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Andrew K. Soubel Energy Law Spring 2004 Chicago-Kent College of Law
Background Solar Power Satellite Microwave Power Transmission Current Designs Legal Issues Conclusion
1856-1943 Innovations: ± Alternating current ± Wireless power transmission experiments at Wardenclyffe
could light lamps filled with gas (like neon) .Wardenclyffe 1899 ± Able to light lamps over 25 miles away without using wires ± High frequency current. of a Tesla coil.
1940¶s to Present World War II developed ability to convert energy to microwaves using a magnetron. no method for converting microwaves back to electricity 1964 William C. Brown demonstrated a rectenna which could convert microwave power to electricity .
Brief History of Solar Power 1940-50¶s Development of the Photovoltaic cell 1958 First US Satellite that used Solar Power 1970¶s Oil embargo brought increased interest and study .
but after prices stabilized idea was dropped ± US Department of Energy research program 19781981 .Solar Power from Satellites 1968¶s idea for Solar Power Satellites proposed by Peter Glaser ± Would use microwaves to transmit power to Earth from Solar Powered Satellites Idea gained momentum during the Oil Crises of 1970¶s.
Details of the DOE Study Construct the satellites in space ± Each SPS would have 400 million solar cells Use the Space Shuttle to get pieces to a low orbit station Tow pieces to the assembly point using a purpose built space tug (similar to space shuttle) .
000 km (22.Advantages over Earth based solar power More intense sunlight In geosynchronous orbit. 36.369 miles) an SPS would be illuminated over 99% of the time No need for costly storage devices for when the sun is not in view ± Only a few days at spring and fall equinox would the satellite be in shadow .
Continued Waste heat is radiated back into space Power can be beamed to the location where it is needed. don¶t have to invest in as large a grid No air or water pollution is created during generation .
Problems Issues identified during the DOE study ± Complexity²30 years to complete ± Size²6.5 miles long by 3.3 miles wide Transmitting antenna ½ mile in diameter(1 km) .
Continued Cost²prototype would have cost $74 billion Microwave transmission ± ± Interference with other electronic devices Health and environmental effects .
and investment schedule . technology.1980¶s to Present Japanese continued to study the idea of SPS throughout the 1980¶s In 1995 NASA began a Fresh Look Study ± Set up a research.
NASA Fresh Look Report SPS could be competitive with other energy sources and deserves further study Research aimed at an SPS system of 250 MW Would cost around $10 billion and take 20 years National Research Council found the research worthwhile but under funded to achieve its goals .
000.Specifications Collector area must be between 50 (19 sq miles) and 150 square kilometers (57 sq miles) 50 Tons of material ± Current rates on the Space Shuttle run between $3500 and $5000 per pound ± 50 tons (112.000lbs)=$392.000 .
Continued There are advantages Possible power generation of 5 to 10 gigawatts ± ³If the largest conceivable space power station were built and operated 24 hours a day all year round. it could produce the equivalent output of ten 1 million kilowattclass nuclear power stations.´ .
Possible Designs .
Deployment Issues Cost of transporting materials into space Construction of satellite ± Space Walks Routine Meteor impacts Maintenance ± ± .
Possible Solutions International Space Station President¶s plan for a return to the moon Either could be used as a base for construction activities .
Microwave Power Transmission How the power gets to Earth .
From the Satellite Solar power from the satellite is sent to Earth using a microwave transmitter Received at a ³rectenna´ located on Earth Recent developments suggest that power could be sent to Earth using a laser .
Microwaves Frequency 2.45 GHz microwave beam Retro directive beam control capability Power level is well below international safety standard .
Laser Transmission Microwave ± ± ± Laser ± ± More developed High efficiency up to 85% Beams is far below the lethal levels of concentration even for a prolonged exposure Cause interference with satellite communication industry ± ± Recently developed solid state lasers allow efficient transfer of power Range of 10% to 20% efficiency within a few years Conform to limits on eye and skin damage .Microwave vs.
Rectenna ³An antenna comprising a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric power.´ Microwaves are received with about 85% efficiency Around 5km across (3.1 miles) 95% of the beam will fall on the rectenna .
Rectenna Design Currently there are two different design types being looked at ± Wire mesh reflector Built on a rigid frame above the ground Visually transparent so that it would not interfere with plant life ± Magic carpet Material pegged to the ground .
5. . This station is about a mile and a half long.000 MW Receiving Station (Rectenna).
how do you convince people .Rectenna Issues Size ± Miles across Location ± Aesthetic ± Near population center Health and environmental side effects ± Although claim that microwaves or lasers would be safe.
Current Developments .
SPS 2000 .
Details Project in Development in Japan Goal is to build a low cost demonstration model by 2025 8 Countries along the equator have agreed to be the site of a rectenna .
instead low orbit 1100 km (683 miles) ± Much cheaper to put a satellite in low orbit ± 200 seconds of power on each pass over rectenna .Continued 10 MW satellite delivering microwave power ± Will not be in geosynchronous orbit.
Power to Mobile Devices If microwave beams carrying power could be beamed uniformly over the earth they could power cell phones Biggest problem is that the antenna would have to be 25-30 cm square .
Low Orbit Communications industry proposing to have hundreds of satellites in low earth orbit These satellites will use microwaves to beam communications to the ground Could also be used to beam power .
the ground based rectenna could be smaller Would allow collectors on the ground of a few hundred meters across instead of 10 kilometers In low orbit they circle the Earth in about every 90 minutes .Continued Since a low orbit microwave beam would spread less.
Issues Would require a network of hundreds of satellites ± Air Force currently track 8500 man made objects in space. 7% satellites Would make telecommunications companies into power companies .
don¶t have to invest in as large a grid A network of low orbit satellites could provide power to almost any point on Earth continuously because one satellite would always be in range .Reliability Ground based solar only works during clear days. and must have storage for night Power can be beamed to the location where it is needed.
Legal Issues Who will oversee? Environmental Concerns International .
NASA Funding the research In charge of space flight for the United States Would be launching the satellites and doing maintenance .
FCC Federal Communications Commission ± The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio. satellite and cable. wire. . television.
Environmental Possible health hazards ± ± Effects of long term exposure Exposure is equal to the amount that people receive from cell phones and microwaves The size of construction for the rectennas is massive Location ± .
International Geosynchronous satellites would take up large sections of space Interference with communication satellites Low orbit satellites would require agreements about rectenna locations and flight paths .
Conclusions More reliable than ground based solar power In order for SPS to become a reality it several things have to happen: ± ± ± Government support Cheaper launch prices Involvement of the private sector .
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