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SUBMITTED BY SWEETA TIWARI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Topic Objective Introduction Research Methodology Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model Data Analysis Findings Conclusion Limitation Annexure
PageNo. 3 4-6 7-8 8-12 13-29 30 31-32 33 34-36
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
• • • • To study the consumer perception on the basis of attribute based perceptual map using discriminant analysis. To find the Servqual score towards different attributes of fairness cream in accordance to kano’s model. To determine the characteristics of targeted population which affect their choice of brand through Factor Analysis. To determine the statistical significance of the choice of Brand with its Popularity and Expectation from it.
An introduction to the Men’s Fairness Cream Market in India:
Men's fairness cream market in 1999: Did not exist. Men's fairness cream market in 2009: Rs 100 crore.Men’s fairness cream market in India is still a fairly small segment - just Rs 186 crore (Rs 1.86 billion) out of the total Rs 2,200 crore (Rs 22 billion) plus fairness cream market, according to Nielsen (2010 figures)- but one that is growing at a fast clip of 31 per cent. Till the last decade it was almost unimaginable that there would be a fairness cream for men among male grooming products. As it turned out, men contributed significantly to consumption of fairness product. That shouldn't be surprising as we live in a society which is obsessed with fair skin. This phenomenon was not restricted to women and, unknown to marketers, had influenced Indian man as well. The size of Indian skincare market including creams, moisturisers and cleanser is estimated at Rs 4,750 crore. Of the total skincare market, the fairness cream market in India is estimated at Rs 2,200 crore plus. According to a Nielsen survey conducted amongst 1,000 SEC A and B men in Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and Hyderabad on male grooming, every second man has a monthly date with a salon. "The importance of male grooming is clear, with the market worth Rs 695 crore and growing at 11 per cent. While some brands tried to build on the premise of letting go of women's products and opting for male-centric products for social reasons, others pointed out how men's facial skin is much different from women and thus, they need products to suit their skin type. In the past few years, the men's grooming market has grown exponentially with brands launching not just the run-of-the-mill shaving gels and foams, but fairness creams, moisturisers, talcs, face washes and other grooming products targeted specifically at men, with fairness creams leading the pack. One of the major reasons behind this is that over the years, Indian male became more and more conscious of his looks, not just in the business world but also in society. A lot depended on how he presented himself. Men didn't want to run the risk of being seen as irresponsible and negligent due to their looks. Celebrities, too, became more vocal about their grooming habits, sharing self-grooming details in TV and print interviews. Also, following global trends entered the metrosexual male - the man who has strong concern for his appearance and styling. Leveraging the fact that there were no products to meet their growing needs at least not of international quality, brands pooled in energy and resources to
target these men. The grooming fad was not limited to men in the corporate field - it spread to collegians and other youngsters too, growing the market further. To secure early leads, marketers are expanding their portfolio beyond creams and straddling different price-points with various ranges. Differentiation, for now, seems to have been relegated in favor of endorsements by filmstars and cricketers A-listers for their communication. But the star endorsement by every brand is slowly eroding the differentiation. Garnier Marketing Manager Richa Singh says, "John Abraham's positive energy and the will to be active helped us portray him in a way that was real to both him and our brand. It appeared genuine." HUL Skin Care General Manager Govind Rajan feels, "It is always better to start with the young who are more amenable to change. Hence, Shahid Kapur".On its part, Nivea has associated with India cricket captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni. The first mover, Emami's Fair and Handsome has Shahrukh Khan as its endorser. Kolkata-based Emami first saw the need for a men's fairness product, beating bigger players. Research had showed that the country's leading women's fairness cream, Fair and Lovely, had then owed over 30 per cent of its sale to men users. Emami's Fair and Handsome, launched in 2005, was followed by HUL, the makers of Fair and Lovely, which launched Fair and Lovely Menz Active in 2006. Beiersdorf AG, the German parent of Nivea, entered next with its Nivea for Men product. Heavy advertisers such as HUL and Garnier are now looking to expand the skincare category beyond vanilla fairness creams with face washes and sunscreens, though experts question the efficacy of these products. Marketers admit that fairness is the foremost concern of users but insists that it only points to the underlying need for a healthy skin. Whitening emerges as the prime need of the customer segment of men’s fairness creams. Since Indian men spend a lot of time outdoors, they desire to reverse the effect of the aggressive factors and hence use whitening creams. The other big need is also of oil control. The product should address the need for a clear and glowing skin, albeit without a tan and dark spots. The brands are banking on the halo effect of the names under which they launch their men's fairness products, apart from the star pull. One differentiator can be fusing nature with technology and developing the credibility to create a habit of skincare regime. Brands are also straddling different price points, either through different product ranges or through packaging. Garnier launched satchets of its cream early this year. Its parent, L'oreal 5
also has a range for men's whitening cream priced much higher. HUL covers the mass market with its Fair and Lovely Menz Active. Emami, still lording it over the market with its Rs 125 crore (Rs 1.25 billion) brand, is far from embattled as it is one thing to have a brand and quite another to focus on it. Emami gets 20 per cent of revenues going into advertising and Fair and Handsome remains a focus brand. HUL, does not intend to extend its Fair and Lovely Menz Active, but wants to concentrate on Vaseline Men.
Major Players of Men’s fairness cream Segment considered in our study:1) Emami’s Fair and Handsome 2) Garnier Men Power Lite 3) Unilever’s Fair and Lovely Menz Active 4) Nivea for Men-Advanced Whitening Cream TABLE 1 Players 1. Emami Handsome 2. Fair and Lovely Menz 20% 2006 Fair Market Share and 62% Year of Inception 2005
Active 3. Nivea for Men 4. Garnier Power Lite 9% 9% 2007 2009
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:All the findings and conclusions are based on the survey done in the working area within time limit. It has been tried to select a sample representative of the whole group. The data has been collected from 100 respondents for studying the consumer perception towards Men’s Fairness Creams. RESEARCH DESIGN: The research applied in the project is Descriptive Research as the major objective of research is to describe the buying behavior of the customers towards Men’s Fairness Cream. This is done by studying customer feedback collected through questionnaire. DEVELOPING THE RESEARCH PLAN The data for this research project has been collected through selfadministration. Due to time limitation and other constraints direct personal interview method is used. A structured questionnaire was framed as it is less time consuming, generates specific and to the point information, easier to tabulate and interpret. Moreover respondents prefer to give direct answers. In questionnaires closed ended types of questions has been used. COLLECTION OF DATA Primary data: Individual respondents were personally visited and interviewed. They were the main source of Primary data. The method of collection of primary data was direct personal interview through a structured questionnaire. SAMPLING PLAN Since it is not possible to study whole population, it is necessary to obtain representative samples from the population to understand its characteristics.
•Target Population: College Students and Upcoming Professionals. • Sampling Units: Malls. • Sample Element: Men. •Sample Technique: Convenience Sampling. • Research Instrument: Structured Questionnaire.
SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size taken is 100. DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT The mode of collection of data is based on Survey Method and Field Activity. Primary data collected using structured questionnaire. The questionnaire has been prepared taken into consideration the variables of the Elgen Kollet Blackwell Model. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS • The research is confined to Ghaziabad and does not necessarily show a pattern applicable to all parts of the country. • Some respondents were reluctant to divulge personal information which can affect the validity of all responses. • In a rapidly changing industry, analysis on one day or in one segment can change very quickly. The environmental changes are vital to be considered in order to assimilate the findings. ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL MODEL This model was created to describe the increasing, fast-growing body of knowledge concerning consumer behavior. The purchase of fairness creams shows the habitual buying behaviour of the customer. This model consists also of four stages:
First stage: Decision-Process stages
The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem recognition, search for alternatives, alternate evaluation, purchase, and outcomes. 1.
Problem recognition: Need for the fairness cream for men, which gives Alternate evaluation: The person / men will search for the different
them more confidence and recognition among people. 2. are: • • • • • • Emami fair & handsome: fairness cream Hul fair and lovely: menz active fairness cream Garnier men powerlight: fairness moisturizer Nivea for men: whitening repair and protect and whitening oil-control moisturizer Hul vaseline men: antispots whitening face cream Others: Such as Elder Healthcare's Fairone Man etc.
alternatives which are available in the market. Here in this case different alternatives
Purchase : He will purchase the product if he get satisfied by the search process Outcomes: The outcomes may lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction of customer
and choose the best cream.
about the product. For example if the customer has chosen the product Emami fair & Handsome then he may get satisfied or dissatisfied from the product.
The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behavior.
Exposure Internal search Search
Variables Influencing Decision Process
Individual Characteristis: Motives Values Lifestyle Personality
Attention Stimuli: MarketerDominated, other Comprehension Perception M E M O R Y Yielding/ Acceptance Alternative evaluation
Social Influences : Culture Reference group Family
Purchase Situational Influences
Retention Outcomes External search
Source: Engel , Blackwell, and Miniard,(1995) page No 95
Second stage: Information input
At this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-marketing sources, which also influence the problem recognition stage of the decision-making process. The consumer may get the information from different sources like print media, TV commercials etc. in this case the consumer will get the information about all the fairness creams through the TV commercials and the consumer still does not arrive to a specific decision, the search for external information will be activated in order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer experience dissonance because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than expected.
Third stage: information processing
This stage consists of the consumer’s exposure, attention, perception, acceptance, and retention of incoming information. The consumer must first be exposed to the message, allocate space for this information, interpret the stimuli, and retain the message by transferring the input to long-term memory. Here in this case the consumer first see the advertisement of the product in electronic or print media and focus on the advertisement which is of his requirement or his need i.e he gives attention to the fairness cream for men advertisement, then he interpret the information from that advertisement and finally he retain the message and keep this message in his mind for the purchase intention.
Fourth stage: variables influencing the decision process
This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect all five stages of the decision process. Individual characteristics include motives, values, lifestyle, and personality; the social influences are culture, reference groups, and family. Situational influences, such as a consumer’s financial condition, also influence the decision process. Individual characteristics: Motives: to look more fairer and confident Value: it includes both terminal and instrumental values, from being capable, independent, and intellectual to having a sense of accomplishment, social recognition and happiness. Lifestyle: the lifestyle is outdoor oriented.
Personality: the cream is for the one who wants to be recognized and wants success in their life. Situational factors: Consumer financial condition: His financial condition determines for which fairness cream he will to go. Eg: If he belongs to the upper class he will go for the high price and high quality cream like Garnier for men power light or Nivea: menz lightening cream, if he wants value for money he will go for emami fair and handsome. Evaluation criteria: He will evaluate the product on the basis of different criteria like prize, fairness, UV protection, availability, brand endorser, and packaging.
DATA ANALYSIS Demographics of the study
Graph showing percentage of People in different age groups:-
(Here no of persons belonging to the age group 16-21=20, 22-26=45, 27-31=25, 32-37=10) Graph showing percentage of people in different income groups:-
(Here no of persons having income<12000=5, 12000-22000=10, 22001-32000=25, 3200142000=35, 42001-52000=15, above52000=10)
It is a general name denoting a class of procedures primarily used for data reduction and summarization. In marketing research, there may be a large number of variables, which are correlated and must be reduced to a manageable level. Relationships among sets of many inter- related variables are examined and represented in terms of few 1
terms. TABLE 2 KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square df Sig. TABLE 3 Communalities Fairness UVProtection Price Availability BrandEndorsor Packaging Expectations Brandloyal Popularity Initial 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 Extraction .527 .586 .708 .690 .352 .624 .632 .433 .765 .593 204.285 36 .000
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums Loadings % of Squared
% of Variance 30.399
Cumulative % 30.399
% of Variance 30.399
Cumulative % 30.399
dime nsio 3 n0
o f V a r i a n c e Cumulative % 2 29.807 9 . 8 0 7 1 45.320 5 . 5 1 3 1 59.079 3 . 7 5 9
4 .972 10.799 69.878 5 .923 10.255 80.132 6 .716 7.954 88.087 7 .502 5.581 93.668 8 .317 3.518 97.185 9 .253 2.815 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Component Matrixa Component 1 2 Fairness .423 -.503 UVProtection .529 -.493 Price .131 .737 Availability -.075 .283 BrandEndorsor .276 .401 Packaging .698 .319 Expectations .767 .139 Brandloyal .594 -.088 Popularity .866 .013 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 3 components extracted. TABLE 6 Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 .330 .411 .288 -.051 .334 .754 .785 .553 .846 2 .347 .643 -.790 .141 -.114 -.231 -.051 .323 .214 3 -.546 -.064 .033 .817 .476 -.045 -.114 .150 .054 3 -.309 .253 -.383 .777 .338 -.188 -.157 .270 .119
Fairness UVProtection Price Availability BrandEndorsor Packaging Expectations Brandloyal Popularity
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 4 iterations.
TABLE 7 Component Transformation Matrix Component 1 2 1 .980 .189 dimensio 2 .195 -.841 n0 3 -.042 .506 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. 3 -.063 .504 .861
Price Packaging Expectation Brand loyalty Popularity
Fairness U V Protection -
Availability Brand Endorsement -
From the above table we can divide the targeted population into three factors. The first ones are those who are Brand Oriented these people have high expectations from their brand they go by the popularity of the product in the market and are price conscious. The second category people are Value oriented their choice of product depends upon the actual benefits they get from the product. The third category people goes by the availability of the product i.e. they look for convenience and also they are celebrity influenced people whose buying decision depends upon the Brand Ambassador.
Chi- Square Test:
The square of a standard normal variable is called chi- square Variate with 1 degree of freedom. It is used when the total frequency should be reasonably large (N>50) sample observations should be independent. The constraints on the cell frequencies should be linear. Each theoretical frequency should be larger than 10 but in any case not less than 5.
H0- The Choice of Brand is independent of its Popularity H1- The Choice of Brand is dependent upon its Popularity RECODE Popularity (1 thru 3=1) (4 thru 5=2) INTO popul. Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Brand * popul 100
Missing N 0
Total N 100
Brand * popul Crosstabulation popul 1.00 5 20.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 80 80.0% 2.00 20 80.0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 20 20.0% Total 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 100 100.0%
Fair and Handsom Fair and lovely
active Garnier men Nivea Total
Count % within Brand mens Count % within Brand Count % within Brand Count % within Brand Count % within Brand
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Association Value 75.000a 75.060 44.550 df 3 3 1 sided) .000 .000 .000 Sig. (2-
N of Valid Cases 100 a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 5.00.
Qic T e adﾪ u k im n a dc m es r eo p so r a nee t seh p t r . r eddo e t is icue e
Interpretation: Here H0 is rejected since the expected significance value is less than 5% .
So we can interpret that the choice of brand is dependent upon the popularity of the product in the market. This can be seen from the above graph where people have opted for emamies Fair and Handsome based on its market share and popularity amongst the masses.
Chi square test-Between Brand and Expectations from it.
RECODE Expectations (1 thru 3=1) (4 thru 5=2) INTO expect. Ho- The Expectations with brand is independent of choice of brand. H1- The Expectations from brand is dependent upon the choice of brand. Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N Percent Brand * expect 100 100.0%
Missing N 0
Total N 100
Brand * expect Crosstabulation expect 1.00 0 .0% 15 60.0% 16 64.0% 13 52.0% 44 44.0% 2.00 25 100.0% 10 40.0% 9 36.0% 12 48.0% 56 56.0% Total 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 25 100.0% 100 100.0%
Fair and Handsom Fair and lovely
active Garnier men Nivea Total
Count % within Brand mens Count % within Brand Count % within Brand Count % within Brand Count % within Brand
Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2Pearson Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Linear-by-Linear Value 26.948a 36.247 12.857 df 3 3 1 sided) .000 .000 .000
Association N of Valid Cases 100 a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 11.00.
Qic T e adﾪ u k im n a dc m es r eo p so r a nee t seh p t r . r eddo e t is icue e
Interpretation: Here Ho is rejected that means that Expectations from the brand depends
upon the choice of brand. That means that the expectations from the selected brand is very high here the most preferred brand is Fair and Handsome so the expectations from it are very high. Attribute-Based Discriminant Analysis It tells us how the brand is perceived in relation to other competing brands. Another benefit of discriminant analysis is that it includes the attributes in the map. Unlike the MDS and FA techniques, which only position brands relative to other brands, discriminant analysis shows brands and attributes. The ratings of the respondents for 6 attributes of 4 brands that we have taken can be depicted by the perceptual map using the attribute-based approach. We have taken 4 brands in the product category viz. Emami, HUL, Garnier and Nivea. The brands are positioned in the space as points (as they are in the two techniques above), and the attributes are represented as vectors emanating from the origin of the map. This is sometimes called a point and vector solution. Therefore, Discriminant Analysis illustrates the relationship between attributes (their correlation to other attributes), how much each brand is seen as embodying each attribute, and how similar competing brands are perceived to be. The figures below show an example point and vector perceptual map from discriminant analysis. 2
The relationship between attributes is determined by how nearly parallel the attributes are to each other. Vectors with heads in opposite directions are perceived by respondents as opposites. It is not perceived that a brand can do well on both. Vectors that are at right angles are seen as independent. Vectors that head in basically the same direction are positively correlated i.e. they are seen as embodying the same feature or quality by the respondent. The relationship between brands is determined by their proximity. The nearer the brands in the map, the more they are perceived to be similar. The relationship between brands and attributes is a function of the position of a brand in the direction of the vector. The relationship between brands and attributes is a function of the position of a brand in the direction of the vector. The interpretation of brand associations are not based upon a brand's proximity to the vector, but its directional relationship along the vector. To interpret these brand associations (compare brands on an attribute), simply draw a line perpendicular to the attribute that intersects the brand point. Doing this for all the brands provides an accurate rank order of respondents' perception of all brands on that attribute.
Table 1: Wilks' Lambda Test of Function(s) 1 through 3 2 through 3 3
Wilks' Lambda .248 .620 .920
Chi-square 131.185 44.897 7.884
df 18 10 4
Sig. .000 .000 .096
Table 2 Standardized Canonical Discriminant Function Coefficients Function 1 .077 .845 .044 -.071 .788 .327 2 .147 .165 .230 -.363 -.655 .563 3 .600 -.030 -.631 .365 -.204 .004
Fairness UVProtection Price Availability Brand Endorser Packaging
Table 3 Functions at Group Centroids Brand Function 2
1 2 3 1 1.471 0.41 0.309 2 0.801 -0.141 -0.459 3 -0.695 -1.037 0.17 4 -1.577 0.768 -0.02 Unstandardized canonical discriminant functions evaluated at group
means Interpretation: Discriminant analysis revealed significant differences among the 4 brands of available men’s fairness cream. Wilks’ Lambda value should lie between 0 to 1 and a low value is significant. We have used 4 brands of fairness creams viz. Emami, HUL, Garnier, and Nivea and 6 attributes viz. Fairness, UV Protection, Price, Availability, brand endorser and packaging. The output of the SPSS gives 3 discriminant functions of which the first was statistically significant i.e. 0.248. These functions produced are plotted using standardized discriminant function coefficients of each attribute on each function and centroids for each brand or group viz. function 1 vs. function 2, function 2 vs. function 3 and function 1 vs. function 3. The second and third functions were not significant. From the standardized discriminant function coefficients, it appears UV Protection and Brand endorser are loading high in function 1 and fairness and price on function3 and Brand Endorser and Packaging on function 2. But these are not significant statistically and therefore should be treated with caution. Hence, we could conclude that the difference between different fairness creams is a multidimensional construct consisting of various factors together. Together these may be named as basic fairness cream elements on which fairness cream seem to differ significantly. Positioning of the four fairness cream brands through Discriminant analysis: A perceptual map is drawn using functions 1 and 3, the relative positions of the four brands of fairness cream derived from centroid table. The perceptual map shows that Emami’s Fair and Handsome and HUL’s Fair and Lovely men’s active are positioned together. Garnier for Men and Nivea for Men are positioned far away from each other. The horizontal axis represents function 1 and the vertical axis, function 3. The 6 attributes are mapped across the perceptual space.
FUNC TION 3
FUNCTION 1 Figure 1 Graph: Perceptual Map of Four Fairness Creams in India based on Perceived Quality Figure 1
FUNC TION 3
FUNCTION 3 Figure 2
FUNC TION 1
FUNCTION 2 Figure 3
The graph 1 function1 vs. function 3 shows that the Brand 1(Emami) is perceived to be high on almost all the factors fairness, UV protection, availability and Brand Endorser except the price and Packaging which are considered to be irrelevant while buying Brand1. Brand 2 (HUL) is perceived to be high on Price and UV protection. Whereas the brand 3 and 4 i.e. Garnier and Nivea are closer to each other and hence percieved to be similar on the attributes. The brand 3(Garnier) is perceived well on fairness and availability. The graph 2 of function 3 vs. function 2 also shows Brand 1 is percieved to be high on fairness, UV protection and availability whereas price, brand endorser are irrelevant and Brand 2 on Price and UV Protection and Brand 3 on brand endorser and fairness and Brand 4 on price and fairness. The graph 3 of function 1 vs. function 2 shows brand 1 and 2 high on fairness, UV protection respectively and Brand1 and Brand 2 are perceived to be similar. Here Price and availability are in opposite direction i.e. a brand cannot do well on both the parameters. Thus we can see that Brand 1 i.e. Emami and Brand 2 i.e. HUL are perceived to be high on fairness, UV protection, Brand Endorser whereas Brand 3 and Brand 4 are not percieved well by the customers. SERVQUAL The Service Quality model, popularly known as SERVQUAL is a widely used Model for evaluating Service or the Product quality. Service quality was defined as the gap between 2
expected service and perceived service.
It is a concise multiple-item scale with good
reliability and validity that can be used to better understand the service expectations and perceptions of consumers. Organizations can use this model to measure and improve their customer service. The benefits of SERVQUAL in the study can be summarized as follows: • • • • It is able to alert management to consider the perception of both management and customers. SERVQUAL is able to identify specific areas of excellence and weaknesses. It provides benchmarking analysis for organizations in the same industry. SERVQUAL can trace the trend of customer relative importance, expectation, and perception, if applied periodically. Kano’s Model Kano's model is an effective tool to categorize product/service attributes according to the amount of satisfaction that each is able to provide (Kano et al., 1984). According to Kano the attributes of a product can be categorized as: • The Must-be or Basic Needs: For these needs, customers become dissatisfied when performance of the product attribute is low. However, customer satisfaction does not rise above neutral even with a high performance of the product attribute. • The one-dimensional or performance needs: attribute. High attribute performance leads to high customer satisfaction. • The attractive or excitement needs: For these needs, customer satisfaction increases super-linearly with increasing attribute performance. There is, however, no corresponding decrease in customer satisfaction with a decrease in attribute performance. For instance, a cosmetics customer may not be dissatisfied if there is no free bonus, but may be more satisfied if a bonus is provided. • Kano's model promotes understanding of product/service requirements. The attributes that have the greatest influence on customer satisfaction can be identified. • It provides valuable guidance in the following trade-off situation. If two product For these needs, customer satisfaction is a linear function of the performance of the product
attributes cannot be promoted simultaneously due to technical or financial reasons, the attribute that has greater influence on customer satisfaction, can be determined. • The use of Kano's model can lead to developing a wide range of product/service differentiation by examining the attractive attributes. The attractive attributes are the key to beating the competition in the market place
The integrated approach: Integrating Kano’s model into SERVQUAL
Introducing the Kano categories into SERVQUAL can counter the linearity Problem. Furthermore, the prioritization for improvement of the weak attributes can be based on which Kano category each attribute falls into. Logically, the weak Attributes in the attractive
category should receive attention first. Weak attributes in the one-dimensional and then the must-be categories should receive succeeding lower Priorities. Kano’s model can also help address the innovation issue against SERVQUAL. Because attractive attributes are a source of customer delight, this is one area where Efforts for improvement should be targeted. The integrated approach would improve the utility of either method used separately. Kano’s model does not evaluate attribute performance. Integrating it with SERVQUAL will better characterize the product-attribute/ customer-need relationship. It might also illuminate the pattern of predicted and perceived service as well as the time-dependent relationship between attribute performance and customer satisfaction. The illustration of how Kano’s model can be integrated into SERVQUAL. • • The first step involves identification of the service attributes. Next is the gathering of customer satisfaction data. This is commonly achieved through surveys where customers are asked to rate their prediction and perception of each service attribute. • SERVQUAL score is calculated by the gap between predicted service and perceived service. This information is gathered via a Kano questionnaire where the attributes are categorized as must-be, one-dimensional, attractive, indifferent, questionable, or reverse. The proposed integrated approach should result in a classification of the organizations’ strengths and weaknesses into the various Kano categories. • • • • • Utilize the strong attractive attributes as inputs into innovativeness. Maintain performance of the strong must-be and one-dimensional attributes. Create customer fulfillment on as many as possible of the weak must-be attributes, or be at least equal to the best-in- class competitors. Be competitive on the weak one-dimensional attributes. Avoid allocating resources to improving the weak indifferent attributes, as customer satisfaction is unlikely to improve here.
QuickTim ﾪand a e decom pressor are needed to see this picture.
FINDINGS: 1. Attribute-based perceptual map using Discriminant Analysis reveals that Brand 1 i.e. Emami’s Fair and handsome and Brand 2 i.e. HUL’s Fair and Lovely Men’s Active are perceived to be high on fairness, UV protection, Brand Endorser whereas Brand 3(Garnier for Men) and Brand 4(Nivea for Men) are not percieved well by the customers. Customers use Emami and HUL since they are pioneer in Men’s fairness cream and are most advertertised and provides them value for money. 2. In our study no of persons belonging to the age group 16-21=20, 22-26=45, 2731=25, 32-37=10). This shows that maximum no of persons preferring Men’s fairness cream belongs to the age group 20-30. Which includes college going students and young upcoming professionals. 3. In this study the no of persons having income<12000=5, 12000-22000=10, 2200132000=25, 32001-42000=35, 42001-52000=15, above52000=10. This shows that most people prefer Emami because it is economical. 4. From the Factor Analysis we can divide the targeted population into three factors.
The first ones are those who are Brand Oriented these people have high expectations from their brand they go by the popularity of the product in the market and are price conscious. The second category people are Value oriented their choice of product depends upon the actual benefits they get from the product. The third category people goes by the availability of the product i.e. they look for convenience and also they are celebrity influenced people whose buying decision depends upon the Brand Ambassador. 5. We can interpret on the basis of chi-square test that the choice of brand is dependent upon the popularity of the product in the market. 6. We can also interpret that the Expectations from the brand depends upon the choice of brand. That means that the expectations from the selected brand are very high. In our study the most preferred brand is fair and Handsome so the expectations from it are very high. 7. From Servqual score , it can be said that in an average, the perceived value for radiant fairness , Protection against UV rays, Anti bacterial activity is less than the expected value. Whereas the perceived value for non-oily look and works throughout the day is more than what they expect from their fairness creams. CONCLUSIONIndia has a strong economic performance and youthful demographic structure, ensuring a great future for this Industry. All that retailers need to do to be successful, is price their products well and position them efficiently and intelligently. The future prospects for this industry seem to be very good. With increasing awareness, more disposable incomes and the low price capita spend on the cosmetic in the country, the Industry will surely soar in the time to come .As the Indian cosmetic industry is still small, compared to the international markets, it points that there is a greater growth potential. There has been a strong obsession for fair skin among the Indians although majority of Indians are not fair. Recently with Obama getting elected to the White house, Indians have been vocal about ‘black is beautiful’. But this thought is not reciprocated by the ever growing fairness cream market in India especially the men’s fairness cream segment. With the concept of the ‘metrosexual’ man setting in globally, the Indian market has witnessed a strong demand for personal grooming men products. Over the last decade Indian men have become more conscious of how they look and present themselves. Be it a college-goer or a 3
corporate person, none have been left untouched by this grooming fad with a keen desire to look fair. Indian cosmetic companies and marketers have strongly hooked on to this opportunity. Surveys and reports have suggested that many men were using fairness creams,which were primarily manufactured, advertised and targeted towards young women. Gradually the cosmetic companies took note of this trend and came out with men’s fairness products and altogether created a separate category. Today Indian male constitute close to 30% of the fairness cream market contributing close to USD 40 million. In 2005 Emami forayed into the market with its brand ‘Fair & Handsome’ which advertised its product by encouraging men not to use women fairness creams clandestinely. Owing to Emami’s success Hindustan Lever Limited introduced ‘Fair & Lovely Menz Active’ banking on the success of its super brand ‘Fair & Lovely’. Beiersdorf AG soon followed with a premium range in the category branded as ‘Nivea Whitening Moisturizer and Facial Foam’. Nivea tried to position its brand towards the urban progressive youth by evolving the fairness cream into a whitening moisturizer. Emami on the other hand tried to generate mass appeal by roping in bollywood superstar Shahrukh Khan for the promotions. Besides these strong brands CavinKare has its own brand ‘Fairever’ and Shahnaz Hussain’s ‘Fair One Man’. Recently global giants like L’Oreal have shown interest in the segment by introducing brands such as ‘Garnier MEN Powerlight’. The perennial debate on whether marketing skin whitening or fairness cream is ethical or not can rest till the Indian male consumer continues to have a suppressed desire for white skin. Till then long live ‘The Fair Indian Man’.
LIMITATIONS1.The study is conducted in Ghaziabad and Delhi, so customers’ tastes and preferences can vary according to geographical locations; so overall study is affected by geographical limitations. 2.For cosmetic creams, there is huge potential in Urban areas , but according to few studies , consumers’ perception can vary from rural to urban. 3.Media vehicles and opinion leaders have huge influence on consumers’ buying behavior, but effectiveness of media is dependent on the independent variables such as the media habits of customers which again vary according to geography, education etc. 4. For this study, time and resources were in constraint that’s why selected sample size is 100, is actually very less in comparison to the size of Men’s cosmetic market.
Section A: Fairness Cream Preferences Please specify the fairness cream, which you prefer to buy1.Emami Fair and Handsome 2.Fair and lovely Men’s Active 3.Nivea Men’s whitening 4.Garnier’s Men Section B: Personal Information Please select one answer for each question by marking (X) the appropriate answer. 1. What is your age group? ( ) 16-21 ( ) 22-26 ( ) 27-31 ( ) 32-37
2. What is your occupation? ( ) Executive/ Managerial ( ) Self-employed/ Own Company
( ) Professional (doctor, lawyer, etc.) ( ) Unemployed, looking for a job ( ) Academic/Educator ( ) Student ( ) Others (Please specify) ___________________________
3. What is your average monthly income? ( ) Less than 12,000 Rupees ( ) 22,001-32,000 Rupees ( ) 42,001- 52,000 Rupees ( ) 12,001-22,000 Rupees ( ) 32,001-42,000 Rupees ( ) Over 52,001 Rupees
Section C: The perception towards decision to buy Fairness cream products Please select the right option for each statement. Where1= Strongly Disagree 2= Disagree 3= Neither Agree Nor Disagree 4= Agree 5= Strongly Agree
The decision to buy Fairness Creams 1.Sometimes it is hard to choose which brands to buy. 2.I am impulsive when purchasing fairness Creams 3.I usually choose lower price fairness creams. 4. I purchase the brand whichever is available. 5.My standards and expectations for fairness creams are very high. 6.It is fun and exciting to buy fairness creams that I have never used. 7.Once I find a fairness Cream or brand, I stick with it. 8.The higher the price of a product, the better is the quality.
9. All the information I get on different Fairness creams confuses me. 10.I make a special effort to choose the very best quality fairness products. 11. I usually choose the products advertised by celebrities. 12.The more expensive brands satisfy me. 13.I prefer to buy the best selling brands. 14.The product also gives me UV protection. 15.The packaging of the product attracts me to buy the product
Please Rate the Expected Value of the features in Fairness cream: 1= Very High 2= High 3= Average 4= Low 5= Very Low
Features in a fairness cream 1.Radiant fairness 2.Non-oily Look 3.Works throughout the day 4.protection against UV rays 5.Anti bacterial activity
Please Rate the Perceived Value of the features in Fairness cream according to the above scale: Features in a fairness cream 1.Radiant fairness 2.Non-oily Look 3.Works throughout the day 4.protection against UV rays 1 2 3 4 5
5.Anti bacterial activity
ANNEXURE-II SERVQUAL TABLE SHOWING GAP ANALYSIS1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -2 -3 -2 -1 -1 -3 -2 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 1 -1 -1 -2 2 3 2 1 2 1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 3 1 2 2 1 -2 -1 -1 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 -2 -1 -1 1 1 3 -2 -1 2 -3 1 2 -1 -2 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -1 -2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 -2 -1 2 -3 1 4 -2 -2 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -3 1 1 -3 1 1 -1 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 -2 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -3 1 1 5 3 2 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 -2 -2 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 1 2 2
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83
-1 -1 -1 -2 -3 -3 1 -3 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -3 -3 1 -3 -2 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 1 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -2 -3 -2 -1 -1 -3 -2 -2 -2 -3 -1
1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 3 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 3 2 1 2 1 -1 -2 1 -1 1 3 1 2 2 1 -2 -1 -1 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 1 -2 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1
2 -1 -2 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -1 -2 -1 2 -3 1 2 -1 -2 1 1 -2 -1 2 -3 1 2 -1 -2 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -1 -2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 -2 -1 2 -3 1 2 -1
-3 1 1 -1 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 -2 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -3 1 -2 -2 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -3 1 1 -3 1 1 -1 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 -2 -2 1 -1 1 2 -1 -3 1 1 -3 1
2 1 1 3 -2 -2 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 -2 -2 1 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 -2 1 -2 1 2 2 2 1
84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 TOTAL SRVQUAL SCORE AVERAGE SERVQUAL SCORE
-1 -2 -3 -2 1 -1 -1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -3 -3 1 -3 -1 -150 -1.5
-2 1 -1 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 -2 -1 -1 1 1 70 0.7
-2 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -1 -2 -1 -3 -1 -2 2 1 2 1 1 -20 -0.2
1 -1 2 1 1 -2 1 1 -3 1 1 -1 2 1 1 -2 1 -40 -0.4
1 3 -2 -2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 3 -2 -2 1 2 1 90 0.9
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