5.2K views

Uploaded by ngfelisha

- Constraints and Connections in abaqus
- ABAQUS-FAQ
- Abaqus Answers Spring 1997
- Penalty vs. Kinematic
- Damaged Plasticity Model for concrete
- l3 Materials Abaqus
- ABAQUS Training
- Abaqus Tutorial
- abaqus workshop
- Riks Method
- Fracture Lecture of Abaqus
- Abaqus Analysis Users Manual-Volume_5
- Abaqus Thin Plate Tutorial
- Beam and Truss Elements in Abaqus
- [Abaqus].Abaqus Examples Problems Manual
- Abaqus Example Problems Manual
- Abaqus
- Abaqus-plane Stress Tutorial
- Abaqus Example
- Abaqus Truss Tutorial

You are on page 1of 4

This is the first of two articles on beam elements. Here we

Contents

discuss bending and shear. The follow-up article will deal Beam Elements: Bending and Shear 1

with torsion.

Linear Perturbations with Thermal Loads 2

ABAQUS has a variety of beam elements available for

stress analysis. The table below provides a summary of Adding Unstressed Elements 3

the basic formulations available. Tension Stiffening in Concrete 3

2-node linear

• The distance between supports.

interpolation:

These are shear-deformable • The distance between gross changes in cross-section.

B21 2 (Timoshenko) beams and are • The wavelength of the highest vibration mode of

B31

useful for modelling thin or interest.

1

thick members. As the beam Section dimensions should not be compared with

3-node parabolic becomes slender, Euler- element length to judge the applicability of beam theory.

interpolation: Bernoulli theory is In ABAQUS/Standard it is perfectly valid to have beam

B22 approximated. elements which are deeper than they are long, provided

3

B32 2 the structure being discretized satisfies the beam theory

1 assumptions. Time step stability considerations require

beam elements to be longer than their cross-sectional

These elements do not account dimensions in ABAQUS/Explicit.

for shear flexibility (they use

2-node cubic All beam elements come in normal or hybrid form. The

Euler-Bernoulli beam theory).

interpolation (in hybrid elements have extra, internal variables related to

They are most effective for

ABAQUS/Standard the axial force in the beam and should be used for two

modeling frame structures classes of structures:

only): with relatively slender

B23 members, since each member • Mechanisms with stiff members and soft joints, such

2

B33 can usually be modeled with as suspension systems or robots.

B34 1 only one element for static • Extremely flexible beams, such as offshore risers,

analysis, or a small number of where the ratio of length to cross-sectional dimension

elements for dynamic analysis. is large (greater than 1000).

Both of these cases involve a large difference between the

Beam theory is a one-dimensional approximation of a rotational and axial stiffness. The standard elements have

three-dimensional continuum. The reduction in ill-conditioned stiffness matrices for such problems and

dimensionality is based on the “slenderness assumption:” do not perform as well as the hybrid elements. Consider,

for example, ABAQUS/Standard Example Problem

• Dimensions in the cross section of the beam are very 8.1.1:

small compared to the typical dimensions along the

length of the beam. length/thickness = 2000

For typical engineering accuracy, the cross-sectional

dimensions should be less than 1/20 of the axial

dimension. The axial dimension must be interpreted in

terms of global structural dimensions, such as: Slender beam subjected to drag loading

Page 2 ABAQUS/Answers

configuration I

a function of the current temperature, θ , θ is the initial

0

temperature, and θ is the reference temperature for the

thermal expansion coefficient.

During a perturbation step we expand the above in a

B

Taylor series about the base temperature, θ :

th

+ ∂---------

ε

Undeformed th th

2

configuration ε = ε ∆θ + … .

∂θ θ B

B B

3 1

θ + ∆θ θ

strain in the perturbation step from the original, general

definition of thermal strain as

th

This problem was run with ABAQUS Version 5.3-1 ∆ε ( lin ) = α B + dα

------- ( θ B – θ 0 ) ∆θ .

using B21H elements and B21 elements.The analysis using θ dθ B

θ

B21 elements completed in 26 increments, using a total of

140 iterations. The analysis using B21H elements required This is the thermal strain due to the perturbation

only 12 increments and a total of 50 iterations, and took temperature ∆θ (again identified with the variable.THE).

about half the cpu time of the B21 analysis. With a larger In contrast, we can write the increment of total thermal

slenderness ratio (say 10000) it is unlikely that the B21 strain in a general, nonlinear analysis step in which the

model would converge at all. B

temperature goes from θ to θ as

th

∆ε = (α B

+ ∆α ) ∆θ + ∆α ( θ B – θ 0 ) ,

θ

Linear Perturbations With Thermal where ∆α is the total change in the thermal expansion

Loads coefficient over the increment.

If the thermal expansion coefficient is not temperature

Linear perturbation steps provide the linearized behavior of dependent, so that

the system subject to small perturbations about a base state.

The base state is defined by subjecting the system to a ∆α = dα ⁄ dθ = 0 ,

sequence of general, nonlinear analysis steps. This both expressions provide the same thermal strain in the

ABAQUS/Standard capability provides a powerful increment:

generalization of the traditional concept of linear analysis.

th th

To understand how ABAQUS handles thermal loading in ∆ε

= ∆ε ( lin ) = α∆θ .

linear perturbation steps, recall the fundamental difference

Suppose the thermal expansion coefficient varies linearly

in the way ABAQUS handles loads in general analysis steps

with temperature:

and perturbation steps:

• During general analysis steps ABAQUS treats the α = a0 + a1 ( θ – θ0) ,

loading as the total load, measured from the beginning

of the analysis. where a 0 and a 1 are constants. Then

∆ε th 0

( lin ) = α θ B + a 1 ( θ – θ ) ∆θ ,

B

• During perturbation steps ABAQUS assumes that the

loading is the change in load from the base state.

while

In a general step the total thermal strain (from the

= α B + a ( θ B – θ 0 ) ∆θ + a 1 ∆θ .

th 2

beginning of the analysis) is defined as ∆ε

θ 1

th 0 I 0 That is, in the general step the thermal strain includes a

ε = α θ θ – θ – α I θ –θ

θ term which depends on the square of the temperature

th

increment, while this quadratic term is not considered in a

where ε is the thermal strain (output variable THE), linear perturbation step.

ABAQUS/Answers Page 3

Adding Unstressed Elements In the first analysis step, use ∗BOUNDARY to fix the

nodes on the elements being included (B), and use

A frequent requirement in complex ABAQUS analyses is to ∗MODEL CHANGE,REMOVE to remove all these new

add elements to a model partway through a simulation. elements from the model.

These may represent strengthening material added to an In the next series of analysis steps apply loads and

offshore platform, lining in an underground tunnel, the constraints to the main model as required. The

layers of a gravity dam, or additional bolts in a small

∗EQUATIONs, and the ∗BOUNDARY on the included

mechanical assembly. In all of these cases the newly

nodes, (B), mean that the dummy nodes, (C), will be tied to

included elements must be stress and strain free when they

the nodes on the existing model, (A).

are first introduced into the model.

This is achieved by the use of ∗MODEL CHANGE with When the new elements are to be included, create a step

the parameters REMOVE and INCLUDE and involves the using ∗MODEL CHANGE,INCLUDE to bring the new

following stages. elements into the model. Use ∗BOUNDARY,OP=NEW to

release the constraint on the new nodes, (B), and use

Create a mesh which consists of the initial part of the ∗BOUNDARY,FIXED,OP=NEW, to fix the dummy nodes,

model and all elements to be included. At each nodal point (C), in their current positions. This means that, from now

on the interface between any two parts of the model (the on, the nodes on the existing model, (A), and the new nodes,

existing mesh and the new elements) there should be three (B), will be constrained to move together as if the two parts

nodes—one on the existing mesh, (A), one on the elements have been joined. However, all the deformation on the

to be included, (B), and a dummy node, (C). interface has been taken up by the dummy nodes, (C), so the

new elements are added in an undeformed, unstressed

existing mesh condition.

Any subsequent steps can be used to deform the

complete structure, or to add other new elements using the

same technique.

The important points of this approach are that all

elements that might be included during the analysis must be

defined at the beginning and removed in the first step, and

that three-way ∗EQUATIONs must be used to allow new

elements to be added in an unstressed state. Since the new

elements are added to the model in their initial position, the

NSETs:

approach assumes that the deformation of the interface is

A

B

relatively small (unless the user knows what coordinates to

C give to nodes (B) to make them coincide with the positions

of nodes (A) when the new material is added to the model).

elements to be Components shown

included separated for clarity For more details of adding unstressed elements see

ABAQUS/Standard Example Problem 3.2.15.

freedom such that, for each point, these three nodes are

constrained together. For example: Tension Stiffening in Concrete

*EQUATION Concrete is a brittle material, and cracks under tension. This

3 weakness in tension means that concrete is usually used

A,1,1.0, B,1,-1.0, C,1,-1.0 with steel reinforcement, giving a highly anisotropic

3 response. Brittle failure is a highly discontinuous,

A,2,1.0, B,2,-1.0, C,2,-1.0

sometimes unstable, phenomenon and is not well suited to

3

A,3,1.0, B,3,-1.0, C,3,-1.0 the incremental Newton-Raphson solution method used in

ABAQUS/Standard. The concrete model in ABAQUS

It is this constraint equation that enables the two parts of therefore sacrifices some modeling details for numerical

the mesh to be “joined” when the new elements are tractability. Even so, analyses involving the nonlinear

included. response of concrete are challenging and should not be

Page 4 ABAQUS/Answers

undertaken lightly. The choice of tension stiffening is often critical for a

The ∗CONCRETE model is intended for modeling successful analysis. The amount of tension stiffening

plain and reinforced concrete subjected to essentially depends on factors such as the density of reinforcement,

monotonic straining at low confining pressures. Cracking the quality of the bond, the relative size of the aggregate

is assumed to be the most important aspect of the material compared to the rebar diameter, and the mesh. Choosing

behavior. This model should not be used if the confining appropriate values is not easy. As a starting point we

pressure is more than 3–4 times the maximum suggest, for heavily reinforced sections, reducing the

compressive stress of the material. Nor should it be used stress across the crack to zero at a total strain about ten

for problems involving significant cyclic inelastic times the strain at failure.

response, like severe seismic loading.

Tension stiffening can be defined in two ways: as

The ∗CAP PLASTICITY model may sometimes be stress-strain data or as stress-displacement data. The

suitable for modelling concrete under high containing former is appropriate for heavily reinforced structures

pressures, particularly when crushing dominants the where there is significant reinforcement in most elements.

behavior. This model is applicable to both monotonic and However, with lightly reinforced structures or plain

cyclic loading, but concrete cracking is not included. concrete models, this approach can lead to the results

The ∗CONCRETE material model can be used with being mesh sensitive. In such cases a stress-displacement

most of the structural elements in ABAQUS, including tension stiffening characteristic is usually more

beams, shells and two- and three-dimensional solid appropriate. Even so, care should be taken with the mesh

elements. Reinforcement is introduced using the design to ensure that elements are all close to rectangular

∗REBAR option. Single rebars as well as layers of and aspect ratios are low. Triangles, wedges and

reinforcement with arbitrary spacing and orientation can tetrahedra should not be used.

be specified.

The larger the value of tension stiffening, the easier it is

The behavior of the concrete and reinforcement are for ABAQUS to find a converged solution. In some cases

considered independently. The interaction between the the choice of tension stiffening is governed by such

reinforcement and the concrete, such as bond slip and convergence requirements. If the value is significantly

dowel action, are modeled approximately by introducing greater than that suggested by the actual interaction of the

some “tension stiffening” into the concrete model.

concrete and reinforcement, the results should be

Tension stiffening means that the direct stress across a

interpreted carefully.

crack does not immediately fall to zero as soon as the

crack occurs. Instead, it gradually reduces to zero as the When the concrete cracks it is no longer capable of

crack opens. The ∗TENSION STIFFENING option is carrying tensile loading normal to the crack direction.

used to specify this gradual reduction in the direct stress. There must be another way of carrying the load if the

Stres Failure point structure is to remain stable. Normally the load is

(concrete transferred to the reinforcement. The analysis of the

cracking of unreinforced, or lightly reinforced, concrete is

“tension normally more difficult than the analysis of heavily

stiffening” curve reinforced sections.

∗CONTROLS,ANALYSIS=DISCONTINUOUS

should normally be specified for analyses including

concrete, since the response of the concrete is highly

discontinuous. Large amounts of cracking can also lead to

Strain local instabilities. The RIKS algorithm should be used for

Concrete in tension such cases.

ABAQUS 1080 Main Street, Pawtucket, RI 02860-4847

Tel: 401 727 4200 Fax: 401 727 4208 E-mail: hks@hks.com

(WEST), INC. (MICHIGAN), INC.

3900 Newpark Mall Road, Suite 205 30201 Orchard Lake Road, Suite 210

Newark, CA 94560-5241 Farmington Hills, MI 48334

Tel: 510 794 5891 Fax: 510 794 1194 Tel: 810 932 8282 Fax: 810 932 8284

Copyright 1994, Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form or distributed in any way without prior written agreement with Hibbitt, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc.

- Constraints and Connections in abaqusUploaded byVenu Kishore
- ABAQUS-FAQUploaded byTaufiq Saidin
- Abaqus Answers Spring 1997Uploaded byzmchen
- Penalty vs. KinematicUploaded byAhmed Hanafy
- Damaged Plasticity Model for concreteUploaded byhityou
- l3 Materials AbaqusUploaded byfurlings
- ABAQUS TrainingUploaded bycjarkasih
- Abaqus TutorialUploaded byArun Duraisamy
- abaqus workshopUploaded bynapoleongo
- Riks MethodUploaded byAmit Jain
- Fracture Lecture of AbaqusUploaded byMohammed Abu Sufian
- Abaqus Analysis Users Manual-Volume_5Uploaded byhfathollahi
- Abaqus Thin Plate TutorialUploaded byhfathollahi
- Beam and Truss Elements in AbaqusUploaded bydiddeniye
- [Abaqus].Abaqus Examples Problems ManualUploaded byMILTONPS
- Abaqus Example Problems ManualUploaded bycesar_abdd
- AbaqusUploaded byAzif Ali Moothantevileyil
- Abaqus-plane Stress TutorialUploaded byhfathollahi
- Abaqus ExampleUploaded byJacky Hui
- Abaqus Truss TutorialUploaded byhfathollahi
- Axial+Bending+Torsion+Combined+Buckling Analysis of a Beam (Abaqus Cae) JasUploaded byWares Chancharoen
- A Guide to Geometry Import and Repair in ABAQUS CAEUploaded byAnkit Agarwal
- Abaqus TutorialUploaded byRohit Singh
- Abaqus-umat Program ExampleUploaded byhfathollahi
- Abaqus Beam TutorialUploaded byhasib
- Finite Element Project Abaqus TutorialUploaded byhasib
- Frac l09 XfemUploaded bychingon987
- Abaqus Cae TutorialUploaded byrcmmrc
- abaqusUploaded byBahaa Hussain
- MasterUploaded byMaia Nedeloiu

- TC290_97_98_99Uploaded byjinwenjie
- TPM SeminarUploaded byVishnu Nair
- estimating participants in elections using ANN.pdfUploaded bysurya
- Kameleon K8 ManualUploaded byrglabbe
- Jovana_Golo_EN.pdfUploaded byZairah Francisco
- Chapter 1.docxUploaded byAnonymous OeKGaIN
- Practical Applications and Solutions Using LabVIEW SoftwareUploaded byMaleny Garcia
- The Parapsychological Association 51st Annual Convention - Proceedings of Presented PapersUploaded byMatCult
- A Cyberpunk ManifestoUploaded byevanLe
- 10.1080@17442222.2017.1325099Uploaded bybercer7787
- KU General GuidanceUploaded byRaul
- Turbine Gas Meter HandbookUploaded byfarshidian
- CVUploaded byDaniel M. Martin
- quick opc guideUploaded byobinnabenedict
- Best 5 International Archived AbstractsUploaded byDrGandhi Bhaskar Patrudu
- SAP_HANA_Studio_Installation_Update_Guide_en.pdfUploaded bynevencera
- ov choir syllabus 2018-2019Uploaded byapi-296606444
- hsc dance programUploaded byapi-203667098
- Organisational BehaviourUploaded bySeema K Shokeen
- 75126579-Lecture-6-The-Engineer-s-Transit-and-Theodolite.pdfUploaded byBryle James Nanglegan
- E-104 Structure of Modern EnglishUploaded byheera
- Antisocial Behavior and HypnosisUploaded byMansonCaseFile
- Razlike Izmedju Dos I Windows 7Uploaded byMilkovic91
- Cascading Style Sheets for Web DesignUploaded bymayomayomayo3068
- CIM L4 Marketing April 2015 Exam_PaperUploaded byimranvdp306c2
- soni lesson plan for outcome 1 & 4Uploaded byapi-279778192
- Millsap - Profiling Oracle, How It WorksUploaded byrockerabc123
- Analysing a Case Study in BusinessUploaded byChhering Paljor
- BaiTap-Chuong123Uploaded byNguyễn Ngọc Tú
- Fact Sheet - Labuan Company v1Uploaded byShahrani Kassim