# Chapter 1

1.1
1.3
1.6
1.9
1.13
1.16

(2/3)10 = 0.0173 yd; 6(2/3)10 = 0.104 yd (compared to a total of 5 yd)
5/9
1.4 9/11
1.5 7/12
11/18
1.7 5/27
1.8 25/36
6/7
1.10 15/26
1.11 19/28
\$1646.99
1.15 Blank area = 1
At x = 1: 1/(1 + r); at x = 0: r/(1 + r); maximum escape at x = 0 is 1/2.

2.1
2.4
2.7

1

e2

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

= 1/2n → 0; Sn = 1 − 1/2n → 1; Rn = 1/2n → 0
= 1/5n−1 → 0; Sn = (5/4)(1 − 1/5n ) → 5/4; Rn = 1/(4 · 5n−1 ) → 0
= (−1/2)n−1 → 0; Sn = (2/3)[1 − (−1/2)n ] → 2/3; Rn = (2/3)(−1/2)n → 0
= 1/3n → 0; Sn = (1/2)(1 − 1/3n ) → 1/2; Rn = 1/(2 · 3n ) → 0
= (3/4)n−1 → 0; Sn = 4[1 − (3/4)n ] → 4; Rn = 4(3/4)n → 0
1
1
1
→ 0; Sn = 1 −
→ 1; Rn =
→0
an =
n(n + 1)
n+1
n+1  

1
(−1)n+1
1
(−1)n
an = (−1)n+1
→ 0 ; Sn = 1 +
+
→ 1; Rn =
→0
n n+1
n+1
n+1

4.6
4.7

2.2
2.5
2.8

1/2
0
0

2.3
2.6
2.9

0

1

an
an
an
an
an

5.1
5.4
5.7
5.9

D
D
Test further
D

5.2
5.5
5.8
5.10

6.5
Note:
6.7
6.10
6.13
6.19
6.22
6.25
6.28
6.32
6.35

(a) D
6.5
D, I = ∞
6.8
C, I = π/6
6.11
D, I = ∞
6.14
C, ρ = 3/4
6.20
C, ρ = 0
6.23
C, ρ = 0
6.26
C, ρ =P
4/27
6.29
D, cf.
n−1
6.33
P −2
C, cf.
n
6.36

Test further
D
Test further
D

5.3
5.6

Test further
Test further

(b) D
R∞
I=
an dn; ρ = test ratio.
D, I = ∞
6.9 C, I = 0
C, I = 0
6.12 C, I = 0
D, I = ∞
6.18 D, ρ = 2
C, ρ = 0
6.21 D, ρ = 5/4
D, ρ = ∞
6.24 D, ρ = 9/8
C, ρ = (e/3)3
6.27 D, ρ =P
100
D, ρ =P
2
6.31 D, cf. P n−1
C, cf.
2−n
6.34 C, cf.
n−2
P −1/2
D, cf.
n

1

Chapter 1

2

7.1
7.5

C
C

9.1
9.3
9.5
9.7
9.9
9.11
9.13
9.15
9.17
9.19
9.21
9.22

P −1
D, cf.
n
C, I =P
0
C, cf.
n−2
D, ρ = 4/3
D, ρ = e
P
D, I = ∞, or cf.P n−1
C, I = 0, or cf.
n−2
D, ρ = ∞, an 6→ 0
C, ρ = 1/27
C
C, ρ = 1/2
(a) C
(b) D

10.1
10.4
10.7
10.10
10.13
10.16
10.19
10.22
10.25

7.2
7.6

D
D

7.3
7.7

C
C

7.4
7.8

C
C

9.2
9.4
9.6
9.8
9.10
9.12
9.14
9.16
9.18
9.20

D, an 6→ 0
P −1
D, I = ∞, or cf.
n
C, ρ = 1/4
C, ρ = 1/5
D, an 6→
P 0 −2
C, cf.
n
C, alt.P
ser.
C, cf.
n−2
C, alt. ser.
C
(c) k > e

|x| < √
1
10.2 |x| < 3/2
10.3 |x| ≤ 1
|x| ≤ 2
10.5 All x
10.6 All x
−1 ≤ x < 1
10.8 −1 < x ≤ 1
10.9 |x| < 1
|x| ≤ 1
10.11 −5 ≤ x < 5
10.12 |x| < 1/2
−1 < x ≤ 1
10.14 |x| < 3
10.15 −1 < x < 5
−1 < x < 3
10.17 −2 < x ≤ 0
10.18 −3/4 ≤ x ≤ −1/4
|x| < 3
10.20 All x
10.21 0 ≤ x √
≤1
No x
10.23 x > 2 or x < −4
10.24 |x| < 5/2
nπ − π/6 < x < nπ + π/6    

−1/2
(−1)n (2n − 1)!!
−1/2
13.4
= 1;
=
(2n)!!
0
n
Answers to part (b), Problems 5 to 19: 

∞ n+2
∞ 
X
X
x
1/2 n+1
13.5 −
13.6
x
(see Example 2)
n
n
1
0 

∞ 

X
X
−1/2
(−1)n x2n
13.8
(−x2 )n (see Problem 13.4)
13.7
(2n
+
1)!
n
0
0

X
X
(−1)n x4n+2
13.9 1 + 2 xn
13.10
(2n + 1)!
1
0

n n
X
X
(−1) x
(−1)n x4n+1
13.11
13.12
(2n + 1)!
(2n)!(4n + 1)
0
0

n 2n+1
X
X
(−1) x
x2n+1
13.13
13.14
n!(2n + 1)
2n + 1
0
0  

X −1/2
x2n+1
13.15
(−1)n
n
2n + 1
0

2n
X
X
xn
x
13.17 2
13.16
(2n)!
n
0
oddn 

X −1/2 x2n+1
X (−1)n x2n+1
13.19
13.18
n
(2n + 1)(2n + 1)!
2n + 1
0
0
2
3
5
6
13.20 x + x + x /3 − x /30 − x /90 · · ·
13.21 x2 + 2x4 /3 + 17x6 /45 · · ·
13.22 1 + 2x + 5x2 /2 + 8x3 /3 + 65x4 /24 · · ·
13.23 1 − x + x3 − x4 + x6 · · ·

Chapter 1
13.24
13.25
13.26
13.27
13.28
13.29
13.30
13.31
13.32
13.33
13.34
13.35
13.36
13.37
13.38
13.39
13.40
13.41
13.42
13.43
13.44

1 + x2 /2! + 5x4 /4! + 61x6 /6! · · ·
1 − x + x2 /3 − x4 /45 · · ·
1 + x2 /4 + 7x4 /96 + 139x6 /5760 · · ·
1 + x + x2 /2 − x4 /8 − x5 /15 · · ·
x − x2 /2 + x3 /6 − x5 /12 · · ·
1 + x/2 − 3x2 /8 + 17x3 /48 · · ·
1 − x + x2 /2 − x3 /2 + 3x4 /8 − 3x5 /8 · · ·
1 − x2 /2 − x3 /2 − x4 /4 − x5 /24 · · ·
x + x2 /2 − x3 /6 − x4 /12 · · ·
1 + x3 /6 + x4 /6 + 19x5 /120 + 19x6 /120 · · ·
x − x2 + x3 − 13x4 /12 + 5x5 /4 · · ·
1 + x2 /3! + 7x4 /(3 · 5!) + 31x6 /(3 · 7!) · · ·
u2 /2 + u4 /12 + u6 /20 · · ·
−(x2 /2 + x4 /12 + x6 /45 · · · )
e(1 − x2 /2 + x4 /6 · · · )
4
1 − (x − π/2)2 /2! + (x − π/2) /4! · · ·
3
1 − (x − 1) + (x − 1)2 − (x − 1) · · ·
3
2
e [1 + (x − 3) + (x − 3) /2! + (x − 3)3 /3! · · · ]
2
−1 + (x − π) /2! − (x − π)4 /4! · · ·
−[(x − π/2) + (x − π/2)3 /3 + 2(x − π/2)5 /15 · · · ]
5 + (x − 25)/10 − (x − 25)2 /103 + (x − 25)3 /(5 · 104 ) · · ·

14.6 Error < (1/2)(0.1)2 ÷ (1 − 0.1) < 0.0056
14.7 Error < (3/8)(1/4)2 ÷ (1 − 14 ) = 1/32
14.8 For x < 0, error < (1/64)(1/2)4 < 0.001
For x > 0, error < 0.001 ÷ (1 − 12 ) = 0.002
1
14.9 Term n + 1 is an+1 = (n+1)(n+2)
, so Rn = (n + 2)an+1 .
14.10 S4 = 0.3052, error < 0.0021 (cf. S = 1 − ln 2 = 0.307)
−x4 /24 − x5 /30 · · · ' −3.376 × 10−16
x8 /3 − 14x12 /45 · · · ' 1.433 × 10−16
x5 /15 − 2x7 /45 · · · ' 6.667 × 10−17
x3 /3 + 5x4 /6 · · · ' 1.430 × 10−11
0
15.6 12
15.7 10!
1/2
15.9 −1/6
15.10 −1
4
15.12 1/3
15.13 −1
t − t3 /3, error < 10−6
15.15 23 t3/2 − 52 t5/2 , error < 17 10−7
e2 − 1
15.17 √
cos π2 = 0
ln 2
15.19 2
(a) 1/8
(b) 5e
(c) 9/4
(a) 0.397117
(b) 0.937548
(c) 1.291286
(a) π 4 /90
(b) 1.202057
(c) 2.612375
(a) 1/2
(b) 1/6
(c) 1/3
(d) −1/2
(a) −π
(b) 0
(c) −1
(d) 0
(e) 0
(f) 0
15.27 (a) 1 − vc = 1.3 × 10−5 , or v = 0.999987c
(b) 1 − vc = 5.2 × 10−7
(c) 1 − vc = 2.1 × 10−10
(d) 1 − vc = 1.3 × 10−11
15.28 mc2 + 21 mv 2
15.29 (a) F/W = θ + θ3 /3 · · ·
(b) F/W = x/l + x3 /(2l3 ) + 3x5 /(8l5 ) · · ·
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.8
15.11
15.14
15.16
15.18
15.20
15.21
15.22
15.23
15.24

3

9 −1 ≤ x < 1 16.21 e[1 + (x − 1) + (x − 1)2 /2! + (x − 1)3 /3! · · · ] 16.23 1 − (sinπ)/π = 1 16. ρ = 0 16.15 −x2 /6 − x4 /180 − x6 /2835 · · · 16.6905 < S < 1. For N = 15.31 (a) 10430 terms. I = ∞ 16.4088 4 .10 |x| < 4 16.28 1 16. 10.5803 16.16 1 − x/2 + 3x2 /8 − 11x3 /48 + 19x4 /128 · · · 16.1 (c) overhang: 2 3 10 100 books needed: 32 228 2. n 16.22 arc tan 1 = π/4 16.4 C. 38. n P 0 −1 16.31 (b) 2.11 |x| ≤ 1 16.17 1 + x2 /2 + x4 /4 + 7x6 /48 · · · 16.20 2 + (x − 8)/12 − (x − 8)2 /(25 · 32 ) + 5(x − 8)3 /(28 · 34 ) · · · 16.30 (a) T = F (5/x + x/40 − x3 /16000 · · · ) (b) T = 21 (F/θ)(1 + θ2 /6 + 7θ4 /360 · · · ) 15.31 (a) finite (b) infinite 16. cf.66 × 1086 terms.1) < 10.4048 < S < 38.Chapter 1 15.5821 < ζ(1.8 D. 100.31 (c) ee = 103.29 6! 16. For N = 200.5 D.12 |x| < 5 16.30 (b) For N = 130.5755 < ζ(1. cf.14 1 − x2 /2 + x3 /2 − 5x4 /12 · · · 16. 1.6 C.27 2/3 16.18 x − x3 /3 + x5 /5 − x7 /7 · · · 16.13 −5 < x ≤ 1 16.6952 200 86 16.24 eln 3 − 1 = 2 16.7 D.5868 16.26 −1/3 16.25 −2 16.1382×10 terms. For N = 40.19 −(x − π) + (x − π)3 /3! − (x − π)5 /5! · · · 16.01) < 100. an 6→ 16.7 × 108 4 × 1086 P −3/2 16.

3 4.9 4.94 −1/2 −1/2 0 2 √ 2 3 0 −1/5 −2.6 5.7 22.04 2 = 114.6 4.69 −2.14 −59.15 4.39 1 1 √ − 3 1 2 −4 0 0 2 −2 1√ −2 3 −1 √ 2 0 0 −1 3 1.35 −0.29 −10.36 r √ √2 2 2 2 2 4 1 3 √ 2√2 2 2 2 4 1 2 1 √5 2 3 5 7 √ 1/√2 1/ 2 1 2 4 √1 2 3.14 5.12 4.8 1 2 13.13 5.76 −2.1 5.18 1/2 −1/2 1 0 2 −1 7/5 1.27 21/29 1.76 −40◦ = −0.15 5.19 4.6 −10. 3.65 1.16 4.11 4.4 −25/17 17 2.10 5.12 5.16 5.53 −7.20 1 −1 1 √ − 3 0 0 −1 3 −2 √2 3 −2 √0 2 −1 5 1 0 4.7 19/17 −12 1.17 4.3 5.41 4.18 4.6◦ 142.Chapter 2 x y 4.5 5.5 4.35 −110◦ = −1.55 1.9 −0.13 4.2◦ = −0.8◦ = 2.1 4.9 5.5 −20/29 −1.698 −124◦ = −2.92 −π/4 −3π/4 or 5π/4 0 π/2 π/3 π −8.14 p 25 58/17 20.14 4.71 −6.8 5.77 .6◦ = −0.4 5.51 or −2.615 28◦ = 0.16 201◦ or −159◦.3◦ = −1.58 5.4 4.7 4.2 4.13◦ = −0.2 5.8 4.17 5.1 1 5 θ π/4 3π/4 −π/3 5π/6 π/2 −π/2 π 0 3π/4 −π/4 π/6 −2π/3 3π/2 π/4 −π or π 0 −π/4 π/2 20◦ = 0.49 −35.7 5.1 = −63◦ −43.10 4.11 5.49 2π/5 −1.8 3 5 2.

52 5.4 7. 0). r = 2 Half plane.6 C 6.64 5.13 7. (1/2.7 7.30. y < 0 Ellipse.54 5. (x2 − y 2 − 2ixy)/(x2 + y 2 )2 (1 + i)/6. y = 3 5.14 |z| < 1 |z| < 2 All z |z| < 27 |z − 2i| < 1 7. r = 1 Line y = 5/2 Positive y axis Hyperbola. y = −10/7 (x.15 All z |z| < 1/3 |z| < 1 |z| < 4 |z − (2 − i)| < 2 .63 5.8 7.12 C 6.9 7.27 13/2 5. 0) and (−1.58 5.48 5.33 5 5.61 5. or (−1. y = ± x v = (4t2 + 1)−1 .56 5. y = −2 x = 0.6 7.39 5.53 5. y = 0 x = 0. radius = 2 y axis Circle.31 1 169 5. 0).60 5. foci at (1. x2 − y 2 = 4 Half plane. y ≥ 0 Circle. ρ = 2 6. ρ = 2/5 5. or y = 0. r = 1 Disk.67 5.47 5.Chapter 2 6 (2 + 3i)/13. 0). 1). ± 3/2) x = 36/13.45 5.4 D. y) = (−1. 0). |an | √ = 1 6→ 0 6. (1 − x2 − y 2 + 2yi)/[(1 − x)2 + y 2 ] 2 (−5 − 12i)/13.28 1 5 5 5.3 See Problem 17.62 5.55 5.26 5.5 7.46 5. y = 2/13 x = 1/2.68 7. ρ = p2/2 6.43 5. 0). (x + 1 − iy)/[(x + 1)2 + y 2 ] (1 + 2i)/10. y = 3 x = 1.30 3/2 5.11 7.22 5.7 D. a = 4 √ √ 6.51 5.36 x = −1/2. semi-major axis = 4 The coordinate axes Straight lines.24 5.34 1 x = −4. ρ = 1/5 6.41 5.2 7.16 All z |z| < 1 All z |z| < 1 |z − i| < 1 √ |z + (i − 3)| < 1/ 2 8.9 C 6. −1). y = −1 5. −3). center at (1.32 5. |an | = 1 6→ 0 6.35 5. (x − yi)/(x2 + y 2 ) (−5 + 12i)/169.3 7. y = 3 x=y=0 5.11 C. y) = (0.2 D. [x − i(y − 1)]/[x2 + (y − 1)2 ] (−6 − 3i)/5. 1) x = 0.3 C.29 5.21 5.49 5.38 x = −7. r = 4 Circle. center at (1.19 5.44 5. (x2 − y 2 + 2ixy)/(x + y2) p 1√ 5.42 x = −1/7.37 5. ρ = √ 2 6. 7.59 5. any real y.1 7. center at (1. x > 2 Circle.8 D. any real x y = −x √ (x.10 7.57 5.13 C. or (1.50 5.20 5. a = 4(4t2 + 1)−3/2 Motion around circle r = 1. with v = 2.10 C.12 7. center at (0.40 x = 0. ρ = 1/ 2 6.23 5.5 D 6. center at origin. y = 2 x = y = any real number 5.

4 −8 11.809 ± 0.25 10. 1 ± i√ 3 /2 −2.19 9.28 11. √  0.25 9.13 9. 1 ± i 3 ±1 ± i √ 10.3 10.966 − 0.23 cos x.22 sinh x = . ±i.20 cosh 3z = cosh3 z + 3 cosh z sinh2 z.259 + 0966i).22 9. θ = 30◦ + 90◦ n: ±( 3 + i).33 i tanh 1 = 0. sinh 3z = 3 cosh2 z sinh z + sinh3 z ∞ ∞ X X x2n+1 x2n 12.588i.176i √  10. 10.951i √ 10. ± (0.17 −(1 + i)/4 9.35 21√ 4 9. ±√ 3 − i 10.17 10. ± 1 − i 3 r =√1.36 i cosh 1 = 1.951i.6 ±2. (±1 ± i)/ 2 ± 2.9 4i/3 11. θ = 45◦ + 120◦ n: √ 1 + i.76 12. −1.31 5 9.14 (±1 ± i)/ √ 2 ±2i.487 + 0.366 − 1.512i.618 ± 1.9 −2i √ −2 9.11 −1 −i 9.4 ±2.16 ±i.15 2i − 4 −2 3 − 2i 9. 0. −0.8 ±1.12 −2 − 2i 3 −4√ + 4i 9.2 i 9.29 1 −1 9. θ = 45◦ + 72◦ n: 0.762i 12.3 −9i −e(1 + i 3)/2 9. ±1 ± i 3 √ (±1 ± √ i 3)/2 √ 10.18 10.35 − cosh 2 = −3.10 10.30 −i 12.14 64 9.543i 12.26 cosh 2 cos 3 − i sinh 2 sin 3 = −3.955i.309i. −1.24 4i 9.33 9.16 9.7 √ (1 − i)/ √2 9.6 1 3e2 9.26 10. ± 3 ± i 10.902i.10 9.05 12.366i r = 2.6 13/5 3i/5 11.618 ±√1.29 1 √ 12. sin2 x + sinh2 y 12.30 9.21 1 −i 9.32 −4i/3 12. −0. | cos x| 12.24 cosh x p 12.34 i sinh(π/2) = 2.24 10.21 ±( 3 + i) r = 2. θ = 30◦ + 45◦ n:√  ±( 3√+ i)/2.309 ± 0.168i.309 ± 0.55i.28 tanh 1 = 0. ±i 10. ±i 2.487i r = 1. (−1 ± i 3)/2 10. −1.23 ( 3 +√i)/4 9.15 10.7 10.588 − 0. 0.760 12.9 10.809√ ± 0.3 11.059 − 0.34 4/e 9.5 1 + i 11.31 (3 + 5i 3)/8 12.18 1 16 9. ±0. ± 1 − i 3 /2.12 −1.25 sin x cosh y − i cos x sinh y.8 − 3 + i 9.7 9. −0.37 cosh π 7 . ±1 ± i 1.13 10.11 10.27 sin 4 cosh 3 + i cos 4 sinh 3 = −7. ±0. θ = 18◦ + 72◦ n : i.4 9.2 3.1 10.62 − 6.5 10.762 12.301i 12.√(± 3 + i)/2 ±(1 +√i)/ 2 2i.20 i √ 9.10 −1 12.366 + 0.5 −1√ 9.37 1 9.366i.809i cos 3θ = cos3 θ − 3 cos θ sin2 θ sin 3θ = 3 cos2 θ sin θ − sin3 θ √ 3(1 − i)/ 2 11.951 + 0.23 10.22 10. ± 2i √ √ ±1. −0. (± 3 ± i)/2 −1.955 − 0.36 10. ±(0.8 −41/9 11.32 3e2 3 2e 9.26 (1 + i 3)/2 √ 3 e 9.725 − 0.259i) r = 10 2.168 − 1.758(1 + i).588i 2.19 −i. 3(−1 ± i 3)/2 ±1.1 9. 0. 0.Chapter 2 9. 10. 3.20 10.059i. cosh x = (2n + 1)! (2n)! n=0 n=0 12.38 1/ 2 √ √ 1.

76i] i(nπ − π/4) √ π/2 + nπ − i Ln( 2 − 1) = π/2 + nπ + 0.2 16. (1 ± i 3)/2 2 e−π 14. √ v = 13. i(2nπ + 5π/6) ± π/2 + 2nπ − i Ln 3 + 8 = ±[π/2 + 2nπ − 1.21 −1 −1/2 14.2 −iπ/2 or 3πi/2 Ln 2 + iπ/6 14. v = 5ω.6 16.7 16.4 16.15 15. a = 0 √ (a) Series: 3 − 2i (b) Series: 2(1√+ i 3) Parallel: 5 + i Parallel: i 3 (a) Series: 1 + 2i (b) Series: 5 + 5i Parallel: 3(3 − i)/5 Parallel: 1.639i −ie−π/2 1/e 2e−π/2 [i cos(Ln 2) − sin(Ln 2)] = 0.8 −1.317i π/2 + nπ + (i Ln 3)/2 i(±π/3 + 2nπ) i(2nπ √   + π/6).9 16.15 14.769 + 0.12 14.8 15. .18 14.0249 e−π/3 = 0.9 15.11 15. that is.5 14.4 (1/2) Ln 2 + 3πi/4 Ln 2 + 5iπ/4 14.12 15.14 15.3 14.3 15. v = 2.13 15. a = 0 v = |z1 − z2 |.7 14. if ω 2 = RC LC L r √ R R2 1 ± (b) ω = 1/ LC (a) ω = + 2 2L LC 4L r √ 1 1 1 (a) ω = − ± + (b) ω = 1/ LC 2 2 2RC 4R C LC (1 + r4 − 2r2 cos θ)−1 8 . i(2nπ + 3π/4) i(2nπ ± π/6) i(π + 2nπ) 2nπ + i Ln 2.16 16.2i     R − i(ωCR2 + ω 3 L2 C − ωL) / (ωCR)2 + (ω 2 LC − 1)2 . at resonance.7 15.2 15.81 √  π/2 + 2nπ ± i Ln 2 + 3 = π/2 + 2nπ ± 1.1 14. √ a = 5ω √ Motion around circle |z| = 2.22 15.057i −1 14.16 14.351 √ √ −3π/4 i(Ln 2 +3π/4) 2e e = −0.6 + 1.3 16.4 15.17 14.10 16.10 e−π /4 cos(Ln 2) + i sin(Ln 2) = 0. (2n + 1)π − i Ln 2 nπ + 3π/8 + i Ln 2)/4 (Ln 2)/4 + i(nπ + 5π/8) 2 Motion around circle |z| = √ 5.6 −iπ/4 or√ 7πi/4 iπ/2 14.8 16.5 16.Chapter 2 14.19 −5/4 1 14.20 14. a = 2.23 eπ/2 = 4.881i π/2 + 2nπ ± i Ln 3 i(π/3 + nπ) 2nπ ± i Ln 2 i(2nπ + π/4).5 15.1 15.6 15.12 1 + iπ 14.10 15.121 + 0.13 14.9 14.2657 e−π sinh 1 = 0.14 14. this   L R2 C 1 simplifies to 1− .11 14.3198i − 0.

30 ex cos x = n! n=0 ∞ n n/2 X x 2 sin nπ/4 ex sin x = n! n=0 9 .12 −1 ± 2 17.28 1 + 2ab ∞ X xn 2n/2 cos nπ/4 17.27 (c) e−2(x−t)  2  2 √  a + b2 sinh2 b 17.260i.642i 17.1 −1 √ 17.221 − 1.642 + 1.5 i 2 2 2 17. radius 1 17. −0.397i.13 x = 0.8 √ −1 17.54i 17. 1.6 −e−π = −5. −0. −1.397 − 0.16 y < −2 2 17.15 |z| < 1/e 17.Chapter 2 √ 17. θ = 45◦ + 72◦ n : 1 + i.14 Circle with center (0.9 π/2 ± 2nπ 2 17.81 or eπ/2 · e±2nπ 17.3 r = 2.29 −1 ± i 3 /2 17.11 i 17.260 − 0.4 i cosh 1 = 1.221i. 2). y = 4 17.26 1 17.17 × 10−5 or −e−π · e±2nπ 17.7 eπ/2 = 4.10 3 − √ 17.2 ( 3 + i)/2 17.

13 2. y = 5) 5  0 −1/2 1/2 .10 2. x = y − 11.4 2. y = 1 1 0 1  1/2 −1/2 0 . x = −3. no solution 0 0 1  0 0 2 1 0 −1 . x = −2.14  1 0  1 0  1 0  1 0  1 0 0  1 0 0  1  0 0  1  0 0  1  0 0  1  0 0  1  0 0  1  0 0  −3 .6 2.Chapter 3 2.12 2. x = −2. y = 3 0 0  −1 0 −11 0 1 7. inconsistent. x = (z + 1)/2.8 2.9 2. no solution 0 0 1 0 1 10 . z = −3 0 1 −3  0 0 −2 1 0 1 . inconsistent. z = 1 0 1 1  0 0 −2 1 −2 5/2 .11 2.3 2. y = 1. y = −1. x = 1. inconsistent. z = 7 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 −1 0 .7 2. y = 2z + 5/2 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 −1 0 .5 2. x = 2. no solution 0 0 1  0 0 1 . no solution 0 0 1  0 −1 0 1 0 0 . z = y 1 −1 0  0 −4 1 3. x = −4.

15 4.2 −721 3. 4) + (3. (d) Answer to (c) divided by its magnitude. θ = 35. −3 = 1 . 2.14 −3i + 8j − 6k.11 4.4 r = (1.18 x + 6y + 7z + 5 = 0 5. 3)t 5. |A| = 1 x = γ(x0 + vt0 ). −1.13 4.12 16 A = −(K + ik)/(K − ik). 0. −2.3◦ (a) (2i − j + 2k)/3 (b) 8i − 4j + 8k (c) Any combination of i + 2j and i − k. 2i + 2j + 3k. 5.11 = .3◦ √ 5.16 R = 3 2. −1)t.3 1 3.27 y + 5.3◦ 5.7 r = (2.15 5x + 6y + 3z = 0 5. −2)t 1 −2 y+4 z−2 5. d = 2 6/5√  5.14 36x − 3y − 22z = 23 5. −2.17 4. −2. 2i − 8j − 3k 4.24 In the following answers. arc cos(−1/ 2) = 3π/4 −5/3. −4.18 R = 3 3. Legs = any two vectors with dot product = 0.1 3.2 3/2 5. −5)t 5. r = −i + 7k + jt y−4 z+1 5.31 5/7 5.17 3y − z = 5 5. 2)t 1 = −2 = 2 . 1.5 r = j t y+1 x−1 z+5 5.22 Law of cosines A2 B 2 4.16 5x − 2y + z = 35 5.26 r = (8. 1)t 5.24 r = 2i + j + (j + 2k)t.7 (c) arc cos 2/3 = 35. r = (5.652.6 r = (1. −6)t 3 = −2 = −6 . cos θ = −1/3 ◦ (a) arc cos(1/3) √ = 70.23 cos θ = 4/21. y = −2.18 −11 3. 2) + (5. hypotenuse = their sum (or difference). z−4 x = . 9.1 r = (2. −5) + (1.9 x = −1. −1.29 2/ 6 5.22 cos θ = 2/ 6.21 cos θ = 25/ 7 30 = 0.28 4x + 9y − z + 27 = 0 √2z + 1 = 0 5. d = p3 3 /7 5.17 3. y−3 x−2 z−4 5.) 4.16 3. 1)t 5.6 4 3. 0) + (4. −3) + (4.20 4. 5. z = 1 (Also x = a + 2b.4 2140 −544 3.10 x−3 r = (3. 0) + (2. −1. √ i − 10j + 3k.19 i + j + k 2i − 2j + k 4. −1) + (2. r = (0. θ = 49. θ = 79◦ p 5. y = a − b. d = 2/17 5.13 x = 3.17 R = 2 11 2. 0. 0) + (1. 4) + (3.12 4. note that the point and vector used may be any point on the line and any vector along the line.32 10/ 27 . 7) + (14. 3. y = −1. 4. x−4 z−3 5. these were not required.3 r = (3.12 x−5 = = .8 3 −5 5.18 4. r = (4. t = γ(t0 + vx0 /c2 ) D = 3b(a + b)(a2 + ab + b2 ). 6)t 2 = −3 = 6 .Chapter 3 2. −2. −2. 15)t.30 1 √ 5.5 3.25 r = (1. −3.11 0 3. z = 7. 1)t 5 −2 1 y z+5 r = 3i − 5k + (−3j + k)t 5.20 x − 4y − z + 5√= 0 5. 3) + (1.15 R = 2 2.19 x + y + 3z + 12 = 0 5.5 ◦ (b) arc cos(1/ p 3) = 54.

4 6. θ = 36.37 5.3◦ √ t1 = 1.5 12 p p 5.35 5. −1.43 5.45 6. intersect at (3.44 2/ 10 d = 2.34 11/10 √ 43/15 5 5.42 1/√5 20/ √21 5. 0).1 6. t2 = 1. θ = 49.38 arc cos 21/22 = 12. 1).3 6.Chapter 3 5. cos θ = 5/ 60. −3.40 5.33 5.41 5. 4) 5.36 3 p Intersect at (1.39 5.8◦ √ 14√ 5. t = −1       1 3 −2 8 −5 10 A+B = BA = AB = 3 9 11 21 1 24       5 −1 11 8 6 4 A−B= A2 = B2 = 1 1 16 27 2 18     15 5 −6 6 5A = 3B = det(5A) = 52 det A 10 25 3 12       −2 −2 −6 17 1 −1 AB = BA = A+B= 1 2 −2 6 −1 5       3 −9 9 −25 1 4 A−B= A2 = B2 = −1 1 −5 14 0 4     10 −25 −3 12 5A = 3B = −5 15 0 6       7 −1 0 4 −1 2 2 1 2 1 −1 3 1 AB = 3 BA = 6 A + B = 3 1 1 3 9 5 0 1 6 3 4 1       1 3 1 1 10 4 0 −1 2 2 B2 = 3 3 A2 =  0 1 6 A − B =  3 −3 −1 3 1 −1 15 0 1 −3 6 1     3 3 0 5 0 10 6 3 det(5A) = 53 det A 3B = 0 5A = 15 −5 0 9 −3 0 0 25 5     12 10 2 12 5 1 7 5 12 BA =  0 2 1 −9 C2 =  6 4 8 3 −17 −3 −1 −2     7 4 20 14 4 1 20 C3 =  20 CB =  1 19 −8 −2 −9 1 −5     32 12 36 46 14 −36 7 91 C2 B =  53 CBA =  40 22 1 −13 −9 −8 −2 1 −29  8 8 2 2    8 10 3 −7 30 −13 T T  AA = A A=  2 3 1 −4 −13 30 2 −7 −4 41     20 −2 2 14 4 T T   2 4 BB = −2 B B= 4 18 2 4 10     21 −2 −3 14 1 1 2 5 CT C= −2 CCT =  1 21 −6 −3 5 14 1 −6 2 . intersect at (4.8◦ √ t1 = −1. 2. t2 = −2. cos θ√ = 5/ 39.2 6.

6 N 7.1 N 7. (x.8 N 7.23 D = 1.7 L 7.5 L 7.25 D = −1. 0) A−1 = 7  −3 −1  1 −4 3 .26 D = −1.10 6.4 L 7.11 N 7. −1. (x.22 6. (x.17 6. . 1. reflection line y = x 2 7. z) = (−2. L = linear. y) = (4.13 (a) L (b) L 7.14 N 7. rotation θ = 135◦     −1 0 0 1 0 0  0 cos θ − sin θ  7.17 N ◦ 7.29  0 −1 0  −1 0 0 . y) = (5.30 6.15 6.12 L 7. 0 sin θ cos θ 0 sin θ cos θ   0 0 1 7.13 6.22 D = 1.16 − 2 8 2 3 4 4 2 2     1 1 −1 2 2 −1 1 0 1 B−1 = −2 A−1 = 4 4 −5 6 0 −1 8 2 −4   1  3 1 2 2 2 −2 1 B−1 AB = −2 −2 −2 B−1 A−1 B = −4 −4 −2 6 −2 −1 0 2 −1 4   1 1 2 .Chapter 3 6. reflection line x = 2y 7.32 13 5x2 + 3y 2 = 30     0 0 22 44 AB = BA = 0 0 −11 −22   11 12 AC = A D = 33 36     1 3 1 5/3 −3 6. y.8 6. N = not linear. cos kA = I cos k = sin kA = A sin k = 0 cos k sin k 0     cosh k sinh k cos k i sin k ekA = .20 6. 5) A−1 =  −2 −1 5 3 −1 −1   4 4 0 1  −7 −1 3 .21 6. reflection line x + y = 0 7. y. −3) A−1 = 5 −2 7   −1 2 2 1 4 .9 6.15 L 7.3 N 7. (x.16 N 7.9 N 7. rotation θ = 210◦ √ 7.27 D = 1.24 D = −1.14 −1 2 6  0 −2    4 5 8 −2 1 1 1 1  6 −3 5  −2 −2 −2  6. z) = (1.19 6. eikA = sinh k cosh k i sin k cos k   cos θ − sin θ eiθB = sin θ cos θ In the following.28  0 cos θ − sin θ . rotation θ = −45 7.2 L 7. 7.10 N 7. 2) A−1 = 12 1 −5 3     cos k 0 0 sin k .

In terms of basis u = 31 (3. 0. y = −3z. 7. 13). x = 3y. 2. 0. 5). x = 2y. other bases consist of the same number of independent linear combinations of the vectors given.3 8. 0.2 The dimension of the space = the number of basis vectors listed. (0. v = 91 (0. for λ = −3. 1. 2) x = 0.1 8. (0. 0. 0.25 8. 0. 0. 7. j. SR =  0 1 0 0 0 1 0 RS is a 120◦ rotation about i + j + k. 1. 1.Chapter 3 14    1 0 0 0 −1 0 0 0 . SR is a 120◦ rotation about i − j + k. 5.21 8. the vectors are: u − 2v.20 x = −z. u + v. (−2. 1. (0. A−1 = 10 −5i 0 0 −2i −1 − i 2     0 0 2 0 i 3 1 i A† = −2i 2 0.32 180◦ rotation about i − k 7. H √ 10. 1. V = 3A − B 8. 3. (a) (1. −1. −3. −9. 0. 1. 3u. j. 1)z r = (0.31 From problem 30. 0.4 In terms of basis u = 19 (9.22  a2 b2 c2  = 0  x3 y3 z3 1  = 0 a 3 b 3 c3 x4 y4 z4 1 For λ = 3. x = 2y r = (3. v = 31 (0. 1)z     1 2i 1 0 5i − 5 −10i 1  0 −5i 10  A† =  0 2 1 − i. 0.33 120◦ rotation about i − j − k 7. 0). One possible basis is given. R is a 90◦ rotation about 7.26 8. (0. y = −3x For λ = 2: x = 0. A−1 =  0 3 6 −6 6i −2 −1 0 0 9.27 8. RS =  1 0 0 . z = 2y x=y=z=w=0 8.23 8.24 8. 0. the vectors are: u − 4v. 0) (c) (1. 0. 0.18 x = −3y. 0. 1) (b) (1. 3u + 6v. z = 3y. 1. k. 1). 1). C−1 M−1 C. 2) + (1. and 90◦ rotation about the z axis. 0. for λ = 4: z = 3y.30 R =  1 0 1 0 0 0 1 the z axis. −4) + 21 (5.7 V = 32 (1. S is a 90◦ rotation about the x axis. 0. 5u − 2v. 0.2 8. −3).     0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 −1 .17 8.  8. y) plane. for λ = 8. −2).3 9. y = 23 z 8. 7). Basis i. 6. 4). y = −2x For λ = 7. 0) + (2. . 0. 0. 0. S =  0 0 −1 . y = z     x1 y1 z1 1 a 1 b 1 c1  x2 y2 z2 1    8.19 8.14 CT BAT . 8.35 Reflection through the (x. 0) + (−1.4 Basis i. −1). 1. 1.34 Reflection through the plane y + z = 0 7. 0)x r = (3.1 (a) d = 5 (b) d = 8 (c) d = 56 10. 4) . −2u + v. 5. for λ = −3: x = −5y.28 9. (0.6 8. 2u + v. k. 1.

1) 3 (1. 1. 11. 2) 11. 0) 11. cos(A.1 =  63. 1. 0.-1. 1. 0) −2 (1. D) = (b) (1. −2) −2 (−1. 0. e2 =√(0. 2) −2 (0. 2)/ 5 √ 10. for example : (1. e2 = (1. 0.1) Any two vectors orthogonal to 1 1 other. 2.0) and     1 3 0 1 1 . 1.28 8 ( (2. −3. 0.24 11. 1) −2 (−5.4) 11. 2) 11. 0)/√ 2 (c) e1 = (1. C) 3 . 2. 1) −1 (3.16 2 (0. kBk √ = 41. |Inner product of A and B| = 5 11. D) = 6 23 . 1) 4 (1. 0. e2 = (1. not orthogonal 11.18 4 (2.20 3 (0. 0. 0.4◦    1 x x0 1 3 = . 1) 11.-1) and 1 (−1. 0). 0. e3 = (0. kBk = 60. 1. 0. 2. 0) 10. −1) 2 (0. −1.1. 0). 1). 0. 2) 4 ( (1.1. Then cos(A. 0) 11. −1. for each eigenvalue.13 3 (2. 1.-4. e3 = (0.1) and to each (1. C.23 18 ( (2.5 θ =1.2.1) (1.14 4 (2.25 11.0. 1. 1) 2 (2. 0). |Inner product of A and B| √ = 74 (b) kAk = 7. 1) −3 (5. −1) 11.3 (a) Label the vectors A. 0.27 11.5 (a) kAk = 43. 0. 0. 1. −1. −1) −2 (1. 1.√0.Chapter 3 15 10. C= √ −2 1 0 6 5 (2. 1) 5 (1. 0. 1.-1) Any two vectors orthogonal to (2. 4)/5√ (b) e1 = (0.11 y y0 −1 2 5 In the following answers. cos(C. D. 1) 2 (1. 0).26 11. 0. for example : (1. B. 3 15 cos(B.1. C= √ D= 0 1 2 −1 1   1 1 2 1 0 D= .21 −1 (−1.1. the components of a corresponding eigenvector are listed in parentheses.-1. 1) −2 (0. 0. 1. −2) 3 (0. 5. C) = √ 2 √3 . for example : (1. B) = cos(A. D) = 23√ q 17 √21 690 . 0. e3 = (0. 3. 0. −1. 3) 11. 1) 3 (2.15 1 (0. 1.12 4 (1. 1) 11.-2) . −1. 15 √2 . −1. 1.22 −4 (−4. 0. 1. cos(B. 1.19 3 (0. 1) 11. 1.2) Any two vectors orthogonal to −1 −1 other. −1. −1) 11.4 (a) e1 = (0.0) and (1. 1) and (0.-1) and to each 9 9 other.17 7 (1. 0) 5 (1. −3) −1 (2. 1. 2) −1 (1. 0.1. −3. = √1 . 0).2) and to each (1. 1) 5 (1.1. 0) 11.2. 1) −1 (1. 0.

y = 2x with ω = p3k/(2m) y = 2x with ω = pk/m. x = −2y with ω = p8k/m 2k/m. U = √ 3 −1  − i 1 1 2 −i λ = 2. −7.41 11. 4.3 10x0 = 35 2 2 2 2 2 0 =8√ 12. x = −5y with ω = p16k/(5m) y = −x with ω =p 3k/m.19 12. U = √ −i 2 5   1 5 −3 − 4i λ = 3. y = 2x with ω = k/(4m) .47 11. U = √ 2 i 1  1 1 1−i λ = 1. y = −x with ω = 5k/m y = x with ω = p p y = 2x with ω = p3k/m.7 3x0 + 5 y 0 − z 0 = 60 p p k/m.54 11.42 11. C= 1 1 5 2   1 1 −1 0 .44 11.52 11. 3x = 2y with ω = p 2k/(3m) y = x with ω = p 2k/m. x = −2y with ω = p6k/m y = −x with ω = p2k/m.15 12. U = √ 3 − 4i 5 √5 2   −1 i√2 1 1 U = √ −1 −i 2 √1  2 2 0 2 Reflection through the√plane 3x − 2y − 3z = 0. 4 4 1 − 210 1 + 210 1 − 2 1 + 2  cosh 1 − sinh 1 eM = e3 − sinh 1 cosh 1  11 D= 0  4 D= 0  5 D= 0  7 D= 0 2 2 2 3x0 − 2y 0 = 24 12.56 11.Chapter 3 11.32 11. C= √ 2 1 2 1   1 1 −1 0 .18 12.31 11. 3.2 12.22 12.59 12.6 12. x = −2y with ω = p 7k/m y = 2x with ω = p x = −2y with ω p = 2k/m.53 11. and reflection through the plane x − 2y + 2z = 0 45◦ rotation  about j − k  1 f (1) + 4f (6) 2f (1) − 2f (6) f (M) = 5 2f (1) − 2f (6) 4f (1) + f (6)     1 1 + 4 · 64 2 − 2 · 64 1 1 + 4 · 610 2 − 2 · 610 10 M4 = M = 4 + 64 4 + 610 5 2 − 2 · 64 5 2 − 2 · 610   5 5 e 1 + 4e 2(1 − e ) eM = 4 + e5 5 2(1 − e5 )     10 1 + 24 1 − 24 1 − 210 10 3 1+2 M4 = 23 M = 2 .21 12.4 12.43 11.30 11.51 11.23 16    1 1 −2 0 √ .55 11.17 12. C= √ 1 1 2 1   1 2 1 0 .5 x0 + 3y 0 + 6z 0 = 14 5x0 − 5y √ 2 2 2 2 2 2 3x0 + 3y 0 − 3z 0 = 12 12. −3.14 12.16 12. C= √ −1 2 2  5 1 1 i λ = 1. no rotation 60◦ rotation√about −i 2 + k and reflection through the plane z = x 2 180◦ rotation about i + j + k √ −120◦ (or 240◦ ) rotation about i 2 + j Rotation −90◦ about i − 2j + 2k.58 11. y = 3x with ω =p 2k/(3m) y = −x with ω = k/m.29 11.

−2.3 x. (x12 + 21 x13 ) y+1 z−2 15. y2 = z.8◦ (c) 2/ 5 (d) 2x + y − 2z = 5 (e) x = 52 . we list a possible basis.5 The 4’s group 13. cos x.8◦ (b) x − 4y − 9z = 0 (c) arc sin 3533 2 (d) 12 √ 7 2 (e) √ 29 5 .3 (a) x−4 1 = −2 = −2 . −1. 14.6 The cyclic group 13. x + x3 .R= . For Problems 2 to 10.4 (a) 4x√+ 2y + 5z = 10 (b) arc sin(2/3) = 41.P= . x.6 Not a vector space 14. or the three given functions 14. (x10 + 12 x11 ). −1) + (3. x5 14. x4 .21 SO(2) is Abelian. ex cos x 14. 4)t √ = 41.10 (1 + 21 x). r = (2.7 (1 + x2 + x4 + x6 ). 0. the negative of a vector with positive coefficients does not have positive coefficients. = −P.4 1. P = reflection through the y axis.Chapter 3 17 13. = −P.8 1. x−2 3 = 4 . then the 8 matrices  of the symmetry   group of  the square  are: 1 0 0 −1 −1 0 2 I= . 2) + (1. x4 .14 I 2 ±R 0 −I −2 ±P 0 ±Q 0 13. (x6 + 21 x7 ). SO(3) is not Abelian. x2 .5 (a) y = 7. x ex .7 The 4’s group ◦ 13.5 1. r = (4.11 The4 matrices of the symmetry are    group  of the rectangle   1 0 −1 0 1 0 −1 0 I= . (x2 + 21 x3 ). 7. x6 14. −2)t (b) x√ − 5y + 3z = 0 (c) 5/7 (d) 5 2/3 (e) arc sin(19/21) = 64. PR = = Q. and Q = PR. PR3 = PR2 = −1 0 0 −1 with multiplication table: I R −I −R P Q −P −Q I I R −I −R P Q −P −Q R R −I −R I −Q P Q −P −I −I −R I R −P −Q P Q −R −R I R −I Q −P −Q P P P Q −P −Q I R −I −R Q Q −P −Q P −R I R −I −P −P −Q P Q −I −R I R P Q −P R −I −R I −Q −Q 13. Class Character 13. P = .R = = −I. 14. (x + x3 + x5 + x7 ) 14.8◦ 15. (x4 + 21 x5 ). −1 0  0 1 1 0   0 −1 1 0 = −Q. = −I 0 1 0 1 0 −1 0 −1 This group is isomorphic to the 4’s group. e−x . x2 . r = 25 i + (2j + k)t z+1 15.10 If R = 90 rotation. x cos x. 0 1 1 0 0 −1       0 1 −1 0 0 1 R3 = = −R.2 ex .20 Not a group (no unit element) 13.9 Not a vector space. (x8 + 21 x9 ). x3 14.

A= = −A12 (n−1)d d f 1 − n nR1 ! 1 1 d d − f1 − f2 + f1 f2 1 − f2 1 2 −d det M = 1 . d f d 1 − f1 . and CBT are meaningless. = f1 +f M= f1 f2 . ABT C.Chapter 3 18  −2 −6 A 3i 5i  2 2 1 BT AT = (AB)T BT AC =  1 − 3i −1 − 5i −1       0 2 0 −i 1 0 C−1 A = BT C = −3 1 A† = 1 −1 −1 −i −5 −1 AT BT . BAT .     1 −i 1 −3i 0 6i 1  1 −i −2 0 A−1 = A† =  0 −3 3i −2i 0 −i 3 0 −3  i h (n−1)d 1 1 −(n−1) − + 1 + (n−1)d 1 nR2 R1 R2 nR1 R2  . ABC. B−1 C.

−−→ −→.

.

.

Area = 12 .

P Q × P R.

27 3x0 2 − y 0 2 − 5z 0 2 = 15. −1. 1.24 2 (0. 1) 15. 1) 15. 1) 1 (1.9 15. d = 5 2 2 2 15. z 00 = z.7 A = −1 i   1 −1 A= 0 −i T 15.32 ω = 2(k/m)1/2 .8 15.14 x00 = −x.23 1 (1. d = 1 15.17 x00 = x. y) axes about the z axis. 180◦ rotation 15. −2) 15. 3. 0) 5 (1. 0) 3 (1.30 7x0 + 20y 0 − 6z 0 = 20. (7k/m)1/2 15.26 C = . z 00 = −z. −1) 15. −4)   √  1 1 √0 2 0 −1 15. 4) −3 (5. 1) 15. 1) 15.31 ω = (k/m)1/2 . 90◦ rotation of (x. −2) 5 (2. C−1 = 17 − 17 1/ 2 −4/ 17 5 √ 15.13  −1   1 −i = 0 −i  2 AB = 0  15. 1) 4 (0. 1. = 7/2  1 0 15.21 0 (1. y 00 = −y.15 x00 = −y.16 x00 = y. C = 1 2 −1 1 √  √  2 √  √ 1 4 2 1/√2 1/ √17 √ √2 15. −3.18 1 (1. y 00 = −y . (3k/m)1/2 . 0. 1. y 00 = −x . 3) 7 (5. −1) 4 (1. 0.29 3x0 + 6y 0 − 4z 0 = 54.22 1 (1. 1) −2 (0.19 6 (1. rotation of π about the x axis 15.10 15. 4. d = 3 2 2 2 15. y 00 = x. or −90◦ rotation of vectors about the z axis 15.25 C = √ .28 9x0 + 4y 0 − z 0 = 36. −4) 9 (1.20 1 (1. d = 2 2 2 2 15. 90◦ rotation of vectors or −90◦ rotation of axes 15.

11 2yr /(r − y ) 1.80 −2r4 /x3 1. 0).150 2r2 tan θ sec2 θ 1.3 14. d2 v/dp2 = v(1 + a)/(a2 p2 ) y 0 = 1.7 15% 4.13 1.1 1.210 1.11 2y 1.5 × 10−13 9% 3.12 2y(cot2 θ + 2) 2 2 4r tan θ 1.14 0.19 1. at (1/4.8 5% 4. 2/3). dw/dp = 0 (4ut + 2v sin t)/(u2 − v 2 ) (1 − 2b − e2a ) cos(a − b) .2 4. y 00 = 0 6.Chapter 4 2 2 1.005 w = 1.190 1.3 1.1 6. both = 0.21 −4x csc2 θ 0 1.9 2x(1 + 2 tan2 θ) 4y 1.12 2.1 2.3 2.17 4r 1.130 1.6 2. both = −4 At (0.01 4.10 4.14 −2r cot θ 1.70 1. ± 1/2).96 4.2 2. ∂ 2 w/∂y 2 = 2 2x 1.2 5.1 5.170 1.7 1.8 −2x 1.120 2y sec2 θ 2 2 2 2 2x sec θ tan θ(sec θ + tan θ) 2y 2 sec2 θ tan θ 1.3 5.2 4.18 2r 0 1.15 2.8 y + y 3 /6 − x2 y/2 + x4 y/24 − x2 y 3 /12 + y 5 /120 + · · · 1 − (x2 + 2xy + y 2 )/2 + (x4 + 4x3 y + 6x2 y 2 + 4xy 3 + y 4 )/24 + · · · x − x2 /2 − xy + x3 /3 + x2 y/2 + xy 2 · · · 1 + xy + x2 y 2 /2 + x3 y 3 /3! + x4 y 4 /4! · · · 1 3 3 5 1 + 21 xy − 18 x2 y 2 + 16 x y − 128 x4 y 4 · · · 1 + x + y + (x2 + 2xy + y 2 )/2 · · · ex cos y = 1 + x + (x2 − y 2 )/2 + (x3 − 3xy 2 )/3! · · · ex sin y = y + xy + (3x2 y − y 3 )/3! · · · 4.5 14.20 8y sec2 θ 1.220 −8r3 /x3 2 4r tan θ sec θ 1.140 1.8 4.16 1. at (−2/3.90 2x tan2 θ sec2 θ 3 2 0 4 2 2 2 2y + 4y /x 1.2 1. ∂ 2 w/∂x2 = 6.4 2.6 4.100 1.5 1.95 8 × 1023 5.240 −8y 3 /x3 2.200 4x tan θ sec2 θ(tan2 θ + sec2 θ) 4y sec2 θ tan θ 1.2 dv/dp = −v/(ap).4 1. ∂s/∂u = tu ln t ∂z/∂u = u/(u2 + v 2 + w2 ) At (0.7 19 4.160 2r tan2 θ 3 2 0 4 2 2 2 4r /x − 2r 1.4 12. 0). ∂u/∂y = −2x2 y/(x2 + y 2 ) ∂s/∂t = utu−1 . both = 0.22 1.13 5/3 5.10 1.4 5.23 2r sin 2θ 1.18 −2ry /(r − y ) −8r3 y 3 /(r2 − y 2 )3 1.6 e−y sinh t + z sin t 2r(q 2 − p2 ) 5(x + y)4 (1 + 10 cos 10x) 6.5 2.24 0 −2y 4 /x3 1.28 nt 4.230 ∂u/∂x = 2xy 2 /(x2 + y 2 ) .3 y 0 = 4(ln 2 − 1)/(2 ln 2 − 1) 4.15 r2 sin 2θ 2 2r(1 + sin θ) 1.11 4.

x = y 3 = z/2 8.5 7.2 9. (∂p/∂s)q = 3/2 (∂b/∂m)n = a/(a − b).2 7.19 7.14 7. (∂b/∂a)p = (sin p)(b sin q − 1)/ cos q (∂a/∂q)m = [q + p(a cos p − 1)]/(q sin p) 13 (∂x/∂u)v = (2yv 2 − x2 )/(2yv + 2xu). ∂y/∂t = −11/6 ∂z/∂s = 481/93. 3. (∂y/∂θ)x = r2 /x.4 s = l. 2) is a minimum point. ∂y/∂s = 24/13. bend up 8 cm on each side. ∂u/∂t = (2y 2 − 3x2 + xys)u/(xy) ∂ 2 w/∂r2 = fxx cos2 θ + 2fxy sin θ cos θ + fyy sin2 θ (∂y/∂θ)r = x. (0. −5/2.4 6. ∂y/∂t = 6/13 ∂x/∂s = 1/6.16 8. x = 0 6. (∂x/∂z)r = 4.9 6.35x (c) y = −3 − 3.6x 9.6 8.4 7. (∂θ/∂y)x = x/r2 ∂x/∂s = −19/13. 2/3) is a maximum point.Chapter 4 20 6.10 x + y = 0 y 00 = 4 7.5 + 3. 1/3.1 7.8 −8/3 √y − 4 = 0 y = x − 4 2. (∂m/∂b)a = 1 (∂x/∂z)s = 7/2.1 9.8 8. 1/2. d2 x/dy 2 = 12 sec3 (y + z) + 12 sec(y + z) − 2 [2er cos t − r + r2 sin2 t]/[(1 − r) sin t] ∂z/∂s = z sin s.9 8.21 7. x − 6. (0.18 7. − 2) is a saddle point.11 y 0 = y(x − 1)/[x(y − 1)].7 6.3 9. −6/5 dy/dx = −(f1 g3 − f3 g1 )/(f2 g3 − g2 f3 ) 7. ∂w/∂v = −2(ru + 2s)w ∂u/∂s = (2y 2 − 3x2 + xyt)u/(xy).13 8. (∂p/∂q)a = 1/(a cos p − 1). l = w = 2h 8.5 (−1.8 7. −15. (∂x/∂u)v = 5/14 −1. (1/3. (∂u/∂x)v = 14/5. 0) is a saddle point.13 dx/dy = z − y + tan(y + z).11 8.12 d = 3 (4/3. ∂z/∂t = 125/93 ∂w/∂s = w/(3w3 − xy). (∂x/∂u)y = (x2 u + y 2 v)/(y 2 − 2xu2 ) dw 10z 3(2x + y) 4x (a) + = + 3 dt 3x2 + 1 4y + 1 5z 4 + 1 dw xy 2z 2 (b) = 2x + y − 2 + 2 3y + x 3z − x dx  2z(y 3 + 3x2 z) ∂w = 2x + y − (c) ∂x y x3 + 3yz 2 (∂p/∂s)t = −9/7.15 7.3 8.3 7.4 8.17 θ = π/3. 8. (−2/3. 15/7. (∂x/∂u)y = 3/4.16 7.7 7. (∂x/∂z)y = 3 (∂u)/(∂x)y = 4/3.11 7. 36 in by 18 in by 18 in (1/2.10 7. 1/3) m = 5/2. ∂x/∂t = 13/6.5 6. θ = 30◦ (regular hexagon) √ √ 5 : (1 + 5) r :√ l:s= √ √: 3 4/ 3 by 6/ 3 by 10/ 3 9.6 1800/113 0 y = 1.5 (−1. ∂y/∂s = 7/6.20 7. ∂z/∂t = e−y sinh t ∂w/∂u = −2(rv + s)w. ∂w/∂t = (3w − 1)/(3w3 − xy) (∂p/∂q)m = −p/q. 5/3) 8. (∂p/∂q)b = 1 − b sin q.10 l = w = 2h/3 √ θ = 30◦ . 0). y 00 = (y − x)(y + x − 2)y/[x2 (y − 1)3 ] 2x + 11y − 24 = 0 6.15 (1/2. y = 0. ∂x/∂t = −21/13.12 7. 1) is a maximum point. 1) .26 8.17 7.6 7. b = 1/3 (a) y = 5 − 4x (b) y = 0. 2.

9 (cos πx + πx sin πx − 1)/x2 x dy/dx = (e − 1)/x 12.1 10.10 9.1 z = f (y + 2x) + g(y + 3x) 11. ∂u/∂y = 2/π.9 A = √ 3ab 3/4 9.5 12.4 13.7 12. min T = −1/2 10. 14 d√ =1 1 2 11 max T = 4 at (−1. 4x tan θ sec2 θ 2r sin2 θ.11 3x2 − 2x3 + 3x − 6 2 (2x + 1)/ ln(x + x ) − 2/ ln(2x) 12. d =√1 2. ∂y/∂x = 1/6 (∂u/∂x)y = −e4 . 4r sin θ cos θ. min T = −1/2 (c) max T = 1.8 10.12 12. 0) √  1 2 min T = − 16 5 at 5 .5 10.9 V = 1/3 (8/13.12 10. min T = −1/2 (b) max T = 1. 2 d=1 d=2 T =8 (a) max T = 1/2. I = 41 π a−3/2 πa n = 4. ± 5 6 21 9.6 12.1 12. ∂w/∂y = −6/ ln 3.16 13.3 w = (x2 − y 2 )/4 + F (x + y) + G(x − y) d2 y dy 11.13 (a) (∂s/∂v)T = (∂p/∂T )v (b) (∂T /∂p)s = (∂v/∂s)p (c) (∂v/∂T )p = −(∂s/∂p)T 12.7 sin x √ 2 x 1 − ev ∂s eu − 1 ∂s = → −1.3 13.6 10.3 10. (∂u/∂y)x = e4 / ln 2.2 13. 2x2 tan θ sec2 θ.10 4.2 z = f (5x − 2y) + g(2x + y) 11. √ 12/13) d = 5/ 2 Let legs of right triangle √ be a and then a = b.13 0 π/(4y 3 ) √ 1 · 3 √ −5/2 n = 2. h = 2 − 2 a.11 max T = 14 at (−1.13 Largest sum = 3 arc sin(1/ 3) = 105.4 12.7 V = d3 /(27abc) √ 9. = →1 ∂v v ∂u u dz/dx = − sin(cos x) tan x − sin(sin x) cot x (sin 2)/2 ∂u/∂x = −4/π.11 d = 6/2 b. I = 2m+1 √ (a) and (b) d = 4/ 13 sec2 θ − csc θ cot θ −6x.14 12.10 12.11 H = pq˙ − L 11.7 10.10 f = u − T s h = u + pv g = u + pv − T s df = −p dv − sdT dh = T ds + vdp dg = v dp − s dT 11.2 10.5 13.8 12.3 12.6 + − 5y = 0 dz 2 dz 11.8 9. 0) 10.2◦ √ ◦ 10.6 13.6 9. (∂y/∂x)u = ln 2 2 dx/du = ex 12. ± 1) Smallest sum = 3 arc cos √13 = 164. ∂y/∂x = 2 ∂w/∂x = 1/ ln 3. 0 5% .12 Largest sum = 180◦ min T = 13/2 at (1/2.4 10. 10.2 12. I = 8 1 · 3 · 5 · · · (2m − 1) √ −(2m+1)/2 πa n = 2m. 2r2 sin θ cos θ. smallest sum = 90◦ 11. height of prism = h.8 .Chapter 4 9.

18 26/3 13. x) + 0 ∂x 22 s = f1 + 2f2 + 2f3 . z 6= 0 13.23 t cot t 13. T (2.25 −ex /x 13.17 p19 13.8 π −1 ft ∼ = 4 inches 13. x)] du 13.10 (x ln x − y 2 /x)xy where x = r cos θ. y = −1/4 13.29 dt = 3.9 dz/dt = 1 + t(2 − x − y)/z.13 −1 13.22 T (5. t + 2(∂f /∂t)x.9 Rx ∂ [f (x. T (5) = −5 √ 13.Chapter 4 13. t + 2(∂f /∂s)x.20 At x = −1.21 T (2) = 4. 13. = − 13. 0) = 10. y = r sin θ b2 x d2 y b4 dy =− 2 . ± 2) = −4 13.30 2f (x. y = 20.11 dx a y dx2 a2 y 3 13.12 13 13.24 0 13.19 1/27 13. at x = 1/2. u) + f (u.15 √ (∂w/∂x)y = f1 + 2xf 2 + 2yf3 13.26 3 sin x3 /x 13.14 (∂w/∂x)y = (∂f /∂x)s.

27 149 130 23 . (¯ x.56 2π 3. 0.20 13π/3 √   √ s¯ x = 51 2 − ln(1 + 2) /32 = 2.21 3.29 2 3.35 2.44 2. 1/4) (c) M = 1/24.41 2. 43 r/π).46 2.13 2.1 2. y¯) = (0. b = distance to axis from center of this circle.37 2.19 3.40 2.28 2.6 3.8 1/2 2. s¯ y = 13/6. 1/4.22 3.4 8/3 2.85 (4/3.3 3.7 √ (b) x ¯ = 0.2 −18 2. (¯ x.9 3. where a = radius of revolving circle.23 3. 0.Chapter 5 2.22 2.11 3.21 2.2 √1 (a) M = (5 5 − 1)/6√= 1.17 3.23 2.50 5π 4− √e(ln 4) (8 2 − 7)/3 5/3 4/3 1 − e−2 8192k/15 −20 4 8k 64/3 2. y¯ = 0.45 2. z¯ = 2/5 (a) s = 2 sinh (b) y¯ = (2 + sinh 2)/(4 sinh 1) = 1.19 2. s as in Problem 3.42 2.17 2.18.9 2.27 2. For area.15 2.18 2.14 2.39 2.28 13/6 3.95.21.7 3.56 V = 2π 2 a2 b.18 s = 3 2 + ln(1 + 2) /2 = 2. y¯) = (0.25 2.23.43 2.30 2. A = 4π 2 ab.5 2.36 2. 0) 2M/5 I/M has the same numerical value as x ¯ in 3.33 2.7 5/3 2.14 3.11 2. M y¯ = (25 5 + 1)/60 = 0.20 2. 0) (149/130. Iy = 9M/2 (d) Im = 13M/18 2M a2 /3 (a) 1/6 (b) (1/4. y¯ = (313 + 15 5 )/620 = 0.48 2 (ln 3)/6 16 9/2 1/3 e−1 1/6 3/2 7k/3 16π/3 (a) ρl (b) M l2 /12 (c) M l2 /3 (a) M = 140 (b) x ¯ = 130/21 (c) Im = 6.15 3.6 2.12 2.16 2.4 3.24 2.26 3 e2 5 − 4 12 6 7/4 (ln 2)/2 131/6 3/2 2 16/3 7/6 5 46k/15 1/3 2.2 3. then x¯ = 0.29 2.31 2.47 36 3/2 32 9/8 32/5 6 216k 70 9/2 16/3 2. y¯) = (2.10 3.38 2.8 3. M 3.34 2.5 3. 2) (b) 6M (c) 2M (a) M = 9 (b) (¯ x. 2r/π) √ √   √ 4 2/3 3.25 3.92M (d) I = 150M/7 13 M l2 (d) I = 5M l2 /18 (a) M = 3l/2 (b) x ¯ = 4l/9 (c) Im = 162 2 2 2 (a) M a /3 (b) M a /12 (c) 2M a /3 (a) (2.3 4 2. 4/3) (c) Ix = 2M .30 32/5 2M/3 3.87.32 2.10 2.35 2.49 3.24 3.26 2. for arc.

5 7π/3 4.12 (abc)2 /6 8a2 6.16 x¯ = y¯ = 2a/5 .16 x¯ = 0.19 π/4 1/12 4.10 2πa2 (√ 2 − 1) π 2 x.14 4. Iy = 288M a2 /175.7 5. z¯) = (1/2. 1/3) 5.25M 1 2 2 a (z − z12 ) − 41 (z24 − z14 ) (b) πa2 (z2 − z1 ) − π(z23 − z13 )/3 (c) 2 2 2 a (z2 − z1 ) − (z23 − z13 )/3 π(1 − e−1 )/4 4.Chapter 5 (b) x ¯ = y¯ = 4a/(3π) (c) I = M a2 /4 (e) x¯ = y¯ = 2a/π 4. y¯) = (0.2 π √7/5 π(37 3/2 − 1)/6 = 117.6 π ln 2 4. Ix √ = 48M a2 /175. Iy = 5M a2 /4. 1/4) (¯ x. (b). or (c) 21 M a2 4. 0.9 6. Iz = 3M a2 /2 (e) y¯ = 2a/π (f) x¯ = 6a/5.1 6.472 5.8 3 6√ 5. π/8) (b) π 2 /2 (c) 3M/8 z¯ = 3h/4 6. (¯ π 4 π 5.9 5.02ρ = 1.11 6.3 5.8 (a) 5π/3 (b) 27/20 4π − 3 3 (¯ x.24 4. 0.4 (a) 4πa2 (b) (0.26 4.16 u2 + v 2 2 2 2 a (sinh u + sin v) 4.27 4. 3c/5) (a) (¯ x.11 12π 4.3 15π/8 (b) 23 M R2 (a) 12 M R2 2 2 cone: 2πab√ /3.8 Iz = M a2 /4 4.23 4. z¯ = = 0. 0. y¯) = (π/2.13 4.3 (a).2 45(2 + 2)/112 6. 3a/8) 4. cylinder: 2πab √ 4π − 3 3 5 6 3 √ .7 (a) V = 2πa3 (1 − cos α)/3 (b) z¯ = 3a(1 + cos α)/8 4.10 (a) V = 64π (b) z¯ = 231/64 4.4 6.20 4.5 6.12 M = 3/6. z¯) = (1/3. Iz = 48M a2 /25 1 2 (g) A = ( 3 π − 2 3)a2 4.12 (c) M = (16ρ/9)(3π − 4) = 9.716 Iz /M = 9(π − 2) 9π 5 √ √ 7π(2 − 2)/3 6. y¯ = 1.13 5.64ρ 24 4.5 5. 1/4. a/2) (c) 2M a2 /3 3 (d) 4πa /3 (e) (0.14 16a3 /3 2 2 Ix = 8M a /15. a/2) p √ 9π 30/5 5.1 5.14 M = − z¯ = 4(π − 2) 2 3 r 32 2 2(3π − 7) = 0.28 5.13 6.2 (c) y¯ = 4a/(3π) (d) Ix = M a2 /4.22 12(1 + 36π 2 )1/2 Length = (R sec α) times change in latitude ρGπa/2 (a) 7M a2 /5 (b) 3M a2 /2 2πah (where h = distance between parallel planes) (0.15 I = (128ρ/152)(15π − 26) = 12.7 6.6 6.6 4 √ √  √ + 9 ln( 2 + 3 ) /16 4√ 5. Iy = 7M a /15 6.4 π/ 6 8π for each nappe 5. 1/3. y¯.10 6.3 5. y¯ = √ (a) (b) x ¯= 6 4π − 3 3 4π −3 3 √ 8π − 3 3 √ M 6. y¯.11 5. ellipsoid: 4πab2 /3.1 4.15 6.17 4.

19 6. 2c/3) (b) (0. 5h/6) 2 Ix = Iy√= 20M h /21.Chapter 5 6.25 6.18 (0.27 M a2 /6 6. 2c/3) π/2 1 2 sinh 1 e2 − e − 1 25 .21 6.24 6. 0.26 6. Iy = M a2 /4.20 6. 5c/7) (0. Iz = M (a2 + b2 )/4 (a) (0. 0.17 6. 0. 0. Iz = 10M h2 /21.23 6.22 6. Im = 65M h2 /252 − 1)/6 (b) 3π/2 (a) π(5 5 √ πGρh(2 − 2) Ix = M b2 /4.

−8. (a) 16i − 2j − 5k (b) 8/ 6 (a) 13/5 (b) 12 4.1 3. (B × A) · C/|C| = −8/ 26 ω = 2A/ √ 6.6 3.1 6.10 V × dV/dt 6.20 (A · B)C = 6C = 6(j + k).4 3.2 3. 4 √ −9i − 23j + k.9 3. |B × A|√= 59. A × (B × C) = −4(i + 2k) B · C = −16 (A + B) · C = −5 √ √ B × A =√−i + 7j + 3k. −1)t (a) 2i − 2j − k (b) 5/ 6 j.19 3.7 6. 1/ 21 A2 B 2 u1 · u = −u3 · u. −1. −∇φ.2 −i √ 0 √6. (x − 1)/3 = (y + 1)/3 = (z − 5)/(−5).5 |dr/dt| = 2. −4/5 26 .7 3.5 3. |v| = 2 14 (c) (x − 4)/4 = (y + 4)/(−2) = (z − 8)/6. r = i + 2j − k + (5i − 3j + 2k)t z+3 (a) 7/3 (b) 5x − z = 8.2 (a) t = 2 √ (b) v = 4i − 2j + 6k.15 3. dφ/ds = 2/ 13 6x + 8y − z = 25.9 6. −1). 4. (x − 3)/6 = (y − 4)/8 = (z − 25)/(−1) 5x − 3y + 2z + 3 = 0.12 3.8 6. 3x + 3y −√ 5z + 25 = 0 4. d2 r/dt2 = er [d2 r/dt2 − r(dθ/dt)2 ] +eθ [rd2 θ/dt2 + 2(dr/dt)(dθ/dt)]. path is a helix. v = |ω × r| = ωr. 1.10 −16i − 12j + 8k 6. 4. for r ⊥ ω.4 πe/(3 5) ∇φ = i − k .17 3. v = 3i + 3j − 5k.3 6. −2. (A × B) × C = 4(j − k).Chapter 6 3.8 dr/dt = er (dr/dt) + eθ (rdθ/dt). x−1 5 = −1 .3 t = −1.6 6. √ n · r × F = [(A − C) × B] · C/|C| = 8/ 26 (a) 11i + 3j − 13k (b) 3 (c) 17 4i − 8j + 4k.√|a| = v 2 /r. |d2 r/dt2 | = 1. 1. 2x − y + 3z = 36 4. y = π/2 √ (c) r = (1.8 3. (A × B) · C = A · (B × C) = −8.5 6.3 3. L = m|r2 ω| = mvr a = (ω · r)ω − ω 2 r. a = −ω 2 r. r × F = (A − C) × B = 3i + 3j − k.  v = ω × C = √2/  6 (−3i + 5j + k) v = 2/ 6 (A × B) = 2/ 6 (i − 7j − 3k).16 3. 4. n1 u1 × u = n2 u2 × u L = m[r2 ω − (ω · r)r] For r ⊥ ω. 1) + (2. A(B · C) = −2A = −2(2.

18 2k 2/r 7.3 14/3 9.17 er 6. φ1 = y z − x (b) For F2 : (1) W = 0 (2) W = −4 (3) W = 2π 8.6 1 10.15 0 2(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )−1 7.12 10. at the rate 11 2 √ (a) 4 2√. ∇ × V = ixz − jyz + k(y 2 − x2 ) ∇ · V = 0. ∇ × V = 0 7.14 7.14 8.11 −y sin2 x 2 kr −(xy + z) 8. φ = −C/r 9.19 j 6.7 10. ∇ × V = 0 ∇ · V = 5xy.18 (a) π + π 2 /2 (b) π 2 /2 8. ∇ × r = 0 7. |∇φ| = e (b) −1/2 √ (b) Down.Chapter 6 27 6.4 ∇ · V = 0.2 3 36π 10.8 80π 27π   0. ∇ × V = −(i + j + k) ∇ · V = 2(x + y + z).13 2xy 0 7.4 8.9 9.3 8. 1) 29/3 9.20 φ = mgz.2 ∇ · r = 2.13 −z 2 cosh y −arc sin xy 8.16 7. W = 2π 8.5 9. E = −2xi + 2yj (a) 2 5 .20 0 8.4 −3/2 9. ∇ × r = 0 ∇ · V = 1.14 6. r ≤ R1 10.5 7.6 8.12 7.8 7.11 6.17 F2 conservative.15 −(x2 + 1) cos2 y 2 2 (a) F1 . W = 0.7 7.3 7.12 6. y) = (1.10 8.13 6.15 ∇φ =√2xi − 2yj.11 2 10.19 √ (c) 10 (c) i.10 7.18 i 7. ∇ × V = 0 7.1 7. |E| = 1 (d) e−1 the hill 6.1 8.3 9π 10.1 10.9 6y 0 7.6 7.5 8.9 3xy − x3 yz − z 2 2 1 8.2 9. around (c) −4/ 10.7 8.12 φ = (k/2π0 ) ln(R1 /r).10 −20 4π 10. up (b) 0.10 40 20 (x. ∇ × V = xi − yj − x cos yk ∇ · V = 2 + x sinh z.16 −11/3 (a) −4π (b) −16 (c) −8 (a) 5/3 (b) 1 (c) 2/3 (a) 3 (b) 8/3 (a) 86/3 (b) −31/3 (a) 3 (b) 3 (c) 3 (a) −2π (b) 0 (c) −2 (d) 2π yz − x 8.12 8.2 8. −2i + j (b) 3i + 2j (a) i + j.7 πab 9. r ≥ R2 9. for F1 .20 2rer ∇ · r = 3.9 16π . R1 ≤ r ≤ R2   (k/2π0 ) ln(R1 /R2 ).11 −(x2 + y 2 )/(x2 − y 2 )3/2 −3 4(x + y) 7. down (d) 8/5.8 8.8 24π 9.5 4π · 55 48π 10. up 6.4 10.

u is arbitrary.9 11.27 4 −2π 12.3 11.24 12.30 4 12.11 11. 2.22 108π 12.23 192π 54π 12.28 sin θ cos θ C 1 2 |B × A| (a) −4π (b) −16 (c) −8 5i − 8j − 6k (a)√9i + 5j − 3k (b) 29/3 2/ 5 24 (a) 2i + j (b) 11/5 (c) 2x + y = 4 (a) grad φ = −3yi − 3xj + 2zk √ (b) − 3 (c) 2x + y − 2z + 2 = 0.14 12.6 11.29 10 12.10 12.15 0 45π 32π/3 18π √ −2π 2 In the answers for Problems 18 to 22. 1)t (d) (3i + 2j + k)/ 14 (a) 6i − j − 4k (b) 53−1/2 (6i − j − 4k) (c) same as (a) (d) 531/2 (e) 531/2 (a) −3i + 2j + 2k (b) 0 φ = −y 2 cosh2 xz (a) F1 is conservative.16 12.5 11.11 12. 1.12 11.17 12.6 12.19 12. (b) W1 = x2 z + 21 y 2 (c) and (d) 1 6 Not conservative (a) 1/2 (b) 4/3 (a) F1 is conservative. −2)t (a) 3i + 2j + k (b) 3 (c) 3x + 2y + z =√ 4.7 11.Chapter 6 11.13 12.21 4 12. F2 is not conservative (∇ × F2 = k) (b) 2π (c) For F1 .1 12.4 11.8 11.7 12. 2.8 12.2 11.18 A = (xz − yz 2 − y 2 /2)i + (x2 /2 − x2 z + yz 2 /2 − yz)j + ∇u 11.26 0 12.31 29/3 .10 11. V1 = 2xy − yz − 21 z 2 (d) W1 = 45/2 (e) W2 = 2π π 12. 1.9 12. 2) + (3.13 −3πa2 −12 0 −6π 0 28 11.1 11.5 12.19 A = (y 2 z − xy 2 /2)i + xz 2 j + x2 yk + ∇u 11.20 A = i sin zx + j cos zx + kezy + ∇u 11.22 A = i(xz − y 3 /3) + j(−yz + x3 /3) + k(x + y)z + ∇u 12.14 2ab2 36 0 24 −8π 11. 3) + (2.2 12. r = (1.21 A = iy + ∇u 11.15 12.18 12. 11.25 −18π 12.12 12.20 12. r = (0.

7 4.11 4. λ = 3 = 4.Chapter 7 amplitude period frequency velocity amplitude 2.6 s = sin 6t s = 6 cos π 8 sin 2t 6 cos π 8 = 5.4 5 2π 1/(2π) 5 1 π/3 3/π 2.54 π 1/π 6 12 cos π 8 = 11.1 2. ∂y ∂t = −60π cos 2 (x − 6t) t x x 2.15 t = 3π t∼ 2.7 − 2 sin(πx − π4 ) sin(2x + π3 ) 0 π/12 − 1/2 1/2 (a) 3/2 4.6 4.19 2.7 5 2π 1/(2π) 5 2.3 4. T = 4.3 1/2 2 1/2 π/2 2. λ = 1 A = 3.8 0 4.15 p A = maximum value of θ. f = 1.12 1/2 (b) 3/2 4. T = 1.91 ∼ = 281◦ A = 1. λ = 2 π y = 20 sin π2 (x − 6t).24 3.22 2. ω = g/l.25 y = 10 sin 250 (x − 3 · 108 t) √ 3.13 2.9 2 2 1/2 2π 2.14 4.23 y = sin 880π( 350 − t) y = 4 sin 2π( 3 − 6 ) 200π π y = sin 153 (x − 1530t) 2.6 2/π 4.1 3 2π/5 5/(2π) 15 2.11 2.14 2. f = 1/4.4 e−1 4.10 4 π 1/π 8 q 3 1/60 60 I 360π 1/60 60 q 4 1/15 15 I 120π 1/15 15 2.16 29 1/π + 1/2 1/2 (a) 2π/3 (a) π/ω 4. T = 4.8 2 4π 1/(4π) 1 2.5 2. v = 1/4. f = 1/4. t = 12 2.18 A = 2. v = 3.20 2.5 4.21 2.2 2 π/2 2/π 8 2.9 4. v = 1/2.12 2.10 0 (b) π (b) 1 .16 2.

3.2 1− odd n nπ 1 1 1 sin nπ an = nπ 2 . for n 6= 0.11.13 and 6. c−n = cn  1 1 2ix f (x) = 4 + 2π (1 − i)eix + (1 + i)e−ix − 2i − e−2ix ) 2 (e 1−i −3ix 1−i 5ix 1+i 3ix −5ix + 5 e + 1+i − 3 e − 3 e 5 e  = 41 + π1 cos x − 31 cos 3x + 51 cos 5x · · ·  + π1 sin x + 22 sin 2x + 31 sin 3x + 51 sin 5x + 62 sin 6x · · · 1 1 an = − nπ sin nπ 2 . bn = nπ 1 − cos 2 .6 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 6. ∞ ∞ 1 i X 1 inx 1 2 X 1 f (x) = + e = − sin nx 2 π −∞ n 2 π 1 n odd n 7.1 to 5.3 0 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 6.2 1/2 0 0 1/2 1/2 0 1/2 6. a0 /2 = c0 = 4  nπ 1 1 bn = nπ cos 2 − cos nπ = nπ {1. n > 0.1 to 5.8 1 1 1 1 6. 0.11 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6.3 7. n > 0.4 π 2 1 1+ π 2 At x = π/2.10 π 0 π/2 π π/2 0 π 6.7 0 π/2 0 0 π/2 π/2 0 6. a0 /2 = c0 = 4 .1 to 7.  2ix f (x) = − 21 − π1 (1 + i)eix + (1 − i)e−ix − 2i − e−2ix ) 2 (e  1+i −3ix 1+i 5ix 1−i −5ix 1−i 3ix + 5 e + 5 e ··· − 3 e − 3 e  = − 21 − π2 cos x − 31 cos 3x + 51 cos 5x · · ·  + π2 sin x − 22 sin 2x + 31 sin 3x + 51 sin 5x − 62 sin 6x · · · ···  .Chapter 7 30 5. and repeat}  i cn = 2nπ e−inπ − e−inπ/2 .9 0 π π/2 0 π/2 π 0 6.5 −1/2 1/2 0 −1/2 0 1/2 −1/2 6.1 7.14 7. i −inπ/2 cn = 2nπ (e − 1). −2. x→ −2π −π −π/2 0 π/2 π 2π 6.1 1/2 1/2 1 1/2 0 1/2 1/2 6. 1. coefficients are 2 times the coefficients in Problem 7.4 −1 0 −1 −1 0 0 −1 6.11 are the sine-cosine series in Problems 7. same series as in the example. c−n = cn  1 2ix f (x) = 41 + 2π −(1 + i) eix − (1 − i) e−ix + 2i − e−2ix ) 2 (e  (1−i) −5ix 1−i 3ix 1+i −3ix 1+i 5ix + 3 e + 3 e − 5 e − 5 e ···  = 41 − π1 cos x − 31 cos 3x + 51 cos 5x · · ·  + π1 sin x − 22 sin 2x + 31 sin 3x + 51 sin 5x · · ·  c0 = a0 /2 = −1/2.11 The answers for Problems 5.

5 31 2 an = − nπ sin nπ 2 bn = cn = a0 /2 = c0 = 0 nπ 1 nπ 2 cos 2 − 1 −inπ/2 2inπ 2e c−n = cn 4 1 − cos nπ = − nπ {0. a0 /2 = c0 = 4 i cn = 2nπ (e−inπ/2 − 1) 1 = 2nπ {1 − i. and repeat }.1 f (x) = 8. and repeat}. 0.11 f (x) = i inx e = 1+2 n (−1)n+1 1 1 sin nx n ∞ ∞ X einx π 4 X cos nx = − n2 2 π 1 n2 −∞ 2 π − 2 π odd n ∞ X π 2 + 2 π e 1 + π odd n ∞ X −∞ odd n ix −e 4i odd n ∞ e π 4 X cos nx = + n2 2 π 1 n2 inx −ix odd n ∞ 1 X − π −∞ even n6=0 ∞ 1 2 X 1 = + sin x − π 2 π 2 even n einx n2 − 1 cos nx n2 − 1 7. n > 0. 0. and repeat}  1 −inπ −1−e = nπ {−1.9 f (x) = 7. c−n = cn  1 1 2iπx/l f (x) = 4 + 2π (1 − i)eiπx/l + (1 + i)e−iπx/l − 2i − e−2iπx/l ) 2 (e  3iπx/l −3iπx/l 5iπx/l −5iπx/l − 1−i + 1−i + 1+i ··· − 1+i 3 e 3 e 5 e  5 e 1 3πx 1 5πx = 14 + π1 cos πx l − 3 cos l + 5 cos l · · ·  2 2πx 1 3πx 1 5πx 2 6πx + π1 sin πx l + 2 sin l + 3 sin l + 5 sin l + 6 sin l · · · odd n  odd n .Chapter 7 7. ± 10. c−n = 12 (an + ibn ) ∞ 1 i X 1 inπx/l 1 2 + e = − 2 π −∞ n 2 π ∞ X 1 nπx sin n l 1 8. bn = −2 Im cn . 1. −(1 + i). 1. 0. 0.13 an = 2 Re cn .6 7. n > 0   f (x) = − π1 eix + e−ix − 7.10 f (x) = 7. bn = nπ 1 − cos 2 . 2i. 10.8 f (x) = 1 + ∞ X (−1)n −∞ n6=0 7. · · · ) f (x) = 21 + iπ ne 1 4 P 1 = 2+π (n = 2. cn = 21 (an − ibn ). 6. ± 6.2 1 nπ 1 1 an = nπ sin nπ 2 . · · · ) n sin nx   ∞ ∞ X X i inx 1 i π inx e + + e f (x) = − 2 4 n π 2n 2n −∞ −∞ even n6=0 odd n ∞ ∞ X 1 cos nx n2 1 2 π X (−1)n sin nx − = − 4 n π 1 7.7 2i 2  e2ix − e−2ix − 13 (e3ix + e−3ix )  6ix − e−6ix ) · · · + 15 (e5ix + e−5ix ) − 2i 6 (e  = − π2 cos x − 31 cos 3x + 51 cos 5x · · ·  1 sin 10x · · · − π4 21 sin 2x + 61 sin 6x + 10 2 P 1 inx (n = ±2. −2i.

0 .Chapter 7 8.3. ±6. · · · ) n sin l ∞ ∞ X l l il X (−1)n inπx/l e − f (x) = + einπx/l 2 π2 4 2π −∞ n n −∞ n6=0 odd n ∞ ∞ n X X = 8.7 2i 6iπx/l − e−6iπx/l ) · · · 6 (e  1 3πx 1 5πx = − π2 cos πx l − 3 cos l + 5 cos l · · ·  1 6πx 1 10πx − π4 21 sin 2πx l + 6 sin l + 10 sin l · · · 2 P 1 inπx/l (n = ±2. 6. c−n = cn h 1 2iπx/l − e−2iπx/l ) f (x) = 41 + 2π −(1 + i)eiπx/l − (1 − i)e−iπx/l + 2i 2 (e i 1+i −3iπx/l 1+i 5iπx/l 1−i −5iπx/l 3iπx/l + 1−i e + e − e − e · · · 3 3 5 5  1 3πx 1 5πx − cos + cos · · · = 14 − π1 cos πx l 3 l 5 l  2 2πx 1 3πx 1 5πx 2 6πx − sin + sin + + π1 sin πx l 2 l 3 l 5 sin l − 6 sin l · · · c0 = a0 /2 = −1/2. 10. for n 6= 0.6 8. ±10. 1. 0. 1. and repeat} i cn = 2nπ (e−inπ − e−inπ/2 ) 1 = 2nπ {−(1 + i).4 32 1 an = − nπ sin nπ c0 = 14 2 .10 (a) f (x) = i n n −∞ n6=0 (b) f (x) = π + i ∞ X −∞ n6=0 1 ∞ X sin nx i inx e =π−2 n n 1 . and repeat}. 2i. h f (x) = − 21 − 8. a0 = 0. c0 = 0 h 2iπx/l f (x) = − π1 eiπx/l + e−iπx/l − 2i − e−2iπx/l ) 2 (e − 13 (e3iπx/l + e−3iπx/l ) + 15 (e5iπx/l + e−5iπx/l ) − 8. 0.8 8. a0 /2 =  1 1 cos nπ bn = nπ 2 − cos nπ = nπ {1. 0. 1 − i.9 l 2l − 4 π2 f (x) = 1 + f (x) = il π 1 odd n ∞ X −∞ n6=0 nπx l 1 cos − n2 l π 1 nπx (−1) sin n l ∞ (−1)n inπx/l 2l X (−1)n nπx e = 1− sin n π n l 1 ∞ ∞ X einπx/l l 4l X cos nπx/l = − n2 2 π2 1 n2 −∞ l 2l − 2 π2 odd n odd n ∞ ∞ X X (−1)n (−1)n inx e = −2 sin nx 8. 1. · · · ) f (x) = 21 + iπ ne 1 4 P 1 nπx = 2+π (n = 2. n > 0.5 1 π 2i 2iπx/l 2 (e − e−2iπx/l ) i 3iπx/l −3iπx/l 5iπx/l −5iπx/l − 1+i + 1+i + 1−i ··· − 1−i 3 e 3 e 5 e 5 e  1 3πx 1 5πx = − 12 − π2 cos πx l − 3 cos l + 5 cos l · · ·  2 2πx 1 3πx 1 5πx 2 6πx + π2 sin πx l − 2 sin l + 3 sin l + 5 sin l − 6 sin l · · · (1 + i)eiπx/l + (1 − i)e−iπx/l − 2 sin nπ an = − nπ 2 . 2i. 1 4 bn = nπ (2 cos nπ 2 − 1 − cos nπ) = − nπ {0. and repeat} 1 1 (2e−inπ/2 − 1 − e−inπ ) = nπ {−1. −2.3 8. n > 0 cn = 2inπ c−n = cn . coefficients are 2 times the coefficients in Problem 8. 0. and repeat }.

n2 π2 1 n2 −4i π3 2 π −∞ odd n ∞ X 1 f (x) = − π1 (cos + π1 (sin πx 2 + 3 4 1 odd n ∞ X 8 1 inπx e = 3 n3 π 1 odd n sin nπx .Chapter 7 33 8.17 n6=0 ∞ X 4 π2 −∞ odd n ∞ X ∞ 1 inπx 8 X cos nπx e = .13 (a) f (x) = 2 + iπ −∞ n π n 2 (b) f (x) = ∞ X 2 iπ −∞ n6=0 n6=0 4 1 inπx/2 e = n π 1 ∞ X 1 1 nπx sin n 2 ∞ ∞ 8 X n(−1)n+1 4i X n(−1)n 2inπx 8.14 (a) f (x) = sin 2nπx = e π 4n2 − 1 π −∞ 4n2 − 1 1 ∞ ∞ 4 X cos 2nπx 2X 1 2 = − e2inπx (b) f (x) = − 2 2 π π 4n − 1 π −∞ 4n − 1 1 ∞ ∞ n 2X i X (−1) inπx n+1 sin nπx e = .12 (a) f (x) = 1 ∞ ∞ 4 X (−1)n nπx 2 X (−1)n inπx/2 e =2+ sin 8.11 (a) f (x) = (b) f (x) = ∞ ∞ X X π2 π2 (−1)n inx (−1)n +2 e = + 4 cos nx 3 n2 3 n2 −∞ n6=0 ∞  X 4π 2 +2 3 −∞ 1 1 iπ + n2 n n6=0  einx = ∞ ∞ 1 1 X cos nx X sin nx 4π 2 +4 − 4π 2 3 n n ∞ sinh π X (−1)n (1 + in) inx e π −∞ 1 + n2 ∞ sinh π 2 sinh π X (−1)n = + (cos nx − n sin nx) π π 1 + n2 1 ∞ e2π − 1 X 1 + in inx (b) f (x) = e 2π −∞ 1 + n2 " # ∞ e2π − 1 1 X 1 + (cos nx − n sin nx) = π 2 1 + n2 8. (−1) 8.15 (a) f (x) = π −∞ n π n (b) f (x) = (c) f (x) = 8.19 f (x) = ∞ ∞ 1 X 1 1 X (−1)n+1 1 − 2 cos 2nπx + sin 2nπx 8 π n2 2π n 1 odd n 1 .18 f (x) = n6=0 8. n3 ∞ sin nπx 1 X 1 inπx =1− e n iπ −∞ n n6=0 πx 1 3πx 1 5πx 2 − 3 cos 2 + 5 cos 2 · · · ) 2 1 3πx 1 5πx 2 sin πx + 3 sin 2 + 5 sin 2 ∞ ∞ X X + 2 6 sin 3πx · · · ) 100 100 1 1 nπx 100 nπx + 2 cos − sin 2 3 π n 5 π n 5 1 1  ∞  X 100 1 1 = einπx/5 + 50 − 2 π2 3 n inπ −∞ 8.16 f (x) = 1 − 8.

−1.12 f (x) = − sin nπx π n 1 ∞ ∞ 1 4 X cos nπx 2 X (−1)n+1 sin nπx 9. and repeat} 3 2πx 4 3πx fs (x) = π1 (sin πx 3 + 2 sin 3 + 3 sin 3 1 5πx 1 7πx + 43 sin 4πx 3 + 5 sin 3 + 7 sin 3 · · · ) an = sin nπ 3 = √ ···) .3 9.6 f (x) = sin π 1 n l odd n + 1 5 cos 5πx 2 ···) sin 2nx ∞ 1 1 X (−1)n + 2 cos 2nπx 12 π n2 1 ∞ π 2 X 1 9.2 9.18 Even function: a0 /2 = 1/3. 4.7 (a) cos nx + i sin nx (a) 12 ln |1 − x2 | + 12 ln | 1−x 1+x | 4 5 (a) (−x − 1) + (x + x3 ) ∞ 4 X 1 sin nx f (x) = π 1 n an = f (x) 9.16 fs = 8 π ∞ X odd n 9. 3. a0 /2 = 1/2 1 2 1 3πx = 2 + π (cos πx 2 − 3 cos 2 ∞ n+1 X f (x) = 1 (−1) n (b) x sinh x + x cosh x (b) (cos x + x sin x) + (sin x + x cos x) (b) (1 + cosh x) + sinh x ∞ 4 X 1 nπx 9. 2 nπ √ 3 nπ {1. otherwise  2 2  8n π   − 1 + 3 3 . n = 3k + 1 −9   nπ 8n√ π . 3.9 f (x) = odd n ! ∞ 2 sinh π 1 X (−1)n 9. 0. 1. n = 3k    nπ √  0. where 3 3 3 1 1  1   − . 0. n = 3k + 2 nπ 8n2 π 2 8.Chapter 7 34 ∞ 9.15 fc (x) = − 2 fs (x) = 2 π n2 π n 1 odd n 1 sin nx fc = fp = (1 − cos 2x)/2 n(4 − n2 ) odd n=1 4 1 1 9.17 fc (x) = (cos πx − cos 3πx + cos 5πx · · · ) π 3 5 ∞ 4 X 1 fs (x) = fp (x) = sin 2nπx π 1 n 9. n = 3k  1 3 3 an = bn = − − 2 2 .5 9. 1.8 ∞ 2 X 2nπx X 2nπx + an cos + bn sin .20 f (x) = odd n 2 nπ sin nπ 2 . and repeat} 1 2πx 1 4πx 1 5πx 1 7πx fc (x) = 13 + π3 (cos πx 3 + 2 cos 3 − 4 cos 3 − 5 cos 3 + 7 cos 3 2 1 Odd function: bn = nπ (1 − cos nπ 3 ) = nπ {1. −1.1 9.11 f (x) = + cos nx π 2 n2 + 1 1 ∞ 2X1 9.10 f (x) = − cos 2nx 4 π 1 n2 9. 0.

λn = 2 sin 4 − sin 2 9.21 fc (x) = fp (x) = 8 fs (x) = 2 π ∞ 4 X 1 1 − 2 cos nπx 2 π n2 1 odd n   πx 1 3πx 1 5πx 8 nπ sin − 2 sin + 2 sin · · · . n even For fs . 3.26 f (x) = ∞ 1 48 X cos nπx − 4 2 π n4 1 odd n 9. λ6 = −2. bn = π2 2 n+1 . 0.. λ7 = − 2 + 1.18 continued Function of period 3: √ 3 1 an = nπ sin 2nπ 3 = 2nπ {1. −2. 0) = 2 π n2 l 1 √ √ √ λ1 = 2 − 1. λ5 =nπ−( 2 +nπ1). and repeat} πx 2 2πx 3 3πx 3 5πx fs (x) = 20 π (3 sin 20 − 2 sin 20 + 3 sin 20 + 5 sin 20 · · · ) Function of period 20: ∞ 20 X 1 nπx fp (x) = 15 − sin π 1 n 10 odd n   8h 1 3πx 1 5πx πx 9.20 fc (x) = odd n ∞ ∞ 1 1 X 1 1X1 cos 2nπx − sin 2nπx fp (x) = + 2 3 π 1 n2 π 1 n 9. 0) = 2 sin − 2 sin + 2 sin ··· π l 3 l 5 l ∞ nπx 8h X λn sin where 9.27 f (x) = ∞ X 8π 4 cos nx − 48 (−1)n 15 n4 1 . n = 3 + 4k 2 fs (x) = π (sin x + sin 3x + 31 sin 5x + 31 sin 7x + 1 5 sin 9x + 1 5 ···) sin 11x · · · ) ∞ 1 4 X (−1)n + 2 cos nπx 3 π 1 n2 ∞ ∞ 2 X (−1)n+1 8 X 1 fs (x) = sin nπx − 3 sin nπx π 1 n π n3 1 9.22 Even function: an = − nπ sin nπ 2 πx 20 fc (x) = 15 − π (cos 20 − 13 cos 3πx 20 + 1 5 cos 5πx 20 · · · ) Odd function: 20 20 bn = nπ (cos nπ 2 + 1 − 2 cos nπ) = nπ {3. λ3 = 2 + 1. 0.. n = 1 + 4k   2 n−1 . λ4 = 0. and repeat}. 0.Chapter 7 35 9. λ8 = 0. λ2 = √ 2.23 f (x.24 f (x. ..19 fc (x) = fp (x) = − π π 1 4n2 − 1    0. 1. and repeat} √ 3 2πx 1 4πx 1 8πx 1 10πx 1 + 3 2π (cos 3 − 2 cos 3 + 4 cos 3 − 5 cos 3 3 1 4πx 1 8πx 1 10πx + 2π (sin 2πx 3 + 2 sin 3 + 4 sin 3 + 5 sin 3 · · · ) fp (x) = ∞ 4 X (−1)n cos 2nx 2 9. bn = 2 2 sin 2 3 2 5 2 n π 2 20 9. a0 /2 = 1/3 1 3 bn = nπ (1 − cos 2nπ 3 ) = 2nπ {1. −1.

9 16 2 11. a0 = 0 √ √ 2 2nπ 2 3.10 V (t) = 75 − 1 9 :0: 1 25 ∞ ∞ 200 X 1 100 X 1 cos 120nπt − sin 120nπt π 2 1 n2 π 1 n odd n Relative intensities as in problem 10.4 V (t) = π 1 − n2 2 even n 1 3 2 Relative intensities = 0 : 1 : 0 : 25 : 0 : ( 35 )   ∞ X 5 5 2 10.4 : 0.8 I(t) = 2 π 2 1 n2 π 1 n odd n       4 1 1 1 4 1 4 Relative intensities = 1+ 2 : : : 1+ 2 : 1+ π 4 9 9π 16 25 25π 2 = 1.25 : 1.6 V (t) = 50 − ∞ 400 X 1 cos 120nπt π 2 1 n2 odd n Relative intensities = 1 : 0 : ∞  1 4 3 20 X (−1)n sin 120nπt π 1 n 1 : Relative intensities = 1 : 14 : 91 : 16 10.008 10.2 p(t) = bn sin 262nπt.25 : 0.7 I(t) = −  1 4 5 :0: 1 25 ∞ ∞ 10 X (−1)n 5 20 X 1 − cos 120nπt − sin 120nπt 10. 8. 0. −3.7 π 2 /6 . where 1 1 2 2nπ bn = nπ (1 − cos nπ 3 − 3 cos nπ + 3 cos 3 ) 2 = nπ {2. and repeat} 1 1 1 1 Relative intensities = 1 : 25 : 9 : 0 : 25 : 25 9 : 49 : 0 : 81 : 1   ∞ X 2 200 cos 120nπt 1+ 10.8 11.8 π 4 /96 11. 10.5 I(t) = 1+ cos 120nπt + sin 120πt 2 π 1−n 2 2 even n 10 2 2 2 2 2 Relative intensities = ( 52 )2 : ( 3π ) : 0 : ( 3π ) : 0 : ( 7π ) = 6.06 : 0. 0.12 : 0.Chapter 7 10.5 π 2 /8 11.1 p(t) = 36 ∞ X an cos 220nπt. 0. and repeat} an = nπ (sin nπ 3 + sin 3 ) = nπ { 3.9 V (t) = ∞ 400 X 1 sin 120nπt π n 1 odd n Relative intensities = 1 : 0 : 10.045 : 0 : 0. − 1 1 Relative intensities = 1 : 0 : 0 : 0 : 25 : 0 : 49 : 0 : 0 : 0 ∞ X 10.3 p(t) = bn sin 220nπt 2 2 bn = nπ (3 − 5 cos nπ 2 + 2 cos nπ) = nπ {1. and repeat} 9 4 Relative intensities = 4 : 94 : 64 9 : 16 : 25 : 0 X 10.04 10.13 : 0 : 0. 0. 2.6 π 4 /90 1 π2 − 11. 1. 0. 0. −3.

19 fs (x) = sin αx dα π Z0 α2 2 ∞ α cos(απ/2) 12.8 f (x) = 2πα2 −∞ Z ∞ 2 i − cos αa iαx 12.16 fc (x) = cos αx dα π Z0 1 − α2 2 ∞ 1 − cos πα 12.20 fs (x) = sin αx dα π 0 1 − α2 r π −|α| σ −α2 σ2 /2 e 12.21 g(α) = √ e 2 2π Z ∞ 1 + e−iαπ iαx 1 e dα 12.15 fc (x) = cos αx dα π Z0 α2 ∞ cos(απ/2) 2 12.11 f (x) = e dα π −∞ 1 − α2 Z ∞ α cos(απ/2) iαx 1 e dα 12.14 fc (x) = π Z0 α2 ∞ 4 1 − cos αa 12.24 (c) gc (α) = 12.Chapter 7 Z 2 ∞ 1 − cos α 12.28 (a) fc (x) = cos αx dα π Z0 α ∞ sin 3α sin α 4 sin αx dα (b) fs (x) = π 0 α 37 .17 fs (x) = sin αx dα π Z0 α 2 ∞ sin α − α cos α sin αx dα 12.25 (a) f (x) = 2π −∞ 1 − α2 Z ∞ 2 sin(απ/2) 12.9 f (x) = e dα π −∞ α2 Z ∞ αa − sin αa iαx e dα 12.5 f (x) = e dα 2πiα Z−∞ ∞ sin α − α cos α iαx e dα 12.3 f (x) = e dα iαπ Z−∞ ∞ sin απ − sin(απ/2) iαx e dα 12.18 fs (x) = π Z0 α2 ∞ 4 αa − sin αa 12.13 fc (x) = cos αx dα π Z0 α 2 ∞ cos α + α sin α − 1 cos αx dα 12.27 (a) fc (x) = cos αx dα π Z0 α 2 ∞ 1 − cos(απ/2) (b) fs (x) = sin αx dα π Z0 α 4 ∞ cos 3α sin α 12.7 f (x) = e dα πα2 Z−∞ ∞ (iα + 1)e−iα − 1 iαx e dα 12.12 f (x) = πi −∞ 1 − α2 Z ∞ 2 sin απ − sin(απ/2) 12.4 f (x) = απ −∞ Z ∞ 1 − e−iα iαx 12.6 f (x) = iπα2 −∞ Z ∞ cos α + α sin α − 1 iαx 12.10 f (x) = 2 iπα2 Z−∞ ∞ 1 cos(απ/2) iαx 12.2 fs (x) = sin αx dα α Zπ∞ 0 1 − cos απ iαx 12.

1/2 (c) 13/6 (c) 0.29 (a) fc (x) = 13.4 (c) q (t) = CV 1 − 2(1 − e−1/2 ) (1 + 4inπ)−1 e4inπt/(RC) ∞ X (−1)n sin ωπ int e 13.2 f (x) = ∞ i X 1 2inπx e 2π −∞ n n6=0   ∞ X 13. 0.10 13. and repeat} + {1.12 f = 90 13. −2.30 (a) fc (x) = π Z0 α2 1 ∞ 2α − sin 2α (b) fs (x) = sin αx dα π 0 α2 12.13 (a) fs (x) = ∞ X sin nx n 1 ∞ 1 4 X cos nπx 13.11 (a) 1/2 (b) 1 (b) −1/2. −1/2.6 f (t) = π(ω − n) −∞ ∞ π 4 X 1 13. 0. −2. 0. −1.  6 nπ nπ 4  −1 + sin an = 2 2 cos n π 2 nπ 2 4 6 = 2 2 {−1. −1 Cosine series: a0 /2 = −3/4. −1/2. and repeat} n π nπ   πx 3 4 6 2 cos fc (x) = − + − 2 + − 2 cos πx 4 π π 2 π     3πx 5πx 2 6 4 −4 cos cos − + + + ··· 2 2 9π π 2 25π 5π 2 Sine series: nπ  4 nπ 1  4 cos nπ − 6 cos + bn = 2 2 sin n π 2 nπ 2 1 4 {−4. 0. 0.14 (a) f (x) = + 2 3 π n2 1 (b) π 2 /6 (b) π 4 /90 .8 13. −2. 0. −2 (d) −1.9 13. 0.Chapter 7 38 Z 2 ∞ sin 3α − 2 sin 2α cos αx dα π Z0 α 2 ∞ 2 cos 2α − cos 3α − 1 (b) fs (x) = sin αx dα π Z0 α ∞ 1 1 − cos 2α cos αx dα 12. −1. and repeat} + nπ nπ    4 πx 3πx 4 5 4 4 fs (x) = sin sin − + sin πx − + π2 π 2 π 9π 2 3π 2   1 5πx 4 4 5 − sin sin 2πx + − + sin 3πx · · · 2π 25π 2 5π 2 3π Exponential series of period 2:  ∞ ∞  X X i 1 inπx 3 5i 1 inπx e + fp (x) = − − + e 2 π2 4 n 2nπ 2π n −∞ −∞ even n6=0 odd n 13. −2. −1. −4.7 f (x) = − cos nx 2 π 1 n2 −∞ odd n 13. and repeat} = 2 2 {1. 10.

15 g(α) = ∞ 13. π/8 13.23 π 2 /8 −π/4 .19 0 |f (x)|2 dx = ∞ 0 |gc (α)|2 dα = 2 sin2 αa 13.16 f (x) = 2 π 0 Z Z α Z 13.Chapter 7 39 Z cos 2α − 1 2 ∞ cos 2α − 1 . πa3 /3 π α2 ∞ 0 |gs (α)|2 dα 13.20 g(α) = . iπα π 0 α Z 8 ∞ cos α sin2 (α/2) cos αx dα. f (x) = sin αx dα.

5 1. C = 0 2. R = removal rate.3 3. C = 0 Half value thickness = (ln 2)/µ = 69.10 (y − 2)2 = (x + C)3 .26 2.K =1 2.Chapter 8 1.28 2. x ≡ −1 2. a = 1 2.4 1.35 x(y − 1) = C y = 12 ex + Ce−x 2 y = ( 12 x2 + C)e−x y(sec x + tan x) = x − cos x + C −2 y = 31 (1 + ex ) + C(1 + ex ) y(1 − x2 )1/2 = x2 + C y = 2(sin x − 1) + Ce− sin x 3.8 3.10 3. m = 3/2 2.5 = 0.7 3. 1/τ .19 y = mx. k = 2 xyey = K.20 2. so t is of the order of 10−4 sec. typical terminal speeds are 0.6 min ◦ 66 2.12 40 y = 1/(2x) + C/x3 y = 13 x5/2 + Cx−1/2 √ y = (x + C)/(x + x2 + 1) y = 21 ln x + C/ ln x y cosh x = 21 e2x + x + C x = (y + C) cos y √ 3 .24 2.6 for s = 50ft 2.11 2.6 1. K = 25 2y 2 + 1 = A(x2 − 1)2 . A = 1 y(x2 + C) = 1. y ≡ −1.1 2. C = −3 2 y + 1 = kex /2 .9 2. a = 1/e 2. (b) t = g −1 · (terminal speed) · (ln 100). A = 3 y = axex .6 2 K−x2 y =8+e .2 √ 2.1 3.11 (1 − x2 )1/2 + (1 − y 2 )1/2 = C.13 2. C = x2 (1 + y 2 ) = K.6 3.1 cm/sec.23 2. KN = rate of increase. µ. τ = L/R Corresponding quantities are a.19 months x = (c/F )[(m2 c2 + F 2 t2 )1/2 − mc] 2.9 3.12 y ≡ 1.8 yey = aex . N = N0 eKt N = N0 eKt − (R/K)(eKt − 1) where N0 = number of bacteria at t = 0.16 x = (t − t0 )2 /4 (a) I/I0 = e−0.5 2.27 2.4 ln y = A(csc x − cot x). K = e y≡0 4y = (x + C)2 .2 3.3ft (b) Half life T = (ln 2)/λ (a) q = q0 e−t/(RC) (b) I = I0 e−(R/L)t (c) τ = RC.30 2.5 3.22 2.17 2. 5 3 t = 10(ln 13 )/(ln 13 ) = 6.15 2.1min It/100 A = Pe 2.21 2. x ≡ 1. λ = (ln 2)/T .32 2.3 2.14 y≡2 2.34 3.7 2.7 x = k −1 gt + k −2 g(e−kt − 1) x = −Aω −2 sin ωt + v0 t + x0 (a) 15 months (b) t = 30(1 − 2−1/3 ) = 6. T = 100[1 − (ln r)/(ln 2)] T = 100(2r−1 −1) (a) k = weight divided by terminal speed.4 3.02 to 0.31 ay = bx x2 + 2y 2 = C 2.33 x2 + ny2 = C x2 − y 2 = C 2.29 t = 100 ln 94 = 81.

26 5.20 y = Ae−x + Beix x −3x −5x = Ae + Be + Ce = Aeix + Be−ix + Cex + De−x √  = Ae−x + Bex/2 sin 21 x 3 + γ = A + Be2x + Ce−3x = Ae5x + (Bx + C)e−x = Ax + B + (Cx + D)ex + (Ex2 + F x + G)e−2x = ex (A sin x + B cos x) + e−x (C sin x + D cos x) = (A + Bx)e−x + Ce2x + De−2x + E sin(2x + γ) .8 y 2 = 2Cx + C 2 2 2 y 2 = Ce−x /y 4.Chapter 8 41 3.4 5. Z 3.6 4.4 x2 e3y + ex − 13 y 3 = C 2 2 x −y + 2x(y + 1) = C 4 sin x cos y + 2x − sin 2x − 2y − sin 2y = C x = y(ln x + C) 4.12 x sin(y/x) = C tan 2 (x + y) = x + C y 2 = − sin2 x + C sin4 x 4.2 5.10 y = A + Be2x −3x/2 = (A + Bx)e 5. and t is in hours. (all λ s different).15 4.3 4..28 5.12 y = Ae−x + Bex/2 −ix −(1+i)x = Ae + Be 5.27 5.6 5. r = Be C + x2 x(C + e4x ) ex (C − e2x ) 4.λn−1 N0 .29 y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y = Aex + Be−2x = (Ax + B)e2x = Ae3ix + Be−3ix or other forms as in (5.25 (a) y = 2 (b) y = (c) y = 2 4x x (C−x ) C−e C + e2x 4.. where λ1 λ2 .2 y 1/2 = 31 x5/2 + Cx−1/2 −3 3 y = 1/3 + Cx 4.24) = Ae3x + Be2x 5.20 N3 = c1 e−λ1 t + c2 e−λ2 t + c3 e−λ3 t .17 I = Ae−t/(RC) − V0 ωC(sin ωt − ωRC cos ωt)/(1 + ω 2 R2 C 2 ) 3. 3.11 5.3 5.1 5.22 y = x + 1 + Kex 3.19 N2 = N0 λte−λt 3.13 4.22 5.21 Nn = c1 e−λ1 t + c2 e−λ2 t + · · · .25 5.17 4.18) = (Ax + B)ex = Ae4ix + Be−4ix or other forms as in (5.8 y = A + Be−5x = Ae2x sin(3x + γ) 5. where λ1 λ2 N0 λ1 λ2 N0 λ1 λ2 N0 .23 x = 2π −1/2 e−y y 2 2 eu du k y 1/3 = x − 3 + Ce−x/3 4.7 4. where S = number of pounds of salt.9 4.5 4.11 4..24) = e−x (Aeix + Be−ix ) or equivalent forms (5.λn−1 N0 λ1 λ2 .18 RL circuit: I = Ae−Rt/L + V0 (R + iωL)−1 eiωt RC circuit: I = Ae−t/RC + iωV0 C(1 + iωRC)−1 eiωt 3.15 S = 21 × 107 (1 + 3t/104) + (1 + 3t/104 )−1/3 .10 xy = Cex/y 1 4.19 5..17).14 x = y 2/3 + Cy −1/3   3.. c2 = .14 y = −x−2 +K(x − 1)−1 y = −x−1 ln(C − x) 4. c1 = (λ2 − λ1 )(λ3 − λ1 ).23 5. c2 = . c3 = c1 = (λ2 − λ1 )(λ3 − λ1 ) (λ1 − λ2 )(λ3 − λ2 ) (λ1 − λ3 )(λ2 − λ3 ) 3.(λn − λ1 ) (λ1 − λ2 )(λ3 − λ2 ). (5..18 x2 + (y − k)2 = k 2 −θ θ r = Ae .(λn − λ2 ) 0 etc.16 I = Ae−Rt/L + V0 (R2 + ω 2 L2 )−1 (R cos ωt + ωL sin ωt) 3.19 5...13 x = 21 ey + Ce−y 3.9 5.1 4.24 5.7 5.5 5.16 y 2 = C(C ± 2x) 2 3 3x y − y = C 4.

or y = C.26 6.18 6.   2πt 4π 2 2πt 16π y˙ + y = 0.25 6.36 5.16 6.7 6. ω = 1/ LC overdamped: R2 C > 4L.1 7.19 6.38 = Ae2x + Be−2x − 25 6.3 7. or y(x + a) = 2. all n .34 6. y = e−8πt/15 A sin + B cos 5.38 y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y odd n ∞ ∞ 1 2 X 1 X (−1)n sin nπx cos nπx 6.5 7.42 y = A cos 3x + B sin 3x + + 2 + 36 π 1 n2 (n2 π 2 − 9) π 1 n(n2 π 2 −9) odd n 7.Chapter 8 42 y = (Ax + B) sin xp + (Cx + D) cos x + (Ex + F )ex + (Gx + H)e−x θ = θ0 cos ωt.36 6.30 5.34 5.6 y = (A + Bx)e−3x + 3e−x −x 2x = Ae + Be + xe2x 6.1 6.11 6. (a) y ≡ 5 (b) y(x + 1) = 2 (c) y = tan( π4 − x2 ) = sec x − tan x (d) y = 2 tanh x y = a(x + b)2 .35 6.20 6.10 y = (A + Bx)e3x + 3x2 e3x −x = e (A sin 3x√ + B cos 3x) + 8 √ sin 4x − 6 cos 4x = e−2x [A sin(2 2 x) + B cos(2 2 x)] + 5(sin 2x − cos 2x) = (Ax + B)ex − sin x = e−2x (A sin 3x + B cos 3x) − 3 cos 5x = e−6x/5 [A sin(8x/5) + B cos(8x/5)] − 5 cos 2x = A sin 3x + B cos 3x − 5x cos 3x = A sin 4x + B cos 4x + 2x sin 4x = e−x (A sin 4x + B cos 4x) + 2e−4x cos 5x = e−x/2 (A sin x + B cos x) + e−3x/2 (2 cos 2x − sin 2x) = Ae−2x sin(2x + γ) + 4e−x/2 sin(5x/2) = e−3x/5 [A sin(x/5) + B cos(x/5)] + (x2 −5)/2 = A + Be−x/2 + x2 − 4x = A sin x + B cos x + (x − 1)ex = (A + Bx + 2x3 )e3x = Ae3x + Be−x − ( 43 x3 + x2 + 21 x)e−x = A sin x + B cos x − 2x2 cos x + 2x sin x = A sin(x + γ) + x3 − 6x − 1 + x sin x + (3 − 2x)ex = Ae3x + Be2x + ex + x = A sinh x + B cosh x + 21 x cosh x = A sin x + B cos x + x2 sin x = (A + Bx)ex + 2x2 ex + (3 − x)e2x + x + 1 −x = A + Be2x + (3x + 4)e + x3 + 3(x2 + x)/2 + 2xe2x ∞ X 1 4(n2 − 2) cos nx−8n sin nx 6.13 6.22 6.12 6.35 5.4 7.8 y = Ae4x + Be−4x + 5xe4x = (Ax + B + x2 )e−x 6.8 y = 2A tanh(Ax + B). rmax = 2gR2 /(2gR − v02 ).4 y = Ae−x + Be3x + 2e−3x ix −ix = Ae + Be + ex 6. or y = 2A tan(B − Ax).21 6.40 y¨ + 15 9 5 5 5.14 6.37 6.2 y = (A + Bx)e2x + 4 x −2x 1 2x = Ae + Be + 4e 6. underdamped: R2 C < 4L.5 6. critically damped: R2 C = 4L.24 6. or y = C x2 + (y − b)2 = a2 .23 6. or y = C y = b + k −1 cosh k(x − a) 1/2 2 v = (v02 − 2gR + 2gR √ /r) escape velocity = 2gR .9 6.17 6.33 6.41 y = e−x (A cos x + B sin x) + π + 4 πn2 (n4 + 4) 1 6. ω = g/l p T = 2π√ R/g ∼ = 85 min.3 6.15 6.

Chapter 8
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19
7.20
7.21
7.22
7.23
7.25
7.28
8.8
8.10
8.12
8.17
8.22
8.25
8.27

x = 1 + t2
x = R(1 − 3t)1/3
x 2
t = 1√
u (1 −Ru4 )−1/2 du
t = (ω 2 )−1 (cos θ)−1/2 dθ
−2
(a) y = Ax + Bx−3
(b) y = Ax2 + Bx

(c) y = (A + B ln x)/x3
(d) y = Ax cos( 5 ln x) + Bx sin( 5 ln x)
y = Ax4 + Bx−4 + x4 ln x 
y = Ax + Bx−1 + 12 x + x−1 ln x
y = x3 (A + B ln x) + x3 (ln x)2
3
y = x2 (A + B ln x) + x2 (ln 
x)

3
y = A x sin 2 ln x + γ + x2
y = A cos ln x + B sin ln x + x
R = Ar n + Br −n , n 6= 0; R = A ln r + B, n = 0
R = Ar l + Br −l−1
x−1 − 1
7.26 x2 − 1
7.27 x3 ex
1/3 x
1/x
x e
7.29 xe
7.30 (x − 1) ln x − 4x
e−2t − te−2t
1 t
t
3 e sin 3t + 2e cos 3t
3 cosh 5t + 2 sinh 5t
2a(3p2 − a2 )/(p2 + a2 )3
[(p + a)2 − b2 ]/[(p + a)2 + b2 ]2
e−pπ/2 /(p2 + 1)
−v(p2 + v 2 )−1 e−px/v

y = et (3 + 2t)
y = cos t + 12 (sin t − t cos t)
y = 16 t3 e3t + 5te3t
y = t sin 4t
y = 3t2 e2t
y = 12 (t2 e−t + 3et −e−t )
y = te2t
y = 16 t sin 3t + 2 cos 3t
y = 2e−2t −e−t
y = 2t + 1
y = 2 cos t + sin t
y = (5 − 6t)et − sin t
y = te−t cos 3t
(
y = t cos t − 1
9.28
z = cos t + t sin t
9.30 y = t − sin 2t
z(= cos 2t
y = sin 2t
9.32
z = cos 2t − 1

9.2
9.4
9.6
9.8
9.10
9.12
9.14
9.16
9.18
9.20
9.22
9.24
9.26

9.34
9.36
9.38
9.40
9.42

43

3/13
arc tan(2/3)
4/5
1
π/4

8.9
8.11
8.13
8.21
8.23
8.26

et − 3e−2t
4 −2t
+ 37 et/3
7e
−2t
e (2 sin 4t − cos 4t)
2b(p + a)/[(p + a)2 + b2 ]2
y = te−2t (cos t − sin t)
cos(t − π), t > π; 0, t < π

y = e−2t (4t + 12 t2 )
y = − 21 t cos t
y = 1 − e2t
y = (t + 2) sin 4t
y = te2t
y = sinh 2t
y = 2 sin 3t + 16 t sin 3t
y=2
y = e2t
y = e3t + 2e−2t sin t
y = sin t + 2 cos t − 2e−t cos 2t
y = (3 + t)e−2t sin t
y = t + (1 − e4t )/4, z = 31 + e4t
(
y = et
9.29
z = t + et
9.31 y = t
z(= et
y = sin t − cos t
9.33
z = sin t

9.3
9.5
9.7
9.9
9.11
9.13
9.15
9.17
9.19
9.21
9.23
9.25
9.27

9.35
9.37
9.39
9.41

10/262
15/8
ln 2

arc tan(1/ 2)

Chapter 8

10.3
10.5
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.11
10.13
10.15

44

1
2 t sinh t

10.4

b(b − a)te−bt + a[e−bt − e−at ]
10.6
(b − a)2
−at
a cosh bt − b sinh bt − ae
a2 − b 2
e−at
e−bt
e−ct
+
+
(b − a)(c − a) (a − b)(c − b) (a − c)(b − c)
(2t2 − 2t + 1 − e−2t )/4
10.10 (1 − cos at − 12 at sin at)/a4  

1
cos bt cos at
1
cos at − cos bt
10.12 2

+ 2 2
b 2 − a2
b − a2
b2
a2
a b
(e−t + sin t − cos t)/2
10.14 e−3t + (t − 1)e−2t
(
(cosh at − 1)/a2 , t > 0
1 3t
1 −4t
1 t
e + e
− e
10.17 y =
14
35
10
0,
t<0

11.1 y =

(

t − 2, t > 2
0,
t<2

11.8 y =

(

e−2(t−t0 ) sin(t − t0 ),
0,

11.9 y =

(

1 −(t−t0 )
3e

11.10 y =

(

11.11 y =

(

11.13
11.15
11.21
11.23

e−at + e−bt [(a − b)t − 1]
(b − a)2
e−at − cosh bt + (a/b) sinh bt
a2 − b 2

0,
1
3

0,

11.7 y =

(

(t − t0 )e−(t−t0 ) , t > t0
0,
t < t0

t > t0
t < t0

sin 3(t − t0 ), t > t0
t < t0

sinh 3(t − t0 ), t > t0
t < t0

1
2 [sinh(t

0,

− t0 ) − sin(t − t0 )],

t > t0
t < t0

(a)
(a)
(a)
(a)

5δ(x − 2) + 3δ(x + 7)
(b) 3δ(x + 5) − 4δ(x − 10)
1
(b) 0
(c) −3
(d) cosh 1
8
(b) φ(|a|)/(2|a|) √ (c) 1/2
(d) 1
δ(x + 5)δ(y − 5)δ(z), δ(r − 5 2 )δ(θ − 3π
4 )δ(z)/r,

π

δ(r − 5 2 )δ(θ − 2 )δ(φ − 4 )/(r sin θ)
(b) δ(x)δ(y + 1)δ(z + 1), δ(r − 1)δ(θ − 3π
2 )δ(z + 1)/r,

δ(r − 2 )δ(θ − 4 )δ(φ − 2 )/(r sin θ)

(c) δ(x + 2)δ(y)δ(z − 2 3 ), δ(r − 2)δ(θ − π)δ(z − 2 3 )/r,
δ(r − 4)δ(θ − π6 )δ(φ − π)/(r sin θ)

(d) δ(x − 3)δ(y + 3)δ(z + 6 ), δ(r − 3 2 )δ(θ − 7π
6 )/r,
4 )δ(z +

δ(r − 2 6 )δ(θ − 3 )δ(φ − 4 )/(r sin θ)
11.25 (a) and (b) F 00 (x) = δ(x) − 2δ 0 (x)
(c) G00 (x) = δ(x) + 5δ 0 (x)
12.2 y =

sin ωt − ωt cos ωt
2ω 2

12.6 y = (cosh at − 1)/a2 , t > 0
(
1 − e−t − te−t , 0 < t < a
12.8 y =
(t + 1 − a)ea−t − (t + 1)e−t ,

12.11 y =

− 31

sin 2x

sin ωt − ω cos ωt + ωe−t
ω(1 + ω 2 )
a(cosh at − e−t )− sinh at
12.7 y =
a(a2 −1)
12.3 y =

t>a
12.12 y = cos x ln cos x + (x − π2 ) sin x

Chapter 8

45

x − 2 sin x,
x < π/4

12.13 y = π

x

2
cos
x,
x
> π/4
2
12.15 y = x sinh x − cosh x ln cosh x
12.16 y = −x ln x − x − x(ln x)2 /2
2
1
12.17 y = − 4 sin x
12.18 y = x2 /2 + x4 /6
(

linear 1st order
y = − 31 x−2 + Cx
(ln y)2 − (ln x)2 = C
separable
y = A + Be−x sin(x + γ)
3rd order linear
r = (A + Bt)e3t
2nd order linear, a = b
x2 + y 2 − y sin2 x = C
exact
y = Ae−x sin(x + γ)
2nd order linear, complex a, b, c
+2ex + 3xe−x sin x
13.7 3x2 y 3 + 1 = Ax3
Bernoulli, or integrating factor 1/x4
1
2
13.8 y = x(A + B ln x) + 2 x(ln x)
Cauchy
13.9 y(e3x + Ce−2x ) + 5 = 0
Bernoulli
13.10 u − ln u + ln v + v −1 = C
separable
13.11 y = 2x ln x + Cx
linear 1st order, or homogeneous
13.12 y = A ln x + B + x2
y missing, or Cauchy
13.13 y = Ae−2x sin(x + γ) + e3x
2nd order linear, complex a, b
13.14 y = Ae−2x sin(x + γ)
2nd order linear, complex a, b, c
+xe−2x sin x
13.15 y = (A + Bx)e2x + 3x2 e2x
2nd order linear, c = a = b
2x
3x
2x
13.16 y = Ae + Be − xe
2nd order linear, c = a 6= b
13.17 y 2 + 4xy − x2 = C
exact, or homogeneous
13.18 x = (y + C)e− sin y
linear 1st order for x(y)
13.19 (x + y) sin2 x = K
separable with u = x + y
13.20 y = Aex sin(2x + γ)
2nd order linear, complex a, b, c
+x+ 25 + ex (1 − x cos 2x)
13.21 x2 + ln(1 − y 2 ) = C
separable, or Bernoulli
13.22 y = (A + Bx)e2x + C sin(3x + γ) 4th order linear
13.23 r = sin θ[C + ln(sec θ + tan θ)]
1st order linear
13.24 y 2 = ax2 + b
separable after substitution
13.25 x3 y = 2
13.26 y = x2 + x
13.27 y = 2e2x − 1
2
2
13.28 y + 4(x − 1) = 9 13.29 62 min more
13.30 y = 16 g[(1 + t)2 + 2(1 + t)−1 − 3]; at t = 1, y = g/3, v = 7g/12, a = 5g/12
p
13.31 v = 2k/(ma)
13.32 1:23 p.m.
13.33 In both (a) and (b), the temperature of the mixture at time t
is Ta (1 − e−kt ) + (n + n0 )−1 (nT0 + n0 T00 )e−kt
p.
13.36 (a) v = u ln(m0 /m)
13.38 ln a2 + p2 − ln p
13.39 2pa/(p2 − a2 )2
13.40 5/27
13.41 (tanh 1 − sech2 1)/4 = 0.0854
13.42 te−at (1− 21 at)
13.43 (sin at + at cos at)/(2a)
5
13.44 (3 sin at − 3atr
cos at − a2 t2 sin at)/(8a
r )
2 α
2 1
13.46 e−x : gs (α) =
, gc (α) =
2
π
1
+
α
π
1 + α2
r
r
2

2 1 − α2
xe−x : gs (α) =
,
g
(α)
=
c
π (1 + α2 )2
π (1 + α2 )2
13.47 y = A sin t + B cos t + sin t ln(sec t + tan t) − 1
13.48 y = A sin t + B cos t + (t sin t − t2 cos t)/4
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6

10 y = Ax3/2 − ln x + B 3. y = 1 + a(1 − cos θ) x = a(1 − cos θ) − 25 . z) m(¨ r − rθ˙2 ) = −∂V /∂r ˙ = −(1/r)(∂V /∂θ) m(rθ¨ + 2r˙ θ) m¨ z = −∂V /∂z Note: The equations in 5.5 3.4 = dy y(y 4 − C 2 )1/2 y 2 = ax + b 3.6 4.6 2.18 4.4 dx/dy = C(y 3 − C 2 )−1/2 3.3 5.6 x = ay 3/2 − 21 y 2 + b −x y = K sinh(x + C) = aex + be .3 2.2 min.5 2. θ. etc. as in Problem 2.14 3.8 K 2 x2 − (y − b)2 = K 4 2 x = ay + b 2.96 min x = a(1 − cos θ). in rectangular coordinates.2 5. in polar coordinates. θ.17 3.9 (y − b)2 = 4a2 (x − a2 ) 2.5 4.1 2.2 x2 + (y − b)2 = a2 ax = sinh(ay + b) 2.13 (x − a)2 = 4K 2 (y − K 2 ) r = becθ r cos(θ + α) = C. x + a = 43 (y 1/2 − 2b)(b + y 1/2 )1/2 ex cos(y + b) = C 2.Chapter 9 2.2 and 5. (See Problem 3. L = 12 m(r˙ 2 + r2 θ˙2 + r2 sin2 θ φ˙ 2 ) − V (r.9 cot θ = A cos(φ − α) at s = be 3. y = a(θ − sin θ) + C 3.10 3. the straight line x cos α − y sin α =C. etc.8 3.15 3.9) Intersection of z = ax + by with the sphere: cot θ = a cos φ + b sin φ. 5.5 r cos(θ + α) = C 3.1 dx/dy = Cy 2 (1 − C 2 y 4 )−1/2 dx C x4 y 02 = C 2 (1 + x2 y 02 )3 3.7 2. 42.7 5.4 ax = cosh(ay + b) y = aex + be−x or y = A cosh(x + B).3 are in the form ma = F = −∇V .11 a(x + 1) = cosh(ay + b) (x − a)2 + y 2 = C 2 3.4 4.12 3.7 3.2 L = 12 m(r˙ 2 + r2 θ˙2 + z˙ 2 ) − V (r. φ) m(¨ r − rθ˙2 − r sin2 θ φ˙ 2 ) = −∂V /∂r m(rθ¨ + 2r˙ θ˙ − r sin θ cos θ φ˙ 2 ) = −(1/r)(∂V /∂θ) ˙ = −(1/r sin θ)(∂V /∂φ) m(r sin θ φ¨ + 2r cos θ θ˙φ˙ + 2 sin θ r˙ φ) 1 2 ˙2 L = 2 ml θ − mgl(1 − cos θ) lθ¨ + g sin θ = 0 46 .  θ+C √ =K Intersection of the cone with r cos 2 Geodesics on the sphere: cot θ = A cos(φ − α).. or.3 3. y = a(θ − sin θ) + C x = a(θ − sin θ) + C.

r2 θ˙ = const. √ 2 − m1 gr 3 + m2 g(l − 2r) L = 21 m1 (4r˙ 2 + r2 θ˙2 ) + 2m2 r˙√ 4(m1 + m2 )¨ r − m1 rθ˙2 + m1 g 3 + 2m2 g = 0 2˙ r θ = const.25 L = 21 mx˙ 2 − 21 kx2 m¨ x + kx = 0 L = 21 m(r2 θ˙2 + r2 sin2 θ φ˙ 2 ) − mgr cos θ ( aθ¨ − a sin θ cos θ φ˙ 2 − g sin θ = 0 ˙ =0 (d/dt)(sin2 θ φ) 1 2 L = 2 m(2r˙ + r2 θ˙2 ) − mgr 2¨ r − rθ˙2 + g = 0 ˙ =0 (d/dt)(r2 θ) 1 L = 2 m(2r˙ 2 + r2 θ˙2 ) − mgr 2¨ r − rθ˙2 + g = 0 2˙ r θ = const. φ = − 32 θ with ω = 3g/l p g 1 p φ = M/m θ with ω 2 = l 1 + m/M p 1 g 2 p φ = − M/m θ with ω = l 1 − m/M 47 ..10 5.15 5.5 5. 2M x ¨ − M g sin α = 0 1 −2 2 x − M g sin α = 0 L = 2 (M + Ia )x˙ + M gx sin α. objects reach the bottom in order of increasing I.23 5.6 5. x = −y with ω = 7g/l L = ml2 [θ˙2 + 21 φ˙ 2 + θ˙ φ˙ cos(θ − φ)] + mgl(2 cos θ + cos φ) 2g 2θ¨ + φ¨ cos(θ − φ) + φ˙ 2 sin(θ − φ) + sin θ = 0 l g φ¨ + θ¨ cos(θ − φ) − θ˙2 sin(θ − φ) + sin φ = 0 l L = l2 [ 21 M θ˙2 + 21 mφ˙ 2 + mθ˙φ˙ cos(θ − φ)] + gl(M cos θ + m cos φ) Mg sin θ = 0 M θ¨ + mφ cos(θ − φ) + mφ˙ 2 sin(θ − φ) + l g φ¨ + θ¨ cos(θ − φ) − θ˙2 sin(θ − φ) + sin φ = 0 l p p φ = 2θ with ω = p2g/(3l) .21 5. (If z is taken as positive down.9 5. L = 12 m(l + aθ)2 θ˙2 − mg[a sin θ − (l + aθ) cos θ] (l + aθ)θ¨ + aθ˙ 2 + g sin θ = 0 ˙ + mgl cos θ L = 12 (M + m)X˙ 2 + 21 m(l2 θ˙2 + 2l cos θ X˙ θ) (M + m)X˙ + ml cos θ θ˙ = const. φ = −2θ with ω = p2g/l φ = 23 θ with ω = 3g/(5l) .8 5. L = m(x˙ 2 + y˙ 2 + x˙ y) ˙ + mgy 2 1 1 ˙ gt. aθ = 3 gt x˙ = − 3 gt. d ˙ ˙ dt (l θ + cos θ X) + g sin θ = 0 x + y = x0 + y0 + aθ.24 5.19 5.) L = 12 m(r˙ 2 + r2 θ˙2 ) − 12 k(r − r0 )2 − mgr cos θ k d ˙ + gr sin θ = 0 r¨ − rθ˙2 + m (r − r0 ) − g cos θ = 0.22 5..16 5.14 5. √ If z = const.12 5. L = 21 (m + Ia−2 )z˙ 2 − mgz (ma2 + I)¨ z + mga2 =0 change the signs of z and z¨. (M + Ia−2 )¨ Since smaller I means greater acceleration. then r = const.20 5.17 5.18 5.13 5. y˙ = 3p p x = y with ω = pg/l .11 5. x = −y with ω = p3g/l x = y with ω = g/l . so θ˙ = 2g L = M x˙ 2 + M gx sin α. dt (r2 θ) L = 12 m[r˙ 2 (1 + 4r2 ) + r2 θ˙2 ] − mgr2 r¨(1 + 4r2 ) + 4rr˙ 2 − rθ˙2 + 2gr = 0.Chapter 9 5.

12 ey cos(x − a) = K r = Ksec2 θ+c 2 3 2 2 2 (x + 2 ) + (y − b) = c 8.2 8. r2 θ˙ = const.3 6..4 8.. x2 (2y 0 + y 0 3 ) = K(1 + y 0 2 )3/2 02 1 + y Z ydy 2 2 p I= . dr I= dθ = Kr r − K I= Z y = aebx (x − a)2 + (y + 1)2 = C 2 (y − b)2 = 4a2 (x + 1 − a2 ) Intersection of r = 1 + cos θ with z = a + b sin(θ/2) Intersection of the cone with r cos(θ sin √ α + C) = K −1 2 Intersection of y = x with az = b[2x 4x2 + 1 + sinh 2x] + c 8.4 48 catenary catenary 6.13 8.9 8.5 8.11 8. r2 θ˙ = const. r¨ − rθ˙2 = 0. dt 2 .19 8.26 8. = r2 θ˙ = const..20 8.28 Hyperbola: r2 cos(2θ + α) = K or (x2 − y 2 ) cos α − 2xy sin α = K K ln r = cosh(Kθ + C) Parabola: (x − y − C)2 = 4K 2 (x + y − K 2 ) m(¨ r − rθ˙2 ) + kr = 0.16 8.25 8.6 8. z¨ + g = 0 1 ∂V 1 2 2¨ ˙ ˙2 r · m(r θ + 2rr˙ θ − r sin θ cos θ φ ) = − r ∂θ = Fθ = maθ 2 ¨ ˙ ˙ aθ = rθ + 2r˙ θ − r sin θ cos θ φ L = 21 ma2 θ˙2 − mga(1 − cos θ).17 8.15 y + c = 23 K x1/3 x2/3 − K 2 + K 2 cosh−1 (x1/3 /K) 8. θ measured from the downward direction.7 8.22 8.6 circular cylinder circle 2 x2 y 0 p dx.8 8.21 8. x0 y 2 = C 2 (1 + x0 )3 02 + 1 x Z p √ 4 2 r2 + r4 θ0 2 dr.27 8.1 6.10 8. aθ¨ + g sin θ = 0. r2 θ˙ = const. |r × mv| = mr 2 θ˙ = const.Chapter 9 6.18 8. m(¨ r − rθ˙2 ) + K/r2 = 0. √ l = 2 πA r = Aebθ p dr = r K 2 (1 + λr)2 − 1 dθ dA 1 r2 θ˙ = const.3 8.2 6.23 8.5 circle circle 6.14 (x − a)2 = 4K 2 (y + 2 − K 2 ) h i √ 8.

6). 0. .16 vector (if V is a vector). principal axes along the I= 0 6 −3 0 9 vectors: (1. 1.7 1 if j k = m n (6 cases).4 4. 0). 0).2 8. 1.4 hr = 1.6 4. −1). 6. π. say (0.Chapter 10 4. 0. L. 0) and (1. −1 if j k = n m (6 cases).14 r.   9 0 −3 0 Principal moments: (6.3 8. 1.     4 −1 −1 1 1 1 1   −1 4 −1 . principal 15 15 0 0 π axes along the vectors: (1. (1. principal axes . −1) and any two orthogonal vectors in the plane z = x. −2). 4. pseudovector (if V is a pseudovector) 8. E are vectors. (1. principal axes along the I = 0 0 −2 4 vectors: (0. 1. say (1. 12).9 to 6.5 4. 1). 1. 5.15 (a) vector (b) pseudovector (c) vector 6. 0. 1. hθ = r. π + 1). 1). 1) and any two orthogonal vectors in the plane x + y + z = 0. F. 0) and (1. hφ = r sin θ ds = er dr + eθ rdθ + eφ r sin θdφ dV = r2 sin θdrdθdφ ar = i sin θ cos φ + j sin θ sin φ + k cos θ = er aθ = ir cos θ cos φ + jr cos θ sin φ − kr sin θ = reθ aφ = −ir sin θ sin φ + jr sin θ cos φ = r sin θeφ ˙ + ez z¨ d2 s/dt2 = er (¨ r − rθ˙2 ) + eθ (rθ¨ + 2r˙ θ) ds/dt = er r˙ + eθ rθ˙ + eφ r sin θφ˙ d2 s/dt2 = er (¨ r − rθ˙2 − r sin2 θ φ˙ 2 ) ¨ ˙ sin θ cos θφ˙ 2 ) +eθ (rθ + 2r˙ θ−r ¨ ˙ +eφ (r sin θ φ + 2r cos θ θ˙φ˙ + 2 sin θ r˙ φ) V = −reθ + k 49 . (0.5 5. 6. ω. 0). 1). (0.6 5.1 8. −1. v. τ .7   π −1 0 2  2 −1 π 0 Principal moments: I= (π − 1. T is a scalar. 0 otherwise (a) 3 (b) 0 (c) 2 (d) −2 (e) −1 (f) −1 (a) δkq δip − δkp δiq (b) δap δbq − δaq δbp 6.   4 0 0 4 −2 Principal moments: (2. Principal moments: I= 120 −1 −1 60 24 24 4 along the vectors: (1. B are pseudovectors. 0. −1.

9 hu = hv = a(cosh u + cos v)−1 ds = a(cosh u + cos v)−1 (eu du + ev dv) dA = a2 (cosh u + cos v)−2 du dv au = (h2u /a)[i(1 + cos v cosh u) − j sin v sinh u] = hu eu av = (h2v /a)[i sinh u sin v + j(1 + cos v cosh u)] = hv ev 8.11 deu /dt = (u2 + v 2 )−1 (uv − vu)ev dev /dt = (u2 + v 2 )−1 (v u˙ − uv)e ˙ u ds/dt = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 (eu u˙ + ev v) ˙ + ez z˙ d2 s/dt2 = eu (u2 + v 2 )−1/2 [(u2 + v 2 )¨ u + u(u˙ 2 − v˙ 2 ) + 2v u˙ v] ˙ 2 2 −1/2 2 +ev (u + v ) [(u + v 2 )¨ v + v(v˙ 2 − u˙ 2 ) + 2uu˙ v] ˙ + ez z¨ 2 2 −1 8. hφ = uv ds = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 (eu du + ev dv) + uveφ dφ dV = uv (u2 + v 2 ) du dv dφ au = iv cos φ + jv sin φ + ku = hu eu av = iu cos φ + ju sin φ − kv = hv ev aφ = −iuv sin φ + juv cos φ = hφ eφ 8. hz = 1 ds = a(sinh2 u + sin2 v)1/2 (eu du + ev dv) + ez dz dV = a2 (sinh2 u + sin2 v) du dv dz au = ia sinh u cos v + ja cosh u sin v = hu eu av = −ia cosh u sin v + ja sinh u cos v = hv ev az = k = ez 8. hz = 1 ds = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 (eu du + ev dv) + ez dz dV = (u2 + v 2 ) du dv dz au = iu + jv = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 eu av = −iv + ju = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 ev az = k = ez 8.7 hu = hv = a(sinh2 u + sin2 v)1/2 .13 deu /dt = (u2 + v 2 )−1 (uv˙ − v u)e ˙ v + (u2 + v 2 )−1/2 v φe 2 2 −1 2 2 −1/2 ˙ dev /dt = (u + v ) (v u˙ − uv)e ˙ u + (u + v ) uφeφ 2 2 −1/2 ˙ deφ /dt = −(u + v ) (veu + uev )φ ds/dt = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 (eu u˙ + ev v) ˙ + eφ uvφ˙ 2 2 2 2 −1/2 2 d s/dt = eu (u + v ) [(u + v 2 )¨ u + u(u˙ 2 − v˙ 2 ) + 2v u˙ v˙ − uv 2 φ˙ 2 ] 2 2 −1/2 2 2 +ev (u + v ) [(u + v )¨ v + v(v˙ 2 − u˙ 2 ) + 2uu˙ v˙ − u2 v φ˙ 2 ] ˙ +eφ (uv φ¨ + 2v u˙ φ˙ + 2uv˙ φ) 8.12 deu /dt = (sinh u + sin v) (v˙ sinh u cosh u − u˙ sin v cos v)ev dev /dt = (sinh2 u + sin2 v)−1 (u˙ sin v cos v − v˙ sinh u cosh u)eu ds/dt = a(sinh2 u + sin2 v)1/2 (eu u˙ + ev v) ˙ + ez z˙ d2 s/dt2 = eu a(sinh2 u + sin2 v)−1/2 ×[(sinh2 u + sin2 v)¨ u + (u˙ 2 − v˙ 2 ) sinh u cosh u + 2u˙ v˙ sin v cos v] 2 2 +ev a(sinh u + sin v)−1/2 [(sinh2 u + sin2 v)¨ v +(v˙ 2 − u˙ 2 ) sin v cos v + 2u˙ v˙ sinh u cosh u] + ez z¨ ˙ φ 8.6 V = er cos θ − eθ sin θ − eφ r sin θ hu = hv = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 .8 hu = hv = (u2 + v 2 )1/2 .5 8.Chapter 10 50 8.14 deu /dt = −(cosh u + cos v)−1 (u˙ sin v + v˙ sinh u)ev dev /dt = (cosh u + cos v)−1 (u˙ sin v + v˙ sinh u)eu ds/dt = a(cosh u + cos v)−1 (eu u˙ + ev v) ˙ d2 s/dt2 = eu a(cosh u + cos v)−2 [(cosh u + cos v)¨ u + (v˙ 2 − u˙ 2 ) sinh u + 2u˙ v˙ sin v] −2 +ev a(cosh u + cos v) [(cosh u + cos v)¨ v + (v˙ 2 − u˙ 2 ) sin v − 2u˙ v˙ sinh u] .

Chapter 10 9.7 See 8.11 Same as 9.14 hu = [(u + v)/u] . hv = [(u + v)/v] −1 −1 −1 eu = h−1 u i + hv j .17 2r−1 . however.15 hu = 1.16 r . 1/2 1/2 9. 0. ev = −hv i + hu j 2 −1 2 m [hu u¨ − hu (uv˙ − v u) ˙ /(2u v)] = −h−1 u ∂V /∂u = Fu 2 −1 m [hv v¨ − hv (uv˙ − v u) ˙ /(2uv2 )] = −h−1 v ∂V /∂v = Fv −1/2 9.11 9.8 See 8. r−1 eφ . hv = u(1 − v 2 ) 1/2 1/2 eu = iv + j(1 − v 2 ) . Note.13 Same as 9.9 See 8.12 9. r−1 cot θ.10 if h = a(cosh u + cos v)−1 and terms involving either z derivatives or Vz are omitted. r−1 (er cot θ − eθ ) .14 2 2 1/2 9. ∂U ∂U ∂U +k + ev ∇U = h−1 eu ∂u ∂v ∂z   ∂ ∂ ∂Vz ∇ · V = h−2 (hVu ) + (hVv ) + ∂u ∂v ∂z  2  2 2 ∂ U ∂ U ∂ U + ∇2 U = h−2 + ∂u2 dv 2  ∂z 2  ∂Vv ∂Vz eu − ∇×V = h−1 ∂v ∂z     ∂ ∂ ∂Vu −2 −1 ∂Vz ev + h + −h (hV v ) − (hV u ) ez ∂z ∂u ∂u ∂v 9.5 ∇U = er 9. 0.2     1 ∂U ∂U 1 ∂U + eφ + eθ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ  1 ∂ ∂ 1 1 ∂Vφ 2 ∇·V = 2 r Vr + (sin θ Vθ ) + r ∂r  r sin θ ∂θ r sin    θ ∂φ 1 ∂U 1 ∂2U ∂ 1 ∂ 2 ∂U 2 r + 2 sin θ + 2 2 ∇ U= 2 r ∂r  ∂r r sin θ ∂θ  ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ2 1 ∂ ∂Vθ ∇×V = er (sin θ Vφ ) − r sin θ ∂θ ∂φ     ∂ 1 ∂ ∂Vr 1 ∂Vr − sin θ (rVφ ) eθ + (rV θ ) − + eφ r sin θ ∂φ ∂r r ∂r ∂θ 9.6 See 8. ev = i(1 − v 2 ) − jv m[¨ u − uv˙ 2 /(1 − v 2 )] = −∂V /∂u = Fu −1/2 −3/2 m[(u¨ v + 2u˙ v)(1 ˙ − v2 ) + uv v˙ 2 (1 − v 2 ) ] = −h−1 v ∂V /∂v = Fv −1 −1 9.10 Let h = (u  +v ) represent  the u and v scale factors. r ez 9.3 51 See 8.12 Let h = (u2+ v 2 )  ∂U ∂U −1 ∂U + (uv) ∇U = h−1 eu + ev eφ ∂u ∂v ∂φ 1 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂Vφ ∇·V = (uhV u ) + 2 (vhV v ) + ∂v uv ∂φ uh2 ∂u  vh    1 ∂ ∂U 1 ∂ ∂U 1 ∂2U 2 ∇ U= 2 u + 2 v + 2 2 h u ∂u ∂u h v ∂v  ∂v u v ∂φ2 1 ∂Vv 1 ∂ eu (vVφ ) − ∇×V = hv ∂v uv ∂φ     1 ∂Vu 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ + − (uVφ ) ev + 2 (hVv ) − (hvu ) eφ uv ∂φ hu ∂u h ∂u ∂v 9.10 with h = a(sinh2 u + sin2 v) 1/2 1/2 9. that ∇ × V has only a z component if V = eu Vu + ev Vv where Vu and Vv are functions of u and v.13 9.

3 2eφ .8 u−1 .19 9. dA = u(2v − v 2 )−1/2 du dv. ds = eu du + hv ev dv. 0 2r−1 . r−3 . av = ev /hv   uv˙ 2 ∂V 11.7 ∇U = eu ∂U /∂u + ev u−1 v(2p− v) ∂U /∂v −1 ∇ · V = u−1 ∂(uV v(2 − v) ∂V  u )/∂u  +u  v /∂v  p p ∂ ∂U 1 1 ∂ ∂U 2 u + 2 v(2 − v) ∇ U= v(2 − v) u ∂u ∂u u ∂V ∂V 11.6 m u¨ − =− = Fu v(2 − v) ∂u   uv˙ 2 (v − 1) ∂V u¨ v + 2u˙ v˙ = Fv + = −u−1 [v(2 − v)]1/2 m ∂v [v(2 − v)]1/2 [v(2 − v)]3/2 p 11. av = hv ev . 3 r−1 .Chapter 10 9.20 9.21 52 −r −1 eθ . −k2 eikr cos θ 11. r−1 er . 0 .5 ds2 = du2 + h2v dv 2 . hv = u(2v − v 2 )−1/2 . 6. hu = 1.4 Vector 11. eu = i(1 − v) + j(2v − v 2 )1/2 .18 9. ev = −i(2v − v 2 )1/2 + j(1 − v) au = eu = au . er cos θ − eθ sin θ. 2r−4 . u−1 k.

3 = 0.6 (a) Ei(ln x) (b) Ei(x) (c) − Ei(ln x) √ 11. 10.46  3 ∼ π 2 ∼ π 12.5 B(3.12 3.34 sec t = π a/g 3. 4/3) √ 7.8 7E 3 . 5/2) = π/32 √ 1 7.13 Iy /M = 8B(4/3.13 3. k) = (π/2) 1 + 21 k 2 + 2·4 i h 2   1 2 1·3 2 · 3k 4 − 2·4·6 · 5k 6 · · · E = E (π/2.097 8 .526 1 π 1 ∼ 1 ∼ 12.11 2B(2/3.1 K = F (π/2.4 3. 2 = 0.6 3 F 3 .2 2 B(5/4. x) (b) Γ(0.4 2 B(3/2. 2 + 3E arc sin 3 . k) = (π/2) 1 − 21 k 2 − 2·4 Caution : For the following answers. 3/4) = π 2/8 1 7. 2 ∼ 12.234 = 3.4 K(1/2) ∼ 12.3) and in Example 1.8 3.3 3.7 3. 1/2) = 3π/16 1 7.11 3.14 3/2 32/35 Γ(5/3) 1 −Γ(4/3) 3. 1/2) 7.9 F 6 . 4 √ 5 = 19. 1/3) 8.15 9/10 72 Γ(5/4) Γ(2/3)/3 Γ(2/3)/4 1 7.2 8.242      ∼ √3 √3 12.1 2 B(5/2.12 (8π/3)B(5/3.2 3. 7 = 7.Chapter 11 3.10 3. 4/3)   p Compare 2π l/g .3 3 B(1/3.10 12 F π4 .5 3.7 5E 5π . 1/2) 7.4 1/ π 11. 1 ∼ = 5. see the text warning about elliptic integral notation just after equations (12.9 3. 1/4) 2l/g = 7.17 25/14 8 Γ(3/5) 3−4 Γ(4) = 2/27 Γ(p) √ 1 7.4163 l/g p 1 35/11 4 p B(1/2.11 F 3π = 0. 10 + K 10    12.2 Γ(p.5 E(1/3) ∼ = 1.8 4 2B(3.5 (a) E1 (x) = Γ(0.10 43 B(1/3.355 12.6 3.5 1 11.10 e−1 i h 2  1·3 2 4 k + ··· 12.542 12. x) ∼ xp−1 e−x [1+√ (p − 1)x−1 + (p − 1)(p − 2)x−2 + · · · ] 2 10.12 10E π .7 2 B(1/4. x / π 10.3 erfc (x) = Γ 1/2.3 p p B(1/2. 4/3)/B(5/3.1 8. 4/3)/B(1/3. 1/2) = 64 2/15 7. 21 ∼ 12.96 6 10 6 53 3 4 3 . 3) = 1/30 1 7. 1/3) = 32π 2 3/27 7. 1/4) = 2.686 =1.13 3E π . 12. 4/3) = 2π 3/27 3√ √ 7. x) ∼ x−1 e−x [1 − x−1 + 2x−2 − 3! x−3 + · · · ] 10.6 B(2/3.402 = 4.

16 1 2/64 13.311 √ √ π/2 erfc(1/ 2) √ π Γ(3/4) 1 2 B(1/2.7 13.Chapter 11 54 h √  √   √ i 12.24 Γ(4) = 3! 13.18 B(5/4.8 √  3/2 ' 2.25 √ π erf(1) √2  2 K 2−1/2 ' 2.422 13. 4/5 = 0.10 2E  1 3 ∼ 13.23 55 √ −2 π/109!! 13.1834 − sn u dn u 13.22 13.15 13.14 √ Γ(7/2) = 15 π/8 √ 13.585 √ √  ∼ 12.13 13.089 13.19 13. 7/4) √ 109!! π/255 √ 228 π/55!! . 1/2) ∼ = 5.23 T = 8 5g = 2π 2a 3g 13. T ∼ 12.14 12E 35 ∼ = 15. 23 ∼ 12.16 2 2 E 1/ 2 = 3. 7/4) = 3π 2 1√ π erfc 5 13. 13/3) = (5/3)5 14π/ 3 4E(1/2) − 2 E(π/8.9 13.86 = 0.21 13. for small vibrations.17 13.15 2 E 23 − E π3 .622  2−1/2 K 2−1/2 ∼ = 1.12 5 F arc sin 4 .11 13.20 2 √  54 B(2/3.820 q q √  a K 1/ 5 .

2/π cos nx 1/2 −1/2 N =2 .3 See Problem 5.4 Q0 = 3. when n is odd.1 8.1 1. 2π xe−x /2 5.4 xex + 10ex −x sin x + 25 cos x 3.10 35 P4 + 74 P2 + 15 P0 5. 2 xe−x/2 2 1 1/4 −1/4 N = 2 π .3 See Problem 5.2 3.10 y y y y y See Problem 5.Chapter 12 1.14 2 8 16 π 2π 9. 9.5 (30 − x2 ) sin x + 12x cos x (x2 − 200x + 9900)e−x 4.11 58 P4 + 4P2 − 3P1 + 12 5 P0 2 1 4 3 9.2 4 P0 + 2 P1 + 16 P2 − 32 P4 · · · π 7 11 5P2 + P0 9.13 63 P5 + 94 P3 + 73 P1 8. and over even l from 0 to n − 1.5 1 1+x x 1+x ln .3 5.8 9.1 = a1 xex = a1 x = a0 cosh x + a1 sinh x = Ax + Bx3 = a0 (1 − x2 ) + a1 x 3 = a0 e x = a0 cos 2x + a1 sin 2x = (A + Bx)ex = a0 (1 + x) + a2 x2 2 = (A + Bx)ex 1.15 − 2 P2 = − 2 (3x2 − 1) 9.7 9.11 25 (P1 − P3 ) 8 5.3 9.6 P0 + 8 P1 − 9 P2 · · · 2 P0 − 8 P2 + 16 P4 · · · 2 11 1 3 P0 + 5 P1 − 42 P2 · · · 1 7 a)P0 + 43 (1 − a2 )P1 + 45 a(1 − a2 )P2 + 16 (1 − a2 )(5a2 − 1)P3 · · · 2 (1 −P 0 Pn = (2l + 1)Pl .2 1.12 85 P4 + 4P2 − 3P1 + 12 5 P0 8. 5/2 P2 (x) 1/4 −1/4 −x2 /2 N =π .10 2P2 + P1 9.4 p p N = 2/5.1 9.4 1.9 3 2 P1 55 .12 5 (P1 − P3 ) 9.1 5.5 9.2 8.4 8 (3P1 + 16 P3 + 64 P5 · · · ) 1 5 3 3 20 9. Q1 = ln −1 2 1−x 2 1−x P4 (x) = (35x4 − 30x2 + 3)/8 P5 (x) = (63x5 − 70x3 + 15x)/8 P6 (x) = (231x6 − 315x4 + 105x2 − 5)/16 p p N = π/2.5 1.3 3.9 y y y y y 2.13 5 P0 + 7 P2 = 35 (10x2 − 1) 5 3 15 15 1 P0 + P2 = (5x2 + 1) 9.3 8.7 1.8 1.8 5P0 − 2P1 8 5.9 2P2 + P1 5. π e 11 1 1 5 3 − 87 P3 + 16 P5 · · · 9. where the sum is over odd l from 1 to n − 1 when n is even.3 1.3 2.6 1.3 P0 (x) = 1 P1 (x) = x P2 (x) = (3x2 − 1)/2 P3 (x) = (5x3 − 3x)/2 5.

16 y y y y y y y y = x−3/2 Z1/2 (x) = x−1/2 Z1 (4x1/2 ) = xZ 0 (2x) = x−1 Z1/2 (x2 /2) √ = x1/3 Z2/3 (4 x) = x−2 Z2 (x) = Z3 (2x) = Z1 (4x) 16.4 sin θ 10. α 6= β 1 2 2 jn−1 (α). outward swing takes longer.7 h(1) n (x) ∼ 0.7 16.3 11.9 Amplitude increases.11 1.9 dx d −p Ip (x)] = x−p Ip+1 (x) dx [x Ip−1 (x) − Ip+1 (x) = 2p x Ip (x) Ip−1 (x) + Ip+1 (x) = 2Ip0 (x) Ip0 (x) = − xp Ip (x) + Ip−1 (x) = xp Ip (x) + Ip+1 (x) 18.4 y = Ax−2 + Bx3 1/2 1/2 y = A cos(2x ) + B sin(2x ) y = Ae−x + Bx2/3 [1 − 3x/5 + (3x)2 /(5 · 8) − (3x)3 /(5 · 8 · 11) + · · · ] y = Ax2 (1 + x2 /10 + x4 /280 + · · · ) + Bx−1 (1 − x2 /2 − x4 /8 − · · · ) y = A(x−1 − 1) + Bx2 (1 − x + 3x2 /5 − 4x3 /15 + 2x4 /21 + · · · ) y = A(1 − 3x6 /8 + 9x12 /320 − · · · ) + Bx2 (1 − 3x6 /16 + 9x12 /896 − · · · ) y = A[1 + 2x − (2x)2 /2! + (2x)3 /(3 · 3!) − (2x)4 /(3 · 5 · 4!) + · · · ] + Bx3/2 [1 − 2x/5 + (2x)2 /(5 · 7 · 2!) − (2x)3 /(5 · 7 · 9 · 3!) + · · · ] 11.2 1 20.5 sin θ (35 cos3 θ − 15 cos θ)/2 10.8 h(2) e n (x) ∼ x n1 x 20.10 y = b0 cos x/x2 11.12 y = ex (A + Bx1/3 ) 15.67 m for lead sin2 α 19.7 11.6 15 sin2 θ cos θ 11.10 h(2) e n (ix) ∼ i x .9 16.4 −1/(πp) ( 20.1 11.17 y y y y y y y y = x1/2 Z1/4 (x2 ) = x1/6 Z1/3 (4x1/2 ) = x1/2 Z1 (x1/2 ) = x1/2 Z1/3 ( 23 x3/2 ) = xZ2/3 (2x3/2 ) √ = x1/4 Z1/2 ( x) = Z2 (5x) = Z0 (3x) 17. d [xp Ip (x)] = xp Ip−1 (x) 17.11 y = Ax1/6 [1 + 3x2 /25 + 32 x4 /(5 · 210 ) + · · · ] + Bx−1/6 [x + 3x3 /26 + 32 x5 /(7 · 211 ) + · · · ] 11.11 16.3 R1 19.10 y = (Ax + B)1/2 J1/3 [ 3A (Ax + B)3/2 ] 18.6 −1/(2n + 1) 1 −i[x−(n+1)π/2] 20.2 1 2 19.14 16. α = β R1 1 2 1 0 2 παn xN 1/2 (αn x) dx = 2 .9 11.7 m for steel. where jn (α) = jn (β) = 0.15 16.7 (a) y = x1/2 I1 (2x1/2 ) (b)y = x1/2 I1/6 (x3 /3) Note that the factor i is not needed since any multiple of y is a solution.4 16.5 1/2 1 i[x−(n+1)π/2] e x 1 1 −x e 20.1 1/6 20. where αn = (n + 21 )π 20.3 16.5 11.5 16.Chapter 12 56 10.6 11.6 0 R1 0 2 x jn (αx)jn (βx) dx = cos2 (αn x)dx = 20. 2 18.9 5−3/2 16.9 h(1) n (ix) ∼ − n i x 20.1 16.2 y = Ax−3 + Bx3 −3 2 y = Ax + Bx 11.2 16.3 4/π 20.8 16. 0.10 16.12 16.8 11.6 16.

otherwise 1 23.2 21.4 21.30 Rn = −xn Dx−n . T2 = 2x − 1 23.28 f1 = xe−x/2 f2 = xe−x/4 (2 − x2 ) 2 f3 = xe−x/6 (3 − x + x18 ) 22.1 21.5 21.8 21.10 y y y y y y y y y y 22. T1 = x.9 For n ≤ l.30 π/6 .20 Lk0 (x) = 1 Lk1 (x) = 1 + k − x Lk2 (x) = 12 (k + 1)(k + 2) − (k + 2)x + 12 x2 22.4 H0 (x) = 1 H1 (x) = 2x H2 (x) = 4x2 − 2 22.6 21.Chapter 12 57 √  = Ax + B x sinh−1 x − x2 + 1 = A(1 + x) + Bxe1/x = A(1 − x2 ) + B(1 + x2 )e−x = Ax − Bex = A(x √ − 1) +√B[(x − 1) ln x − 4] = A x + B[ x ln x + x] x x = A 1−x + B[ 1−x ln x + 1+x 2 ] 2 2 = A(x + 2x) + B[(x + 2x) ln x + 1 + 5x − x3 /6 + x4 /72 + · · · ] = Ax2 + B[x2 ln x − x3 + x4 /(2 · 2!) − x5 /(3 · 3!) + x6 /(4 · 4!) + · · · ] = Ax3 + B(x3 ln x + x2 ) 21. −1 xP l (x)Pn (x)dx = (2l − 1)(2l + 1)  0. Ln = x−n−1 Dxn+1 (−1)n (2n + 1)!! n  2 n! 2l  R1 .7 21.6 P2n+1 (0) = (2n + 1)P2n (0) = 2 23. n=l−1 23.23 T0 = 1.13 L0 (x) = 1 H3 (x) = 8x3 − 12x H4 (x) = 16x4 − 48x2 + 12 H5 (x) = 32x5 − 160x3 + 120x L1 (x) = 1 − x L2 (x) = (2 − 4x + x2 )/2! L3 (x) = (6 − 18x + 9x2 − x3 )/3! L4 (x) = (24 − 96x + 72x2 − 16x3 + x4 )/4! L5 (x) = (120 − 600x + 600x2 − 200x3 + 25x4 − x5 )/5! Note: The factor 1/n! is omitted in most quantum mechanics books but is included as here in most reference books.9 21.3 21.18 (a) y = Z0 (ex ) (b) y = Zp (ex /2) 2 23. 22.

12 T = + ∞ X 1 odd n ∞ X   400 nπ nπx nπ nπy sinh (10 − y) sin + sinh (10 − x) sinh nπ sinh nπ 10 10 10 10 1 odd n ∞ X 1 odd n ∞ X 1 odd n 2.1 2.Chapter 13 2. 3.13 n=2+4k 400 nπ nπx sinh (10 − y) sin . 1. T (5.9 T = ∞ ∞ X nπ 200  X nπx 1  −2 (10 − y) sin   nπ sinh π n sinh 20 20 2 1 2 odd n 2.10 T = 2. 5) ∼ = 25◦ nπ sinh nπ 10 10 T (x.11 T = 2.7 n=2+4k ∞ 4 X n T = e−ny sin nx 2 π 2 n −1 even n  πx 1 −3πy/30 120 −πy/30 3πx 1 −5πy/30 5πx sin T = 2 e − e sin + e sin ··· π 30 9 30 25 30 ∞ n 4 X sinh n(1 − y) sin nx T = π 2 (n2 − 1) sinh n even n ∞ X bn nπx nπ 4nπ sinh 30 (40 − y) sin 30 sinh 3 1 nπ  100 200  1 − cos = where bn = (1. and repeat) 3 nπ  nπ 2.2 ∞ nπx 20 X (−1)n+1 −nπy/10 e sin π 1 n 10   ∞ ∞ X 200  X nπx  1 −nπy/20 −2 T = sin   e π n 20 1 2 T = odd n 2. 4.4 2. 0.3 2. 3. y) = 400 nπ nπx sinh (30 − y) sin nπ sinh 3nπ 10 10 nπ nπy 400 sinh (10 − x) sin nπ sinh(nπ/3) 30 30 ∞ 20 X (−1)n+1 nπ nπx sinh (20 − y) sin π 1 n sinh 2nπ 10 10 + ∞ nπ nπy 40 X (−1)n+1 sinh (10 − x) sin π 1 n sinh nπ 20 20 2 58 .8 T = 2.

Ψ(x.3 3. t) = e 2m π n odd n 8 X sin nπx −iEn t/¯h n2 π 2 ¯ h2 . T = 100 − 10y/3 ∞ 1 40 X nπ nπx 1 sinh (30 − y) cos For f (x) = x. n = 3 + 4k n2 π 2 nπ Add to (3.9 u = 100− π 0 2n + 1 4 2 2 n ¯ h 4 X sin nx −iEn t/¯h 3.15 For f (x) = 100.8 u = 50x + π 1 n 2   ∞ 2n + 1 400 X (−1)n −[(2n+1)πα/4]2 t e cos πx 3. 2.Chapter 13 59 2. Ψ(x.2 4.14 For f (x) = x − 5: T = − ∞ 40 X 1 nπx −nπy/10 cos e 2 2 π n 10 1 odd n For f (x) = x: Add 5 to the answer just given.6 3. · · · . Bn = (2 sin nπ/4 − sin nπ/2)/n2 9 ∞  nπvt nπ nπ  2 16h X nπx cos where Bn = 2 sin − sin y= 2 Bn sin /n π l l 8 4 1 ∞ 8h X 1 nπ 2nπx 2nπvt y= 2 sin sin cos 2 π 1 n 2 l l ∞ nπ nπx nπvt 8hl X 1 sin sin sin y= 3 3 π v 1 n 2 l l y= odd n . T = (30 − y)− 2 2 sinh 3nπ 6 π n 10 10 1 odd n 3. n = 1 + 4k u = 100 + 400 bn e−(nπα/2) t sin  2  1   −2 − 1 .4 ∞ 100x 400 X 1 −(nπα/l)2 t nπx − e sin l π n l 2 even   n ∞ ∞ X nπx 40  X  1 −(nπα/10)2 t −2 sin u=   e π n 10 1 2 u = 100 − odd n 3.5 ∞ √ nπx 8h X nπvt 1 Bn sin cos .15) : uf = 20 + 30x/l. B2 = . where B1 = 2 − 1.12 En = 2m π n(4 − n2 ) odd n 4.7 n=2+4k   0.5 3. t) = e 3. B4 = 0. Note: Any linear function added to both u0 and uf leaves the Fourier series unchanged. ∞ nπx −(nπα/l)2 t l 4l X 1 cos e u= − 2 2 2 π n l 1 odd n ∞ nπx 200 X (−1)n −(nπα/2)2 t e sin 3.3 4. 2 π l l 2 n=1 1 √ B3 = ( 2 + 1).2 u= ∞ nπx 400 X 1 −(nπα/10)2 t e sin π n 10 1 odd n 3.11 En = . even n   ∞  2 1 X 2 nπx where bn = n2 π 2 − nπ .4 4.

11 The basis functions for a string pinned at x = 0. 3. n = 2.7 4. n = 1. Particle in a box: Ψ = bn sin nπx e−iEn t/¯h . ν = v/(2l) 4. 8.8 4. parts (a) and (b) are: ∞ X (n + 21 )πx (n + 21 )πvt (a) y = an cos cos l l 0 ∞ X (n + 21 )πx (n + 12 )πvt (b) y = bn sin cos l l 0 where the coefficients are: (2n + 1)π (2n + 1)π 128h sin2 cos 2(a) an = 2 2 (2n + 1) π 16 8 128h (2n + 1)π 2 (2n + 1)π 2(b) bn = sin sin (2n + 1)2 π 2 16 8 (2n + 1)π (2n + 1)π 256h sin2 cos 3(a) an = (2n + 1)2 π 2 32 16 256h (2n + 1)π (2n + 1)π 3(b) bn = sin2 sin 2 2 (2n + 1) π 32 16 (2n + 1)π (2n + 1)π 256h 2 (2n + 1)π sin sin sin 4(a) an = (2n + 1)2 π 2 16 8 4 (2n + 1)π (2n + 1)π 256h (2n + 1)π sin cos 4(b) bn = sin2 (2n + 1)2 π 2 16 8 4 8 4. ν = v/l 5. are y = sin l l The solutions for Problems 2. 4. n = 3. Temperature in semi-infinite plate: T = bn e−nπy sin nπx 2. n = 1. ν = v/l 3. 4. 6. 1-dimensional heat flow: u = bn e−(nπα) t sin nπx X ¯h2 n2 π 2 4. free at x = l.12 With bn = 3 3 . n = 2. ν = 2v/l.6 4.9 y= y= 60 ∞ 4hl X 1 nπ nπw nπx nπvt sin sin sin sin 2 2 π v 1 n 2 l l l 9hl π3 v 4l y= 2 π v odd n ∞ X 1 " nπ nπx nπvt 1 sin sin sin n3 3 l l ∞ 1 πx πvt π 2πx 2πvt X sin(nπ/2) nπx nπvt sin sin + sin sin − sin sin 2 − 4) 3 l l 16 l l n(n l l n=3 1. and n = 4. the six solutions on (0.Chapter 13 4. have nearly equal intensity. ν = 3v/(2l). with zero initial string velocity. 1) are: n π P 1. and (n+ 1 )πx (n+ 1 )πvt 2 2 cos . 7. String with initial velocity: y = sin nπx sin nπvt nπv # . Temperature in finite plate of height H: X bn sinh nπ(H − y) sin nπx T = sinh (nπH)X 2 3. ν = v/(2l) 2. odd n. En = 2m P 5. Plucked string: y = bn sin nπx cos nπvt X bn 6.

211 ∞ X 200 J0 (km r) sinh km (10 − z).1 5. T = bn e−ny sin nx X bn sinh n(H − y) sin nx 2.76◦ ∞ X 2 J1 (km r) e−km z sin θ. y = sin nx sin nvt nv 12(−1)n+1 4. θ = π/2) ∼ = 0. θ)Jn (kmn r/a) sin nθ r dr dθ bmn = 2 πa2 Jn+1 (kmn ) 0 0  nπr  X 400 nπz 1 u= sin + I0 π nI0 (3nπ/20) 20 20 odd n ∞ X 2 2 120 J0 (km r)e−km α t .10 u = 3 π nmp l l l n odd n odd m odd p −n 5.11 R = r .Chapter 13 61 16 . n odd. r−l−1 200 X  r n sin nθ 5.2 5. on (0.9 u= π2 mn sinh[π(n2 + m2 )1/2 ] odd m odd n nπx mπy pπz −(απ/l)2 (n2 +m2 +p2 )t 6400 X X X 1 sin sin sin e 5.4 5. En = 2m P 5. n = 0 R = rl . θ)Jn (kmn r/a) cos nθ r dr dθ 2 πa2 Jn+1 (kmn ) 0 0 Z a Z 2π 2 f (r.12 u = 50 + π a n odd n 400 X 1  r 4n sin 4nθ 5. y = bn sin nx cos nvt X bn 6. Ψ = bn sin nx e−iEn t/¯h .8 u = 40 + 5. the six solutions on (0. all n.5 5. n 6= 0. r . const.13 With bn = nπ(4 − n2 ) P 1. (b) u = k J (k ) sinh(km H/a) a m=1 m 1 m km = zeros of J0 ∞ X 2 200 u= J0 (km r/a)e−(km α/a) t . km = zeros of J1 k J (k ) m 2 m m=1 u(r = 1.13 u = π n 10 oddn .76◦ = 9. 1) n3 π 3 5.3 5. π) are 4.6 5. R = ln r. z = 1..7 (a) u ∼ (b) u ∼ = 9. km = zeros of J0 (a) u = k J (k ) sinh(10km ) m 1 m m=1 ∞ X 200 km (H − z) J0 (km r/a) sinh . km = zeros of J1 k J (k ) m 2 m m=1 Z a Z 2π 2 amn = f (r. u = bn e(−nα) t sin nx X ¯h2 n2 4. where J0 (km ) = 0 k J (k ) m=1 m 1 m X X sin(nπx/10) sin(mπy/10) sinh[π(n2 + m2 )1/2 (10 − z)/10] 1600 5.14 Same as 4. km = zeros of J1 (a) k J (k ) m 2 m m=1 ∞ X 2a (b) J1 (km r/a) e−km z/a sin θ. T = X sinh nH 2 3. km = zeros of J0 k J (k ) m=1 m 1 m ∞ X 2 200a J1 (km r/a)e−(km α/a) t sin θ.12 with bn = .

Some other examples of degeneracy: π 2 ¯h2 .2 7. α = mω/¯h .8 7.13 7.1 7. (8.2 6.   2 ¯h2 kmn sin nθ e−iEmn t/¯h .4 7.6 6.3 7.ν13 = 2.5 The first six frequencies are ν10 . ν21 = 2.11 7. E = (zeros of jl )2 .12 7. ν12 = 2. ν11 = 1.593ν10 .20 ψn (x) = e−α x /2 Hn (αx).15 u = 50 1 − ln 2 π n (2n − 2−n ) 2 2 5.10 7. θ. 1). En = l l 2ml2 See Problem 6.917ν10.6 7.4 6.17 Ψn = sin l l l 2ml2 m ±imφ −iEt/¯ h 7.8 7. q ¯2 h h2 . 7). 4). (7. En = 7. ny ) = (1.135ν10 ν20 = 2.7 7.14 u = odd n 6. βa = zeros of jl . 22 + 112 = 52 + 102 = 125.19 Ψ(r.14 7. (4.652ν10 .295ν s10 .3. where β = 2M E/¯ 2 2M a p 2 2 7. etc.7 6. Emn = Ψmn = Jn (kmn r) cos nθ 2ma2 Ψn = sin u = 7P0 (cos θ) + 20r2 P2 (cos θ) + 8r4 P4 (cos θ) u = 52 rP1 (cos θ) − 52 r3 P3 (cos θ) u = −2P0 (cos θ) + rP1 (cos θ) + 2r2 P2 (cos θ) u = −2P0 (cos θ) + 3rP1 (cos θ) + 2r2 P2 (cos θ) + 2r3 P3 (cos θ) 3 4 r P4 (cos θ) · · · u = 21 P0 (cos θ) + 85 r2 P2 (cos θ) − 16 7 3 11 5 u = π8 [3rP1 (cos θ) + 16 r P3 (cos θ) + 64 r P5 (cos θ) · · · ] 1 5 2 3 4 1 r P4 (cos θ) · · · u = 4 P0 (cos θ) + 2 rP1 (cos θ) + 16 r P2 (cos θ) − 32 15 2 21 3 9 u = 25[P0 (cos θ) + 4 rP1 (cos θ) + 8 r P2 (cos θ) + 64 r P3 (cos θ) · · · ] u = r2 P21 (cos θ) sin φ 1 3 2 u = 15 r P3 (cos θ) cos 2φ − rP1 (cos θ) u = 200[(3/4)]rP 1 (cos θ) − (7/16)r3 P3 (cos θ) + (11/32)r5 P5 (cos θ) + · · · ] 7 3 11 5 u = 34 rP 1 (cos θ) + 24 r P3 (cos θ) − 192 r P5 (cos θ) · · · 3 2 u = E0 (r − a /r )P1 (cos θ) u = 100[(1 − r−1 )P0 (cos θ) 7 + 37 (r − r−2 )P1 (cos θ) − 127 (r3 − r−4 )P3 (cos θ) · · · ] ∞ 200a X (−1)n nπr −(αnπ/a)2 t u = 100 + sin e πr 1 n a = 100 + 200 ∞ X (−1)n j0 (nπr/a)e−(αnπ/a) 2 t n=1 ny πy nz πz −iEn t/¯h π 2 ¯h2 (nx 2 + ny 2 + nz 2 ) nx πx sin sin e .Chapter 13 62 50 ln r 200 X rn − r−n + sin nθ ln 2 π n(2n − 2−n ) odd n X     200 1 r n  r −n ln r − sin nθ − 5. φ) = jl (βr)Pl (cos θ)e e . 8).5 7.15 ny πy −iEn t/¯h π 2 ¯h2 (nx 2 + ny 2 ) nx πx sin e . (nx . 2  m 2  n 2 v l νnm = + + 2 a b c 1/2 1 nπx mπy πv(m2 + n2 ) t 64l4 X X sin sin cos z= 6 π n 3 m3 l l l odd m odd n 6.9 7. giving En = 65 2ml2 similarly 22 + 92 = 62 + 72 = 85.

−K at (R2 /a.9 y = 3 cos sin 3 π n l l odd n  mπr  mπz 1 1600 X X sin nθ sin In 10. φ) = R(r)Ylm (θ. 0. t) = 100 erf 2α t 2α t 2α t ∞ 1 2X sinh nπ(2 − y) sin nπx π 1 n sinh 2nπ ∞ 2X 1 T = sinh nπy sin nπx π 1 n sinh 2nπ 1 4 X 1 T = (2 − y) + 2 sinh nπ(2 − y) cos nπx 4 π n2 sinh 2nπ odd n nπy 40 X nπx 1 T = 20 + 3nπ sinh 5 sin 5 π n sinh 5 odd n X 1 40 nπ(5 − x) nπy + sin 5nπ sinh π 3 3 n sinh 3 odd n X 80 1 −(nπα/l)2 t nπx u = 20 − e sin π n l odd n   ∞ 80 X (−1)n −[(2n+1)πα/(2l)]2 t 2n + 1 u = 20 − e cos πx π n=0 2n + 1 2l 4 X 1 1 sinh nπy cos nπx u= y+ 2 4 π n2 sinh 2nπ 10. n) = 2  M e4 2r 7.1 T = 10. α = mω/¯h.4 8. (n + 2)(n + 1) .5 9. R2 /a) LetK = line charge per unit length.10 u = 2 π nmI n (3mπ/20) 20 20 odd n odd m . En = − 2¯ h2 n2 8.3 8. 0).4 10. n = 0 to ∞.20) and (8. R(r) = rl e−r/(na) L2l+1 n−l−1 na . En = (nx + 12 + ny + 12 + nz + 12 )¯ hω = (n + 23 )¯ hω. θ. Then V = −K ln(r2 + a2 − 2ra cos θ) + K ln a2 − K ln R2 # "  2 2 R2 R 2 − 2 r cos θ + K ln r + a a K at (a.2 9. 0) Z 200 ∞ −2 u= k (1 − cos 2k)e−ky cos kx dk π 0 Z 200 ∞ 1 − cos k −k2 α2 t e sin kx dk u(x. t) = π 0 k     x x−1 x+1 √ − 50 erf √ − 50 erf √ u(x.8 u = 20 − x − ∞ 40 X 1 −(nπα/10)2 t nπx e sin π 2 n 10 even n 8l2 X 1 nπvt nπx 10. Degree of degeneracy of En is C(n + 2.Chapter 13 63 p 2 2 2 2 7.5 10.7 odd n 10.2 10. φ).7 The second terms in (8.22 Ψ(r.6 10.21 ψn (x) = e−α (x +y +z )/2 Hnx (αx)Hny (αy)Hnz (αz).3 10.4 9.21) are replaced by X al r l −qR/a −q Pl (cos θ) = q R2l+1 l r2 − 2(rR2 /a) cos θ + (R2 /a)2 Image charge -qR/a at(0.

7r3 − 99. ν33 = 5.14 Same as 9.2r5 − 70.92ν10 .24 10.18 νmn . . a = radius of sphere.12 u = 64  2n 400 X 1 r sin 2nθ π n a odd n 10. ν16 = 4.19 u = E0 r − cos θ r vλl where λl = zeros of jl .Chapter 13 10.13 ν10 . y) = π 0 k cosh k . b l = − cl . The first few terms are u = (107. Problem 9.14ν10 . al = 2A2 − 1R 2A2 − 1 1 cl = (2l + 1) 0 Pl (x) dx (Chapter 12.26 10.17 νmn .21 u = 3 P0 (cos θ) + 53 rP1 (cos θ) − 32 r2 P2 (cos θ) + 52 r3 P3 (cos θ) 11 5 10.1r−2 )P1 (cos θ) −(11.20 ν = 2πa 2 10.2r−4 )P3 (cos θ) + (2.15 u = π n 10 π 1012 − r12 odd n √ 10. the lowest frequencies are: ν11 = 1. ν21 = 2.12  6n 2(10r)6 sin 6θ 200 400 X 1 r arc tan sin 6nθ = 10.65ν10.65 ν23 = 4.28 2A(A + 1) 2A + 1 cl .1r − 257. · · · .27 10. A = 2 l . ν13 = 2. ν12 = 2.16 v 5/(2π) 10. the lowest frequencies are: ν13 = 2.1).06 ν10 .16ν10 10. n = 3.9r−6 )P5 (cos θ) · · · X 4(D − A) nπ nπx T =A+ sinh (b − y) sin nπ sinh (nπb/a) a a odd n X 4(C − A) nπ nπy + sinh (a − x) sin nπ sinh (nπa/b) b b odd n X 4(B − A) nπy nπx + sinh sin nπ sinh (nπb/a) a a odd n v p ν= (kmn /a)2 + λ2 where kmn is a zero of Jn 2πs  2 λ v  n 2  m 2 + + ν= 2 a b π Z 200 ∞ sin k cos kx cosh ky dk u(x. ν14 = 3.22 u = 1 − 12 rP1 (cos θ) + 87 r3 P3 (cos θ) − 16 r P5 (cos θ) · · · X l −l−1 10.59ν10 .4 ν10  ν10 . 6.23 u = 100 (al r + bl r )Pl (cos θ) where odd l 10. v = speed of sound 10.2  a 10. n 6= 0.

v = y(x2 + y 2 ) x x u = e cos y. u = ln(x2 + y 2 )1/2 .56 −iz 2 /2 2. v = sin y sinh x u = sin x cosh y. v = −y 1. v = 0 1. z 6= 2i N A.52 No 2.8 1.17 N 2.21 A 2.61 1/z 2.24 N A A.9 A.42 z + z 3 /3! + z 5 /5! · · · .6 u = ex cos y.10 1. z 6= 0 2.16 2.Chapter 14 1.51 2. z 6= 0 2.15 1.38 − 2 i + 4 z + 18 iz 2 − 16 z · · · .40 1 + z + z 2 + z 3 · · · .22 N 2. v = 0 1. z 6= 0 2. |z| < 3 2.14 u = x(x2 + y 2 ).1 A 2. v = 0 u = x.13 N 2.12 2.3 2.17 1. z 6= ±i N A N Yes. v = y(1 − x2 − y 2 )/[(x2 − y 2 + 1)2 + 4x2 y 2 ] u = ln(x2 + y 2 )1/2 .62 65 N A A.18 A.48 Yes.19 2.49 No 2. v = arc tan(y/x) [angle is in the quadrant of the point (x.20 2. v = y u = x. |z| < 2 3 2 5 2.55 2. z 6= 0 −iz cos z −ieiz 2.37 z − 13 z 3 + 15 1 1 1 3 2. v = e−y sin x In 2. z 6= 0 2. N = not analytic 2.5 1.12 1. z 6= −2 2.54 2. v = y/[(x + 2)2 + y 2 ] u = 3x/[x2 + (y − 2)2 ]. v = 3x2 y − y 3 1. v = 2x2 − 2y 2 + 2xy + x − y u = e−y cos x.9 1. z 6= 0 2. v = ex sin y u = cos y cosh x.7 2.11 1. |z| < 1 2.10 A. where the ± signs are chosen so that uv has the sign of y.39 (z/9) − (z /9 ) + (z /93 ) · · · .5 N 2.35 1 − (z 2 /2!) + (z 4 /4!) · · · . v = (−2x2 − 2y 2 + 5y − 2)/[x2 + (y − 2)2 ] u = x(x2 + y 2 + 1)/[(x2 − y 2 + 1)2 + 4x2 y 2 ]. all z 2.6 A 2.60 2 ln z 2. all z 2.41 1 + iz − z 2 /2 − iz 3 /3! + z 4 /4! · · · .58 2. |z| < 1 2. v = −e sin y 1.16 u = 0.19 1.4 2.3 1. v = 4xy u = cos x cosh y.24.8 2.21 u = x3 − 3xy2 .7 1.23 2.36 1 + 12 z 2 − 18 z 4 · · · .18 1. v = ±2−1/2 [(x2 + y 2 )1/2 − x]1/2 .1 1.34 −z − 21 z 2 − 13 z 3 · · · .15 2. |z| < π/2 2.63 Yes −iz 3 ez −i/(1 − z) . z = 6 0 A.20 1.50 2. y)]. |z| < 1 2 5 z · · · . u = x2 − y 2 − 4xy − x − y + 3.1 to 2.13 1.2 A 2.59 2.57 (1 − i)z 2. v = −y/(x2 + y 2 ) u = (2x2 + 2y 2 + 7x + 6)/[(x + 2)2 + y 2 ].14 N 2.53 Yes. v = sin x sinh y u = ±2−1/2 [(x2 + y 2 )1/2 + x]1/2 . all z 2.11 2.4 u = (x2 + y 2 )1/2 . A = analytic.2 u = x. v = cos x sinh y u = x/(x2 + y 2 ).

20 6.16 0 3.R= 4 2 2 1 4 1/2 π)2 /4! + (z − π)4 /6! − · · · . R =0  − (z −−1 − (z − 2) + 1 + (z − 2) + (z − 2)2 + · · · .26 z −1 − 1 + z − z 2 · · · .19 16iπ 1 2 For 0 < |z| < 1: 21 z −1 + 34 + 78 z + 15 16 z · · · .17 R(1/2) = 5/8.4 3.22 6.25 R(0) = 2 √ √ 1 −π 3 2πi/3 6. R(4/5) = −1/3 R(0) = −2. R = 21 e 2 e[(z − 1) −3 z −1 + (1/5!)z −5 · · · . R(0) = −2 For |z| > 1: z −4 − 2z −5 + 3z −6 · · · 4.12 (a) pole of order 3 (b) pole of order 2 (c) essential singularity (d) pole of order 1 4.23 1 2 +i −1 1 (a) 53 (1 + 2i) (a) 0 (a) 0 72iπ 66 3. R(0) = − 18 −3 −4 −5 −6 −7 For |z| > 2: z + z + 2z + 4z + 8z · · · 4.3 0 3.17 3.8 iπ/2 i/2 √ 3.9 3.24 6. R(0) = 0 1 2 7 3 For 1 < |z| < 2: −5(· · · + z −3 − z −2 + z −1 + 16 z + 36 z + 216 z ···) 1 2 1 3 1 −3 −2 −1 z ··· For 2 < |z| < 3: · · · + 3z + 9z − 3z + 1 − 3 z + 9 z − 27 −3 −4 −5 For |z| > 3: 30(z − 2z + 9z · · · ) 4.27 R(π/6) = −1/2 R(e ) = 6 (i 3 − 1)e .19 R(π/2) = 1/2 √ R(3i) = 21 − 13 i √ R(i) = 1/4 6.3 6.8 6.24 −17iπ/96 3. R(1) = 1 6. R = 1 (z − 1)−1 − 1 + (z − 1) − (z − 1)2 · · · .15 R(1/2) = 1/3.20 3.4 6.3 6.Chapter 14 3.6 −1. R(0) = − 4 5 3 2 z + 16 z ··· For 1 < |z| < 2: · · · + z −3 + z −2 + 43 z −1 + 21 + 16 −4 −5 −6 −7 For |z| > 2: z + 5z + 17z + 49z · · · 1 1 1 2 4.2 −(2 + i)/3 3.21 R[ 2 (1 + i)] = 2 (1 − i)/16 R(iπ) = −1 6.16 6.10 (2i − 1)e2i (b) 13 (8i + 13) (b) iπ (b) −17πi/4 3.18 iπ √ 3/6 3.5 6.11 (a) regular (b) pole of order 2 (c) simple pole (d) pole of order 3 4. R = −1 R(−2/3) = 1/8.14 6. R = 1 1 z · · · . R(−1/2) = −3/8 6.7 6.11 2πi 3.18 6.7 π(1 − i)/8 3.2 6. R(0) = 0 For |z| > 1: z −1 − 2z −2 + z −3 − 2z −4 · · · 175 2 4. −1 3. R(2) = −1/8 6. R(0) = 2 1 −1 1 1 2 1 3 −4 −3 −2 For 1 < |z| < 2: −(· · · z + z + z + 2 z + 4 + 18 z + 16 z + 32 z ···) −3 −4 −5 −6 For |z| > 2: z + 3z + 7z + 15z · · · 13 2 1 4. R = 1 i h − (1/3!)z   −1 1 1 1 2 z − − 1 + (1 − π /2) z − + · · · .6 For 0 < |z| < 1: z −2 − 2z −1 + 3 − 4z + 5z 2 · · · .4 For 0 < |z| < 1: − 14 z −1 − 21 − 11 16 z − 16 z · · · .9 (a) regular (b) pole of order 3 (c) pole of order 2 (d) pole of order 1 4.23 R(2i/3) = −ie−2/3 /12 R(0) = 2 6.1 3. R = − 16 z −3 − 16 z −1 + 120 z −2 + (1/2!) + (z 2 /4!) · · · .7 For |z| < 1: 2 − z + 2z 2 − z 3 + 2z 4 − z 5 · · · .9 6. R = 0 1 −1 + 21 + 14 (z − 1) · · · ].5 3.1 6.5 For 0 < |z| < 2: 21 z −3 − 14 z −2 − 18 z −1 − 16 − 32 z − 64 z .10 (a) simple pole (b) pole of order 2 (c) pole of order 2 (d) essential singularity 4.22 −iπ 3/108 3.12 3.6 6.8 For |z| < 1: −5 + 25 6 z − 36 z · · · .

190 0 6.260 6.31 R(2i) = −3ie−2 /32 6.29 R(0) = 1/6! 6.58 (cos 2t + cosh 2t)/2 2et cos t 3 + e−2t 7.180 6.57 7. one each in quadrants II and III One negative real.28 π/2 for a > 0.65 π/6 7.36 π cot pπ 7.30 6.32 6.3 9.290 −πi 6.12 8.14 −(π/e) sin 2 7.35 2π(21/3 − 1)/ 3 7.Chapter 14 67 6.140 6.49 7. v = ex sin y u = (x2 + y 2 − 1)/[x2 + (y + 1)2 ].1 7.40 π 2 /4 7. v = sinh x sin y 8. y 2 = 21 [−u + (u2 + v 2 )1/2 ] u = y/2.38 7. R = −1 −2πi 9.48 7.4 8. R = 0 Regular.310 6.45 7.330 1 6.5 8.56 (sinh t − sin t)/2 1 + sin t√− cos t 7.63 7.150 0 6.280 41 πi 0 9πi 6.14 Regular.8 2π/| sin α| 7.8 x2 = 12 [u + (u2 + v 2 )1/2 ]. R = −2 Regular.20 7. R = −1 Regular.9 7.64 23 sinh 2t − 31 sinh t (cos 2t + 2 sin 2t − e−t )/5 8.4 9.29 7.61 7.13 7.28 6. v = cos x sinh y u = cosh x cos y.250 4πi 5πi/2 6.47 7.7 9.19 πe−1/3 /9 7. 8πi 7.32 0 6.9 8.35 πi/4 6.17 7. R(1/2) = 7 6.170 πi/2 0 6.270 6.350 1 1 R(3i) = − 16 + 24 i 6.5 9.34 6.39 2 7.60 t + e−t − 1 √ 1 7. v = −y/(x2 + y 2 ) u = ex cos y.10 8. −π/2 for a < 0 √ √ 3 7. R = −2 Simple pole. R = 2 Regular.62 1 − 4te−t 3 (cosh 2t + 2 cosh t cos t 3) (cosh t − cos t)/2 7.27 π/4 7. one each in quadrants I and IV One negative real.32 16 7. 0 for a = 0.24 π/36 7.240 √ − 23 πi(1 + cosh π 3 + i 3 sinh π 3 ) 6.6 2π/33/2 7.210 0 4πi 6.160 0 6. one each in quadrants I and IV Two each in quadrants I and IV Two each in quadrants I and IV Two each in quadrants II and III 4πi.18 2 πe 7. R = −2 πi .54 8πi cosh t cos t 7.4 π/(1 − r2 ) 7.52 πi πi 7.50 7.53 7.7 8.30 7.25 7.51 7.11 3π/32 7. R = −1 Simple pole.23 − 3√sinh 3 √ 6.31 π/3 7.33 R(0) = −7.26 −π/2 7.23 π/8 7.22 −π/2 7.340 0 R(−n) = (−1)n /n! 2π/9 π/18 √ π 2/8 πe−2/3 /18 πe−3 /54 π π/4 √ π 2/2 √ −π 2 2 (2π)1/2 /4 Regular.15 R(ln 2) = 4/3 R(0) = 9/2 R(π) = −1/2 R(i) = 0 −2πi 6.3 2π/3 7.7 π/6 7. v = −2x/[x2 + (y + 1)2 ] u = sin x cosh y.5 7.41 One negative real.59 7.16 1 −π 3/2 (π/e)(cos 2 + 2 sin 2) 7.10 π 7.55 7. v = −(x + 1)/2 u = x/(x2 + y 2 ).2 9.300 πi/360 0 6.200 π 2 0 0 6.11 8.220 6. R = −5 Regular.36 − 4 7.37 0 6.8 8.3 8.34 7.1 9.15 πe−4/3√ /12 7.33 π 2 π/(2 2 ) √ π/2 7.46 7. R = 0 Regular.2 π/2 7.12 π/10 7.6 8.

flow lines x/(x2 + y 2 ) = const. two each in II and III 11. 10.10 −1 11. Ψ = 2xyV0 .31 One in each quadrant 11.12 T = (20/π) arc tan[2y/(1 − x2 − y 2 )].Chapter 14 68 10. isothermals y/(x2 + y 2 ) = const.6 T = 100y/(x + y ).4 T = 200π −1 arc tan(y/x) 10.12 1/2 11.1 ln(1 + z) 11. 10.16 −π/6 11.2 −i ln(1 + z) √ √ 11.28 π 11.41 π 2 /8 11.33 One each in quadrants I and IV.13 (a) 1/96 (b) −5 (c) −1/80 (d) 1/2 11.8 R(1/2) = 1/2 11.10 cos x sinh y = const.11 (x − coth u)2 + y 2 = csch2 u x2 + (y + cot v)2 = csc2 v 10.6 R(−1/2) = i/(6 2 ) √ R(−i) = −1/2 R(eiπ/3/2) = R(e5πi/3/2) = −i/(6 2 ) 11..18 πe−π/2 /4 11.. arc tan between π/2 and 3π/2 V2 − V1 2y 3V1 − V2 10.17 π(e−1/2 − 16 e−3 )/35 11.40 4 p + 4a4 .5 R(i) = (1 − i 3 )/4 11. R(−i) = R(e3πi/2 ) = −3π/4 11.34 Two each in quadrants I and IV.14 (a) 2 (b) − sin 5 (c) 1/16 (d) −2π 11.19 3(2−1 − e−π )/(10π) 11. arc tan between π/2 and 3π/2 π 1 − x2 − y 2 2 2 2 (x + 1) + y 1 10.14 φ = V0 ln 2 (x − 1)2 + y 2 2y ψ = V0 arc tan .20 π(e−1 + sin 1)/2 11.13 V = arc tan + . V = (2ix − 2jy)V0 10.32 One negative real. Φ = (x2 − y 2 )V0 .15 π/6 11.9 −1/6 11.29 π 3 /8 (Caution: −π 3 /8 is wrong. 10. one each in quadrants II and III 11.) 11. 1 − x2 − y 2 −4V0 xy 2V0 (1 − x2 + y 2 ) .7 Streamlines xy = const. arc tan between π/2 and 3π/2.5 V = 200π −1 arc tan(y/x) 2 2 10. one each in II and III 2a2 p 11.9 Streamlines y − y/(x2 + y 2 ) = const. Vy = Vx = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − x + y ) + 4x y (1 − x + y 2 ) + 4x2 y 2 11.7 R(i) = π/4.

39 × 10−5 28 .18 3. others.3 1. 2−8 . 2−3 . 39. 1/3. 1/13 3/10.3 4. 1/8.95 × 10−4 . 8) (b) C(10. 5/16. 5/11 4.3 3. 1/9 1/3. 11/14 2/3.7 1. 1/7.5 1.1 1. 1/17 69 . 11/16 (b) 374/819 (c) 185/374 (a) 15/34 (b) 2/15 1/3 5/7.05 × 10−4 . 1/7 3.8 1.10 3.18 (a) 1/2.4 1. 38. 1/11. 1/3 6/11.5 3.3. so 4 tries are needed.21 3. 15/52 9/100. 2/7.14 2.98 × 10−3 . 40 (a) 1/6 (b) 1/2 (c) 1/3 (d) 1/3 (e) 1/9 (a) 3 to 9 with p(5) = p(7) = 2/9. 1/5. 6/13 1/33. 3.6 1. 1/3. p = 1/9 (b) 5 and 7 (c) 1/3 2.20 3. P (A + B) = 1/2. 1/2.7 (a) P (10. 1/16 n > 3.6 15 1/26 4.14 3. 1/52. 2/3.15 2. (a) 1/3 (b) 1/7 9/23 (a) 39/80. 1/4.12 2. 3/100. P (AB) = 1/6 1/8 (a) 1/49 (b) 68/441 (c) 25/169 (d) 15 times (e) 44/147 (a) 1/4 (b) 25/144. 2/9 4/13.22 2−6 . 7/13 27/52. 1/2 9/26. 1/4 (c) Not a sample space 2. 1/52 (a) 1/6 (b) 2/3 (c) P (A) = P (B) = 1/3.10 3/8.2 1.19 1/3.8 1/221. 16/52. 2−3 (a) 8/9. 1/2 (b) 3/5.9 1/10. 1/2 (b) 1/2. 1/10 3/8 2. 8) (c) 1/45 n 3. 1/10. 5/9 1/4.17 3. 2/3. 7. 1/16.4 3.13 3.12 3.5 4. 1/33. 2 − 1 1.16 3. 1/4 1/2.19 3.Chapter 15 1. 31.17 (a) 3/4 (b) 1/5 (c) 2/3 (d) 3/4 (e) 3/7 (a) 3/4 (b) 25/36 (c) 37.6 3.11 3. 1/3 1. 2/13. 4. 7/32 4.1 4. 3/4.4 4. 1.15 3.

263 1 2 µ = 0.3%.17 4. 12/25 4.12 4.121 0. σ = 284/13 = 4.0946.2 e−2 = 0.15 0. FD: 10.696 7 or 8 15/2 7. and 32 to 1.4177 8.097.18 0.5 0.11) to (8.8 f (r) = 3r .4 f (x) = αe−α x / π.881 9 9 7.5 µ = 1.1 7 0. change 21 to 0.4 µ = 1.387 6 6 7.806 0.9596 8.17 0.9598.135 4.372.4 18 0. 49/101.0798 8.500 0.3 µ = 2.4176.9546. f (v) = p e−mv /(2kT ) 2πkT /m In (8.0770.17 Problem 5.9546 8. 8.20).2 12 0. F (t) = 1 − e−λt .15 x¯ = 3(2p − 1) 2 2 5. σ = 35/6 Problem 5.11 0. σ = 1/(α 2 ) 6. half life = t¯ln 2 √ 6. t¯ = 1/λ.455 8.67 5.0796. 0. 0.135√ √ 6.30 p √ 5. σ = √3 5.0078 1 0.5 f (t) = λe−λt .19 0. BE: 35 C(n + 2. 0.14 n!/nn MB: 16.240 0. r¯ = 2/3.21 25/102. FD: 6.0078 3 or 4 7/2 7.9 f (r) = 4a−3 r2 e−2r/a n Exactly 7h At most 7h At least 7h Most probable number of h Expected number of h 7. 0.12 0.16 0.0967 8. σ = 3/80 = 0.03521 8.22 0.5244.23 0.6 F (r) = r2 . 0.2%. 8. σ = √ 35/6 5.3 15 0.193 0. σ 2 = kT /m. A and F: 6.Chapter 15 70 4.11 0.03987. σ = 2/6 6.0782 8.1 (a) f (x) = π −1 (a2 − x2 )−1/2 (c) x ¯ = 0.25 5. r¯ = 3/4.03520.376 8. x¯ = 0. 0.19 6. B and D: 24. 0.8 E(x) = \$12.1 µ = 0. the first number is the binomial result and the second number is the normal approximation using whole steps at the ends as in Example 2.3 f (h) = 1/(2 l l − h ) √ 2 2 √ 6.12 E(x) = 7 5. 0. σ = 7/6 p 5. σ = a/ 2 6.13 0.18 MB: 125.67.37.7: E(x2 ) = 24p2 − 24p + 9.6: E(x2 ) = 401/13.7 (a) F (s) = 2[1 − cos(s/R)]. n) 4.7% In µ + 12 σ and µ + 23 σ.9 4. f (r) = 2r. σ 2 = 284/13 Problem 5.6 µ = 3. BE: 10 4.2816. f (s) = R−1 [1 − cos(1/R)]−1 sin(s/R) ∼ = 2s p 2 6. f (s) = (2/R) sin(s/R) (b) F (s) = [1 − cos(s/R)]/[1 − cos(1/R)] ∼ = s2 . 0.25 C: 38. 25/77. 0.2 µ = 7.03989 8.2: E(x ) = 329/6. σ = 2 3p(1 − p) 5.7 µ = 3(2p − 1). σ = p21/2 5.196 0. σ 2 = 12p(1 − p) √ 6. 13 5 4.14 0. 0.20 0. σ = p2 5. 0.462.3 .

normal: 0. y ln x = 92 with r = 1 10.08.3 Number of particles: 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of intervals: 406 812 812 541 271 108 9.195. sy = 0.022.17 11.08. y¯ = 20 with r = 0.139 (b) 17/72 = 0.9123 (a) 0.2241.9123.00.06 9.33.0347.04.559.039.029.4.122. ey = 20 with r = 1. σy = 0.9 P2 = 0. sx = 0.23. 3 9. x/y = 5 with r = 0.37. Just 1: 12 days. (binomial: 0.073. x/y 2 = 0.Chapter 15 9. More than 10: 5 days.0439. y¯ = 1 with r = 0.3. P3 = 0.15 11.9 x¯ = 100 with r = 0. P2 = 0.0946.134. xy = 5 with r = 0.030. x3 sin y = 105 with r = 2. 10.335.006 10.37.47. x + y = 65 with r = 0.7 11.00534.13 11.06.36.11 11. σx = 0.4 11. xy = 2 with r = 0.0732) 10.764 16/72 = 0. x2 = 25 with r = 1.03. σ = 3/4 (b) x ¯ = 4/3. Pn >10 = 0. Poisson: 0. Poisson: 0.14.018. 0. y¯ = 1. σ = 2/3 (c) 1/5 (a) x: 0 1 2 p : 55/72 = 0. 60 11. Poisson: 0.067.16 11. P1 = 0.12 11. σmy = 0.10 11.11 Normal: 0.03 11. rx = 0.11. σ = 3 (c) 0.195 9.0446 (b) binomial: 0.236 (c) 6/17 = 0.131.0767 (d) 0. 0.8 11. ln x = 1. x − y = 1 with r = 0.238 9. x + y = 6 with r = 0.1 11.503. P6 = P7 = 0. Exactly 10: 7 days.353 √ (d) x ¯ = 1/4.7979.8 x¯ = 5.073. normal: 0.5 (c) 6/11 (d)7/11 √ cents (b) E(x) = 5.9 11.10 x¯ = 6 with r = 0.3 71 .6 Exactly 5: 64 days. x − y = 80 with r = 0.099 9.3 11.0729.61 with r = 0.562 (a) 0. 0.25 x¯ = 5 with r = 0. P4 = 0.7 0. x2 y 3 = 8 · 107 with r = 2.500 30. 0.8 3.00540 (b) 0. normal: 0. 2x − y = 9 with r = 0.6 11.0967.9 · 106 .67 with r = 0.031.0064.5.4 P0 = 0. Fewer than 5: 161 days. 0.0846 x¯ = 2 with r = 0.2240 (a) binomial: 0.0095.463 (a) 0.18.2 11. σmx = 0.18 (a) 11/30 (b) 19. ry = 0.14 1 binomial: 0. P1 = 0.0807 (e) 0.149.062. y¯ = 60 with r = 0. Poisson: 0.0457. None at all: 2 or 3 days 9.222 1/72 = 0.0724 20/47 5/8 MB: 25 FD: BE: 15 √ 10 x¯ = 1/4.5 P0 = 0. y 2 − x = 3 with r = 0.7979 (b) 0. y¯ = 3 with r = 0. σ = 31/12 = 0. 0. y/x = 12 with r = 0.0352 (b) 0. x/y 3 = 2 with r = 0.046.