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1601 The text chosen for the analysis is an extract of one of the surviving versions, printed after 1628, of the historical speech known as “The Golden Speech” also called “Queen Elizabeth’s Farewell Speech”. It is believed to be written and checked by Queen Elizabeth I of England herself as she expected its publication later on. These were the last words delivered by the Queen to Parliament November 30th, 1601 at Whitehall Palace so it is considered a political text that marks the end of the Queen’s reign and Britain’s “Golden Age”. The contents of this famous transcript can be described as persuasive, inspiring and motivating because it is written to convince the audience about the validity of the speaker’s argument through feelings and emotions. To understand the power of these words and to explain their meaning it is essential to know about Queen Elizabeth’s background. The Tudor Dynasty became obsessed in ensuring stability and security through male heirs. Elizabeth the I, the last Tudor monarch, was born at Greenwich palace, near London, 7th of September 1533 after her half-sister Mary. She was the daughter of Henry VIII’s second wife Anne Boleyn who was executed on false charges of adultery because she did not give birth to a boy. Both sisters were considered illegitimate. Finally, the King had a male heir Edward VI but he died at the early age of 16 so Mary, even though a female, was proclaimed queen in July 1553. Elizabeth was well-educated by her governess Katherine Champernowne and her tutor Roger Ascham in subjects such as astronomy, geography, history, philosophy, politics, diplomacy also in arts such us music and literacy. She soon proved to be a gifted and highly intelligent child speaking six languages fluently. In her early years, she achieved good oratory skills and soon she became a great public speaker. Queen Mary was determined to restore Catholicism as the official religion therefore she burnt over 250 protestants at the stake and Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower of London because she would not be converted to Catholicism and because Mary feared a revolt, too. “Bloody Mary’s” reign came to an end when she died on November 17th 1558, when 25 year old Elizabeth was released and placed on the throne. She returned England to Protestantism and she was proclaimed by the Parliament as “Supreme Governor of the Church of England” establishing through the “Act of Uniformity” of 1559 the uses, prayers and manners of the cult included in the “Book of Common Prayer”. As we can see Religion was one of the most important matters at the time for any Sovereign and it was one of the reasons cruel and terrible acts were commited even to their own relatives or to begin a war in name of their cult. Kings and Queens usually claimed that they were doing God’s will and usually sent a message to their people of being close to God. If any good or bad things happened this was always God’s will. She used to receive marriage proposals from those who desired power through marriage but she always cried: “I’m already married to England”. The sentence clarifies the devotion she had for her people and her country but there are some historians that agree in her being afraid of giving birth. She often used her single state to her benefit for diplomacy and political issues. This Era is considered the “Golden Age”, the most glorious years in England’s history for everything she achieved. The “Virgin Queen” reformed the currency and she prepared expeditions of colonisation to America and expanded trading with the East India Company. She created the “Poor Laws” to help those in need and she achieved great victories, the most important being against the “Spanish Armada” but all these campaigns were very expensive so she left behind large debts.
“motto” used by artists. Ministers were taking decisions without consulting the Queen. In my opinion. She had been seen using a cane and she had been suffering in silence from facial pain and leg ulcers which might explain certain aspects of her character. James and asking everyone to kiss her hand. had became very popular among the people. ostentatious clothing and heavy make up but it was no longer effective. The “Faerie Queen” muse of poets died at Richmond Palace on March 24th 1603 at the age of 69 after refusing to take any medicine to cure herself. On November 30th 1601. Corruption had appeared on the scene. so she cancelled some of the bussiness rights or licenses (letters patent approved by Royal Proclamation) and allowed the Courts to act consequently towards the other holders. The name “The Golden Speech” first appeared in a version printed near the end of the “Puritan interregnum” which had a headline beginning: “This speech ought to be set in letters of gold”. Earl of Salisbury. only men with important incomes could vote. Everyone was expecting a speech from the Queen about England’s economic problems but instead she announced that this would be her last speech. It is precise to recall that Parliament was not as powerful as it is today. Earl of Essex in 1601 she began to feel tired and lonely as her most trusted ministers and advisors had passed away. One of her nicknames “Semper eadem” (always the same) had tumbled as well as her appearance that she had tried to maintain as long as she could by using red wigs. Those who assisted wished to thank her for her intervention with the patents. Over her long reign she summoned Parliaments ten times. she clearly knew that having no heir and being an aging queen was increasing the numerous plots around her and she could be murdered at any time. fine jewelry. years passed by and after taking difficult decisions such us executing Mary Queen of Scotland in 1587 and her beloved Robert Devereaux. she invited 141 members of the house of Commons to Whitehall Palace. The House of Lords was formed by bishops and aristocrats and the Commons by those elected by people. “Gloriana” (Queen Elizabeth). A Parliament could only be summoned by the Queen and she usually did so when she needed cash for her campaigns. The Queen could make laws without the consent of Parliament. There were holders of “letter patents” who had control over some areas of the market which resulted in very high prices for primary articles such as salt or flour. as we have seen through history in long-term governments. she also talks about her position as Queen and what she had sacrificed on behalf of the nation and about the love and respect she felt for her country. Mr John Croque. Parliament somehow forced the “Good Queen Bess” (another “motto” she had) to take care of the economic situation in exchange of a subsidy. the Members of Parliament and her people. the Controller. She had no trusted advisors left nor true friends and the Crown had become a lonely path and after executing her very dear Essex she was no longer enthusiastic and I supposse she had no strength left to carry on. However. During the act. these were called “Royal Proclamations”. Among those who were present were the Speaker. She ends her speech leaving a new successor to the crown the son of Mary Queen of Scots. Mr Robert Cecil. Of course. Earl of Banbury and the Secretary. The main function of Parliament was to pass laws and to provide money for the Queen when ever she needed it.Meanwhile. . Mr William Knollys. The Tudor Parliament consisted of the House of Lords or Upper House and the House of Commons or the Lower House.
.. loue and Thanks I account them inualuable.” Line 69. Queen Elizabeth I uses the Commons’ complaint about the monopolies of goods and services (letter patents) first by thanking them for the report received about a situation unknown by her and assuring she would not allow those who had been priviledged with these business licenses to abuse her people so she repaired the error on some patents. The Queen finally offers her respects to the Crown. using her as an instrument and being God the only one to question her acts.19.onely for want of true information” Other versions say “... Parliament was to take care of the rest.. “And God that gaue me here to sit. “It is God that hath delivered me” Line 44.I should be willing to resige the place I hold to any other. “Your comming is to present thanks to vs” Lines 3-4. the Queen receives the thanks from the Commons as a very valuable present while they knelt before her position and she enumerates the different tasks she had supported as Queen and she also justifies the large debt behind the Irish campaigns by saying that it wasn’t for her own profit but for the benefit of her subjects.” Line 63. shall know I will not suffer it. “I commend mee to your loyal loues” Throughout the speech we find reminders of her beliefs about God making her Queen. “. “God hath reaysed Mee High” Line 6.. “I would wish you and the rest to stand vp” lines 20 .” Line 14.50.. .the duti that God hath layd vpon me.. “.. “.... “.... gives up the throne for the sake of the country and puts her life in her loved ones hands.. Line 22..Loyaltie.only for lack of true information” Line 27. “I could giue no rest vnto my thoughts vntil I had reformed it” Line 29. Lines 62-63... We can divide the text in three parts: lines 1 .. “I haue euer set the last Iudgement day before mine eyes and so to rule. the People of England and by finally becoming a legend. “My heart was neuer set vpon any worldly goods” line 18. “.” lines 65-68. “it is not my desire to liue nor to reign longer then my life and reigne shall be for your good.. “God hath made Mee to bee a Queene” Lines 38-39. Line 4.abusers of my bountie. Line 1...I think she had wished to be remembered young and pure as the Virgin Queen she had been and powerful as the great Queen that showed up in battlefield before her troops at Tilbury in 1588 dressed up as the goddess of War. “Our Princely Dignitie shall not suffer it” Line 28.to maintaine his glorie.” line 43. and placed me ouer you.. And though you haue hath and may haue many mightier and wiser Princess sitting in this Seat you neuer had nor shall haue any that will loue you better..” Line 42. This great strategist made her last move by trying to avoid death by giving up the Crown and putting her life in the hands of those that she had loved the most the Commons..” There is an expression I want to highlight as she uses it to declare that though a female she could realise difficult tasks because it was God’s will. “.I shall be Iudged and answer before a higher Iudge. “were it not for conscience sake to discharge the duti that God hath layd vpon me” Liline 63-64. and keepe you in safetie.. She also reminded them of her advanced age.” lines 51-72.
ex.manifested a instead of e.wikipedia..royalty. Ioy .html www. by Claire Ridgway Sites consulted: www.Lines 55-56..html www. My selfe – myself.bbc. or my sexly weaknesse.com www. Ed. I haue receiued at Gods hands. ex. at some differences between the spelling used in this text and today’s English spelling: U instead of v.org/wiki/The_Golden_Speech www.litencyc. . manifesteth . ex. ex. vnder – under. Infamie .. ex. Ramón Areces * The Norton Anthology of English Literature 7th edition Vol 1 * The Short Oxford History of English Literature 2nd edition by Andrew Sanders * The myths Surrounding Queen Elizabeth. Soveraign – Sovereigne ee instead of e.uk/historyofthemonarchy www.com/php/stopics.uk/history/british/tudors/elizabeth_i_01. and of a King of England too. Onely – only missing an e before r. to end this analysis.html www. loue . ex.org/uk/power/parliament.elizabethi.edu/halsall/mod/elizabeth1. vpon ..interests Finally. griefe – grief e between two consonants.. thankes – thanks.love.joy th instead of d.infamy e after consonant. ex.nu/Europe/England/Tudor/ElizabethI. ex.co.perceive. but I have the heart and the stomach of a King.” Let’s have a look.shtml www. by Antonio Sagredo Santos y Mª Luz Arroyo Vázquez.upon i instead of j. Vs – us. “I ascribe any of these things vnto my selfe. hath – had. Haue .php?rec=true&UID=323 . conserue . bee – be ie instead of y . ex. speake – speak.I want to end my analysis with one of Elizabeth I’s quotes: “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman. Intrests . againe – again.” Bibliography consulted: * Anglophone worlds from a historical and cultural perspective: United Kingdom and Ireland 2nd edition.royal. ex.fordham.gov.have. perceiue .conserve V instead of u. Mee – me.en.elizabethfiles.
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