resistances Rf and R. l where tl = 2nr. 612 Equivalent magnetic circuit and analogous electric circuit for toroidal coil with air gap in Fig. ich the lgnetic . Fig. (681) and (678) yields 4 .iir g i p . 'JXII.and 2. for ihc DC res~st:incc o 1 s : pic f 1o11c1os i i I a i cross s i S. and ( 6 SO) . Combination of Eqs. (b) Elcctric circuit.: Equation (682) carfbe rewritten (678) with i0P . even though the core is not straight. 6. .1 1. .'and cf. J x Hu. (681) wlicrc S is thc crossscclionnl area of the cute. is a consequence of assuming that B is approximately constant over the core cross section.f gis the length of the ferrorhagnetic core. Equation (683) is analogous to the expression for the current I in an electric circuit. and r?. the magnetic flux density B in the core is approximately co&ant.. (51 3).rongcr Both 3. U l l h arc called rcliiaunr~: .I ) . Lq. the . ..tensity (6 p.I L : 68 1 MAGNETIC CIRCUITS 221 r 6 76) (677) smaller than the mean radius of the toroid. Tile SI 2 of unit for reluctance is reciprocal henry ( H . The fact that Eqs (684) and 1685] are as they are.
such as that shown later in Fig. it is very difficult to account for leakage fluxes. a In spite of this convenient likeness. (687a) ' In order to ohtain a more accurate numerical result. is therefore not a realistic one. So how does one solve the problem? Two conditions must be satisfied.tJ = NNI.) A third difficulty is that the permeability of ferromagnetic materials is dependent on the magnetic field intensity. is known... as illustrated. /' electric current..) The problem of Example 69. Magnetic circuits can. 615.+ (The purpose of specifying the "narrow air gap" in Example 69 was to minimize this fringing effect. fluxes that stray or leak from the main flux paths of a magnetic circuit.partially transverse the space around the core. The reason is that the conductivity of air is practically zero compared to that of a good conductor. would become . : ru CON. an exact analysis of magnetic circuits is inherently very difficult to achieve. 9 4 permeability. The ratio of B to H is obviously not a constant. and H f L f must equal the total mmf N I . . The analogous quantities are Magnetic Circuits mmf. 611. First: the sum of H. .L. Electric Circuits emf. and Bf can be known only when H f is known. (There is little need for considering leakage currents outside the conducting paths of electric circuits that carry direct currents. (675). or H. (They may not even be in the same direction.~chof [IIC 1inc. In a practical problem.) A second difficulty is the fringing effect that causes the magnetic flux lines at the air gap to spread and bulge. they .d dimensions o the core cross section increased by the length of 111eair gap.wit11 air gap . I resistance. which assumes a given p before either B. STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 respectively. p . by analogy. 0 reluctance.s c c t i o ~ ~t~ ~ i o r tllc l ' c r r i ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ g r ~ c ~ i c c. B and H have a nonlinear relationship. For the toroidal coil in Fig. First. the BH curve of the ferromagnetic material.IS \Iighlly Ixrgcr th:111the c r o s s . YC. that is.222 . . should be given. leakage flux paths encircle every turn of the winding. it is customary to consider the elfcctive area of the . R conductivity. because the perrneabilit<of air is not zero. be analyzed by the same techniques we have used in analyzing electric circuits. : ' HJg + H. if we wcre to make n correction C like this in Eq. ( = N I ) magnetic flux. 5.
. (533). Once the operating has been found. p and H . (687a) yields an equation relating BJ and H. (687b) in Eq.~p" In rridcnt (They >u1ncs ich as J y not : sohe Equation (689) states that around a closed p u ~ hin a magnetic circuir rhe algebraic s u m of umpereturns is e q t d to the algebraic sum of the products of the re2ucti. Kirchhoff's current lsw for a junction in an electric circuit. by a factor.. Example 610 Consider the magnetic circuit in Fig..C .:+ Substitution of Eq. Thus we have H. a n d B. the fundamental postulate V . and N 2 turns on the outside legs of the Th~s assumes an equal crobssectional area for the core and the gap. N . J = 0.s und fluxes. Steady currents I. or B. and I. flow%Twindings of. ( 6 4 ) leads to Eq. and all other quantities can be obtained. Eq. _ ' . This factor can be determined from tho datq on the insulated laminations. analysis. 613(a). Equations (689) and (690) form the bases for.nr to Kirchhofl's voltage law in Eq.nce. respectively. the total flux CD in the ferromagnetic core and in the air gap must be the same. 1 MAGNETIC ClRCUlTS 223 ~niques \ Second. for any closed path in a magnetic circuit. ar the . 4 x1ts 1s )r leak 0 11. (683) and (686) can be extended to the writing of two basic equations for magnetic circuits that correspond to Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws for electr~c circuits. The similarity between Eqs. we may write. Simi. h . would be larger than B. in the core: . ' rrecqo. if we asstime no leakage flux.1~ 47a) which states that the dgebraic sum of all the magneticJuxes jlowing out of a juncrion in a magnetic circuit is zero. is a consequence of V . of magnetic circuits. If the care were to be constructed of ihsulated laminations of ferromagnetic material. / 1 a of the r 11nc. = B. B = 0 in Eq.. p'lt' v r t y . the loop and ndde. \c * I : /CL This is an equatio$fbr'k straight line in the BH plane with a negative slope. respectively. the effective area for flux passage in the core would be smaller than the geometrical crosssectional area. The intersection of this line and the given BH curve determines the operating point. Similarly.u. (537).6./&.. (68).
mllyis is. ferromagnetic core. Loop 1 : N I I l = (!MI + g 3 ) ( b 1+ LVlO2. (b) Magnetic circuit for loop analysis. arc shown with p r o p ~ ~ o l : l r i t i cis scrics s Iy. approximations. of course. it is crpediellt to choose the two loops in such a way that only one loop flux (a). (693) Solving these simultaneous equations. N .f12 r ~ s p ~ ~ I i v cThis is til~vioilsl~ twoiaop I I C ~ \ V ( > I . Fig.224 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 1 (a) Magnetic core with currentcarrying windings. Determine the magnetic flux in the center leg.P. These are. Two sources of mmf's. Solurioiz: The equivalent magnetic circoit Sor loop . we obtain which is the desired answer. The core has a crosssectional area Sc and a permeability p. ~ . ii with reluctances A . and . The reluctances are computed on the basis of average path lengths. . (632) Loop 2: N I I l .) flows through the center leg. I l and N 2 1 2 . i Since wc arc determining mapoc~iallua i ~ the center leg I'. (689). 613 A magnetic circuit (Example 610).N212 = g l Q l + (91 + g2)02. b. from Eq.l3lb).sIlown in Fig. We have The two loop equations are..
Magnetic materials can be roughly u classified into three main. is simply 1 + x. copper. As predicted by Eq. In 3 cli(i~ti(l{]l!~ficmatcri:ll nct magnclic ~ ~ i o m cdue to thc orbital and spinning thc nt motions of the electrons in any particular atom is zero in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field. values.(x. gold..y. B 2 . B. we dsscribed the macroscopic magnetic property of i linear. 5 I :(. a dimensionless coefficient of proportionality between magnetization M and magnetic field intensity H. 2 L.groups in accordance with their . silver. According to Lenz's law of electromagfie'etic induction (Section 7. A materiai is said to be Diamagnetic. a net magnetic moment is created. (64).. is a very small positive number) u Ferromugnetic.lum by defining the magnetic susceptibility x.. and B3) are first solved with an assumed p and reluctances c o m p ~ ~ t e d from the three parts of Eq! (691). if . Actually sincd t . is a large positive number).. is to use procedure of ducces8ive approximation. This effect is usually very small. . As mentioned before. (6!. Purarnuyneric. .4 69 1 B E H A V ~ R OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS 225 . isotropic med. can bc found from'lthe BH curve. and p .e magnetic fluxes and thhrefore the magnetic flux densities in the three legstare ifferent. mercury. From the new flux dgnsities. in turn.. The only way to improve the accuracy of the solution. prokided thC BH curve of the core material IS given. (691b) and (891c).for most known diamagnctic materials (bismuth. depends dn the magnetlc flux density.ul. Section 6 l 7 . the induced magnetic moment always opposes the applied field. diam. For instance. if p. ! dl. This is a hrocess of induced magnetization. The relative pernleabiljty p. anQ B . . As a consequence.la). The macroscopic effect of this processis equivalent to that of a negative magnetization that can be described by a negative rnagnetic susceptibility. different permeabilities should be used in computing the reluctances in E$s. and B .. From B. These will modify the reluctances. p 2 .. Q 2 . . if p.:I (2.. causing a perturbation in the angular velckities. and x. Q. the corresponding . germanium. >. a thorough understanding of microscopic magnetic phenomena requires a knowledge of quantum mechanics. In the following we give a qualitative description of the behavior of the various types of magnetic materials based on the classical atomic modkl. is then obtained with the modified reluctances. But thc value of permeab~llty. (671). A second approximation for B 2 .ond) is in the order of  . (and therefore B. and cD..2). new permeabilities and new reluctances are determined This procedure is repeated until further iterations brmg little changes in the computed values. is a very small negative number). 69 BEHAVIOR OF MAGNETiC MATERIALS In Eq... lead. thus reducing the magnetic flux density. the application of an external magnetic field to this material produces a force on the orbiting electrons.
According l o this ~l~otlcl.ll~ctl. ~ r . The alignment process is. . The diamagnetic effect is masked in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. impeded by the forces of random thermal vibrations. ll. ~ I u t l l i ~ l u ~ 111. are counteracted by the deranging effects of thermal agitation. .. and the atoms and molecules have a net average magnetic moment. then.226 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 . Between adjacent domains there is a transition region about 100 atoms thick called a clonzailz wall. i ~ i c l11:~s x x r i cxpcrit~\cnt:~lly w ~ I co~l(i~.ltcri. In an unmagnetized state. The macroscopic effect is. . lhc 01dcr ot I0 ' ill . . An externally applied magnetic field. Diamagnetic materials exhibit no permanent magnetism. (See Appendix B5 for typical values of relative permittivity. tends to align thc molecular magnctic moments in tlzc direction of the applied field.ientations in the various domains results in no net magnetization. Quantum theory asserts that strong coupling forces exist between the magnetic dipole moments of the atoms in a domain. as exemplified in Fig. are fully magnetized in the sense domains. nickel. equivalent to that of a positive magnetization that is described by a positive magnetic susceptibility. The magnetization of ferromagnetic materials can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of paramagnetic substances.. acting upon molecular dipoles by the applied field..trrlrtr!/r~c. .1$11csiutll. The alignment forces. Paramagnetism arises mainly from the magnetic dipole moments of the spinning electrons. holding the dipole moments in parallel. in addition to causing a very weak diamagnetic effect../ic. and iron) is composcd of many small domains. . however. their linear dimensions ranging Srbm a few microns to about 1 mm. There is little coherent interaction and the increase in magnetic flux density IS quite small.) Ferromcrgnctism can be explained in terms of magnetized tlort~rrirr. Materials with this behavior are said lo bc />tn. which is essentially independent of temperature. In most materials it is too weak to be of any practical importance. and the induced magnetic moment disappears when the applied field is withdrawn. the random nature of the o. ~ ~ n . 614 by t h e polycrystalline specimen shown. . Unlike diamagnetism.'These 1016atoms.~. thus increasing the magnetic flux density. the walls of those domains having magnetic moments aligned with the applied field move in such a way as to make the volumes of those domains grow at the expense of other . In some materials the magnetic moments due to the orbiting and spinning electrons do not cancel completely.~ls c r a l l y haw vcry slnall positive P iclic p v. ~ pm.~Iucs01' 111.I ferromagnetic mutcrial (such as cobalt. the paramagnetic elrect is temperature dependent. When an external magnetic field is applied to a ferromagnetic material. each containing about 10'"r that they contain aligned magnetic dipoles resulting from spinning electrons even in the absence of an applied magnetic field.1g11clic s~~sccplilGlily. Diamagnetism arises mainly from the orbital motion of the electrons within an atom and is present in all materials. being stronger at lower temperatures where there is less thermal collision. Viewed as awhole. titanium. and tungsten. the magnetic moments of the adjacent domains in a ferromagnetic material have different directions.
69 1 BEHAVIOR OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS 2?? . domainwall motion and domain rotation will cause essentially a total ah. ansition .le sense ns everi strong hmain.. ' . say up to point P .wpic. the BH rcla~ tionship will not foliop th: solid curve P.the magnetic flux density does not go to zero but assumes the value at B.). if all ipplicil licld is rcduced lo zero at point I). :nave in of other Fig. These .. i net! 1s tcmi!lc~r~>~l gnitude ! values metized med. The curve O P .stcizsis. The existence of a remanent flux density in a ferromagnetic material makes permahent magnets possible.iionp the iines of the broken curve in the ligure." 4 s ihe applied field becomes even much stronqer (past P I to P.. in tig.:csium. P.rtrlmr~picliztilioticlrlvc. pinning :vcrage lislng a :s in the macro: wrihed xpeded oil and /lor . 515.. the liirerent s h q :om. 01 J Do~nain L S L I C ~ L I I01' a S C polycrystalline ferromagnetic specimen domains. hut will go down from P .615 Hysteresis loops in BH plane for ferromagrleticmaterial. to P.\!nlF's fic. .nnment of the microscopic magnaic moments with the applied field. domainwall movements are reversible.ate. and sn.1~. and domah n)tation towitrd the direction of thc irpplicd ficid will rdso O ~ L IFor. . As a result magnetic flux density is increased. This phenomenon of magnetization lagzing behind the field producing it is called A?.mji\ive .O. For weak applied fields.. which is derived from a Greek word meaning "to lag.P. But when an applied field becorned stronger (past P. cr.t.. If +heapplied magnetic field is reduced to zero from the viilue at P.P. on the ' R I 1 plunc is callcd thc irc~i.. thin an of any 3 ferro:m. a iy small I. at which point the magnetic material is said to have reached rorilrcsioii. domainwall movements are no !onger reversible.).ls hc \va. .ire Magnetized domain Domain wall 1:iy. This value is called the residaal or reinanent flux &i?sir~~ W b p ' ) and is dependent on the maximum (in applied field intensity.
fat hysteresis loops. ferromagnetism is the result ofstrong coupling effects between the magnetic dipole moments of the atoms in a domain. but a more appropriate name is coersivefield intensity (in Aim).. (672a). These materials are referred to as "hard" ferromagnetic materials. The coercive field intensity of hard ferromagnetic materials (such as Alnico alloys) can be lo5 (A/m) or more. when a permanent magnet is heated above its curie temperature it loses its magnetization. . if we write B = p H as in Eq.we must know the location of the operating point on a particular branch of a particular hysteresis loop in order to determine the value of hi exactly. 'l'llc . and transformers should have a large magnetization for a very small applied field: they should have tall : ~ n dnarrow Iiystercsis loops. which i r e close to ferromagnetic elements in atomic number and arc neighbors of iron in the pcriodic table. also depends on the maximum value of the applied magnetic field intensity. motors.. they are usually wellannealed materials with very few dislocations and impurities so that the domain walls can move easily.LL also depends on the history of the material's magnetization. and.:. such as chromium and manganese.. .. Hysteresis loss i? the energy lost in the form of heat in overcoming the friction encountered during domainwall motion and domain rotation. should show a high resistance to demagnetization. whereas that for soft materials is usually 50 (A/m) or less. Some elements.. Like B. hence. the I~yslcluisloop is \raced w_cc per cycle. . The. that of iron being 770°C. Hence. on the other hand. known as the curie temperature. it"is necessary to apply a magnetic field intensity H . Ferromagnetic materials. Hence. This requires that they be made with materials that have large coercive field intensities H . As indicated before. 2: <a *:. Good permanent magnets.. Above this critical temperature..jper unit volume pcr cycle (Problem P. Permeability . the magnetized domains become disorganized.228 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 . sinceeven for the same H. In some applications a small alternating current may be superimposed on a large steady magnetizing current. which have tall. the permeability p itself is a function of the magnitude of H. in the opposite direction. Figure 616(a) depicts the atomic spin structure of a ferromagnetic material.When the temperature of a ferromagnetic material'is raised to such an extent that the thermal energy exceeds the couplicg energy. It is evident from Fig. and the local slope of the hysteresis curve at the operatins point determines the incre~ilentcll prrnwahilit!. is called coersive force. H . are referred to as "soft" materials.. also have strong coupling forces between the atomic magnetic dipole moments. 615 that the BH relationship for a ferromagnetic material is nonlinear. . This required H .si.s los. narrow hysteresis loops with small loop areas. . As the applied magnctic ficld intensity varics pcrio~licallyhciwcc~l 5 11. 621).. a ferromagnetic material behaves like a paramagnetic substance. curie temperature of most ferromagnetic materials lies between a few hundred to a thousand degrees Celsius. The steady magnetizing ficld intensity locates the operating point. .Ire:\ of the hysteresis loop corrtxponds to energy loss (h!~sr~w. Ferromagnetic materials for use in electric generators. In order to make the magnetic flux density of a specimen zero.
" Y. but their coupling forces produce antiparailel alignmen~s electron spins.The s$ns alternaic in direction from atom to atom and rcsult in no net magnetic moment. and phase shii'lcrs. There is another class of inagnetic materials that exhibit a behavior between ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism. ~ntiferronla~netism also temperature dependent. highfrequency trnnsformurs. Other fcrritcs include magneticoxide garnets. it is about 0. Fcrrites are a subgroup of fcrrimagnetic material.69 / BEHAWOR OF MAGNETIC 1 : MATERIALS . Because of the partial cancellation. Garnets are used in microwave multiport jut~ctions. Co. lO%d_(S/m) compared with lo7 (S/m) for iron). Zn. These are ceramiclike compounds with very low conductivities. Ni. Mg.3 Wb/m< approximately onetenth that for ferromagnetic substances.) is typical. the spin directions suddenly become random and the material becomes paramagnetic. and ic) fcrrimagnctic materials. '9 I y i ~ . (b) mtikrromagnetic. Typically.. resulting in a net nonzero magnetic moment. One type of ferrites. When an antiis ferromagnetic material is h a t e d above its curie temperature. the maximum magnetic flux density attained in a ferrimagnetic substance is substantially lower than that in a ferromagnetic specimen. Cd. Low conductivity limits eddycurrent losses at High frequencies. ' . of which YttriumIronGarnet ("YIG. crystaliize in a complicated spinel strucure and I1. Mn. Here quantum mechanical effects make the directions of the magnetic moments in the ordered spin structure ‘1 1ternate and . 616(c). where denotes a divalent metallic ion such as Fe.616 Schcm:llic atomic spin struclurcs I'or la) ferromagnetic. as depicted in Fig.~ve formula ric the XO . Hence ferrites find extensive uses in such highfrequency and microwave :ipplicntions as corcs for FM antennas. 2s illusof trated in Fig. F e 2 0 3 . the magnitudes unequal.D. etc.. 616(b). A material possessing this Eroperty is said to be m r i ferrontagnetic.Fe. These materials are said to be ferrimagnetic. called ~ i ~ u y ~ l espinels. (for instance.
. 617 Closed path about the interface of two media for determining the boundary condition of H. (697) and letting bc = da = Ah approach zero. is that of the thumb when the fingers of the right hand follow " Fig. (670). B. to a small pillbox and a small closed path which include the interface. (66) and (668). that is. Eq. Eq. From the divergenceless nature of the B field in Eq. Applying Eq. 610 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR MAGNETOSTATIC FIELDS I I/ I In order to solve problems concerning magnetic fields in regions having media with different physical properties. we derive magnetostatic boundary conditions by applying the two fundamental governing equations. Using techniques similar to those employed in Section 39 to obtain the boundary conditions for electrostatic fields. is the surface current density on the interface normal to the contour C. V B = 0. (66). (695) becomes 1  (696) The boundary condition for the tangential components of magnetostatic field is obtained from the integral form of the curl equation for H..H2. respectively. we have where J. Eqs. .230 4 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS I 6 I I I 1 . 617 as the contour C. it is necessary to study the condition: (boundary conditions) that B and H vectors must satisfy at the interfaces of different media. = p1Hl and B2 = j1. The direction of J . we may conclude directly. in light of past experience. that the normal component of B is continuous across an interface. For linear media. which is repeated here for convenience: We now choose the closed path rbcda in Fig.
sacross un interjoce where o surjbce cilrrerlt is exists. has a magnihde 11. (61OC) Since neither of the medic is a perfect conductor. J. a.u. the tongcntiiri u :it component ojthe H J i ~ l d discontis~u..H. In Fig. H .n of the magnetic field intensity at point P . (A/m).ccc.6 10 ~ O U N D A R Y CONDITIONS : COR MAGNETOSTATIC FIELDS 231 I G dia with lry con3. o 1 h y i c hI . . . Division of Eq.." for the chosen path is out of the paper. sin a . (699). The magnetic field intensity in medium 1 at . (6101) by Eq. is the olrlwut+ uililnortt~sl j. and p . and the tut. Hence.disccntinuity being determined by Eq. in medium 1. have a common boundary. with the normal. which includes both magnitude and direction relations (Problem P. equals zero. ~ i l following is a more concise expression of the boundary e condition for the tangential components of H.ooyn qu:intities 'lrc H z and a. Solution: The desired un1. the amount of. Continuity of the normal component of B field requires. (696).. 617. point l'.l)rtt t ~ ~ a d i 2 n ~thc in~crf:lcc. We have p2H2 cos z2 = p l H 1 cos a.I '~ 11 1 discontinuoos only whcn an intcrfacc with an ideal I :s pcrfcct conductor or a ~up~xconductor assumed. whom a.l2 ? (698) xbur C. (639) . . When the condu~kvities both media i r e finite. is i Example 611 Two magnetic media with permeabilities ji.. as shown in FIG. 622). from Eq. From onclude nrinuous ..hi.. the tangential component of H field is continuous. Using iry con~ o n sby rc\r.qenrio1 conlponcnt of H is continuous ucioss the boiiridury . currents are defined by voiume of current densities a n d free surface currents do not exist on the interface.618. d follow P + rface ldary + x ( H I .Thus. .~ .. the direction of the &h. = H 1 sin a l . Determine he magnitude and the directic.) = J. and m:~kcsan angle a . 618 Boundary conditions for magnerostatic field at an interface (Example 61 1). (6100) gives Fig. the positive direction of J.
(4lo). 232 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 which describes the refraction property of the magnetic field. (410)see Section 43.fa~c:Third.1. 66) yields a Laplace's equation in Vm: VZVm 0. That the solution for Eq. .. (like iron). The magnitude of H z is / H2 = . Eq. (6102) and (6104) are entirely similar to. B = $i'V. (We recall that isolated magnetic charges do not exist and that magnetic flux lines always form closed paths. and. = (6106) Equation (6106) is entirely similar to the Laplace's equation. the magnetic field runs in a ferromagnetic n ~ e d i u n ~ almost parallel to thc intc. if medium 1 is nonmagnetic (like air) and medium 2 is feriomagnetic .) The nonlinearity in the relationship between B and H in ferromagnetic materials also complicates the analytical solution of boundaryvalue problems in magnetostatics. In currentfree regions the magnetic flux density B is irrotational and can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar magnetic potential Vm. then ~ 1 >> p . will be nearly zero. >> p2). then a. (6105) in V B = 0 (Eq. if a magnetic field originates in a ferromaghetic medium. First. will be nearly ninety degrees. (6106) satisfying given boundary conditions is unique can be proved in the same way as for Eq. Eqs./(H~ sin. the flux lines will emerge into air in a direction almost normal to the interface. although electrostatic problems with conducting boundaries maintained at fixed potentials occur quite often in practice.)^ + ( H z cos a?)' We make three remarks here. Eqs. However. = .^. (6105) Assuming a constant p. that is. for the scalar electric potential V in a chargefree region. as indicated in Section 65. if medium I is ferromagnetic and medium 2 is air (p. Thus the tcchniqucs (method of images and method of separation of variables) discussed in Chapter 4 for solving electrostatic boundaryvalue problems can be adapted to solving analogous magnetostatic boundaryvalue problems. (6102). a. (3119) and (3120) for the electric fields in dielectric mediaexcept for the use of permeabilit'ies (instead of permittivities) in the case of magnetic fields. Second. . from Eq. Thw means that for any arbitrary angle a. substitution of Eq. respectively. analogous magnetostatic problems with constant magneticpotential boundaries are of little practical importance. that is not close to zero..
(and therefore a timevarying 81. . (631). cxists cvcn ~f I . I .) I Iowcdor. Eq. due to Q 1 2is A12=N2@12 (Wb). " 233 i : t $\ f 611 INDUCTANCES AND I~DUCT~RS ! (6103) i :ofH. as shown in Fig. Some of the magnetic flux due to B. bounding surfaces S l and S2 respectively..etostafic imf xtic flux :n B and mndaryFig... is Consider two neighboring closed loops. will be created. flows in C. If a current I... .In case C 2 has N . wlll pass through the surf$ce S2 bounded by C. that is. r! hence ( D l . turns. We have ecs.. is also proportional to I.. (6106) :ty as for elhod of ~undary :ry'PY . we see that B . i ? I 611 1 INO~CTANCES AND INDUCTORS I . is called the mutual inductance between loops C . add C. (6108) generalizes to 1..~ a v a law. ( I . is directly proportional to I. This i From physics we knok thiit a timevarying I . and Eq. and C. thejux linkage A. . Let us designate this mutual flux a. (We defer the discussion of Faraday's law untll the next chapter. 619. 619 Two magnetically coupled loops.) wll produce an induced e~ectromotive force or voltage in C 2 as a result of Foraday's low of electromagnetic i$uction. with SI unit henry (H). for the . ? can be i in Sec where the proportionslity constant L. a magnetic field B.. .s unci 11 . C. will link with C . . We write . is a steady DC current. From ~ i o t .
With a linear medium. In Eq. is v t Some of the magnetic flux produced by I . it is implied that the permeability of the medium does not change with I . . is The selfinductance of loop C. must be used. Find B from I by Ampire's circuital law. The proccdurc for determining the selfinductance of an inductor is as follows: 1. The selfinductance of a loop or circuit depends on the geometrical shape and the physical arrangement of the conductor constituting the loop or circuit. as well as on the permeability of the medium. The total flux linkage with C. (6108) and hence Eq. as we shall see in Section 612. (61 15). if symmetry exists. ! 1 ! L for a linear medium. . caused by I . (61 14) or Eq. In other words. As a matter of fact. In general. 2. 1 f I I ' t 1 1 f 5' ' 3. links only with C. (611 1) apply only to linear media. selfinductancc does not depend on the current in the loop or circuit. BiotSavart law. Eq. or whether it is near another loop or circuit. Choose an appropriate coordinate system for the given geometry. that is. Just as a capacitor can store electric energy. itself. if nbt. (6108). Eq. it exists regardless of whether the loop or circuit is open or closed. and inductunce without an adjective will bc taken to mean selfinductance. therc is no need to carry the subscripts in Eq. (631). . . A more general definition for L . Eq. Assume a current I in the conducting wire. When we deal with only one loop or coil. A conductor arranged in an appropriate shape (such as a conducting wire wound as a coil) to supply a certain amount of selfinductance is called an inductor. an inductor can storage magnetic energy. 1! ' . and not with C.234 ' STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 j f ! The mutual inductance between two circuits is then the magneticjux linkage with one circuit per unit current in the other.. is defined as the magneticflux linkage per: unit current in the loop itself. (69).
we find. ' Ss Bads. Find the flux linkkge A by multiplying B by the number of turns. by applying Eq. Find the flux linking with each turn.  . 620 A closely wound toroidal .find fluk linkage A . . if not. (4) 0 ( Sulution: It is clear jhat the cylindrical coordinate system is approprlate for t h ~ s problem because the toroili is symmetrical about its axis. B= I meability nd hence S I (61 12) where S is the area over which B exists and links with the assumed currenr. . 620. = N. After choosing an appropriate coordinate system.. from B by integration. (69) to a circular path wlth radius r ( u < r < h): (6115) This result is obtained because bath B. and r a r e constant around the circular path C. A s s u m q a currenr I in the conducting wire. find the selfinductance of the toroidal coil. Fig. 6.e le sellinIr. Q. = A. Then assuming the permeability of the medium to be .AssumeI . ifind L . Since the path encircles a total current NI. . I not with Only a slight modification of this proceduk is needed to determine the mutual inductance L I Z b e t d e n two circuits.(P.coil (Example 612). find B. by integrating B.uo. ad/\. 5. we have e and the file11as on does not ardless of :r loop or re wound Just as rgy. proceed as fd~lows:. (6113) 1t curreut Example 612 Assdme I? turns of wire are tightly wound on n toroidal frame of a rectangular cross section with dimensions as shown in Fig. ./I. as we !o need to .. ts. over surface S2 . Find L by taking !he ratio L = All. + find B.611 / INDUCTANCES AN3 INDUCTORS t s 235 \vith orle 4.
. Example 613 Find the inductance per unit length of a very long solenoid with air core having n turns per unit length.m thc 1inc.. The qualification that the coil be closely wound on the toroid is to minimize the linkage flux around the iliriividual turns of the wire. .2nr Next we find The flux linkage A is N@ or Finally.lr dimcnsions of its crow scction. where S is the crosssectional area of the solenoid..B. A more accurate derivation for the magnetic flux density and flux linkage per unit length near the ends of a finite solenoid will show that they are less than the values given. (61 19). I A= poN21h b In . Solution: The magnetic flux density inside an infinitely long solenoid has been found in Example 63. the total inductance of a ' finite solenoid is somewhat less than the values of L . respectively. . (6116) We note that the selfinductance is not a function d?ffor a constant nmiium permeability). The flux linkage per unit length is Therefore the inductance per unit length is Equation (61 19)is an approximate formula. B = . . Hence.. 2n u A L==. from Eq.as given in Eq.236 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 and . by Eqs.. muitiplicd by the length. Hence.poN2h Inb 2 a (H). (613) and (6118). i . For current I we have. based on the assumption that the length ol' Ihc solcnoid is vcry n~uch yraltcr th.. we obtain . which is constant inside the solenoid. . = PoNI .uonI. (613). .. .
Also the assume that the currlk!nt I is liniformly distributed over the cross section of the Inner conductor.. u ~ r ~ h . 237 . ... 611 . .: . Solution: Refer to i g . multi Fig. .. We have (61 17) . . 1 . ... i: . . . ! : . . ~ .: .. ...~ . . '4 . ' n : meuium From Eq. . q. > .: I [. O l r l a .. . .e per unit the values tance of a 19). ...: The following isia significant obser&ion hbout the results of the previous two examples: The self4 ductance of wirewound ihductors is proportional to the square ~f the number of tu ps... (61 20) and (6121). . r! .. . . . ..... .!a. 621 Two views of a coaxial transmission line (Examplz 614). . Assume that a &rent I flows in the inner conductor and returns via the h e r donductor in the othet direction. ' : . . .. f . . Determine the inductance per unit length of the lide. .: . . . J ':r . and (b) between the inner and outer conductors.. . .'...i . :oic' to b) Between the inner and outer conductors. 6721. .: ( I. (6116) a) Inside the inner cbndu :tor.. The current in a unit length of this annular ring is linked by the flux that can be obtained by integrating Eqs..+: . . . . B has onl) a $component with diherent expressions 111 ihc two resions: (a) ins~de inner cbndu.. ..... * :.. . . $:. I. .tor. . ... .c\.'I I ~ D U C T A ~ L C S INDUCTORS AND . .. . " : .t length is (61'1 8) the 1. ::. t C 4..~n. Because of the cylindrical symmetry. .3 : '.lth m se~.:. ! . 1 !' Example 614 ~ n ' k icdaxial transmission lide has a solid inner conductor of radius r a and a very thin outer conductor of inner rahius b.... ' .:. d with air From Eq.i. . i . . . . .  . (6lo].. een found Now consider an:annclar ring in the inner conductor between radii r and r i cir.". . (61 11.
. ." But how do we prove it? We may proceed as follows. The inductance of a unit length of the coaxial transmission line is therefore The first term po/8n arises from the flux linkage internal to the solid inner conductor. . This assumption does not hold for highfrequency AC currents. (6126) ' . (6107).I It is assumed that the current is distributed unifohnly in the inner conductor. it is known as the internal inductance per unit length of the inner conductor. a2 (6123) The total flux linkage per unit length is . . (6111): Is the flux linkage with loop C 2 caused by a unit current in loop C. equal to the flux linkage with C .? That is. J . ds. this term is known as the external inductance per unit length of the coaxial line.. we pose the following question about Fig. we obtain N2 L I Z= I. L2 B. .because of reciprocity. caused by a unit current in C. Before we present some examples showing how to detkrmine the mutual indue . ? (6125) We may vaguely and intuitively expect that the answer is in the affirmative . Combining Eqs. tance between two circuits.' Hence the flux linkage for this annular ring is 2r dr dA' = dW. is it true that L I Z= L 2 .238 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 8 But the current in the annular ring is only a fr&tion (2nr dr/na2 = 2r dr/a2)of the total current I. (6109) and (6Ill). 619 and Eq. The second term comes from the linkage of the flux that exists between the inner and the outer conductors.
In ini1wrt:lnt conclusion bccnuss it allows us to use the simpler of the two ways (flnding L. in $ew of Eq.. the contour integrals are evaluated only once over the periphery of the loogs C.14). It is obvious that interchanging the subscripts 1 and 2 docs not31ange thd value of ille double integral: hence an slfirmative answer to thc qitcstiot~poscd in Eq. is it true i. (6129b) directly. . . For any givdn problem we always first look for symmetry conditions that may simplify the dekrmination of flux linkage and mutual inductance without resorting to Eq. Substitution of Eq. B1 = V x A.. and N 2 h dI ~ c and C 2 from one end to the other. and C . (6127) yields \nductor.. and d&. ds2 I In Eqs.. and N . or L. ~ ion does not ' In circuit theory books the symbol M is frequently used to denote mutual inductance. whcre N . It is clear from Eq. For a linear medium mutual inductance is proportional to the medium's permeability and is independent of the currents in the circuits. I >I n2) of the 4 ' 1' But. ij. (6127) and (6128). respectivelythe effects of multiple turns habinp been taken care of sebarately by the factors N ..(0125) followvs.. ' ! N2 L12= 11 (V x A l ) .(6.I. Equation (6129b) is the Neumann formela for mutual inductance.) to determine the mutual i n d u ~ t a n c e . . (6128) in Eq. (6129aj as : "because ornbining n ' been absorbed in the contour integrals over the circzilt~C. (61296 that mutual inductance is a property of the geometrical shape and tilt physical arrangement of coupled circuits. . Welhave < : : a (6123) r ' i r ' f .' .!: I . U is a general formula requiring the evaluation of a double line integral. It 1s customary to write Eq..il where R is the distance between the differential lengths dt'. <tor. B1 can be written as the curl of a vector magnetic potential A. The . This is .r and the length of induc519 and i loop C 1 .
I . '. it is difficult to find the magnetic flux density B. I Y 8 r Fig. however. everywhere.  Example 615 Two coils of turns N . Find the mutuil inductance between the coils. and N2 are wound concentrically on a straight nonmagnetic cylindrical'core of radius a. in the long straight wire. Solution: Let us designate the triangular loop as circuit 1 and the long wire as circuit 2. 11 el (H). . in the triangular loop. 622 A solenoid with two windings (Example 615). respectively. ( rk b . Consequently. . The windings have lengths C. . J I in Eq. . ?  . 623. (61 11). Assume current I. Solution: Figure 622 shows such a solenoid with two concentric windings. (6130) Example 616 Determine ihe mutual inductance between a conducting triangular loop and a very long straight wire as shown in Fig. 9 $ ~ d .5 N IN Z x a 2 . . . We can. From Eq. it is difficult to determine the mutual inductance L I Zfrom A . If we assume a current I . . . and C. . we have Hence the mutual inductance is L 1 2 = . flows in the inner coil. f . apply Am*re's circuital law and readily write the expression for B2 that is caused by a current I . (6117) we findthat the flux Q I 2in the solenoid core that links with the outer coil is  Since the outer coil has N 2 turns. .
b ] .(d + b)] tan 60" (6134) Substituting Eqs. . we have . for a linear medium.(dm+ . = @. Because inductances depend on the geometrical shape and the physical arrangement of the conductors constitutlhg the circuit?.. and (6134) in Eq. 623 A conducting triahgular loop and a long straight wire (Example 616).7 .~ [ 2(7d + b ) 1 h ( l + ~ . and. (6133) The relation between z and r is given by the equation of the hypotenuse of the triangle: l z= = a[. (6135) 612 MAGNETIC ENERGY So far we have dishssed self. (6132).i ly on a d. and big.[r .and m u t ~ a lihductances in static terms. the mutdd inductance is 6 t (H).. . (6133). Therefore.A Assume i r h The flux linkage A. are independent of the t . (61311. b)]. is where dsl=a+z.dr.
in which the current is initially zero.... . The work involved is At the same time. at 1. . From physics we know that an electromotive forcc (eml) will bc induced in the loop that opposes the current change. (6136) can be written alternatively in terms of flux linkage as which is stored as magnetic energy. a work W. which imply that the currents vary very slowly in time (are low of frequency) and that the dimensions of the circuits are very small compared to the wavelength. In Section 31 1 we discussed the fact that work is required to assemble a group of charges and that the work is stored as electric energy. must be done in loop C . = @ . from zero to I . and increase i. di. from zero to I . These conditions are tantamount to ignoring retardation and radiation effects. respectively. which increases the current i . The work required is Since L .+An amount of work must be done to overcome thisiiitluced emf.. respectively. This requires a work W. = 0. it is obviously necessary that we consider alternating currents when the effects of inductances on circuits and magnetic fields are of interest. / I l for linear media.. Now consider two closed loops C 1and C carrying currents i. Eq. and i. Consider a single closed loop with a selfinductance L ./dt in order to keep i. to I . A general consideration of timevarying electromagnetic fields (electrodynamics) will be deferred until the next chapter. giving rise to an induced emf that must be overcome by a voltage v. We certainly expect that work also needs to be expended in sending currents into conducting loops and that it will be stored as magnetic en'ergy. we first keep i.. = L. . we were not concerned with nonsteady currents in the defining of inductances. as we shall see when electromagnetic waves are discussed in Chapter 8. = L . in order to counteract the induced emf and increase i./dt be the voltage across the inductance. some of the magnetic flux due to i2 will link with loop C. from zero to I .. A current generator is Lonnected to the loop. Next we keep i. constant at its value I . Let o. we know that resistanceless inductors appeat as shortcircuits to steady (DC) currents.since i . in loop C. To find the amount of work required.. = (6139) ' The subject of electromagneticinduction will bc diadussed in Chnpter 7. For now we assume quasistatic conditions. = 0 and increase i . The currents are initially zero and are to be increased to I . and I. (6136) or (6137). as given in Eq.242 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 currents. WZ2 4L21$. . Because of mutual coupling. di... . However. no work is done in loop C.
. 30p c1. . \ group which is the energy stbretl in the magnetic field. The total amount of kork done in raising'the dlrfents in loops C l and C 2 from zero to I. and I. = dlp. . For a current I flowing in a slnglz inductor with inductahce L.. The work ddne to the kth loop in time tlt 1s where we have used the relation u. the system h then ! I .. the voltage . and W2. at any instant of time. and i be respectively.&txcs are brought to thcir final values in concert by an equal fraction cc that increases from 0 to 1. the stored magnetic energy is :cl t h . and 4. = crl. = a@..d+. " It is instructive to1 dclivc Eq. in the flux +k linking with the kth loop is the result of the changes of the currents in all the coupled loops. is then the sum of wj Wz. k2 f L J : + L = ~ + fL21: ~ J ~ ~ . . I. respectitrely. To 70 to I. that is. (6141) in an altcrnativc way. :ely... diJdt dWm= 1 k= 1 ' N N dWA= k= 1 i.. or the differential magnetic energy stored in. (6. ~ t r ~ c lthat a self nnccted ow hhat cur77 rt t'. Note that the change.tdtal tnag~telicr energy: N ....and is independent of the manner in which the final valttes of the currents and fluxes are reached./dr. The djfferential work done to. i. 'C . We obtain the .:ics) will r. dg.. across and the current in the loop.. t ' ( Generalizing this reiplt to a system of N lo&s carrying currents I. . which that the :condihall see 3 a i ?rj3.143) The total stored energy is the integration of rlI. work is 0 to 1. I..Yv. Let v. Conbider a typlcal kth loop of N magnetically coupled loops. Let us assume that all the currcnts and ll... we obtain .I terms xtlvely.
N. becomes dv' and the summation in Eq.V * ( A X H).kI. J = H . J dv' A (J).244 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 which simplifies to Eq. (3140).1 Magnetic Energy in Terms of Field Quantities N @k = L. A single currentcarrying loop can be considered as consisting of a large nimber. ( v x A ) . This volume can be extended to include all space. B . (6141) immediately. as expected.. we have Now. Making use of the vector identity. Wm= f 6. .F Equation (6145) can be generalized to determine the magnetic energy of a continuous distribution of current within a volume. (6147) can be written as an integral. ( (6. It is often desirable to express the magnetic energy in terms of field quantities B and H instead of current density J and vector potential A. flowing in an infinitesimal crosssectional area Aa. 3 612. (6145).223). for linear media.' A ~ Vx H). since the inclusion of a region where J = 0 does not change W . NO^^ that. and linking with magnetic flux a. each with a current AI. (6137) for N = 1. X (see Problem P. 1 where S. the electric energy We in Eq. Substituting Eq. of contiguous filamentary current elements of closed paths C..148) where V' is the volume of the loop or the linear medium in which J exists.. As N + a. We have I . is the surface bounded by C.(AxH) or A . Av'. (6149) . Equation (6148) should be compared with the expression for . V ~ A H ) = H .(VxH)=H(VxA)V. (6146) in Eq. we obtain Eq. we have A.
(6151 b). 1lic11 i i l . (3146a). and (3146c).: and volume xJ=O sion for The expressions in E ~ S . 1X ~ . we Obtain * 4~4yv. we wn write Eq.[:I . (6142).lSla). ~ l(6 \lit hii\c .~n ~ c p ~l~ EL.4 x H) decreases as 1 / ~ ' . w can often determine selfinductance more easily from stored magnetic energy calculated in terms of B and/or H. If V' is taken to be sufficiently large. 4 H B du' 11 In Eq. tHtee diiferent forms: in w. tHe contribution of the surface integral in Eq..as $ can be seen from E ~ (622) and (631) respectively. H) " (6150) Noting that H = B/p.150)Y:II~~SIICS. Thus. in a linear medium are analogous to those of electrostatic energy U: in. Illcsarf:~. . than from flux linkage. a.. ds'. (3 l46b). the rnagnirude of (. 1 substitution . (6148). If we define a m g n e r k energy demiry.of ~ h(414$ . ~b those faraway points. (0151h) in two nlternatiile form. and (615 lc) for the magnetlc energy W.. (6150) we hare applied the divergence theorem. n 245 t 6 . 4 . Eqs.. to zero because Blls bfTas l / R and /HI falls OK as 1/R2. such that its volume integral equals the total magnetic energy . . the surface Sf increases only as R 2 When Rapproaches ihfinity..is the surface boundlng V'. 5 l' 612 / MAGNETIC ENERGY .. or " FI . B (J/m3) By using Eq. vqhereas at the same time. a we can write w. . .(6. w. the pdints on its surface S' will be very far from the currents. reipcctively. (6150) tends. and S. = i in Eq. .
(6154). Example 617 By using stored magnetic energy. MAGNETIC FORCES AND TORQUES In Section 61 we noted that a charge q moving with a velocity u in a magnetic field with flux density B experiences a magnetic force F. = qu x I3 (N). from Eq. determine the inductance per unit length of an nir coaxial transmission line that his a solid inner conductor of rtldius e and a very thin outer conductor of inner radius h. .) 2 I2 which is thc same as Eq. given by Eq. where the selfinductance was determined through a consideration of flux linkages. 1 =J. d r = . Solution: This is the same problem as that in Example 614.(Wm. (6155a) The magnetic energy per unit length stored in the region between the inner and outer conductors is. W. '(o" 16n  J : 4na4 1 (Jim).llively simpler. Refer again to Fig. The magnetic enprgy per unit length stored in the inner conductor is. .I n . (6. 1 Wk2 = 2'(0 [~ .g [ .. ' + Wk... We have I .1 tlows in the inner conductor and returns in the outerconductor. we have L = .120) and (6. which is repeated below: F.. from Eq.. (6121) and (6151b). (64). . Tli: pruccdurc used in this solution is compnr. 2 n r dr b a (J/m)." 310 B. from Eqs. 621. 2nr.lr r3 dr = . (6 .i 5513) .pol2 4n 4n Therefore.246 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 . . Assume a uniform current..156) .151 b). . (6. (1124).
. . of the magnetic field Bll. from the hiotbavart law in Eq. . since NqlSlul equals the current in the condiietor. ' unit (6. . (61608) and (6.ch charge carrier... .. If there are u in the direction df dP. . I .. is. r' I . respectively. . Fig. It is an inversesquare relationship and should be compared with Coulomb's law of force in Eq.on circuit C. . . (631).157) where 9 . in the presence of the magnetic field set ua br the current I . which was caused by the current I.. can be written + I I where B. we obtain which is AmpPre'slaw o j force between two currentcarrying circuits. . .dP with a rrosssectional area S... The magnetic force on a conlplete (closed) circuit of contour C that carrles a current I in a magnetic field B ill then ' 155. n the tor is. the latter being much the simpler.wecan write E ~(6*157) as . on circuit C. (3. When we have two circuits carrying currents Ir and I . Now. .( . in C the force F.. is the charge bn ea...17) between twaaationary charges.' ~. 1. (6157) are equivalent since u d)d cl< have the same dirwtion. .160b). .. The force ~y.. In the presence . . the situatmn . (616fa) by interchanging the s u b p i p t s 1 and 2. can be written from Eq. . The two expressions in Eq.. (6159) out is that of one currentcafryingcircuit in the magnetic field of the other. I~UC) 1. . in circuit C. . Combining Eqs.
.. which obviously equals ... ( 6 4 6 2 ) in Eq. . ..). Using F. Eq. Solution: Let the wires liein the yzplane and be parallel to the zaxis. x (dl'. = aR2. to denote the force per unit length on wire 2. It follows that Newton's Example 618 Determine the force per unit length between two infinitely long parallel conducting wires carrying currents I.)= . F. p a... (6163). Let us expand the vector triple product in the integrand of Eq. 1 248 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 I However. (6161a) by the backcab rule. inasmuch as a.2 =I.We apply Amptre's circuital law. as shown in Fig..) # dCl x...) around circuit C1 vanishes. it is not necessary to use Eq.action and reaction fails here. . . since dt'.. from Eq. 624. and I . (6160b) for the determination of BIZ. ihird law holds here. we get ' dP2) Po FZ1 = (6. the magnetic flux density at wire 2./RZl. The closed line integral (with identical upper and lower limits) of d(l/R. set up by the current I. The wires are separated by a distance d. I . whcther Nowton's third law governing thc l'orcrs of means F z l # F.aR2. (6165) where B12. Substituting Eq.(% x BIZ). as expected.(d& x a. (6ll).. (6160a).. Because the wires are assumed to be infinitely long and cylindrical symmetry exists. we inquire whether this that is. in wire 1. in the same direction.F. is constant over wire 2. (6161a) and using Eq. . (6163) we havemade use ofEq.. Now the double clbsed line integral of the first term on the right side bf E ~(6162) is In Eq. and write.. (281) and the relatio3q. This problem is a straightforward application of Eq. (220). we have .164) 471 l 2 c c R:.(l/R2. .
. perpendicular and parallel to the plane of the loo& As illustrated in Fig. 625a. : .respectively. of flux density B. . . ! x ' I !A 3 . the force between two 2 . . and Bllare. (6165) yields 4around 6I/ We see that the force on w ~ r e pulls it toward wire 1.1~1. the perpendicular component B..a. I Fig. . if the direction of I is reversed). i../2nd) and that th. wires carrying currents iu the some direction is one of attractioll (unl~ke the force between two charges df the same polarity. (616t) in Eq. exerts n c net force to move tlie loop.(p. . .. .2" 613 1 %GN~TIC FORCES AND TORQUES 249 . 625 A circular loop in a uniform magnetic field B = B. The parallel component Bllproduces an upward force + (a) (W Fig. f :ly lpng 2e wires Let us now considir a small circular loop of radius b and carrying a current I in a uniform magnetic field. = . tends to expand the lobp (or contract it. Hence. BlitwhereB. . + BIl. It is trivial to l prove that F. Substitution of Eq. which is one of repulsion). 624 Force bitween two parallel currentcarrying wires (Example 618).f: i 2 . but B. .e force between two wires carrying currents in opeosite directions is one of repulsion. B = B. It is convenient to resolve B into two components..
(646)is~!.. This is thc torque that aligns thc microscopic mclgnclic dipolcs in magnctic matcrials and causes the materials to be magnetized by an applied magnetic field. Although the net force on the entire loop caused by BIIis also zero. (6169) as n = The vector B (instead of B.250 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 i ' I 1 1 1 dF.. where a. Example 619 A rectangular loop in the xyplane with sides b. (6170) does not hold if B is not uniform over the currentcarrying loop. Determine the force and torque on the loop.B.)is used in Eq. (6171b) Assuming the current flows in a clockwise direction. is a unit vector in the direction of the right thumb (normal to the plane of the loop) as the fingers of the right hand follow the direction of the current.B. a torque exists that tends to rotate the loop about the xaxis in such a way as to ulign the magnetic field (due to I) with the external BII field. is dT = ax(dF)2b sin 4 = a. carrying a current 1lies in a unijorm magnetic field B = a. and B.cd. as shown in Fig... 626. we can write Eq. on sides (1) and (3) and . (6168) I > I I ! I If the definition of thc rnagnctic dipolc momcnt in Eq. as shown in Fig. results in forces Ib. and dF. + ayBy+ a$. + ayBy.B. we find that the perpendicular component a$. we have BL = a$.21b2BII sin2 4 d4. (out from the paper) on element dt.(I dt BII 4j2b sin 4 sin = a. The differential torque produced by dF. It should be remembered that Eq. 625b. Solution: Resolving B into perpendicular and parallel components B. and a downward force (into the paper) dF2 = dFl on the symmetrically located element d t 2 . (6171a) BII= a. and b. (6170) because r x (BL+ BII) rn x Bll.
a ( ' ' i I .aJb.rrying a the force the torque T2. all directed toward the center of the loop. and F. due to forces F. and no torque IS produced. 626 A rectangular loop in a ' forces Ib.aYBJ= r x I% en&. the4 1 . the net force bn the loop. on sides (1) and (3). ... (6. is ' T I . i Fig. F. on siddk ( 2 ) and (4).170) n n was derived for a iircular loop.b.8 : paper) I I 625b. the torque f o d u l a holds for a p!anar loop of any shape as long as it is lbcated in a uniform magnetic field. The parallel combonsnt of the magnetic flux denslty... i ' .B. IC exists .'+ F. the result in Eq.174) n isexactly T = r % (a$x j. . uniform ~nagnetlcfield (Example 619). in spite of the fact that Eq. . we find d (3) and  Since the magnetic(domenl of the loop is r = .lb. . . = a. + F. . is zero. (6. However. Bll. is (6.blBx.. The vector sum of these four contracting forces is zero.  lagnetic by dF.173a) T2. and F.produces the following forces on the four sidb: m x Bil. The torque T I . these forces result in a net torque' that can be computed as follows. on sides (2) and (41. naterials lould be current Again. = axIblb2B. + F. The total torque on the rectangular loop is. due to forces F.
say the zaxis. done by the system& at the expense . of a decrease in the stored magnetic energy.613. .They are held in place only ifmechanical forces.1 Forces and Torques in Terms of Stored Magnetic Energy . the mechanial . second. Except for special symmetrical cases (such as the case of the two infinitely long.). dm and (TaL = X . . . ..df= dW. there will be no induced emf's and the sources will supply no energy to the system. exist. the component forccs arc If the circuit is constrained to rotate about an axis. System of Circuits with Constant Flux Linkages If we assume that no changes in flux linkages result from a virtual differential displacement d f of one of the currentcarrying circuits.2 to determine electrostatic forces between charged conductors. equal and opposite to the magnetic forces. F. from which we obtain pzGk7q In Cartesian coordinates. a system of circuits with constant currents. parallel conducting wires in Example 618). currentcarrying. We now examine an alternative method of finding f magnetic forces and torques based on the principle o virtual displacement. denotes the force under the constant flux condition. The mechanical work. which is the zcomponent of the torque acting on the circuit under the condition of constant flux linkages.. This principle was used in Section 31 1. a system of circuits with constant magnetic flux linkages.df. (6178) . determining the magnetic forces between currentcarrying circuits by Ampere's law of force is a tedious task. and.= (VWm). where F.. F df. work done by the system will be (T. . a All currentcarrying conductors and circuits experiencemagnetic forces when situated in a magnetic field. Thus. Here consider two cases: first.
627 An eldttromagnet (Example 620).(6177b). Thc crosssectional area of thc core is S. I  dition b  . (6151b).indirl$ *. b 1 An increase in the length (a positive dy) increases the stored magnetic energy if (r. Dctcrdinc 1. A displaccment of the armature changes oqly the length of the air aps. 6144). . the negative sign indicates that the force tends to reduce the airgap length: that is. I' n Systcm of Circuits w L Constant Currcnts In this case the circuits arc connected to l current sources that :coullter:ict the induced emf's resulting from changes in flux linklgcs that are caUsed by a virtual displaccment dP. ~ s i t lEq.11~ lifting forcc on the armature. . We have. Solution: Let the armature take a virtual diyplacement ily (a differential increase . large8 ~gnetik! Fig. Thid ' t I . we obtain i anical Here. it is a force 01attraction. the disphcement changes only the magnetic energy stored in t e two air paps. The work done or energy supplied by the sour& is (see Eq. ! Example 620 Codbider the electromagnet in Fig 627 where a current I in an Nturn coil producck a llux O in thc magnetic circuit. in y) and the source.be adjusted to keep the llux (b constant. is constant. from Eq. consequently.
. @. (6176). It must be understood that. only in the sign. That is. = ~ L I ~ . again.. dW. = (vw. the zcomponent of the torque acting on the circuit is The difference between the expression above and (T. The flux. we have Equations (6182) and (6183) combine to give dW. circuit is constrained to rotate about the zaxis. (6184) and (6185) respectively.). From Eq. The formulations using the method of virtual displaccment unclcr conscant llux linkagc :mcl conhtanl currcrlt col~ditionsarc simply t w o means of solving the same problem. Let us solve the electromagnet problem in Example 620 assuming a virtual displacement under 'the constantcurrent condition..= F .. we express W m in terms of the current I : W. STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6  This energy must be equal to the sum of the mechanical work done by the system dW (dW = F. Thus. = dW + dWm. dW.S). For this purpose. Eqs.254 . denotes the force on the displaced circuit under the constant current condition) and the increase in the stored magnetic energy.) that of the two air gaps (2y/p. (6176) and (6178) should yield the same answers to a given problem as do Eqs. (6145). If the n . dt. d e = dWm . .only by a sign change. despite the difference in the sign. i Eq.) dt or which differs from the expression for F. (6186) where L is the selfinductance of the coil. in the electromagnet is obtained by dividing the applied magnetomotive force (NI) by the sum of the reluctance of and the core (9. (6178) is. where F. in Eq.
)..~nduct&e L ib'kqtt~1 tdkux linkage per ynidcurrent. .. selfinductances L .2 Forces and Torques in Terms of Ij Mutual Inductance II . (6180). Therefore we will base our solution on Eq. m d 6. I f the tori The method of virtual displacement for cohstant currents provides a powerful technique for detettnining the forces and torques between r ~ g d currentcarrylnp circuits. = +L.ay+ a2'  ) (N).IIC coils &:. (61614.. and mutual inductance t. (6188). + (6190) 6185) n. . . (63184) and (6186) and usidg Eq. magnetic energy is. 4 2 NI . I rcspcctivcly. 1. 12 . and 1. h. from Eq.0 Similarly. Substirution of Eq. $L21:."( 2 dy CLoS WC + 2ylCLoS ' s ' \ <W' clos I which is exactly the bame as the F. (6184) yields 6176) 6184) cement means . as exdressed in Eq.. . we obtain from Eq. only If one of the circuiti is given a virtual displacement under the condition of constant currents. in Eq. { '. I ~ I . Solution: This problem is rather a difficult one if we try to solve it with Ampere's law of force. In e . For two circuit> with currents I. and I . . we obtain . virtual rcss Wm Example 621 Determine the Torce between two coaxial circular coils of radii b. (6140).)llsisl of N ill14 N 2 c10scIy woudd turns and carry currents I . (6190) in Eq.I: + ' L . and L 2 . W determine the mutual inductance between the two coils. (6185). (6191). First.dL a.. ~ c p i i r i ~hy iI ~iiisi~~nrn t~l 11 which is m ~ c h Iiwgcr ~ I ~ : I I Itllc radii ( t i >> b. F r = a yIi2. there w o d d be a change in Wmand E q (6184) applies. . the I: W. 1 " r: N . L==@ 4 I "! 'Combining Eqs.N2 . (6189) 613. .
due to current I . at the point P on coil 2 we have A. which was caused by a singleturn circular loop carrying a current I. (6193). thavector potential at a distant point. I . . z. The mutual inductance is then. from Eq. in Eq. in coil 1 with N . we find the mutual flux. is used because we anticipate a virtual displacement. _ 8 sin PoNiI1b: 4R2 In Eq. instead of d. Using Eq. (624). (6193) in Eq. 628 for this problem. (643).Fig. Referring to Fig. (6Ill)..  Example 67 we found. is and : to be kept as a variable for the time being. turns as follows: 4412 = a. 628 Coaxial currentcarrying circular loops (Example 621).
is a forcc of attraction Tor currents flowing in the same directioa. $ ' i I: which can be written ad . State Ampere's chcuital law. What is its S1 unit? .1 What is ths. apply 10 c o ~ ~ d u c t o r Lavillg il UllliM crobh SIX~IOII of the same ilrea rild carryrng the ramr currcnt? ~ x ~ l n i 2 '  H.s/niZ). currentwrrying conductor have n componolt in thc dircctlon or the currcnl? R. This force diminishes very rapidly as the inverse fourth power of the distance of separation.63 R. R. In applying Anlpeh's circuital law nlust the path of integration be circular? Explain. Which postulate bf magnetostatics denies the existence of isolated magnetic charges? State the law of cthservation of magnetic flux.of ad infinitely long straight. A derr.I . is the same as voltxcond per square meter (V. R.612 Define in words udrtor magnetic potential A . REVIEW QUESTIONS R 6 .62 Vsrify that tesla (T).expression for the force on a test charge y that moves wrth vrloc~tyu in a magnetic field of flux density B? H.64 R. the fotc+dud to the magnetic field of bl 1 can now be obtained directly i by substituting Ed: 16195) in Eq. (6196) indicates that I . The ncgative sign in Eq.67 Wrrte Lorentz's force equation.. R.610 in what niasdcr does tllc Ulield of an rnlinitely long stnight filament urrying a drren current I vary with distance? R611 Can Bfield exist b a p o d conductor? Elplain. (6191).69 DO the foriulas for R. i' ' REVIEW QUESTIONS 257 O n coil 2.L s round conductor.h in Eqr (6lp) and (611) for .68 Why cannot the Bfield.66 R. the unit for magnetrc flux denslty.65 R.
6 reg ch.I thl R.c tur R.  R.628 Define diamagnetic. ( R623 Define magnetic susceptibility and relati& permeability.635 Explain why magnetic flux lines leave perpendicularly the surface of a ferromagnetic medium. . R629 What is a magnetic domain? R630 Define remanent j4ux density and coercive field intensity.634 What are the'boundary conditions for magnetostatic fields at an interface between two different magnetic media? R. What is its SI unit? A. What are their SI units? R.r St[ R. The core is excited with an mmf of N1 ampereturns.622 Define magneticfield intensity vector. R631 Discuss the difference between soft and hard ferromagnetic materials.pic PC .616 Compare the usefulness of Arnpkre's circuital law and BiotSavart's law in determining B of a currentcarrying circuit. paramagnetic. R617 What is a magnetic dipole? Define magnetic dipole moment. the R633 What are the characteristics of ferrites? $jp .625 Define magnetomotive force. R614 What is the relation between vector magnetic potential A and the magnetic flux through a given area? R. f yi . I in R.627 An air gap is cut in a ferromagnetic toroidal core. an 'OU to .t. cu: CO' PROBLEV \ P. R. R632 What is curie temperature? 4 P.I slr R.621 What is meant by "equivalent magnetization current densities"? What are the SI units for V x M and M x a.. What is its SI unit? R.615 State BiotSavart's law.. Is the magnetic field intensity in the air gap higher or lower than that in the core? R. R. length C. R. What is its SI unit? R619 Discuss the relative merits of using the vector and scalar magnetic potentials in magnetostatics. r R620 Define magnetization vector. R618 Define scalar magnetic potential Vm. What is its SI unit? R626 What is the reluctance of a piece of magnetic material of permeability p. and a constant cross section S? What is its SI unit? R.258 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS / 6 \ I I  R613 What is the relation between magnetic flux density B and vector magnetic potential A? Give an example of a situation where B is zero and A is not. P.6 fic~ Dl / 1 .? 1 . at th.c R.624 Does the magnetic field intensity due to a current distribution depend on the properties of the medium? Does the magnetic flux density? R. and ferromaynetic materials.
~I Iinc atld roturnb wa L~ ~.he dame if the outer conductor is not "very I i i 4 I R. 1 R. . Describe the motion of the electron if a) E = a. = a. . and B = a$. ..j. .. R. field E and a magnetic field B exist. .637 Define (a)'the mhtual j?ductance betweka two circuits.642 Discuss first the net force and then the net torque acting on a currentcarrying cllcult situated in a uniform mlgnetq field. and describe the pdth that the chargc follows. $ % : R. .. ' . what is the relation betwcen thc surface current and thc tanycntial c o m p b a c ~ tof M I ? . . . and B = a. :: . . thin"? Explain.64 Determine the magnetic flux denslty at a point on the axis of a solenold with radius h and length L.639 In Example 6f$. ' 259 . :. exists. .. ... .and with a current 1 in its N turns of closely Wound coil... (613) when t approaches infinity. Obtarn the equat~on motion of the of charge.1.. '. !! . .. I T 1 lhc 0 \ 1 1 ~ X ~ I I ~ U ~ I'I'hc I & ~ I I I SoI' LIIC IIIIICT C L ) ~ ~ L I C 'isO1 . on the electron paths of (a) and (b).: . Show that the result reduces to that given in Eq.. ...mu ~ I I 111e Ihu plot IBI versus r. and B.:. and the Illlicr and outer radil of the O U ~ C I 'L ' O I ~ ~ I CL& W 1) I I I \ ~e ~ ~ c h ~ ~ c l . '" ' .E. b.\ .. t ~ l ~ o u y.638 Explain how the..u. I n mmf of nat in the P. R643 What IS the reladon tztween the force and the stored magnetic energy In system of currentcarrymg c~rcuits dnder the condition of constant flux linkages? Under the condmon of constant currents? 1 t h P. :S1 units d current 1 R. \ P. . 1. . 8 . . '.':.~~ ~ I c~ l yt.63 magnetic P. would the answer be .''..PROBLEMS . i i. .B.. $. and (b) the selfinductance or a single coil.jj::. R636 What boundaryi condi!ion must the tangenVal components of magnetization satisfy at an intcrfacc? If regiorl2 i6 n:onmaynctic. '. . .!.~ u ~ g l i c k clcudy 11 Vor .: : . . ' I .E. . ' . potential : :.4j:: 1 .ilt. b) E = a.62 An electron is injected with a velocity u = a. of I A current I Ilows it) (lie inncr I A ~ I W I O I .. h ! . .selfhd~lctanceof a wirewd~ndinductor depends on ~ t number of s turns.!. . .'. into a region where both an electrlc . .> .. and PROBLEMS P. . R.( . 'j .640 Give an expression o i magnetic energy In terms of B dndlor H. ..? ! . .B. {. ..dl ucgionh .'. . :1.)$ .. ..61 A positive point charge q of mass m 1s Injected with a velocity u. . . Discuss the effect of the relative n~agnitudes E. 2': 6<:L~ .?. into the J > 0 region where a uniform magnetic fleld B = a.641 Clve thc integral exprebslon for the force on a closed clrcult t h d c m x s In a magnetic field B. . 4 '\ ! 1. ~ : ! I I idillrlcly long co:i\i.
Show also that as N becomes very large this result reduces to that given in Eq.. J . A current I flows in each coil in the same direction. . A current I flows in N turns of closely wound wire around thc toroid. (622). 2nb N where b is the radius of the circle circumscribing the polygon and a. The inner and outer radii of the toroid are u and b respectively. (638) with z = 0. This can be created in an offcenter cylindrical cavity that is cut in a very long cylindrical conductor . as depicted in Fig.66). a) Find the magnetic flux density B = axBx at a point midway between the coils. prove that for Furthermore. is a unit vector normal to the plane of the polygon. are separated by a distance d.66 Two identical coaxial coils.. b) Show that dB. . each of N turns and radius b. Determine the percentage of error if the flux is found by multiplying the crosssectional area by the flux density at the mean radius. P. c) Find thc relation between h and (1 such that r12B./rl. 629. d (Problems P. P.~2 also vanishes at the rnidnoint r Such a pair ufcuils arc used to obtain a n appruxi~l~ately uniform magnetic field in the midpoint coils. !JON[ n tan . They are known as Heli~rholt~ . region.260 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 . dP. Show that the magnetic flux density at the center is .69 in certain cxpcriments it is dcsirshle to havc a rcgion of constant magnetic [lux density. * P65 Starting from the e ~ p r e s ~ i o n vector magnetic potential A in Eq. prove that V B = 0.68 Find the total magnetic flux through a circular toroid with a rectangular cross section of height h. . P. A currcnt I flows in the wire.dx vanishes at the midpoint.67 A thin conducting wire is bent into the shape of a regular polygon of N sides. B=a.
612 Startrng from the t expressron of A In Eq. Refer to the cross section in Fig 630.610 Prove the following: p.0) in the blsectrng plane of two parallel r ~ r e s each of length 21. . The uniform i~rial currcnt density is . 1 current s to that il density.I : .J: Find [hc in. ! : ' . b) Flnd A due to ecjbal and opposite currents m n very long twow~retransm~ss~on line. y. . carrying a uniform current density. located at y = &!/2 and carrylng equal and obpos~te currents. I ' ' / . . !.612)..I. (634) for the vector magnet~c potent~alat a point in the brsecting ~ l a f l e 8 straight wlre of length 2L that carrles a current 1 of a) Find A at pomt k x . as s h o r n in Fig.) . 631 parallel wires carrying equal and apposite currents (Problem P. c) Find B from A in part (b).we that (6197) . 631. (Hint: Use principle of superposition and consider B in thecavity as that due to t d o long cylindrical conducton with radii b and a and current densities J and . .. 1 tmce (i.~yilil~~dc dirCcii011 of U ill ihc vyiindiicll cavity who* xnd axis is displaced from that of the conducting part by a distance d. P.onductor A I Fig..J respectively. and check your answer against the result obtarned by ~pplying Ampkre's circuital law.
by substituting Eq. &(vx~)du=$. a. (6198b) in Eq.616 The scalar magnetic potential. b.d. . 633). b) What are the equivalent magnetization current densities J. Prove. where dm = a. The radius of the rod. of the solenoid. for the magnetized rod'? P. a) Find the values of B. prove that where S is the surface enclosing the volume V.613 For the small rectangular loop with sides a and b that carries a current I. H. where C is a constant vector. (645). 64. Show that it can be put in the form of Eq. is less than the inner radius. The solenoid's winding has n turns per unit length and carries a current I.F~L.   P. P(. and show that it is the same as that given in Eq. b) Determine the magnetic flux density B from A.I ds. 632: a) Find the vector magnetic potential A at a distance point. shown in Fig.u. (648).first derivatives.615 A circular rod of magnetic material with permeability p is inserted coaxially in the long solenoid of Fig..262 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS I 6 P.y.614 For a vector field F with continuous. that (6198b) where R is the solid angle subtended by the lbop surface at the field point P (see Fig. (6198a). and J. (Hint: Apply the divergence theorem to (A x C ) . that is. and M inside the solenoid for r < a and for a < r < b.due to a current loop can be obtained by first dividing thc loop area into many small'loops and then summing up thc contribution of thcse small loops (magnetic dipoles).) P. Vm.
(638). (6199): a) Determine the scalar magnetic potential at a point on the axis of a circular loop having radius h and carryinb'a current I.) exlatr. a) Determrne the equivalent magnetlzatlon current densltles J m d .ur gJp fU 3 (I. . . i the long no~cl. 634 A toroidal iron core with air gap (Problem P.I in a 5Wturn wlndlng to p o d u c e a lnagnetlc flux of dividing loops (Wb).) Neglecting leakage :.i 3000 c~rcular cross section wlth rrd~ils = 25 (mm). P.. 633 Subdivided current loop for determination of scalaf magnetic potential (Problcm P. ) (A x C).618 A ferromagnetikpphere of radius b is magnetized uniformly wlth a magnetlation M = azM0. P.619 A toroidal lron core of relative permeab~l~ty has a mean radlus R = 80 (mm) m d . and compare the rcsult with Eg. b) Obtain the maghetic flux density B from Po OK..i i I\ PROBLEMS Fig. The P. (See Rg.617 DO the following by ilsing Eq. An . J b) Dctcrmlnc the nlagnclic llux densrty at the center of the qhere.619). J I I ~ cui rc11.lit Pig. 634.616). i ilou \ b = .
264 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 and using mean path length.0. a) Assuming B. in the iron core. . = a. (mT). When a current is sent through the coil to create a magnetic field.10 to the interface. = . and H. b) B. a voltage v . C) the required current I.OS ... prove that the work done per unit volume for such a cycle of chayge in the ferromagnetic core is represented by the area of the hysteresis loop of the core material. makes with the normal P. + a. Icg Fig. P. and then is increased again to BJ. Power P.620 Consider the magnetic circuit in Fig.1 1 dO/dt is inducod pcr unit length.622 Prove that the relation V x H = J leads to Eq. thc b) Dctcrrninc thc magnetic liclcl intensity ill c.621 Consider an infinitely long solenoid with n turns per unit length around a ferromagnetic core of crosssectional area S.~ch of l l i c core i111tl ill the itlr gi~p. which opposes the current change. P a = 5000). (699) at an interface between two media. A current I flows in the conductor. P. (6200) b) Assuming the current is changed in a periodic manner such that B is reduced from BJ to B.6XI). and B. P. find B. A current of 3 (A) flows through 200 turns of wire on the center leg. = 1) and iron (region 2.624 Consider a plane boundary ( y = 0) between air (region 1. Consider f a straight thin conductor in air parallel to and at a distance d above the plane interface of a magnetic material of relative permeability p. P.aJ0 (mT).v . = JOE' H dB.5 b) Assuming B. = . 635 A magnetic circuit with air gap (P~oblem P. p. 635. a) Prove that the work per unit volume required to produce a final magnetic flux density B j is W.623 What boundary conditions must the scalar magnetic potential Vm satisfy at an interface between two different magnetic media? P. and the angle that B. . and the angle that B. I per unit length must be supplied to overcome this induced voltage in order to Increase the current to I.625 The method o images can also be applied to certain magnetostatic problems. = a. find B. find a) the reluctances of the air gap and of the iron core. and H in the air gap. Assuming the core to have a constant crosssectional area of (m2) and a relative permeability of 5000: a) Determ~ne magnctlc llux in cach leg. makes with the interface.
I . .629 Determine the inductance between a very long straight wire and a conducting equilateral triangular ~ o d bas shown . V density . Power to 111 I'. "P.628 Calculate the int$tnal and external inductances per unit length o f a twowire transmission line consisting of two lohg parallel conducting wires of radius n that carry currents in opposite directions.. 6 ~ 1 turns .627 Refer to ~ x a r n & 613. ii) the magnet~dfieldbelow the boundary plane is calculated from I and . and these cuhents ~ i r c equidistant from the interface and situated in alr. < b) F o r a long m d b c t o r carrying a current I ahd for p? >> 1. Dctcrminc lhc inductmcc pcr unit icngtii of tile sir coaxial transmission line anumibg that its outer conqu&r is dot very thin but is of a thickness d. both at the same lodtion! These currents a r i sitbated in an infinite magneuc material of relative perx&bility p.I. 637 A long straight.629).. 636 A currentcarrying conductor near a ferromagnetlc medium (Problem P 625). which is much larger than a. P. 636.wire and a conducting equilateral triahgular loop (Pr'oblem P. nterface ~terfx. Fig. . media.626 Dctcrmme the 811inductance of a toroidrl coil of N turns of wlrc wound on an ilr frame with mcan radius 'roand a circular cross section of radius b Obtain an rpproxlmate expression assuming b << r. The wires are separated by an axistohis distance d. wlume I of the I P. normal hsider :riace of ! Fig.. determine the magnetic flux density B at thejoint P in Fig.6200) rom L?. I@ d C ' P k Y) t I Ferromagnetic rncd~pm / ' 0 (h21) . ~yllctlc IC licid.
b o ~ w i t h parallel sides.634 The cross section of a long thin metal strip and a parallel wire is shown in Fig. respectively.631 Find the mutual inductance between two coplanar r e c t a n g u l a r .630 Determine the mutual inductance between a very long straight wire and a conducting circulx loop.. 638 A long straight wire and a conducting circular loop (Problem P. that carry currents I .> w 2 > ti). . 640. 639. P. >> h2 (Problem P. 639 Two coplanar rectangular loops. and I .266 STATIC MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 6 Fig. .. each carrying a current of 25 (A) in the same direction. Fig. P. a) Using Eq.633 Calculate the force per unit length on each of three equidistant. having selfinductances L . Equal and opposite currents I flow in the conductors. as shown in Fig.632 Consider two mupled circuits. . The mutual inductance between the circuits is M.631). Specify the direction of the force. . as shown in Fig. and L. b) Show that M 5 . (6140). G . Assume that 11. ( l ~ . h . / 1 2 that makes the stored magnetic energy W2 a mirimum.is. >> / i . Find the force per unit length on the conductors. \i P. infinitely long parallel wires 0.630). ' P. a. P.15 (m) apart. find the ratio 1 .
PROBLEMS 267 1 1 palkillel strip and wire ' codduct& (Problem P. Detemme the force acting on t h e W . is @aced at the center of a much larger turn:of wire of radius r. calculate the mmf needed to lift a total mass of 100 (kg). I " < . The circular loop carries a current I. ~ i h the force on the crrcular loop that IS exerted d by the magnetic field du& to an upward current I. ) that carries a steady current 1: in the same direction. Assuming the earth's magnetic flux density at the needle to be 0. P. 640. s r . .h on the . . n J I ~ c_. which has permeability n S.635 a rotated about its horlaontal axis b j an angle a. that carrier a steady current I . 641. 641 A long solenoid with iron core pattially drawn (Problem P. find the maximum angle at which the bar magnetecan cause the needle to dcuiatc from the northsouth direction How should the bar magnet be oriented? P. A srnilil bar magnet (a magnetic dipole) with s magnetic moment I (A. ~. I ' 4 .639 The total mean length of the llux path in iron for the electromagnet in Fig.01 (m2).638 A magnetized coinpass needle will line up with the earth's magnetis licld.64).1 (mT).m2) is placed st a disrmce 0.640 A current I flowd in a long solenoid with 11 closeiy wound collturns per unlt length. The angle between the normals of the two circuits is 0 and the small circular wire is free to turn about its diameter. P.635 Refer to robl lei 630 and Fig. 638.634). " . ig. in th~'counterc1ockwisedirection. "636 Assuming the circulal loop in Problem P. in the long straight wire. i t is withdrawn to the pos~tion shown in Fig.637 A small circular !urn of wire of radius i . Determine the rni~gnitude anci the ~iirnc~ioli ihc torquc of ( 1 1 1 I ~ I CSIT~:III sirct~I:~r wire. pF' p.a x Fig. find the torque exerted on the circular :oop. . Assuming the permeability of iron to be 40%0 and each of the air gaps to be 2 (mm).. \/ P. . The crosssectional area of its iron core. currents :gy W.15 (m) from the center of a cornp& needle. . (r. 627 is 3 (m) and the yokebar contaci areas measure 0.
We observe that. Vxll=J.elated to B and H in the magnetostatic model. B. and a magnetic field intensity vector. static electric and magnetic fields may both exist and form an electromagnetostaric$eld (see the statement following Example 53 on p. However. in the static (nontimevarying) case. gives rise to a static magnetic field. 71 INTRODUCTION In constructing the electrostatic model. C . in turn.~t ions arc . E and D in the electrostatic model are not . E. (6 68) The constitutive relation for B and H in linear and isotropic media is . . . ( 397) For the magnetostatic model. we defined a magnetic flux density vector. These fundamental relations are summarized in Table 71. A static electric field in a conducting medium causes a steady current to flow that. . H. The fundamental governing differential equations are V. In other words. E and D are related by the constitutive relation D =EE. 187). governing dilrcrcntial cclu. and an electric flux density (electric displacement) vector. . the electric field can be completely determined from the static electric charges or potential distributions.B=O (66) . For linear and isotropic (not necessarily homogeneous) media. In a conducting medium. electric field vectors E and D and magnetic field vectors B and H form separate and independent pairs.7 / TimeVarying Fieids and Maxwell's Equations . we defined an electric .
. The governing e q ~ ~ a t i o n s electrostatics and magnetostatics are special for forms of Maxwell's equations when all quantities are independent of time. '72 FARADAY'S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION \ xsw d I n .Table 71 hndamental Relations for J$ectr~~tatic and Governing equations ~onstitudve Relations (linear a(d isotropic media) * 1 v ~ t ) = ~ VxH=J c related (397) r. :urrent to : fieldxan ' ributions. discovered expetimeil.tally that a current was induced in a conducting loop when the magnetic flux linking the loop changed.+ The quantitative relationship ' There is evidence that Joseph Henry independently made similar discoveries about the same time. it docs not enter into the calculation of the electric field. and :quatiom The magnctic field is:a cmscqucnce. A major advancein electromagnetic theory was made by Michael Faraday who.l . The concepts c.To explain clcctromagnctic phenomena ~ ~ n d c r conditions. B. Wc will begin witti a r~~ntlan~cnlal postulate that modifics ~ h V x E cquation in c Table 71 and leads to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.'. The two modified curl equatiohs together with the two divergence equations in Table 71 are known as Maxwell's equations and form the foundation of electromagnetic theory. . especikilly for timeharmonic fields.inging mlignctic licld gives rise to an dcctric timevarying licld.f transformer emf and rflotional emf will be discussed. \. . In this chuptcr wc will skc that :I ch. will be discussed in this chapter. The solutions of the wave equations. r magnPt+ < nay L. and vice versa. it is necessary loconstruct an electromagnetic model in which the electric field vectors E :ind 6 arc properly related to the magnetic field vectors B and 'H. in 1831. Maxwell's equations can be conibined to yield wave equlitions that predict the existence of electromagnetic waves propagating wit11 the velocity of light. The two pairs cf the governing equations in Table 71 must thcreforc bc modificd to show a mutual depeqence between the electric and magnetic field vectors in the timevarying case. mple 53 '. With the new postulate we will also need to modify the V x H equatiop in order to make the governing equations consistent with the eqitation of contindty (law uf conservation of charge).
270 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND. Eqs. Fondnmmtal Postulate for Elrctramngnctic Induction Equation (72) is valid for any surface S *it11 a bounding contour C. (35) and (38) for electrostatics. and a moving circuit in a timevarying magnetic field. For a stationary circuit with a contour C and surface S. (V). However. is known as Faraday's law. to Eqs. (74) . in a field with no time variation. Eq. (71) and (72) reduce. In the following subsections we discuss separately the cases of a stationary circuit in a timevarying magnetic field. we follow our approach in Chapter 3 for electrostatics and in Chaptcr 6 for magnetostatics by putting forth the following fundamental postulate and developing from it the integral forms of Faraday's law. we do not take the experimental relation concerning a finite loop as the starting point for dcvcloping the theory of clcctromagnctic induction. Of course. dB/ir = 0.MAXWELLgSEQUATIONS 1 7 between the induced emf and the rate of change of flux linkage. Instead. (72) can be written as If we define YT = $c E d' = emf induced in iircuit with contour C l r . based on experimental observation.) . 72. a moving conductor in a static magnetic field. respectively. It is an experimental law and can be considered as a postulate.1 A Stationary Circuit in a TirneVarying Magnetic Field . whclhcr or not a physical circuit exists around C.
.ignetic llux i~iduces electric licld according to Eq.i 1 $ ds = magnetic flux :rooding surface S ( W b ) . ~ ~ .o cos ot .sThe negallve sign in Eq.!." I . v o t ~ o ~ ac y o ~ circuil rl d q i ~ l d t h t1~q(i/i1w ~ ( I /o~IICIYYI. and 8= 1 .fwce induced in u . y c~rcuit ield. Y The magnetic flux iinking each turn of the circular loop is Solution: = Jfib [a. (V). . ( . 71 B. Exrmplc 71 A circular loop of N turns of cuhduming wire lies in the xyplane with its center at the origin ofa magnetic field specified by B = a. and we obtain 1 .271r d r ) . ~ t c n i c ~oI' I : w d t / y ' \ I w o / ' c l o c / r o ~ t i o q ~ ~ie r ~ c r / ~ o ~ tiolcr. % Equation (76) states +at r11e electromotiue. cos 26 sin w t 711' . Find the emf induced in the loop. not i& = ostatics. cos (nrl2bJsin w t . circ [ l i t . .: Since there are N turns. even in the abbence of r a11 physical closed circuit. The induced emf is seen to be ninety degrees out of time phase with the magnetic flux. (73). where b is the radius ofthe loop and o is the angqlar frequency. (73) becomg i: .~lc of ch'inge ol lt tld~ A i. hence Eq. (76) is an assertion that the induced emf will cause a turrent to flow in the closed loop in such a direction as to oppose the change in the linking magnetic flux. a \ l . .I)Bo sin or. (75) then Eq. .:thc total flux linkage is NQ. TIUS o r /I11 ~ I C .Wof 111vI M I ~ ~ I V ~ K /CI I / .B.k 1 . This assertion is known as Lm?s lair. (72) :r o./ / I ( . (1.B. (76) can be used directly to find the induced emf. and The problem specifies a stationary loop in a timevarying magnetic field. = ?f n (i I . m. The emf induced in a stationary loop caused by a timevarying magnetic field is a tronsjormer is ' emf.
IIIO . l ~ ~ c l itcnclicd vcry ropiclly. Neglect also the mqchanical friction at the contact points. 72. 71. Obviously only the part of the circuit that moves in a direction not parallel to (and hence. =J: (U x B ) . the ncl rorcc on tllc kcc cllargcs w is in the moving conductor is zero.\lc' oI'c*(ll~ilil>rill~~l C:ICII is rcachcd. To an observer moving with the conductor. A t ccluilib~. a force F. then the emf generated around the circuit is This is referred to as a fluxcutting emf. (78).Bo with a constant velocity u./q = u x B can be interpreted as an induced electric field acting along the conductor and producing a voltage V2. Neglect the electric resistance of the metal bar and of the conducting rails. 71 A conducting bar moving in a magnetic field. as shown in Fig. This separation of the positive and negative charges creates a Coulombian force of attraction. (b) Assuming that a resistance R is connected between the terminals. (a) Determine the opencircuit voltage Vo that appears across terminals 1 and 2. The chargesepa3tion process continues ~ ~ n l(IIC ~'Ieclric n\. = qu x B will cause the freely movable electrons in the conductor to drift toward one end of the conductor and leave the other end positively charged.I sl. there is no apparent motion and the magnetic force per unit charge F. dt'. find the electric power dissipated in R.iu~n.111cc 01llcr . Example 72 A metal bar slides over a pair of conducting rails in a uniform magnetic field B = a. .~. or a motional emf.272 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 0 0 0 0 0 0? f d + u @ 0 0 @ B @ Fig. (c) Show that this electric power is equal to the mechanical power required to move the sliding bar with a velocity u.2 A Moving Conductor in a Static Magnetic field When a conductor moves with a velocity u in a static (nontimevarying) magnetic ' field B as shown in Fig. (77) If the moving conductor is a part of a closed circuit C.CS il a11d 1~1I. 72. figuratively. "cutting") the magnetic flux will contribute to V' in Eq.lgwlic I~)I.
72 A metal bar sliding over conducting rails (Example 72).B..h on and the ..~rB.= P. the part iguratively.F.ltmp with :l constant ongulilr vclocily (u in a ull~l'urmand constant magnetic lield of flux density B = a.(a. that is parallel to the axis of rotation.ig.u x a . 1 m mn t i c ermine.the I 'a .F . = = J2!(a. which the magnetic field exerts on the currentcarrying metal bar.v2 . Substitut~onof (7'13) in E q . . (713) (N). = V. u ~ . (71 1) proves P.u (w). which i~pholdstlic Eq. so that the electric power. required L move the sliding bar is o ted around P. (6159) we have ily. (712) arises because current I flows in a direction opposite to that of dP.IBoh (N).li R R will flow from terminal 2 to terminal I .. gC (U x Bj 're (V). V. principle of conservation of cncrgy. ).3 current I = icB.= 1 S2t' dP x B = a. = axIBoh= a .... From Eq.. F = . F. P. (78) to find the opencircuit voltage Vo: .n induced (79) b) Wlicn a rcsis~ancc ~i conneclcd between terminals 1 and Z.. We use Eq. Hence. (712) The negative sign in Eq.. F.. P. h ' / ~ E h m p l e 73 The Faroilny disk gerwrntor consists of n circular nietnl disk rot. ~ . 'it) .. dlsslpiited in R is c) The mechanical power. dissipated required to c mctol bar tact points.=F. Brush contacts are provided . (71 1 ) where F is the mechanical force required to counteract the magnetic force. a) The moving bar generates a fluxcutting emf.
(65). Solutiorz: Let us consider the circuit 122'341'1. we must . Eq. 72. at the axis and on the rim of thepdisk. Determine the opencircuit voltage of the generator if the radius of the disk is b.~pprcci:ihlecurrent Ilowr i l l llle circuit lo modify thc cxlcrn. To measure V. (715) To an observer moving with q. Of the part 2'34 that moves with the disk.lac n voltmeter or :I vcry high rcsisl. where . ~ & a v e from Eq. there is no apparent motion. which is the emf of the Faraday disk generator. (78). and the force on q can be interpreted as caused by an electric field E'. us mcasured by a laboratory observer.~nmso tI1i11 n o . as depicted in Fig.~llyt~pplicdn1:tgnclic licltl. the clcctrornugnetic brcc 17 on y. .3 A Moving Circuit in a TimeVarying Magnetic Field When a charge q mdves with a velocity u in a region where both an electric field E and a magnetic field L1 cxist. only the straight portion 34 "cuts" the magnetic flux. 73.274 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 1 I' a 2 Ld Fig. is given by Lorentz's force equation. 73 Faraday disk generator (Example 73). which is repeated below: F = q ( E + u x B).
. 73 A moving circuit timevarying magnetic field.T. B(r + At) .) coniain the second and higher powers of (Ai). Substitution of Eq. when a conducting circuit with contbur C and surface S moves with a velocity u in a field (E. Figure 74 illustrates the situaticn. at limo r + AI in a chilngi~igm. (717) in Eq. (718) :e open Equation (718) is tHe general form of Faraday's law for a moving circuit in a timevarying magnetic fidd.O. . S1 (719) B(r + At) in Eq.J. and distortibn in an arbitrary manner. Thc motion may include trunslaticn. (719) yields !c'iicld E :ed by a repeated on q can Fig. The division of the induced emf between the transformer and the motimal parts depends on the chosen frame of reference.ds+ t sv: (u x B).O.T.ds..ignolic lield U. (720) in Eq. and the second term represents the motional emf due to the motioli of the circuit in B. at time t to C. Let us consider P circuit with contour C that moves from C. ~ ( t )d s .Thc first term o n thd right sidc represents the transformer emf due to the time inriation of B. w e m e Eq.Hence. rotation. (719) can be expanded as a Taylor's series: e a volt2 circuit B(i + At) = B(t) aqt) + A t + H. at where the highorder tkrms (H. B). [7$) to obtain t \ ' 44 il dB $~'?dt'* Ldt.dt' (V). The line integral on tge left side is the emf induced in the moving frame of t'&fbence. The timerate of chatlge of magnetic flux through the contour is .
IIil highimpedance . . Combining Eqs. which can be identified as the negative of the right side of Eq. because outward normals must be used in the divergence theorem.lys eqi~al that computed by using Eq. We have mentioned that the division of the induced emf in Eq. we determined tho opencircuit voltage V. (718)or Eq. ch. ti tlr B . (722) We now apply the divergence theorem for B at time r to the region sketched in Fig. An element of the side surface is d ~ = dP x u At. we obtain  C 0 * 'k = (' c'R . (f.. h. (723)and noting that V B = 0. (727)..~oltmcter insenal in a conducting circuit. (a x R) . to C. In going from C. (76). (. (718).  = Ar$Ju x B)dP. . (78). the circuit coven a region that is bounded by S. if a circuit is not in motion.Of course. 72). to In Example 72 (Fig. (727) he used to evaluate the induced emf in the can general case. (718)can be written simply as which is of the same form as Eq. (718) into trimsformcr and motioo.. (727). B .. but their sum is . f ' reduces to Y 7 Eqs. (72.. (721)and (724). we use Eq. Side surface S3 is the area swept out by the contour in time At. (722)in Eq.we have If . lit. it will is read the opencircuit voltage due to electromagnetic induction whether the circuit is stationary or moving.7) and and (76) exactly the same. and S. Hence. (1s .ll emf's is not stiiqac. Using Eq. we have L.~lw. by using Eq. Either Eq. Faraday's law are that the emf induce? in a closed circuit equals the negative timerate of increase of the magnetic flux linking a circuit applies to a stationary circuit as well as a moving one.S. 74: where a negative sign is included in the term involving ds.s /.276 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS I 7 where B has been written for B(t) for simplicity.  k. If we designate 1 = $ El dP = emf induced in circuit C measured in the moving frame ' c  Eq..
B. (a) Pcrspectivc vicw. .i. b I:ig.72 / F WDAY~S LAW : 1: 6~ ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION . the magnetic Aux disk linking the circuit. 75. ' . as shown in f)g. . and 4 ' ' Example 74 An h by i v rectangular conducting loop is sltuatcd iil . 75 A rcvlllll~ullr o ~ l d a c h y c loop rolnli~lg ill n cliu~lpiag ~ l i i ~ ~ l c ~ i c ~ licld (Example 74).I changing magnetic field B = a.. 1?2'341'1 is that whish passes through the wedgeshaped area 2'342'. it f l :c i r ~ ! c1nf in . . for thd ~ a r d d a ~ generator in Example 73.. The normal of the loop initially n~. Iiind thc induced emf in thc loop: (a) when the loop is at rest. . and (b) when the loop rotates with an angular velocity w about the xaxis. (79). (b) Vicw from +x direction. . orn~nls . Y " ~y's law rease of movmg fin the t. (727) ion. 6 1 and in Fig. I which is the s a k e & h q .ikesan angle 1 w~lh a. ' noting . . I 277 . sin o)r.& I 1 6 I i alwi  ! )y using ' I II . Similarly.
and we can write f/" ' = B. d ~ = (a. (a. Therefore = Bohw sin wt cos a.a. If the circuit is qompleted through an external load. the magnetic Run linking the loop is @(t)= B(t) [a. . . (76). +s:L( .tngulnr frcqucncy 20). and the second term contributes a motional emf r. = J ~ . sin cot)] . . (729): \ . (727) directly.  ' where S = hw is the area of the loop. in Eq. b) When the loop rotates about the xaxis.Bo sin 031 (a. (718) contribute: the first term contributes the transformer emf Y. an w x (a. (728).': where \ I =[ . which has an .(t)S] = B. The relative polarities of the terminals are as indicated.w s) x (a$.in Eq.Bosin wt) (anhw) . then cr = wt.) l( .. and that the contributions of sides 12 and 34 are of equal magnitude and in the same direction.278 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS / 7 Solution a) When the loop is at rest. We can determine the total induced emf Y : by applying Eq. . (728) and V:. dx) . a . At any time t. both terms in Eq.Sw sin wt sin w t .S sin o t cds cr = BoS sin wt cos o t = i B o S sin 2 o t . we use Eq. *Ku produce will a current that will opposc thc changc in (I). . in Eq. (729) The total emf induced or generated in the rotating loop is the sum of f'. If a = 0 at t = 0. dx) Note that the sides 23 and 41 do not contribute to Y .
in$ MIhc11. The mathematical csprcssion of charge conservation is the equation of c o ~ ~ l i r l u i t ISq. J ~OCS 11otv:111i~hill L I ' I ~ I I I C . (' < L 8 e r: : * d@ y F = : dl  ri(. (731a. b. C ) I Jir& . 1 which follows from the null identity. t 33 ! I MAXWELL'S EQUhtONS 279 Hence i . ' 1 . (2137).. = . ( 5 XI). and d) are now consistefit +. c. This assurance has been amply verified b y numerous npcrimcnts. (731 b). BOs . In addition. O 7 I: . The V x E = 0 equation in Table 71 must ' therefore be replacekl by Eq. Following are the revised set of two curl and two divergence equations from Table 71. I . That the Answer is in the negative is immediately obvious by simply taking the divergence of Ed. ~~I ~ 1 (I s ' not How should Eqfi. % I .withthe requirement specified by Eq. (732) in a timevarying situation..V . sin 2wt ..1 i r. butio ions x=Oat (729) of %< in (7 1 The crucial question here is whether the set of four equations in (731a.So cos 2 0 r as before.B.wd vector field 13 zero. Iwlow.~tctl y. true. . c. and d) be modified so that they are consistent with Eq. (733): . ~ngcllcr. I ~S ~ ~\ L I : I 1[i ~. We are reminded that the divergence of lhc cuslof. second 7 The fundamental dbstulate for electromagn~ticinduction assures us that a timevarying magnetic figld gives rise to an electric field. Sincc Eq. a term ap/St must be added to the right side of Eq. . which IS ~'cpc. (71) in the timevarying case.~I.ids are xoduce ~trlbute: . (732)? First of all. we know that the principle of conservation of charge must be satisded at all times. (732) :lsserts V . b. Eq.~ ) i.
are They are known as Maxwell's equations. the two divergence equations. D. Twelve scalar equations are required for the determination of these twelve unknowns. Eqs. The term SD/dt is called displacement e~rrrentdensity. B. These equations can be used to explain and predict all macroscopic electromagnetic phenomena. b.of electromagnetic theory. (737c and d). The required equations are supplied by the two vector curl equations and the two vector constitutive relations D = aE and H = B/p.i\\vcll (18311579). (731) and Lorentr's force equation in Eq. c. Eqs.77). b. can be derived from the two curl equations. by making use of the equation of continuity. These four equations. Eq. (736) consistent with the principle of conservation of charge. As a matter of fact. (732) (see Problem P. form the foundation . c. both of the curl equations in Table 71 muh'be generalized. It is easy to verify that 2 D B t ha's the dimension ofa current density (SI unit: Aim2). they are not all independent. Eqs. . even in the absence of a current flow. and d) are consistent. The additional term aD/& is necessary in order to make Eq. Although the four Maxwell's equations in Eqs. The four fundamental field vectors E. together with the equation of continuity in Eq.ltion of continuity in a timevarying situation. and d). (65). The set of four consistent equations to replace the inconsistent equations. each vector equation being equivalent to three scalar equations. (737a.361 indicates that a timevarying electric field will give rise to a magnetic field. (731a.\ Equation (7. In order to be cotisistent with tlie cqu.H (cach having three components) represent twelve unknowns. (737a and b). and its introductibn in the V x H equation was one of the major contributions of James Clerk M.
.Integral Form o ~ .. (737a) and ( 7 ~ 3 7 bover an open surface'! with a contour C and apply Stokes's ) theorem to obtaiti I 'i : iI 1 1 f ... . c and d) are the integral form of Ma~well's t liq. . The volume n ihtegral ofAp eqvals the total charge Q that is enclosed in surface S. . 2 ~. each i .venient to convert the differential forms into their integralform equivalents. I: j The four Maxwell's bq~a'lionsin (737a b. 3. canduction current . 8  73. .' . I . .h space. 7). The s the:c~rrentI flowing through the open surface S. i. (738a) is the same as Eq. *.an electric field in a conducting medium.are valid at ever$ $oint. a n b e recognized as Gauss's law. which we used extensively icli remains the same i the timevarying case. which is an expression ctrarnrignetic induction.. . I . the latter applying only to static magnetic urrent density J may consist of a convection current density of .and d) are differential equations that . i) I I I . . and E. we must deal with dhite objects of specified shapes and boundaries. Equation (738b) is a generalization law given in Eq. . (6701.i 7 . . (72). we conclude that there are no isdlatrd magnetic charges and that the total outward magnetic ..a . It is bo . ~ ~ x w e Equations. .I ireccharge distribution. .iti~P i f . . lgnetic xssary large. In explain/ng electromagnetic phenomena in a physical environm t.• s at ds (738a) 11 . ' . '. 1/m2). We ta e the! sdrface integral of both sides of the curl equations in Eqs. 7. ll's .+.1 ' .. sistent. ~f these or curl u. incdmparlng it with Eq. . . . . and u).. but. *. d. ' 8 i' . . . No particular h w is associated with EQ (738d).' ?rese.dP*. ? (736) . (737c) and (737d) over a ~ o l u m k with a closed surface S and using divergence theorem. b. . . c. as well .. in the dxwell L . !sed to ! . The 73' I Taking the volume ihtegdl of both sides'of the divergence equations in Eqs. / O& in The set of ! L equat~ons (738a.. i I . t h presence of. " " "I. . . . . . v we have 7374 737b) 737c) 7 37d) ~th the (65). . (738c). ' 3 and .
.. plate sepmtion d. . (b) Detcrminc the magnetic licld intensity at il distancc r from the wire.. Both the differential and the integral forms of Maxwell's equations are collected in Table 72 for easy reference. .fl Significance Faraday's law.ds Amfirs's circuital law Gauss's law.+ r.L=o No isolated magnetic charge. as shown in Fig. andangular frequency w. " > 2 : : 282 rh TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELCS EQUATIONS / 7 Table 72 Maxwell's Equations Differential Fonn Integral Form :. 6 flux through any closed surface is zero..'. (a) Verify that the displaccmcnt current in t l ~ c capacitor is the same us thc conduction current in thc wires. For a parallelplate capacitor with an area A."   i . _. U = V. the capacitance is  4( Fig. is connected across a parallelplate capacitor C. . 76 A parallelplate capacitor connected to an AC voltage source (Example 75). Solution a ) The conduction current in the connecting wire is i c = c l 3 = 1v0 a cos at c dt 0 (A). ? ' > . V. 6 dD .""'.B=o '$B.. sin wt. and a dielectric medium of permittivity e. 76. VXE= dB at dt f C dD VD=p H de = I + . Example 75 An AC voltage source of amplitude V.
whence ' The displacemeht cupent is then t I = C.J . c nly the first term on the right side of Eq. 1 a%. 1 forms I acy o. The inclusion of the displgcerhent current term by Maxwell eliminates this contradiction.= k1vow cos wt. )asses through the dielectric medium.Vow cOs wt = i . D = 0. / POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS 283 . . iD = i. :. we find ! Section 63 the concept of the vector magnetic potential A was introduced because n of the solenoidal nature of B (V B = 0): . As we have showti in ]]art (a). (738b) is nonzero because no chiUges ire deposited along the wire and. Eq. j. or sdkfacc S. 7 luctioil r from b) The magnetic fleld ntensity at a distanck r from the conductin. This would rdsult in a contradiction. no conduction current 8.. .dr = ic.D. If the second surface idtegral were not there. consequently. :.E.1 ' 74 . ' electric Since the surface S.i (2) . . npidating betweenthe plates. the right side of ohld 11ezero. Symmetry arouhd tl e wire ensures a constant Hd along the contour C The iine integral on the feft s de of Eq.i I> . 76 Two t/pical open surfaces Vith rim C may be chosen: (1) a planar diak surfacc S.0 wire can be found by applyi!lg the generalized Amp~re'scircuitallaw.I .( Ic .t curved surface S2 $assing through the diclectrlc medlum. 1 . ig. is chosen. Equating the two previous integrals.to contocr C in Fig. ' <. the uniform electric field intensity E in the dielectfic is dqual to (neglecting fringing effects) E = vJd. .. . Hence we obtain the same result whether surface S . (738b) is For the surface S . Q. . I !I . ' t With a vdltage 0. (73Sb).
(742) and (743) in Eqs. and V and A as given were. We are tempted to find V from p by Eq. (7I). E and B are coupled. is due to timevarying current J.2. aA/dt = 0.V V . (338) for electrostatics. Eq. we write ( I from which we obtain In the static case. it can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar. whcn'thc sourcc frequency is high and thc range . These solutions may themselves be timedependent because p and J may be functions of time.s ' 1' If Eq. L ( However. To be consistent with the definition of the scalar electric potential Vin Eq. Quasistatic fields are approximations. The electric field in Eq. When p and J vary slowly with time (at a very low frequency) and the range of interest R is small compared with the wavelength. (740) is cur!free. and the second part. in fact. However. from A by Eq. We will discuss this again in subsettion 77. (622) '. dA/dt. (741) can be viewed as composed of two parts: the first part. Inasmuch as B also dcpcnds on A. (739) is substituted in the differential form of faradiY9s law. and Eq. Hence E can be determined from V alonc. is due to charge distribution p. solutions of Poisson's equations. we get ' Since the sum of the two vector quantities in the parentheses of Eq. (741) reduces to E = .V V . it is allowable to use Eqs. and B. E depends on both V and A. . but they neglect the timeretardation effects associated with the finite velocity of propagation of timevarying electromagnetic fields. the preceding two equations were obtained under static conditions.284 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIC$S 1 7 b c . For timevarying fields. (356) and to find A by Eq. (46) and (620) respectively. . (739) and (741) to find quasistatic fields. Their consideration leads from field theory to circuit theory. (739). Eqs.
(737c). I' "TENTIAL FUNCTIONS 285 : > .4 pi= uJ 3tZ +V (745) .&. so we obtain I 4 (743) Ins.7'8). equations is discusseti. the definition of .1 LIIL ~ o1. 30). we can write Eq. (745) vanish. We have where a homogeneous riediutn has been'assumed. (616a). Recalling the vector identity for V x V x A in Eq. h c first tluc to Now. Tirherethrdation effects mtilt then be included. m d j (630) I and J ICd "P ' is sm*ll in !l subsec (* Equation (747) is the l~o~~/w~noyolcous. (739) and (741) into Eq. Iicld\. The Lorentz condition can be shown to be consistent with the equation of continuity (Problem P. A I ~ I I O L I ~w1. The relation between A and V in Eq.74 1 : * b. A = O in (or Eq. It IS wve called a wave equatim bxause its solutions represent waves traveling with a velocity This will become clear in Section 76 when the solution of wave equal to I/. ~ ~ cin ECI.V'A = pJ 0r V d2A (7fl i12A V2. (344) as V(V A) .A is d ~ s i g 1 1 . as in the case of electromagnetic radiation from antenn&. 11 . be get ' ' (740) &free. w u arc slill :I[ libcrly U d (7 to chnose the divergence of A. It reduces to the condition V . quasistatic solutions will not suffice. (741) in Eq. pot~rlridA. (746) is called the Lorcnt: corditior~ Lora~tzgalye) for potentiat.!~hesepoints will be discussed more fully i ' when we study soldions to wave equations.. (6l9)+x$atic fields. C~uplcd.L vcctor rcquircs the specification of both its curl and its tlivcrycncc. We have I field m le range . A correspondini wave equation for the scalar potential V can be obtained by substituting Eq. ition of of interest is no longer small in comparison to the wavelength. Let us substitute Eqs. We let (742) which makes the se'konc~ term on the right side of Eq.eyrrutiorl for vector. (737b) and make use of the constitutive relations H = B/p and D = EE.
and H must satisfy at the interfaces. and the application of the integral form of a divergence equation to a shallow pillbox at an interface with top and bottom faces in the two contiguous media gives the boundary condition for the normal components. and d) to a small region at an interface of two media in manners similar to those used in obtaining the boundary conditions for static electric and magnetic fields. Since the potential functions given in Eqs. (742) and (743) are solutions of Poisson's equations. :' . B. D.L l . (31 10) for static electric fields and Eq. for a constant e. In general. . The nonhomogeneous wave equations in (747) and (749) reduce to Poisson's eqcations in static cases. The integral equations are assumed to hold for regions containing discontinuous media. respectively. we get which is the nonhomogeneous wave equatiun for scalar potential V . (738a) and (738b) respectively: * )uCC ). the application of the integral form of a curl equation to a flat closed path at a boundary with top and bottom sides in the two touching media yields the boundary condition for the tangential components. The boundary conditions for the tangential components of E and H are obtained from Eqs.which. they cannot:be expected to be the solutions of nonhomo. Eq.< r ! We note that Eqs. c. 75 ELECTROMAGNETIC BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 1 In order to solve electromagnetic problems involving contiguous regions of different constitutive parameters. (699) for static magnetic fields in spite of the existence of the timeVarying terms in Eqs. E I (748) Using Eq. (738a) and (738b). (750a) and (750b) for the timevarying case are exactly the same as. it is necessary to know the boundary conditions that the field vectors E. leads to d V2V+(V' at A) = P .aeneous wave equations in timevarying iituations without modification. (746). The reader should review the procedures followed in Sections 39 and 610. b. Boundary conditions are derived by applying the integral form of Maxwell's equations (738a.
xisi. .important special cases of (1) a boundary between two lossless l i n e ~ r . As we have noted previoikly.tr( [IX)IN cq c. = 0 and J. (750% b.race.~ry i n Eqs. . . I I ~( 7 50d).fi I'i ' h The reason is that: intlettiq the height oflt6e flQt closed path (obcda in Figs. P385) and (738d). btained These are the same a$. boundry conrm of a m faces  )orients. As a matter of fact.sc~ontit~rlo~i. . cant101 be iti~1cpc11~1~ti1 ~IIOSC in Lqs. and the boundary condition for the tangential component ot'H in Eq. wl~icl~ ~ ? l w i ~ ~ c d tl~cd i v e ~ ~ g c ~ ~ u c~ t i o ~ ~ s . if we are not careful. (750b) is ekluivalent to that of D in Eq.which arc obtained I'rotn from the curl equatibns. the a~nount' disconti~~uitye i y detcrtnineti by E y .and. ( 3 ) The noimal component of a D jield is discontinuous across an inrcrjiuce where u surfucc dlurqe c.a boundary surface in a . (750a) is equivalent to that for ~ the normal compodent of B in Eq. .timevarying situation. the b&ndary conditions fot the normal components of D and B are " obtained from EqS. 322 and 617) approach zerd. and (2) a boundary between a good dielectric and a good conductor. (749) homo1 static Ions of 3ncous .5 0 ~ )and (4) The normal component of a B jieltl is continuous across nn inrefice. (750d). would be redundant. I . (750a) :m1 (7 job).s.s where u surface current e&s. A lossiess linear medium can be specified by ti permittivity E and a permeability p. Linear Media he same riagnetic (738b). the:area bounded by the path approaches zero. ( 7 .ill\ are I(! dl to b~h(s~i~l ntcgr:il 13. . The ~cneral. in the timevarying case the boundary condition for the tangential component o f l in Eq. The simultaneous s$ecific'ation of the tangential component of E and the normal component of B at. with a = 0.. Eq. .. tllc h o t ~ ~ i ~ Iconditions . medk.!lions can bc dcrivcd from the Lwo curl cqualions find Lllc crl\li~~ioti oScotili!l~rily:IICIICC. 75. ( 2 ) Thc ~ungcnliulcunzponcnl c an H Jielzl is di. . (751)~).. could result in contradictions. causing the t surface integrals of a k p t i n d a ~ / a to vanish' Similarly. c. (3l'l3qj for static electric fields and Eq. and d) and obtain the boundary conditions listed in 'Table 73. Eq. I u t the . We now examine the. (7 5 0 4 . re: p6ctively. I ' i!ferc . ' C . v e set p. = 0 in Eqs. There are usually no free charges and no surface currents at the interface between two lossless media. the umount oj' tliscontinuity hcing dctotn~tledhj. (695) for static magnetic %Ads Gecause we start from the same divergence equations. .1 Interface'twtween t w o ~ Q s s ~ e s s. the two divcrgcllcc equ. We can make thk follawing general (Gtements about electromagnetic boundary conditions: (1) Tltc iarig~~&iconlporlent of an E jeld is continuoris across nn interf ucross t r n intc'I' Lice f . for example. of b (7506).
good conductors are often considered perfect conductors in regard to boundary conditions. Hence. The A pcrl'cct i I 1 1 i i ! I If I 1 .288 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 Table 73 Boundary Conditions between Two Lossless Media 1 (751a) I i 75.. . E and D within a good condudtor may be zero.2 Interface between a Dielectric and a Perfect Conductor C O I I I ~ I I C ~ O S o t i c with a11 i ~ l l i l i i l cL'OII~IIC~~V~L~. In order to simplify the analytical solution of field problems.M 2 = 0. In medium 2. an'szluminium. H) through Maxwell's equations ensures that B and H are also zero in the interior of a conductor in a timevarying sit~ation. The interrelationship between (E..~ Consider an interface between a lossless dielectric (medium I) and a perfect conductor (medium 2). In the interior of a perfect conductor. E 2 = 0. and any charges the conductor will have will reside on the surface only. = 0 R. D2 = 0. copper. a steady current In a conductor produces a static magnetic field that does not affect the electric field. = 0 E2. = 0 ' In the static case. = 0 (752a) (752~) (752d) t \ an2 ' D I = P s B. and B. D) and (B. = 0.. l i Tablc 74 Boundary Conditions between a Dielectric (Medium I) and a Perfect Conductor (Medium 2) (TimeVarying Case) On the Side of Medium 1 On the Side of iMedlurn 2 El. llle physical world we is 111 only have "good" conductors such as silver. the electric field is zero (otherwise it would produce an infinite current density). but B and H may not be zero. gold.= 0 D.
The where H. it is important to note that the reference unit nokmdl is ail outward normal /ram m d i u m 2 in order to avoid an error in sign. x = a. Assumiqg the inner walls of the waveguide are perfectly conductin& determine for the four inner walls of the waveguide (a) the surface charge densities m d (b) the surface current densities. and surface current densities defined for currents flohing through an infinitesimal thickness is zero.and a.and ('I52c).. I Solution: Figure 777 sliows a cross section of the waveguide.... + a. w. 1 C I Exan~ple 76 The k arid H field of a certain propagating mode (TE.H. sin II a a IIX (7534 orW3 . and y = b. i infinite \urface jumons . (752a) (752b) (7P. Fig.L aryirtg .j o p .H. a. When \ujapply Eqs... c.general boundary ctmditibns in Eqs.. p. Eq. a. (752b).H.n oruer cn iOr 0 1 . The four inner walls are specified by x = 0. The outward normals to these walls (medium 2) are.. = . ely. currents in media with finite conductivities are expressed in tenhs orvolume current denjities..4 ) I  2s L not affect be zero. In this case.d a per= 0.and /3 are constants.) in a cross section of an a by b riectallgular waveguide are k = a.E. (750. y = 0. (752b) leads to thq condition that the tAngCntia1 component of H is continuous across an interface $th a conductor having a finite conductivity. b.c) (7. respkcti~ a. .. where E. 1 . As mentionM in Section 610. 77 x Cross section of a rectangular waveguide (Example 76). and d) reduce to those listed in Table 74. and H = a. .
. 76 WAVE EQUATIONS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS Eq by of wi' soi  Eq 11.r. a) Surface charge densitiesUse ps(x = 0) = a. @tt l . sin n ( I In this section we have discussed the relations that field vcctors must satisfy at an interface between different media. a nx E.H . sin n a = a. Their solutions will contain integration constants that are determined from the additional information supplic$ by boundary conditions so that each solution will be unique for each given problem. sin a n a nx iI I 76. Boundary conditions are of basic importance in the solution of electromagnetic problems because general solutions of Maxwell's equations carry little meaning until they are adapted to physical problems each with a given region and associated boundary conditions. = .Eq.E = 0 mr thc PAY = 0) = a). sin 71 a = .r o E y =j o p o .H . tY .aye = E.H..1 Sol L\'< for dc an( = ps(y = 0).H. Thcir solutions provide the answers to all electromagnetic problems.290 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELYA'EQUATIONS 1 7 Eq. Maxwell's equations are partial differential equations.j o p r . cos a nx a nx + a z j p . albeit in some cases the solutions are difficult to obtain.H . cos . (752c): .E PAY = b) = . . ! I for Potenti b) Surface current densities Use.a. At this point we are in possession of the essentials of the fundamental structure of electromagnetic theory. j p a * nx n 7.E. (752b): Po of 1' = a.H.. . Maxwell's equations give a complete description of the " ' relation betwcen elcctromagnctic fields and chsrgs and curmnt distributions. Special 'analytical and numerical techniques .
7 dt We introduce a new variaole I V ( R . f )n of the Ins.= 0.t ) = . 291 t may be devised to aid in the solution proceduie. a characteristic of the medium. locticd at tbc origin ol' tile coordinates and lhen by summing the elkcts of all 111e charge elements in a given region. i . we finf solve the nonhomogeneous wave equations. it is most convenient tb use spherical coordinates. Eq. Hence w have a2u  / l E  z2u = 0.. the hnction retains its form if At = AR& = AR/u. \. ..As we 1. d2V . (749. . Their m e cases :cliniques + Arj = f [r + At . It can be verified by direct substitution (see Problem P. / ' Wc now 'cokidci the'kol~hionof the nonbom&encous wave cqu:ltion. Eqs. for potentials A and V. R which convcrts Eq. Because of spherical symmetry. V depends only on R and t (not on 6' or 9). E dild Bacan be found ffbml.. For given charge $nd current and J. L ' I 76.kespectively. where u = 1/& is the velocity o propagation.~fi) or of (t + R is a solution of~Eq. (756)..z) + A Equation (757) represents a wavestraveling m the positive R direction w t h a veloclty 1/42. Except at the origin. p ( / ) Ad. V satisfies the following homogeneous equation: (. we get f . For a point charge at tfie origin. 4 t .!7.LlE .715) that any twicedifferentiable function of (1 . Eqs. the U(R + AR.U(R. With A and V determined. Later in this section we will see that 3 f ~ n ~ t i d n l t R&) does not correspond to a physically useful oi : .2?\ 1 d R2 iiR dR) . (741) and (739) by differentiation. for ~cilliirelectric potenti. Thus. uctur.* ) I WAVE EQUAT~ONS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS 1. solution. clcmental point oliarpc ili timc i . but they do not add to or refine the fundamental structure. (755).Function at R + AR at a later time i + At is see. I I : .t).1 Solution of Wave ~ ~ d t i o n s for Potentials I: . . Such is the importanbe of Maxwell's equations.. From Eq. Wc can do thisby first finding the solution for an .~l V. (754) to satisfy at portance laxwell's :ach with :e partial that are ltions so dR2 2 z Equation (756) is a oned~mensional homogeneous wave equation.( R + AR)&] = jlr ~ ~ 1 % ) .
therefore. I f I 6 f Equation (760) indicates that the scalar potential at a distance R from the source at time 1 dcpe~ids tlle vdue of the c l l q e dcllsity at an scs. we note that for a I Comparison of Eqs. (758) and (759) enables us to identify p(t . retarded in time.0 ) i d c i l l/ I I . I t is IIOLV clcal. r) in Ell.To determine what the specific function f(t static point charge p ( t ) Av' at the origin. It takes time for electromagnetic waves to travel and for the effects of timevarying charges and currents to be felt . Illat a function of ( t + R/u) cannot be a physically useful solution. (749) for V. The vector equation.'(R. (747). given by I . The retarded vector potential. for vector magnetic potential A can proceed in exactly the same way as that for V. since it would lead to the impossible situation that the effect of p would be felt at a distant point before it occurs at the source.ltcs.2 SourceFree Wave Equations i t n 717 I In problems of wave propagation we are concerned with the behavior of an electromagnetic wave in a sourcefree region where p and J are both zero. . It on takes lime R ~for the ellect of p to be fclt at dist~~nce I R:. This assumption is implicit in dealing with circuit problcms. 1 j I 1 I . each similar to Eq. iwtropic. we are often interested not so much in how an electromagnetic wave is originated. The electric and magnetic fields derived from A and V by differentiation will obviously also be functionspf (t .Rlu) and. Eq. l ~ in thow il propag. (747).Rle). Eq.c(li~lcar. thus.is. : / I i i i 76./icr tilne (i .R/u) must be. In the quasistatic approximation.at distant points. this rcnson I.. In other words. The solution of the nonhomogeneous wave equation.R/u) = .Fw.! i. can be decomposed into three scalar equations. we ignore this timeretardation effect and assume instant response. Ifllic wave is iu a sinlpi.Rlu) Au' 4nc The potential due to a charge distribution over a volume V' is then A f (t . il~ld homogeneous) . ( 7 .
c.r j in ctlc' f Now V x V x E = V V ( . In engineering. we take the curl of Eq. c.11~ c ~ .dimensional. Maxwell's equations ( 7 . logeneous) Maxwell's equations and . They can bd combined to give 3 secondorder equation in E alone. 77 I TIMEHARMONIC FIELDS :in clcctroIlcr words. b.s represent whves. or!gmated. (764) and (765) can each be ih decomposed into three on. .E) . homogeneous. b.aka time arges and we Ignore is i m R t Equations (764) and (754) \ire homogeneous vector w a w equatrons. Each component of E arid of H wdl satisfy an equation exactly like Eq. iic hi^^ ipo\slole 1 5 . (762a) and use Eq. and d) are firstorder diffetcntlal equations in the two vnr~ables E and H. sinusoidal time functions occupy a unique position. (762b): :'.V'E = V2E because of Eq.60) Equations (762a.i)llrLC li. since u = I/& )r IK vcCtOr ~ector h slmllar In an entirely similar way we also obtain an equation in H: I (761) . scalar wave equatlons.ltion wdl . c ~ l aclu:d type of time functions that the field quantities assume depends on the source functions p and J.. .d a p e ~ ~ d'1. We C X ~ see t h a ~ Cartesian coordinatcs Eqs. r .~tionodcsivedfrom thum so far in this chapter hold h clwlso~aignclic r qu.lo . . whose so1ut1p.mlilics with . (762c).trbi[r:~ry ~ ~ n r u .it the or. Hence. nonconducting rnedidL cihracterized by (737a. We will extensively discuss wave behavior in varlous envirpnmerm in.fY (it. To do this.III the eqo.the next two chapters. and d) reduce to: (759) ' and p (0 = 01. (756).
w is the angular frequency (rad/s)c:. electrodynamic fields can be determined in terms of those caused by the various Trequency cuniponcnts of the source functions. then to stick to that decision throughout a problem. In this section wc examine timehurrnor~ic (stcadystate sinusoidal) * field relationships. sinusoidal time variations of source functions of a given frequency will produce sinusoidal variations of E and H with the same frequency in the steady state. Conceptually it is simpler to discuss a scalar phasor. The Use of Phasors . is always equal to 2nf. and cb is the phase referred to the cosine function.Thus it is important to decide at the outset whether our rcfcrence is a cosine or a sine function. (767) yields (cot . Analysis of Linear Systems. f being the frequency in hertz. where I is the amplitude. (766) as a sine function if we wish: i(t) = I sin (wt + 47. For example. of For timeharmonic fields it is condenient to use a phasor notation. Cheng. The application of the principle of superposition will give us the total fields. and phase. the loop equati6n for a series RLC circuit with an applied voltage e(t) = E cos wt is: If we write i(t) as in Eq. Chapter 5. (766) i(t) = I cos (wt + 4). The specification of a sinusoidal quantity requires the knowledge of three parameters: amplitude. Eq. AddisonWesley Publishing Company. To work directly with an instantaneous expression such as the cosine function is inconvenient when differentiations or integrations:of i(t) are involved because they lead to both sine (firstorder differentiation or integsktion) and cosine (secondorder differentiation or integration) functions and bccausc it is tedious to combine sine and cosine functions. (766). The instantaneous (timedependent) expression of a sinusoidal scalar quantity. For source functions with an arbitrary time dependence. arbitrary periodic time functions can be expanded into Fourier series of harmonic sinusoidal components. For instknce. can be written as either a cosine or a sine function. If we choose a cosine function as the rrfel+rizce(which is usua1l:v'dictated by the functional form of the cxcitntion). At this timc we digress briefly to review the use of phasors. frequency. with 4' = 4 + 7112. thcn all derived results will rcfer to the cosine function. sin (wt + 4) = E l wc 1 (768) Exa Az : ' D. and transient nonperiodic functions can be expressed as Fourier integralst Since Maxwell's equations are linear differential equatibns. K. 1959 . We could write i(t) in Eq. + 4) + R cos (wt + 4)+ cos wt .A Review ar:.294 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 They are easy to generate. such as a current i.
sin (or 0.. 7. . by eJ". ~ h i ~ ~ l e?his is the essence of the usefulness of phasors ir.').?' ndcd into odic funcare lineur given fre11cy in the odynamic mponcnts will give inusoidal) :' Complicated mathe~dticalimanipulation~ iequired in order to determine the . 1 I . . 7 . 4 ' 77 I TIMEHARMONIC FIELDS r ~ i . llllle are (scalar) phasors that contain amplitude and phase information but am independent of r.=E. the instantaneous current response i(t) can be found from Eq. If' the applied voltage had been given as a sine ]u~~rtion as e ( t ) = E sln ojr. . t .i " f 4 1. after the substitution dnd . d l .I/ Substitution of Eqs. and (2) taking the real part of the product. 1959. (767) i d." In Eqs. + . complex phasors represent The the magnitudes and the phase shifts of the quantities in the solution of timeharmonic problems. (770) where we dlsciuss a da1 scaldr l l L l l r p If [!LC IL. It is much sim$ef. * i rncnns ' U c .s i i i c r t k . (. the analysis O i linear ~ y s i c n ~ s timeharmonic excitations. Now. After I. (769: through (7 7%) in Bq.' unknown I and 4.4 sin wr us first (a) A .. (766) & C . .eJWL) . can bc solvcd clslly. . f: .I i(t) = 9 [(IeJ@)eju'] & = We(I. (7770) by (1) multiplying I. (769) +I C i. in Bq. + (I. (767) yields . Kln. :i I . Detenhina A . (771a) with zero phase angle is the reference phasor.ho u& exponential fGnctidns by writing the applied voltage as ' ii i ' e(t) = E cos wt = &[(EejO)yjw] \ = %(E. '767) (763) from which the current ph.).As: 17 66) qu2I to ril~l~lloll.cal &rt of.$re It 1' ..IC . and then (b) A . I run!. Note that thc timedcpendcnt factor eJ'"'disappears from Eq.ejO'). ui!h has beer.. determined.. .rsor I. . q y the idstantaneous expressions would be obtained by taking the iiriqinory part ofthe product of the phasors with i>j("'. 4 1 and i(t) in Eq. The phasor E. cos (wr + O. and 0 . functlon l u x thcy ndorder bine sine cuit with oL[ (' J R f j l I. J. Example 77 Expres9 3 cos wt . rcfcrence problem. I? . such the series RLCcircuit broblem would be solved in terms of phasors in exactly the same way.).. A.'(769) and (7701. (7'T! because it is present in every term in Eq.
y.4 = ~~j1anl 3/(4) = 5ej143. complex quantities.50 (rad). (775). y. z) by higher powers of jo. (770).1')ejw'] = 5 cos iwt + 53. and 0. y. The reader should recognize that the results in Eqs. = 5 and 0. y. From Eqs.927 (rad). if E(x. A. then dE(x. t) is to bc rcprcscntcd by thc vcctor phasor E(x.arily taken as cos cot. (774a) So. a) To express 3 cos o t .9". we use cos o t as the reference and consider the sum of the two phasors 3 and 4ej"I2(=j4). z)ejw'] . (774a) and (774b) are identical. y. since sin wt = cos ( o t . in general. we can write a timeharmonic E field referring to COS C0tt US E(x. (772a). magnitude.296 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIOW?%f 7 Solution: We can conveniently use phasors to solve this problem.1" = 0. respectively. y. t)/& and 1E(x. j3 . = 143. y.)Now we take the imaginary part of the product of the phasor above and ejw' to obtain the desired answer: 3 cos o t . b) To express 3 cos wt .4 sin wt = ~m[(5e~'~~. TimeHarmonic Electromagnetics (774b) Field vectors that vary with space coordinates and are sinusoidal functions of time can similarly be represented by vector phasors that depend on space coordinates but not on time. z. t) = .). sin (ot + I). we have + .4 sin o t as A . y. respectively.'')e'"'] = 5 sin (ot + 143. and (772b). z. As an example. z) is a vector phasor that contains information on direction.1' (The reader should note that the angle above is 143. (775) where E(x. A. cos ( o t 01).no~36.1"). Taking the real part of the product of this p h a s x and ej"'. z).  3 cos o t . k % [E(x. y. Phasors are. t) dt would be represented by. and phase. ' If the time reference is not explicitly specified. z)/jw. = 53. vector phasors joE(x.4 sin o t = 9s[(5ej53.4.1°. by multiplications and divisions of the phasor E(x. = 5. it is custom.1"). we see that. Higherorder differentiations and integrations with respect to t would be represented. z. y. z) and E(x. Hence.n/2) lags behind cos cot by n/2 rad. Z. we use sin wt as the reference and consider the sum of the two phasors 3ejnI2!=j3) and .4 sin ot'as A . .1" = 2.
b.. is now The phasor soludbns o i Eqs. The timeharmonic \rave equations for scalar potential V and vector potential AEqs. Tlir f ~ [hilt the il t same notations are used b r thc phasors as arc used for their corresponding timedependent qunntities shc lild create lit tle conft~sion. and homogenkoud) medium as follows.k 2A = . I . (749) and (747). P h a ~ o r w ~ t i t i e s not functions of i. . (760) and (761) respectiydy : le vector cnta' ' Ikren.~rilybe a ph:rsor. It is useful q are to note that any quantity xntaining j most nccess.4 :I a ' \ i . isotropic.d to distinguish an instantaneous quantity from a phasor.~cecodrdin:~td r g iments llavc been omitted for simplicity.lose ivc will deal almost exclusively with t i m e h ..& J" dv' ' Je'tR R. respectively. H) and source phasors (p. I' (774a) . The Lorentz condition for potentials. ?!7 1 TIMEHARMONIC FIELDS 1 297 . Eq. bec. (746). (7 74b) and :.~by multi' L ifx =.J. . (777) and (778) are obtained from Eqs.efermce . the time dependcnp of th:: instimtaneous quantity will be indicated erpiicitly by the inclusion of a f in its arqrment.~ n o o i c liclds ( m d tllercfore with phasors) in the rest of this book.t&td timuhsnnonic Maxwell's ciuiitions (737a.Tue 0btc11n Thc sp.in o = t WC now.become. is called the waven~mber. ' (778) s of tlme ~rdinates crrrny to (775) sgmtude.lib) dlIC whcrc V A t. c.p. When there is a na. (Wb/m).eJerence 3 'io.Equations (777) and (778) are referred to as sm~honiogeneous Helmholtz's e q l d x s . J) in a simple (linear.nd d) in terms of vector field3hasors (E.
a = 0. J = 0. b.jwA and B(R) = V x A. . ( R )cj'"'] and B(R. We have Thus.V V . can be expressed in terms of the wavelength 1 = u/f in the medium. defined in Eq.. The degree of difficulty of a problem depends on how difficult it is to perform the integrations in Step 1.j k R can be aiproximated by 1. Find phasors V(R) and A(R) from Eqs.1 = 0. nonconducting sourcefree medium iharacterized by p = 0. Now the Taylorseries expansion for the exponential factor e . (739) and (741) to find quasistatic fields. 2. 3. c. if or if the distance R is small compared to the wavelength I. Find instantancow E(R. we obtain V2E + k2E = 0 (786) (787) and V211 + li21.298 TIME'.E=O V. t) = 9?. j SourceFree Fields in Simple Media In a simple.[ B ( R ) ~ ~ " 'for a [E ] cosine reference. The formal procedure for determining the electric anhiiagnetic fields due to timeharmonic charge and current distributions is as follows: 1. From Eqs. Equations (781) and (782) then simplify to the static expressions in Eqs. (764) and (765). and d) become V x E = jwpH V x 11 = ~ o ) E E V.H=O. . and d) can be combined to yield secondorder partial differential equations in E and H. the timeharmonic Maxwell's equations (776a. (781) and (782). (742) and (743). e . Find phasors E(R) = . (785a) (785b) (785~) (785d) Equations (785% b.'2RYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS / 7 These are the expressions for the retarded scalar and vector potentials due to timeharmonic sources. t ) = 9. (779). c.j k R is where k. which are used in Eqs.
ninlated \ in Eqs.~pctor Helmholizk eguutiunr. . (788a) and (78Sbl. anJ ?J are sourcefree ~ v i ~ ~ r e equations in El and This example shbws that ~ ~ u r c e .o is called rhe Solutios: We prove the st'atement by taking the curl and the divergence of E' aod H' and using Eqs. ' TIMEHARMONIC FIELDS 299 which arc hornopnmu. 1 3.trogrf?rmation spedified by Eqs. V. 6. (788a) and (7~8b).(jopH) sin u YI = jtuc(qH sin 1 + (jweE) cos a I a + E cob a) = joeEf. In Eqs. c. ?. . .85a.uH) cos u i q(JoeE) sin u . b. f: . H) are sol&iohs of sourcefree Maxwell's equations in a simple medium characterized by 6 and a. V d k' = ( V . t l C fif$. 8)are soiutioss of sourcejke Maxwell's equations then so also are (E' = qH. ~ ) c o s o = o . ' = .f r eM^xwell9s equations for free space are e invariant under the linear .o is an arbitrary angle. H)sin a = 0 .t. ll's Equations (7S9a. Example 78 Show that if (E. b. his principle is a consequence of the symmetry of sourcefree Maxwell's equations. then so also are (E'. H ' = r: 7. !s LibL .Hf = Eh). (7. (789b) (789c) (789dj HI. B'). This is a statement of the principle of duulity. k t = ' . Solutions of homogeneous Helmholtz's equations with various bouqdae conditions is the main concern of Chapters 8 and 10. E) cos u + q(V.. .and d): V x E'= (V E) cos 2 t )1(V x H)sin u = ( jw.. % "'1 for a V x h'= (V YI I 1 x E) sin u + LV x H) cos u form the 1 . Equations (788a) and (788b) become (790b) Equations (790a) and (790b) show that $(E. An interesting special case is for ii = 2712. where .(1V '1 * ~ : ~ i n (u~ . and q = intrinsic impedulzce of the medium.
The loss tangent ajoe of the moist ground then cquals 1. making and the moist it a relatively good conductor. will have to be changed to a complex wavenumber kc = o a .' u. For example. A medium is said to be a good conductor if a >> OK. a material may be a good conductor at low frequencies. T (785b) should be changed to = jw€.~~cn~cnt CUII~111. tlrn~ H. c . Hence. Cl' where E' = E and E" = a/w. and a conductivity o that are. The rcal wuvcnumber k in the Helmholtz's equations.300 8 3 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS / 7 . I U S C it is a measure of thc It is cnt ohmic loss in the medium: . .7 Pro R. Eqs. The other three equations.7rr < . in the neighborhood of 10 and lo' (S/m). are unchanged. and Eq. (756) and (787).' n I E' . At 10 (GHz).7 110. E" a tan 6 .R. in Eq.7 R. (785a. Thus. R.I<. a/oc becomes 1.7 R. R.7 OOlT R.? Example 79 A sinusoidal electric intensity of amplitude 50 (Vjm) and frequency 1 (GHz) exists in a lossy dielectric medium that has a relative permittivity of 2. a current J = a E will flow. R.8 x ground behaves more like an insulator. I I I c ~ :I loss t l ~ i ~ ~ q ~ C C . = 0. a moist ground has a dielectric constant 6 . R. and d). ..7 R. and the assumption oTa constant conductivity is only a rough approximation. but may have the properties of a lossy dielectric at very high frequencies. Eqs. all the previous equations for nonconducting media will apply to conducting media if E is rcplaccd by the cor~plcsp~wlirtivityE. respectively.001. (793) may be called the loss angle.8 x lo4 at 1 (kHz).E with REVIEW C R.7 . = .= .W .7 ' Actually the loss mechanism of a dielectric material is a very complicated process. and a good insulator if WE >> a. If the simple medium is conducting (a # 0). Find the average power dissipated in the medium per cubic meter. The ratio E"/E' measures the magnitude of the conduction current relative to that of the displ.7 R. K.7 . :c.7 R.5 and a loss tangent of 0.7 R.7 The quantity 6.E R. R.001 = OEoEr CJ 7 . c.7 tlJ1 Solution: First we must find the effective conductivity of the lossy medium: tan 6.
und for vector porcnd Linl A.75 State Lenz's law. naking moist 3tdllt R. A r c all four Maxwell's equations ~ndcpcndcnt'lExplain. component of B. Can a timevarying magnetic field? Explain.713 Express E and B jn terms of po.77 What is a Faraday d ~ s k generator'? Wrlte the differential folm of Maxwell's quatlons. I Ind Eq.byc forlcalar potcnti:ll I/ . i . are 1 apply i wave: to be lu R. Write the cxprestlion f i r lluxcuttlng emf.l:/:rsl\iuir~ f i ~ . R. V R.174(W/m3).71 What constitute$ an'ekctromagnetostatic field? In what ways are E and B related in conducting medium unddjr static conditions? 3 .716 Write the n ~ n h o i n o ~ e n c o u s oq. R. 3 01fi r 10 R.7I0 Write the integral form of Maxwell's equatiohs..76 Write the expression :or the induced emf in a closed circuit that moves in a changing rnagnctic field.~ation w.78 7 CICS~~IC ' tS/m).712 Why are potentid functions used in electromaghetics? R. Illat Writc thc expression for trxnsforrncr ern(. and explain how it leads to Faraday's law. and identify each equation with the 1 proper cxpcrimcntal law. R.719 Can a static magnetic field exist in the Interior of a perfect conductor? Explain.REVIEW QUESTIONS t Z 301 .720 What do we mead by a retarded potential? .tjal component of H and for the normal coniponent of D. R.5 and r cubic they exact solut~onsof Mauwell's q u ~  R. The average power di&ipadd per unit volb$e id p i +JE& $aEZ :I? =!+x (1.715 What is the Lorentz ciind~tion pot.714 What do we mean by tions'? Explain. * i d . r t s ? Are  quency 2.72 Write the fundatnental postulate for electromagnetic induction.74 R.ential funct~ons and A. .711 Explain the significance of displacement current. + at. R.717 State%eboundary ccmditions for the tangent\al component of E and for the normal .718 Write the boundary conditions for the tangen. 5 (792) d).ent~als? h a t is ~ t physical s~gn~ficance? for w s /? 1 R.73 R. R.  unlption K. R. K.389 x loe4) x 50' =0. ' (791) REVIEW QUESTIONS '. R. he a ~y ?x a E.
73 A conducting equilateral triangular loop is placed near a very long straight wire. 78 is situated in a magnetic field B = a=3 cos (5xi07t .2 1 In what ways do the retardation time and the velocity of wave propagation depend on the constitutive parameters of the medium? R.% 3 < ~ . R.71 Express the transformer emf induced in a stationary loop in terms of timevarying vector potential A. P..72 The circuit in Fig. A current i(t) = I sin o r flows in the straight wire. 637. f nd the currcnt i.726 Write in terms of phasors the timeharmonic Maxwell*.' R. . Fig.:rrx) Assuming R = 15 (Q).724 What is the diAerence between a phasor and a vector? R. R. in Fig.722 Write the sourcefree wave equation for E and H in free space. P. . .72). PROBLEMS P.723 What is a phasor? Is a phasor a function o f t ? A function of w ? R. R. .~ lossi dielectric? R. (pT).302 4& TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 w.732 Are conduction and displacement currents in phase for timeharmonic fields? Exphin. a) Determine the voltage registered by a highimpedance rms voltmeter inserted in the loop. with d = b/2. 78 A circuit in a timevarying magnetic field (Problem P.725 Discuss the advantages of using p h u o n in electromagnetics. b) Determins the voltmeter reading when the triangular loop is rotated by 60' about a perpendicular axis through its center.727 Define wavenumber. equations for a simple medium. 7 .731 In a timevarying situation how do we define a good c o n d & i g .
snown ud in the loop. b. and the rails are termmated in a resistance R = 0. b) in cylindrical ~bordinates.varylng magnetlc field ( ~ r b b l e m P.. The posltion of the sliding bar is glven by x = O. .2 (R). as elght scalar equations '\ it wire.r . . 638. c.. nconducting. Eqs. P. (746) is consistent with the equation of cdfitinxty. c) in spherical coordinates. and d).74 A conducthg Oircudr loop of s rudiuafl. .78 Prove that the Lor:ntz condition for potentials as expressed in Eq. a s shown in Fig. with d = 0. prove that the power dissipated ih R is equal to the power required to rotate the loop at an angular frequency o.711 Supply the detailed steps for the derivGion of the electromagnetic boundary conditions. (737c) and (7376). Eqs. 79 A conducting bar slldlng over parallel ralls In a tlme. (732). 79.76 Assuming that a rcslstsnce R n connected across the slip rings of the rectangular conductlng loop that rotates in a constant magnetic field B = ap.77 Derive the two divergence equations. (750a. I tiais in terms as shown in Fig.79 Substitute ~ ~ (730). Ansume the total impedance of the loop including the milliammeter to bqb. b. .75 A conducting 01iding:bar oscillates oCer twd parallel conducting r a ~ l s a s~nuso~dally in varying magnetic field B = a.75). i*I . and the equation of continuity. An AC milliammeter inserted the luop reads 0. P. I PROBLEMS i 303 P. P. and d). P. P. Eq.3 (mA).1 (h) rituatcd in the neighborhood of a very is long power line carrying a 60(Hz) current. Eqs. 5 css O J ~ (rnT). . from. 75.710 Write the set of four Maxwell's equations. a) Find the m n g d h d e gf the current m ihe po&er line. (737a. c.ii(l .2 (mA)? ipls medium.cos or)(m). I Fig.01 (0). . b) To what angle about the horizontal axrs should the c~rcular loop be rotated in order to reduce the milhammeter teading to 0. Eqs. R i . the two curl equations. shown in Fig. I : . P.l~tes. isotropic but inhomogeneous medium. P. and (741) in Maxwell's equations to obtain wave equations for 3 scalar potentiA V and vector potential A for a linear. 60 about a a' in Cartesian cdordi.15 (m). (73711 and 1737b). 1 / . Find i.
R&E) + R f i ) is a solution of the homogeneous wave equation.720 It is known that the electric field intensity of a spherical wave in free space is E = a.712 Discuss the relations a) between the boundary conditions for the tangential components of E and those for the normal components of B. 2 cos ( 1 5 ~sin ) ~ (6x109t . Eq. The vector potential A was introduced through the relation.pi?) (V/ln) P. 0. H = a. (756). in the timeharmonic case.04 cos [L08x(t Find Eo and 8.03 sin 10% and El = ex 0.715 Prove by direct substitution that any iwice differentiable function of ( t .713 Write the boundary conditions that exist at the interface of free space and a magnetic material of infinite (an approximation) permeability. . = ex 0.304 TIMEVARYING FIELDS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS 1 7 P. Convert the wave equations to Hclrnholtz's cqu. In a sourcefree region.714 The electric field of an electromagnetic wave is the sum of E. (760) satisfies the nonhomogeneous wave equation. P.charge distribution p and a current distribution J exist. P.ltions for sinusoidnl time dcpcndence.. P. (t j 3 ) .pz) (Aim) P. which are related by the Lorentz condition. R Determine the magnetic field intensity H. find M and /L E = a.721 In Section 74 we indicated that E and B can be determined from the potentials V and A. we can definc another type of vector potential A. find E and P. b) between the boundary conditions for the normal components of D and those for the tangential components of H.716 Prove that the retarded potential in Eq. V E = 0. P.718 Given thi1t in air. (749). such .719 Given that in air. ' or of P. Eq. Eq. P. .B = V x A because of the solenoidal nature of B.kR). P. (780).1 sin (IOnx)cos (6nlO"f .717 Write the general wave equations for E and H in a nonconducting simple medium where a . Eo sin 0 cos (wr.
. (a) Assunling t.70 x lo7 (S/m) for copper. I P. p = po..722 For a sourceffke me'dium where p ='O. d a y be defined such that I i H = jm$.. I: ! ! a) Express electricjfield iptendty E in temp of n and P. x 'n.rcnl cvw . V2n.t'cnlials V and ase.PROBLEMS 305 those for the id a magnetic ' . satisfies the h ~ n h o m o ~ e n k o u selmholtz equatlon I/ . . The vector rnoidal nature ential A. J = 0. b) Show that x. (794) : .iL ~ i i i ~ r n w : ~ v c u = 5. I . compare thc magnitude of the displaccment current density with that of the conduction current density at 100 (GHz)..723 Calculations cdhccrning thc clcctrornjlgnctit! clTect of currents in a good conductor rrcqucncics.a single vector potentlal n. such ' i . = I and usu:~llyncglcct llic tlisplllcc~i~x~ll cu~. (b) Write the governing diRerentia1 equation for magnetic field intensity H in a sourcefree good conductor. + k2z ' a e P ' (795) €0 P. but where there is a volume density of polarization P.
8 i Plane Electromagnetic Wqyes 81 INTRODUCTION In Chapter 7 we showed that in a sburcefree simple medium Maxwell's equations.\kiri dcptll. (762a. attenuation constant. assuming the same direction.wavefi. the . and practical wave sources are always finTte in extent. if we are far enough away from a source. huvc exactly the same form. We will examine the behavior of a plane wave incident normally on a plane boundary. same magnitude. Strictly speaking. The study of the behavior of waves which have a onedimensional spatial dependence (plane waves) is the main concern of this chapter. 1 . (764) and (765). and phase constant will be introduced. Electromagnetic waves carry with them clectromagnetic power. (81) represent waves. But. Eqs. b.ont (surface of constant phase) . c. The concept of Poynting vector. will he explained. because a source infinite in extent would be required to create it. The solutions of Eq. The laws governing the reflection and refraction of plane waves incident obliquely on a plane boundary will then be discussed. will be discussed. . a uniform plane wave does not exist in practice. tlic clcpth of wave pcncttxtion into :I good concluctor. and same phase in infinite planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation. and d) can be combincd to yield homogcncous vcctor wavi: equations in E and in H. A uniform plane wave is a particular solution of Maxwell's equations with E (and also H). In free space. and the conditions for no reflection and for total reflection will be examined. a power flux density. the sourccfree wave equation for E is . Eqs. The mcaning c~T. These two equations. where is the velocity of wave propagation (the speed of light) in free space. We begin the chapter with a study of thc propaption of timeharmonic planewave ficlds in an unbounded homogcncous nicdiurrl. Medium paramclcrs sirch xs intrinsic irnpcdance.
a h ~ m o g e ~ e o u s ~ ~ eHelmholtz's equatioli (see Eq. complex) constants that must be determined by b o u n d a j conditions../ay2 = 0. Writing it for the component Ex. . + .. (83) is equivalent to three scalar Helmholtz's equations. its general s b l u t ~ m Eq. Equation (85) simplifies to which is an ordinary differential equation becake Ex. a phasor. (87) represents in real time. . is the freebpace w~ver~umher In Cartesian cobrdiriates. E. Using. (86) is readily seen to be ' (87) where ki and E. that is. The sourcefree. ' E. : 786): C P P. (87) contains two integration constants. (uniform magnitude and constant phase) over plane surfaces perpenducular to z. and E. aie arbitrary (and.82 PLANE WAVES IN L ~ S S L E S S MEDIA In this and future focus our attention on wave behavior in the sinusoidal great advantagd./as2 = o and S2E. depends only on r.. :quatlons. (z) + El(:) = Eg+e~bo~~. . b e a one Consider a uniform plane wave characterized by a uniform E. .cos wt as the reference and assuming E l to be a real . Eq. . wave equation.(r) . E. (86) is a secondorder equation. The solution of Eq. aiL'. Eq..&koz.'in general. '. ctor I . where k. Note that since Eq. (83) . one each ih thc components E. we have . in Now let us examine what the first phesor term on the right side of Eq.
k . dz w . 8+ for several values oft. (810) is . If we fix our attention on a particular point (a point of a particular phase) on the wave. (84). The quantity k . Equation (88) has been plotted in Fig.~). = 2nflc or which measures the number of wavelengths in a domplete cycle. hence its name. . we have = E. We have. 81 Wave traveling in positive z direction E:(z.k. for several values oft. 0 z Fig. E:(r. we set cos (tot . cos (wt . bears i definite relation to the wavelength.  308 P~ANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 . I . t) = E.koz = A constant phase. constant (zero reference phase af z = 0). cos koz is a cosine curve with an amplitude E.:) = a constant or wt .f cos (wt . a truuelitly wove..koz) (V/&P (88) ...k..c. from which we obtain (89) Equation (89) assures us that the velocity of propagation of an cquiphase front (the phase velocity) in free space is equal to the velocity of light. the curve ellcctively travels in the positive i direction. At successive times. 0) = E. An I inverse relation of Eq.. : . then. which is approximately 3 x lo8 (m/s) in free space. . From Eq. dr k. At t = 0. * .
? is the only hon cero component of EI:and since . (87).the magnitudes of E and H is the intrinsic impedance of the medium.H. H. ' ' I which leads to ( 2 .CC is on IIic ldl. mt (the mately We have introduced a nej i quantity. the ratio o. and wave. E.. However. does not exist. I 1 I . (81)): which is called the intrinsic in~ped~?dnnee theflee q o c e . ! :. 5 The associated rbagne'tic field H can 6 folind from Eq. : It is obvious hitbout replottins that thk sehond phasor term on the right side of 'Eq.. H+ = O .I i 309 A .direction with C the same velocity e. Ibc:ncg~livclygoi~lg Eg = 0. rdbresents a cosinusoidal wive traveling in the .9a[HT(r)ej"] Hence. ' < ~ ~ u a t i o (810) adb (8711) are valid withoet the subscript 0 if the medium is a ns lossless material sucd as a. real number of H.(z) is in phase with ~ : ( r ) and we can write tlie instantaneous expression for H as .j y ~ dz ~ . We a l ~ o ~ n othat H is perpendicular to E and that both te are normal to the direction of propagation: The fact that we specified E = axEx . Id an anbounded regiori w are concerned only with the outgolng WiiVI. Because . I 1 !! f" i . if tllc S(IIII..+ = aE+(z) A .) .lo is 3. If we e wave.perfect dielectric.. .#O*. in Eq.c 1~ 0 01 curve c.. if there are dmontinuities injhe medium. (785a) . q.. i) = i. Thus. hcncc. for a uniform plhne wave. reflected waves traveling in the opposite direction must also be coniidered. I t ' ' I 82 1 P~ANL WAVES IN LOSSLESS MEDIA . IH.. ' Q(z. (z. . as we will see later in this chapter.
= 4. b) Write the instantaneous expression for H.310 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 is not as restrictive as it appears. ! E(Z. is a positive maximum when t = Solution: First we find k.kz Since E . a) Using cos ot as the reference. This expression shows a shift of a mere $ in the + z direction and could have been written down directly from the statement of the problem. at t = 0 and z = $. inasmuch as we are free to designate the direction of E as the + x direction. b) The instantaneous expression for H is where . propagates in a lossless simple + z direction.k: + $ = 0.z 2~ 3 *= ( +6 (i  axlo' cos [Zn lost  I): (~/rn).t ) = ax104 c ~ s io8t . Assume that Ex is sinusoidal with (V./m) at t = 0 and a frequency 100 (MHz) and has a maximum value of + l o w 4 1 = (m). = a. which is normal to the direction of propagation a. medium A uniform plane wave with E = axE. we find the instantaneous expression for E to be E(z. p. (s).cr = 0) in the a) Write the instantaneous expression for E for any t and z. . Thus. we have. equals that is. c) Determine the locations where E. .104 cos (277 1O8t . t) = a. Example 81 (E..E. + when the argument of the cosine function equals zero2rr 108t . when + $). = 1.
the positive naximum value of Ex occurs at Z.I .L hL (m). . witequate the argument of tke cosine function to +2nn in order to maximumi make E. Hence. a (s). we note that the wavelength in the given medium is / 7 E s moe Hence. 1 3 H ~ Zt.i)] (z (*/mi. 82 E and H fields of a uniform plane wave at f = 0 (Example 81). cos [b . . =.) = a . 8 13 The E and H fleldr are shown in Fig. 82 1 PLAhE WAVES IN LOSSLESS MEDIA 311 I 1 * . 82 as functions of z for the reference time t = 0. r IO'L  7 . ~uldhave n t Fig... Examining this result more closely. = 0 and ! ' c ) At t = lo'.
. A morc gcncrnl form o Eq. We have seen that a uniform plane wave. 1  /if + k. = k a.Thus E and H are perpendicular to each other. Just as z = Constant denotes a plane of constant phase and..1 Transverse Electromagnetic Waves .312 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 82.E. (81 6) is .. a. and I< arc illustrated in Fig..field H = a y H y . E(Y. provided that .characterized by E = a. R = Length OP (a constant) is the equation of a plane normal to a. (822b) k. .uniform amplitude for thc wave in . We now consider the propagation of a uniform plane wave along an arbitl~iry direction that does not necessarily coincide with a coordinate axis.. (822c) and that a. a. Thc gcomctrical relations or a. = ka. It is a particular case of a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave. R (v/m).. is a unit vector in the direction of propagation. a. From Eq. from which we see that a. (822a) ky = k a. a. = k . The ph. the direction of propagation.DE. a. + T where E.yr =) = Eoelk+lkd"~ki' (81'7) It can be easily proved by direct substitution that this expression satisfies the homogeneous Helmholtz's equation. = ka. and a.. propagating in the + z direction has associated with it a magnetic . The phasor electric field intensity for a uniform plane wave propagating in the z direction is (516) E(z) = Eoejkz.. (819) it is clear that k. + k: = W~. is a constant vector. = ka. aZ are direction cosines of a. 83.l:or field quantities are functions of only the distance z along a single coordinate <.is. a. (821) where a. (815) If we define a wavenumber vector as and a radius vector from the origin then Eq. (817) can be written compactly as E(R) = Eie~k ' R  E0ejk%. a. and both are transverse to the direction of propagation..
Y Plane of constant phase (phase front) Fig. Y & = 0. As a result." ? . . # . The magnetic held associated with E(R) in Eq. . 83 Radius vector and wave normal to a phdk front of a uniform plane wave.k.. . . (816) Eq. R = Constant is a plane of constant phase and uniform amplitude for the wavc in Eq.. where E is a constant vector (see problem P. 1 L. . (817) implies that E. ! I . a.  the homoP I 8) (819) Hence Eq. (821). = 0 . . (823b) (821) 3) it is clear ' Thus the planewave solution in Eq. a * agating in .EandH f propaga'he phacor inate :i?.E . ' ' I . " ' it ! 3 r. is transverse to thc Jirection of propagatioli. (821) may be obtained from Eq. !! I 1 I1 1 ting i3 the . . i . (823a) can be written as (520) a. f?c r ?h oi (\ where Just rfs * = ihc wave in This is a consequence Of the iact that 7 E = 0.218). (785a) as (822a) (822b) (8224 . (816). In a chargefree region. . ..
We have E(0.. where Ex may be positive or negative). t ) (8 28) = axElocos o + h. In some cases the direction of E of a plane wave at a given point may change with time.Ezo sin o t . and E. the wave is said to be linearly polurized in the x direction. t ) + a. t As wt increases from 0 through 4 2 . (821) in Eq. Substitution of Eq. we have COS W = t El(O9 t) El. Analytically.. are real numbers denoting the amplitudes of the two linearly polarized waves.Ez(O.. t ) = axEl(O. (824) yields It is now clear that a uniform plane wavc propagting in an :irbitmry direction. Since the E vector of the plane wave in Example 81 is fixed in the x direction (E = a. a Polarization of Plane Waves The polarization of a uniform planewave describes the timevarying behavior of the electric field intensity vector at a given point in space.. is a TEM wave with E IH and that both E and H arc t ~ o r n ~tol n. n. the cycle at 2n . Consider the superposition of two linearly waves: one polarized in the x direction.Ex. A separate description of magneticfield behavior is not necessary. The instantaneous expression for E is = axElocos ( o t .kz) + a. t ) will traverse an elliptical tion. In phasor notation we have where El. inasmuch as the direction of H is definitely related to that of E. the other polarized in the y direction and lagging 90" (or n/2 rad) in time phase. a.the direc  .314 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES / 8 is the intrinsic impedance of the medium.Ezo cos In examining the direction change of E at a givcn point as t changes. and 3x12 tip of the vector E(0. it is convenient to set z = 0.
. t ) = (a. = ElQ1 thc instantaneous angle ct which E makes with the raxis a t .?e vise u.>ii .. El.t) sih o t =  . is ellipticully pobrired if E20 # Ela. E(0. + ayE2. 84(a).tt.. : Fig. When the fingers of the right hand follow the direction (827) o linearly onvenierlt C8 H . (824) . sin at). = 0 is I !or of the the plane e posit~ve wparate :ec:~on of .l ' r n/2 rad) which indicates that E lotates at a uniform rate with an angular velocity io in a countcrclockwisc directicn. a.i ' $ h'!. E(0. <C 0 1 . 271 . When E 2 .$26) " . ' .P L c. t) = E.i I 82 / PLAN& WAVES IN LOSSLESS MEDIA 315 1' L 4.)cos wr .(a. A typical polarization clrcle is shown in Fig. and . I ' n 1 . which is tqe sum of two linearly polarized waves in both space and time quadrature. 84 Polarization diagrams for sum of two linearly polarized waves in space quadrature at z = 0: (a) circular polarization. and in circelurly polilr~zedif Ezb = .I 1 7 E2 0 :ction. E2(0. cos or f a.. (b) linear polarizhtion.. 3 which leads to the foilowing equation for an ellipse: (829) Hence E.E.
(z) and El(z) are in space quadrature but in time phase. t) will be at the point P . which are in space quadrature. If E.&) = (a... E(z) = axEl. sin ot.E2. which leads El(z) by 90" (71. where wt'= n. Its magnitude will decrease Solution: Consider a linearly polarized plane wave propagating in t h + z direction.a. t) = (n. toward the poiit P . in the opposite direction. Example 82 Prove that a linearly polarized plane wave can be resolved into a righthand circularly polarized wave and a lefthand circularly polarized wave of equal amplitude. (833) .ja. In phasor notation we have E(z) = axl&cjk'.the xaxis. their sum E will be linearly polarized along a line that makes an angle tan' (E20/E. indicating that E will rotate with an angular velocity w in a clockwise direction. with no loss of generality. E(z) = E.)e2 Eo E k ( ~ = 7j(a. The tip of the E(0. we see that E will stiJJ. (832) 8 3 + aY J'E 20 ejk? (831) Comparing Eq. respectively. + jay)e~kz. (827) and (828) will be. Their sum E will be elliptically polarized and the principal axes of the polarization ellipse will not coincide with the axes of the coordinates (see Problem P. this is a lefthand or negative circularly polarized wave.E will be circularly polarized and its angle measured from the xaxis at z = 0 will now be ot. (832) with Eq.. ) (8 34a) and i " . If we start with an E2(z). But this can be written as where .o) cos tot. t) = a.E. If Ez0 = El. Eqs.) and can differ in phase by an arbitrary amount (not zero or an integral multiple of 7~12).ejkz and E(0. t) starts to increase again. E(0. (8 34b) . when wt = toward zero as wt increases toward n/2. After that. 0. = as depicted in Fig.316 ' PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 of the rotation of E. # El. 84(b).(z) +E d 4 jkz .. . (828).be elliptically polarized. ' . This is a righthand o r positive circularly polarized wave. The instantaneous expression for E at : 0 is E(0. In the general case.Elo COh + a. ~ We can assume..84).o)with . can have unequal amplitudes (E2. the thumb points to the direction of propagation of the wave.Elo cos ot .12 rad) in time phase. E2(z) and El(:). that E is polarized in the x direction. Eo E.
The dcrlvations and discussions pcruin~ngto plane waves in a lossless medium in Section 82 can be modified to apply towave propagation in a cpndo:ting medium by simply replacing k with kt. ' T . Eq." ~ ~ .and /I=k=to& iection.ld/. with the help of. In The Helmhoitz's cqwtion. e". is in the . the homogeneous vector Helmholtz's equation to be solve is where the wavenumber kc = w& is a complex number because s. 2 dcfincd in Eq. The first factor./2.& (792) 7 wc vtd into a xi wave of : direction. 'I ' M'NL'L'. both x and j are positive quantities. (834a) and E. n the saxis r velocity 01 83 PLANE WAVES lhj . i ' I 83 / PLANE WAVES IN CONDUCTING MEDIA 3 C '. The conte:se statement that the sum of two oppositely rotating circuiariy polilrimd waves of equal amplitude is a linearly polarized wave i s of course.x direction. (831) From previous dig$ussions we recognize thdt E ) in Eq. decreases 3 .jd' is s complcx.j L ' ' . (539) + where we have assbmed that the wave ii linearly polarized in the . iespectively. 317 . phase. proved. In a sourcefree codducting medium.eYz. The propagation factor e"' can be written as a product of two factors: E. (8X). 1 = 0. 11. However. i ~ . For a lossless medium. = 6 . *.. the real and imaginary parts of 7 . in an effort to conform with t l e conventional notation used in transmissionline rheory. Their physical significance will be explained presently. = ~ . ~.1E = a. ~he. As we shall see. \ ~ const. i:ritc. p s i r p : ~ g .(r) in & Eq. Eqs.. it is cusmn~:~ry dcflii~.btatementof this problem is therefore .r. each havingian amplitude E. resjactively. also true.E. whi& corresponds to a uniform plane wave propagating : s direction. where u and /I are.E. righth&d and lefthand circularly . . = a. bcco~nes The solution of E ~ (838). waves. such th:\r to :I io~~ I  I S i n c ~ is c~mplex. (7792). C r of the wave. CONDUCTING MEDIA ' . m E will be 1 rhs xaxis. (832) y polarized. (834b) represent. 0 = 0.
ejt'. .t = 8. I as z increases and. and a is called an attenuation constant.I (=0. . In the following paragraphs we examine the approximate expressions for a lowloss dielectric and a good conductor.Ncper is a dimensionless quantity. If s! = 1 (Np/mJ. (840) that thc attcnualion constant of a lowloss dielectric is a positive constant and is approximately directly proportional to the conductivity 0 .. . . General expressions of a and in terms of o and the constitutive parametersE. . The intrinsic impedance of a lowloss dielectric is a complex quantity. is an attenuation factor.. thus... The phase constant expresses the amount of phase shift that occurs as the wave travels one meter.1 A lowloss dielectric is a good but'imperfect insulator with a nonzero conductivity. (837) can besapproximated by using the binomial expansion.368) as it travels a distance of I (m). not in time phasc.318 1 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 .. << such that E" << E' or a / w ~ 1. The SI unit of the attenuation constant is neper per meter ( N P / ~ )The second . thus.69 (dB/m). LowLoss Dielectric 83. thcn a unit wave amplitude dccreascs lo :I magnitude t . for a uniform plane wave. and aof the medium are rather involved (see Problem P. P is called a phase constant and is expressed in radians per meter (rad/m). from which we obtain the attenuation conitant  and the: phasc constant It is seen from Eq. .. (841) deviates only very slightly from the value w f i for a perfect (lossless) dielectric.~ factor.86). The phase constant in Eq. is a phase factor. p. as they would be in a lossless medium. . Since the intrinsic impedance is the ratio of E x and H. Under this condition y in Eq. the electric and magnetic field intensities in a lossy dielectric are. In terms of'field intensities 1 (Np/m) equals 20 log.
.! 1 1 . (8t41). which has a phase angh: of 1' Hence the msgnctic field intensity lags behind the electric field intensity by 45". A good conducto~ih a for which C c' or o / w >> 1. (89).. (mls). The phase velocity in a good conductor is which is proportiunul to . % . For a good conductor. The Wavelength of a plane wave in a good . 770 (~nis) :It 3 ( M I 17). \vhicl~is :lboul laicc 1I1c vcl~cilyof suuiid in ~ l i il~ldis many ordors of magnitude r . conductor is . ductivity. 8 0 x lo7 (S/m). Ecjudtion (844) indicates that il and /j for a sood conductor arc approximately equal an. L I The intrinsic impedince of a good conductor is lectdic is a uctivity a./r and I/&. I  I 83. : ~pproxi or ~ = + j j l j z ( +j)&. . Under this condition we can neglect 1 in tomparison with the t e r d o / j w in Eq. o /I. we have " . 83 1 PLANE ~ A V E S CONDUCTING MEDIA IN L 319 The phase vhocky up is obtained from the ratio o/b in a manner similar to that in Eq.1 both increase us $ and &.lower than the velocity of light in air. due a & €  5. p = 47c x 10'(H/m). (837) and write i I +j '7 i j u & J g = ' ~ ~ = medium 1 .% = i . Consider copper as an example: .2 Good Conductor . l where we have used thc relations = Jz and o = 2nf.
intrinsic impedance. (b) Find ihc distance a: which ihc amplitude of E is 1% of its valueat z = 0. (a) Determine the attenuation constant.038 (mm). phase constant.80 x lo7) = 2. As a comparison. At 10 (GHz) it is only 0. wavelength. = 80. At very high frequencies the attenuation constant a for a good conductor.368 is called the s k i ~ ldepth or the depth ?f'yrnetrcdion of a conductor: ' Since cc = p for a good conductor. Example 83 Thc clcotric Gcld inlcnsity ol'a lincariy polarized uniform plane wave propagating in the + z direction in sea water is E = aJ00 cos (107nt)(V/m) at z = 0. t) and H(z. a 3(MHz) electromagnetic = wave in air has a wavelength of 100 (m). cc = Jn(3 x 106)(4x x 107)(5. For copper at 3 (MHz). a highfrequency electromagnetic wave is attenuated very rapidly as it propagates in a good conductor. the amplitude of a wave will be attenuated by a factor of e' = 0. For copper at 3 (MHz). (8:45). (c) Write the expressions for E(z.66 (pm)a distance is (112. Solution f = = 5 x 211.or 0.8 (m) as functions oft. or 0. Thus.320 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 For copier i t i 3 (MHz). . The constitutive parameters of sea water are 6. confined in a very thin layer (that is. t) at z = 0. i 0. pr = 1. and skin depth.62) x very small distance indeed. as given by Eq. this (m).24 ( m d . in the skin) of the conductor surface. Since the attenuation factor is e"'. the skin depth or depth of penetration of a good conductor is so small that fields and currents can be considered as. for all practical purposes.368 when it travels a distance 6 = l/a. The distance d through which the amplitude of a traveling plane wave decreases by a factor of e. tends to be very large.62 x lo4 (Nplm). 6 can also be written as At microwave frequencies. o lo6 (Hz). and a = 4 (S/m). phase velocity.
Thus H = a. E(=)= 3x10()eeze~/'=. r ) = aJOOe0.I n 100 = . nce.89 (Np/m). + j) $ T x 106)(4n x lo') . phase ~plitude of r.082 cos (107nt . The instantaneous expression for E is E(z.onductor 1 purposes.8.0. a f = Phase constant. b&! theLformulas good c'ondiktors: for a) Attenuation consfant.0. We know that a uniform plant wave is a TEM Lave with E IH and that both are normal to the direct~onof wave propagadon a.89 b) Distance z.518 (m).89 (rad/m). 1) at z = 1 4. cc 8. h 321 Y I f * = . = . To find I ..81~') = a. t ) = Wt [E(z)eTa'] * B [axlOOe"zeJ('~q] = axlOOeazcos (or .ne'"'" (R).f I 4 ' . we have E(O. . m).0. 1 1 S===Q112( .). . uated by a MHz)..8 (m).89 c) In phasor notation. )lane wave m) at r = = 4 (S/m'). .. at which the amplitude of wavd decreases to 1 9 of I' ~ value at 2 = 0: S ..8a cos (107nt . I I Intrinsic impedatice./5nlo6(4n10!)4 = 8.5 Hence we cart.605 z .7. this 6 (pm) a attenuated which the I calicd the ? 83 1 PL&>E WAVES IN CONDUCTING MEDIA I' . + ! % I ! =(I Phase velocity. P= j = 8..11) (V/m). 4 Skin depth. ci 8.8.H. d 1 % At r7 = 0..
Even at very low frequencies. This phenomenon is accentuated at higher frequencies.(z. .t) with a complex quantity q. t ) and H Z ( z . Note that both angles must be in radians before combiniug. Inasmuch as all informationbearing signals consist of a band'of frequencies.(z. That is.3 Group Velocity In Section 82 we defined the phase velocity. = 1 4 is a constant that is indcpcndcnt of 1.  83. in phasors. Phasor quantities E. of a singlefrequency planc wavc as the velocity of propagation of a n equiphase front. t ) / v . .difficult. waves of different frcquencics will propagate with dircrcnt phxx vclocitics. in some cases (such as wave propagation in a lossy dielectric. The relation between u p and the phase constant. However. longdistance radio communication with a submerged submarine is extremely . from which we obtain the relation between instantaneous quantities For the present problem we have. frequency.(z) and H y ( z ) must be used. the instantaneous expression of H as a function of t.8 (m) is then We can see that a 5(MHz) plane wave attenuates very rapidly in sea water and becomes negligibly weak a very short distance from the source. because this would be mixing real time functions E. /3 = w@ is a linear function of w.322 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES I 8 H(z. As a conscqucncc. the phase velocity u . or in a waveguide to be discussed in later chapters) the phase constant is not a linear function of o . /3. t ) = E. The instantaneous expression for H at z = 0. or along a transmission line. we must not make the mistake of writing H y ( z . as discussed previously. waves of the component .. is I For plane waves in a lossless medium. t). u p .
85 Sum of two tiheharmonic traveling waves of equal amplitude at and slightly different frequenb~es a given t. and t Aw . The signitl "disperses.>t of sy dielectric. I ~q 4s :I icpcnc.a wave packet.) can be determined by setting the argument of the first cosine factor in Eq. (851) equal to a constant: plane wave .p0z = Constant: The velocity of the envelope (the group velocity 11.not make .\.ir licquc~~cy 'I'his is depicted in Fix.cyn . (851) n water : This phe. The wave inside theenvelope propagates with a phase velocity found by setting wot . will also be slightly different.em r r .A/]):] == LEO cos ( 1 AOJ . extremely Since Aw << wO. 8 . We have E(:.: AS) cos ( o o t . Let the phase constants corresponding to the two frequencies be Do + A P and Po . All). IS Srequencies.Aw)t . A group u~locity the velocity of propagation of the wavepacket erlielope.(Po + Ail):] + E g cos [((oO .5.lo . C ~ n s i d e the simblest case of a wave packet that consists of two traveling waves r having equal amplidde and s!ightly different angular frequencies wo + Aw and wo . (851) represents a rapidly oscillating wave having :ln i~ngi~lar lrcquc~.Ao))t . (843). Given Eq.A o (Aw << w. An informationbearing signal normally has a small spread of frequencies (sidebands) around a high carrier frequency. . Such a signal comprises a "group" of is frequencies and forms. lixing real quantities 1 . causing a distortion in the signal wave shape.AD. we conclude that a lossy dielectric is obviously & dispersive medium.z AD = Constant.~npul. and a n i~mplitildc i that varies slowly will] . .Po:).(/j0 . being functions of frequency.the exprwion in Eq. The phase constants. t ) = = E~ cos [(coo . Je to be disw : waves of d much as all e component P Fig.). frequencies travel with different phase velocities." The phenomenon of signal distortion caused by r dependence of the pHase ielocity on frequency 1s called dispersion.
c) Anomalous dispersion: > 0 (upincreasing with w). 85. (850). From Eq. The dielectric .  u = . dup dw Example 84 A narrowband signal propagates in a lossy dielectric medium which has a loss tangent 0. (850) and (852). (852) yields Ug . we have Substitution of the above in Eq.324 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES / 8 from which we obtain In the limit that A o a dispersive medium. < 14. A relation between the group and phase velocities may be obtained by combining Eqs.. and is identified as the velocity of the narrowband signal. b) Normal dispersion: . as shown in Fig.2 at 550 (kHz). we have the formula for computing the group velocity in This is the velocity of a point on the envelope of the wave packet.? 0 (updecreasing with w). .).=  dz dt Aw Ap ma 1 0. = lip w du 1 P up nw From Eq. (853) we see three possible cases: a) No dispersion : du P= dw 0 (upindependent of w. Ug = Up. /3 linear function of w).the carrier frequency of the signal. . dw ll. duP .
53 x (S/m). .01$3 (radlm). .2 and 02/8(&c)' << 1. But first we find o from the loss tangent: .0182 x 1. . a = 1.005 = 0. ombining Thus. 85. .the medium is dispersive As we can see.I ' ent o/oc = 0. Eqs. and up do not differ much because of the Small value of the loss tangent. d = 0. (841) we h ~ v e c) Group velocity: lium which IC dielectric Since ug # 5 . b) I'hasc velocity: From Eq. the computed values of u. (852) I I Fig. (840) and (841) can a and O respectively.
= E (7t .1s) (11 ) I i*. (854) and (555) in Eq. (8 56) D . . d % i I i ' I Electromagnetic waves carry with them electromagnetic power.H d(pH) . and time. (858) is obtiined by integrating both sides over the volume of concern. whose constitutive parameters r. We begin with the curl equations : I 1 I The verification of the following identity of vector operations (see Problem P. (556) yields '.oe with 1 H.dB . 223) is straightforward: [I I 1 V . (V x E) . ( (7 EJ=E(cE)=aE2.l i ( p H s H ).< ( l . ( V x 111. 6  (E x H) ds = o E 2 do.E . Equation (857) can then be written as V \ ( E x H ) = e  (858) which is a pointfunction relationship.84 FLOW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC POWER AND THE POYNTING VECTOR  . (I3 x 11) = 1 1 . Energy is transported through space to distant receiving points by electromagnetic waves. 11. We will now derive a relation between the rate ofsuch energy transfer and the electric and magnetic field intensities associated with a traveling electromagnetic wave. we have do not chan. . Substitution of Eqs. = dr at 2 ijt st p H 2 GO 15 . ? In a simple medium. An integral form of Eq. (859) where the divergence theorem has been applied to convert the volume integral of V (E x H) to the closed surface integral of (L x H).I I I (7t 2  nccrt: .
equals the power leaving JI~'S the enclosed volume is referred to as P O > . = p.. Ifthc region ofconccrn is losslcss (cr = 0). (861) states that the total power flowing ittto a closed surface at any instant equals the sum of the rates of increase of the stored electric and magnetic energies and the ohmic power dissipated within the enclosed volume. Tn order to be consismt kith thc ltlw of conscrva~ionol' cllcrgy. Eq. Equation (859) may be writren in another form In words. the power relations given in Eqs. In a static situation. (859) as the rate of decrease of the electric and magneuc energies stored. (859) of . &61) vanish.] The last term is volume as a rk?sult of the flow ofconduction current electric ficld E. w. ficld. . respectively. in the electric with Eqs. (859). Hence we may interpret the right side of Eq. subtracted by the ohmic power dissipated as Heat in the volumc V. = O ' = J ~ / O Ohmic power density. Two points concerning the Poynting vector &reworthy of note. . First. 1861) vanishes. 5')) integral of + + ansported :'will now i magnetic : ! the first and second t&ms on the right side of Eq. ) I ~ ~theorem. (859) and (861) pcrtain to the total power flow across a closcd surface ohtaincd by Lhc surhcc integral of (E x 11). P over a closed surface. (860) as the power density vector at every point on the surface is an arbitrary.change of the energy stored. rhcn the I:N tcrm in Eq.9) (854) h) (855) 3 1 I'. (13i46b) and (6151c).= $pH2 Magnetic energy density. ~ i n d total power flowing into a closed surface is equal to the rate of increase of the the. L o / .223) (856) t p 57) hmge with where Electric energy density.stored electric and magnetic energies in the enclosed volume.which is a power dcnsity vector associatcd with an' elec~roma~nctic The assertion that the surhce integral of . the first two terms o n the right side of Eq. E 7 we = ~ E E '= (858) 1 obtained s 0 . the Poynting vector :P is in a direction normal to betkEEand H. and the total power Howing into a closed surface is equal to the ohmic power dissipated in the enclosed volume. Second. The definition of the Poynting vector in Eq. concept. Thus the quantity (E x H) is a vector representing the power flow per unit are'd. as given by the left side of Eq. Define P Quantity : is knoivn a s rhc Poyillitlq ~ i c p r . albeit useful. this must equal the power (rate of energy) leaviilg the volume through its surface.
1 Ir Power DE Thus the Poynting vector on the surface of the wire is \.anb' On the surface of the wire. Verify Poynting's theorem. 84. tributed over its crosssectional area. . . I" P = E x H = ( a Zx a.328 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 . . Example 85 ' ~ i n d Poynting vector on the surface of a long. We have and J I E==a' a . straight conducting the wire (of radius b and conductivity v ) that carries a direct current I.1 2 4 h 3' which is directed everywhere into the wire surface.ar. 1 Fig.)2an2b3 ' . 86 Illustrating ~oynting's theorem (Example 85). Solution: Since we have a DC situation. the current in the wire is uniformly dis. Let us assume that the axis of the wire coincides with the z axis. Figure 86 shows a segment of length t of the long wire.
'd ~ . being the cross product of E and H. Erroneous results will be obtained if this procedure is applied to such nonlinear operations as a product of two sinusoidal quantities. In order to verify . R = //US.) The reason is that ./?z . e' I4 cos (or . I . is the phase angle of the intrinsic impedance q = Iq(rjopi the medium. \ 1 . The instantaneous value of a quantity is then the real part of the product of the phdsor quantity and eJu' wheh cos o is used as the reference.Sb3)  2nb' where the formulz for the iesistance of a straight wire in Eq. has bcen used. vector is exactly equal to the 1'R ohmic power loss in the conducting wire. For t example. a .). . for the phasor E(:) the instantaneous expressim is = axEx(:) = a . 86. (864b) This proccdurc is pcrmissihle ils long as thc operations andlor thc equations involving the quantities with sinbsoidal time dependence are linrur. ~ ~ e . (A Poynting vector. The corresponding instantaneous expression for H(z) is h0 H(z. the of where 0. For a uniform plane wave propagating in a lossy medium in the associated magnctic fleld illtensity phasor is +: direction. = (*.i' .84 I FLOW OF EL~CTROMAGNETICP ~ W E R ~ N D POYNTING VECTOR THE . P .1 Instantaneous and A V e r ~ g e Power Densities In dealing w ~ t h timeharrronlc electromagnetic waves. we have found it convenlcnt to use phasor notations.0.Poy$ting3s theorem. 329 : a '. i I . t) = %[H(z)ej?'] = a. . falls in this category. ye &negate P over the wall of the wire Segment in Fig.( " + ~ ~ ! ' . 'i . (513). ' onducting 'oynting's ~rmly discoincides We have . I 84. The abovedesult afFjnnr that the negdtive surface integral of the Poynting . Hence Poynting's theorem is verified.
). (8 .) E: .)]. 9 ( ( A ) x :'Ac(B)= +(A + A*) x +(B + B*) = J[(A x B* A* x 4%)+ (A x B = :%<(A x B* + A x U).  I = a= e2az cos (wt .. we know that the average power dissipated in Z is where cos 0.O.tls. (867) can be considered the power factor of the intrinsic impedance of the medium." Thus.5Z 14  ! = a.2/32! . where T = 2n/w is the time period of the wave.. (865)' 1 On the other hand.'poynting vectoi.~nits inst. I aI .! : 1 .).O. .. cos rt11 appears ucross its tcrn1in.~\wxgcI'oynlilig \ c c t o r .~iit. + + A* x B*)] (866) This relation holds also for dot products of vcctor functions and for products of two conlplex scalar functions. Fro111 average value is a more significant quantity tli. E.or p&w density vector is on the one hand.). (865). The instantaneous expression for th. from Eqs. is the power factor of the load impedance.330 1 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 . + cos (20t . ** .I volti~gcI ) ( / ) = 6.. 9e[E(z) x ~ ( z ) e j @ = a=e'"' '] ! lvl which is obviously not the same i s the expression in Eq. The second term on the right side of ' Conslder two general complex vectors A and B. Y . Equation (8 67) is quite similar to the formula for computing the power dissip.~tcd in an impcdnncc % = I%lriO. (866) with E(:)eJm'and H(z)eJw'respectively. (863a) and (864a). . 4 e'" 2141 [COS U./jz) cos ( ~ t/3z .~nco~is Eq.6 5 ) wc obtain l h c tinic. As far as the power transmitted by an electromagnetic wave is con'cerned. . .w l l c ~ ~ si~~usoitl:~l . factor in Eq. (865) by identifying the ccctors A and B in Eq. t t ~ c o ~ ~ s expression for the current i(/) through thc impcdancc is i ( t ) = cos ( o t  vo 14 0. Tllc i n h t : ~ ~ ~ t . It is a strniglitforward ekercise to obtain the restlit in Eq.2pz .O. We know that Wc(A) = +(A + A*) and &(B) = $ ( B + B*). The cos 0.. its v:duc. where the asterisk denotes "the complcx conjugate of..' . cos (wt . From the theory of AC circuits.
. R I [ E ( i ) x H*(r) + E(. ncerncd. Example 86 The far firld of a short vertical currem element I dl located at the origin of a spherical coordinate system in free space is E(R. . (868) vanishes.(R. wk may not be dealing with a wave propagating in the z direction.. (865) sumof two terms.( s O ) e J '70 21.\we q n express the instan)hneous Poynting vector in Eq.' 8 . b) Find thc total avcragc power :diiiice by the current element. EL.. O x e)ejmfl  i he considere? . 3 = ! . (Aim). The instantaneous Poynting vector is A {\ 9(Za: 4 = *&xE[E(R. We write .. t ) over a fundamental period. 0) = a. (866)...Ld'  sin 0) e~p' (~/m) and (866) :ornplex scalar &(R.l for computing the average power density in a propagating wave. 9 ~ I n the general case. = 12On (Q).. its d u e From i .. \ : ': I (8 65) The average power 8ensity.z)e~"~']. =.. I Using Eq.can be obtained by integrating P ( z .E. 0) H(R. W have e I . which is 3 general forhu1. (865)is a cosind Sunuiun of a d o u b ~ c frJquency whose average is zero over a fundamental periad. instelld of the product of the real parts of as the real part of ~ H L !wo complex vectors.elength. E x 1I ) (W/mZ). 1 . 0) = a. Solution a) We note that ~mpedance instdntaneous ~ .YIV(:)= i ~ [E(z) X fI*(:)]. Since the average o f the last (secondharmonic) term in Eq. ng the vectors dn a) Write the expression for instantaneous Poynting vector..) x H(. Pav(z). . right side of (b".?. ) P J ~ I ~ C [ H ( R .R where i = 271/lj is the wa\. 0) = a. / k=: '7. (S 69) J 67)' .
Pi(z) = E. 85 NORMAL INCIDENCE AT A PLANE CONDUCTING BOUNDARY U p to this point wc have discussed the' propagation of uniform plane waves in an unbounded homogcneous medium. it experiences a rellcction. I n Scct~ons 85 and 8 6 wc examine the bchavior of a planc wave when it is incidcnt upon a plane conducting boundary. 0) ovcr thc surface of thc sphere of radius R. which is seen to equal the timeaverage value of B ( R . 8 . Hi)travels in a lossless medium (medium l:o. = 0) and that the boundary is an interface with a perfect conductor (medium 233.situation in Fig. is in the a. direction. the phase constant and the intrinsic impedan3 of medium 1. In this section we study the field behavior of a uniform plane . For simplicity we shall assume that the incident wave (Ei. . Total Pa. (869). and 11.Two cases will be considered: normal incidence and oblique incidence.' wave incident normally on a plane conducting boundary. and the boundary surfacc is thc planc z = 0.(z) x Hi(z).Ya. 0) ds = = 40a2 $ . = s Pa"@. wavcs oftcn propagate in bounded regions where several media with different constitutive parameters are present. r) given in the first equation of this solution. Consider the. The total average power radiated is obtained by integrating . . which is the direction of energy propagation. from Eq. The incidcnt electric and magnetic field intensity phasors are: l<.(z) = J'llz (8 70a) where Eto is the magnitude of El at z = 0. Wave behavior at an intcrfacc betwecn two cliclcctric media will be discussed in Sections 87 and 85.(R. Whcn a n clcctrotnagnctic wave traveling in onc medium impinges on another medium with a dilkrent intrinsic impedance. are. In practice.332 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 I  b) The average power density vector is. SozR [ISn (x) S I sin2 : dd 0] R2 sin 0 dO1dd ):( 2 l2 (W). 87 where the incident wave travels in the + z direction. where 1 is the amplitude (3 timcs thc cn'cctivc valuc) of the sinusoidal currcnt in dd. . = co). The variable z is negative in medium 1. respectively. It is noted that the Poynting vector of incident waves. and 8.
(O) = 0.(Elo E. (872) becomes El(z) a .) The msirctic field il. (S71) where the positive sign in the exponent signifies that the reflected wave travels in the .ire present. In Sections idcnt upon a wo dielectric s inJF?lossless Insiclc medium 2 [a perfect conductor) both electric and magnetic fields vanish. I: (873.. = 0. The reflected electric field intensity can be written as E. ith a perfect ncidcnce and nirorm plane :Is in the + z t electric and E.z direction. (872) Continuity of the tangenti 11 component of the Efield at the boundary r = 0 demands that I.(I) = a.. ~ ( ~ .tensity H. ~ . Thus. on mother I .)idal current waves in an i n bounded .(z) + E.(z) = a. 11.. (8 24). giving rise to a reflected wave (E. H. E.(z) = E. the phase the Poynting . .Eroe+jl'l=.(EloeJP1' + EroefJP1z). . which is the 1. = 0.j P'e+jP1z) l f j2Ei0 sin / . hcncb no wave is iransn~ittedacross the boundary into the z > 0 region. of the reflected wave is related to Er by Eq. as tliscusscd in Section 82. The incident wave is reflected.(O) = a. + which yields Ero = Aio. Eq..).) = E. The total electric field intensity in medium 1 is the sum of E and E. ely. = a.
'11 (8 74b) Both El(i. or:= n = 0. as foilows: Zeros of El(. . Example 87 A ):polarized uniform plane wave. In order to examine the spacetime behavior of the total field in medium 1..  " .(:)eJm'] = a. (874a) Eio H ~ ( zt) = . (870b). t) Maxima of H .2Eio sin PI? sin r ~ . .. 4 n=0.(z) with Hi(z) in Eq. Or== "z' . t) Maxima of El(. occur at /Il: A nx. Combining H.2. '' sity in medium 1 : Hl(z) = Hi(z) + H..(Et.. = . is a maximum on the conducting boundary (H.(z. occuratB..iricr wavelength.2. t) = .%'o[~.(z) = a. * . = Hio = Eio/vl).. 88 for several values of wt.2 cos Plz cos wt. (873a).2 cos P1z.1. It is a standing wave. = a.. . 1.. (d) Dcierminc tile location nearest to the conducting plane where E l is'zero. write the phasor and instantaneous expressions for: (a) E. resulting from the superposition of two waves traveling in opposite directions. are shown in Fig. Note the following three points: (1) E l vanishes on the conducting boundary (E. t ) 7i (2n+ I). Assuming the amplitude of Ei to be 6 (mV/m). since El(z) and Hl(z) are in phase quadrature.. ' i . For a given t. t ) and Hl(z..z= (2n+ I). Eio ' I 1 (873 b) It is clear from Eqs.. .E. we obtain the total magnetic field inten. of the reflected wave.H.> t k I I. and (c) E l and H.. (3) the standing waves of E l and H ._.%e[H.. both El and H1 vary sinusoidally with the distance measured from the boundar) plane.(z. (873a) and (873b): E. 2 Zeros of Hl(z. i) i ) 1 . are in time quadrature (90 phase dillercncc) and are shifted in spiicc b y a qu.(z)ej"'] = a.. (b) Er and H. Hi) with a frequency 100 (MHz) propagates in air and impinges normally on a perfectly conducting plane at x = 0.Eio). The standing waves of E l = a. we first write the instantaneous expressions corresponding to the electric and magnetic field intensity phasors obtained in Eqs. of the total wave in air. . t) possess zeros and maxima at fixed distances from the conducting boundary for all t. (2) H ... and (869) that no average power is associated with the total electromagnetic wave in medium I. (873b). and H . The total wave in medium 1 is not a traveling wave. . and Hi of the incident wave.
I ~d InstanI f . .It travel~ngwave): i) Phasor expressions E. 88 Standing waves of . md H I = r. I ) :..icld intenI . = r. .(x) = ily6 x 103eJ2nxi3 (v/m). for several values o f o ~ .(x) = ax X El(. 4 7 . resulting a given t . boundary 2.H.i. .. 58 for ! the conboundary uadrature a) For the incident w i v e ((1 1encn0 :I . (873h) ' . ' 1 {. eJ2"x'3 Y1 2n  (A/m). . we magnetic (8744 i Y 74b) i I I Irom the . I .E. 1 H. 1 1 . . .) = a.I . 1 issociated e in phase ium 1.Fig. . of the :I~~c'l~lclll + Solution: At the giveh frequency 100 (MHz). .
 sin x (?) sin(2n x 10") cos (277 x 108t) (A/m). Since an Ei polarized in an arbitrary direction can always be decomposed into two componentsone perpendicular and .5 6 x Hr(x. d) The electric field vanishes at the surface of thc conducting plane at x = 0. the first null occurs at 86 OBLIQUE INCIDENCE AT A PLANE CONDUCTING BOUNDARY Whcn a uniform plane wave is incidcnt on a plane conducting surfacc obliquely.s 3 ( ii) Instantaneous expressions E.(x)eja'] = . In medium 'I.(x.r) = Wc[E. 2n c) For the total wave (a standing wave): i) Phasor expressions cos 2n x 108t + . t) = a. b) For the rejected wave (a traveling wave): i) Phasor expressions Er(x) = . . the behavior of the reflected wave depends on the polarization of the incident wave. In order to be specific about the direction of Ei.(x)e~"'] a 9 2 x = H ( x . ii) Instantaneous expressions Er(x..a.6 x 1@3ej2n"/3 (v/m).. t ) = a=cos 271 . 108t + x lo' .336 PLANE ELECTROMAGN"ETIC WAVES 1 8 . we define a plane of incidence as the plane containing the vector indicating the direction of propagation of the incident wave and the normal to the boundary surface. t ) = ~%e[E. .
(817) and (823). sin Oi a. 86. . 89 Planc wave inc~dcnt obliqacly 011 a plane conducting boundary (perpendicular polarization) the other parallel to the pime of incidencewe consider these two cases sepnmtelj. 89. we obtain. as illustrated in Fig. The general case is ostilined by superposing the results of the two component cas~s. + ' Also referred to as horizontal poiari:ation  or Epolcrrlzatioh. using Eqs. (8753 where Oi is the ungle of inci~lence measured from the normal to the boundary surface.1 Perpendicular ~ o l a r i r a t i o n ~ In the wsc of perpendicuiilr p d u r i ~ u t i o n Ei IS p&+endicular to the plane of incidence. Noting that ani = a. ' *  Fig. .Medium I (01 = 0) 2 4 0 I . cos Oi.
. El. Thus. e l .a.z cos Ol)eJ"lX 1 0 Jb~xsrnO.Z ) = a E ( e .~ 8 ~ Z C ~ . 2.[a.No average power is propagated in this direction since El. From Eqs. and H I . sin Oi sin 8. Eq.(x. cos Ui cos (/jl.80b) are rather complicated expressions. Y )e = .(.Eio and Or = Oi.&PI:c o s 8 . E . but we can make the following observations about the oblique incidence of a uniform plane wave with polarization on a plane conducting boundary: 1.. . (I) V) u1 PIX /3.0 M. we must have Ero = . the total electric field intensity must vanish. z = 0. (876b) and (879b).K. o1 1880b) Equations (88Oa) and (8. i . z ) is The total field is obtained by adding the incident and reflected fields. de.* 338 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES / 8 . we get E.2 .K direction) parnllcl to thc boundary. and HI. sin ( p l z cos Oi)ej51xsin1. In the dircction (. In order for this relation to hold for all values of x. asserting that the angle of reflection eqtlals the artgle of irtcideilce. z) = E. are 90" out of time phasc. (878) becomes I 3 The corresponding Hr(x.Y.I .(.The latter relation. where fil= = P I cos Oi.) = . (876a) and (879a) we have El(x. Thus. z) + E. arc in both time and spacc phasc and propagate with a phasc vclocity Ulx ===. . and If. cos Ui)eJI1~X"nol z '11 I + a. maintain standingwave patterns according to sin Plzz and cos filzz. At the boundary surface. (880a) Adding the results in Eqs. is referred to as Snell's law oj' reJectiort. respectively. In the direction ( z direction) normal to the boundary.j sin 0.j2Eto sin (P.
. Since E. :. :i' ': ' b st vanish.2. and let Ei be polarized in the y direction... Example 88 A uniforrrl plilhe wavc ( E l . = ^ A .. . . There is then a discontinuity ih iho milgnktic field. I : . We hitVe.' . . ( x . without changinh tht: field pattern that exists between the conducting plate and the conducting ~~~~~~~~~y at I = 0. a conducting plilte can be insertdd at (879b) :on1 f". . ' . wc have 7 x 1infain >. (880b): t1 1 call plane Inside the perfectly conducting wall. 89.I:.. Iqroin Lcl.E. both E2 and H. A tiitn. .:.(r.. The propagating wave in the r direction is a nonunijom plane wave because its amplitude varies witIi'z. ' .) of an angular Srequcncy w ir lncldent from air on a very ILrge. . H. . At z = 0. Let r = 0be the plane representing the rurfxe of the perfectly cbnducting wall.z cos OiJ = 0 or when 2n fllz cas oi= . I.. (752b).. as was shown in Fig.cos 0.':.. 1. a parallelplate waveguide.. I :. . Find (a) thc current induced on the wall surface.. .' r.\\~llcl. apq in .o L. . and H.  . and (b) the timeaverage Poynting vector in medium 1. 0) can be obtained from Lq.aoa) issob) t \VC a) The conditions df this problem are exactly those we have just discussed: hence we could use the kormulas directly. / . = 0)will bounce back and forth between the conducting pinnes ilnd propagate in tne r direction. perfectly conducting wail a r a n angle of incidence 0.: ..1 .. :s and unyle o f (879a) 3. El(x..1117t. Thc amount of discontinuity is equal to ilic surfacu currchl.. ..3 . )'1 nz=1. .queiac elearic (TE) IIYIC~ ( E l . 0) = 0. i I effect. with perpendicular polarihllun.. 1 !1 . must vanish. * . = 0 for all x when sin (P. ..
The timeaverage Poynting vector in medium 2 ( a p r f c c t conductor) is. and a. Pa. and HI..r. ' Also referred to as tiertical polarizatiotl or Hpolarizatidt~. cos 4 cos o 6 0 ~ (882) It is this induced current on the wall surface that gives rise to the reflected wave in medium 1 and cancels the incident wave in the conducting wall.2 Parallel polarizationt 1 We now consider the case of E.2C sin Oi sin' /l. 86. as depicted in Fig. .  E2 a... (880a) will and (880b) in Eq. are in time quadrature. Since El. t ) = a. 810.The instantaneous expression for the surface current is Ei0 J. '/I where /IlZ = /3. b) The timeaverage Poynting vector in medium 1 is found by using Eqs. have a nonvanishing x component. cos 0. remain the same as those given in Reflected wave Incident wave Fig. respectively. The unit vectors a.. lying in the plane of incidence while a uniform plane wave impinges obliquely on a perfectly conducting plane boundary. representing. of course. zero.(x. (869). the directions of propagation of the incident and reflected waves. 810 Plane wave incident obliquely on a plane conducting boundary (parallel polarization)..
(s. hdve only a y component.L'~OI.0) 6. (8. No average power ispropagated in this direction.(.(..Pav will The reflected wave (E.z and cos Dl.. (884b) and (885b).. . (875) and ($I!). In the direction ( 2 direction) normal to the boundary. El 0 YI 1 (886b) I m  The interpretation oi' Eqs. Dl cos Oi. Boih Ei and Er now have components in x and z directions. whereas Hi and H.. +'a. componc~it. maintain standingwave pattens according to. t . (885a) (88jb) YI 1 A1 thc surklcc ol'~lic pclfcct conductur.X~:I). H:) have the following phasor expressions: E.86 1 OBLlOUE !NCIDENCE AT A'PLANE CONDUCTING BOUNDARY . ( ~ i) = . I I I Y :rnti :I : :).C: Wc C. . Hl(s.u. k) = Ero(a.z). (880a) and (8SOW b r the erpendicularpol:~rizi~tio~~ cxcept that E.Y. (886n) and (886b) is similar to that of Eqs. From Eqs.. sin Or)ejP1(xsln H . ) C . 0) . ~ h tanyentiti1 compolicn~ t l x = c ( component) of the total electric field intcnsitymust vanish for a11 s.841) ant1 (8. (884a) (883b) H. fl. (8 83) (a perfect ' : BIEroe~~~(xsln8rzcos~r~. and .(x. i 1 Er(x. The total electric field intensity in medlum 1 is the sum of Eqs. = ay 5 "t 1 e .idof cclsc. or E. for the incident wave. .J D ~ ~ ' ~ ~ "4.)s1x1 11 . now 11. cos 0. since El. z ) = H. whlch requires Ero = .. ' a: sin Oi)ejbl(x'ln ' 1 cos :tcd wave + z cosUf). P . z) = ay2cos (/jlz cos O . E l .(\. where j . C O I I C ~ L I ~ I~ICI.. I 1 341 i? Eqs.= 0.~ \ l ~ (sxn o i + z tb\ 0 1 ) . = 0. Y /? \)I n 11e 117 Cplc'l.f.. ~nbtc.(s. : O.1. (8+84id and (885a): cctlolls of L' given in Adding Eqs. 2) = EIO(ax 0. and 0. are 90" out of t i p e phase. 1i. respectively. (880a) *. and H . f"'. z) + Hr(x.z. .(x.. w e have. .= H. we obtain the total magnetic field intensity in medium 1. (882) t 1.. cos Or).ivc wc  .sin P1.
.rrn planc wavc on a planc diclcctrii: medium.s incident on the surface of a dielectric medium that has an intrinsic impedance different from that of the medium in which'the wave is originated.. The case of wave incidence on a perfectly conducting boundary disc&ed. We will discuss thc wave behavior for normal incidence in this section. <. part of thc incidcnt powcr is rcflcctcd and part is transmitted. are in both time and space phase and propagate with a phase velocity u. = 0 for all x will not affect the field pattern that exists between the conducting plate and the conducting boundary at z = 0.in the two previous scctions is like terminating a generator that has a certain internal impedance with a short circuit: no powcr is transn~ittcJi~ito conducting rcgion. In the x direction parallel to the boundary.. The incident electric and Reflected wave +H. 130th media are assumed to be dissipationless (a. The propagating wave in the x direction is a nonuniform plane wave. 4. A transverse magnetic ( T M )wave ( H = 0) will propagate in the x direction. El: and H.= o2 = 0). P2) Fig. we will consider separately. 811 z=o Plane wave incident normally on a plane dielectric boundary. 87 NORMAL INCIDENCE AT A PLANE DIELECTRIC BOUNDARY When an electromagnetic wave. The insertion of a conducting plate at z = nzi. . 2.. Medium 1 Medium 2 (€2. .. = u. . ./sin O. l I .r. which is the same as that in the perpendicular polarization. 811 where the incident wave travels in the + z direction and the boundary surface is the plane z = 0. Consider the situation in Fig.. . * H t an1 b":+ Transmitted wave Incident wave H./2 cos Oi (nt = 1. 3.. . The case of oblique incidence will be taken up in Section 88.. which form a parallelplate waveguide. . 342 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 * 2. the two cases of the normal incidence and the oblique inciclencc of a unili. thc As before.) where E . We may think of the situation as being like an impedance mismatch in circuits. 3.
k .. 3  H..): '.+. where El. y'I1 3 (8873) (887b) .(z) = a eJPlz. direction.(o) + H. . is the magnitude of E. 2 I.lio .(O) ) and + or or 1 El. :n the +: ctric and Note that the directions of the arrows for E. (870a) and ( S 7 0 b ) . themseives. : t These are the same expressions as those given in Eqs. Because ofthe medium discontinuity at z = 0. in Fig.. 'I2 (890a) Solving ~ q s&90n) nnd (890b).(O) = E. at r = 0. 3 . .< . ~ 'I I (8 9Ob) .. E El0 ~ =~ ) .J . I . and p2'and 1 are the phase constant and the intrinsid impedance of medium 2 respectively. :he tangential componed~s x components) of the electric and magnetic field intensltles (the must be continuous. H. . ~ ~ ~ e .. H.. . + Ero = El. . 4 1. and El. We have a) For the reJecte3 wave (E. . These equations are supplied by the boundary conditions that must be satisfied by the electric and magnetic fields.. wo ihl.".) where onducting late wave..~ p ~ . depending on the relative magnitudes pf the constitutive parameters of the two media.. 81 1 are arbitrarily drawn. Ei. . At the dielectric interface r = 0. " [ 171 i: I 1 Ei(z) = a . Note that z is negative in medltlm 1. . Two equations $re needed for determinidg the two unknown magn~tudesEr.d may. be positive or negative. . because ErO and E.' Y1 magnetic field intensity phasors are .(o) = &o) ( E . and E. the incident wave is partly reflected back into m e d i u ~and partly transmitted into medium 2. . b e have ~ ~ ( bE.
(z) as (8 97) + l El(z) = a . (896) that E1(z) is composed of two parts: a traveling wave with an amplitude rEio.and E.Ei. rejection coefficient and transmission coefficient. (894) 1 Note that the reflection coefficient I.. The transmission coeflicient t. ~ ~ ~ e .(z) does not go to zero at fixed distances from the interface. El(z) = a. is always positive. c. however.. and t in Eqs. i ~ i s n ici ~ s il~ i ~ iic. and/or r12 are cornplcs.lsc. If medium 2 is not a perfect conductor. Because of the existence of the traveling wave.z)].1 . (893) can be positive or negative. and a standing wave with an amplitude 21. . E.Eio. = a. The total electric field in medium 1 can be written as El(. Thus I.J p l z + r ( e j p l i . The standing wave will have zcro and maximum points. even when 1 7 . and t = 0 Consequently. A complcs hc (or r ) simply nicans tI1:11 I: pl~:~sc is i~i\roduccJ tile i ~ ~ t c r h c c 1.. in view of Eq. = 0. t i The ratios Ero/Eio and Eto/Eio are called.344 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES / 8 I . as discussed in Scction 85.Eio[~ejblz T(j2 sin /I.Eio[(l + T)ejpl' + T(j2sin biz)] or.IIXt s a ~ s ~ l ~ ~ n rclittcd by the following equation: 1 +T=T (Dimensionless). and a standing wave will be produced in medium 1. they are  i i and L t==EtO EiO *" q2+q1 b i * (Dimensionless). + (8 .In terms of the intrinsic impedances.) = Ei(:) + Er(:) = a .(z)l are conveniently found by rewriting E. Ero = . is greater or less than q.cllcctio11 sllifl :I[ ripuli (or tr:~nsrnission).in Eq. The locations of maximum and minimum jE.96) We see in Eq.~~ = axEiO[(l+ r ) e .j " ~ ' (TeJ2P1z). Eqs. depending on whether q . it merely has locations of maximum and minimum values. (895).jPl: 1 1 . .rnd T may Ilic~nscl~cs co~nplcsin \lie y m x i 1 . RcI1c~li01i ~ i d ~ ~ . (593) and (594) yield r = . The definitions for I. = O.'The incident wave will be totally reflected. partial reflection will result. (895) If medium 2 is a perfect conductor.. respectively. ~ ~ ~ ( e + jrejal'' 1 .. (893) and (894) apply even wh'en the media are dissipative: that is.
.2. . 1t customary to express S on a logaritl 7.iimum value to the minimum vdue of the ~ I C C ~ ~ fidd intensity of a standing wave is called the standingwuae rutio. S = 2 corresponds i i) rt..(z)1 is Eio(l 2nn(n = 0 . ' ...i ' ~ e . respectively: 4 . the locations for E.I :o i. . The standingwave ratio in decibels 1s . = .. ( z ) is Eio(l + r). . S.1.(l . (8101) WIiib the v:ilua o f r rangx from . occurs when 2P.which occurs at z. Consider the following two cases.zm.1 15. IS i. In other words.~..(. (899). ~ ~ when I.26 and (TI 0. A.which .. The maximum value of IE. given in Eq.. I can be positive or hegqtive. given in Eq. .::i! I i :..(z) in Eqs.the value oss riinges fro~nI to z. or i t + which occurs when 2/I.ioalngwave ratio of 20 log. making both r and r also real. ( ~ j l . o r a t + n. However. '1 87 I NORMAL INCIDENCE AT A PLANE DIELECTRIC BOUNDARY I ' I 345 F o r dissipationless media.)I. are real. .1)/(2 + 1) = .I) wliicll occurs at . 20 log. S. and the minimum valus of / E . Thus. and 1.a c i m and . stnndiqinve ratio of 2 dB is equivalent to S = 1..(SOS). and i i . 2 = 6. The maximum vdue of /K. and 4. 1.(z)l is Eio(l (2n l)n. (8'87b) and (888b).> 0 and when r < 0 are interchaflged.(z)/ is L..02 dB o l1 . ... ) .... 4 ..r). (8100) is irl = s+r S1 (Dimensionless). = The rnapetic field intensity in mcdium 1 is obtained by combining Hi(:) and H. I An inverse relation of Eq.= (2 . IC The ratio of the m. = The minimum 'value of lE.
vl . t (8103a) H. In a dissipationless medium.) constitute the transmitted wave propagating in + z direction.EioejP2'. (897) and (8102).%(E x H*) .j P ~ ~ . and vice versa. we use Eqs.. (8103a) and (8103b) to obtain Since we are dealing with lossless media. (897). 72 Z (8103b) Example 89 A uniform plane wave in a lossless medium with intrinsic impedance is incident normally onto another lossless medium with intrinsic impedance q. . and IH. (889b) and (894). In medium 2. we use Eqs. In medium 2. the power flow in medium 1 must equal that in medium 2.(z))I is a maximum.(z) = a. Obtain the expressions for the timeavcragc power dcnsirics in both ~nctlia. From Eqs. we have Et(z) = a . (E.346 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 This should be compared with E.= $.(z)J will be a minimum at locations where /E. r is real. H.Pa. where r is a real number because both media are lossless. through a plane boundary. (889a) and (894). ~ E ~ ~ e . . In medium 1. that is. A n d from Eqs.(z) in Eq.
In both siltlations. the total electric field intensity in medium 1 can always be written as the sum ofthe incident component a.h m . Another is n raclomc. 812 Normal incidence at multiple dielectric interhces. O n e such situlition is the ~ 1 s tof a dielectric cbhting dn g!ass in order to reduce glare from sunlight. 7 i = d 7  Fig. Medium 3 has a finite thickness = and interfaces with medium 3 (c3. p 2 ) .a (8 .103b) 88 NORMAL INCIDENCE AT MULTIPLE DIELECTR l ~ .lediunl 3 ( ~ 13) h .EiOeJP''and (8. media with difierznt constitutive parameters. (893) and (894). 3 . which is il clomcshapcd crlclosurc clcsigncd no1 only to protect radar installations from inclement weather but to permit the propagation of electromagnetic waves through the enclosure with as little refection as possible.12. ) impinges normally :it a plane boundary with medium 2 ( E ? . LAC power 12~vcragc fi In certain pi@tical situations a wave m q be incident on severai layers of dielectric. l d f ERFACES ' f npedance euance q .. Assuming ah . We now consider the threeregion situation depicted in Fig. Reflection occurs a t both := 0 and z = d.1 ( E . 8 . p 3 ) at z = d.ris num. p . Hl Transmitted csyas. determining the propcl.upolarized incident field. 4 m 1 must Medium 1 kll PI) 2=0 h. J . (8106) is true can be readily verified by using Eqs. A uniform plane wave traveling in the +: direction in medium. . and fz direc (8103a) T h a t Eq. a t : 0.dielcctric material and its thickness is an important design problem.104) wave + H.
5 I k .. and E l . (8107a) is. (c) the field transmitted back into medium 1 from medium 2 after a second reflection at z = d. .. .!p:>: . and so on. .' . .tnd ~n:!gtictic licld illrct~sity vectors in all three regions and apply the boundary conditions.. ... . . . the resultant of the initial reflected component and an infinite sequence of multiply reflected contributions within medium 2 that are transmitfed back into medium 1.. (893). .: . . . E. they can be combined into a single term with a coefficient Ero.. . e j P i z : . . .:: ?.. . . . .. E l . ::. .ind E.k. .. . . I i ) L i ! * 88. ~. Within medium 2 parts ofhaves bounce back and forth between the two bounding surfaces. . : . owing to the existence of a second discontinuity at z'= d.But hdw do we determine the rclation bctwocn I:. . . The 11.. .. (8S7b) and (8SSb).. (891) or Eq. i: 1 'i . . The total reflected wave is. . >* However. . . . . . in fact. . ... . a reflected component ' a X ~ .. 1 . ... .1 The electric and magnetic fields in region 2 can also be represented by combinations of forward and backward waves: In region 3 only a forward wave traveling in + s direction exists. The reflected field in medium 1 is the sum of (a) the field reflected from the interface at z = 0 as the incident wave impinges on it. . . in region 1 that corresponds to the El in Eq. some penetrating into media 1 and 3. . ! * 1 .z direction in medium 1 and contain the propagation factor ejhZ. . is to wrik don11 tilc clcctric . i % I . (b) the field transmitted back into medium 1 from medium 2 after a first reflection from the interface at z = d. .. there are a total of four unknown amplitudes: E.. . (8107a) through (8109b). . They can be determined by solving the four boundarycondition equations rccluirctl hy t h i continuity of ~ h c t:~ngcrlti:tl components of the electric and magnetic fields. n o w ? One way to find E. . Ero is no longer related to Eio by Eq. . . from Eqs.. I On the right side of Eqs. Thus. ..:: . Since all of the contributions propagate in the . . .
. which is obviously d functiorl of. . of the medium.:. . Total H. In the following subsections we introduce the Concept of wave impedance and use it in an alternative approach for studying the prdblem of multiple reflections at normal incidence. boundary as the ratio of the total electric field intensity to the total magnetic field intensity. L 349 no longer es bounce 3 media 1 1 from the itted back : at z = d .L + jq2 ~ i n . ) in Eq. 1 . / 3 ~ t ' . >  We definc the wuur iiupedat~ceu j the ford jiuid at any piiine parallel to the plane. l reflection &theinitial ~trihutions :contribu./ 88. : 8 I /.(z) ' m binations For a single wave propapatinq in the + r direction in an unbounded mealum. (81 10d) I 1 I I I The procedure is stfaigl~tforwardand is purely algcbraic (scc Problem P. it is . shch as that illustrated in Fig. 81 1 and discussed in Section 87. for a single wave traveling in the .q for all z.Ion factor low do we ti intensity In region 1 4b). is111. sin P.823).1 Wave Impedance 61 Total Field . we obtain 'I2 c i s p l t q l cos Pld (8110a) .4 = 111 + jq.L to the left of the boundary plane. from Eqs. . In the case of a uniform plane wave inddent fiom medium 1 normally on a plane boundary with an infinite medium 2. the wave impedance eqilals the intrinsic impedance. TotalEJz) Z(:) = (Q) . 812. At a distance 2 = . (81 13). the magnitudes of the total electric and magnetic field intensities in medium 1 are. (8110b) Z1(. (897) and (8102).z direction. Using the definition of r = (s.q l ) / ( i l z + q . q. we write.88 1 ~ J O ~ M A L ~NCIDENCEAT' M U L ~ P L E DIELECTRIC INTERFACES 4 ! . With a Idependent uniform plane wave as was shown in Fig. in general. Their ratio defines the wave impedance of the total field in medium 1 at a distance : from the boundary plane 31aI of four solving the :tafitial .
q2 = 0 and l. (81 13) and (81 14) are similar to the formulas for the input impedance of a transmission line of length l that has a characteristic impedance q1 and terminates in an impedance q 2 There is a close similarity between the behavior of the propagation of uniform plane waves at normal incidence and the behavior of transmission lines. when q. f i . The wave impedance of the total field in medium 2 at the lefthand interface z = 0 can be found from the right side of Eq. and Eq. we will find that Eqs. (8117). In that case. it cncountcrs o discontinuity at z = 0 and the discontinuity can bc charactcrizcd by an infinite medium with an intrinsic impedance Z2(0) as given in Eq. It' the ficlds E j . to Z2(0). by q. by q . in front of medium 3.. In many applications T o and E. Hence the insertion of a dielectric layer of thickness d and intrinsic impedance q. and C by d. = 7. has the effect of transforming q . The total field in medium 2 is the result of multiple reflections of the two boundary planes 2 = 0 and z = d.' which correctly reduces to q. I f I i 1 The conccpl of lotalliclci wavc impcdancc is \tc~. and ferminates in a short circuit.= 1.. sin P.. by P. . = TOEi. rocan be adjusted by suitable choices of q 2 and d. 812..350 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 . + jq. hence this impedancetransformation approach is conceptudly simple and yields the dcsired answers in :i dircct manner.2 Impedance Transformation with Multiple Dielectrics 1 L t . Ero of the reflected wave in medium 1 can be calculated: E. (81 16). When we study transmission lines in the next chapter. there is no discontinuity at z = 0. (51 14) by replacing y. hence there is no reflected 'wave and the totalfield wave impcdance is the same as the intrinsic impedance of the medium. Thus..d Z2(o' = "q2 cos /12d + jq3 sin BJ' q 3 cos P.d As far as thc wavc in mcdium 1 is conccrncd. has been found from Eq.Given q1 and q3. and 1 I c < b f . which has intrinsic impedancc y3. are the only quantities of interest. L:. Once I. but it can be grouped into a wave traveling in the + z direction and another traveling in the . If the plane boundary is perfectly conducting..2 direction.y useful in solving p r ~ b l e w t~ l~ s ~ l multiple dielectric interfaces such as the shuation shown in Fig. 88. I1 . : We note that I6 differs from r only in that g2 has been replaced by Z2(0). (81 14) becomes ' (8115) Zl(P) = jql tan P1d. The effective reflection coeficient at z = 0 for the incident wave in medium 1 is . which is the same as the input impedance of a transmission line of length C that has a characteristic impedance 11.
Since 1 = u. is belwccn media 1 a n t 3 having intrinsic impedances q . + e  71 i :hat Eqs.? 11 = 0. or (b) l C 21 sin P. 1  . = We have then two possibilities for thc condition of no rcllcction. or Z2(0)= q From Eq. I I ~bc s111sIicd 11 when cilhcr (a) r l Z = t13 7tll. 6. 11 the only ceptually . we require . Such a dielectric layer is referred . and q3 respectively.$ _ I " I I .d does not vanish. When q . ( ) ( I llld trlli' I l i t l i ~ I . we require and Equation (8119) is satisfied if either which implies that cos /?. a halfwave diefectric window is a narrowband device. 812. to as a halfwavedielectric window. f a trans. .= d (see Problem P. I:q..11 case of 110 dis~~ntlnulties . = q i . . ~ l ~ i cib i L ~ Lrivi. and ' j d = i ~22. E. 3 . Solution: with the dielectric layer interposeti between media 1 and 3 as shown in Fig.823). E. il'relation (8122) or (8122a) holds. sin P./. (8:11~) wc havc i  that has Equating the real and imaginary parts separately. Determine d and q2 su& that no reflection occurs wheh a uniform plane wave in medium 1 impinges normally on the interface with medium 2. thC condition of no I'eflectionat intprface z = 0 requires To = 0. ~ o l l ( l l l i o l (l X 121) holdh.mt. t h y &n be determined from the bqundary conditions at z = 0 and z. Example 810 A dielectric layer of thickness d and intrinsic impedance q . 2. the tqicknesr of the dielectric layer be a multiple of a half wavelength in the dielectric at (he operating frequency. (8120) cart be satisficd when 17. and Eq.d q 0 . 2.' tcs in an ' paga4ion sn llnes. in media 2 and are also desired. that is. . or d = hA. d ' 6 .d = 0. and Eq.ill.Jf = l / f a z . where / is the operating fre~ut!ncy. (8 120) C . On the other hdhd. 1. 1.
We will refer to this term again when we study analogous transmissionline problems in Chapter 9. p. 1 When media 1 and 3 are different. The medla are assumed to be lossless and to have different constitutive parameters (el. should be the geometric mean of q . and O'B are. 2 4 n=0. Medium 2 (€2. interface. Slnce both the incident and the reflected waves propagate In medium 1 with the same phase velocity up. . 89 OBLIQUE INCIDENCE AT A PLANE n'K!. Thus. Bccausc of the medium's discontinuity at the . Lines AO. 813 Uniform plane wave incident obliquely on a plane dielectric bo. the interscctions of the wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) of the incident.ndary. respectively. the distances and must be equal. and transmitted waves with the plane of incidence. 7 % ib  m' m' 00' sin 0. and 1 1 3 . a part of the incident wave is reflected and a part is transmitted. and d should be an odd multiple of a quarter wavelength in the dielectric layer at the operating frequency in order to eliminate reflection 'Under these conditions the dielectric layer (medium 2) acts like a quarterwave impedance tmnsformer. 813..~media. ..2.YCTR1C BOUNDARY 2 now consider the case of a plane wavc that is incident obliquely at 311 arbitrary angle of Incidence Oi on a plane interface between two die1eC'tii..and 1 d = ( 2 n + I). = 0 'sin Bi 0 Reflected Incident wave Medium 1 (€1. q .1. as indicated In Fig.) and ( E ~ p2). P Z ) ** PI) z =0 Fig. retqected. O'A'.
= 1 and n . Let us now examine !hell's law in Eq. Eq. i 353 f 4 r 1 I>! . = 1.O . . (8l?ib) reduces to sin 0.' .  f . ~ .1 Total Reflection . i . n~pedance )us trans 0.i l l a .~ ~ .inglc of to the inc~dencc. Since 8.s . and diekctric ~der these.i Xi) ~ : d .. . 8.~nglcok rcllcctioli is ~ ~ l ~ i i l . I : . 1. which is S n e l l ' ~luw oJreJecrion. :ty (8 .: . 1. 11 . Eqaation (8 123) asrllrcr or that tllc .T UP2 ~ P I (Sii 0 3 ' ~ i n i l . . (8123) i. the timc it takes for the transmitted wave to travel from 0 to B equals the time for the incident wave to travel &om A to 0'. In medium 2. I . t of 1 1 . when the wave in medium 1 is idcident on a less dense medium 2.:I 5 : 1 '. = [Ii. aB .at which angle .I I 89 1 OBLIQUE INCIDENCE AT /# PPUNE DIELECTRIC BOUNOARY or . > e2that is. (8124b) for c.. 'Thus. have We .an interesting 'situation arises when 0.A . if medium 1 is free space such that 5 . Furthermore. . . .. ~ ~ X I . increases with Oi. f' I 1 1 89. 5 '. = 7~12. I .> Bi. from which we obtain ardltrary h? I y .Ad C 1% l sin 0 .lncj ~ d x e of s : plme of ucd~um1 . . In that case.
in Eq.sin 8. The angle of incidence 0. (sin 0.. a. the refracted wave will glaze along the interface. . Reflected wave Surface . further increase in Oi would result in no refracted wave. cos 8. > 1 . (8124b) we have sin 8.354 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 ... = \iIEZ/E1)?From Eq.. 814 whcrc a. 1 . ~edium 2 KO) Medium 1 J52: z =0 elqs . a . 8. (which corresponds to the threshold of total rejection 0. reflected. I a . (8124b).14 Plane wave incident at critical angle... (8126) which does not yield a real solution for 0. e l > e2. and a. What happens mathematically if Oi is larger than thecritical angle 0.& * Fig. and transmitted waves respectively. .. > 1. . We have. .. becomes imaginary when sin 0. Incident wave ('I . = n/2) is called the critical angle.noting the directions of propagation of the incident.. sin 8. = n/2 in Eq. are unit vcctors dc. = J: : 7 .. and the incident wave is then said to be totally reflected. by setting 9. > 1. Although sin 9. (8126) is still real. * " z . This situation is illustrated in Fig.
. 813.' 1 ected. 0.1. cos 0. a wave exists o l m g the interface (in . it is li ncnuniform plane wave. Determine the minimtim dielectric constant of the guiding medium so that a wave inc~dent one end at any iing10 will bc confined wlthin the rod unt~lt emerges from on i the other end..$atialIy (8125a) *J a. + a..Y direction).id to the l impossihlc result of all incic. for the uiding dielectric medium.~. This wave is tightly bound to the interface and is called a surface wove It is illustrated in Fig. vary .i H . I! J' (8. = 74) In medium 2. as shown in Fig.c. > ' r (b126) I is 51111 rcal.transparent material can be used to guide light or an electromagnetic wave under the conditions of total internal reflection. is 1 J ! . must be greater than or equal to 8. that is. A  . which is attenuated exponentially (rapidlyJ in nedium 2 in the. Tllc upper sign in h . and H. For total infernal reflection.. the unit vedtor n. 1 (8128) in accordance with the following factor: (8125b) ktmors deitted waves 0 (4110 . 2 sin 8. cos 0. can conclude frorn (8119) We that for Oi > 0. 4r i  Both E.norm&ldirection (idirection). /" Fig. 8 15. 814. The n 0.losc i t wo~ilclic. sin 0.. Example 811 A didlcctric rod or fibcr of*a. Obviously. in $he d k t i o d of propagation of a typical transmitted (refracted) waGe.127) Solution: Refer to Fi .27) l l x bccn i~hmdunedbi. = a. 815 Dielectric rod or fibcr guiding elcctrornagnetic wave by total internal reflection.ising licld as 2 ii~crcasi.
(8125b) are independent of the polarization of the incident electric field. the transmitted electric and magnetic field intensity phasors can be similarly written as E .(x.~ + . . and (8125a). (879a) and (879b).. (876a) and (876b): E ~ (z) = a E . 1 .. x E r b . '+ a. we have . . ? . cos 8. = ni2. A. (8133a) Y 10 :co\ot) : t i The reflected electric and'magnetlc fields can be obtained from Eqs. we obtain ' .356 : r . WIUI od (81351) CO* Et0 H.  1 . ..  . = 4. From Snell's law of refraction.) = (a. 1 ! . .)ejfl"""'" 'I2 et + zcO"t'. Eq. (8124b) and the crit~cal angle for total reflection in Eq.\ . . I.> Ft .. (8124c). Since the largest value of thk right side of (8132) is reached when 0.. t I t ! .. from Eqs. . 89. are polarizationdependent. but remember that Ero is no longer equal to El.This requirement is satisfied by glass and quartz. + ~. sin f3. We observe that Snell's law of refraction in Eq.2 Perpendicular Polarization I For perpendicular polarization the incident electric and magnetic field intensity phasors in medium 1 are. (8135b) jI . z) = ayErOej / / (~ 5rn 0 . i i I . we require the dielectric constant of the guiding medium to be at least 2. In the following two subsections we discuss perpendicular polarization and parallel polarizatlon separately.. which corre<ponds to an index of refraction 1 1 .. The formulas for the reflection and transmission coefficients. * . Jcr~ It is i m ~ o r t a nto note here that the dielectric medium has been designated as medium t 1 (the denser medium) in order to be consistent with the notation of this subscction. (8131). J I .: cos ! I 0.) (8134a) 1 E I n medium 2. ( ~z) = a.~. .oejpz(. PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8 . however. Combining Eqs.j P ~ ( s s i n O . (8130).
E. Thus. are changed to (il. ' Because Eqs. namely.hnd 8. Their determlnarion follows from the requirements that the tangential compondnts of E and H be continuous at the boundary r = 0.) rcspcctively.. Therevarefokr anknown quantities in Eqs. When 0..x sin Or. Eqs. 0) .(Eio . these cxprcssions reduce to those for normal incidence. which leads to Snell's law of reflection (8.= E J x ..) and Snell's law of refraction (sin 0.il \ .(x. We have 79a) and and El0 TI== EiO '72 cos Oi 2t12 cos Oi q cos Or + ~ o r n ~ a r i n & ~expressions with the formulas for thc rellcction .. = 0. = 0.o ' 40 cos 0. as they . 0) + E&. (893) and (894). O). ..E. (8133a) through (8135b)./cos Oi) and (rli/cos 0. = /3.= 0. = 0. From Bi. we see th:~tthe same formulas apply if ill and 17.x sin 0. Plx sin Oi = /I. (8131) ts medium ubsection. +. (8136a) and (8li6b) are to he satisfied for ull x. making 0. .) '7 2 intensity from which Ero and Et0 can be found in terms of Eio.all three exponential bctors that are function5 of x must be equal.. Or..lnd transmission e coefficients at normal incidsnce. as and 1 'I1 Eio + Ero = E.. we have . = cos Or. (8137a) (8137b) . E.1 Equations (8136a) and (8l36b) can now be written simply sin @i = / 3 1 / P 2 = n1/h2!.
81 6.Eio) . the right sidc of Eq. and €Ii.WAVES 1 8 should. . = J and obtain from Eq.. The tangential E field on thc surface of the conductor vanishes. We have T = . Denoting this particular Oi by O. However. (8138) is in the form of a difference of two terms. = . and no energy is transmitted across a perfectly conducting boundary. docs /lot exist. which makes T = 0 for no reflection. is greater or less than unity. p.1 43) .j p ~x s i n O l ~ ( O l( + zcos '3) (8145a) . $ reduces to 1 ' sin 0. (895) for normal incidence. are (8140) which is similar to Eq.. O(E. = J=G~ which does have a solutioli whether p. q . ) = ~ 2 ~cos Oi . = p. we require . (884a) through (885b): E~(x.. related in the following way: . = po. Parallel Polarization When a uniform plane wave with parallel polaiization is incident obliquely on a plane boundary. = c2 and p1 # p 2 ./p. and 0 .. from Eqs. q . as illustrated in Fig.a= sin a i ) e . Noting that the numerator for the reflection coefficient in Eq.. Furthermore. In thc casc of E . Eq. is called the Brewster angle of no reflection for the case of perpendicular polarization. cos OB1 = q 1 cos 0. = 0).l(E. For nonmagnetic media. (8143) becomes infinite. = 0. thc incident and rcflectcd elcctric and magnetic field intensity phasors in medium 1 are. If medium 2 is a perfect conductor. we inquire whether there is a combination of q. i 358 PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC. = and T. (8141) . q 2 . ( 8 . it is a very rare situation in electromagnetics that two contiguous media have the same permittivity but different permeabilities. we have cos 0.. as wc have noted in Sections 85 and 86. = J 5 1I7 5 siii (8142) The angle 8.. (8141) 4 Using Snell's law of refraction.. T and T.
143) ( 8 . in lerms o[ELO.(x. 'I. Z) = Eto(ascos 6. ) L ' .Eio T I != 4 0 = '12 cos 6.)ejb:(xsinO~+ z) ay = m d t ) H. have the 'I I 112 Solving for Ero and E. .(a.I 0. jDl(* >.j . as well as to the following two equations: 1 5 e . + ic z cwot.3y .) = E 1 10 ' (8148b) juely on a ectrir(3 h(5 ): (8145a) (8135b) I and . 2a pendicul~r q 18143) $. obtain we . cos Oi + 2112 cos 13.(El... i Ho\+cver. 18.a_. cos 0. r vanishes.) or) (s1463) (8143) (8146b) 'I 1 The transmitted electric and magnetic field intensity phasors in medium 2 are Et(x. Y / ~ C O .(x. .cos Oi q2 cos 8. Z ) = C. .sin d.. 1) = Er0 .144) (81472) (8147b) 'I2 = Continuity requirements for the tangential components of E and H at .(8140) O= Ed .E.j b ~ ( ~ s i n O r= 0 s s 8.. . ~ ~ x ~ 0. IS we have 5) is ill the .? (8141) (8142) E.Ero = 1 I I . 0 lead again to Snell's laws of reflection and refraction. S Q ~ + ~ ~ C O S O ~ ' Eio ' These are also referred to as Fresnel's e&ariorls.tion of Ill. + 3.. sin ' / ~ . . 4 by 8.
360
PLANE EL~CTROMAGNETIC WAVES / 8
It is easy to verify that
Equation (8151) is seen to be different from Eq. (8140) forperpendicular polarization except when. Oi = 9, = 0, which is the casefor normal incidence. At normal incidence rll r l l reduce to r G e n in Eqs. (893) and (894) respectively, and as did I?, and 7,. If medium 2 is'a perfect conductor (qz = 0), Eqs. (8149) and (8150) simplify to rll  1 and r l l = 0 respectively, making the tangential component of the total = E field on the surface of the conductor vanish. as expected. From Eq. (8149) we find thai TI,goes to zero when the angle of incidence Bi ,, equals €IBl1, such that q 2 cos 9, = rl, cos OBtl which, together with Eq. (5142), requires sin' OBI1 =
1  ~ ' E ~ , / ' /. , € ~ L . 1
The angle OBI1is known as the Brewster angle of no reflection for the case of parallel polarization. A solution for Eq. (8153) always exists for two contiguous nonmagnetic media. Thus, if p , = p2 = pO, a reflectionfree condition is obtained when the such that angIe of incidence in medium 1 equals the Brewster angle OBI,,
'
Because of the difference in the formulas for Brewster angles for perpendicular and parallel polarizations, it is possible to separate these two types of polarization in an unpolarized wave. When an unpolarized wave such as random light is incident upon a boundary at the Brewster angle O,,,, givcn by Eq. (8IS), only the component with pcrpcnclici~larpolarization will bc rcllcctctl. 'I'lii~s,a Iircwstcr anglc is also referred to as a polarizing utzyle. Based on this principle, quartz windows set at the Brewster angle at the ends of a laser tube are used to control the polarization of an emitted light beam. Example 812 The dielectric constant of pure water is 80. (a) Determine the Brewster angle for parallel polarization, O,,,,, and the corresponding angle of transmission. (b) A plane wave with perpendicular polarization is incident from air on water suiface at Bi = OBI1.Find the reflection and transmission coefficients.
.,
REVIEW QUESTIONS
361
Solution
i
a ) The Brewster angle of no reflection for darallel polarization can be obtained directly from Eq. (8154):
I
poldriza.t normal pectivel y,
'
I
 Osll = sin '
=sin'd
'
Jl+(ilE,2j
1
1
) simplify
'
. =8l.P. 1 (1/80) The corresponding angle of transmission is, from Eq. (8124c),
+
the total
:idence 0,
'8152)
= sin'
(G1 ;)
'
= 6.38".
r\
I'
J)
b) For an incident Wave with perpendicu!ar polarization, we use Eqs. (8138) and (8139) to find TIm a r , at 0, = 81.0" and 0, = 6.38':
q1 = 377 (R), 377 qz=  0 . 1 (
ql/cos 0, = 2410 (Rj
~JCOS
I( p ~ r a l i d
0. = 40.4 (R).
connagwhen the
Thus
(8154) We note that the h l a t ~ o n between TLand r , given in Eq. (8140) is satisfied. )endicular larization s incident Imponent .le is also het at the tion of an
/7
REVIEW QUESTIONS
R.81 R.82 R.83
Define uiliform plane Imve. What is a wnvefionr? Write'th4~ornogeneo.1~ vector Hclml~oiiz'sequation for E in free s p c e . Dclinc n r ~ n w ~ ~ n d r ~ l :is \v(.i~\cllt~t~lb~r t.hh icliiicd Define phase ve[dcity.
is the value of the intrinsic impedance
10
n~i~ierl~c :of trans
i
N.84 R.85
~vavclc~~g~h?
) air on m
R.86 Define intrinsic itnpedance of a mediurn.'What of free space?
362
PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8
R.87
What is a TEM wave?
 1
R.88 Write the phasor expressions for the electric and magnetic field intensity vectors of an xpolarized uniform plane wave propagating in the z direction. R.89 What is meant by the polarization of a wave? When is a wave linearly polarized? Circularly polarized? R.810 Two orthogonal linearly polarized waves are combined. State the conditions under which the resultant will be (a) another lincarly polarized wave, (b) a circularly polari~edwave, and (c) an elliptically polarized wave. R.811 Define (a)propagation constant, (b) attenuation constant, and (c) phase constant. R.812 What is meant by the skin depth of a conductor? How is it related to the attenuation constant? How does it depend on a'? p n J ? R.813 What is meant by the dispersion of a signal? Give an example of a dispersive medium. R.814 Define group uelocit~. what ways is group velocity different from phase velocity? In R.815 Define Poynting vector. What is the SI unit for this vector?\ R.816 State Poynting's theorem. R.817 For a timeharmonic electromagnetic 'field, write the expressions in terms of electric and magnetic field intensity vectors for (a) instantaneous Poynting vector and (b) timeaverage Poynting vector. R.818 What is a standing wace? R.819 What do we know about the magnitude of the tangential components of E and H at the intcrfacc whcn a wavc impingcs normally on a pcrfcctly conducting planc boundary? R.820 Define plane o incidence. f R.821 What do we mean when we say an incident wave has (a) perpendicular polarization and (b) parallel polarization? R.822 Define refiectiorl coejficient and rransritission cotfl'cier~t.What is the relationship between them? R.823 Under what cohditions will reflection and transmission coefficients be real? R.824 What are the values of the reflection and transmission coeficients at an interface with a perfectly conducting boundary? li.325 A pl:~nc w:~vcorigin:~li~)g 111cdiu111( r I , 1 1 , / L , , . m l = 0) ix ~ I I C ~ C ~ C~lot.~~li~lfy it) I III OII i t plane intcrhcc ~ i l medium 2 (6, # E,, p, = p,, a, = 0). under what condition will ~ h electric h c field at the interface be a maximum? A minimum? R.826 Define standingwave ratio. What is its relationship with reflection coefficient? R.827 What is meant by the wave impedance of the total field. When is this impedance equal ' to the intrinsic impedance of the medium? L:
1
1
1I
i ?
I
!
I
t
, ,
PROE

i I
i I
I

PROBLEMS
363
R.828 Thin dielectric cbating is sprayed on optical hstruments to reduce glare. What factors determine the thickness df the coating?
ectors of an
R.829 How should the thickness of the radome in a radar installation be chosen'?
Iar~/zd? CirLt~onsunder 'inzed wave,
lt,N30 Si;~tc Stlcll's ltrw I J / ' w/lvc/iorl. R.831 State Snell's law o rejklcriorl. f R.832 Define cr~rrcul dhyle. When does 11 ex~st an interl'ice of two nonmagnetic rned~a" at R.833 Define Brewstet angle. Whcn does ~texist at ah interface of two nonmagnetic media? R.834 Why is a Brewster angle also called a polarizing angle? R.835 Under what conditions will the reflection and transmission coefficients for perpendicular polarization be the same as those for parallel polarization?
'ant.
:attenuation
w e medium. elocity?
PROBLEMS
P.81 Prove that thc electric field intensity in Eq. (517) satisfies the homogeneous Helmho1:z's equation provided that the condition in Eq. (818) is satisfied.
f' '
T
Jric t~,~lc~\erage
P.82 For a harmonic uniform pl:m wave propasating in a simple medium. both E and H \Iilry in accordance with thi hctor crp (,jk R) as indicated in Eq, ( Y ?I 1. Show :ha: the forr S1:lxwcll's cquaiioi~s unilorm pla~lc Ibl. W;L\C in :I sourcefrcc rcgiun L . O ~ I I C O O L1 k~llowiil~: L Ic k x I<'= (I)/L!~I k x H = WEE k . F; = 0 k.11 = O . P.83 The instantoncaus ixprcssioo for the magnetic field intensity of a uniform plane w:ivc propagating in the + y direction in air is givcn by
11
T. ,mcl 14 at
11)
I[!
!
aru.tlon and 1s111pbetween
7
a) Determine k , alld tt.e location whzre H z vanishes at r = 3 (ms). b) Write the instantaneous expression for E.
, 1'34 ,
merface with ormally on a 111 ~ h e n t r i c
Y
Show that a plane u.avc with an instant;lncous expression for the electric field
E ( , 0 = a,EI0 sin (cot  k:)
PA5
+ askzosin (rot  l i + $) ~
is ellipticalIn~larized. Find the polarization ellipse.
I ' ~ O V tlic rollo\~i~ig ~
:I) An elliptically polarikd plane wave can be resolved into righthand and lefthand
cnt? xdance equal
circularly polatfzed waves. b) A circularly polarized plane wave can bg obtained from a superposition of two oppositely directed elliptically polarized waves. .
364
PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8
I
P.86 Derive the following general expressions of the attenuation and phase constants for conducting media:
a = OJ
&[/a
 I]"'
(Np/m)
P.87 Determine and compare the intrinsic impedance, attentuation constant (in both Np/m and dB/m), and skin depth of copper [a,, = 5.80 x lo7 (S/m)], silver [c,, = 6.15 x lo7 (S/m)]. and brass [c,, = 1.59 x lo7 (S/m)] at the following frequencies: (a) 60 (Hz), (b) 1 (MHz), and (c) 1 (GHz). P.88 A 3 (GHz), ypolarized uniform plane wave propagates in the + x direction in a nonmagnetic medium having a dielectric constant 2.5 and a loss tangent lo'. a) Determine the distance over which the amplitude of the propagating wave will be cut in half. b) Dcterlninc the intrinsic impcd;lncc. thc w;~vclcngth,the p l m e vclocity. and thc group vclocity of the wave in the medium. '. \. c) Assuming E = a,50 sin (671109t + n/3) at r = 0, write the instantaneous expression for H for all r and x.
'
P.89 The magnetic field intensity of a linearly polarized uniform plane wave propagating in the + y directi~ii sea water [E, = 80. p, = 1. c.= 4 (S/m)] is in
'a) Determine the attenuation constant, the phase constant, the intrinsic impedance, the phase velocity, the wavelength, and the skin depth, b) Find the location at. which the amplitude of H is 0.01 (A/m). c) Write the expressions for E(y, t) and H(p, r) at y = 0.5 (m! as functions o f t . P.810 Given that the skin depth for graphite at 100 (MHz) is 0.16 (mm), determine (a) the 'conductivity of graphite, and (b) the distance that a 1 (GHz) wave travels in graphite such that its field intensity is reduced by 30 (dB). P.811 Prove the following relations between group velocity u, and phase velocity u p in a dispersive medium:
'
P.812 There is a continuing discussion on radiation hazards to human health. The following calculations will provide a rough comparison. a) The U S , standard for personal safety in a microwave environment is that the power dcnsity be less than I0 (mW/cm2). Calculate thc corresponding stmdard in terms of electric field intensity. In terms of magnetic field intensity. b) It is estimated that the earth receives radiant energy from the sun at a rate of about 1.3 (kW/m2) on a sunny day. Assi~minga monochromatic planc wavc, calculate thc amplitudes of the electric and magnetic field intensity vectors in sunlight.
PROBLEMS
365
istants for
.
P.813 Show that the instantaneous Poynting vector of a propagating cikularly polarized plane wave is a constant that is indcpendent of time add distance. P.814 Assuming that the radiatioh electric ficld interlsity of an antenna system 1s E = a,&
+ a&,,,

find the expression for the average outward power flow per unit area. 0th Np/m 0' (Sin)], AHz), and
I
In a non
P.815 From the point of view of electromagnetics, the power transmitted by a IOSSIC:~ c~axial cable can be considered in terms of the Poynting vector inside the dielectric medium between the inner conductor and the otiter sheath. Assuming that a DC voltage V, applied between the inner conductor (of radius a) and the outer sheath (of inner radius b) causes a current I to flow to a load resistance, verif) that the integration of the Poynting vector over the crosssectional area of the dielectric medium equals the power V J that is transmitted to the load.
P.816 4 righthand c~rcularly polarized plane wave represented by the phasor
= impinges normally on a perfectly conducting wall at : 0. a) Determine the polarization of the rcllec;ted wave. b) Find the induced current on the conducting wall. c) Obtain the instdhtaneous expression of the total electric intensity based on a cosine time reference.
P.817 A uniform sinusoidal planc wavc in air with the following phasor expression for electric intensity
dance, the
is inciclcnt
:I)
.ne (a) the such that
a pcrkctly cond~~cting pl;~nc : 0. at = thc I'rcclwncy : m l wavclcngll1 o f llic wave. b) Write the instantaneous expressions for E,(x, z ; t ) and Hi(x, z ; t ) ,using a cosine reference. C) Determine the angle of incidence. d) Find E,(x, z ) and H,(?c, z) of the reflected wave. e) Find E,(.u, :j and H ,(x, z) of the total field.
011
k'iritl
P.819 For the case of oblique incidence of a uniform plane wave with perpendicular polnrization on a perfectly conducting plane bounhary as shown in Fig. 89, write (a) the instantaneous expressions
following
n
thr;'
\
7
for the total fieldjn?edium 1, using a cosine reference; and (b) the timeaverage Poyctjng vector.

ltn~,..d
P.820 For the case of oblique incidence of a uniform plnne wave with p:wallel polarization on p ~ r k c t l ! ~ doc tiny pl;~nc Soul~claryas s l ~ u w ~ 1"ig. S10. wilt: (a) lhc instantaneous ond in ~ csprcssions
E,(x, z ; r ) and ' H,(s, z ; r)
: of about culate the
for the total field in medium 1, tising a sine reference; and (b) the timeaverage Poynting vector.
366
PLANE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 1 8
I
\
t
*
I
:
P.821 Determine the condition under which the magnitude of the reflection coefficient equals that of the transmission coefficient for a uniform plane wave at normal incidence on an interface between two lossless dielectric media. What is the standingwave ratio in dB under this condition? P.822 A unifomi plane wave in air with E,(z) = a,10ej6' is incident normally on an interface at : 0 with a lossy medium having a dielectric constant 2.5 and a loss tangent 0.5. Flnd the = following:
a) The instantaneous expressions for E,(:, t), H,(z, t), E,(z, t), and H,(z, t ) , using a cosine
reference. b) The expressions for timeaverage Poynting vectors in air and in the lossy medium.
P.823 Consider the situation of norn~alincidence at a lossless dielectric slab of thickness in air. as shown in Fig. 812 with
el
= E,
tl
7E ,
and p,
= p, = 11,.
i
I
a) Find E,,, E,', E;, and E,, in terms of E,,, d, 6,. and 11,. b) Will thcrc l x rcllcction nt intcrfircc : 0 if tl = i L , 4 ' ?Espl:lin. =
P.824 A transparent dielectric coating is applied to glass ( E , = 4 p, = 1) to eliminate the , 1 reflection of red light [ I = 0.75 (pm)]. a) Determine the required dielectric constant and thickness of the coating. b) If violet light [ I = 0.42 (pm)] i s shone ormal mall^ on the coated glass, what percentage of the incident powcr will be reflected?
P.825 Refer to Fig. 812, which depicts three different dielectric media with two parallel interfaces. A uniform plane wave in medium 1 propagates in the + z direction. Let TI,and T13 denote, respectively, the reflection coefficients between media 1 and 2 and between media 2 and 3. Express the effective reflection coefficient, I, at 2 = 0 for the incident wave in terms of T I : . , r,,, and P,d.
/
I
t t
i
!
i
!
1
Medium 1
(€19
PI)
z=O
z=d
Fig. 817 Plane wave incident normally onto a dielectric slab backed by a perfectly conducting plane (Problem P.826).
.
I
'
.
PROBLEMS
367
.
I
.
(
I
!'..'.
,'
1,
lent equals In interface condition? In interfiicc 5 . Find the ~g a cosine adium.
,
It
PA26 A uniform
wave with E,(i, t) = a,E,, cos CCI
I .

in medium 1 (el, p i ) is incident normally onto a lossless dielectric slab ( E , , p,) of a thickness d backed by a perfectly coriducting plane, as shown in Fig. 517. Find c .
,
a) E,(& t )
b Elk,
4 Ez(z, 0
4 PaVh
4 (9'A
thickness d
f ) Determine the thickness d that makes E1(3, t ) the same as if the dielectric slab were absent. ;* P.827 A uniform plane wave with E,(z) = a,~~,,ejfl~'in air propagates normally through a thin copper sheet of thickness (1, as shown in Fig, 818. Neglecting multiple reflections within the coppcr shccts, lind
;I)
E f . 111
1)) 1;: , l l j
C) E 3 0 , H 3 0
4 v'JA'(,pJL
Calcuiate (9aP,,)3/(9'av)i a thickness d that equals one skin depth at 10 (MHz). (Note that this for p~rtains the shieldin$ elrcctivcncss of thc thin coppcr shcct.) to
;no parallel i, :and media 2 and
rZ3
Copper sheer
srms of
r,,,
tZ
(€0.
POI
,d+
*A.
r
Fig. 818 Plane wave prop::gating through a t,liin copper sheet (Problem P.S27).
f?
P.828 A lCL(kHz) parullcll) polarized elcctromagnctic wave in air is incident obliquely on :In ocean surface at a neargrazlrlg angle Oi = SS'. Using E , = 81. jl, = I , :~nda = 4 (SJln) for sea~ . and wntcr, find (a) thc anglc of rcfi.nctian 0,. (b) thc transmission cocificient T ~ (c) (.Pd,,),:(.Pd,j,, (d) the distance below tllc ocean surface where the field intensity has been diminished by 30 (dB).
P.829 A light ray is idcitienr from air obliquely on a transparent sheet of thickness d with an index of refraction n, as shown in Fig. 819, The angle of incidence is Oi. Find (a) 0,.(b)the distance L, at the point of exit, and (c) the amount of the lateral displacement l2 the emerging ray. of
f .

+
,
a

.
+
A
.
.
v
.t'
.
".
Fig. 819 Lightray impinging. , obliquely on a transparent sheet of refraction index n (Problem P.829).
P.830 A uniform plane wave with perpendicular polarization represented by Eqs. (8133a) and (8133b) is incident on a plmdinterface at . = 0, as shown in Fig. 813. Assuming t r < r , and 0 , > Oc, (a) obtain the phasor expressions for the transmitted field (E,.?,), pnd (b) verify that the average power transmitted into medium 2 vanishes. il~ldenv;~tcr source with perpcndlci ir p d ~ r i ~ l t i c i.~ l l : p.831 Elcctromaglletic w;,vc from fresh uatcr. lind incident on a wrterair interf~lccat tii = 20, , Using cr = 81 rlidp,= 1 (a)critical angle 8.. (b) reflection coefficient r,, (c) ti;msmission coefficient 7,. and id) attenuation i n d B for each wavelength into the air.
P
I\
.
P.832 Glass isosceles triangular prisms shown in Fig. 820 are used in optical instruments. Assuming t, = 4 for glass. calculate the percentage of the incident light power reflected back by the prism.
7 .
.
Incident
'
.*.
1

Fig. 820 Light reflection by a right isosceles triangular prism (Problem P.832).
,
% . * r
.
P.833 Prove that, under the condition of no reRection angle and the angle of refraction is n/2 for:
f .
1 :
a an interface. the sum of the B r e w e r
k
t
i
a) perpendicular polarization ( p i# pz), b) parallel polarization ( E # c t ) . ~
.
,
,
.
i
.' .
L
~
.
P.834 For an incident wave with parallel polarization: a) Find the relation between the critical angle 0, and the Brewster angle OBI, for nonmagnetic media. b) Plot 0, and esll versus the ratio E , / E ~ .
I
1
I
(b) plot
P.835 By using sncll's jaw of refrxtion, (a) express I and T versus 0,for r,,/e,, = 2.25.
r and r in tcrnms of r.,,
f2,
and 0 , ; and
.
t?
P.836 In some books the rcflection and transnmsion coerXcicnts for parallel polar~zatlonare defined as the tatios of the amplitude of the tangentla1 components of, respectively, the retlected and transmitted E fields to the amplitude of the tangential component of the incident E field. Ti, Let the coeficients defined in this manner be destgnated, respect~vely, and ril.
a) Find
riland Til in terms of j l l , t7:, O,, and 8,; and compare them wlth TI,and r , , in Eqs. (8 149) alld (8150). b) Find the rslatioi between Ti, and ri,, and compare if with Eq. (8151).
An isotropic or omnidirectional electromagnetic source radiates waves equally in all directions. thc source energy must be directed or guided. therefore.+ We have now developed an e~ectrdma~netic model with which we can analyze electromagnetic actions that occur at a distance and are caused by timevarying charges and currcnts. At microwave frequencies parillelplate transmission hncs can be fabricated inexpensively on a dielectric substrate uslng printedcircuit technology. at AM broadcast frequencies. See Fig. 9l(a)). These actions are explained in terms of clcctrorna~neticfields and waves. This radiatctl cncrgy is n o t guided.arca at Iargc dishnccs. In this chapter we study transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves guided by transmission lines. . We have discussed thc propagation of unguided TEM plane waves in the last chapter. Even when the source radiates through n hi$ty directive antenna. a single halfwavelength antenna (which is only mildly directivet) would be over a hundred meters long. its encrgy spreads over n widc. This. The three most common types of guiding structures that support TEM waves arc: . The TEiM mode of guided waves is one in which E and H are perpendicular to each other and both are transverse to the direction of propagation along the guiding line.91 INTRODUCTION . They are often called striplines. and the transmission ol' power andinformation from thc source to a receivcr is incficient. would be excessively expensive. 1 ' Principles of antennas and radlatmg systems will bd d~scussedIn Chapter 11. We will now show in this chapter that many of the characteristics of TEM waves guided by transmission lines are the same as those for asuniform plane wave propagating in an unbounded dielectric medium. This is cspccinlly true at lowcr frcqucncics for which dircctivc antcnnas would have huge dimensions and. .type of transmission line consists of two parallel conducting plates separated by a dielectric slab of a uniform thickness. a) Parallelplate transmission line. . At the 60Hz power frcqucncy a wavelength is 5 million meters or 5 (Mm)! For cllicicnt pointtopoint transmission of power and information. For instance.
of TI~esc other transmiss.iramererelements (discrete resistors. :ind c. ~ h transi~ion is elfected from a network with li~mpedp. 91 Common types of ~ranslnissioniines. conductance. L.I c i r c ~ ~ i t C. and cap.r ili. k . induclance.ir..91 1 INTRODUCTION t 371 Fig. a@ along ih.111l?o1iic s~e. We should note that other wave modes more complicated than the TEhl mode can propagate on 411 three ofthase types ofti:lnsmission lines when the sep. 9!(a) lends directly to a pair of rransmissionline equations.ttion :.i~c properties of Ira11snlissio11 lillcs is g r ~ ~ i t l y of fiicilitaled by thi i~se grilp1iic:il charls wbich avert the necessity of repe~itedcalcuhtions with coinpler I I L / ~ : I ~ThcShest know11and most ividcly used graphical C~ .itions also he deriicd ijoill .ltiun hetivren the conductors is grci1tr.icit. The'generd tra~~rmissionline eq~~. in10onc p:ir:i1l~e~crs ~ ~ I ~ L ~ I c I i h ~ rLi [I ?~~ ~ ~ i o t ~ ~ ( I L I t (jllctors. The use of Smith cfiart for determining wave characteristics on a transmission line and for impedance. From the transmissionline equations all the chiiracteristics of &ve propsg. line). The stody 1sJiinlcli.matching will be discussed.ind siildied.long giYen line c. We will shbw that the TEM wave solut~on ofMaxwell's equations for the parallelplate guiding ptructure in Fig.ince per unit d from the circuit model to the electromi~gneti~ model Ierlgth of a line.ln be derived . G. .~p:~cito~~s) \bi111 d i s ~ r i i ~ ~ ~ l e c l of R.III model in terms of tile resistance.ion modes will be considered in the next chapter. chart is the Smith churt.in ~crtiiilifri~cliolls the oper:lLillg IV:IYCICII~III.itiys~.
= a . = 0. =0 (95) and H. and . c. Assuming perfectly conducting plates and a lossless dielectric. E . Figure 92 shows the crosssectional dimensions of such a line and the chosen coordinate system. . . 92 Parallelplate transmission line. (752a. as follows: At both y = 0 and y = d: H. (826) where y and 11 are. Fig. from Eqs. In the present case. Fringe fields at the edges of theplaes are neglected. 0. the propagation constant and the intrinsic impedance of the dielectric medium. respectively. The boundary conditions to be satisfied at the interfaces of the dielectric and the perfectly conducting planes are.372 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES / 9 92 TRANSVERSE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE ALONG A PARALLELPLATE T RANSMlSSlON LINE . Eq.. from Chapter 8. Let us consider a ypolarized TEM wave propagating in the + r direction along a uniform parallelplate transmission line. b. (838). and d). we have. For timeharmonic fields the wave equation to be satisfied in the sourceless dielectric region becomes the hornogeneous Helmhol:z's equation. from Eq. (9la) The associated H field is. the appropriate phasor solution is E = a.E. = which are obviously satisfied because Ex = E. e ~ ~ ' .
. and surface currents in parallelplate transmission line. .a . .. .: hy x H = J. Eqs. Field phasors E and H in Eqs. .eJ". . . :! \ 92 1 TEM WAVE ALONG PARALLELPLATE LINE 373 At y = 0 (lower plate). x H = J. :. surface charges.. . and H  a. = a.> 4 .. = a . are functions of only.. (98) and (99) become and Ordinary derivatives a p p ~ i labove because phasors E.. and H. This is illustrated schematically in Fib.: . '. At y =d (uppet plate).... ' . . a.. t w phasor D = psc or or psd = EE. a. '. ! ' !$ . . )n along a nal dimen:tidds the the homo... or E J.''y'. J. r f . = a.. .': > _:. . as d o E. * : I ' ? .' .  E ~ '7 ~  ~ ~(963) ~ (97a) Eo . \<!.... . . and H .=azHx= azorjpi. TEMmode fields.. 93. .< .E.. ... . r? (97b) Equations (96) add (9 7) indicate thar surface charges and surface currents on rhc conducting planes var) sinusoidally with 2. . . ..: a.EI. ... . . . '.. H . Fig. (912)and (91 b) satisfy the two Maxwell's curl equations: Since E = a.. . 93 n line. i'. . . = E aj. .
r is the total current flowing in the +: direction in the upper plate: and I is the inductance per unit length of the parallelplate transmission line.rcntial ccluutions ror V ( z )and for I ( = ) : .374 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 Integrating Eq. The dependence of phasors V ( z ) and I ( z ) on z is noted explicitly in Eq. Siniilarly.12) where v(r) = ' :J E. Thcy may bc coinhincd to yield secondordcr dilli.s from 0 to I\. (910) over y from 0 to d. (91 I ) nvcr . we have '= ~Ll(:). d y = E . wc intcgwtc Eq. f z ) d is the potential difference or voltage between the upper and lower plates. is the capacitance per unit length of the parallelplate transmission line.to obtain =j o C V ( z ) . Equations (912) and (914) constitute a pair of timeharmonic trai~smissiorzline ec1ucrtiot1. where . (9.s for phnsors V ( z ) and I(:). (912) for emphasis.
(917b) where the phase conlltant is the same as that given in Eq. the dielectric medium may have a nonvanishing loss tahger. is the same as that of a TEM plahe wave in the dielectric medium 92. (9 1.14) : which becomes. I which. 987). (92).The solutions of Eqb. again. e . To characterize these two effects we define two new parameters: G. The relation between V.1) or Eq. First. in view of the results of Eqs. and.~ ~ ' . In actual situations loss may arise from two causes. (9. and I . can be found by using either Eq. I 2. ' This statement will be proved in Section 93 (see Eq. (913) and (915).1. the conductance . (916a) and (916b) ate. .1 Lossy ParallelPlate Transmission Lines Wc l w c so far :i~sulhcdllic parallelpl~~lc tramnission linc to be lossless. the plates may not be perfectly conducting. V(Z)= Voejsz (917a) and I(z) = ~ . second. for waves propagating in the +: direction.
(846). ..Hx does not result in a !. and R. (915) directly yields If the parallelplate conductors have a very large but finite conductivity a. It is convenient to define a sur/ace impedance of an imperfect conductor..E. The conductance between two conductors septlratcd by a dielectric medium having a permittivity E and a conductivity 0 can be determined readily by using Eq. x a. Z.Xa(a.376 Ti4EORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMlSSlON LINES 1 9 . we hive =f = "SU E E.) Consider the upper plate where the surface current density is JSu= H. (567) when the capacitance between the two conductors is known. We have Use of Eq. Here we assume that both the conductivity 0.Hz) has a y component and equals the average power per unit area dissipated in each of the conducting plates. at the plate sarbces. (Obviously the cross product of a y E . and a.. We have  where the subscript c is used to indicate the properties of the conductor. For the upper plate. the resistance per unit length of the two plate conductors. such that the avera$hynting vector (924) = aspn =::..E. of the plate conductor and the operating frequency are sufficiently high that the current flows in a very thin surface layer and can be reprcxnted by the surlacc current J. This necessitates the presence of a nonvanishing axial clcctric field a. Thc intrinsic impcdvncc of . per unit length across the two plates. (which must not be confused with the conductivity a of the dielectric medium). component. A Hx = ~ C9 (926a) where qc is the intrinsic impedance of the plate conductor.l good conductor has been given in Eq.. as the ratio of the tangential component of the electr'c field to the surface current density at the conductor surface. . ohmic power will be dissipated in the plates..
. will = At hi& frquedcics. X . Stparation = d ) \ve assume that 1 frequency are g nd can be repred c o w t o r has clor. A. Li is negligible in comparison with the exterllal inductlncu . I = WJ. = x.r.. only) associated with a unit length of the plate is considered. Thus.I 92 1 TEM ~ A V E ALONG PARALLELPLATE LINE I 377 length oi'the two electric~medium lily by using Eq. .. unit length) of s parallelplate transmission line of width L I and separation (1. .. r'  (923) . '. has a positive renctancterm X.each of ' doe3 not result .. We note from Eq. . (624) gives I (927) vj . Table 91 Distributed Parameters of ParallelPlate Transmission Line (Width = W.. the ohmic Power P. (926b) !hat surface impedance Z. (926a) in Eq.. Substihi$ of.. Z.It is Table 91 lists the expressions for the four distributed purut~~eiers L. as IS spc.. as the ratio nt density at the s J. The ohmic poker dissipated in a unit length of :he plate havlng a wldth which can be expressed in terms of the total surface current.. G. If the total complex power (insrend of its real Part. that is nun3erically equal to R. lend to an ititert?aiiniiesinductance pcr wit lengtll L. We have :' (9 23) .~. = H. 2nd C per (R. m)... the effective serles resistance per unit length for both plates of a parallelplate transmission line of wldth iv is ipat .ivanishingaxial ng vector Equation (b28) is the power dissipated when a sinusoidal current ofdmplitude I flows through a resistance RJw. ohmic powcr ):.Eq. ~chvity (which o...
25. ~ n d lor a (c) characteristic resistance of 75 (R).4 (mm) and a dielectric constant 2. IEJ ~ ~ 5x. and R is considered :I slight pcrturb. Neglecting losses and assuming the substrate to have a thickness 0. of this axial electric field makes the wave along a lossy transmission line strictly not TEM. The very existence . 3 Hence we retain the designation TEM as well as all its consequences.) along llic linc. (b) determine L and C of thc line. The introduction of a small E: in the calculation of p. (b) . and (c) detcrminc 11.~.80 x lo7 (S/m)] in air [s = r0 = 10'/36n (F/m)] at a frequency of 3 (GHz).I).We note in the calculation of the power loss in the plate conductors of a finite conductivity o that a nonvanishing electric field a.. (a) determine the required width w of the metal strip in order for the stripline to have a characteristic resistance of 50 (R). (d) Kcpeat parts (. Solution a) We use Eq. .0. .E.ltian.. However. . An estimate of their relative magnitudes can be made as follows: I (930) For copper plates [oc = 5. . this axial component is ordinarily very small compared to the transverse component E. or 2 (mm). los/Eyl << IE.4 x 50 377 =2 x (m). (920) directly to find w. must exist.  Example 91 Striplines consisting of a thin metal strip separated from a conducting ground plane by a dielectric substrate are used extensively in microwave circuitry.
L. conductance per unit length.93 1 GENERAL TRANSMISSIONLINE EQUATIONS 1 379 . for Z b = 75 (Q). in Him.db circuitry. The circuit elements in an ordinary electric network can be considered discrete and as such may be described by lumped parameters.45 t) = Ri(z. . I I I a finite xistence ctly not 1 to the made as d) Since w is inveksely proportional to. and C d (c) for a . we have. d We will now derive the equations that govern general twoconductor uniform transmission lincs. Trdt~smission lincs clilrcr from ordinary clcctric nctworks in one essential feature. (9. t ) . and G and C are shunt elements. t) denote the instantkneous voltages at : z + Az respectively.~ ~ ~ U ~ t ~ O l l ti(?n. capacitance per unit length. in S/m. Similarly. .&. t ) denote the instantaneous currents at z and 2 Az. t ) A: &(z. transmission lines are usually a considerable fraction ofa wavelength and may even be many wavelengths long. Applying ~irchhasvoltage law. on the other hand. Currents flowing in lumpedcircuit elements do not vary spatially over the elements. in Qlm. inductance per unit length (both conductors). which leads to .30) il] l) at a $ 93 GENERAL TRANSMISSIONLINE EQUATIONS . t ) and i(z Az. A transmission line. C. and no standing Waves exist. Consider a differential length Az of a transmission line which is described by the following four parameters : R.: t ) . in) and a . we obtain + + /? 1). in F/m. n . Figure 93 ! shows the equivalent clcctric circuit olsuch a line segment.v(z + Ai. and i(z. are series elements. standing waves exist in a transmission line. t) + at (930a) . is a distributedparameter network and must be described by circuit parameters that are distributed throdghout its length. resistance per unit length (both conductors). Note that R and .md o v(z + Az. In order . Except under matched conditions. Whercas the physicai dimensions of electric networks are very much smaller than the operating wavelength. G. : I. The quantit~es(.r.
t ) .' For harmonic time dependence. we h:lvc + 2o(z + A:.. Substitution of Eqs.1 IA~I On the limit as Az . 0 93.t). (931) and (933) yields the following ordinary differential equations for phason V ( z )and I(z): ' Sometimes referred to as the telegraphist's equations. 94 Transr (930a) becomes Similarly.N i(z+Ar. .r) . t ) . 94. the use of phasors simplifies the transmissionline equations to ordinary differential equations. (934a) and (934b) in Eqs. Equivalent circuit of a differential length Az of a twoconductor transmission line. Fig.0 .era. v(z + A z . t j = 0. applying KirchhofYs current i(z. (932) becomes I I Equations (931) and (933) are a pair of firstorder partial differential equations in v(z. and both may be complex.i(: + A:.C A: lilw to the node N in Fig. . t ) and i(z. Eq. (71 t) . For a cosine reference we write where V ( z )and I(z) arefinctions of the space coordinate z only. They are the ge~zeraltransmissionline equations.G AZV(Z A:. . (932) On dividing by Az and letting Az approach . Eq.
can be combined rd solve for V ( z )and ~ ( z )We obtain I (931) and wc l ~ a v e ( 9 33) n where (9 33) yuations missione write (934a) (934b) i may be 33) yields is the propagation constccnt whose real and imaginary parts. cc and /. lo' V I. they depend on o in a complicated way. The solutions df E ~ L .are . c 1 93.reduce to Eqs. (935a) m (9 4 where the plus and minus superscripts dendte waves traveling in the + z and .95) thot V. G = 0).93 1 GENERAL TAANSMISSIONLINE EQUATIONS 381  . (935a) and (935b). V. which '. The nomenclature here is similar to that for planewave propagation in conducting media as defined in Section 83. V . THese quantities are not really constants because. Eqs. I:. mi it is wsy to vcrify (Problcm P. are the artenrlurm constant (Np/m) and phase constant (radlm) of the line respectively.'..+ . . and I .z directions respectiltely.(935:l) :~nd (935b). . Wave amplitudes.1 ' wave ~haractekistks an Infinite on i Transmission Line I I ' nductof The coupled timeharmonic transmissionline equations. (919) and (914) under lo&led conditions (R = 0. in general. are related by Eqs.' R+joL ' y 1 I . :Equations (93ja) dnd (935b) are timqbarionic transmissionline equarions. (936a) and (936b). . .
8
.
382
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LJNES 1 9
,
.
~ b an infinite line (actually a semiinfinitdline with the source at the leA end), r the terms containing the eYz factor must vanish. There are no reflected waves; only the waves traveling in the + z direction exist. We have
.
,
The ratio of the voltage and the current at any z for an infinitely long line is independent of z and is called the characteristic impedance of the line.
Note that y and Z, are characteristic properties of a transmission line whether or not thc linc is infinitely long. They dcpcnd on R. L, G. C. and tonot on thc Icngth waves. of the line. An inlinitc line simply implics that thcrc arc no rellcq~d The general expressions for the characteristic impedance in ~<(941) and the propagation constant in Eq. (937) are relatively complicated. The following three limiting a w s hnvc special significance.
I . Lassless Lirte (R = 0, G = 0). 3) Propagation constant:
(942a) (942b)
ci=O
p =w
b) Phase velocity:
a
0
(a linear function of o ) .
u =p.
p=F
1
(constant).
c) Characteristic impedance:
l7
'

2. ~ d w  L O SLine (R << oL,G cc wC). The 1.0~loss S condition is more easily satisfied at very high frequencies.
;t,
.
,
87
, ,
"
"
,
I
,,
.,
.
'
,
93 / GENERAL TRANSM~SSIONLINE EQUATIONS
I ,
IFt end),
:s; only
;1
I
I
a) Propagation constant:
is inde
+?$+ 2 G.;&)] P2~ T c (approxinlately a linear function of o)
b) Phase velocit):
C)
/I JLc Characteristic impedance:
I
u
"
=%
I
1

(approxi~natcly conbtanl).
3. Distortionless L h e (KjL = GIC). If the condition
L .
L
is satisfied, the expressions for both y and 2, simplify. a) Propagation constant:
asily sat
4
P=
o m
(a linear function of w ) .
:+
.
'\
., , . ,. ."...
.
. . ;:;g,
& ,
,
_
z ,
,
,
! . i .
,
. , < .!;'
3
..,
,:
'
,,
;.
>;:
.
,
,,
.v
F
,::
383
$
b) Phase velocity:
w up==\
B
rn
1
(constant).
(950)
c) Characteristic impedance:
Ro =
$
(constant)
(951a) (951b)
X o = 0.
Thus, except for a nonvanishing attenuation constant, the characteristics of a distortionless line are the same as th6se of a lossless line; na'mely, a constant phase velocity ( u p= l/m) a constant real characteristic impedance (2,= R, =j'LF). and A constant phase velocity is a direct conscqtiencc of thc Iinc:~~. tlcpcntlcncc of IIw p l i w co~isl:~nl on (I),. Siwc :I si!:11;1I IISU:IIIJ' c o ~ ~ s i 01' b ;I I X I I I ~ ol' I ' I ~ ~ ~ I c I I c ~ i ct ~is /I s , essential Illat thc dill'crcnt l'rcqucncy compoacnts travcl along 'iitransmission line at the same velocity in order to avoid distortion. This condition is satisfied by a lossless line and is approximated by a line wirh very low losses. For a lossy line, wave amplitudes will be attentuated, and distortion will result when different frequency components attenuate differently, even when they travel with the same velocity. The condition specified in Eq. (948) leads to both a constant cr and a constant u p  thus the name distortionless line. The phase constant of a lossy transmission line is determined by expanding the expression for y in Eq. (937). In general, the phase constant is not a linear function of o ;thus, it will lead to a up, which depends on frequency. As the different frequency components of a signal propagate along the line with different velocities, the signal suffers dispersion. A general, lossy, transmission line is therefore dispersive, as is a lossy dielectric (see Subsection 83.1).
Example 92 It is found that the attenuation on a 50(Q)distortionless transmission line is 0.01 (dB/m). The line has ti capacitance of 0.1 (pF/m). a) Find the resistance, inductance, and conductance per meter of the line. b) Find the velocity of wave propagation. c) Determine the percentage to which the amplitude of a voltage traveling wave decreases in 1 (km) and in 5 (km).
Solution a) For a distortionless line,
(950)
'
(951)
951a)
951bJ f
I
The three relat?ons above are sufficient to solve for the three unknowns R, L, and G in terms bf the given C = 10lo (F/m):
1
.
dis;:!use ., I, C). 2 of the
,i
i\. I t IS on li,%
:d b)
e, \4;lx'?
4'JL
b) The velocity of wave propagation on a distortionless line is the phase velocity given by Eq. (950).
1
1
= 2 x 10' (m/s).
cloc1ty. onstant
i~ng LIIC
, L J(0.25 x c) Tho ratio of two voltagcs a distancc z apart along the linc is
unction ent frelocities, ,I)ersiue, mission
93.2
After 1 (km), ( G / v l ) = e'Oooa = ,  1 , 1 5 = 0.317, or 31.7%. After 5 (km), (V'/V,) = e5000a = e5.75 = 0.0032, or 0.32%.
TransmissionLine Parameters
1g wave
n
\
The electrical properties of a transmission line at a given frequency are completely characterized by its four distributed parameters R, L, G, and C. These parameters for a parallelplate transmission line are listed in Table 91. We will now obtain them for ty;w!re and coaxial transmission lines. Our baslc premile is that the conductivity of the conductors in a transmission linc is asu;illy so !ligli Illill tho dTcct el. tbc wries rcsisli111cc lllc ~ ~ l l l p ~ l l i01t11c n oto lti~ propilgiltiot~ ct)llsti~ill ~sgligihlc.Ihc i s ~ p l i c i ~ l i o n is lsinp 1I1:11 ~ l l c wi~vcs the lilx on am approximate'g %M. We may write, ir) dropping R liom Eq. (937),
a
386
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES / 9
ti
i
From Eq. (837) we know that the propagation constant for a TEM wave in a medium with constitutive parameters (p, E, Q) is
[
'
'
, ,
.
,
,
I ,
1
,
b L
But
G a  C
E
(954)
i
c
i
f
in accordance with Eq. (567); hence comparison of Eqs. (952) and (953) yields
(955)
Equation (955) is a very useful relation, because if L is known 'or a,!ine with a given medium, C can be determined, and vice versa. Knowing C, we can find G from Eq. (954). Series resistance R is determined by introducing a small axial El as a slight perturbation of the TEM wave and by finding theahmic power dissipated . in a unit length of the line, as was done in Subsection 92.1. Eq~iation(955), of course, also holds for a losslcss line. The velocity of. wave therefore, is ecluul to t h e propugation on u 1o.ssle.s.s trun.srni.ssion line, u, = ]/,./LC, velocity of propugation, I/&, of unguided plane wove in the dielectric 06 the line. This fact has been pointed out in connection with Eq. (921) for parallelpi:dte lines. 1. Twowire tr.ansmission line. The capacitance per unit length of a twowire transmission line, whose wires have a radius a and are separated by a distance D, has been found in Eq. (447). We have
I
7
I
I
I
cosh ' ( D l 2 4
I
(956)+
I
1
D
From Eqs. (955) and (954), we obtain
I
and
L = cosh'
(5)
(Him)
1
L
.
(958)t To determine R, we go back to Eq. (927) and express the ohmic power dissipated per unit length of both wires in terms of p,. Assuming the current
+
i
I i
i
,
'7 
i
cosh  ( D l 2 4 z In (Dlu) if ( ~ 1 2 ~>>' 1. )
,
I
,. ,
3
p
'
.4
,!
I
\
,
.
i
:
8
. . .
i ; f
I
L
,
r
. .'Z ; .
':F "'""
1
.
"
'
, 381
93 1 GENERAL TRANSMISSIONLINE EQUATIONS
I
'.
1
1 )
i 0
.. .
:'
6
medium.
(953)
J , (Aim) to flow.in a very thin surface layer, the current in each wire is I = 2nal,, . and
.
(959)
.
I
Hence the seriea resistance per unit length for both wires is
(954)
I)
yields
(955)
line w t h Jimi G
,in
11 m a 1 E, t~ssipated
/ 
9) I to In deriving ~ ~ l ( 9  5 and (960), we have assumed the surface current . , be uniform over the circumference of both wires. This is an approximation. inasmach . as the proximity of the two wires tends to make the surface current nonun~form. 2. Couxiul rransntlssion fine. The external inductance per unit length of a coaxial transmission line with a center conductor of radius a and an outer conductor of inner radius b has b:xn found in Eq. (6124):
1
oj
\VLlLV
lrol
he
llrle. This
lines. &Iretransnce D, has
From Eq. (955), we obtain
(956)'
(957)+
To determine K, we again return to Eq. (927), where JSi on the surface of the center conductor is different from J,. on the inner surface of the outer condudor. We mudt haye
n
(' " 8 )
mic power .he current
388
THEORY AND' APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9
Table 92 Distributed Parameters of TWOWire and
.
Unit
Coaxial Transmission Lines parameter TwoWire Line Coaxial Line
L
~c0shl
n
(k)
I
1n2n
I.1
6
a
t
HIm
Internal Inductance
IS
not included

1 .
From Eqs. (965a) and (965b), we obtain the resistance per unit length: (966)
, ,
I
I
The R, L, G, C parameters for twowire and coaxial transmission lines are listed in Table 92.
93.3 Attenuation Constant from Power Relations
1
i
j
i
I
The attenuation cqnstant dl a traveling wave on a transmission line is the red part of I ~ propitgtion constant; it can be determined from the basic definition in Eq. C (937): . (967) a = &',(I)= : ( 1[J(R jmL)(G jwC)]. +
1
;
I'
,
+
The attenuation constant can also be found from a power relationship. The phasor voltage and phasor current distributions on an infinitely long transrnlssion line (no reflections) may be written as (Eqs. (94Un) and (940b) with thc plu\ snpcrscript dropped for simplicity): v ( ~ )voe(n+jP)z = . (968a)
/ ?
i
I
j
i
,:
*r
93 / GENERAL TRA~SMISSIONLINEEQUATIONS
389
I
.
\
t
6
The timeaverage b o a r prbpagated along the bne at any z is
(
7
P(z) = +%[V(Z)~*(Z)]
The law of conservation of energy requires that the rate of decrease of P(I) with distance along the lide equals the timeavsrage.power loss PL per unit length. Thus,
= 2ctP(2), from which we obtain the following formula:
I
llgth,
n
(966)
Example 93 a) U s e Eq. (9701 to lind thc attenuation constant of a lossy transmission line with distributed paradeters R, L, G and C. b) Specialize the result in part (a) to obtain the attenuation constants of a lowloss line and of a distortionless line.
~ c are listed s
Solution
a) For a lossy trahshission line the timeaverage power loss per unit length 1s P L ( ~= j[lI(zj12R ) rhe real part ~ i t ~ o n Eq. in (967)
+ p(z)12q
(971)
2lz0l2 ~ubstitutibn Eqs. (069) and (971) in Eq. (970) gives of
 v 2 (R + G I Z ~ ~ ' ) ~  ' " . 
ons ship. The ~r:~nsmission e ph . W e r 
(R+ GIZOlZ)
b) For a i$;toss
(NpIm).
P 
line. Z , z R,,= Jq?, (972)becomes Eq.
, 68a) ,
(968 b)
390
THEORY AND APPLlcATloNs OF TRANSMISS~O'N
I
,
which checks with Eq. (945). For a distortionless line, Zo = Ro = Eq. (972a) applies, and cx=h&+;k), 2 which, in view of the condition in Eq. (948), reduces to .=R& Equation (972b) is the same as Eq. (9494.
94
m.
I
I
I
,(972b)
!
WAVE CHARACTERISTICS ON' FINITE TRANSMISSION LINES
In Subsection %3.l we i n d k ~ t e d that the generd solutions for the timeharmonlc onedimensional Helmholtz equations, Eqs (936a) andL936b), for transmission . lines are (973a)
where
v:
10'
V L &
1,
For infinitely long lines there can be only forward waves traveling in the + . direction, and the second terms on the right side of Eqs. (973a) and (973b). representing reflected waves, vanish. This is also true for finite lines terminated in a characteristic impedance; that is, when the lines are matched. From circuit theory we know that a maximum transjer of power fqom a given voltage source to a load occurs under "inuiciied c o ~ ~ d i t i o ~ d ' the load impedarlce is the complex co~ljugate the source i~npedn~lce when of (Problem P.91 I). In transmission line terminology, a line is inatci~edd ~ e nl ~ r o d i l ~ m , w d a ~ ~srrrlltcrl to thc c~hirrcrc/c~ris/ic i e irnpedencr (not the compicx corqilqalr [hi. charucteristic impedance) of the line.
I
I
il
i
. z'=i~. z=o
f
z
=
P
I i
I
z'= 0
Fig. 95
Finite transmission line terminated with load impedance ZL.
.
I
.
Lct us now consider ihc gcneral c a u of it f h l c transmission line having a characteristic imp&incezilterminated in an arbitraty load impedance Z,, as depicted in Fig. 95. The l h g t h Of the line is C. A sinusoidal voltage source V , E with an internal impedance 2,is conriected to the line at z = 0. In such a case,
which obviously cadhot bc satisfied without the second terms on the right side of , Eqs. (973a) and (933b) unless Z, = Z,.~ h u sreflected waves exist on unmatched i . lines. Given the characteristic y and Z o of the jine and its length &, there are four unknowns V V,', f,C, and I, in Eqs. (973aj and (973b). These four unknowns , : = are not all independent because they are constrained by the relations at : 0 mcl at z = L. Both V(z) and Iiz) can be expressed either in terms of I/; and I, at the input end (Problem P.912), or in terms of the conditions at the load end. Conslder the latter case. Let z = C in Eqs, (9Y3a) and (97313). We have VL = V:eyt + V;eYC (976a)
J ; 1, = eyc  'eY/ .
2 0
,
v,+ z0
(97Gb)
Solving Eqs. (976aj and (976b) for V, and V;, we Have V: = $(VL + I,z,)~Y' V f = $(VL Ti ILZo)Ztt, .

(977a) (977b)
Substituting Eq. (975) in Eqs. (9774 and (977b), and using the results in Eqs. (973a) and (973b), we 3btain
Since L and z appear together in the combination (L  z), it is expedient to introduce a new variable z' = G  2, which is the distance measured backward from the load. Equations (978a) aiid (978b) then become
We note here that although the same symbols V and I are used in Eqs. (979a) and (979b) as in Eqs. (978a) and (978b);the dependence of V(zl) and I(zl) on z' is different from the dependence o f V(z) and I(z) on z.
392
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9
.
I I ,
<s
.
The use of hyperbolic functions simplifies the equations above. Recalling the relations
eY"
+ eY" = 2 cosh yz'
and
eY"  e?" = 2 sinh yz',
we may write Eqs. (979a) and (979b) as
V(zf) = IL(ZLcosh yz'
I
+ Z, sinh yz')
(980a)
.
(980b)
6
which can be used to find the voltage and current at any point along a transmission line in terms of I,, Z,, y, and Z,. The ratio V(z1)/I(z')is the impedance when we look toward the load end of the line at a distance z' from the load.
Tll!
Z, cosh yz' + Z o sinh yz' V(z') Z(zl) = = zo 1 Z, sinh yz' + Z, cosh yz' 4~')
(981)
'I
Z(zf)= z,
Z, Zo
+ Z o tanh yz' + 2,tanh yz'
teri
is st the
At the source end of the line, z' = l,the generator looking into the line sees an input impedance Zi.
z, = (Z),,,
Z'=J
= Zo Z o 2, tanh yL
Z,
+ Z, +
tanh yt'
As far as the conditions at the generator are concerned, the terminated finite transmission line can be rep!aced by Z,, as shown in Fig. 96. The input voltage I/;. and input current I, in Fig. 95 are found easily from the equivalent circuit in Fig. 96.
Ex 7 irc
A
Fig. 96
Equivalent circuit for finite transmission line in Figure 95 at generator end.
line loP and
1
,.
, ; '
..
.
:..
? . !
,i .bL
tf: :
1.. , b'
',
. ..:
> ;.
'
:callitlg the
'.,
,
f : ,,; . : @.
3 1
'
.
, :
,
,
,
:
.* '
:. . . ,<.,:
&
*.I
>
' '
,,'.
:
. : l'
1
,
., :.
''
, ., I
Of course, the volta& and current at any other location on line cannot be determined by using the equivalent circuit in Fig. 96. The average power delivered by the generator to the input terminals of the line is
I
i
=I=/.
1
I
L.
ransmission
d end of the
(PaV)~ = @~[JV?],=O, The average power delivered to the load is

(985)
Fur a lossless line, cons~xvation power requires that (Pa,),= (Pa,),. of A particularly impomnt special case is when a line is terminated wlth its characteristic impedance; that is, when Z L = Z,. The input impedance, Z , in Eq. (983), is seen to be equal to Z,. As a matter of fact, the impedance of the line loolung toward the load at any distance z' from the load is, from Eq. (982), sees an input
Z(zf) = Z ,
(for Z , = Z,).
(957)
The  oltage and cdirent equations in Eqs. (97821) and (9786) reduce to (98Sa) (9S8b) Equations (988a) and (388b) correspond to the pair of voltage and current equationsEqs. (940a) and (940b)representing waves traveling in +I direction. and them are 110 rcllcctrd WL vcs. Hence, wiletl a jirtite trnnrplnsiurr litle is termitlured wtii its own characteristic itnpedunce (when a jinire transmission line is matched), rhe uoltuge und current dist~ibutions the line are exactly the same as though the line on had been extended to injinity.
Example 9  4  A signal generator having an internal resistance 1 (Q) and an opencircuit voltage v&t) = 0.: cos 2n108t (V) is connected to a 50 (Q) lossless transmission line. The line is 4 (nl)l o c g and the velocity of wave propagation on the line is 2.5 x 10' (mh). For a matched load, find (a) the instantaneous expressions for the voltage and current at an arbitrary location on .the line, ( b ) the instantaneous expressions
V ( z ) = (ILZ,eyL)eY" Xe?' = I(z) = ( ~ ~ e ~ ' ) e  I,eyz. = ~'
I finite transI/, ~ltage and t id Fig. 96.
.
,
.t
.
394
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES / 9
for the voltage and current at the load, and (c) the average power transmitted to the load.
Solution
a) In order to find the voltage and current at an arbitrary location on the line, it is first necessary to obtain those at thc input end (z = 0, z' = I). The given quantities are as follows. (V), a phasor with a cosine reference Z , = R, = 1 (n) Z 0 = Ro = 50 (0) o = 277 x  lo8 (rad/s) u p = 2.5 4 lo8 (m/s) f = 4 (m). Since the line is terminated with a matched load. Zi= Z , = 50 (R). The voltage . and current at the input terminals can be evaluated I the equivalent circuit from in Fig. 96. From Eqs. (984a) and (984b) we have
#
5 = 0.3/0"
v='
50 x 0.3/0" 1+50
= 0.294p
(V)
I.=0'3/0"  O.0059p (A). ' 1+50 As only forwardtraveling waves exist on a matched line, we use Eqs. (968a) and (968b) for, respectively, the voltage and current at an arbitrary location. For the given line, a = 0 and
Thus, V(z) = 0.294ej0.8nz (V) I(z) = 0.0059ej0.8"z (A). These are phason. The corresponding instantaneous expressions are, from Eqs. (9 34a) and (934b),
!
.
I
9
tted to ihe . '
* ,
I
Y
,
. ,
,
\
b) At the load, z = = 4 (m), I ut4, t) = 0.294 cos (2n!b8t
i
 3 . 2 ~ (V) ~)
e line, it is ved quan
) :' i(4, t) = 0.0059 cos (2rr108t  3 . 2 ~(A). c) The average power transmitted to the load on a lossless line is equal to that at the input t e r h d l s ,
(PJJL (P.Ji = :!%'L[v(z)1*(2)] = = j(0.294 x 0.0059) = 8.7 x
94.1 Transmission Lines as Circuit Elements
( W )= 0.87 (mW).
he voltage ent circuit
/' '
' Not only can transdission lines be used zs waveguiding structures for transkrring power and informatibn fium onc point to another, but at ultrahigh frequenciesU H F : from 300 ( M ~ z t.) 3 (GHz); wavelength, from I (m) to 0.1 (m)they may ) scrvc 21s circuit clcmanls. A t thcsc rrcqucncics, ordinary lumpedcircuit clcmcnts arc dilficult to make, and str.ly fields become important. Sections of transn~issionlines can be designed to gibe an ,inductive or capacitive impedance and are used :o match an arbitrary load td the internal impedance of a generator for maximum power transfer. The required length of such lines as circuit elements becomes practical in the U H F range. In most cases transmissionline segmenti can be considered lossless. y = jjl. Z , = R, and tanh 7L' = tanh (j/V) = j tan / f he formula in Eq. (983) for the input I. impedance Z i of a lossles line of length G terminated in 2, becomes
I,
1s. (968a) location.
ZL jRo tad /?/ Z l = R, Ro jZL tan /)/ (Lossless line) We now consider several important special cases.
1. Opencircuit rerntinatm (2, t a). e have, from Eq. (989), W
+ +
from Eqs.
f7
396
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSLON LINES I 9
/
Fig. 97 Input reactance of opencircuited transmission line.
P
Table 93 Input Reactance of OpenCircuited Line, X,,
(2n1)<L<n4 (2n  1) 4
1
I.
1
2
(2n  1)  < Pd < nn 2 (2n  1) 2
IE
K
Inductive
0
When the length of an opencircuited line is very short in comparison with a wavelength, p.4 << 1, we can obtain a very simple formula for its capactive reactance by noting that tan P.4 2 pf. From Eq. (990) we have
which is the impedance of a capacitance of C.4 farads. 2. Shortcircuit termination (2, = 0). In this case, Eq. (989) reduces to
Zi = jX,, jRo tan b.4. =
(992)
Since tan p.4 can range from  co to + co,the input impedance of a shortcircuited lossless line can also be either purely inductive or purely capacitive, depending on the value of p.4, Figure 98 is a graph of X i s versus 4,and some important properties of Xis are listed in Table 94. ,
Fig. 98 Idput reactance of shortcircuited transmission line.
(2n 1 )  < r ; < n 
A
4
/. 2
Capacitive
parison with pactive reac
It is instructive to note that in the range where X,.is capacitive X,, inductive, is and vice versa. The input reactances of opencircuited and shortcircuited lossless transmission lines are the same if their lengths differ by an odd multiple of 214. When the length of a shortcircuited line is very short in comparison with a wavelength, DL << 1 Eq. (992) becomes approximately
which is the irnpcd~ncc +n inductilncc of LL henries. of 3. Quarterwave secti~ns = 114, DL = ~12).When the length of a line is an odd (f mult$l+pf A/4, l = ( 2 ,  1)1/4, ( n = 1,2,3, . . .), ortL i t e d
: depending ,
le
important
Hence, a quarterwave lossless line transforms the load impedance to the input terminals as its inverse multiplied by the square of the characteristic resistance; it is often referred to as a quarterwave transformer. An opencircuited, quarterwave line appears as a short circuit at the input terminals, and a shortcircuited quarterwave line appears as an open circuit. Actually, if the series resistance of the line itself is not neglected, the input impedance of a shortcircuited, quarterwave line is an impedance of a very high value similar to that of a parallel resonant circuit. 4. Halfwuve sections (C = 142, P t = n). When the length of a line is an integral multiple of i.12, d = n1/2 (11= 1, 2, 3, . . .),
tanpt =O, and Eq. (989) reduces to
1
t
Zi ZL =
(Halfwave line).
(995)
1
j
:
Equation (995) states that a halfwave lossless line transfers the load impedance to the input terminals without change. Open and shortcircuit terminations are easily provided on a transmission line. By measuring the input impedance of a line section under open and shortcircuit conditions, we can determine the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant of the line. The following expressions follow directly from Eq. (983). Opencircuitrd line, 2,  co : ,
1
I
i
I
,
I
Zi,, Zo coth yd. =
Shortcircuited line, ZL = 0 : Z, = Zo tanh ye.. From Eqs. (996) and (997) we have
and
I
(994)
,
Equations (998) ahd (9.199)apply whether Or not the line is lossy.
(999)
, r / ~ einput
sistunce; it drterwave 2d quarterol ihe line r~ave line aut circuit. dn integral
J
Example 95 The opencircuit and shortcircuit impedances measured at the input terminals of a very lowloss transmission line of length 1.5 (m), which is less than a quarter wave~en~td, respectively fi4.6 $2) andj103 (R).(a) Find Z, and y of the itre line. (b) Without ckanging the operating l'requency, lind ihe input impedance of a shortcircuited lind that is twice the given length. (c) How long should the shoncircuited line be id ordeifor it to appear as an open circuit at the input terminals?
Solution: The givbn quantities are
Zit,= j54.6, % , = jlO3, , a) Using Eqs. (998) and (999), we find
P' .
P = 1.5
7=
1
1,s
tanhl
/=
Z , = / j54.6(]103) = 75 (Q) ,
j54.6
=  tan ' 1.373 = jO.628 (rad/m). j
1.5
(995)
1 irnpcdarm
b) For a shortcircuited line twice as long, I = 3.0 (m),
ye = j0.628 x 3.0 = j1.884 (rad).
The input impedance is, from Eq. (997), nlsslon line. ,hortcircuit xopagation (983).
Z,, = 75 tanh (j1.884) = j75 tan 108" = j75(  3.08) = j231 (R).
(996)
Note that Zisfor the 3 (m) line is now A capactive reactance, whereas that for the 1.5 (m) line in p x t (a) is an inductive reactance. We may conclude from Table 94 that 1.5 (m) < 4 4 < 3.0 (rn). c) In order for a shortcircuited line to appear as an open circuit at the input terminals, it should be an odd multiple of a quarterwavelength long.
A==
.
2z
h97)
p
0.628 l o (m).
2n
Hence the required h e h g t h is
(998)
400,
THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANS'MISSION ~ ~ N E S . 1 9 ,
' ,
i:
I
,
,
.
,
94.2
Lines with Resistive Termination
a
: ,
!
When a transmission line is terminated in a load impedance ZLdifferent from the characteristic impedance Z both an incident wave (from the generator) and a re, flected wave (from the load) exist. Equation (979a) gives the phasor expression for the voltage at any distance z' = I  z from the load end. Note that, in Eq. (979a). the term with eYz'represents the jncident voltage wave and the term with e"' represents the reflected voltage wave. We may write
:.
!
,
where
is the ratio of the complex amplitudes o f the reflected and incident voltage waves at the load (z' = 0) and is called the voltage rejection coeficient of the load impedance Z .It is of the same form as the delinition of the reflection coeficient in Eq. (893) , for a plane wave incident normally on a plane interface between two dielectric media. It is, in general, a complex quantity with a magnitude Il 5 1. The current equation r corresponding to V(zl)in Eq. (9100a) is, from Eq. (979b).
I1
i
1
i
!
The current reflection coefficient defined as the ratio of the complex amplitudes of the reflected and incident current waves, I ; / I , + , is different from the voltage reflection coefficient. As a niatter of fact, the former is the negative of the latter, inasmuch as l ; / l : =  V,/V:, as is evident from Eq. (974). In what follows, we shall refer only to the voltage reflection coelkicnt For a lossless transmission line, y = jfl, Eqs. (9100a) and (9100b) become
I V ( z l ) 4 ( Z , , R,,)ejp"[l = 2
+
+ rejZ6"]
ternlinated lille iis the rialdingmce ratio. are standing waves with their maxima Bnd minima occurring at fixed locations along rhc ilnc. (8100)..lnsmission line when ZL = Z . 1 V(z')J= vLJcos2 O:' (I(:')l = I ~ J C O S ~/: I' + (R. independent O ~ Z .il~cwi~ve in Eq. Noting that cosh j0 = L cos 8... we dcfinc the r:ltio of thc caw rn:lrlmum to the m i n i n ~ u ~ n voltages along a linite. (Lossless line) If the terminating impedance is purely resistive.') = ILcos pi' L (91033) (9103b) + j sin /3z1. S=1 become  I. we obtain b =ID .the voltage and current magdituderi are given by (9 . = ~ L / C Plots of IV(zt)l and )l(zr)Ias functions of . . 2. .(in Eq. VL = ILRL. (9105).jILR.rent from the tor) anii a re:xpression for . xal it Examination of Eqs.. with eYz' re : The voltage a n current phasors on a lossless line are more easily visualized from Eqs. d 1 .)' s i n 2 F + (RL/R0)2s i n 2 p . (Matched load). (9105) and (9106) that on a lossless tr. 1 Eq. Sfbndingwave ratio 5 defined in terms of lIma. S60 when ZL = 0 (Short circuit). S: . ) : I= 1. r = + 1. it is customary to express it on a logarithmic scale: 20 log. and sinh j8 31 j sin 8.ZL. (980a) ahd (980b) by setting y and V = I. Because of the wide range of S. h!!dB). ' where R.~~. Analogously to t h ~ pl. A high standingsave ratio on iI line is i ~ ~ i d c s i ~l~ h i tc~ s c results in a 1./R.105) The inverse relatiod of eq./ . (979a).lnl in the results same expression as that defined in terms of 1 V.l/~~..V(zl) = V cos pz' 4. (9lO2a) and (9lO2b) reveals that /VmaX/ and occur = ðer when (1 kz'(1. sin pz' L I(..lrgc power loss.104a) (9104b) . + r = 0.111 (D~mcnsronlcss). inasmuch we shall refer I I It is clear from Eqs. (9105) is (9100b) (9106) : amplitudes s le voltage reter. (9.//(V. S when Z L m (Open circuit). . = RL.
. Wc have (9.lxi~num (current minimum) will occur at the terminating resistance. ( n = O . The standing waves on an opencircuited line are similar to those on a resistanceterminated line with RL > R. . except that the IV(zl)/and Il(zl)l curves are now magnitudes of sinusoidal functions of the distance zr from the load. RL < R. 99 Voltage and current standing waves on resistanceterminated lossless lines.. . At the termination.). = 0. . 2.. For an opencircuited line.402 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF T RANSMlSSlON LINES 1 9 O n the other hand.2.2. Two cases are possible.. .2. . 2' = 0. . = R.igo ~n. but VL is finite. . r = 1 and S + co. I.. and Eq.) from the load. Other rnaxil~xi tllc of voltagc stunding wavc (minitnu of the currcnt st. 8. r is positive rcal and 0.) from the load.1 lua) v(zt)(= VL lcos Vz'( I All the minima go t o zero. 2. ... Other minima of the voltage standing wave (maxima of the current'standing wave) will be located at z' = rd/2 (11 = 1.A voltogc ' o ) minimum (current maximum) will occur at the terminakng resistance. At the termination. Of course. (9101) sim~lifies to (Resistive load). The roles of the voltage and current standing waves are interchanged from those for the case of RL > R. In this case. Fig. occur together when' (2n+ 1)n.. or z' = ni42 (11 = 1. .. by letting RL + co. und c o ~ ~ d i t i(0~ l10s) is sntislicd (for 11 = 0 . : = 0. r =RL . ~ and (I.Ro RL + Ro The voltage reflection coefficient is therefore purely real. Figure 99 illustrates some typical standing waves for a lossless line with resistive terminaticn. = 0.:. and condition (9107) is satisfied (for II = 0). = RL.This mc:lns thi11 ti vo1t. 1. (9108) For resistive terminations on a lossless line.2pzk= 1. . RL > R. Equation (9109) shows that r will be negative red and 0.ivc) will hc locatcd i i l 2/3z1 = 2rm. Iv.~nding w. = n. 2. This is seen from Eqs. (9104a) and (9104b).
. Z L = R. /cm bz'l. i. xima of the :located at rr. X i It. (9102a) and (91OZb).. a) Since the terminating impedance is purely resistive.lace. 910 Voltage h d current standing waver on open.12. We have. (a) Show how the value of a terminating resistance on a lossless line of known charactetistic impedance Ro can b determined by measuring S.I First. 9. whether RL is greater than R.i . 0. (if there are voltage maxima at z' = 0. for '1 ossible. I V(zf)l= ILRo/sinPz'l Il(z')/ = I . = 0. and occur at pz' = 0 . lossless lines. we can determine .and shortsircu~ted .~ 1 and ( . O n the other and.. Equations (9104a) and (9104b) reddce to i. occuk at /Irt = n/2. :maximum.At voltage .. IMz1)l for shortcircuited h e . ll(z')l for openc~rcuitcdline. ion. if RL > R. the standing waves on a shortcircuited line are simdar to those on a resistanceterminated line with RL < R.. i/2. but 1 .etc. 11 . VL = 0.).. is finite. ietc. Both /VmaXI (1.10. (if there are voltage minima at ' = 0.and shortcircuited lossless lines are shown in Fig. and 1~ . z' = 0. V(zl)/ shortcircuiml h e . (b) What is the impedance of the line looking toward the load at a distance equal to one quarter of the operating wavelength? Solutio)~ : d rcsistancere now magis seen from t V. This can be easily ascertained by measurements. Example 96 The staxlingwave ratio S on a transmiss~on is an easily measurline able quantity. is finite. Other wave) will ioltaqnd r = i.. Fig. 1. or whether RL is less than R.) .L I V(z')I for openc~rcu~ted line. (91 1 la) (9lllb) Typical standing Wzves for open. Here R L = 0. from Eqs.
. This result is anticipated because of the impedancetransformation property of a quarterwave line given in Eq.14) to 1(1/4) is the input impedance of a quarterwavelength. Equations (9103a) and (91UbJ become V(jL/4) jILRo = (Question: What is the significance of thc j in thcsc cquations?) The ratio of V(1. and sin /I:' = 1. resistively terminated.3 Lines with Arbitrary Termination .Ioccur at pz' and Second. What will happen if the terminating impedance is not a pure resistance? It is intuitively correct to expect that a voltage maximum or minimum will not occur at the termination. In the preceding subsection we not:d4hat the standing wave on a resistively terminated lossless transmission line is such that a voltage maximum (a current minimum) occurs at the terminatiorwhere z' = 0 if RL > R. 8 = . occur at 1. Both (Vmi.. and a voltage minimum (a current maximum) occurs there if RL < R.. if RL < R. We have b) The operating wavelength.404 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION /vmaxl IImi. 1 ' cos /kt= 0. . 1: = nI2. a n d = n/2.show that information on the direction and amount of this shift can be used to determine the terminating impedance.I pz' = 0. At 2' = 214. and that both will be shifted away from the termination. (994). lossless line. 94. can be determined from twice the distance between two neighboring voltage (or current) maxima or minima. In this subsection we will. A.I and / . A..
= 2P::. by an extra distance f. 7 load. 911 Voltage standing wave on line terminated by arbitrary im~edance and . If we let the standing wave continue. we have ' I . operty of a rzmtirrared ti[.. = : . from 6 Sl S+l Use 0 . R.from Eq. (989). R. hnd I. Find le ratio of brivel~f ler lrl from S. Ia ' ... as shown in the figure. The rcll u d im:&ar) pails of Eq (9114) form two equations. < R..n z'Z o I Fig. can bc determined expcrimcntally by musunng the stand~ngwave ratio S and the distance 2: in Fig. . 911. (910s). = . and assume the voltage standing wdve on the line to look like that depicted in Fig.. = RL + jXL.iIlCC is 1 m t x i or away from :direction mce. (9106).934). Using R.. . Find 0.) The procedure is as follows: 1..Q.Let the termindting (or load) impedand be 2. (Remember that 1 + i..) OF 1 'rent .n forjl = 0 from Eq. Usu Il1 2.can bc solved (sce Problem P.  . t I t. 911. We note that neither a voltage maximum noca voltage minimum appears at the load at z' = 0.. say. The voltage distribution on the line to the left of the actual termination (where z' > 0) is not changed by this replacement. will reach a it minimum. equivalent line section with pure resistive 1. Sroin w h ~ hl x t two unknowns.. Thc load impcd:ln~c % . Thc volthge minimum is where it should he if the original termmating terminated by a pure resistance impedance ZLis replaced by a line section of lehgth l. for 2 add dm for d.. The fact that any complex impedance can be obtained as the input impedance of a section of loul&s line terminated in a resfstive load can be seen from Eq.
5 ~(rad) r = (rider = 0. (91 14) 30 . Example 97 The standingwale ratio on a lossless 50(Q) trvnsmission line terminated in an unknown load impedance is found to be 3. can be located more accurately than the latter. the distance from the termination to a voltage maximum could be used instead of 2:. Since R. (91 15)is used to determine Z. 2x 2x Step 1 : We find the magnitude of the reflection coefficient.5 b) The load impedance ZLis determined from Eq. Solution a) The distance between successive voltage minima is half a wavelength.. The procedure leading to Eq. The former. and the first minimum is loc. if terminated on a line of length em.f R m that.5ej0. t 50 + jR. t . and it is preferable to find unknown quantities in terms of S and &. D ~ ~ ~ I (:\I I~ I I CI ~cllcctio~\ I I I ~ cocIlicic111l'.Irl . (9102a) and (9..4 = 5x (rad/m) ... the distance from the termination to the first voltage minimum. (91 14). from a measurement of S and of 2.! = R&. which is the ratio of Eqs. therefore.0. B.2 = 0. < Ro.5n = j0.will yield an input impedance ZLcan be found easily from Eq. i.0 .05 . find (c) the equivalent. the voltage minima of a standing wave are sharper than the voltage maxima. R.n = . and C. lrl.n =2 x 5n x 0.102b) at I = 0: ' ZL = RL +FL Ro = + ITlejer I . 91 1.In addition.or 1 (9115) The value .. However.length and termina&@resistance of a line such that the input impedance is equal to 2. Step 2: Find the angle of the reflection coefficient.= 0. from the standingwave ratio S = 3.: I I I ~(b) [IIC l ~ UII~CLIJIICC d Z. = 2& . in Fig.  A = 2 x 0. We may use Eq.. (9115): / c) Now we find R. Of course. /?= . from 0. Thc dintan& betwccn successive voltage minima is 20 (cm). tan p.j4O = 50 R m + j50 tan p.~tcdi l l 5 ( ~ 1 1 1 ) fro111the load.A Find ZL.4 (m).
. Z. must satisfy at the 0). 4.112 and Rm = R.z' i a constraint exists at the generator end where 2 = 0 and 2' = i. . and e m =1. Let a voltage generator V with an internal impedance 2.0." which is thc sourcc of Lhc wavcs.' + (9 IS] 5 ) an input RoIS. = why? '  114 = 0 0 (m) Rm = S R . from Eqs.7 (R). No attention has been paid to the generator at the "other cnd. (9i00aj and (9IOOb). which the voltage V and the current I . the line characteristics (1. Actually. characteristics (V. (9...Do you see .117a) and (91 17b) in Eq. lsurement irnum.. t. = I&.4 TransmissionLine Circuits n line terc bctwccn < i t 5 (crnr mpedancc :of 4 4 e Our discussions on the properties of trmsrnission lines so far have been restricted primarily to the effects of the load on the input impedance and on the characteristics of voltage and current waves.05 = 0.. (9116) enables us to find /7 1 Another set of solutiofls to pirt (c) is fm t'. 94.5 and . Hence.)../S. V.2 .). 95. and the load impedance iZ. and Pt...I i Z ..15 (m) Rm= 50 3 = 16.. we know i. of 1 be used r than the the lattei.represent the source . Thc additional constraint at : 0 will cnable the voltage and current anywhere on the line to be expressed in terms of the source Z. connected to a finite transmission line of length L that is terminated in a load im= pcdance Z. condition). Just as the constraint (the boundary .. But.)eiLII + re'?' 1 (9117a) and Substitution of Eqg. = 150 (a). as shown i l l Fig. load end (z = l. . The constraint Bt z = 0 is = V.94 1 WAVE CHARACTERISIICS I Ohl FINITE TRANSMISSION LINES 40i and solve the airndtaneous equations obtained from the real and imaginary = pans for R. = y (ZL : standing IL + Z.zk 2 = 0.
It is obtained directly from the simple circuit shown in Fig.408 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION +' is the voltage reflection coefficient of the generator end. (9122) is the complex amplitude of the voltage wave initially sent down the transmission line from the generator. Let us concentrate our attention on the voltage equation (9120a). These are rather complicated expressions. (9121b) (9121c)  The quantity v . (9100a) and (9100b). but their significance can be interpreted in the following way.o . (9120a) as follows: where V. (9121a) represents the initial wave traveling in the : . obviously the interpretation of the current equa&&(9120b) is quite similar. = r(VMeyd)eyz' V z = rg(TVMe2Yd)eYz. Using Eq. (9118) in Eqs. f Equations (9120a) and (9120b) are analytical phasor expressions for the voltage and current at any point on a finite line fed by a sinusoidal voltage s'ource V.. 912(a). We expand Eq. we obtain Similarly.vz z0+ Zg . The phasor V in Eq.
= Z.. of the line as if the line were h n i t e l y long. This is illustrated schematically in Fig. flected for 2. and it stops at the matched load with no reflections.36/450 (R). t' = 3.) gcnerutor with V. Lrr thc voltsource Vg.6 (m). = 2. . This proccss continues indefinitely with refections at both ends..6 ( n long and term~narsd a r) in 25 + j25 ( R )load. 1  . Before this wave reaches the load impedance Z. and the resulting standing wave I: /) ( ' is the sum of all the waves traveling in both dircctions.e:IC)travelifig in the . at the input terminals and V idt tht load.ITV. 7 = ct + j p has a real part. As a consequence. exist. When the first wave VT = Vb.. only V ..it is again re.e'' reaches 2. tc) the vo!tage standingwave ratio on the line. and (d) . 912 A transffiission4necircuit and travelitlg waves. both V : and V . = 0. interpreted &e equation 3b) is quite 2  + z direction. and V .:. exists. r = 0. (b) I. and all higherorder reflections vanish. but Z. V . # 2. ..C~"') traVclin~i n 4: direction. it is reflected because of mismatch." l diminishes the amplitude of rl reflected wave each time the wave transverses the length af the line.. Ro = 50 (Q). Find (a) V(z) at a locatiod z Irom the generator. and the attenuation effect of r . returns to the generator at z = 0.2 direction. then r f 0 and r. ' sansr~~~ssion iown in Fig.. at 2 = d'.# Z giving rise to a second wave V: with a complex amplitude T. ZL= 25 + j25 = 35.(V) and ~nternalresistance 50 (R) is connected to J lassless 50 (R) air line that is 3. In practice. the average power delivered to the load. 2. When the lirle is terminated with a nlatched load. resulting in a wave V . 9lZ(b). it sees Z. = 100. with a complex amplitude T(V. As the wave V . Esnmple 98 A 100(Mllr. (if the internal idpedance of the generator is matched to the line). If 2.Fig..
j2n:/3[l + 100 0.. V(z) is the superposition of only two traveling waves. At the load. (9120a).343~j(0. w 2n1O8 2n = 2.36/135" + 50 100 Z.272*] L = 5(0.692) = 3.6) = 5[ej0.316 .672~ 1.j0. . l.82" (V).343eJ0. p==. V = V(3. c) The voltage standingwave ratio is d) The average power delivered to the load is It is interesting to compare this result with the case of a matchcd load when Z L = Z O= 50 j O (a). a) From Eq.35. In + IV.= 0. Vi = V(0) = 5(1 + 0. 2 .4n (rad) + Z.25 + j25 . V : and V .50 . + z.461.343ej0. (9121).l = V Iq ='I = 5 (V). .: b) At the input terminals. = 0.1/14" = 0.4n + 0. 103.Z o . that case.343/121" = 0.672&8)n4 n z I 3 j e I We see that. p/ c 3 . because r.534 . (25 + j25) + j25 r = ZL . as defined in Eq. e.3" (V).3 x lo8 .(rad/m).'28n) = 5(1.52.410 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 Thus.134) = 6.34310.jO. we have V(z) =  z. = 0.(25 +'j25) .611 5.
' Stated succinctly. January 1939: m d "An improved transmissionline calculator. (989). and r.95 / THE SMITH CHART / 41 1 and a maximum avirage:bower is delivered td the load: I t which is consideradly larger than the Pa. p. where r and x are the normalized resistance and normalized reactance respectively. January 1944. reflection coefficient by Eq. (9124) is  P.25 (W). are the real and imaginary parts of the voltage reflection coefficient r respectively. Equation (9101) cdn be rewritten as where r. and load impedance by Eq.Smith. vol. The beit known m d most widely used graphicel chart is the Siriirh cbnrt devlsed by P. 17. (9101). The inverse relation of Eq. 12. = v: 5 = . 2 x . ThE SMITH CHART b 'I Mlximum P. (91 15)often invdhe tedious miinipulations of complex numbcrr This lcdl~rm c. vol.. let us examine the voltage reflection coefficient of the load impedance defined in Eq. H. (9101): Let the load impedance ZL be normalized with respect to the characteristic impedance R." Electronlo. H. calculated for the unmatched load in part (d). . a Sn~itllchilrt I: a graphical plot of norn~alizedresistance and reactance functions in the reflectioncoefficient plane.in be alleviated by using a grilphicd mec!i~dof solut~on. = of the line. 2R. Smlrh. 130.50 = 0. p 29. cs~ In order to understlnd how the Smith chart for a l o ~ ~ l transmlision h e 15 constructed." Electronics. Transmissionline ~alculationssuch as the determination of input impedance by Eq. "Transmissionlinc calculator.
AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES I 9 Multiplying both the numerator and the denominator of Eq. (9127a) is plotted in the?.412 THEORY . 913 Smith chart with rectangular coordinates. we obtain If Eq. the resulting graph is the locus for this r. . . Fig.Ti plane for a given value of r. and separating the real and imaginary parts. The locus can be recognized when the equation is rearranged as . (9126) by the complex conjugate of the denominator.
Ti = 0) point. Eq.= 1 and T. The centers oh11 rhrcles lie on the'ir$xis. . 2. : 1.(r + js). Thc actual load impedance is Z . The intersection of an rcircle and an xcircle defines a point that represents a normalized load impedance z . I .. and those for x < 0 (capacitive reactance) lie below the r.hxis. The same chart can be marked withpolar coordinates. rl A Smith chart is a chart of r. = 1. represents a shortcircuit. 4. at (T. A family of the portions of xcircles lying inside thc /I/= 1 boundary are shown in dashcd lines in Fig. : i .. + . 1. but once the point representing a certain Il r ' I . The following is a list of several salient properties of the ucircles. x ending at the [ r . = 1. = 1. I : .6 circle.circ~c.I unity radi'us and ccntcrcd at thc origin..= l/x. This is the equation for a circle having radius l/[x(and centered at T. . I : . point P in Fig. The point P. . hwiog . I I ~.l2lb) may be rearranged as (r.. 913. The xcircles become progressively smaller as 1 1 increases from 0 toward a. Different values o f x yield circles of different radii with centers at different positions on thc r..7 circle and the x = 0. . ~ S~X CLI As an illustration. (YI&) . . those for x > 0 (inductive reactance) lie above the r. such that every point in the rplane is specified by a magnitude I f 1 and a phase angle 8. is thc largcst.Since a Smith chart plots the normalized impedance. therefore. the r. at (T. = T i = 0) corresponds toi r = 0 and x = 0 nhd. Several sa~iknt properties of the rdircleslare noted as follows: weobtain . All xcircles pass through the (T. Similarly. 1 . . and Ti rectangular coordinates. linc ~I. . . It can be proved thi.7 + j0. : / / ' . .and scircles are everywhere orthogonal to one another. . ending at the = 1.6. This is illustrated in Fig. Ti A 0 ) corresponds to an infinite impedance and represents an opencircuit. = 1.and xcircles in the T...l>iilx~'yI I . The rcmles becoAe progressively 'smiller as r increases from 0 toward m.js. : ! . = 0) point. : '5 tion is re . where several ]TIcircles are shown in dotted lines and some Orangles = 1 circler The Irlcircles are normally not shown on are marked aroufid the commercially available Smith charts. The x = 0 circle bzcomes the rraxis.. 4. 913 is marked with T. . . The'Smith chart ic Fig. (9l27b) :redulting I .. All rcircles pdss through the (I. . Ti = 0) point.. . 1 .~tions concerning :I Inssicss i~x~lklllissitl~l wit11 . . 9 13 is the intersection of the r = 1. = R. = 1. 1 . . . Herice it represents 2. : I C ~ C ! ~ ~ ~~ ~ L ': I I ~ C C . it can be used for cn1cul. 3. . The point Po. fi 95 1 THE SMITH CHART 413 8 . . 2.. :complex . = 1 line. Thc r = ~. .axis.~~. .. . . 1 !. The centers of ali scircles lie on the Tr = 1 line. = 1. 4' 3.Ii plane for Irl 5 1. 914. . Ti = 0) point. .1. . I . (9.
that the value of the rcircle passing through the point P . we note the following: 1. Since x = 0 along the real axis. wc find Irl = atid 0. it is a simple matter to draw a circle centered at the origin through the point. Similarly. = R. jx is located. At thc ' P. we conclude from Eq... (9124).. For = 1.. i I I I I i A : . and thc point on thc: ncgativcrcal axis (OP. where r > 1 : and R L < I<.. without using Eq. is numerically eqlial to the standingwave ratio. and P . z =r .. In summary. 914 we designate the point on the positivercal axis (OfJ.. (9105).. markcd P in Fig. I I I . 914 Smith chart with polar coordinates. 9 14. = 28 ... + . both represent situations with a purely resistive load.6 point. All Il1circles are centered at the origin. (9113) that the value of the rcircle passing through the point P. Z . where r < 1. This relation enables us to say immediately. Obviously RL > R./R.)as I'. at P. ln Eq. r = S = 2. = r Tor K L > R.414 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION 9n0 270' Fig.. The fractional distance from the center to the point (compared with the unity radius to the edge of the chart) is equal to the magnitude Il of the r load reflection coefficient.0. These results can be verified analytically. on the negativereal axisis numerically equal to 11s. (91 19)we found that S = K.. In Fig. and the angle that the line to the point makes with the real axis is 0. a t l'.7 jO. This graphical determination circumvents the need for computing by Eq. + I ..) as P.. Each Irlcircle intersects thc real axis at two points. and their radii vary uniformly from 0 to 1. l'.
. (9100a) and (9100b) we have. as was asserted in Eq. The input impedance looking toward the load at a distance z' from the load is the ratio of V ( t ' ) and I(z'9. . meisured from the positive r h l axis. (995). we can r keep Irl constant and subtract (rotatz in the clockwise direction) from Or an angle equal to 2pz' = 4Rz1/ikThis will locate the point for lTIeJ\ which determines z . Inc. as given in Eq. We note that a change ofhalfawavelength In line length (A:' = i/2) corresponds?~ ifl(Azl) 2n change in 4. and = / r l e J 9 is of exactly the same form as Eq. > R. All of the Srni!h charts used in th~sbook are ~eprintedwlth perrnlsslon of Ernelold Industries. equah 0. (9130) relating z. (9101). (9125) rcliitinf and = IT[eJnr. but actually it consists merely of constantr and constantx circles. For =1 8 ' 7 We note that Eq. and a nofmalized load impedance z. which is commercially available. thereof fore. are not changed by the additional line length ?. Two additional scales in Az'li.. the laltcr 1s a s p c c ~ case ol. . 3mOto 1. the standinghave ratio S.at the load. 2.. The value of the rcircle passing thrdugh the intersection of the irlcircle and tHe positivereal akis eqhals the standingwhve ratio S.I'l of the .~mpdred . and the inner scale is marked "wavelengths toward l o a d in the counterclockwlse directlon (decreasing z'). . . length z'. The magnitude. . that the he uartd'le rcircle I 1. ~11th the iputing r designate a u k ereal i~tuatlOnS > 1 : and R .. 95 1 THE SMITH CHART 1415 ..' It has a complicatid appearance.. of the line drawn from the origin through the pdint representing z. From Eqs. by writing jp for y for a lossless I ! line. ... New Jersey. ~rl. the reflection coefficient and. the In l former for z' = 0(4 = Or). I So far we have based the construction of the Smith chart on the definition of the voltage reflection c o e a e n t of the load irnpdtiance. . Thus. 3.i i . . are usually provided along the perimeterof the Il = 1 circle for easy reading of the r phase change 2p(Ar1)due to a change in line length A:': the outer scale 1s marked "wavelengths tow&dgenerator" in the clockwise direction (increasing 2 ' ) . the normalized input iinpedance looking into a lossless line of characteristic impedance R. . A complete revolution around a /TIcircle a = rettlrns to thesame point and results in no change in impedance.s. The angle. * I  * The normalized inbut impedance is / he origin :. just as we can use the Smith chart to Rnd II and Or for a given . fact. Eigure 915 is a typical Smith chart. ' .
wavelength long and is terminated in a shortcircuit. ii In the following we shall illustrate the use of the Smith chart for solving some typical transmissionline problems by several examples. I j 1 i r d +$ Use the Smith chart to find the input impedance of a section of a 50(Q) lossless transmission line which is 0. I Fig. 915 The Smith chart.416 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 !.1. I i F b .
(rl= 0. Thus. At P.60 circle intersects wit6 the positivereal axis OP.'/I. and extend it to P2 on the periphery. in Fig 916.3 (0).725. A lossless transmlssion line of length 0. Solution: Given .4 (Q). at r = S = 4. A hiillw:lveleogth change in line lengtll corresponds :o a complck ~aro~uiion the Suit11 chart..1 "wavelengths toward generator" in a clockwise direction to P . (992).. = jO. 'e find tlie voitage reflection coefficient in several steps: . See Fig.220) x 4n = 0 . . (The radids of the chart OFscequals unity. (We multlply the coeffi~ientis (0.) 2. = Enter the Smith chart at r = Z L I R o 2.) This result can be checked readily by using Eq. draw a circle of radius W . 3.) Draw . ratio . on the extreme left of thart. and (d) the location of a voltage maximum on the line. or z. T J = 0. Find (a) the vohape reflection coefficient. Zi = Rozi = 50(~0.straight line OP. 1 2 ~ change in wavelengths by 4n because angles on the Smlth chart are measured in 2p?c: in. of the reflectmn (rad) or 21'. (b) the standingwave ratio.. Enter the Smith chart at the intersection of r = 0 and x = 0 (Point P.60/21".8 (Point P . tan /I/ = j5O tan = j5O tan 36 = j36.725) = j36. Read 0.) The answer to part (a) is then on r = jrleJ8>= h) The 0. 916.) = With the cedtw at the origin.~e.725. read r = 0 and x 2 0. (The input impedance is purely inductive. Move along the pehmeter of the chart (1'1 = 1) by 0. = jR.250 .220 on "wavelen&hs towardgenerator" scale. Z.1. . The phase angle 6.6 + jl.4341 and characteristic impedance 100 (11) is terminated in an impedance 260 + j180 (Q). I.60. Thus the voltage stwndi~~~wavc is 4. . (c) rhe input impedance.0.
we proceed as follows: 1.4341 to P. at 0. .." first to 0. by a straight line which intcrsects the Irl = 0.1%[(OSOO . 916 Smithchart calculations for Examples 99 and 910. c ) To find the input impedance.*. 2..500 (same as 0.60 circle at P. Join 0 and P. .220) + 0. I .154 = 0. Move P.0.220 by a total of 0.418 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES / 9 Fig.000) and then further to 0.434 "wavelengths toward generator. .
= 0. Solution a) On the positivercill dris OP.5140" = jO.j. .\. 0..125 '6wav&ngths toward load7' = J05/0. 2 Since &/i = 0.80. locale ~ h po~ntI>.60 . where thd voltage is a maximum. '1 i L..= 4n(0.0. Example 911 ~ o h E ~ a m p l e by using the Smith chart.0 (see F . .r 1 .60 circle intersects the positivereal axis OPoc at P. 2nd R. .j circle at P.. Draw a circle centered at the origin with radius which intersects with the negativer a1 anis OP. at P. Hence 6 . We cannot find 0.. Read r = 0.0. b) We use the following procedure to find the load ihpedance on the Smith &art: 1. All the above results are the same as those obtained in Example 97.0)...2 at P. Thus..Read at PL. find (a) a).2) = 69 + j120 (R). z= .64 and x = 1. 419 1 3. by a straight line. intersecting the (TI = O.. . 91 1). where there will be a voltage minimum. because L POCOP.4 (m) First voltage minimum at rk = 0. Given e 97 4 w Ro . but no calculations with Complex numben are needed in using the Smith chart. = lOO(q69 +j1.125...ince. ROz..This 1s the point rebrescnling the normalized load impedance..2 . or r = 0. c 917).  rcle at P.. = @ ( n d ) . 4. d) In going from Pi to P. a voltage maximum appears at (0.= 90' = n/2 (rad).125) = n/2. move from P.. I 2 = 2 x 0.. the lrl = 0.f .05 (m).. 5.  .. Read the angle iPOCOP..? 50 (Q) S=3. ~ . (c)'&.lr wlilcb = s = 3.030A from the load.220)A or'0.. 3. which gives m..5 (mot = 1. Then DM/r/0.250 . Join 0 and P. Hencd. (Fig. .4 in the counterclosewise direction to P. (b) Z. until we have = = located the point that represents the normalized load imped.250 .2 = 0. 95 / THE SMITH CHART .0 1. .j0. There is no need to use a protractor.
95.420 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 Fig. The lossless assumption enablcs us to say. we hav.1 SmithChart Calculations for Lossy Lines In discussing the use of the Smith chart for transmissionline calculations. that the magnitude of the Te12"' term .e assumed the line to be lossless. 917 Smithchart calculations for Example 911. This is normally a satisfactory approximation for we generally deal with relatively short sectioxis of lowloss lines. following Eq. (9130).
5. to P. m2.5 .jO. @om . 918).O in the'chart as P . Record that the arc P. to find I . h n k r ZL = %.60 j3. ? 1 I i = 2az' 1 .064. 3. to P2where the "wavelengths toward generator" reading is 0. Hence.. 1  l+(r(e2a'e~9  Example 912 Tlle input impedance of n shortcircuited loshy transmission line of length 2 (m) and characteristic impedance 75 $2) (approximately real) is 45 + j225 (0). = 7.r 1 + re 2 a ~. + + 2.' to Pi at 0.64 + j0. (Fig. (b) Determine the input impedance if the shortcircuit is replaced by a lo:ld impc~lilnccZ .64 j0. = 67./2. we nave on for we sumption 12i7:' 4 term . (9132) . 8 ~Thus.364 0..r Hence. = 67./OP'. = 0. 6. Join P3 and d by a straight line.89.S' 1 18 I I does not change with line length z' and that we can find z. Measure OP.P.. .27. intersecting the /r/circle at P.364.20 "wavelengths toward generator./45)/75 = 0. Drawa/r(circlecentered at 0 with radius 4 Move P i alohg the perimeter by 0. Eq.j2pz' ' ~ 2. 2. and vice versa. sdch that 2 d is not negligible compared to unity.re. Draw a straight line from the origin OthrouSh P . For a lossy line of a sufficient length 8.2'.5 .89 = c".. (a) Find a and /3 of the line. 3.6 on thc Smith chart as P. is 0.2 w .20 and 286 = 4n//A = 0 . It follows that +  + 4. 1. Solution a) The shortcircuit load is represented by the point P. Enter zil= (45 j225)/75 = 0.3 (R). by moving along the lrikircle by an angle eqhal to 2p. = 75(0. b) To find the input impedance for Z . a point Pi such that 0P1/CF3 e2a' = 0.9 . auxiliary z calciilations are necessary in order to account for the e'"' factor. .271 = 48.j45 (R): I .j45 (Q).e 12pr' ' 6 = or .20 "wavelengths toward generator..0 + j20. on the extreme left of the Smith impedance chart. read zi * 0. At Pi. = (67.564 or 0. Draw a straight line from 0 through P." We have //A = 0. (9136) must be amended to read . . we cannot aimply move along the (TIcircle. 2.5 . The following example illustrates What has ta be done. Mark on line OP.20 = 0. from z.
96 TRANSMISSIONLINE IMPEDANCE MATCHING Transmission lines are used for the transmission of power and information.1 Quarter /. Fig. 918 Smithchart calculations for lossy transmission line (Example 912). This will require that the loztd be matched to the characteristic . For radiofrequency power transmission it is highly desirable that as much power as possible is transmitted from the generator to the load and as little power as possible is lost on the line itself.\ 422 THEORY AND APPLlcATloNs OF TRANsMlssloN LINES 1 9 e i I 96.
. (b) Find the standingwave ratios on the matching line scctiohs./=. Example 913 A &pal generator is to feid equal power through a lossless air transmission line with a characteristic impedance 50 (Q) to two separate resistive loads. fig. 64 and 23 (n). . as shouo in Fig.13). 9 1% (a) Determine the required charactenstic n impedances of the quarlerwave lines. .as are a]! the other methods to be discussed. (9133) Since the length of the quarterwave line depends on wavelengrh.1 Impedance ~ a k h l by~ h QuarterWave Transformer ' Kb = . 919 impedance matching by quarterwave lines (Ex:irnplr 9. Quarterwave transformers are used to match the ]oa& to the 50 c ) line. this matching is frequency~eniitive.> I: 96.
The normalized load impedance is where YL = YLP0 = YLIGo .i 424 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 Solution a) To feed equal power to the two loads. Ril = Ri2 = 2Ro = 100 (Q). we first examine how the Smith chart can be used to make admittance calculations. (9133) will have no solution if R L is replaced by a complex ZL. Since it is more convenient to use admittances instead of impedances for parallel connections. ~b~ = J G 2= Jm 4TGEZ = . (9135) . 1 Matching section No. = ROYL= g +j b (Dimensionless). In the following subsection we will discuss a method for matching an arbitrary load impedance to a line by using a single open. 2 . there are no standing waves on the main transmission line (S = 1).Hence quarterwave transformers are not useful for matching a complex load impedance to a lowloss line. The standingwave ratios on the two matching line sections are Matching section No.or shortcircuited line section (a single stub) in parallel with the main line and at an appropriate distance from the load. Ordinarily the main transmission line and the matching line sections are essentially lossless. ~ = J i W Z i = 8 o ( n ) = 50 (Q). b) Under matched conditions. In that case both Ro and Roare purely real and Eq. Let YL = l/ZL denote the load admittance. the input rehstance at the junction with the main line' looking toward each load must be equal to 2Ro.
920. is the normalized load admittance having normalized conductance g and normalized susceptance h as its teal and imagin.Sare . and y.I tt~l~ly ilornlilli~dchar:~~tert~tic impedance will l j ' m h ..ltion (9134) suggcsts 111:11 . This observation enables US to find yi. for instance.~rypdrts respectively Equ.. on the Smith chart in a very simple manner. on the other side of the line joining PI and 0 represents y.: 07. the poir~tsrrpreset~titlgZ. we can choose an arbitrary normalizing constant. . from y. as point P . = m1. I qtmrlcrw..tvt li:w will. On the Smith chart we need only to move the point representing T L along the IT(circle by a quarterwavelength in order to locate . on the smith chart in Fig. The point P. Enter z. re essenwill have mers are . thc point r c p r e s ~ n t i h ~ Since a 214change in line length (AzlN = i)corresponds to a change of n radians (2PAzf = x) on the Smith chart.042. from r. In order to use the Smith chart. RO = 50 (R). are then diametrically opposite to eachuther on the Jr/circle. lo y. 1  Example 915 ~ i n the input admittance of an opencircuited line of characteristic d and leapth 0. impedance 300 (a) .ion with = Rtz = smission .Thus.r n 2 . and z. ubitrary sction (a from the r'parallel mittance Solution: This problem has nothing to do with any transmission line.. i l t i U vice versa.
and move 0.29). 922.00 in Fig. 921 Finding input admittance of opencircuited line (Example 915).2 SingleStub Matching We now tackle the problem of matching a load impedance 2. 1 (0 j0. 300 + x= + In the preceding two examples we have made admittance calculations by using the Smith chart as an impedance chart. respectively. 4. = 0 jO. on the opposite side. For an opencircuited line. at 0.rind shortcircuit termination would be the points on the extreme left and t%e extreme right. to a lossless line that has a characteristic impedance R. L'.25 in Fig. We need to determine the length of the stub.04 "wavelengths toward generator" to P. This is the singlestub method for impedance matching. 96. 2. on an admittance chart.26. For Example 915. The points representing an open. we could then start from extreme left point on the chart. 3. Shortcircuited stubs are usually used in preference to opencircuited . such that the impedance of the pariillel combination to the right of points BB' equals R.87 (mS).. Move along the perimeter of the chart by 0. in which case the r and x circles would be g and h circles. at 0. Solution 1. 921. The Smith chart can also be used as an admittance chart. Read at P. 6nYthcextreme right of the impedance Smith chart. and the distance from thc load. z'. y. Draw a straight line from P 3 through 0.04 "wavelengths toward generator" to P 3 (at 0. 921.26) = j0. we start from the point Po. by placing a single shortcircuited stub in parallel with the line. as shown in Fig. Thus. intersecting at P. directly.426 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 a  Fig.
are to find the length d such that the admittance. I U S Ci l n inlinitc tormin:~lingi m a d i ~ n u IS more difficult to re. y. As a consequencg. Our objectives. (9. then..is for the shortcircurted stub. 922 sugsddts that it is advantageous to analyze the matching requirements in terms of admitt~hces.136) becomes rght of eratc I ' r 1= + J*. . is for tne load sectloll and y . = ROY. The 1111h fill l l 1'111 0.that for a shortcircuited stub is an odd multiple of a quarterwavclcncth. and YII =1 + jb. a shortcircuited stub of an adjustable length and a constant qharacteristic resistdhce is much easier to construct than an opencircuited one.$ 2 I stubs ~ C C . However.W i n ne th. the difference in the required length for an opencircuited stub and. since thdi input admtttance of a shortcircuited stub is purely susceptive. y. is purely imaginary. (9138b) where b. and a stub at points BB in Fig. The parallel cdhbination of a line terminated in Z.~lim (hiin il : zero t o d i n a t h i irdpcdancc for reasons of radiation from an open end and coupling effects with neighbbring. = ROY. 3ara" ' ledan. can be either positive or negative. Of course. of the load section looking to the rlght of terminals BE' has a hnity r e d purt and to find the length fB of the stub required to cancel the imuginury purr. . (9137) where y . (9138a) Y B= . om the points rcuited n Y Fig: 922 Impedance matching by ringicrtvb method.Eq. The basic requirement is  >  ttance 915). In terms of normalized Lidmittances.. Moreover.Eq. y using i as an es.J ~ B .objects. (9137) can be satisfied only if tte stae.
. (from P. = jb.: y. Solutions for the length of shortcircuited stub to provide y. 2.0591.428 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF'TRANSMISSION~LINES/ 9 Using the Smith chart as an admittance chart. Enter z..109)A = 0.2= 1 +jbBz. 1... = (0. 5.0.. Solutions for the position 'of the stub: For P.5 (R) = 0. to P . 2. 923). For P 4 (from P.. on the Smith chart as P .which represents jh. 4. and jh. Draw a straight line from P.: For P . AtP. = 1 j1./R. 4. respcctively. = j1. and tB2 from the angles between the shortcircuit point on the extreme right of the chart to the points representing jb. Draw a Irlcircle centered at 0 with radius 3... which represents y. = 1 jb.109 at P. (from P. 2.95. At P. At these points y..2 = 1 jb. intersecting the Il1circle at P. = = Z. to f i ) : d.. andly. j1. Note the two points of intersection of the Irlcircle with the g = 1 circle. Example 916 A 50(R) transmission line is connected to a load impedaice Z.332 .5 (Q). on the extreme right of chart to P. = 1 jbBl and y. z. to P... Both are possible solutions... stub matching: t 1.'... \ Solution: Given R o = 50(Q) .j0. 3. 35 .0..2): For P 4 (from P...].109)A = 0. on the "wavelengths toward generator" scale. through 0 to point P i on the perimeter.j47. Determine loadsection lengths dl and d2 from the angles between the point representing y.70 ..: y. = 35 .2): = .. Enter the point representing the normalized load admittance y.. and the points representing y. (Fig.= 1 j1. Draw the Irlcircle for y. i which represents jb. + + The following example will illustrate the necessary steps. Determine stub lengths t. . which will intersect the g = 1 circle at two points.j47. m. Note 0.): d l = (0. we proceed as follows for single. .. Find the position and length of a shortcircuitcd stub rcquircd to march rhc linc.2231..168 . + + 6.
the solution with the shorter lengths is preferred unless there are other practical constraints. points.r single . hence the shorted matching sections are sometimes called stub tuners. The exact length. Jutions.. The use of Smith chart in solving impedancematching problems avoids the manipulation of complex numbers and the computation of tangent and arctangent . e point t .. 923 Construction for singlestub matching. t'B. In general. t i < :  sccting lengths Fig.of the shortcircuited stub mey require fine adjustments in the actual matching procedure.
(9138b) and (9142b). from Eqs. Similarly. (9138a) and (9l3Sb).I)t2 . (9133) The required length d can be found from Eqs. (n t20 . at the same time. yield more accurate results. but graphical c~nstructionsare needed. (9142a) to unity. we obtain . For the singlestub matching problem illustrated in Fig. + tanIt). I 430 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSIQN LINES / 9 1 functions. where t = tanpd.2sLt Solving Eq. The normalized input admittance to the right of points BB' is (9. we lii~vc .?. _. from Eq.140) where and A perfect match requires the simultaneous satisfarion of Eqs.tan't. Actually the analytical solutions of jmpedancematching problems are relatively simple.yl) = 0. (9144a).. Equating g. (r: . t <0. and (91 44b): . we have.. and graphical methods have limited accuracy. 922. (9143). (989). and ebsy access to a computer'may diminish the reliance on the Smith chart and. in Eq. we obtqin + (I. .. (?140). .1..
924. and a second stub of length 144b) I 4b): Y .ttn altcmatire mclhod for irnpcd. In such c. 146b) Fig. 3 i / 8 . a stub of length e is connected directly in . Example 916 (r.'9:24.3 / : / 1 6 .ltcbing to us. Furthcrmorc.1Ma) The method of impedance matching by mean8 of a single stub described in the preceding subsection can be used to match any atbitrary. Here.95) are 1 . Of course.stub melhid for impedanm matchink. rl '. etc. at terminals AA'.I conslu~~t:ch. both .. It$ also a simple matter t a write a general computer program for the singlestub mhtchidg problem.~scs. ~. In the arrangement in Fig. and the lengths of the two stub tuners are adjusted to match a given load impedahce Z .~nc~m. the singlestub method requires that the stub be nrtnchcd to the main lidc at a specific point which varies as thc loild impedance is changed. This scheme is the double.f/~ can bc determined easily on a scientific calculato~. JL/8.). the distance do is fined and arbitrarily chosen (such as L/16.l32a) / 14%) I %b). from (9139) (9140) For a given load [mpdi\nw..145b) / I . 924 I Impedance matching by doublestub method.112 itn?. parallel with the load itnped&nce Z .ds have  roblems ance on re.m~clcristic ~I~ impcdilncc. Mbre &curate answers to the problem in . DoubleStub ~ a t c h i n g (9141) 1 . 9143) . . finite load impedance to the characteristic resistance of a line However. = 0170 and s = 0. i s shown in Yig.1464. two shortciccuitcd stubs i~ttilchcdto the is main line a1 lined posilion:. such accuracies are seldom needkd in dn actual problem. This requirement &en presents practical difficulties because the specified junction point may occur at an undesirable location from a mechanical viewpoint. to the main line. but these answers have been obtained easily without a Smithkhart. nonzero.145a) . it is very dificult to build :1 variablelengh C L X I X ~linc will1 .
. from the angle between the point representing y. + jb. y. = g. Determine stub length t from the angle between the point representing jbB ' .JA "wavelengths toward load. Again. of a shortcircuited stub is purely imaginary. This requirement must be translated by a distance d./L in the counterclockwise direction. The solution (or solutions) of the doublestub matching problem is then determined by the intersection (or intersections) of the g.. Determine stub length . + . = g~ jbA. . must be solely contributed by the real part of the normalized load admittance.140:1) Note that these requirements are exactly the same as those for singlestub matching." 5. the point representing y. Draw this circle rotated in the counterclockwise direction by d. For impedance matching is w i t h a main line that has a characteristic resistance R.. Draw the g = g. to equal the characteristic conductance of the line.v.. should be located. = I and + jh.. Eq. the real part of y. at terminals AA' must lie on the g = 1 circle rotated by an angle 4xd. circle. (9 . g. Draw the g = 1 circle. since the input admittance y. 2. intersecting the rotated g = 1 circle at one or two points where y./L "wavelengths toward load". (9148) can be satisfied only'if . 4.. On the Smith admittance chart. on the extreme right..I 432 THEORY~AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 I lB attached at terminals BB' at a fixed distance do away. 6. 1. Enter the y. of the shortcircuited stub is purely imaginary. looking toward the load. we demand the total input admittance at terminals BB'.. Mark the corresponding y. Eq. should be located. 7. = I fjb.circle with the rotated g = 1 circle." This is where the point representing y. The procedure for solving a dou'blestub matching problem on the Smith admittance chart is as follows. that is. since the input admittance y. must lie on the g = 1 circle.. (9147) becomes Now. In terms of normalized admittances.. point. that is. and ' t the point representing y. 3. and P. This is where the point representing y.points on the g = 1 circle: y.
(We could find y~ on the Smith chart by locating the point diametrically opposite to z.{he ~ c n s t r w t i o n Fig. to the points P A ..lOOit (Point B .{.). At P. A '? . tA2 (0. = 0.. and PA. and P. ) .. read y. = 0. * yd2 L YL = j2. Mark the two pgints of intersection.. = (60 j80)/50 = 1. read y.69. . but this would*clutter up the chart too much. Use a com$stss ccntcrbd at the origin 0 to mark the points P.0. = a+ 180 (R).11. t'lncc t. 925 reveals that if the point P.30 + jl.=j0. between the stubs (Problem P.4551.60..I c1rc. Draw the g = 1 dircle (Fig.. and P A ..3O)i. . = 0.40 j1. = an e&hth of a wavelength apart is used to 924.30 i jQ. = i . I ' 1.350 .17'9 + 0.  .205 t. + !1 6. = 1 jl.' t e matching .. = 0.. of the g. li  60 + j80 (a). i J < Solution: Given R. = 50 (R) and Z. + + I. = 0.250)%=0.38. axid tA2 from \ 5) .j3.75. At PA.. and ' enting jb.. Find the required lengths of the L I 1 ..(PointA..30 circle w ~ t h Ihc rol.I?' .. from: (&)I (jj. ~ x a m i d i i b t 0.3471... 1' i line is connected to a load impedance Z . circle by $ "wavelengths toward load" in the counterclockwise of rotation is 4x18 (rad) or 90'.) ' We follow the procedure outlined above.4. =~.2. 2 =1'. + jb.d stub lengths t.097+0. read y. 3. respectively. This region for no solution varies with the chosen distanced. In such cases . ready. on the g = 1 circle correspoqding. Determine the reguiri. = (0.Vsn)l (y. l~l. = I At P A . Enter y.29 . j1... = f.' ' =(0.250)/1= 0. = [:lo /Itinr 7.1~. P A . then t& 3 = gi circle does notjntersect with the rotated g = 1 circle and no solution exists for doublestub matching with do = R/8. (Point A.). of wlely coniolution (or y the mterIZ procedure chart is as 5. a Ll = (0. (.250)iL O. . 4.. At P.938). be located. total input aracteri~tic 1 f. lies within the g = 2 circle (if gL > 2). Determinithe required stub lengths / and fB2 .J2 points = jl 38.it is easy to calculate t' imaginary. (Point B?).4291.4.).. 925).30 j O 40 as P. reprel in senting the n&~r@liied lead a h i t t a n c e yt = g.ltcllill& 1.. 0.ltctl (1 ..
and terminals AA'. An analytical solution of the doublestub impedance matching problem is.Fig. 925 Construction for doubles~ub matching. impedance matching by the doublestub method can be achieved by adding an appropriate line section between Z. as illustrated in Fig.937). of course. 926 (Problem P. albeit more involved than that of the singlestub problem . also possible.
. REVIEW QUESTIONS R. '6 . and dJi.91 Discuss the similarities and dissimilarities of uniform plane waves in an unbounded media and TEM waves along transmission lines.q.98 D c f i n ~ .95 What are str~phnes ? R.n a plate condpcror? How is surface itnpedance related to the power dissipated lem is. . .97 C w ~ p . ~ r c ~ e l u r ~ l y TEMwave propagation along a parallelplate transmasion lhv 01' line with that i32n unbounded medium. developed in the preceding subsection. H.93 lines.hce imp&nce.92 What are the Ihree diost common typesof guiding structures that support TEM wava? Compare the advantages and disadvantages of coaxial cables and twowire transmission R. i.l i n e equations for a lossless parallelplate line aupport~ng TEM waves. .I Fig. 926 ~oublesthb irlpedhnce matching with added loadline section. R. and P diiing an Fig. The more ambitious reader may wish to obtain such an analytical solution and write a computer program for determining d J A /*/A. of problem R.96 Describe how the character~stm Impedance of a parallelplate transmiss~onl ~ n c depcnda on plate w ~ d t h dielectric thickni~s.  H. R94 Write the t r a d ~ m k ~ o n . R.913 State the differtnoe between the surfac6 resistance and the resistance per u n ~ length of a t parallelplate transmislon line. and l B / A in terms of z.
Is the input reactance of a transmission line 1/8 long inductive or capacitive if it is (a) opencircuited. R. Write their general expressions in terms of R.923.925 What is a "quarterwave transformer"? Why is it not useful for matching a cornplcx load impedance to a lowloss line? R.931 Explain how the value of a terminating resis!ancc can be determined by measuring the standingwave ratio on a lossless transmission line.926 What is the input impedance bf a lossless transmission line of length C that is terminated in a load impedance Z. R.922 What is the input impedance of a shortcircuited lossless transmission line if the length of the line is (a) A/4. 436 . Is it the same as "current reflection coetEcien!"'? Explain.921 What is the input impedance of an opencircuited lossless transmission line if the length of the line is (a) %/4. R. and (c) 31. THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES 1 9 R.915 What is the phase relationship between the voltage and current waves on an infinitely long transmission line? R. . R. L. and (b) if R.913 Write the general transmissionline equations for arbitrary time dependence and for timeharmonic time dependence.914 Define propagation constant and characteristic impedance of a transmission line.927 Define voltage reflection coeficient. and (b) shortcircuited? R. and (c) 3i.917 Outline the procedure for'determining the distributed parameters of a transmission line. and C for sinusoidal excitation. a "distortionless line"? What relation must the distributed parameters of a line satisfy in order for the line to be distortionlcss? R. R./4? R. < R.911 What is the essential dikerence between a transmission line and an ordinary electric network? R. .(b) 1/2.920 On wh.> ../4? R.? * R.and shortcircuit input impedances? R.924 On a line of length C. How is it related to voltage and current reflection coefficients? R. and (b) f = R? R. (b) 142. R. what is the relation between the line's characteristic impedance and propagation constant and its open.929 What are r and S for a line with an opencircuit tcrmination? A shortcircuit tcrmination? R.A.930 Where do the minima of the voltage standing wave on a lossless line with a resistive termination occur (a) if RL > R. G.916 What is meant b. if (aJ C = 142.~tfactors does the input i~npcdance fa transmission line depend'! .928 Define standingwave ratio.912 Explain why waves along a lossy transmission line cannot be purely TEM.
y).(.what procedure do we follow to find the admittance +JB. :ient'"! :]ems? ation7p Gstive PROBLEMS P. Write finitely meters . and both components may be functions of the transverse dimensions. = = (b) Z. = Z. y).935 Wlfere is the pb nt rep'resking a matchcd lodd on a Smith chart? R. # 2. hetermine (a) the reflect& coefficient anti (b) the standingwave ratlo? R. At what t h e will a steady state on the line be reached e and is terminated with if (a) Z.O45 Bxpliiin lhc doublcsit~h rncthod for impcdancc matching on a transmission Line.91 Neglecting fringe fields.? e.942 Can a Smith c h t b: used for impedance ccilculations on a lossy transmlsslon line'! Explain. ng the .line even when the line is lossy? Explain. 1t. . 2.. but 2..940 Where is the poifit representing a short. method for impedance matching on a tranarn~ssionline./dx = 0 and dH.h e line has a characteristic impedance Z.933 A voltage genekitor having an internal impe&me 2 is connected at I = 0 to the input .H.946 Compare the relative ddvantages and disadvantages of the singlestub and the doublestub methods of impedance matching. on a lossless l k e of characteristic impedance Z.938 Given an impedance Z = k Y = 1/Z on a Smith chart? K. but Z.y).932 Explain value of an arbitrary t e m i d t i n g impedance on a lossless transmission standirigwave measbIemedh on the line. and H.92 The electric and hagnetic fields of a gcneral TEM wave traveling in the + z direction alohg a transmission line may have both x and y components. # Z.(s. P.941 Is the standinghave xtio constant on a trdd9mission.t. ' R.! a) Find the relatioh amang EJx. E. terminals of a lossless t dsmigsion line of length t . R. H. how d o we use a Smith chart to find the impedance R.convenient to use a Smith chart as an admittance chart for solving impedancematching problems than to use it as an impedance chart? R./dy = 0.. i ~ p e d a n c Z..944 Explain the singlestu!.936 For a given loaa impdance Z ..937 Why does a chdnge of halfawavelength in line length correspond to a complete rcvolution on o Smith chart R.. y).circuit on a Smith admittance chart? R. (c) Z. sdance R.(s.934 What is a smith chad>andwhy is it u6eful id making transmissionline calculations? R..943 Why is it more'.# Z. and Z. prove analytically that B ypolarized TEM wave that propagates along a parall&piate tratlsmission line in + z direction has the following properties: dE. I R. and (d) Z . and Z. . R. how do we use a Smith chart to. # Z.939 Given an admittance Y = G z = IIY? ! I + jX. = Z.
6 (mm). r . for lowloss lines in Subsection 93. and C p& unit length. w. for lowloss lines that retain terms containing (RIwL)' and (GIwC)'. c) Find 7 and Z. At lower frequencies better approximations than those given in Eqs.94 Consider a transmission line made of two parallel brass strips:a.jc" arc.98 Obtain approximate expressions for y and Z. a = (S/m)of thickness 2. . G.llas u complex prnmittivity E = c' .438 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES / 9 b) Verify that all the four field components in part (a) satisfy the twodimensional Laplace's equation for static fields.25) as the dielectric medium. = 1. a) Calculate the R.95 1 P. (a) find the distance of separatiqn for a 300(R). (b).. P. where the radius of'the conducting wires is 0.93 Consider lossless stripline designs for a given characteristic impedance.~nsvcrsccomponents of the electric field. L. (939). where thc radius ofthc ccnter conductor is 0. d.910 It is desired to construct uniform transmission lines using polyethylene (E. and (b) findthe inner radius ofthe outer conductor for a 7542) coaxial line. all terms containing the second and higher powers of (RIoL) and (G/wC) were neglected in comparison with unity.5 (mm). L. The operating frequency is 500 MHz.97 In the derivation of the approximate formulas of y and 2. Find new formulas for y and Z . twowire line. a) How shodld the dielectric thickness. Assuming negligible losses. P. = 3.. E. resncctivclv. = 2. for a lossy transmission line at very low frequencies such that wL << R and o C << G. if the dielectric constant. 1)) Compnrc the magnitudes of thc nxinl ant1 Ir.... Verify Eq. (945) and (947) may be required.6 x 10' (S/m)of width 20 (mm) and separated by a lossy dielectric slabp = p. Obtain the corresponding expression for phase velocity. P. if d is doubled? d) Will the velocity of propagation remain the same as that for the original line after the changes specified in parts (a). P. G. be changed for a given plate width. \ P. P. is doubled? b) How should w be changed for a given d if c.96 Show that the attenuation and phase constants for a transmission line with perfect' conductors separated by a lossy dielectric tlii~t. P. is doubled? c) How should w be changed for a given E.1.G(mm). and (c)? Explain.99 The following characteristics have been measured on a lossy transmission line at 100MHz: Determine R. and C for the line.
l)c m s of 2. if dt = 150 (Q). = (G . ' 8 439 ! f P.18%.8 I .tm has a loss tangent of 0. n connected to a lossy trans. P. a) What must be the relation between RL and X. and X. b) Detebnine R.ti0 of the magnitude of the voltage at the input to that at the load (volrage d tr(i. G: and C. and (c) the av&e power transmitted to the load..916 A 2(m) lossfess transmission line having a characteristic impedance 50 (R) is termmated with an irnwdance 40 j301R) at an operaticg frequency of 200 (MHz). and Z L . line characterized by a resistance per unit length R and a conductance per unit length G. ie inner radius tor is 0. Determine R? and Xi in terms of R. Find (a) the instantaneous expressions for the voltage and current at an arbitrary location on the line. a.918 A lossless quarterwave h e section of characteristic impedance R. P.to aload impedance 2.. b) Z. a reactlve component. Spccialim tht solutions in part (b) to thosc for a finite line of length L that 1s termmated in a load redstance RL.. Find the input impedance.n Subsection ere neglected glven in Eqs.transferred from a voltage source with an internal impedance Z. Write the governing voltage and current ttansmissionline equations.914 A gcncrator with n. The line is 50 (km) long and is tsrmi .  P. P. in order that the standingwave ratio on !$e line be 31 b) Find X.nopcncircuit volwge v. in t 2' s the for a >JO(R).or shortcircuited l o ~ transmmion h e ha5 both d y resistwe and.. c) Where does the voltage minimum &arest to the load occur on the line for part (b)? + . of a transmisdion line (a) in exponential fohn and (b) in hyperbolic form. . IWS and its lossy dielscLtk rncdi.j301!1) is conilclftcd 1 0 :I 50(<1)~ I i ~ ~ o i ~ ~ i linc..(t) = 10 sin XOOOnl ( V ) and intcrnal impedance %..l/l~.40 +.915 The Input impedance of a n open.. maximum powertransfer efficiency? I P.6 (mm). r . = RL jXL.912 Express V ( Z ) and I(z) in terms of the voitage and current I. over a~!ossle$stransmission line when 2. P.hl: ~ c m s ? . e at very low eat 100MHz: P. PROBLEMS : .. Prove that the input mpedance of a very short section C of a ' shghtly lossy line (a4 c 1 and P/ << I ) 1s approximately a) Z.917 The opencircuit and shortcircuit impedhnces measured at the input terminals of a transmissio$he 4 (m) long are. . es that retain hase velocity. Find the gedkral solutions for V ( z )and I@). a) Det~finineZ. 250((R and 360/20" (R).vitb perfect m : e .. R. = fd)/ shortc~rcu~t (R i w~th a teimlnat~on. 1 ne after the ctric ficld.. What is the .911 Prove that a maximum power is .919 A 75(R) lossless lj& is terminated in a load impedance Z .the input impedance is effectively a resistance Ri in parallel with a capacitive reactance X. Specialize tH'e solutions in part (b) to those for an infinite line. L. a) ~ r o v g that. respectively.. = 2:. . is terminated with an indwtive load impedance ZL 5 RL + jXL.I ~ c ) / [ G * ( U C ) ~ ] ~ ' an opencircuit t e n n a t i o n with + + .913 mission a) b) c) d) A DC generhtor o i voltage C and internal resistance R. nated in a matched load. + P. lir~c :I rcslslancc o f 0 3 (f>/rn)..l 'l. and p of the line. (b) the instantaneous expressions for the voltage and current at the load. at the input end and y 'and Z .. b) F i ~ tcs ?.i:>?:rt~ti~ti/~t~ r(~tio! l~.
Then (c) determine the corresponding input admittances for the lines in parts (a) and (b). . of the voltage u. v. c) Obtain the instantaneous power and the average power delivered to the load.. a) Express the standingwave ratio S on the line in terms of Z0and ZL. minimum closest to the load.923 The standingwave ratio on a lossless 300(R)transmission linet'bnhated in an unknown load impedance is 2 0 and the nearest voltage minimum is at a distance 0 3 . of a lossless line having a characteristic impedance Rosuch that the input impedance equals Z i = R. = 25 (R). . The line is f meters long and is terminated in a load resistance R. = 50 (R). P921 A lossy transmission line with characteristic impedance Zois terminated in an arbitrary load impedance ZL. b) Find this minimum standingwave ratio and the corresponding voltage reflection coefficient. such that the input impedance is equal to 2 . C) Find the impedance looking toward the load at a location of a voltage minimum.440 THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSMISSION LINES I 9 s. ..924 Obtain from Eq. l p (V) and internal impedance Z . . t) and i(z1.of the load.8 (m) long and shortcircuited. + P. c) Find the location of the voltage minimum nearest to the load. (b) the standingwave ratio on the line: and (c) the average power delivered to the load.1 Determine (a) the reflection coefficient l..t). ll0sinwt (V) and internal impedance 2. a) Obtain voltage and current phasor expressions V(zl)and I(zl). VL. (9114) the formulas for finding the length t.926 A sinusoidal voltage generator with V. from the load.920 Consider a lossless transmission line. P.925 Obtain an analytical expression for the load impedance ZL connected to a line of characteristic impedance Zoin terms of standingwave ratio $ and the distance. P.927 A sinusoidal voltage generator u. a) Determine the line's characteristic resistance so that it will have a minimum possible standingwave ratio for a load impedance 40 + j30 (Q). . = 50 (R) is connected to a quarterwave lossless line having a characteristic impedance Ro = 50 (R) that is terminated in a purely reactive load ZL= j50 (R). =. and (b) 0.Find (a) I i . b) Write the instantaneous voltage and current expressions u(zi. P. and (c) the equivalent length and terminating resistance of a line. .. = Ro is connected to a lossless transmission line having a characteristic impedance Ro = 50 (R). = O .928 The characteristic impedance of a given lossless transmission line is 75 (R). Compare the result in part (c) with the case where R. j X i . P. P.and the terminating resistance R. P. b) Find in terms of S and Zothe impedance looking toward the load at the location of a voltage maximum.. z i .and 1. Use a Smith chart to find the input impedance a n 0 0 (MHz) of such a line that is (a) 1 (m) long and opencircuited. (b) the unknown load impedance Z L .
a) Find a: and / of the line.929 A load impedadce 30 110 (Q) is connected d( a l~ssless b transmission line of length 0. P. it is found that the standingwave ratio is 2. = c) Find the input impedance of the shortcircuifed line for a line leneth 0. I b) Determine the input impedance if the shortcircuit is replaced by a load impedance ZL 50 + j50 (Q). (d) the input admittance. 927 Impedancg hatching by a series stub. (c) the jnput impedance. for ? + jitrary nofa n. (c) Where would the fint voltage minimum be Idtated'if the load were replaced by a shortcircuit? P.15i.9%29 a load i m p d a n k 30 .932 Thc input imdduncc of a shortcircuited l o s e transmission line of length 1. The spacing between the stubs is 3218. 927. with . = so (n) (R) that P Smm d open~g lnput Fig. chart to find (a) the standingwave ratio.934 The singlestub melhod is used to match a load impedance 25 + j25 (Q) to a 50(R) transmission line. exp&ment conducted d. and (b) the reflection meffiEient of the load.. find d and I required for matching.0. the first minknum occurs at 5 (cm) from the load.936 The doublestub method is used to match a load impedance 100 + j103 (Q) to a losrless transmission line of characteristic impedance 300 ($2).5 (m) (ci/2) and characteristic impedance.100 (R) (approximately real) is 40 . b) Repeat part (a) asstming the shortcircuited stub is made of a section of a line that has a characteristic! impedance of 75 (Q). (b) the voltage re~ectlbncoefficient.$ on ~ 9 . Find (a) the load i m p d a n d . Assuming ZL= 25 + j25 (Q). 4  4 in P. a) Find the required length and position of a ihortcircuited stub made of a section of the same 50(R) linc.935 A load impedance can be hatched to a transmission line also by using a single stub placed in series with the load I t an appropriate location. a load crlstic mown Isa* L..j280 (R).l a SO($2) lossless transmlss~onhne ternmated in an unknown load Ypedance. as shown in Fig. and KO= 35 (0). The successive voltage minima are 2$(cm) apatt and. P.1011. . Use a Smith. Desidn a quarterwave twowire air line with a 2(cm) spacing to matcg the antenna to the 300(Q) line. and characteristic im&danke 50 (a). ' I' indtlng edance )f char ' oltage = Ro is The line (b) the )are the P. P.933 A dipole antenna having an i n p ~ ~ t iili~diinceof 73 (0)is fed by i 200(MHz) source through a 3W(n) t w o 4 r e trsnsmission line.jlO (a).ssible :don P.3 0Repeat probl+ P.931 In a laborator. Ro = 50 (R). and (e) the location of the $b~tagdm~nimum thiline.
. (a) they are both shortcircuited. 926 can be used to match this load with the line. P938 The doublestub method shown in Fig.936 is changed to 100 +j50 (Q).. However. b) Find the required lengths of the shortcircuited stub tuners.. the modified arrangement shown in Fig. P937 If the load impedance in Problem P. 924 cannot be used to match certain loads to a line with a given characteristic impedance. 6 "  * L.I '. " . Determine the regions of load admittances on a Smith admittance chart for which the doublestub arrangement in Fig.1/4.)l . and 71/16. using the minimum dL found in part (a). . . . ~ e t e n n i n d lengths of ihe siub tuners if the . one discovers that a perfect match using the doublestub method with do = 3118 and one stub connected directly across the load is not possible. 924 cannot lead to a match for do = A/16. and (b) if they are both opensircuited. 3118.one stub connected directly in parallel with the load.. a) Find the minimum required additional line length dL. .
nor are the three types . '. This was pointed out in connection with Eq.of transmission lines (parallelplatz. One of the salient properties i ~ f TEM waves guided by conducting lines of negligible resistance is that the velocity of propagation of a wave of any frequency is the same . The basic governini equations will be examined.the three types of ttansmission lines are special cases. ( 9 d 1 ) and wasreinforced by Eq. atid power and signal transmission at that mode is possible only for frequencies highe. waveguides operating in T M and T E modes are like highpass filters. (945a) and (949a) that thc Litteriualion constant resulting iiom thc linite conductivity of the lines increases with R.eomponent crin also exist. wc scc from Eqs.s. found lbads to :ces on a . field and wave characteristics of parallelplate waveguides with emphasis on TM and TE modes and show that all . Hence the attenuation of TEM waves tends to increase monotonically with frequzncy and would be prohibitively high in the microwave range. which have no field components in rhe direction of propagation. the resistance per unit line length. (955). We will see that. Thus. Also in this chapter we will reexamine the. Waves of frcquencics below thc cutolT frequency of a particillar lnode cannot propagate.. in addition to transverse electromagrfetic (TEM) waves. As a mattcr of hct. . is proportional to f i in accordance with Tables 91 and 92. twowire. however. that. as that in an unbounded dielectric medium. In this chapter we first present a general analysis of the characteristics of the waves propagating along uniform guiding structures.cyuerf~?c.\ 101 I  INTRODUCTION ' In the preceding cha&er we studied the characteristic properties of transverse slec) tromagnetic ( T E ~ waves guided by transmission lines.~! magnetictield. of which . are not the only mode of guided waves that can propagate on transmission lines. Waveguiding structures are called waveguides.. both tru'nscerse r~tnqrzitic(TM) waves with a longitudinal electricfield cornponefit and tmr~sverse electric (TE) \caws with a longitndir. Both TM and TE modes have characterisric cutofl fi. the direction of propagation along the guiding line. TEM waves.. in turn.ead to a ' I ! 1.d. and coaxial) mentioned in Section 91 the only possible waveguiding structures. than the cutoff frequency. The TEM mode of guided waves is one in which the tlectric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and both are transvkrfe tc.
. . losses are extremely small. Circular w:~voguidcs will not be studied in this book. We will examine in detail the fields... . the current and charge distributions. since the box walls provide large areas for current flow. Such a box. can be expressed in teims of~E.) mode is desirable because the electric field in the guide is polarized in a fixed direction. We will examine the field characteristics and cutoff frequencies of those surface waves.. For some modes the attenuation may decrease as the frequency increases. is called a cavity resonator.. on the mode of the propagating wave. in a comcomponents .. . For this reason... . We will discuss the different mode patterns of the fields inside rectangular cavity resonators. $ . the attenuation may reach a minimum as the frequency exceeds the cutoff frequency by a certain amount. Both TM and TE modes will be discussed. f . All of these difficulties are alleviated if a hollow conducting box is used as a resonant device.> . as well as on frequency. In millly applic:ltions wave psopagation in a rcctan. . An analysis of the propertie$ of circular waveguides requires a familiarity with Bessel functions as a consequence of manipulating Maxwell's equations III cylindrical coordinates... bt. .a.'(z being thk diredkn of propagation) for TM waves.. and the propagation characteristics of rectangular waveguides. The attenuation . ' ti I' I I '?.. . . &.. I . . which is essentially a segment of a waveguide with closed end faces. and because of radiation. and in ternis 6f Hzfbr TE wave's. the waves supported by a dielectricslab waveguide are called sudtrce waces. . transvers~~field plicated way. . . . . UNIFORM GUIDING STRUCTURES In this section we examine some general chatactcristics for waves propagating along straight guiding structures with a uniform cross section. Consequently. I ' I . . At microwave frequencies. 1 . . Moreover. electromagnetic fields are confined inside the box and no radiation can occur. ordinary lumpedparameter elements (such as inductances and capacitances) connected by wires are no longer practical as resonant circuits because thc dimcnsions of thc clcrncnts would hove to bc cxtrcmcly small.#> . constants resulting from imperfectly conddctihg prates will be detkmiined for TM and TE waves.oular waveguide in the dominant (TE... and we will find that the attenuation cbnstant depends. Electromagnetic waves can propagate through hollow'metal pipes of an arbitrary cross section. We will assume that the waves propagate in the +r direction with a propagation constant J = ci jB that + . Both TM and TE modes are possible. . .. an enclosed conducting box can be a resonator of a very high Q. Without electromagnetic theory it would not be possible to explain the properties of hollow waveguides. 102 GENERAL WAVE BEHAVIORS ALONG.1 . because the resistance of the wire circuits becomes very high as a result of the skin effect. We will see that singleconductor waveguides cannot support TEM waves. The fields are essentially confined within the dielectric region and decay rapidly away from the slab surface in the transverse plane. Electromagnetic waves can also be guided by an open dielectricslab waveguide. Because the box is enclosed by conducting walls. . < . for other modes..
and k is the wavenumber rk = Wd. ' . rapidly ives supand TE ~quencies :h as in where EO(x. z .Y ' ) ] . for a. (103) The threedimensiona! Laplncian operator V2 may be broken illto two parts: 2 FuIu2 the crosssectional coordinates and Vf for the longitudinal coordinate. . :he skin . : tremely s yhigh Q. For or other ne cutoff . the common factor r ' j w ' .I ho!low nduc~ing In occur. Combination of Eqs. we use Cartesian coordinates: resonant :y small. t ) = %[EO(x.6) and (787).mpl.faces. 101 A uniform waveguide with an arbitrary cross section. we may replacc partial derivatives with respect to i and z simply by products witki ( j o )and ( . For harmonic time dependence with an angular frequency o.E + ." ' can be dropped: We consider a 9tra.LLE. .q2E. \.firection muation for TM :acornx y . the electric and magnetic field intensities in the chargefree diclcktr:~ region inside satisiy the following homogeneous vector llclmholtz's equations: V'E + k'E = 0 and V2H + k " = 0.. .n*i: 1 . y.ght waveguide in the form of a dielectricfilled metal tube having an arbitrary n o t s section and lying along the . The instantaneous expression for the H field can be written in a similar way. (102b) where E and H are threedimensional vector phasors. . in using a phasor representation in cquations relating field quantities.<. 8 . y ) e ( j U ' . for For waveguides with a rectangular cross section.7 )respectively. (10lb) a ) explain veguides rent and \of circuveguides a rcctan x i : field n :ve: e. Hence. as shown in Fig 101.BZ) t j(ut (10la) AS an exa. (78.axis. the depende&e on r ahd t for all field components can be described by the exponential factor i= e ( j ~. bosine reference we may write the instantaneous expression for the E field as E(x. (lb2a) and (104) gives Ing along rhat the .L I i I I is yet to be aetermined. is :he fields = V.Y Z ) = ee . According to Eqs.j/3 that Fig.y) is il twodimensional vector phasor that depends only on the crosssectional coordinated.
I.. : ponents H. 1 .. .. the common c'' factor for zdependence having been omitted.517): From V x E = jo. (105) and (106) become the governing equations for waveguides with a circular cross section. Let us edamine the interrelationships among the six componcnts in Ca rtcsian coordinates hy cspnnding thc two sourccfree curl c t p t i o n s . and it is not necessary to solve all six secondorder partial differential equations for the six components of E and H..y ) .tl . . . We note further that by writing V+ for the transversal operator V:... . . .We have . For instance.. we can express the transverse field com.uH: From V xW. Eqs.H : E ! and E in terms of the two longitudinal components Ep and H . . The exact solutibn of these component equations depends on the crosssectional geometry and the boundary conditions that a particular field component must satisfy at conductordielectric interfaces. one for each component of E and H. All the component field quantities in the equations above are phasors that depend only on x and y. (10la) and (108b) can be combined to eliminate E. (102b) we have . By manipulating these equations. the various components of E and H are not all independent.. (105) and (106) is really three secondorder partial differential equations. : Eqs.. 446 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS / 10. * .. (106) v$H + (yf + k 2 ) = 0. Ecp.... (7851) atid (7 8. Of course.jocE: Note that partial derivatives with respect to z have been replaced by multiplications by ( .. from Eq. ~ t We note that each of Eqs.. : *  Similarly. and : obtain H: in terms of E: and HP.
It follows that the \.subsequc. HZ wund~ C M ~ C Vxp il. or H . These are waves that contain neither (TEM Ez nor H. 102. Transverse Maglati: (TIM)Wows. 3. (10i5) also holds for a TEM wave on a lossless :ransmission line. (105) and (106) respectively for the longitudinal components. to zero. ' hut IS. This ratio is called the wcive impedance.elocity of propagation (phase velocity) for TEM waves is + We can obtain the ratio between E:! and H. = 0 and Hz= 0 for TEM waves within a guidc. = 0. 1. = 0. The propagation charac:eristics of the vorious types of waves are different. 2. We have .ntsubsections. We recall that Eq. These are waves that contain a nonzero ?I=.: eehoontered TEM waves in Chapter 8 when we discussed plane We waves and in Chlpter 9 on waves along tr&cimission lines. and subject to the required boundary conditions. from Eqs.1 Transverse ~ l e c t r o t n a ~ n e t Waves ic stions . and H .where The wave behavior in a waveguide can be analyzed by solving Eqs.s tha: : been cotnand : and Since E. In other words. ~rnnsvers~'~lect~oma~netic ) Waves. \ J . These are waves that contain a nonzero E. Tm~nuerse Electric (TEE)W a m . which is exactly the same expression for the propagation constant of a uniform pime wave in an unbounded inedium characterized by constitutive parameters s and 11. we see that Eqs. and then by using Eqs. but H.ith a 2 :d it is ihe six . (109) through (1012) constitute a set of trivial sol~tions field components van~sh) (all unless the denominator h also equals zero. exists. they will be discussed in.lTEM = jk =ju JF. {lo9) through (1012) to determine the other components.. (107b) and (108a) by setting E. TEM waves exist oniy ' when k' = 0 (1014) or (1015) . It is convenient to classify the propagating waves in a uniform waveguide into three types according to whether E.. comltions.
> WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS 1 10 which becomes.r ! . (824). waves along transmission iirics arc strictly n o lo~igcr 'I'LM. is the same as the intrinsic impedance of the'dielectric medium. (107a) and H p = 0 in Eq. Wllcn (17c conductors havc losscs. requires that the line integral of the magnetic'field (the magnetomotive force) around any closed loop in a transverse plane must equal the sum of the longitudinal conduction and displacement currents through the loop.. . again.(108b). 11o1cdi l l S c c t i o ~ ~ 2. consequently. as given in Eq. a coaxial transmission line having an inner conductor can support TEM waves: so can a twoconductor stripline and a twowire . . the generalized Ampere's circuital law. we conclude that TEM waves cannot exist in a singlecondttcror hollow (or die1ectric. the field lines of B and H would form closed loops in a transverse plane. if a TEM wave were to exist in a waveguide. The behavior of TM waves can be analyzed by solving Eq. . ( I 0 . On the other hand.2 Transverse Magnetic Waves Transverse magnetic (TM) waves do not have a component of the magnetic field in the direction of propagation. = 0.. By definition. However. Eq.transmission linc. in view of Eq. Equations (1016) and (1018) assert that the phase uelocity frequency of the ivnves. Singleconductor waveguides cannot support TEM waves. assuining pei$ect conductors. component. reminds us of a similar relation for a uniform plane wave in an unbounded mcdium see Eq. Hence. . . . there is no longitudinal displacement current. (738b). subject to tlic hountl:lry conditions o r tlic guiclc :lnd using ~ . The total absence of a longitudinal current inside a waveguide leads to the conclusion that there can be no closed loops of magnetic field lines in any transverse plane. (825). In Section 62 we pointed out that magnetic flux lines always close upon themselves. a TEM wave does not have an E. Without an inner conductor.filled) waceguide of any shape. (1018) We note that Z . H.5) l i ) E. (1015). 9 102. there is no longitudinal conduction current inside the waveguide. and the wave impedance for TEA4 waves ore iirdependent of rl~e Letting EP = 0 in Eq. 448 . Therefore. we obtain Equations (1017) and (1019) can be combined to obtain the following formula for a TEM wave propagating in the + 2 direction: which.
. we have L ViyE: (y2 k?)~: = 0 (1021) . . on the introduction of the wave impedance for the TM mode. :round mduc: there . We have.. In thitsection we wish only to discuss. which can be solved for E:. (1023). field in :zcd by i using i It is important to note thai Z. I . Equation (1022). (109) through (1012) to obtain ula for 2 we .is a secondorder partial diffdrential equation. Writing Eq. TEM . Equation (1024) is a concise formula for finding E: an.O from Ep. . . he actual solution of Eq. we set Hz= 0 m Eqs. For TM waves. can be determined simply from Ex a r d E.. .e Eqs. + + :diuni. from Eqs. ilocity waves.i E. (1022) will wait until subsequent sections when we examine patticu!ar wavcguidcs. (105) for E. The transverse components of magnetic field intensity. H.a1 diseguide lnes in . (109) ihrough (1012) to determine the other components.u/y. (1023c) and (1023d) and write L where denotes the grkdient of 1:: in the tmnsvcrse plane. unlike YTEM./a. is not equal to j o The following relation between the electric and magnetic .or . .Eqs..r pl a 2 other : conr :owire In lines ! P It is convenient to combi1.the general properties of the various wave types.. ..TEM loops 38b). . and H. is not cquil? to jw. becausc y for TM waves.
 . (101:) we have 7 = .(?)/A€.field intensities holds for TM waves: 1 J L Equation (1027) is seen to be of the same form as Eq. (103) 7 Two distinct ranges of the values for the propagation constant are noted. In thc following sections we will also discover that the ei~envalues the various of wilveguidc problcms are real numhcrs. ) ( >1 . subject to the boundary conditions of a given waveguide. When we undertake to solve the twodimensional homogeneous Helmholtz equation. (1020) for TEM waves. There may be an infinity of these discretc valucs. (1022).. i n this rrngr. (1028) as (1031) The two distinct ranges of p can be defined in terms of the ratio (f/jd2 as compared to unity.. a t which 7 = O is called a c u t o l j ' j r c q ~ ~ ~ ~Ti"y .: .u E = 112 (1029) The frequency.jh. for a nc partieuior mode in a wuueyuidr dcpeads or1 lie eige~lcaluruj this mode. w e have..k Jm. Eq. > .. From Eq. from /I' Eq. w z y r . the dividing point being y = 0..: . where w:. (102% = jp = j k dl .j.(I<! )=. (1022) exists are called the c h i f r i r c t ~ r i ~ f i ~ of uolllrr or eioe~~crilues the boundaryvalue problem. Using Eq. and 7 is imaginary. hut solutions ilre not possible for all values of 11.I. 0: I (1032) It is a propagating mode with a phase consrant . . The values of11 for which a solution of Eq. Each ol the rigenvalues determines the characteristic properties of a particular TM mode of the glven waveguide. we can write Eq.uuhe ($.1.r? = . (1030)./I. we will discover that solutions are possible only for discrete ralues of h.
eg.'. for f > /. 102. ( 1 0 3 6 ) thilt thc phase vclocity within a wavcguidc is always higher thzn that in a.* iamcm 2 n . 4.11.sf P ah** . .k. 192 Normalized wave irnpedances for propagating TM and TE waves.*llTr ... we nay be 2. oi 11.*. We sce from Eq.~ W ?  j' * bWFC ' .*\b. various "+*. llholtz :de. detcr't cguide... from . . /or u L I sing Eq.30) J. (1031) 0111 p.. : a x . The group velocity for a propagating waie in a waveguide can be determined by using Eq.. Hence singleconductor wuucguides ure dispersive rrut~smissiot~ systems.i the ir?rrinsi i i ~ l p i u t l e e the dieiecriic rnedietn. The phase velocity of the propagating wave in the guide is (1028) divieg (16 ) . L. is sketched in Fig.r32) (ld33) Fig.de is picrely resistive of am! is uiwuys less tho. (1026) yields ( I 0 . The vnriation of Zm versa j:/.r. 'i'. and LL = I/& is the velocity of light in the mcdiurn.a. * .+ *%$ I +\I. j l ~ l l ? l u ~ ~ ~ 4 . (1032) in Eq..*L.: +. 102 GENERAL WAVE BEHAVIORS ALONG UNIFORM QU~D~NG STRUCTURES 451 The corresponding wavelength in the guide ifi where :s. *m'''qL'*wwpr 1::..ctl The wuae irqwduizce 1 f'p'apuyotirig TAMtnoddrs i~ u wur.1 unbounded mcdiurn and is frequencydependent. terisfic . z / * 1 ' u pl a f 2 (1035) is the wavelength of a plane wave with a frequency f in an unbounded dielectric medium characterized by p and s. % . (8j2): Substitution of Eq.srr.*P*.: r?*.. + 1 *.s~..
b) ($1' < 1. (106) for H. Since all field components contain the propagation factor e?' = e". in fact. Ez = 0.. (1026) gives the wave impedance of TM modes for f < f. We have . (109) through (1012) with 4 set to zero. When the operating frequency is lower than the cutoff frequency. an attenuation constant. Substitution of Eq. 1 102. the wave diminishes rapidly with r and is said to be evanescent.: Thus. indicating that tlicrc is no powcr llow associ:~tcd wit11cv.. Therefore a waveguide exhibits the property of a highpass jlter.3 Transverse Electric Waves Transverse electric (TE) waves do not have a component of the electric field in the direction of propagation. which is.: Proper boundary conditions at the guide walls must be satisfied. only waves with a frequency higher than the cutoff frequency of the mode can propagate in the guide. y is real and Eq. (1031) can be written as *\. The transverse field components can then be found by substituting H z into the reduced Eqs. For a given mode. or f < /. = Lh 2 C.inusccnt wa\'cs. (1039) in Eq. SHP tr. the wave impedance of evanescent TM modes s t freq>encies below cutoK is purely reactive. The behavior of TE waves can be analyzed by first solving Eq. ) .
lor c q l ~ a lto . in Eqs. (1028) through (1031) pertaining to TM waves also apply to TE waves. . unlike ynln is . u p . a) ( > 1.~:iuIa: ~ ~d (1040) 3W c p f f . (1034). Eqs. . . (1033). (1039) ntuin the id is said highpass :he cutoff ' >. (1036) bemuse . (1024) for TM modes. we obtain . The expression for 7 is the same as that given in Eq. UW~FORM GUIDING STRUCTURES 453 I 7 e ' cutoff ' . c . (1042% b. .. (1032): (1041) (1046) xansverse . The transverse components of eiectric field intensity.. . . or j' .. ) for TE waves... c.. . In Eq.in t w w bc c o ~ ~ l l ) i IO lgive LIIC SOIIOWIIIC VCCLOI lil. (1043) is entirely similar to Eq. (1044). E and E. (109) )L. Equations ( 1 0 4 2 ~ ) (10 42di. and (1037). p . (1044) is quite different from Z. Using Eq. also hold for TE waves. .. we obtain ( 1042a) (l0Pb) ( 10 *k) ( 1043d) .. and we have a propagaring mode. . (1046) in Eq.or fi. respectively. Consequently. in Eq. and d). . depending on whethdr the operating frequency is higher or lower than thc cutort'frcqu~nc~. the formulas for 1._ ). givcn in Eq. ad ( I 0 44) c. (1042a) and (1042b). and u. We have. . :dance of Note that Z. are related to O those of magnetic field intensity through the wave impedance. In this range 7 is imaginary.meL ~ l t Id in tlic Jyzed by Inasmuch as we hahc not changed the relation between 7 and 11. (1036). . (1030). JC. .. We note that Eq.: '. from Eqs.i' . !i 1!$i' : Combining Eqs. + 102 1 GENERAC W A J BEHAVIORS ~ ALONG .. There are also two distinct ranges of 7..
and TE modes. In this case. TAM. Substitution of Eq.I . (1047) gives the wave impedance of TE modes for f <f. a) At f = 2A. which is purely reactive. (1048) in Eq. b) ($)2 < 1. 7 is real and we have an evanescent or non I propaghting mode . Table 101 Wave Impedances and Guide Wavelengths for j' > J': 1 TEM j/ n = E ~ ~ . (b) Repeat part (a) for a frequency equal to onelinlfolrhe cutoff frequency. The appropriate formuias are listed in Table 101. indicating again that there is no power flow for evanescent waves at f < h. Example 101 (a) Determine the wave impedance and guide wavelength at a frequency equal to twice the cutoff frequency in a waveguide for TEM. we have propagating modes. . or / <I:.. which is above the cutoff frequency.
/2 < f. and operating at a particular ' Also referred to as a Biillouin drayram. The solid curve abovr the dashed line depicts a typical wP relation for either :I TM o r . 103 An wb diagram for waveguide. 7 = j/i and the variation of /j' versus frcquency determines the characteristics of a wave along a guide. L U C as P. up. NII The a. Both Z.' Figure 103 is such a diagram in which the dashed line through the origin r e p r c s d s the w8 relationship for TEM mods.. The slope of the line jo~nlng the origin and any point./3 curve intersects ihe Waxls ([i = 0) at o = m.. .. the waveguide modes are evanescent and guide wavelength has no significance. does not change with frequency'bewuse TEM waves do not exhibit a cutoff propeity. For propagating modes. We now have frei TE  We note that Z.I Ti7 ~ ~ l ' O ~ ~ : l g i lI ~ Ii O l ~ Cgivc11l)y J{CJ.. The constant which is the same as the velonty of slbpe of this stmight iine is iu/b = u = I.0 v " Fig. their values depend on the eigenvaluc 11. light in an unbounded dielectric medium with cbnstitutive parameters p and 6 .. We G I I I writc I l (r ~. on the curve is equal to the phase velocity.(10 33). b) At f = J.'&. and Z& become imagnary for evanescent modes at f c /. It is therefore useful to plot 2nd examine an Wfl diagram. whlch is a characteristic of the particular TM or TE mode. ~ for a particular mode having 3 cutoff frequency /..
up z u and ug < u. TEM modes are not the only type of waves that can propagate along . and again emphasized in subsection 102.that is. The value of n for any/' < j. that the field behavior for TEM modes bears a very close resemblance to that for uniform plane waves in an unbounded dielectric medium. The local slope of the w/3 curve at P is the group velocity. Eqs. can be found from this quarter of a circle.1. The exact value of o depends on the eigenvalue h in . on the particular TM or TE mode in a waveguide of a given cross section. Fig. We note that. both 11. PARALLELPLATE WAVEGUIDE 103 In Section 92 we discussed the characteristics of TEM waves propagating along a parallelplate transmission line. It was then pointed out. and ug approach u asymptotically.Relation between attenuation constant and operating frequency for evanescent modes (Example 102). for propagating TM and TPwaves in a waveguide. We have and Eq. f < applies. 104 frequency. Solution: For evanescent T M or TE modes. Eq. This is shown in Fig. Methods for determining h will be discussed when we examine different types of waveguides. (1030). Example 102 Obtain a graph sliowin$ thc relation between the attenuation constant n and the operating frequency f for evanescent modes..r/h) plotted versus/ is a circle ccntcicd at the origin and having a radiusl. In fact. (1036) and (1037) show that As the operating frequency increases much above the cutoff frequency. However.. u. (1039) or (1048) Hcncc thc graph of(j. 104.
= For harmonic time dependence. 105 .. ?he characteristics of these waves are examined separately in following subsections. A parallelplate wave'guide can also support' TM and TE waves. The only other nonzero field components are obtained from Eqs. waveguide. we have jar (n:) H~(Y) =A. :along 'Fig. Let us suppose that TM waves (Hz 0) propagate in the + z direction.. and u.(y) h2E. 105. The plates arc assbmed to bc infinitc in extent in thc xdirection. From Section 45 we corclude that E:(y) musr be of the Sollowing form (h = n q b ) : In conwhere the a m p h d e A. I Consider the paallelplate waveguide of two perfectly conducting plates separated by a dielectric medium with constitutive parameters 6 and p. (1b5:3) must satisfy the boundary conditions E:'(y)=O aty=O and y = h . Le /r i The solution of Eq. TM Waves between parallel Plates I 103./?x = 0 and omitting the e . (1053) Ad infinite parallelplate . depends on the strength of excitation of the particular TM wave. cly2 ' + .'" ' perfectly conduc& p~mllelplatesseparated by a dielectric.2) as ~:(y)e~'.IZU.~n IOSC re irdium. In fact. Keeping in mind that ZE. We write the phasor Ez(y.p factor.1 ' Je note ?. cos h having : from d r' I a . (1023a) and (1023d). as shown in Fig.(y) = 0. + . This is tantamount to assuming that the Aelds do not vary in the xdirection and that edge effects are negligible. Equation (1022) then becomes d2~. it is expedient to work with equations relating field quantities with the common factor ej(''"yz) omitted.
.. . . of course.. TMl. . . mode are obtained by multiplying the phasor expressions in Eqs. and E. mode is the TEM mode. . = 0.. . 6 8 . *. . = l/ll~. . 2'.': .  .+%>! . phase velocity. . . . : .:. (1033).. . ' . ... for which j.  .. . . . .I&~..*  :.. (1034). . . E.: ...y: . a . .::'.. When n = 0..'. for 11 = 1. For parallelphte waveguides...  . Waves with f > propagate with :I phase constant A given in Eq.:. .o ~ t i n g modes iiilhrent cigcll~. ".. We have which.. . . : :.. .: .... (1033): and waves with / 5 J..~lucs Tllar. . .! :i: $. . ... ~ ~ ~ & . .. and wave impedance. checks with Eq. V:. ... and (1038). and (1054c) with eJ("'a' and taking the real part of the product. (1028): Cutoff frequency is the frequency that makes y = 0. ..J. ...... . iC Example 103 (a) Write the instantaneous field expressions for T M . . respectively.. Solution a) The instantaneous field expressions for the TM. (1036). . . .. #.:" .\ . .. ... Hence TIM. . ... ' \ .*l?*.lllc T k l . . . where . .. (1030).. E S ~ 1~ ~ 10 .< . h e r e are different possible propa. ..&$ a ... . .. (103i). & . (1054b). " . The y in Eq./~a. ...  ' ' < : . (1054c) is the propagation constant that can be determined from Eq. The mode having the lowest cutoff frequency is called the dornindnt mode of the waveguide. _. they can be determined from. . ..+... = 0. : . .. .:. ~llcrc /I. ' . Each mode has its own characteristic phase constant. : WAVEGUIDES AND C A V l n R . . group velocity... (1054a).. mode in a parallelplate waveguide. h . are evanescent. . . ... the dominanr rnorie i s rlw TEM inode. TM Depending on the value of n..mode (11 = 2) with the = I/hdli+ and so on. :.A. . and only the transverse components H . .. (b)Sketch the electric and magnetic field lines in the yzplane. We have. exist. .. .. . ...... . (e~genmodes) corresponding to l l ~ c mode (11 = I) with cutolYfrrquency ( j . Eqs. . . guide wavelength. . . .lrc. ) ."".. ... . .
. . (1055) E has both a y and a z component.* . For thc TM. I. Severill i l c h electric licld lincs .@ dz . yz .(Y. Equation (1060) can be integrated to give which is the equhtion of the electric field line for a particular yo at . tNc magnetic field lincs are everywhere perpendicular to the y. 1th (I. DiLrent = in values of y.= E. E L d~' . Eq. .. Eq. 106. which gives the dope of the electric field lincs. The ficld lines rcpwt tl~cmaclvcsiur every cliangc o f 4 r by ?n rad. there arr.).\asis inld thc paper).0) . . This is also skctched in Fig.(y. Since H ha3 only an s component. At the conducting plates (y = 0 and y = h).z. 0. 106. mode in parallelplate waveguide. (1059) can be Written as E. %.ire d r ~ w n Fig.ncd Iionl i . Field llnes I J r T M . . .$eId lines w a given t can be found from the relation: l .O) cot (1056) h a phaswM modes ..: d y = ddz E. mode at t = 0. . . 5y multl54~) with (1057a) (1057b) r I! 74 (1058) a8 Fig. surface currcnu because of a discontinuity in the tangential magnetic field and : urface charges because of the presence of a normal e1ec:ric field. 106  Electric t':c!d lines.b) In the . lines varier as cos ini/b) in the y direction and as sin 0 in : the z direction. pime. at t = 0. jde qu$ncy is the domi le (y) tan f i z . = :nt. * (1059) For example. ." I. (Problem 101). givc dilfcrcnt loci. gutdc be @rcn M. the equation of the electric ..:i . The density of h. the T M . (1057c) becomes node in a I pzplane. Mngnctic field lincs (.
To adapt the coordinate designations of Fig.!. a propagating T M . / 9 . 810 to those of Fig. and n/b respectively.. . Solution: This can be seen readily by writing the phasor expression of EP(y) from Eq. 107 Propagating wave in parallelplate waveguide as superposition of two plane waves. . (1054a) for n = 1 and with the factor ejB' restored. (1063). WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS / 10 r . . wave in a parallel. (886a) as Comparing the exponents of the tcrms in this equation with those in Eq. . +: In Subsection 86. 105. ! . the second term represents. sin Bi = p . we obtain two equations: (1064a) /3. Similarly. . .. / . 2j  j(P:+n~lht I. of Eq. a plane and + y directions with the same phase conwave propapting obliquely in the stants and d h as those of the first plane wave. (10G3) From Chapter 8 we recognize that the first term on the right side of Eq. . we obtained an expression for the longitudinal component of the total E l field that is the sum of the longitudinal components of the incidcnt Ei and the retlectcd E. (1063) represents a plane wave propagating obliquely in the + z and y directions with phase constants3! . as dcpictcd in Fig. cos Oi = b X Fig. & . p..y respectively. wave in a parallelplate waveguide can be regarded as the superposition of two planc waves. 460 .c and z must be changed to z and . Thus. .. .. Wc rcwritc E. We have Y A1 = [ej(B:n~lb) 4 '. 107.2 on reflection of a ~arallelly polarized plane wave incident obliquely at a conducting boundary plane. . .. Example 104 Show that the field solution of 9 propagating TM.piate waveguide can be interpreted as the superposition of two plane waves bouncing back and forth obliquely between the two conducting plates.
We observe thLt B solution o l Eq. (1034) and (1036). iClr . cutoff frequency /:. n where I = 2n//3.26' (1065) t. mode is possibie agation in the : only when / c i = 2b or f > ji. Both cos Oi and sin Oican be expressed in terms of . is the wavelength in the unbounded dielectric medium. Propagation of T M . and COS n /Z 0. This corresponds to the case when the w v e s bounce back and forth in the j9direction. whicll is the cutoff frcqucncy in Eq. normal to thc prailei plates. cos Oi = I. (1042c). .65) and ( 1 064a) wc htvc . fos : (F) . (1058). or /' = I I / ~= l / ? b . The boundary conditions to be satisfied by H:[)I) are obtained from Eq. / ~ . FPorn Eqs. (1041) with no *dependence. (1056) for 1l = 1.p= which is the same as Eq.. Ez = 0. g I$ (1066b) Equation (LO66bj is in agreement with Eqs.(R ): = H (: y)e".2 TE Waves between Parallel Plates I For transverse eiectnc waves.1063) i 1063) ns with "a plane se conaave in M'3 V S C. (1065) for Oi exists only whcn L/Zb i I.. We note that H.b . / .. Since Ex must vanish at the surfaces of the conducting plates. . 11 0 . 103.:I cornxations ./Zb = I. we solve the following equation for HP()).~ively. At /. sin Oi = 0). we require H (g) = B. ilnd there is no propdirection ( b = 11. which is a simplified versim of Eq. and sin Q i =5=2=/%.L he . and Oi = 0.= P.
c .Eq. . . and E. I .a . 3 ' . 462 WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS I 10 ' 5 . Inasmuch as cutoff frequency is the frequency that makes y = 0. z : t ) = B 1 cos . . Eq.both H . (1055). (1068b) is the same a3 that for TM waves given in Eq. We have. The magnetic field has both a y and a z component. mode are obtained by taking the real part of the products of the phasor expressions in Eqs.. At t = 0. . (1069c) becomes ' Thus the density of Ex lines varies as sin (xylh) in the y direction and as sin /?i in the i direction. (1068b). keeping in mind that dHz/2x = 0: .(y. rlrotlc iir ( 1 patrllclpltrrc wreguidc is estrcrl!i the strrnr j~ as t l l u t j b r the T M . a) The instantaneous field expressions for . (1042b) and the (1042c). hence the TE.on the strength of excitation of the particular TE wave. depends. The equation of the magnetic field lines at t = 0 can be round from the following relation:  dy dz I! ( v 2 : 0) = /lh tan . (1068a). mode does not exist'ln a parallelplate waveguide. vanish..tan llz. same as that for the T M . i <. The propagation constant y in. tlre c u t o ] ' j i c q u a ~for rlic TE. . Ex lines are sketchcd as dots and crosses in Fig. mode. H. 0) n () 7 . / .. . for n = 1. Solution . z . '..cos (at . L ' . b) In the yz plane E has only an x component. . (1058). and (106Sc) with ej(""4''. I _ where the amplitude B. (1056). For n = 0. 108. mode gicen irt E y . We ~ b t a i n only other nonzero fidd components from Eqs. (b) Skctch thc elcctric m d m a ~ ~ i c t field lincs in the J*: ic plane.Pz) (lid) (1069a) where the phase constant P is given by Eq.. * % . H z ( y .he TE. mbde in a parallelplate waveguide. Example 105 (a1 Write the instantaneous field expressions for the TE.
which is the equation of thc magnetic field line for a particular y o at z = 0.on constant forTEM modes on a parallelplate transmission line has been discwed in Subsection 933. vanish. Losses modify the electric and magnetic fields within the guide.u = ud + z. c Field line.0~SC) :s given = 0. However. .2 % SIII (ny/h)' %In. A real of thc propagation constant now appears as the attenuation constant.rad. 108 ~ l c c t r i fieid lines (xaxis into the paper). making exact solutions difficult to obtain. which accounts for power losses. (1073) >In / k fI 1 L ' : \ 1071) TEM Modes The attenuat. Eq. 108 for different values of yo.Magnetic flcld lines. (1071) gives = sin (nb 11)) .ornes i 10 70) Attenuation in any wa~c. . I 069a) 1069 b) 103. (972) and Table 91 .. . .3 Attenuation in ParallelPlate Waveguides 1069~) 2e TM. Upon integration. in practical wa1:eguides the losses are usually very small.. From Eq. for TE.rhr 1e same .. The attenuation constant consists of two parts : . Several such lifles are drawn in Fig.(not the parallelplate waveguide) arises i'rorn two just sources: lossy dielectric and imperfectly conducting walls.guide. e 0boo). ~ d in a e the yz P O8 Fig. and we will assume that the transverse field patterns of the propagating modes are not affected by them. mode in parallelplate waveguide. The field lines repeat themselves for every change of flz by 2x.
is proportional io J?. .u. We note that. . .. and. 4 cc. We note further that a. We have above ji can be found from Eq. I where E.0 as a + 0 and that r . . is independent of frequency. permeability. (1073a) if = dielectric if the dielectric is lossless. respectively. (1056) wc scc t h a t With this relation. for TEM modes. is the conductivity of the metal plates.+(aijw) Only the first two terns in the binomial expansion for the second line in Eq.a are. (1074) are retained in the third line under the assumption that From Eq. and conductivity is the intrinsic impedance of the of the dielectric medium. =e. (1055) by substituting E. TM Modes The attenuation constant due to losses in the dielectric at frequencies for 6.. Eq. and cc. the permittivity. as expected. r. + 0 as a. In Eq.we have approximately . (972) and Table 91 we have where a. < . . (1074) becomes from which we obtain . Also from Eq. .
.. .. 1. 103 I%IRALLELPLATE .. Thus. wi: havc (1074) kq. xther th8i where P(r) is the timeaverage power flowing through a cross section (say.*::.... .. on j for TM 11locit..&fmJq' . (* < . 109.'. . = Pk) $ 2~( (1077) modes.:.: ._ (1075) A sketch of the no&alize(lz. (926b)... (1076) ._  ESL . (10801 in Eq.  . .ndudtivity . "..+ ': : I. . .md lower plates hilve thc silnie n.. Wc have fi .*:<. . :r . .. (1079) gives the explicit dependence of r.  ~rr*'r:*y~uthi*u\~*** . we use Eq.(1073b) 1 ' s = w& J I a r iradlm).. ' !:"".: ." . :<'I: ..: 6 ' . . of wldth w) of the waveguide. S(. .. . a ? I ) . which was derived from the law of conservation of energy.. 'requencies e.t Thus adfor TM mod& decreases when keqienky increases. I'hc surfxc curicnt dwsil:cs on illv aplicl.. from Eq..agniiudc. is shown in Eig.. For TM modes we use Eqs. (1054b) and (1054c): . 3 . Bnd P. (1074) The total power loss per unit length in two plates of width bv is  Substitution of Eqs. which reveals the existence of a minimum. a.(3 is the timeaverage power lost in the two plates per unit length.. J1 The use of Eq. .. On the lower plate where y = 0.. (970).* ..' .' mce of the we have . (10Xa) and (1078b) in Eq. ..+*..wAvEciwx >. To find the atterluation constant due ta losses in the imperfectly conducting plates.. (1077) yields where.. 465 Lr'su**'ii. ' 8 . . (1073a) .A'‘.s7. .'.. ...
are rectanguhr and circular. the fields do not vary with x. practical waveguides are usually uniform structures of a cross section of the enclosed variety. l'rupapation X ~ of nrncharmonlc waves in the + z direction wirh a propagation constant 7 is considered. that is. In practice. Renders possessing such knowledge.~vcnotcd pmv~ously. The simplest of such cross sections. ~ more advanced books. Y9 4 as .. n ~ ~l . wave. = 0 and Ez is to be solved from Eq. I M and TE modcs will be discussed scpamtcly. (1022). s e v q u i d r .1 TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguides Consider the waveguide ketched in Fig. In this section we will analyze the wave behavior in hollow rectangular waveguides.~n. Writing E&. bcc. Circular waveguides will not be treated in this book. cannot exist B a singleconductor hollow or dielectrictilled wnvegulde. As wc h.I 104 RECTANGULAR ~ A ~ E G U I D E S  i attcnfinite :es in .wc . Rectangular waveguides are much more commonly used in practlce than circular waveguides. *  The analysis of pdnhelplate waveguides in Section 103 assumed the plates to be of an infinite extent the transverse x direction. would have little difficulty following an .. For TM waves. The enclosid dielectric medium is assumed to have constitutive parameters r and p. however.r:i~iotl. with its rectangular cross sec:ion of sides u and b. TE\I it .lr:iw 011 ~iie ~ i i ~ c r111iS C C I I10 ~1 con'crnlng ~ C I ~ C I wavc bcliaviorr along unrllml guiding struclurcs. with fringing fields at the edges. 1010. in ternis of ease both in analysis and in manufacture. these plates are always finite in width. 104.. ~ In the following diw. H . Thus. Electromagnetic endgy will leak through the sides of the guide and create undesirable stray couplings to other circuits and systems. because to do so requires a knowledge of the properties of Bessel functions.iiysis of circular .luse the procedure is the same as d e m ~ b e d in here.
. : . . Obviously.. _ . . I ..> . .... ' ... .p 'c' F . .. . i . . . . . y) = 0 EP(a. . . . (1087) is a function of x only and the right side is a function of y only. . .y . J % C ( + a2 + aZ h Z (1085) it Here we use the method of separation of variables discussed in Section 45 by letting Substituting Eq. . : . 468 . . . 1. Y ( y )in the form of sin k.~. .y. I ." . :c. . .' . b6th sides must equal a constant in order for the equation to hold for all values of . ..a . .. . Section 45.: ... .. . we must choose: X ( x ) 111 the form of sin li. " WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS . . . ' . .K and y. (1086) in Eq. ' . a I. .. ... Calling this constant k we obtain two : . I .Y. In the y direction: EP(0. . we have 4 I ?C s' f Now we argue that. .. . = p . The appropriate forms to be chosen must satisfy the following boundary conditions. 2.  ddF k2 (1089) 7 where (1090) The possible solutions of Eqs.:.. then. (1088) and (1089) are listed in Table 41.YO. = 0 0) Ey(s.)=O.7. . . ... E~(..... 6) = 0. I ..'. . . . ?. (1085) and dividing the resulting equation by X ( x )Y (y).. ".. In the K direction: . .. . . ?iT 'l. :. _.. .  . . y) = 0. separate ordinary diffcrcntinl equations: I t I 1 4 2Y') +~. . 1 10  we solve the following secondorder partial differential equation: . .. since the left side of Eq. .'.
a. for TE modes does not have a minimum but decreases monotonically as f increases. (1077). (1068a). in Eq. 466' WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS / 10 . Of course.1 Rectan A normalized a. f I I TE modes Fig. 109.d .. We h a v e 104. the field expressions in Eqs. we again apply Eq. It follows that the formula for a. due to losses in the imperfectly conducting plates. TE Modes In Subsection 103. for TM modes. 109 NormaIized attenuation constant due to finite conductiJity of the plates in parallelplate waveguide. (1068bh and (1068c) for TE modcs must now bc used.2 we noted that the expression for the propa_eation constant for TE waves between parallel plates is the same as that for TM waves. (1075) holds for TE m o d e ~ i i w e l l . Unlike x. (1053) is also sketched in Fig. In order to determine the attenuation constant a. 7 . . curve based on Eq.
( x ) sin . the cutoR frequency is mode.(X.) cos y ) where Every combination of the integers ni and 11 defines a possibic mode that may be designated as the TM.. H~LY. = y (7) y nx p ). nlode. The cutoff of a particular mode is the condition that makes y vanish. (1092) . sin ) I . Alternatively. sin sin x) cos . and the second subscript denotes the number of halfcyc!e variations of the fields in they direction. we have and the :for the :sin two \ . . (10go). For the TM. y ) is for E:(x. y' = E.. we may writo  where i is the curoj"~uve1enyth. (yx) (7 E . .. cos ~ e ( x1.. (1023a) through (1023d): .. (1030). (y )) r j c nn o ( 7 (T)~. thus there are a double infinite number of TM n o d s . y .. y mn E .and the proper so~utibn E. = 2 yi E . The first subscript denotes the number of halfcycle variations of the fields in the xdirection. L which checks with Eq.: = . The other field components arc obtained from Eqs. From Eq. o ( ~ ..
)TO (: (% (r.(?) b '.(x. a) The instantaneous field expressions for the TM. sin u y cos ( o t X) pz) ma h ' E. mode has the lowest cutoff frequency of all TM modes in a rectangular waveguide.IH @IE 9 = = tan ( : h cot . Example 106 (a) Write the instantaneous field expressions for the TM..:. TM. (1060) and can be used to sketch the E and H lines shown in Fig. .(F.) ((. t) = H. mode in a rectangular waveguide of sides a and 6. sin HJx. . . t) = E(x. t) = E. the slopes of the electric field and magnetic field lines are (. modes in Eqs.( ( ) (. (1099a) and (1099b) . z. 10ll(a).) y x) tan (i y)  These equations are quite similar to Eq. neither m nor n can be zero. y.. We have.Bz) (1097d) (1097e) E . apply here directly. I . mode are obtained by multiplying the phasor expressions in. (Do you know why?) Hence. 3.pi) (1097b) (lo97c) . z . . (1092) and (1094a) through (1094d) with e ~ ( u t . Note that from Eqs.. ' For TM modes.. y.jz) where b) In a typicaI xy plane. ) sin x). (z x) cot ( ..Eqs. y.P : ) and then taking the real part ofthe product.x. z. for in = n = 1. respectively. cos x sin y sin ( o t . E.. The expressions for the phase constant j and the wave impedance Z for propagating 3 ..(. sin cos g ) sin (or . . (b) Sketch the electric and magnetic field lines in a typical xy plane and in a typical yz plane. y. t) = T 1 1 $(.cos . . (1033) and (1038). . y ) sin (wt .
. where H:(x.ines are Equation (10101) is seen to be of exactly the same form as Eq.. (1085). in a i j p i a d y r p h c . i = 1... . m . we h.. i 1 . y.vc .2 TE Waves in Rectangular Waveguides For transverse electric waves. .(I. : * I \ ' . ) multi94cl) 17 '\ ~ n d u t i n g E and H lines are everywhere perpendicular to one mother.~ l ) e . : r' ' . We write = (10100) H.must s m f y :he fcllcwing ! x m d a r i cuiidit~onb. I11 the sdircction: .i/(r)= 1 sod cos ( 7 r s / ( 1 ) = 0. 1.. mode in rectangular waveguide.. z) = H.. The solutron for R. fl.J ? .. . typical'^ and H lines nrs drawn in 104. Some Fig. 2 ) satisfies the following secondorder partial differential equation: ..!iz 0. ) and ti has only an scomponent. 101 l(b) for r = 0. (?)[:$ (i) (i = Cot y tan cwt . 3 o /. (1011) for I f z . Similarly. . Br .(X. 1011 Field lines for TM. we solve Eq.Y = u/2 or sin (n. say..pzi. ~RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES 471 :c field Electric field l i .~ " . Note that also that E liiles arc normal and that H lines are pir:illel to conducting guldc walls.(x.Magnetic field lines Fig..
In the y direction: 0 (Ex = 0) at y = h.).)\ ) E. sin 7 H. 1))= 2 "9 " Y)= (. is )) ZY aHp = = aH. For TE modes. (1042a) tlirough (1042d): E'(y. cos (y ) y y) ... either rrz or r1 (but not both) can be zero.. If a > h. Equation (1096a) for cutoff frequency also applies here. 2.:(Y.y) r. Y)= jop (nn ). . mode has the lowest attenuation of all modes in a rectangular waveguide and its electric field is definitely polarized in one direction everywhere. Because the TE.x~. the cutoff frequency is the l o w c ~ whcn nt = 1 and 11 = 0: The corresponding cutoff wavelength is .:I (F. h ' y i m H o COS (~psin (y .):I( . (1095) for TM modes. mode is the dorninunt mode oj u rectangular wuueguide with a > b.H Osili "o" hZ H . .J) = .. The relation between the eigenvalue hand (mn/a) and (nnib)is the same as that given in Eq. H~ cos sin where y has the same expression as that given in Eq.) (y .104t1) (10IOJC) cos .o O&O~ it y=o (10102c) (10102d) (10103) 4 . Hence the TE.r ) X (10. it is of particular practical importance. (1093) for TM modes.1 ... JY It is readily verified that the appropriate soiution for H?(~. nn (4 (y (s . The other field components are obti~inedfrom Eqs. 110.
EJx.lit ini1i. for example. 1 l.pr. both of which vary sinusoidally with QI..p:) = 1. The surface curreni ~ h s i t y guide ivalls. and H.it [hi. We have.. as jhown in Fig. (75Ob): . H.. 101?(b). . e) which can be ~iscd dciw thc H lincs in Fig. . .I[ i = 0 is givcn in Fig. both E.1 O?f) i11. . mode are obta~ned by multiplying the haso or expressions in Eqs. plane will show all three nonzero field components Ey. . a typicnl I) plane. The sketch in an x. i ) and arc independent of y. FI.. f Solution l a) The instantaneous field expressions for the dominant TE. vary as sin j q i . (10103) and (10104a) through (10104d) with e"". . a n 3 il. ha> uni? ( l~ In three nonzero fie!d omponcntsnamely.. E. . z . we o~ilyhave E. and 11.jn.. TE. Thc i l ~ p c f h e I lines : ~ it = O is govcrncd by t l ~ akiiIo\iinp o 1 equation: $ ("1 tan (" s) tan p:.. '  Example 107 (h) write the instantaneous field expressions for the TE. is related to the magnetic field an intensity by Eq. Thcc lina . and Hz. when sin (or .. ln a typical yz plane. say. t) = 0 (10107a) h) We scc from k .'"' and then taking the real p a n of the product. J.:.. at r = u/Z or sin (n. and H.*y. mu<ii. r . mode in a rectangular waveguide having sides u and b. (b) Sketch the electric and magnetic field lines in typical. 10l?(a). yr. A sketch of E.x/a)= 1 and cos (nx/a)= 0.. for m = 1 and 11 = 0.nto dcllL 0I.) IO72 j i l i r o ~ ~ g10 .104 ' RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES I 473 . and xr planeii(c1 Sketch the surface currents on the guide walls. 10i7(c).
 Magnetic field lines 104. 1012 Field lines for TE. Fig.mode in rectangular waveguide. Fig. Wave. 1013 Surface currents on guide walls for TE:. mode in rectangular waveguide. ..
.r.Y . for the general TM. 4 . z ..' JS(x * 0)= ..E + ( ~ . which is rcpeated below: . z . 104 RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES .. . Letting m = 1.n. 475 . and h = (lr/uj in Eqs. modes tend to be tedious.. which is the most important of all propagaiing modes in a rectangular waveguide.&@ cos pr (10Ilia) I J ~ ( x a) = a. n = 0.h. . a? In the casc of parallelplate waveguides.(y = 0).0 ) = a. where a.. I3ecause these losses are uscilly very snull.H. and TE.O. we make use of Eq.(u. H. (!096a1. For the TE.3 Attenuation in ~ e c t a n ~ u l a r Waveguides Allcnuntion for propagating modts rodits whm there are losbes in the dielec~ric and in the imperfectly conducting guide walls. I * . . ( O . .(Y = b) = J.O) ... i o determine the attenuation constant due to wall losses. . ' ? " . mode the only nonzero field components are E. .. .. where o and i i are the conductivity and intrinsic impedance of the dielectric m L'd lum ' respectively. . b .(y .4 N . The result is exactly the same as that given in Eq. .. The derivation:.. is the outward normal to the will surface and H is the magnetic field intensity at the &all.P Q ... 0. 0) (10lllbj (10111c) J. (101046) and (10104c). . that thc trnnsversc field patterns are not appreciably affected by the losses. and J. mode. Below we obtain the formula for the dominant TE. 1013.. and Hz.(x. we calculate the timeaverage power ilowing through a cross section of the waveguide: . 0) = a. ' .. (101 1Id) The surface currents on the inside walls at x = 0 and at y = h are sketched in Fig. we will assume.H. y.. . 104. (10751. 1 $ .. y. 0) = J.:. . The attenuation constant due to losses in the dielxtric s:io be obtained by sobstitutin. . We have.z.'" . : I ' ..' is given by Eq. (1095).(x= 0) = J. (1077). of r . ' J ( : J Jfor c in Eq. at t = O7 * .(x. .I \: .
We have and Substitution of Eqs.(10104c) we see that . . In order to calculate the timeaverage power lost in the conducting walls per unit length. . I b q D k c ' .). (10115) yields The last expression is the result df recognizing that Inserting Eqs.HP(s = 0) = a. b The total power loss is then double the sum of the losses in the walls at s = 0 and at y = 0. (101031. and .H sin 7T (2 . . I L J:(. . (10116a) and (10116b) in Eq. we must consider all four' waIls..) pa . 0 s (2 . ..Ho and = (10114a) . From Eqs.a. (10110).. (1077). (101 13) and (101 17) in Eq. we obtain .u = 0) = J:(x = a) = a.
.which is filled with polyethylenec.. 4 A. (d) the wave impedance. on the ratio (M). . . * . the wavelength in unbounded polyethylene is r 1 l6b) The cutoff frequency for the TE1. .:7' For a g i a n guide width u. (1036). and increapes again steadily for further increases in f. 10' (S/m)rectangular waveguide with inner dimensions a = 1. (1034). . irom Eq. I  . "' P'" I R~CTANGUUR WAVEGUIDES "'C ** .= 0. .. Solution: At f' = 101° (Liz). *'< >~*. Determine (a) the phase constant.. increasing b also decreases the cutoff frequency of the next higherorder mode TE. (b) the guide wavelength.h. . and (f) the attenuation constant due to loss in the guide walls. 11 17) = 7 4 .57 x . from Eq. = I. &if . is the only possible propagating mode) is reduced. from Eq.=U 2~  2 x loH .6 (cm).'~+. : ' :  477 '. However. mode (the range of frequencies over which TE.. (or TM. v.5 x lo') a) The phase constant is...*kp. from Eq. with the consequence that thc available bandwidth for the dominant TE.+  Equation (10118) reveals a rather complicated dependence of (o. 0.. (10105).). .'. '. loss tangent = 4 x lo'. 3.. a * 1 \ . .5 (cm) and b = .. . j. (c) the phase velocity. c ) The phase velocity is. tends to infinity when f is ddse to the cutoff frequency. the attenvatian decreases as b increases.. wave at 10 (GHz) propagates in a brass o = 1. .. . r. decrezses It toward a m i n i m 6 as f increases. = 2. (101 IS). 114b) j and .25. 5 ~ 234 (rad/m) = i118) b) TIle guide wavelength is. I 115) !16a) Example 108 A TE.. p..667 x 10" ( H z ) 2 x (1. (e) the attenuation constant due to loss in the dielectric.*t*> i14a) +... mode is. The uiual compromise is td choose the ratio b/a in the neighborhood of . .
' . from Eq. WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS / 10 . 0. . (10112). ... For simplicity we consider this a problem with no dependence on €0. .. .. ( ( 0 . PO dielectricslab wavepuide. .*. 478 < a . . (1047). = " J JEi. . 2 . " " . .4 (R). . .' r t . DIELECTRIC WAVEGUlDES  In previous sections we discussed the behavior of electromagnetic waves propagating along waveguides with conducting wails.1 I()). (793): =5 x (Slm). t L 8 (~n). > 8 . Figure 1014 shows a lon_gitudinai cross section of a dielectricslab waveguide of thickness d. 105 . C( ZTE= d2 d 5 f ) Theattenuation constant due to loss in Lhc guidc wdls is Ibittid Srvm Eq. t.4 = 0. . We have. 6 8 4 .745 e) The attenuation constant due to loss in dielectric is obtained from Eq... . . 10~ x 337. d) The wave impedance is.. We now show that dielectric slabs and rods without conducting walls can also support guidedwave modes that are confined essentially within the dielectric medium. . =. (926b).084 (Nplm) 2 Thus.. The effective conductivity for polyethylene at 10 (GHz) can be determined from the given loss tangent by using Eq._ ' I . = 3 7 7 7 ~ 337. . from Eq.
p In) B!m). cos k. Sincc thcrc is no xdcpendcncc.. In the slab region we Jssume that the wavcs propagate in thc +:direction without attenuation (lossless dielectric). We have '. 0112). (10120) in the dielestri~ a cosine term. The behavior of TM and TE modes will now be halyzed separately. We have 10. re .. We assume that the dielectric is lossless and that waves propagate in the + z direction.  . ~ z ( P + ~ / ~' ) ri 2' 11012jb) .dl 2) Y2i ~ 1 d (1012ja) 5 c .. the x coordinate. . and they must b? matched at the boundaries.the waves must decay exponentially so that they are guided along the slab and do not radiate away from it.and y < . Let edand9. slab may connin both a sine term and The solution of Eq. the dielectric slab...1 TM Waves alohg a Dlelectric Slab For transvcrsc tnagnctic waves. that is. d lyj I > 2.  Solutions of Eq. which are respectively an odd and an even ful~ctionof y: EP( y) = E.n G' . = 0. M. i 01 19).'L'.y where Fagating and rods + E.&nce on In the freespace regions I y > d/2.).' Lq(y) = r where . the permittivity and permeability of be. we assume '.y. (10120) must be considered in both the slab and the freespace regions. . where 117 = y 7 + w2/J€.which is situated in free space (a. (10124) confined avcguidc .d/2). 1 ! %. I . . sin k. (10 53) applies. (10123) A: = &pdcd . ( 4 . Eq. p. .ud respectively.. L'LI from 105..lj2 = h J . i..
sin (kyd/2).(y) and I I : ( ~ ) . and TX for a given angular frequency of excitation w. . and a.. sin (k. y I d/2: E P ( ~ )=  (E. The continuity of H .which is the value of E:(y) in Eq. . iii) In the lower freespace region.d/2).. (10125a) has been set to cqual E .Equations (10124) and (10126) are called dispersion relations because they show the nonlinear dependence of the phase constant /3 on w.E. sin kyy E:(y) = . ii) In the upper freespace region.. At this stage we have not yet determined the values of k. at thi dielectric surface requires that Hl(d/2) computed . For odd TM modes.y. EP(y) = E . E) ( : ! is described by a sine function that is antisymmetric with respect to the J = 0 plane. which is the i d u e of Ez(y) in Eq. y = d/2. jB (10127b) (10137~)  k?.y li. 1j. (1023d) and (1023a) respectively.4 2 .d)ezO+diIi (10129a) where C1in Eq. sin  k. y >_ d/2: . i) In the dielectric region._ . In the following. (10127a) at the upper interface. a ) Odd TM Modes. The only other field components. cos k. Now we must determine k . nor have we . E.(y) = E. cos k.are obtained from Eqs. j*ed H.I I dl?: 41. we will consider the odd and even TM modes separately. found the relationships among the amplitudes E. (10127a) at the lower interface y = .. E.E. C and C. (10125b) has becn set to equal .. where C in Eq.
.. (10132)... Eq. . .O(III~:(YI to c o i ~ i ~ .: tsanscendentri! quation. ' 1 . I .111~: ~ ~ l / i t ~ y t: l l ~ I I : I I I I I I l o v I I I i i . (10124) and (10. ii pl. I I m c .. = 0. .: I. (10132) can be plotted versus k. avu we .L given o and given values of E.j :. a perfecdy son(111cli1ip~ I .U a v o w ) ( ~ t propagating along a dielectricslab waveguide of thickness d are the same 2s those of the c o r r e ~ p o c d i n ~ modes supported by a dielectric slab of a thickness Th4 dl2 that is backed by a perfectly conducting plane... ' . The intersections of . ' . ' . (10133) . both the left and the right sidcs of Eq.2 .. indicating that there are only a finite number of possible modes. We note from Eq.. '''i. = .1 X'a) that EZ = 0 for !. . of which there are o h y 2 finite number.. waveguides with exlosed conducting walls. . (1 0.he two curves give the values of k .O Y we.~ I ..126).>c ~IIII. i [ l w i ~ ~ ~ i c1. The surjuce impedance looking down from above on the surface or ciclectric slab is El . . . This is in contrast with the infinite number of modes possible ir. for odd Th4 modes.. .. and ti of the dielectric slab. But for ." p. . is thc only cnhno\vn: \ ' Unfortunately 111.. N. Hence. (Odd TM modes). I . we find / (10130) Equations (10130) m d (10131b) can be combined to glve an expression in which k.q ?.". . (TMmodes). p. A  . i 01' odii 1'. By adding dispersion relations Eqs. I . . . caniiot be sol'\ed analytically.
. I a k..  i . As approaches the value of w&. The limiting frequencies under this condition are called the cutof frequencies of the dielectric waveguide. both inside and outside the : dielectric slab can be obtained in exactiy the same manner as in the case of odd TM modes (see Problem P. and H . in this case a conducting plane cunnot be placed at ! = 0 without disturbiw the whole field structure. .. . Instead of Eq. The several solutions correspond to the several even Thf modes that can exist in the dielectric slab waveguide of thickness d. it is easy to see that the phase constant.d . that is.lO25).cot E0 Ed 7  (Even TM modes). k.. / L ~ . c . I The other nonzero field components. = o . / 3 ) = 0 It is seen that j. (10126) indicates that a approaches zero. = 0 for n = 1.E~. and the transverse attenuation constant a. (10132) and (10135) with cc set to zero yields the following relations for TM modes.poco at cutoff. of propagating TM waves lies between the intrinsic phase constant of the free space. = o J.and that of the dielectric. An absence of attenuation means that tlic waves are no longer bound to the siab."WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS / 10 . I (10135) a\ which can be used in conjunction with Eq. At cutoff: tan r+ Odd TM Modes =0 I I I I I I Even TM Modes o d c o t ( + . = Q Jpdcd.. This means that the lowestorder odd TM mode can propagate along a die!ectricslab waveguide regardless of the thickness of the siab. (10124) we have k. E. (10130). P. the characteristic relation between and a now becomes = 1. a increases and the wave clings more tightly to the slab. . . Eq. : From Eqs. From Eq. (10124) and (10126). . (10131b) to determine the transverse wavenumber k.. Substitution into Eqs.LL. As the frequency of a given T X I wave increases beyond the corresponding cutoff frequency. Of course. .482 '. k.
:: . . I 1042b) and f 1042c). . & (10138) In the freespace regions (.. /? s zero. . . / For transverse electric waves.. .. . Following the same procedure dr used for TLI waves.$. ii) In the upper free<paceregion. ' .: .(Y) == H Sill /i. of the cutoff. .. : a ... I H. The solution for H:(y) may also contain both a sine term and a cosine term: svcrse utions c slab lorbe . . has been defined in Eq. the waves must decay exponentially : We write :. (1067) applies . 2 s..1 (1 7. . p. we consider the odd and even TE modes separately... " " . . ....on2 . Ez = 0 and Eq. . .v > dl2 and r < d/2). the only other field components are H:iy) and E:(). . . i 305. .f odd . . ) . J 2 (112: A d 7 ness of ... .. : .J't. (10121).: i!. " ie the .. .. b.)... .(J). iowing where u is defined in Eq. . .::.2 .:h:. wherc k. of space. TE Waves along a Dielectric Slab :: .H e COS k. . . (10126). which can be obtained from Eqi. . .. . .. Besides H.
* '.O. w t r r v cetrrl lw . ~I ir TE . H.(.~ncc. . at J. which is seen to be closely analogous to the characteristic equation.. s ~ r p p ~ r . (10135): 1t is easy to see that the expressions for the cutolf frequencies given in Eqs. ~ : ( y= )  (H.S . b) apply also to TE modes./irc. (10136a. for odd TM modes. "484 . * iii) In the lower freespace region.r.&. The characteristic relation between k.I . . For even TE modes.. i / I ' r . Eq. Tlcnct:. . . 1j. The characteristic relations for all the propagating modes along a dielectricslab waveguide of a thickness d are listed in Table 10 2.srir.' " WAVEGUIDES CAVITY RESONATORS 1 10 AND . (10132) to find k. u p ~ c .. is described by a cosine function that is symmetric with respect to the y = 0 plane. (10131b). . (10144) The other nonzero field components.1301. y) sin 8(Ytd12) ' (10141a) '.A .. . / . Froin li. (10. I I ~ \ I I ~ ~ P . both inside and outside the dielectric slab can be obtained in the same manner as for odd TE modes (see Problem P. cos k. the surface impedance of the dielectric slab is . given in Eqs.. Thus. Equations (10131b) and (10147) can.('. y I. 'lo tan  (Odd TE modes).o ITJ P H : IT (TE modes). /)I* l rr ~r b) Even TE Modes. From a position of looking down from above. H: and E.V)= H. (10143) which is a c:~p. and a can be obtained by equating EP(y). . (10139d and (10140c). x can bc found from Eq. and a is ciosely analogous to that for even TM modes as given in Eq.4 2 : .~citivc rc:lct.EO .l 5 dl?.b c q m b i n e d in the manner of Eq..!.. A relation between k. graphically. c ..lO27)... = d / 2 .
.ciage pow: per unit width transmitted in the transverse direction along the guide. = 0 for n = 1. and ed = 3 . 1142) 130).n Efl..ivc oi~isi~lc il very ~ h i n~liclcctrics1:1\> ~n Find the timea. n the lrom Example 109 A dielectricslab waveguide with constitutive parameters p.. ( b j ~ I o ~ n i ~ i :TMl SLII~:ICC w. 5 0 ~ ~ is situated in free space. tln~11 0 145) f  Example 1010 (a) Obtain an :~pproximatcespression Sor the decaying r. With a slab .nctlon (J Therefore. independent of the slab thickness (see Table 102).ltc: of the 0 U \v:~vquidc. Determ~nethe minimum thickness of the slab so that a TIM br TE wave of the even lype at a frequency 20 GHz may propagate along the guide.111 :e listed ." = 144) C 7  ide the x s (see . .. = p. Solution: The lowest T!/! and TE waws of the even type have the same cutoff frequency along a dielectricslab waveguide: / of the 3.143) ~d by u .. Solution a) Tile dominant TM wave is the odd mode having a zero cutoff frequencyf. d".141b) 141~) ven in ' .
d!. = . = 2 J'0 iP. To provide a resonant circuit at UHF and higher frequencies.. thus eliminating radiation and highresistance effects. corivcritiolial wire circuits tend to have a high elYcctive resistance both because of energy loss through radiation and as a result of skin effect. Such a shielded enclosure confines electromagnetic lields inside and furnishes large areas for current flow. (10146) can be written approximately as (10146) In Eq. I . and Eq.. ' < .. and stray fields become important.d/2 << 1. .H...k 0 d . Eq. b) The timeaverage Poynting vector in the +: direction in the dielectric slab is Pa. i . ordinary lumpedcircuit elements such as R.cos' ( k ~dy ) (1. a s . (10131a). where and In this section we have studied the characteristics of TM and TE waves guided by dielectric slabs.. tan (kyd/2) .aYEyx a. Circuits with dimensions comparable to the tors opcr:lt ing w:lvclcnplh hccomc cllicicnr r:~tli:l and will interfere with othcr circ~~ifs and systems.2 €. z k#2.. (10147). Furthermore. (10130) bepmes Z that is very thin compared to the operating wavelength.. These enclosures have natural ..n. (10127b) and (10117~). . . The same principles govern the transmission of light waves along round quartz fibers that form optical waveguides.. 2% Using Eq. it h i s been assumed that rd/2 << ed/eO ?.. 106 CAVITY RESONATORS We have previously pointed out that at UHF (300 MHz to 3 GHz) and higher frequencies. k. Their analysis requires the knowledge of Bessel functions which we do not assume in this book. = Using Eqs. L. 'dk". 2 k.ity) completely surrounded by conducting walls.. $h(.:and we = Pa.. and C are difficult to make. Optical waveguides are of great importance as transmission media for communication systems because of their lowloss and largebandwidth properties. I 3) .P..486 ' .)... have P.  WAVEGUIDES AND CAVITY RESONATORS 1 10 . we look to an enclosure (a ca\.
 . (1054).UrZ : How. . b. both TM and TE modei can exist in a rectangular guide. M. 2:os ..~nd its shown i n frig I0 ... 1 . the designation of TM and TE modes in a resonator is . c. the existent: of conuucting end walls at . going in the : direction. and ihe reflected wave.i0:. type.. ciiect." axis could be a TM mode with rzspect For example. Modes . ".sci:at~on. xtural ' The reflection coefficient at a lrrfcct cocductor is . tllere is no unique "longitudinal direction.I. This wave will be reflected by the end wall at = d .(a) Probe c. Long great :r lowBasel Consider a r e c t a n g h r waveguide with both ends c!osed by a conductin.iot m i p r because we are free to choose i y or r as the or "direction of propap~ti~m": that is. facLOre:'=Or r. wiill. The expressions for the rransverse variations of the field components for TM.iru n.15. b.study the properties of rectangular cavity resonators.. uxis us rbr rejetwice "direction of propaq3tion.. (b) Loop excitation..= 0 and r = d gives rise to multiple reflections and bets up standing waves. is described by a factor rjD'. i ~ n d callcd itre nutors. 1013 Excitation of cavity modcs by a coaxial line.1 T.ilcirj~ . io the .. a TE mode with respect to the : t o the y axis. Sinm (1. However.: : r f:enuhe. ":cJlts kc:{. . h ~ t c modes in ii iv:ivspide l s ~ v c that the longiti1dik11 v:inilios lor 2 waic traveling in the +: direction is dcscribeil 1. he si~perpositionof a term with r . Fig.w rC rcsonant frequencies anc: it vcry high Q tquitlity factor). In this section WL will. ~ 1 ) . A threesymbol ( ~ n n psubscript is needed to designate a TIM or TE standingwave pattern in a cavity resonator. hccn givcn in E q s ( 1092)ilntl ( 1 ii %I:I.:':as indichted in Eq. we expect Tkl and TE modes in a rectdn:u~ar resonator too. 106. . ~. Which " o should it be'? The answer i this question depends on the particular field component." For our purposes.I # z and another of the same amplitudet with r ' resu!is in a standin: wave of the sin pi or cos P. no wave propagates in an enclosed ) cavity. Thc interior dimensions 01' tllc ci~vity. we cbnorr the : In actuality.
' . y. modes: fmnp 2 t I 105.y) in Eqs.(x. y.. from Eqs. = 0).lp modcs ill a rcct. Modes . the following p11asor. d)..ll.. dust vary according to cos /3z. 2) = E~ sin :r x) sin (y y) cos (7 z) H..'.. z). the phasor expressions for the standingwave field components can be written from Eqs.. (1094a) and (1094b) is the result of a differentiation with respect to z.(x. H. We have then.s of thc ficld components for TM. which do not contain the factor (.). This means that (1) its . b. and H.. .(x. ~ ( xy.3 . z). Boundary conditions at the conducting surfaces require that it be zero at z = 0 and z = d. namely.. and (2) the factory indicates . z). We follow the same rules as those we used for TM. WAVEGUIDES AND C A V I N RESONATORS 1 10 I .)).. d). Recalling that the appearance of the factor (. y. Consider the transverse component E. y.. The same argument applies to the other transverse electric field component E. b.. y. modes. (10103) and (10104a. (1) the transverse (tangential) electric field components must vanish at z = 0 and z = d. y.2 TE.~r cavity resonator. where 2) = 12 "'(7)  Eo cos >x sin z ) v ) cos ("$. 488 ..(x. (10149e) From Eq. z). (1095)... modes ( E .. For TE.(x.~npl. we obtain the following expression for the resonant frequency for TM. we conclude that the other components E.. c.dependence be of the sin Br type and that (2) P = pnld. z). c.(x. (1092) and (1094a.
a cavity r:sonator may be excited through thz introduction of a small loop at a piace where the magnetic flux of the desired mode linking the lcop is a maximum..!.: % ' I 106 [ CAVITY RESONATORS 489 ... . .. Y . ) f.. .!. sin 11'1 7i . c....'. sin . . maximum. . ' ..l sin (p... ? f . Alternatively..: . z). z). . . . . The expression for resonant frequency. ._ : . and the second rule indicates a cos (&Id) factor in H. remains the s a h e . . y. y. . : . !.(x. in fact..rr:/tl) factor in E. 1 . AS an example.. In Fig.:.'z) and Hy(x.. m&u EJx. .IS that obtained for TM. . . .. .. . I ! . . for the TE. ' .!. Fix =  lrad . . :r com~r('v). as w l e l in H... an anttnna that coupies electromagnetic energy into the resou~tar..7 .(or a waveguide) may be txcited from a coaxial line by means of a small probz or loop antenna.. Different .loi50) /. y.j(!)ll~ .( .I!. . .' : .z). d). cos .' .difkrcntialion with rcspcct to z.:. This mode may be exclted by a probe inserted in the center region of the top or is bottom face where E.. < st the a a ncgative partid .(x. ": .. b. .. z). :. 4 = jup  h2 (y)H ocos (y sin (y y) sin (7:) x) Ey(x. . ' . = 4.y. y. (10150). Thc first rulc rcquircs . Of course. ~ h u s . E. \ + L. . the source frequency from the coa ikll line must be the same as the rcsonant frequency of the desired mode in the cavlty.. . ' . f ' m : i .. (10143f). . ... r.. or by a loop to couple ! /: : :) s) sin . . mode in an a x b x d rectangular cavity. modes in Eq.. . Tiic probe is.15 i c) where I ? h a s been given in Eq. The mode with the lowest resonant frequency for a given cavity size is referred to as the riorni~lanr mode. . .H. A particular mode n a cavity resonaror. ' '.. Figure 1015(b) illustrates such an arrangement. . 1015a. . . and the replacement of y by (psl/d). J1.. as shown in Fig. 1149a) J149b) I149~) n i . . .. d J iI:nc same qentlal) indicates H == H. y. 1013a) a probe is shown that is the tip o the inner conductor of a coaxial cable and protrudes into a f cavity at a location whcrc thc clectric ficld is a maximum for thc dcsircd modc.(x..knd Ey(x. ' (.. . '. . . .# ." ' . there are only three nonzero held componznts : Ol4e) 0149f) quency . modes having the same resonant frequency are called dcgenrrate rnorles. Z) = 'h2 ) \ a H sin :) ( ) 0 s sin ) (10.
The resonant frequency for both TM and?^ modes is given by Eq. Therefore TM. : I . (1014% b. a nonzero surface resistance. c) show that ncirhcr 111 nor rr can bl. that is.3 Quality Factor of Cavity Resonator I A cavity resonator stores energy ir? the electric and magnetic fields for any particular mode pattern. The field in the waveguide at the hole must have a component that is favorable in exciting the desired mode in the resonator. Eqs._ . and the resulting powcr loss causes a decay of the stored i . hut that p cinnot be zcro.. a maximum H.. The best location of a probe or a loop is affected by the impedancematching requirements of the microwave circuit of which the resonator is a part. modes. and TE. Example 1011 Determine the dominant modes and their frequencies in an airfilled rectangular cavity resonator for (a) a > b > d. (10150).. TM... TEoll. (10151~1. where a. . u Solutiou: With the z axis chosen as .. c) For a = b = d. for TE. zero.. placed inside the front or back face. b) For u > ti > b : The iowcst rcsonant frcqucncy is . for TM. b. and d are the dimensions in the .. second. modes. b. and TElo. .. TM. and z directions respectively. Thus. modc.. y.. . ci 4 'J . d. all three of the lowestorder modes (namely. e) show that either nr or 11 (1x11 not both rn xnd 11) can hc zcro. (b) n > d > b. A commonly used method for coupling energy from a waveguide to a cavity resonator is the introduction of a hole or iris at an appropriate location in the cavity wall. is the dominant 1 i and TE... . but that p can be zero. c... In any practical cavity the walls have a finite conductivity. the modes of the lowest orders arc a.. c. The resonant frequency of these degenerate modcs is i i i 1 ! 106. 1015b.. Eqs.the reference "direction of propagation": First.... TE. is the dominant mode..... as shown in Fig. d. . a) For a > h > d: Thc lowest resonant Srcqucncy is where c is the velocity of light in free space. ... and (c) a = b = d. .) have the same ficld patterns.
the . (101 53) can be wr~rten s i 50)...+ First. ir is cus:omary to nssume that the loss is smail c n o q h to allow the use of the field patterns without loss. h . Q = 2n 1lmeaverage energy stored at a resonant frequency . < <. is a measure of the bandwidth of the resonator and is defined as . A .. (10l56b) . or Q.: . ' .+: ( (?$I  =.)b I:)! 7 ..n)' from Eq. of a resonator.avity iable air'=d.ff. We will now find thi Q of an n x b x d cavity for the TE. mode that has three nonzero field compoaenrs $ivm in Eqs. We write '. . I In determining the Q of . cavity at a resonant frequency. .' Po 4 7 d(2. respertively.imeaverage power dissipated in the cav~ty. and c). that Y.\ . The quality fdcror. (101491). energy. zzro. The Gents a+ytt. (101524 b. diridsd by frequency..b +I .. like that of any resonant circuit. and Eq. is the . The total timea~ernge stored :cular i IS.tored i . . If P.  where We and Wn. dencte the energes stored in the electric and magnetic field. then the energy dissipated in one period li P. Energy dissipated in one period of this freauencv (Dimensionless) (10153) I Let W be the total timeaverage energy in a cavity resonator. and ::rate / where we have used magnetic energy is /I' := ja. The timeaverage stored electric energy is inant .
(Z = o)12b d l + J'Sb JH_(X = o)l2 dy dz .1) ( t ~ ~ ~ .. + Sod iH..' .. 9 TEol 1. 5 Substitution of fl0. [ 2 b ( a ~ d3) + nd(a2 + d2)] + (For TE.you f (J.From Eq. (10155). (10156a) proves that at the resonant . (10157).. mode is flol I (10157) = 8 ? . ) I H .. Thus. 1x1s been given in Eq. we obtain Qlol . = ~ f l o l ~ o a b d+a ~ ( d2) ~ . 'Solution a) For a cubic cavity. .illcis ) >:\tl~c ~ r IIIC as that in the y = 0 (lowcr) wall. and TElol are degenerate dominant modes having the same field patterns.a .IS t h i in ihc Y = 0 (riphll ~v:~ll: n d l i c i ~ ~ lxn\cl.Inst ill tllc 1.. (10158) and (10. .. ds = R. LVc ha\e ~H. . w=2w.:line . we know that TM./~R. frequency We= W . and that 3 x lo8 fiol = .12 dx d~ i kdJ I H = J ~ d~ d~ . ~ l is tlic . we note that the power loss unit area is (10159) where denotes the magnitude of the tangential component of the magnetic field at the cavity w. .S. Example 1012 (a) What should be the size of a hollow cubic cavity made of copper in order for it to have a dominant resonant frequency of 10 (GHz)? (b) Find the Q at that frcqucncy. from Eq.ill 1I1c a l 1= 0 (front) wall. = = 1 .160) In Eq. . (10150). I 42'2 .{J: 0 0 T r Using Eqs.. I S t11:il . (10157) in Eq. (10161) A I 1. the resonant frequency for the TE.* I .101° (HZ). ~ ~ R .\ 4. Similarly. .I . The pnwcr l o t i l l the : (1 (h:~chl .~lls.' . PL = $ ~ a . & . J IH. mode)... s ' I . 1 . the power loss i l l ille r = (Icfl) wall is tlm s.1111c. a = b = d: From Example 1011.=2wm= (10158) ' i To find P.  i e  where Jlo.
.:frequencies in the TEbI mode'! . R.liei in i w. R.107 Explain why singleconductor hollow or dielectricfilled waveguides cannot support TEM waves. (10161) for a c u b i c cavity reduces t o 0 0 = 1 1 xi1 0 I P 3R. of copper 1nd the Q R..b) T h e expression of Q in Eq. we have 1:rt in the s . (10162) For copper.102 RJO3 What is memt by a a ~ r o f l ' n / l .lvcgllltlc.106 What re the rhrze basic types of propagating waves in a uniform waveguide? Define wuce inlpt dance. . ~ of a boundairraise problem? 8.108 Discuss the analytical procedure for studying the chamcteristics of Tb1 waves in a waveguide.10I Why ar? the conmon typcs of ir. thus.  R.linable liom lumped LC resonant circuits.10I0 What are e i q o i c ~ l ! ~ . cstremcly high c o m p a r c d with that obt.mission of n~icrowiiv.109 Discuss the rna1ytic:ll procedure ior studying the chamiteniiiis "f TE u. In practice. t h e preceding value is sornen hat lower d u e to losse: through feed connections a n d surface irregularities.104 What is the govrrning equation for slectric m d magnetic field intensity phasors in the dielectric region of a sttaight waveguide with a uniform cross section'? R105 R. R. m e as The Q ola cavity resonator is.~nsmisiion lines not useful ior the longdistance sional trrm.1011 Can a waveguide have more than one cutoff frequency? On what factors does the cutoff frequency of a waveguiae depend. q u n i c ~ awaveguide? of Why 2re lumpedpanmeter elements connected by wires not useiul as resonant c~rcuits at microwave frequencies? R. :he same REVIEW QUESTIONS R. o = 5. d ~ f= J 'iiial~oo.80 x lo7 (S/m).
R. (m > n). and TE modes. (b) n < h.lO26 Which T M mode has the lowest cutoff frequency of all the TM modes in a rectangular waveguide? K. R.1025 State thc boundary conditions to bc satislicd by E.1031 Discuss the general attenuation bchavior caused by wall losses as a function of frequency for the TE. of :I parallciplate wnvcguide? R. s R.' R.lO14 a) b) c) In what way does the wave impedance in a waveguide depend on frequency: For a propagating TEM wave? For a propagating T M wave? For a propagating TE wave'? R.lO15 What is the significance of a purely reactive wave impedance? R. and (c) a = h? R.1022 Compare the cutoll' frequencies of TM. TM.1016 Can one tell from an wp diagram whether a certain propagating mode in a waveguide is dispersive? Explain.1021 Can a T M or TE wave with a wavelength 3 (cm) propagate in a parallelplate waveguide whose plate separation is 1 (cm)? 2 (cm)? Explain..1024 Discuss the essential differecces in the frequency behavior of the attenuation caused by finite plate conductivity in a parallelplate waveguide for TEM.1017 Explain how one determines the phase velocity and the group velocity of a propagating mode from ~ t w/j' diagram..1029 What is thc c u t o r wavelength of the T E . and TE. mode in a rectangular wavcguiuc? R..1027 State the boundafi conditions to bc satislicd by H. R.lO20 What is meant by the dominant mode of a waveguide? What is the dominant mode I . mode in a rectangular waveguide.10I3 Is the guide wavelength of a propagating wave in a waveguide longer or shorter than the wavelength in the corresponding unbounded dielectric medium? R.. TM. . mode in n rectangular waveguide?  R. modes in a parallelplate waveguide.lO23 Which mode is the dominant mcde in a rectangular waveguide if (a) o > h.lO23 Does the attenuation constant due to dielectric losses increase o r decrease with frequency. .1030 Which are the nonzero ficld componcnts for the TE. for TM wavcs in n rectangular waveguide. TM. R.for T M and TE modes in a parallelplate waveguide'? R. R. R. for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide..1019 O n what factors does the cutoff frequency of a parallelplate waveguide depend? R.1018 What is meant by an eigenmode? R.
101 Starting from the iwo timeharmonic Maxwell's curl equations in cylindrical zoordinates. (78ja) and ( 7 4 5b). modes'! .1042 What is the e%preision f a the resonmt frequency of TM. mode? R.... . R..I waveguide'! R.1035 Can a dielectricslab waveguide support an infinite number of discrete TM and TE modes? Explain.".1040 Are the field patterns in a cavity resonator traveling waves or standing waves'? How do they differ from those in ...1033 W y is it necessary that the permittivity d t h e dielectric slab in a dielectric waveguide h be larger than that O the surrounding medium? f R.1038 Does the attenuation of the waves outside a dielectric slab waveguide increase or decrease with slab thlckhess? R... .. mode R. Eqs. and H.mode in a dielectricslab waveguide? What is its cutodfrequency '? R.4 What are the mod:s of the lowest orders in a rectangular cavity resonator? R. R.1046 Explain why the measured Q of a cavity resonator is lower ~ h a n calculated vnius rhe PROBLEMS P..1034 What are dispersion relations? R. .c~te t~lodes?  k . Q.102 In studying the wale behavior in a straight waveguide having a uniform bur arbitrary cross section. E.104 Define the quality factor. We write 1 . R. rI"UIC . of a resonator. R. 1 0 ... it is txpedient :o find general formulas expressing the transverse field components in terr~is oftheir longitudinal components.1039 What are cavity resonators'? What are their most desirable properties'! . mode signify? The TE. modes in n rectanjulx cavity resonator of dimensicns a x h x d? Of TE.lO36 What kind of shrfxe can support a TM surfnce wave? A TE surhce wave? R..11 In terms of field pmerns what does the TM. < 2. and H.lO32 Discuss the factors that affect the choice of the linear dimensions n and b for the cross section of a rectangular paveguide.1037 What is the dominant.R.satlsfy'? P. H.10. What equations must E: and H.. in terms of the longitudinal corlponents E.1043 Whar is meant by te~~clrel.. express the transverse field components E.
(1013).108 for (a) the TE. mode..109 Repeat problem P. where the subscript excitation: a) \ i . P. = 1. ./~r and P / k versus].j11. *" .80 x 10' (S/m)separated by a 54cm) thick lossy Jiclectric E. up. find /I. !I) thc ' f M . P / k . and Tb13 modcs. mode is a minimum. nwdc it' ~ l l c p:~r. and i.. P. and . . modes on the conducting plates of a parallelplate waveguide.10J Skctch thc c t ~ .a .. Find the maximum timeaverage power 1 that can bc propagltcd pcr unit width of the p i t i c without o voltagc hrcnkdown for c) tllc 'l.. qC.. modes on tllc conducting piatcs o f . ~ l i o n for *~~ constant.. u. . '* a) plot the universal circle diagrams relating tr. versus C) find u.. P. modc.dlcl plalcs arc niadc ol'coppcr and spaced 5 (cm) apart in air.lO7 Sketch the electric and magnetjc field !ines for (a) the T M 2modc and (b) the TE. mode. a) how b and the constitutive parameters affect the diagram.. frequency I0 (GHz). modc in a parallelplate waveguide.lib fjf.lO6 Obtain the expressions for the surface current density for TE. z..l o (S/nl).Ptliugr. = 5. t P./u.  .. .for and (c) the TM. u. b) whether the same curves apply to TE modes. P.) at which the attenuation constant due to conductor losses for the TM. j q 1 x VTHz) where it2 is that given in Eq. b) plot the universal graphs of uh. the currcnts on the two plates flow in the same direction or in opposite directions? P. (b) the T M . . a) the TEM rnodc.lO3 For rectangular waveguides. For :in operllting frequency of 10 (GHz).. b) obrzin thc ror~nulil this mini~ri~~rn t ~ : n u . Do the currents on the two plates flow in the same direction or ii' opposite directions'? P.lO11 A parallelplate waveguide made of two perfectly conduciing infinite planes spaced 3 (cm) apart in air operates at .. p ) for TbI Th4. mode and (b) the TE...p h w. c) calculate this minimum 2. ii.I p a ~ ~ l i e i .251. I I I C ~ C . P. (a) thc TEM modc." Prove the followi& relatipns for timeharmonic (10163a) Er = p( y V T E . nlotlc. h r the T M . Discuss ( .iiL' ~ 4 = 1.~vcg~~iclc. a = 10. P.~mof 3 p:~rallclpl:~tc waveguide separated by 3 dielect~ic slab of thickness 6 and constitutive p a ~ u n c t e r sE .108 A waveguide is formed by two parallel copper sheets0. B/k. = 7.lO5 Obtain the expressions for the surface charge density and the surface current density tc Do for TM.jj. T denotes "transverse.25.ll. a) find he frequency (in tel'iils of the cutoff frequency 1. . ..lO10 For a parallelplate waveguide. and i . # .
. = 2.1017 An airfilled rcctangular wavcguide made oi copper and having transverse dimensions u = 7.1nd :dso at lens^ 20:'" below ~112 ~i~ cutotr rrquencq of the next higherordcr mod. I where i. b) Calculate for your dsign 1I(.PROBLEMS 497 . .:mi TM.for the dimensions u and b.= 13 and at ) = 6. (c) a..  1'. P.' power P. clcsirc t l opmrting Srcqtlcncy 10 hc . 11) skctch illc surfacc c ~ ~ r r c un Lhc walls at s . P.5 (cm) x 1. '%  &? I .OO (cm). t 2.ic c l u ~ n i n a nlodc .1018 An avcrdgc ppowcr o. a) derive the exprcssicns for the surfacc current dcnsitics on the conducting walls. i = wavelength in unbounded dielectric medium.ill~i:~oclc.i. P. 1s h) if thc waveguide is t~lledwith . n o d e without .? [a) i f a 3h. impedance at thi opcratlng frequency. T M 1 2 . < . 7 T E l . ..... and i= u/f..= . . and . Find (a) (b) i..tve .I . ...I < 36) rec~angular wavsguidz 1s to b\: consrrucred to opcmrc :I/c ~ at 3 ICHz) irl the dornin. u. u.it 1e:lat 20'1..OO (cm)at the TE. anti ~ h i )T t ~= h . cutoff wavelength.1015 An airlillsd ' r x b I ! . T E .. b = 1 .1 Calcuiare and list i 1 ascsndiny order the cutoff ticqucncics (in icmms ol' the cutolf frcqucncy of the dominant midz) of an u x b rcc~angularwaveguidt: for tht Ijl!owlng modes: TE. 2 TE c: T M .:lnd ZT. for rcctangular wavcgu~tlc opcratng at 7. h~ghcr Lhall l l ~ c culoif lrcqucncy ol't. n~s P. i. P. T E l . will be attenuated by 50%. mode by an airfilled rectangular copper waveguide l (m) long and having sides o = 1.35 (cm) and h = I ..1019 Find the maximum amount of 10(GHz)hverage power that can be transmitted through an airfilled rectangular wavegl~deu = 2. a) Give a typicril dtsiy .lO16 Calculate and cornrxs the values of /.5 (cm) d~electnc mcdiurn chnractcrizcd by E..101. = guide wavelength. mode. and (d) the distance over which the field intensities of the propagating wave fc.25 (cm).lO12 Prove that the foflowing wavclcngth rclation holds for n uniform wavcguide: .5 ICHz) P) ~f the Lvavegu~de lioilow. = 1 2nd a = 0. P..he ~c'. p. 1 ( k W ) at I0 (GHz) is to be delivered to an antenna a: the TE.. . Finti ipsct.1013 For an (1 x b re~tas~gular waveguide operating at the T M .40 (cm) operates at a frequency 3 (GHz) in the dominant mode.I breakdown.20 (cm) and b = 3...
tI for d = 1 (cm) and = 3. (10145).lO22 Show that electromagnetic waves propagate along a dielectric waveguide with a velocity between that of planewave propagation in the dielectric medium and that in the medium outside.) ol' tllickncss ti 111at is sitting on a perfect conductor. x P. (10135) for the lowestorder even TM modes.1028 A waveguide consists of a ~ inlin~tc i diclcctr~cslab (ti.1023 Find the solutions of Eq. P. 11. ' I P. as well as in the upper and lower freespace regions. .lO26 When the slab thickness of a dielectricslab waveguide is very small in terms of the operating wavelength. find the first twelve lowestorder modes and their resonant frequencies.lO30 An airfilled rectangular cavity with brass wallsE".lO23 using Eq. = w.o . Determine /3 and a for the lowestorder odd TM modes at the two frequencies... .lO27 For an infinite dielectricslab waveguide of thickness d situated in free space... obtain the instantaneous expressions of all the nonzero field components for even TM modes in the slab. and ti = 5 (cm). i . assuming H . po. (10132) for k. the ficld intensities decay very slowly away from theslab surface. b = 3 (cm). a) Determine the dominant mode and its resonant frequency for this cavity. P. P. h) For a slab of thickncss 5 (mm) and dielectric constant 3.P. Derive Eq. a = 1. the following relations hold approximately for the dominant TE rnodc: 1 2 k.lO29 Given an airfilled lossless rectangular cavity resonator with dimensions 8 Icm) x 6 (cm) 5 (cm). and the propagation constant is nearly equal to that of the surrounding medium. . 3) What are the propagating modes and what are their cutoff frequencies? b) Obtain the phasor expressions for the surface current and surface charge densities on the conducting base for the propagating modes./pdedand k .lO21 Find the formula for the attenuation constant due to conductor losses in an a x b rectangular waveguide for the TM mode. to be 0..1020 Determine the value.25 if (a) f = 200 (MHz) and (b) f = 500 (MHz).1021 Repeat problem P.. P.1 (Aim). E. as well as In the upper and lower freespace regions. =% . mbdeis a minimum ".of (fl') a t which the attenuation constant due to conductor losses in an a x b rectangular waveguide for the TE. by plottmg qd versus k. a) Show that if k. P.lO25 For an intinite dielectricslab waveguide of thickness d situated in air. estimatc the distance from the slab surface at which the ficld intensities have dccaycd to 30. P. 1 _ where k.d <c 1. P. b) Find the Q and the timeaverage stored electric and magnetic energies at the resonant frequency.8% of their valucs at ~ h c surface for an operating frequency of 300 (MHz).57 x lo7 (S/m)has the following dimensions: a = 4 (cm). obtain the instantaneous expressions of all the nonzero field components for even TE modes in the slab. P.
. .llucs at the pacc.. .. . .Sh.1. find a) the resonant frequency of tht: dominant mode.. Assuming that this resonator can be represented approximately by a purallsl cotnhination of the capacitance of the n:lrrow center parr and the inductance of the rest of :he structure..y F ... P..$y'c~?.. .. b) the Q... I (an) and )westorder . *. .% Y. " ~ n ?~ ~ r~ l. . . . in which d is Lery small compared with the resonimt waveiengrh.. \. ... ... find a ) thc ... :.. :. I)) dcicrminc how m u c h h \llould bc rncrcascd In ordcr to make Q 70Zhighcr.~pproxim. a) calculate its Q for the TE.I .lO34). . . mode if its dimensions are u = d = I.lO31 If the rectangular cavity in Problem P. . . ~ . . . .Ice from the ... . . 1016. . ... P. obtain :s in he slab. A c r x s section ofsuch a resonator is shown in Fig.. .. . .c 4 ~ ~ . .. : . . ..'.:. :@@y$.. .. . modes..... ~ . PROBLEMS '499 .. . : ~ . : + ~ . ... l bc O... . : ~ " ...< ..':.. . +.  ' . . . : .. '.'..?!y$....1034 In some microwave applicsrions ringihaped cavity resonators with II vzry narrow center part are used.!". I o assuming II. ' ..(_i... . . v . Fig. .1 (A/m). .::. .+he ' .t" . .: : ... .I: :... :... . .~7&z..5.. . ..: i.+. .1033 Derive an expression for the Q of an airfilled a x b x d rectangular resohator for the TM mode.?>. .. . . .. ".i . .. . . .... c) the timeaver:\ge stored clcctric and magnetic energies at the rcsonanr frequency. . . . .1030 is filled with a lossless dielectric matenal having a dielectric constant 2. . . .. . .:.. the resonant .. P.' + + ' 4 y . . . .>.. ....$ .'..._..lO32 For an airfilled rectangular cavity resonator.w. ' '...:. 1016 A ringshaped resonator with a narrow center part (Problem P. . < . . P.&.. .:t rcsonant I'rcqucncy.:. $ : . ' ~ : . . .:y+y.. .. .A. ~ ... :.. . ' ' :ctor losses 1 ' 1 . w.. . . b) the appro xi mat^: resonant wavelength. & ~ ~ & .. +. .. i f...%.
~ r c terms timevarying charges and currents. and a physically plausibie approximate current on the wire yields useful results for ncarly all practical purposes. an aperture at the end of a waveguide.::~t.willbe examined when particular antenna types are studied in this chapter. the geometrically simple case of a straight conducting wire (linear antenna) excited by a voltage source in the middlet ij.l r l c l 1111: cx:ict c11. 5. In order to radiate e l e ~ t r ~ m a ~ n ee nc r g ti e efficiently in prescribed directions. impedance..ci. . An antenna may be a single straight wire or a conducting loop excited by a voltase source.11. Reflectors and lenses may be used to accentuate certain radiation characteristics.r :~ntl . These parameters\. which in clcctrolna~~~ctic .ls hccn a sut?jcct o!'c. Without an eficient antcnna. Airtennns are structures designed for radiating electromagnetic energy effectively in a prescribed manncr. Wc will exanline the radiation properties of linear antennas with assumed currents.pc li.I wirc: o f :I lini~c~ ~ c l i u s cxtrcnicly cotnplicatctl cvcn when the wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting. thc radiation licld of such an antenna is relatively insensitive to slight deviations in the current distribution. T o study electromagnetic radiation we must call upon our knowledge of Maxwell's equations and relate electric' and magnetic fields to timevarying charge and current distributions. A primary difficulty of this task is that the charge and current distributions on antenna structures resulting from given excitations are generally unknown and very difficult to determine. and wireless transmission of information over long distances would be impossible.lrc currcnt distributions o n . and bandwidth. clectrom~~gnctic energy would be localized.cll rll:llly y ~ 1 1 . In fact. the charges and currents must be distributed in specific ways.u!cnsivc ~. Fortunately.111 INTRODUCTION In Cllaptcr 8 we studied the propag:ltion chnractcristics of plane electromitgnetic wavcs i i i sourcc(roc ~ilcrliawitliout co~~sidcri~i$ tlic W:IVCS \VCI. course. or a complex array of these properly arranged radiating elements. directivity.C ~ C I I C ~ : I ( COI' ho\v ~. the waves must origina~c I'rotii sourccs. Among radiation characteristics of importance are field pattern.