Teori kritis dan Ilmu Komunikasi: Sebuah Pengantar Inaya Rakhmani Analisis Kritis terhadap Media (Massa) di Indonesia

Program S1 Re guler Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP UI 12-02-2009

berkembang dari pemikiran Kant dan Marx . 244) Teor i kritis berupaya mengkritik dan mengubah masyarakat. teori tradisional (positiv is) berupaya untuk memahami dan menjelaskannya Pencetusnya adalah Frankfurt Scho ol. ³to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them´¶ (Horkheimer 1982.Definisi µ.a theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation.

Critical theories are thus normative . Critique towards basic social structure (Littlejohn. they serve to bring about change in the conditions that affect our lives.. Critical approaches examine social cond itions in order to uncover hidden structures. . Critical theory teaches that knowl edge is power. 1992): Critical theory inte rprets the acts and the symbols of society in order to understand the ways in wh ich various social groups are oppressed.. This means that understanding the ways one is oppressed enables o ne to take action to change oppressive forces. Critical social science makes a c onscious attempt to fuse theory and action.Pada intinya.

The Public Sphere (Habermass) . Classical Marxism .Hegemony (Gramsci) . Neo Marx ism (Frankfurt School) .Perkembangan Teori Kritis & Ilmu Komunikasi: 1.Cultural Studies 2.The Politics of Textuality .

profit drives production and thus dominates labo r (class division).The economy is the base of all social structure. . . .All institutions that perpetuate do mination within a capitalistic society arise from this economic system. .Gagasan Dasar (Classical) Marxism .Working-class groups are oppressed by the group (in power) who benefit from profit (class struggle).In capitalistic systems.Only w hen the working class rises against the dominant groups can the liberation of th e worker be achieved (revolution). including institutions and id eas. .

. are produced and how those depictions are understood by audiences so as to perpetuate or oppose the power of certain dominant econom ic institutions. such as network news.Th e ways audiences decode those messages .The Politics of Textuality This approach has to do with the ways the media: .The power domination apparent in these processes The text scholar might study (say) the ways certain kinds of media con tent. such as government.Produce encoded messages .

. feminist theory. redefined critical theory in a way that freed it from a direct tie to Marxism or the prior work of the Fra nkfurt School. . dsb.Berkembang ke world systems theory. critical knowledge was conceptualize d as knowledge that enabled human beings to emancipate themselves from forms of domination through self-reflection and took psychoanalysis as the paradigm of cr itical knowledge. postcol onial theory. . critical race theory.In Habermas' epistemology.Perkembangan Teori Kritis .In the late 1960s Jürgen Habermas (Frankfurt School).

Cultural Studies Hubungan antara media dengan ideologi budaya. such as schools. This line of investigation examine s the relation among media. and the m edia. Cul tural theorists are interested in how the dominant ideology of a culture subvert s other ideologies via social institutions. and the ideology of culture. . other institutions. Emphasize on the ways social structures are produced and reproduced in the natural daily activities of individuals. churches. and institutions. groups.

as a co nsciousness industry. presenting their critique in Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944). the media willingly manipulate a passive and irrational pu blic. They argue that. a work whic h might be called the first volume of Cultural Studies. and (b) the way in which t he media encourage people to think about their lives . Horkheimer and Adorno focused on the commercial me dia.Neo Marxism Frankfurt School (meninggalkan Jerman setelah kemenangan sosialisme) During thei r exile in the United States. focusing attention on (a) the great influence the media exert in setting t he agenda of what should be thought about in society.

Habermas argued that a part of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation where private individuals assemble to for m a public body." This means that c onversation is crucial to the formation of that entity called the public.Public Sphere (Harbermas) In "The Public Sphere" (1964). . This sphere mediates between society and state: conversation is crucial to the formation of that entity we call "the public. together with the situations available for discussing the signif icance and the meaning of news and information. The fo rmation of opinion takes place at the community and peer-group level Habermas be lieves that the formation of a rational public depends upon the news and informa tion available.

Hegemony is what binds society together without the use of fo rce. culture is one of the sites where t he struggle for hegemony takes place." The upper classes make compromises to achieve this leadership. .Hegemony (Gramsci) Hegemony is a process of domination. It is a process where one group in society exerts leade rship over others. 1971). where one set of ideas subverts or co-opts another (Gramsci. This is achieved when the upper classes supplement their economic power by creating "intellectual and moral leadership. In other words.

Teori Kritis dan Media (Global) World System Theory Electronic Colonialism .

Produk komunikasi pada ak hirnya menggantikan (displace) produk budaya lokal dengan nilai-nilai asing. these being in the semiperipheral and peripheral zones (Immanuel Wallers tein). Core nations butuh konsumen asing untu k membeli produk mereka.World System Theory World System Theory states that global economic expansion takes place from a rel atively small group of core-zone nation-states out to two other zones of nationstates. yg NB mengembalikan modal. Sebuah masalah utama (McPhail): 1. 2. .

ekspa nsi perusahaan transnasional (Barat).Perkembangan Electronic Colonialism Military Colonialism ± to conquer by means of physical power (Roman Empire) Christ ianity Colonialism .perang salib (gospel) Mercantile Colonialism ± mencari pasar. . bahan mentah dll Electronic Colonialism ± ditandai dengan berakhirnya PDII.

values.Pada intinya. 2002: 14) .Electronic Colonialism . and the socialization process itself . Electronic Colonialism adalah penjajahan ya ng bukan lagi menggunakan unsur fisik (militer). agama (perang salib) ataupun ba rang (merkantilisme) tapi nilai dan gagasan yang pada akhirnya memberi jalan bag i ketiganya. values and expectations [which] («) alter domestic cultures. habits. .¶ (McPhail.µElectronic Colonialism represents the dependent relationship of LDCs on the Wes t established by the importation of communication hardware and foreignproduced s oftware («) that establish a set of foreign norms.

. bagaimana beberapa negara mempengaruhi negaraneg ara (subordinat).Kaitan antara WST dan EC Argumen Electronic Colonialism adalah bahwa media massa menyampaikan serangkaian gagasan dan nilai. World System Theory meneruskan gagasan ini dengan membagi ne gara dunia ke dalam 3 kategori.

budaya yang berakhir dengan kekuasaan yang timpang .What do they have in common? Adanya power-relation yang timpang Media massa = µkendaraan¶ bagi penghantaran gagas an. nilai.

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