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COMPREHENSIVE JAZZ STUDIES & EXERCISES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1. "MAJOR CHORD SCALE EXERCISES"
Part 1. Scales and Exercises Part 2. Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5. Ideas for Improvising 6 13 24 26 30

CHAPTER 2. "MINOR CHORD SCALE EXERCISES"
Part 1. Scales and Exercises Part 2: Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5 Ideas for Improvising 36 45 56 58 63

CHAPTER 3. "UNALTERED DOMINANT CHORD SCALE EXERCISES"
Part 1. Scales and Exercises Part 2: Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5 Ideas for Improvising 68 75 84 86 91

CHAPTER 4. "MELODIC MINOR SCALE EXERCISES"
Part 1. Scales and Exercise Part 2: Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5 Ideas for Improvising 97 107 117 120 126

CHAPTER 5. "DIMINISHED

CHORD SCALE EXERCISES"
131 137 147 149 154

Part 1. Scales and Exercises Part 2: Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5 Ideas for Improvising

CHAPTER 6. "PENTATONIC AND BLUES SCALE EXERCISES"
Part 1. Scales and Exercises Part 2: Motif Exercises Part 3. "Finger Busters" Part 4. Extended Motifs Part 5 Ideas for Improvising 158 172 182 184 189

Introduction
The inspiration for writing this book was to create a series of technique building exercises as well as some useful melodic and harmonic studies and incorporate them into one format. Setting up a daily practice routine is vital to becoming a more proficient player. This book usesvarious scales and melodic motifs to explore ways of approaching different chord types. The idea is to study these scales and exercises in a way that will be useful for improvisation while, at the same time, providing a practice routing that simply helps improve your technique. This book is based on the six chord scalesmost commonly used in improvising, no matter what style of music. They are: 1. The Major Chord Scale 2. The Minor Chord Scale (specifically Dorian Minor) 3. The Dominant Chord Scale (The Mixolydian Mode) 4. The Melodic Minor Scale 5. The Diminished Scale 6. The Pentatonic and Blues Scales Each chapter is dedicated to a different scale and is divided into five parts:

PART ONE: "CHORD

SCALE EXERCISES"

Part One introduces the chord scale of each chapter. Each key has its scale and corresponding exercise and each exercise has a different melodic and rhythmic treatment. It's important to learn each scale and working on them in this way creates a more interesting and useful practice routine.

PART TWO: "MOTIF EXERCISES"
This is an exercise that starts with a single short melodic idea. The idea, or motif, is first played in half-steps both ascending and descending. With each successive exercise the interval between motifs grows wider by half-steps until the interval between motifs reaches an octave. Even though the motif staysthe same, as the interval widens, each exercise presents a new technical challenge.

PART THREE: "FINGER BUSTERS"
The idea behind this set of exercises is to help build strong technique and endurance, just asthe name implies. Each "FINGER BUSTER"corresponds with the chord type of its chapter. The most benefit will come if each exercise is repeated at least four times. Try to build up to the point where you can make it to the end of number 50 with as few breaks as possible. You can almost think of this as the "workout" portion of each chapter and if you stay with it, you should really notice the benefit.

PART FOUR: "EXTENDED MOTIFS"
One valuable way to practice is to take a melodic phrase and practice in every key. Part Four uses this idea and is based on five different phrases written chromatically. Each phrase is derived from the chord type emphasized in that chapter. As the phrase changes key, keep the key of the chord in mind as well. Some of these exercises tend to be quite long in order to cover as much of an instrument's range as possible so feel free to break them up to make them easier to finish.

PART FIVE: "IDEAS FOR IMPROVISATION" This final section of each chapter deals with a solo that was written to show different ways to use the chord scalesover various sets of chord changes. As you play through each solo you'll see phrases pointed out to show how they relate to the chords and how various scales are used. I'm sure that, as you play through them, you'll find many more ways to use these chord scales and melodic ideas.

Tips on How To Use This Book
1. Try to always use a metronome to practice with. As I said before, this is as much of an exercise book as it is a harmonic studies book. The metronome is an important technique building tool because it guides you and makes sure that all your notes are being played evenly. Make sure that you can hear it as loudly as you can hear yourself and keep each note right in time. As you practice, set the metronome at different tempos and never play an exercise faster than you can control. The best way to become faster on your instrument is to first practice slowly and be very definite with each note. 2. Before you sit down to practice, decide which exercisesyou want to work on and set a goal for yourself. For example, practice parts One, Two and Three of a chapter one day and Four and Five the next. Or take certain lines out of each chapter and create your own routine. However it's put together, if you set a goal for yourself before you start, you'll probably be more likely to stick with it and really maximize your practicing time. 3. This book was written as a way of showing how you can use melodic ideas to become more familiar with certain chords and chord scaleswhile building technique at the same time. But it's just the beginning! The optimum way to use this book is to work on the written exercisesfirst and then challenge yourself by coming up with some of your own ideas and motifs and practice them in the same format. By practicing ideas off the top of your head, you'll be exercising your brain as well as your fingers!

Notes
This book was designed to fit the range of most instruments. Since certain instruments don't have a range lower than low B or higher than high F~,optional notes are provided so that all of the exercises can be played on just about any instrument. These optional notes are written in parentheses and hopefully don't create too much of a distraction. Also, during all the time I spent working on this book I struggled with the question of "courtesy accidentals" and whether or not to use them. It's important to practice remembering accidentals written early in a measure so that you don't forget to use them on the same notes later in the measure. But, at the same time, concentrating on playing an exercise correctly can be hard enough without having to think about remembering accidentals in measures that are more complicated. I suppose that the bottom line is to just keep your eyes open! I'd like to thank Chick Corea, Michael Brecker, John Patitucci, Frank Gambale, Pat Kelley and Eddie Daniels for their valuable advice during the writing of this book.

6

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MAJOR CHORD SCALE EXERCISES
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Part Five: Ideas tor ImprDvising
This section deals with a solo written over the tune. "Confirmation". Because this tune involves Major chords. a lot of the ideas in this chapter can be applied. As you play through this solo. try to see how each phrase fits into the chord above. The strong parts of the chord (root. 3rd. and 5th) are used as pivot points and the scale tones and chromatic passing tones are used to help shape the phrases.

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#1. This is a good example of a phrase that emphasizes the stong parts of each chord and uses scale and passing tones to create a melody. #2. This is one of many 2-5-1 progressions in this tune. As you can see by the chart below. the II and the V chords are related or "Diatonic" to the I chord. All the notes of any scale are refered to as being diatonic to that scale. If you use a C Major scale. for example. and build on each degree of that scale. you can see how the diatonic chords are formed:

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Tha root, 3rd, 5th, and 7th of each chord tells you what type of chord it is. As you can see in this case, tha"II","V", and "I" chords become Om7, G7,and CMaj7. Of course, there are many different types of II-VI's.Thisis only one example and as you can see, this tune is based on II-V-I's.

#3. Most types of chords include notes that do not appear in the basic chord scale but sound good and
add different color or characteristic a available tensions for Major chords: to your melody. These notes are called "tensions". Here are the

9th
I! I! I!

13th
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Available ''Tensions''
Takeanother look at the diatonic chord chart. Each of the scales are diatonic to the key of "C". Each of these seven scales are called "Modes". Here is the same chart with the names of each mode:

C Ionian

I!

I!

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An F Maj7 chord with the tension [#4) or [#11) would be called F Maj7[#11) and would use an F Lydian scale as its chord scale. Here are some melodic examples:

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CHORDSCALE: CHORDTYPE:
Major Maj. Triad Maj. 6th Maj. 7th Maj. 9th Maj. 6/9 Maj. 13th *min. 7th[#5) MgjJI11) or Lydian Maj. 7th[#11) Maj. 13th[#11)

*You can use the Major scale a minor 3rd above the root of the chord. Cm7[#5), for example, would

use an Eb Major

scale starting on C as its chord scale.

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36

CHAPTER TWO Minor Chord Scale Exercises
Part One: Scales and Exercises

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Part Five: Ideas for Improvising
This section deals with a solo written over a minor blues progression and it incorporates both min. 7th and Dom.7th chords. As before, play through the solo and see how the phrases fit into the chord changes bove. a

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Throughout this solo, various types of minor scales are used. The one you choose depends on your melodic preference. Since we've covered the dorian minor scale, here are some ideas using other minor scales over the Min.7th chord.

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Quick Reference
!HlBPSCALE omp TYPE:
MINOR (jncluding Dorian. Natural. Harmonic. & Melodic) Min. 7th Min. 9th Min. 11th Min. 13th * Min. (Maj7th) * *Oom. 7th(i,9)(i,13) * * *Oom. 7(alt)

*Use a Harmonic or Melodic Minor scale. "Use Harmonic Minor scale starting on the 5th degree. fir example,or C7(i,9)(i,13) you could use an F Harmonic Minor scale starting on C. f ***You can use the Melodic Minor scale a half-step above the root of the altered chord as discussed in Olapter 4.

68

CHAPTER THREE UNALTERED DOMINANT CHORD SCALE EXERCISES

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Part Five: Ideas for Improvising
This section deals with a solo written over a set of "Blues" Changes. As you play through this solo. as in the last chapter. see how each phrase fits into the chord above. The strong parts of the chord (root. 3rc!. nd 5th) are used as pivot points and the scale and chromatic passing tones are used to help a shape melodies. the

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#1.Note how this first phrase emphasizes the strong parts of each chord and uses scale and chromatic passing tones to shape the melody. #2.Ona Dom.7(sus4) chord the 4th replaces the 3rd in the chord voicing and becomes a strong sound inthe chord. This phrase pivots on the note. "C" which is the 4th of the G7(sus4) chord. The Dominant 7th scale (or the Mixolydian Mode) comes from the 5th degree of the Major scale. For example, G Mixolydian scale has the same notes as the C Major scale. You can also think of the the Mixo~diancale as a Major scale with a flatted 7th. If you relate this scale to its Major scale origin. it s may make it easier to play.

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As youalready know. "tensions" are notes that do not appear in the basic chord but sound good and give the chorddifferent colors and characteristics. Here are the available tensions for Dominant 7th chords:

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Quick Reference
CHORD SCALE: CHORD TYPE DaM. 7TH or MIXOLYD. Dam. 7th Dam. 9th Dam. 11th Dam. 13th Dam. 7th[sus4) LYD. DaM. Dam. 7th[#11) Dam. 7th[#11 )[13) * Maj7th[#5)

*Use Lyd. Dam. scale a whole step above the root of the chord. For example. over C Maj7[#5) you can use the 0 Lyd. Dam. scale starting and ending on C. [It may be helpful to note that the 0 Lydian Dominant scale has the same notes as the A Melodic Minor Scale.)

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CHAPTER FOUR MELODIC MINOR CHORD SCALE EXERCISES
Part One: Scales and Exercises

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